Sample records for malt radiotherapy results

  1. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Primary Rectal MALT Lymphoma: Complete Remission after Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Takuma; Suga, Tomoaki; Iwaya, Yugo; Ito, Tetsuya; Yokosawa, Shuichi; Arakura, Norikazu; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Rectal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a rare condition. Although the majority of patients undergo surgical resection, a definitive treatment for rectal MALT lymphoma has not yet been established. In the present study, we report the outcome of radiotherapy in 3 patients with rectal MALT lymphoma. Our cohort ranged from 56 to 65 years of age. The male/female ratio was 1:2, and all patients were in stage I (Lugano classification) of the disease. Endoscopic findings revealed elevated lesions resembling submucosal tumors in 2 patients, and a sessile elevated lesion with a nodular surface in 1 patient. One of the 3 patients underwent magnifying endoscopy with crystal violet staining that demonstrated a type I pit pattern (Kudo's classification) lesion with a broad intervening area caused by the upthrust of the tumor from the submucosa. All patients tolerated radiotherapy at doses of 30 Gy without major complications and achieved complete remission. Follow-up ranged from 13 to 75 months (mean 51.0 months), revealing no recurrence of MALT lymphoma. As such, we propose radiotherapy to be a safe and effective means for treating rectal MALT lymphoma. PMID:22754493

  2. Exclusive moderate-dose radiotherapy in gastric marginal zone B-cell MALT lymphoma: Results of a prospective study with a long term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, Agnès; Matysiak-Budnik, Tamara; Fabiani, Bettina; Cervera, Pascale; Brixi, Hedia; Le Malicot, Karine; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Fléjou, Jean-Fançois; Hennequin, Christophe; Quéro, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    In gastric MALT lymphomas persisting after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, a treatment by moderate-dose radiotherapy (RT) has been proposed but its efficacy has not been confirmed in large prospective series with long term endoscopic follow-up. Patients with localised gastric MALT lymphoma persisting after H. pylori eradication were offered moderate-dose RT (30Gy, 2Gy/fraction) and followed with annual endoscopies. All biopsies before and after RT were reviewed by a committee of pathologists. From 1995 to 2011, out of the 232 patients followed prospectively, 53 received RT for persistence of lymphoma after H. pylori eradication: either macroscopic ulcer (n=31), or microscopic lymphomatous infiltrate (n=22), after a mean follow-up of 12 and 31months, respectively. All lymphomas were localised (45 stage IE and 8 stage IIE) and 38 (72%) were H. pylori-positive. The mean clinical and endoscopic follow-up from diagnosis was 7.6years (2.2-19.1). No acute or late toxicity occurred. A complete remission was achieved in all patients but one (98%) with no relapse after a median follow-up of 4.9years (1.3-16.6) after completion of RT. Overall survival and 5-year disease specific survival were 94% and 100%, respectively. One patient died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Moderate-dose RT (30Gy) is effective and safe for localised gastric MALT lymphoma persisting after H. pylori eradication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recurrence after radiotherapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hisashi; Iwamuro, Masaya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hori, Keisuke; Kita, Masahide; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kondo, Eisei; Yoshino, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old Japanese woman presented with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) in the stomach. The gastric lesions only partially improved after eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed no fusion genes of API2-MALT1, although trisomy of chromosome 18 was identified. Radiation therapy was initiated to treat the gastric lymphoma lesions, resulting in complete remission. However, MALT lymphoma recurred in the stomach 16 months later. This case indicates that intensive follow-up is required for MALT lymphoma associated with chromosomal aberrations in order to detect early relapse.

  4. Management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in patients with extra copies of the MALT1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Takenaka, Ryuta; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Moritou, Yuki; Saito, Shunsuke; Hori, Shinichiro; Inaba, Tomoki; Kawai, Yoshinari; Toyokawa, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takehiro; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify the clinical features of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with extra copies of MALT1. METHODS This is a multi-centered, retrospective study. We reviewed 146 patients with MALT lymphoma in the stomach who underwent fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for t(11;18) translocation. Patients were subdivided into patients without t(11;18) translocation or extra copies of MALT1 (Group A, n = 88), patients with t(11;18) translocation (Group B, n = 27), and patients with extra copies of MALT1 (Group C, n = 31). The clinical background, treatment, and outcomes of each group were investigated. RESULTS Groups A and C showed slight female predominance, whereas Group B showed slight male predominance. Mean ages and clinical stages at lymphoma diagnosis were not different between groups. Complete response was obtained in 61 patients in Group A (69.3%), 22 in Group B (81.5%), and 21 in Group C (67.7%). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication alone resulted in complete remission in 44 patients in Group A and 13 in Group C. In Group B, 14 patients underwent radiotherapy alone, which resulted in lymphoma disappearance. Although the difference was not statistically significant, event-free survival in Group C tended to be inferior to that in Group A (P = 0.10). CONCLUSION Patients with t(11;18) translocation should be treated differently from others. Patients with extra copies of MALT1 could be initially treated with H. pylori eradication, similar to patients without t(11;18) translocation or extra copies of MALT1. PMID:28970731

  5. Management of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in patients with extra copies of the MALT1 gene.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Takenaka, Ryuta; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Moritou, Yuki; Saito, Shunsuke; Hori, Shinichiro; Inaba, Tomoki; Kawai, Yoshinari; Toyokawa, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takehiro; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-07

    To identify the clinical features of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with extra copies of MALT1. This is a multi-centered, retrospective study. We reviewed 146 patients with MALT lymphoma in the stomach who underwent fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for t(11;18) translocation. Patients were subdivided into patients without t(11;18) translocation or extra copies of MALT1 (Group A, n = 88), patients with t(11;18) translocation (Group B, n = 27), and patients with extra copies of MALT1 (Group C, n = 31). The clinical background, treatment, and outcomes of each group were investigated. Groups A and C showed slight female predominance, whereas Group B showed slight male predominance. Mean ages and clinical stages at lymphoma diagnosis were not different between groups. Complete response was obtained in 61 patients in Group A (69.3%), 22 in Group B (81.5%), and 21 in Group C (67.7%). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication alone resulted in complete remission in 44 patients in Group A and 13 in Group C. In Group B, 14 patients underwent radiotherapy alone, which resulted in lymphoma disappearance. Although the difference was not statistically significant, event-free survival in Group C tended to be inferior to that in Group A (P = 0.10). Patients with t(11;18) translocation should be treated differently from others. Patients with extra copies of MALT1 could be initially treated with H. pylori eradication, similar to patients without t(11;18) translocation or extra copies of MALT1.

  6. [Determination of the content of the main components of flavonoids compounds in raw malt, torrefied malt and ustulate malt].

    PubMed

    He, Dan-Xia; Rong, Liang; Qin, Min-Jian; Liu, Hui-Juan

    2012-11-01

    To determine the content of Catechin, Myricetin, Quercetin and Kaempferol in barley grain, raw malt, torrefied malt and ustulate malt based on different barley cultivars. HPLC method was used. Analysis was performed on Agilent ZORBAXSB-C18 (150 mm x 4. 6 mm, 3.5 microm) column with acetonitrile-0.1% acetic acid as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 280 nm, flow rate was 0.8 mL/min, and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. Catechin was the main component of barley seeds and its processed products. Slight reduction of catechin was observed in processed and sprouting seeds. Sprouting significantly increased the content of myricetin. Both barley seeds and the processed products were lack of quercetin. The amounts of kaempferol in seed were higher than that in barley grain, but similar to that in ustulate malt. The content of flavonoids in raw malt and torrefied malt are significantly affected by sprouting and processing, and significance differences are presented among different varieties.

  7. Radiotherapy for localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: long-term outcomes over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Yu; Saito, Yoshihiro; Ushijima, Hiroki; Onishi, Masahiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Kubota, Nobuko; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Maseki, Nobuo; Nishimura, Yu; Kurosumi, Masafumi

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the long-term outcomes of radiotherapy in patients with localized gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients with Stage I gastric MALT lymphoma were treated with radiotherapy from 1999 to 2010. The median age was 65 years (range: 31-84). Fifteen patients were Helicobacter pylori-negative. Thirteen patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone. The other 14 patients who had refractory or residual disease following a prior treatment received salvage radiotherapy. The median dose of the radiotherapy was 30 Gy in 20 fractions (range: 30-39.5 Gy). The median follow-up period was 121 months (range: 8-176 months). The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates for all patients were 92% and 87%, respectively. No patients died from MALT lymphoma. Three patients died of other diseases at 8, 33 and 74 months after radiotherapy (myocardial infarction, pneumonia and hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively). No cases of local recurrence were observed during the follow-up period. There were no serious late gastric, liver or kidney complications during a median follow-up period of over 10 years. Two patients remain alive with distant metastases: a lung metastasis and an abdominal lymph node metastasis at 104 months and 21 months after radiotherapy, respectively. Excellent long-term local control was observed in patients with localized gastric MALT lymphoma after radiotherapy. However, lifelong follow-up should be conducted to detect cases of late recurrence, especially distant metastases. © Oxford University Press 2017.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malt syrup (malt extract). 184.1445 Section 184.1445 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  9. Gastric MALT lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Wotherspoon, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Primary gastric low-grade B-cell lymphomas are neoplastic mimics of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) as exemplified by Peyer's patches in the terminal ileum. Architectural and immunophenotypic properties of the neoplastic cells suggest that they originate from MALT-derived marginal zone B-cells. Paradoxically, the normal human stomach is devoid of organized MALT within which a lymphoma can develop. Lymphoid tissue is acquired in the stomach in response to antigenic stimulation, predominantly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Studies of patients with low-grade MALT lymphoma have confirmed a high incidence of H. pylori infection and suggest that the infection predates neoplastic transformation. Certain morphological features of MALT lymphomas suggest that the tumor cells remain responsive to antigen drive. Given the close association between gastric MALT lymphoma and H. pylori, it is possible that this organism provides such a drive. In vitro studies have shown that the tumor cells proliferate in a T-cell-dependent way to the presence of H. pylori. Several studies have now demonstrated that eradication of the organism in patients with low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma can result in regression of the tumor. In cases with a high-grade component, the associated low-grade part may regress, but most high-grade gastric MALT lymphomas are unresponsive to this conservative therapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9041690

  10. Non-random loss of chromosome 3 during transition of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric MALT to B-cell MALT lymphoma revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S K; Weston, A P; Persons, D L; Campbell, D R

    1997-12-16

    Acquired gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) accumulates as a result of long-standing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and from this acquired MALT, low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma may develop. Carcinogenesis is a multistep, multifactorial process involving the progressive accumulation of genetic changes. To determine whether numerical chromosomal alterations are involved in the transition of H. pylori-associated human gastric MALT to low-grade B-cell MALT lymphoma, frozen biopsy specimens prospectively obtained from H. pylori positive gastric MALT and gastric MALT lymphoma patients, as well as normal control patients (normal gastroscopy/gastric mucosal histology/H. pylori negative), were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Fluorescent, directly labeled alpha-satellite DNA probes, specific for the centromeres of chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 11, 17 and Y were used in this study. The non-random loss of chromosome 3 was detected in two MALT patients and in all five MALT lymphoma patients. Trisomy 17 was detected in one MALT patient and one MALT lymphoma patient. Trisomy 1 was detected in a single MALT lymphoma patient as was trisomy 3. None of the MALT patients had trisomy 3 or trisomy 1. Monosomy 17 was noted in one MALT lymphoma patient. Clonal aneusomy was not observed in any patient for chromosomes Y, 4 or 11. These results suggest that the consistent loss of chromosome 3 may be an important genetic alteration in the transformation of H. pylori-associated gastric MALT into low-grade B-cell gastric MALT lymphoma.

  11. Two Antagonistic MALT1 Auto-Cleavage Mechanisms Reveal a Role for TRAF6 to Unleash MALT1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Florian; Lam, Stephen; Freuler, Felix; Gerrits, Bertran; Voshol, Johannes; Calzascia, Thomas; Régnier, Catherine H.; Renatus, Martin; Nikolay, Rainer; Israël, Laura; Bornancin, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 has arginine-directed proteolytic activity triggered by engagement of immune receptors. Recruitment of MALT1 into activation complexes is required for MALT1 proteolytic function. Here, co-expression of MALT1 in HEK293 cells, either with activated CARD11 and BCL10 or with TRAF6, was used to explore the mechanism of MALT1 activation at the molecular level. This work identified a prominent self-cleavage site of MALT1 isoform A (MALT1A) at R781 (R770 in MALT1B) and revealed that TRAF6 can activate MALT1 independently of the CBM. Intramolecular cleavage at R781/R770 removes a C-terminal TRAF6-binding site in both MALT1 isoforms, leaving MALT1B devoid of the two key interaction sites with TRAF6. A previously identified auto-proteolysis site of MALT1 at R149 leads to deletion of the death-domain, thereby abolishing interaction with BCL10. By using MALT1 isoforms and cleaved fragments thereof, as well as TRAF6 WT and mutant forms, this work shows that TRAF6 induces N-terminal auto-proteolytic cleavage of MALT1 at R149 and accelerates MALT1 protein turnover. The MALT1 fragment generated by N-terminal self-cleavage at R149 was labile and displayed enhanced signaling properties that required an intact K644 residue, previously shown to be a site for mono-ubiquitination of MALT1. Conversely, C-terminal self-cleavage at R781/R770 hampered the ability for self-cleavage at R149 and stabilized MALT1 by hindering interaction with TRAF6. C-terminal self-cleavage had limited impact on MALT1A but severely reduced MALT1B proteolytic and signaling functions. It also abrogated NF-κB activation by N-terminally cleaved MALT1A. Altogether, this study provides further insights into mechanisms that regulate the scaffolding and activation cycle of MALT1. It also emphasizes the reduced functional capacity of MALT1B as compared to MALT1A. PMID:28052131

  12. Gastric MALT lymphoma: old and new insights

    PubMed Central

    Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Ridola, Lorenzo; Repici, Alessandro; Manta, Raffaele; Andriani, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The stomach is the most frequent site of extranodal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originating from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is typically a low-grade, B-cell neoplasia strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Only certain H. pylori strains in some predisposed patients determine lymphoma development in the stomach, according to a strain-host-organ specific process. The clinical presentation is poorly specific, symptoms ranging from vague dyspepsia to alarm symptoms. Similarly, different endoscopy patterns have been described for gastric lymphoma. H. pylori eradication is advised as first-line therapy in early stage disease, and complete lymphoma remission is achieved in 75% of cases. Neoplasia stage, depth of infiltration in the gastric wall, presence of the API2-MALT1 translocation, localization in the stomach, and patient ethnicity have been identified as predictors of remission. Recent data suggests that H. pylori eradication therapy may be successful for gastric lymphoma treatment also in a small subgroup (15%) of H. pylori-negative patients. The overall 5-year survival and disease-free survival rates are as high as 90% and 75%, respectively. Management of patients who failed to achieve lymphoma remission following H. pylori eradication include radiotherapy, chemotherapy and, in selected cases, surgery. PMID:24714739

  13. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of— Test... and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not meeting the requirements of this section shall be...

  14. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of— Test... and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not meeting the requirements of this section shall be...

  15. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of— Test... and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not meeting the requirements of this section shall be...

  16. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section 810.204 Agriculture Regulations of the... requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of— Test... and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not meeting the requirements of this section shall be...

  17. Molecular Pathogenesis of MALT Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Troppan, Katharina; Wenzl, Kerstin; Neumeister, Peter; Deutsch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), also known as MALT lymphoma, which was first described in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. MALT lymphomas arise at a wide range of different extranodal sites, with the highest frequency in the stomach, followed by lung, ocular adnexa, and thyroid, and with a low percentage in the small intestine. Interestingly, at least 3 different, apparently site-specific, chromosomal translocations and missense and frameshift mutations, all pathway-related genes affecting the NF-κB signal, have been implicated in the development and progression of MALT lymphoma. However, these genetic abnormalities alone are not sufficient for malignant transformation. There is now increasing evidence suggesting that the oncogenic product of translocation cooperates with immunological stimulation in oncogenesis, that is, the association with chronic bacterial infection or autoaggressive process. This review mainly discusses MALT lymphomas in terms of their genetic aberration and association with chronic infections and summarizes recent advances in their molecular pathogenesis. PMID:25922601

  18. Deterioration of duodenal lymphangiectasia after radiotherapy for gastric MALT lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    A 68-year-old Japanese woman underwent radiotherapy for gastric lymphoma. Although lymphangiectasia was sparsely observed in the second portion of the duodenum before radiotherapy, the number of pinpoint white spots obviously increased after the treatment. Although the duodenal lymphangiectasia gradually progressed, the patient had no features of protein-losing enteropathy. This case highlights the importance of endoscopic observation of the duodenum after irradiation to the abdomen as radiotherapy may secondarily cause intestinal lymphangiectasia. PMID:28798810

  19. Results of Upfront Therapy for Marginal Zone Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ortega, José L; Cabanillas, Fernando; Rivera, Noridza; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Hallman, Deana; Pardo, Wandaly I; Bruno, Margarita

    2017-12-01

    Marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs) are indolent disorders composed of 3 subtypes: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT), splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), and nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL). Early-stage MALT is treated with radiotherapy or antibiotics, and advanced MALT and NMZL are managed with either watch and wait or chemotherapy. SMZLs are treated with splenectomy or rituximab. However, because these approaches have failed to cure patients with SMZL and NMZL, we have systematically used upfront chemotherapy for them, as well as for advanced MALT. We report the outcomes of this approach. A total of 44 patients with MZL were identified from our database and divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (22 with early-stage MALT) patients received either radiotherapy (n = 17) or antibiotics with or without surgery (n = 5). Group 2 included 9 patients with advanced MALT, 9 with SMZL, and 4 with NMZL. Group 2 was treated with FND-R (fludarabine 25 mg/m 2 on days 1 to 3, mitoxantrone 10 mg/m 2 on day 1, dexamethasone 20 mg on days 1 to 5, and rituximab 375 mg/m 2 on day 1; n = 14) or CHOP-R (cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m 2 on day 1, doxorubicin 50 mg/m 2 on day 1, vincristine 2 mg intravenous push on day 1, prednisone 100 mg/m 2 orally on days 1 to 5, rituximab 375 mg/m 2 on day 1; n = 8), followed by maintenance rituximab for 70%. All patients achieved complete remission, and only 2 patients in group 1 had developed a relapse at 70 and 75 months. Both relapses were stage I MALT that had initially been treated with radiotherapy. Both were salvaged with FND-R and remained free of disease at 27 and 39 months after the relapse. At 10 years, the failure-free survival for the 44 patients was 80% and the overall survival was 100%. None of the patients in group 2 developed a relapse. The long-term toxicities have been acceptable. The excellent responses using upfront chemotherapy for MZL suggests that this disorder is curable. Our results should be confirmed in a prospective trial

  20. Clinicopathological features of gastric mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas: high grade transformation and comparison with diffuse large B cell lymphomas without MALT lymphoma features

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T.; Omonishi, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Mannami, T.; Okada, H.; Mizuno, M.; Yamadori, I.; Kondo, E.; Akagi, T.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To investigate the clinicopathological differences among gastric low grade MALT lymphomas (low MALT), large B cell lymphomas with low grade components (secondary high grade MALT lymphomas, high MALT), and diffuse large B cell lymphomas without low grade features (primary high grade MALT lymphomas, DLL). Methods—Clinicopathological and morphological characters of 126 gastric lymphoma cases were studied: 82 cases of low MALT lymphoma including 40 that were surgically resected, 17 cases of high MALT lymphoma including 13 surgically resected, and 27 cases of DLL including 12 surgically resected. Results—Age ranges were as follows: low MALT lymphoma, 34 to 85 years (mean 59.9); high MALT lymphoma, 53 to 88 years (mean 68.5); DLL, 29 to 83 years (mean 62.3). The average age for low and high MALT lymphomas was significantly different (p < 0.05), but there were no differences in other comparisons. There was a female predominance of low MALT lymphoma patients (female to male ratio, 47/35), while for high MALT patients the ratio was almost even (8/9), and for DLL patients there was a male predominance (11/16). Examination of surgically resected material showed that MALT lymphomas had a wider distribution in the gastric wall than DLL. Conclusions—The findings suggest that at least some of the high grade gastric lymphomas, especially in patients younger than the fifth decade, do not originate from high grade transformation of low MALT lymphomas. It seems to take about one decade at least for high grade transformation of low MALT lymphomas. Key Words: MALT lymphoma • stomach • transformation PMID:10823136

  1. [Gastric MALT-type lymphoma. Pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Eck, M; Fischbach, W

    2010-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays a central role in the development of gastric MALT-type (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. Infection results in chronic H. pylori gastritis and stimulates together with antigens or autoantigens proliferation of B-lymphocytes which is the basis for the neoplastic transformation. Histology of MALT-type lymphoma is architecturally similar to the physiological MALT. Invasion and destruction of the gastric epithelium with development of so-called lympho-epithelial lesions is the most important diagnostic criterion. Cytologically MALT-lymphoma resembles centrocytes and monocytes. For definitive lymphoma diagnosis and for the differential diagnosis from other small cell lymphomas in the stomach immunohistochemistry can be helpful. The phenotype of MALT-type lymphoma is identical to non-neoplastic B-lymphocytes of the marginal zone (CD20+, CD5-, CD10- and CD23-). Individual therapy is strongly dependent from histological type and lymphoma stadium. Therapy modalities are H. pylori eradication, radiochemotherapy, surgery or a combination of these. Aim of the therapy is the complete lymphoma regression and cure of the disease.

  2. Recurrent gastric perforation as a late complication of radiotherapy for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Taiga; Noda, Takahiro; Yokoo, Masako; Ibaraki, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Radiation therapy can be used to treat Helicobacter pylori-negative or eradication-refractory extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the stomach. We report a case of gastric perforation which occurred more than 1 year after the completion of radiotherapy for H. pylori eradication-refractory gastric MALT lymphoma, and then recurred shortly afterwards. This was considered to be a late complication of radiation toxicity. Although gastric perforation due to radiotherapy has been reported very rarely in the past, even in advanced disease, this case shows that perforation can develop in patients with superficial disease and can relapse.

  3. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae, Saccharomyces...

  4. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  5. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  6. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  7. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from...

  8. Malt liquor marketing in inner cities: the role of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    McKee, Pat; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Hannan, Peter; Pham, Lan

    2011-01-01

    In response to anecdotal reports that African American neighborhoods are targeted for high-alcohol malt liquor advertising, the authors observed alcohol ads on off-premise alcohol outlets, billboards, and transit structures in 10 U.S. cities over 3 years. Malt liquor ads were prevalent on storefronts, but rare on billboards. Using Poisson regression, the authors found that storefront malt liquor ads were more common in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans, even after controlling for social and physical disorder. Results suggest that policymakers attempting to reduce malt liquor-related harms may do well to consider regulations that limit storefront advertising exposure.

  9. Screening of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodsvali, Alireza; Farzaneh, Vahid; Bakhshabadi, Hamid; Zare, Zahra; Karami, Zahra; Mokhtarian, Mohsen; Carvalho, Isabel. S.

    2016-10-01

    An understanding of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of barley malt is necessary for the appropriate design of equipment for the handling, shipping, dehydration, grading, sorting and warehousing of this strategic crop. Malting is a complex biotechnological process that includes steeping; germination and finally, the dehydration of cereal grains under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. In this investigation, the biophysical properties of barley malt were predicted using two models of artificial neural networks as well as response surface methodology. Stepping time and germination time were selected as the independent variables and 1 000 kernel weight, kernel density and terminal velocity were selected as the dependent variables (responses). The obtained outcomes showed that the artificial neural network model, with a logarithmic sigmoid activation function, presents more precise results than the response surface model in the prediction of the aerodynamic and biophysical properties of produced barley malt. This model presented the best result with 8 nodes in the hidden layer and significant correlation coefficient values of 0.783, 0.767 and 0.991 were obtained for responses one thousand kernel weight, kernel density, and terminal velocity, respectively. The outcomes indicated that this novel technique could be successfully applied in quantitative and qualitative monitoring within the malting process.

  10. Changes in nutritional and physico-chemical properties of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Ex-Borno variety flour as a result of malting.

    PubMed

    Obadina, Adewale O; Arogbokun, Christianah A; Soares, Antonio O; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Barboza, Henriqueta Talita; Adekoya, Ifeoluwa O

    2017-12-01

    The effect of malting periods on the nutritional composition and physico-chemical properties of flour from pearl millet (Ex-Borno) variety was evaluated. Grains were steeped at 25 °C for 24 h and germinated for different durations (12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 h) before kilning at 55 °C for 18 h. The kilned seeds were devegetated, milled, sieved and analysed for their proximate composition, amino acid composition, total phenolic content, functional and pasting properties. The carbohydrate, fat and total phenolic contents of the pearl millet flour samples decreased while protein content increased with increased malting periods. Leucine was the dominant amino acid in the flour and 48 h-malted flour had the highest total amino acid (6.72). Peak viscosity significantly decreased as the malting period increased. Solubility index, pasting temperature and phenolic content of the flours ranged from 5.13 to 17.24%, 69.05 to 89.5 °C and 130.20 to 169.90 mg/100 g, respectively. Malting offers a means of improving the nutritional profile of Ex-Borno pearl millet flour with an increased protein and fibre and reduced fat content. Malting also enhanced the functional and pasting properties of the flour.

  11. Fate of Fusarium Toxins during the Malting Process.

    PubMed

    Habler, Katharina; Hofer, Katharina; Geißinger, Cajetan; Schüler, Jan; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Hess, Michael; Gastl, Martina; Rychlik, Michael

    2016-02-17

    Little is known about the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins during the barley malting process. To determine the fungal DNA and mycotoxin concentrations during malting, we used barley grain harvested from field plots that we had inoculated with Fusarium species that produce type A or type B trichothecenes or enniatins. Using a recently developed multimycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass stable isotope dilution method, we identified Fusarium-species-specific behaviors of mycotoxins in grain and malt extracts and compared toxin concentrations to amounts of fungal DNA in the same samples. In particular, the type B trichothecenes and Fusarium culmorum DNA contents were increased dramatically up to 5400% after kilning. By contrast, the concentrations of type A trichothecenes and Fusarium sporotrichioides DNA decreased during the malting process. These data suggest that specific Fusarium species that contaminate the raw grain material might have different impacts on malt quality.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1443a - Malt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443a Malt. (a) Malt is an enzyme preparation obtained from barley which... a brown, sweet, and viscous liquid or a white to tan powder. Its characterizing enzyme activities... requirements and additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), p...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1443a - Malt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443a Malt. (a) Malt is an enzyme preparation obtained from barley which... a brown, sweet, and viscous liquid or a white to tan powder. Its characterizing enzyme activities... requirements and additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), p...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1443a - Malt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443a Malt. (a) Malt is an enzyme preparation obtained from barley which... a brown, sweet, and viscous liquid or a white to tan powder. Its characterizing enzyme activities... requirements and additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), p...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1443a - Malt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443a Malt. (a) Malt is an enzyme preparation obtained from barley which... a brown, sweet, and viscous liquid or a white to tan powder. Its characterizing enzyme activities... requirements and additional requirements for enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), p...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1443a - Malt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1443a Malt. (a) Malt is an enzyme preparation obtained from barley which has been softened by a series... liquid or a white to tan powder. Its characterizing enzyme activities are α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) and β... enzyme preparations in the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d ed. (1981), p. 110, which is incorporated by...

  17. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-07-14

    Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains.

  18. Comparisons of modern United States and Canadian malting barley cultivars with those from pre-Prohibition: IV. Malting quality assessments using standard and nonstandard measures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to identify which traits or combination of traits associated with malting quality and mashing performance could best define the differences between and within a population of pre-Prohibition malting barley varieties and a population of modern elite malting barley cultivars. ...

  19. [MALT lymphoma of the parotid salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Krasić, Dragan; Radović, Predrag; Burić, Nikola; Cosić, Andrija; Katić, Vuka

    2007-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was described for the first time in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. It was classified into extranodal non-Hodkin's lymphomas of B-cell lymphocytes of the marginal zone of reactive lymphe follicles. It is characterized by both hyperplasia and colonization of plasmocytic, centrocytoid and monocytoid cells, by the infiltration of interfollicular and parafollicular parts of interstitium, as well as by the invasion of clusters of neoplastic lymphoid cells of the glandular epithelium, forming the pathognomic lymphoepithelial MALT limphoma lesions. In this paper we presented the two female patients, 59 and 75 years of age, with MALT lymphomas, associated with Miculicz's and Sjögren's syndromes. The paper also underlined rather many-month-long, indolent clinical course, evalution of both tumors, massive in size, as well as two-sided localization in the case of the Miculicz's syndrome. After the subtotal parotidectomy, using conservation of nerve facialis, the tissue blocks were fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The paraffine sections were stained by routine histochemical and an immunohistochemical method by using monoclonal antibodies for both B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, due to the verification of lymphoepithelial lesions. The MALT lymphoma diagnosis was based on the histological criteria and confirmed by an immunohistochemical method. After the surgical therapy accompanied by chemotherapy, the patients were controlled at regular intervals, and residual MALT lymphoma did not appear. MALT lymphoma is a rare tumor of the salivary glands, with the most frequent localization in the parotide gland. It had a slow clinical course, without metastases in both patients. The diagnosis was made pathohistologically and confirmed immunohistochemically. The surgical therapy was accompained by adjuvant chemotherapy.

  20. Malt1 protease inactivation efficiently dampens immune responses but causes spontaneous autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Maike; Marsland, Ben J; Gehrig, Jasmine; Held, Werner; Favre, Stéphanie; Luther, Sanjiv A; Perroud, Mai; Golshayan, Déla; Gaide, Olivier; Thome, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase Malt1 has recently gained interest as a drug target for immunomodulation and the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. To address the consequences of Malt1 protease inactivation on the immune response in vivo, we generated knock-in mice expressing a catalytically inactive C472A mutant of Malt1 that conserves its scaffold function. Like Malt1-deficient mice, knock-in mice had strong defects in the activation of lymphocytes, NK and dendritic cells, and the development of B1 and marginal zone B cells and were completely protected against the induction of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Malt1 inactivation also protected the mice from experimental induction of colitis. However, Malt1 knock-in mice but not Malt1-deficient mice spontaneously developed signs of autoimmune gastritis that correlated with an absence of Treg cells, an accumulation of T cells with an activated phenotype and high serum levels of IgE and IgG1. Thus, removal of the enzymatic activity of Malt1 efficiently dampens the immune response, but favors autoimmunity through impaired Treg development, which could be relevant for therapeutic Malt1-targeting strategies. PMID:25319413

  1. Malting of barley with combinations of Lactobacillus plantarum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, Rhizopus oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum to enhance malt quality.

    PubMed

    Hattingh, M; Alexander, A; Meijering, I; van Reenen, C A; Dicks, L M T

    2014-03-03

    Good quality malt is characterised by the presence of high levels of fermentable sugars, amino acids and vitamins. To reach the starch-rich endosperm of the kernel, β-glucan- and arabinoxylan-rich cell walls have to be degraded. β-Glucanase is synthesized in vast quantities by the aleurone layer and scutellum during germination. Secretion of hydrolytic enzymes is often stimulated by addition of the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA3) during germination. We have shown an enhanced β-glucanase and α-amylase activity in malt when germinating barley was inoculated with a combination of Lactobacillus plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of Aspergillus niger MH1, Rhizopus oligosporus MH2 or Trichoderma reesei MH3, and L. plantarum B.S1.6 combined with cell-free culture supernatants from each of these fungi. Highest malt β-glucanase activity (414 Units/kg malt) was recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of A. niger MH1. Highest α-amylase activities were recorded with a combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6 and spores of R. oligosporus MH2 (373 Ceralpha Units/g malt). Highest FAN levels were recorded when L. plantarum was inoculated in combination with spores of either R. oligosporus MH2 or T. reesei MH3 (259 and 260 ppm, respectively). This is the first study showing that cell-free culture supernatants of Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Trichoderma have a stimulating effect on β-glucanase and α-amylase production during malting. A combination of L. plantarum B.S1.6, and spores of A. niger MH1 and R. oligosporus MH2 may be used as starter cultures to enhance malt quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Beer volatile compounds and their application to low-malt beer fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-10-01

    Low-malt beers, in which the amount of wort is adjusted to less than two-thirds of that in regular beer, are popular in the Japanese market because the flavor of low-malt beer is similar to that of regular beer but the price lesser than that of regular beer. There are few published articles about low-malt beer. However, in the production process, there are many similarities between low-malt and regular beer, e.g., the yeast used in low-malt beer fermentation is the same as that used for regular beer. Furthermore, many investigations into regular beer are applicable to low-malt beer production. In this review, we focus on production of volatile compounds, and various studies that are applicable to regular and low-malt beer. In particular, information about metabolism of volatile compounds in yeast cells during fermentation, volatile compound measurement and estimation methods, and control of volatile compound production are discussed in this review, which concentrates on studies published in the last 5-6 years.

  3. MALT1 Controls Attenuated Rabies Virus by Inducing Early Inflammation and T Cell Activation in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Kip, E; Staal, J; Verstrepen, L; Tima, H G; Terryn, S; Romano, M; Lemeire, K; Suin, V; Hamouda, A; Kalai, M; Beyaert, R; Van Gucht, S

    2018-04-15

    MALT1 is involved in the activation of immune responses, as well as in the proliferation and survival of certain cancer cells. MALT1 acts as a scaffold protein for NF-κB signaling and a cysteine protease that cleaves substrates, further promoting the expression of immunoregulatory genes. Deregulated MALT1 activity has been associated with autoimmunity and cancer, implicating MALT1 as a new therapeutic target. Although MALT1 deficiency has been shown to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, nothing is known about the impact of MALT1 on virus infection in the central nervous system. Here, we studied infection with an attenuated rabies virus, Evelyn-Rotnycki-Abelseth (ERA) virus, and observed increased susceptibility with ERA virus in MALT1 -/- mice. Indeed, after intranasal infection with ERA virus, wild-type mice developed mild transient clinical signs with recovery at 35 days postinoculation (dpi). Interestingly, MALT1 -/- mice developed severe disease requiring euthanasia at around 17 dpi. A decreased induction of inflammatory gene expression and cell infiltration and activation was observed in MALT1 -/- mice at 10 dpi compared to MALT1 +/+ infected mice. At 17 dpi, however, the level of inflammatory cell activation was comparable to that observed in MALT1 +/+ mice. Moreover, MALT1 -/- mice failed to produce virus-neutralizing antibodies. Similar results were obtained with specific inactivation of MALT1 in T cells. Finally, treatment of wild-type mice with mepazine, a MALT1 protease inhibitor, also led to mortality upon ERA virus infection. These data emphasize the importance of early inflammation and activation of T cells through MALT1 for controlling the virulence of an attenuated rabies virus in the brain. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus is a neurotropic virus which can infect any mammal. Annually, 59,000 people die from rabies. Effective therapy is lacking and hampered by gaps in the understanding of virus pathogenicity. MALT1 is an intracellular

  4. Gastric MALT lymphoma: a model of chronic inflammation-induced tumor development.

    PubMed

    Sagaert, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Eric; De Hertogh, Gert; Geboes, Karel; Tousseyn, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, or extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT, is an indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma arising in lymphoid infiltrates that are induced by chronic inflammation in extranodal sites. The stomach is the most commonly affected organ, in which MALT lymphoma pathogenesis is clearly associated with Helicobacter pylori gastroduodenitis. Gastric MALT lymphoma has attracted attention because of the involvement of genetic aberrations in the nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway, one of the most investigated pathways in the fields of immunology and oncology. This Review presents gastric MALT lymphoma as an outstanding example of the close pathogenetic link between chronic inflammation and tumor development, and describes how this information can be integrated into daily clinical practice. Gastric MALT lymphoma is considered one of the best models of how genetic events lead to oncogenesis, determine tumor biology, dictate clinical behavior and represent viable therapeutic targets. Moreover, in view of the association of gastric MALT lymphoma with dysregulation of the NFkappaB pathway, this signaling pathway will be discussed in depth in both normal and pathological conditions, highlighting strategies to identify new therapeutic targets in this lymphoma.

  5. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    generate a stable, constitutively active fragment. Thus, API2-MALT1 harnesses multiple unique pathways to achieve deregulated NF-κB activation. Emerging data from our group and others have also detailed additional gain-of-function activities of API2-MALT1 that extend beyond NF-κB activation. Specifically, API2-MALT1 recruits and subverts multiple other signaling factors, including LIM domain and actin-binding protein 1 (LIMA1) and Smac/DIABLO. Like NIK, LIMA1 represents a unique substrate for API2-MALT1 protease activity, but unlike NIK, its cleavage sets in motion a major NF-κB-independent pathway for promoting oncogenesis. In this review, we highlight the most recent results characterizing these unique and diverse gain-of-function activities of API2-MALT1 and how they contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:26981201

  6. Hardness as a modification index for malting red and white sorghum (kaffir) grains.

    PubMed

    Uvere, Peter O; Ngoddy, Patrick O; Nwankwo, Chibuzo S

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated changes in the resistance to fracture of malting red and white sorghum grains using a hardness tester as another method for monitoring grain modification. Grain hardness decreased progressively from 134.35 N and 137.29 N in malting red and white sorghums and levelled off after 120 h at 76.98 N and 69.14 N. In the red grain malts traditionally used for burukutu production, moisture content (r = -0.983), dhurrinase activity (r = -0.981), malting loss (r = -0.981), free amino nitrogen (r = -0.909) and cold water extract (r = -0.908) were better indicators of grain hardness than root length (r = -0.89). In the white sorghum malts, malting loss (r = -0.988), dhurrinase activity (r = -0.954) and diastatic activity (r = -0.936) were better indicators of grain modification than root length (r = -0.916). The soluble nitrogen ratio at the end of malting was lower in the red (0.049) compared with the white (0.0548). Grain hardness using a hand-held tester is a simple, fast and good index of modification of malting red and white sorghum grains. Oven-dried red and white sorghum malts could be considered to be well modified at hardness values/indices below 77 N/0.5730 and 72 N/0.5036, respectively. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Treatment of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma using Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Grgov, Saša; Katić, Vuka; Krstić, Miljan; Nagorni, Aleksandar; Radovanović-Dinić, Biljana; Tasić, Tomislav

    2015-05-01

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the stomach usually occurs as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of treatment of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with the H. pylori eradication method. In the period 2002-2012 in 20 patients with dyspepsia, mean age 55.1 years, the endoscopic and histologic diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma in the early stages were made. Histological preparations of endoscopic biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxyllineosin (HE), histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Endoscopic findings of gastritis were documented in 25% of the patients, and 75% of the patients had hypertrophic folds, severe mucosal hyperemia, fragility, nodularity, exulcerations and rigidity. Histopathologically, pathognomonic diagnostic criterion were infiltration and destruction of glandular epithelium with neoplastic lymphoid cells, the so-called lymphoepithelial lesions. In all 20 patients H. pylori was verified by rapid urease test and Giemsa stain. After the triple eradication therapy complete remission of MALT lymphoma was achieved in 85% of the patients, with no recurrence of lymphoma and H. pyloi infection in the average follow-up period of 48 months. In 3 (15%) of the patients, there was no remission of MALT lymphoma 12 months after the eradication therapy. Of these 3 patients 2 had progression of MALT lymphoma to diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Durable complete remission of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma is achieved in a high percentage after eradication of H. pylori infection, thus preventing the formation of diffuse large-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.

  8. More than Words: A Reply to Malt and Sloman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In four experiments, Malt and Sloman [Malt, B. C., & Sloman, S. A. (2007). Category essence or essentially pragmatic? Creator's intention in naming and what's really what. "Cognition, 105," 615-648] show that the naming of artifacts is affected by discourse context. They see this phenomenon as posing a problem for the intentional-history theory of…

  9. An Aggressive Form of MALT Lymphoma of the Stomach with Pancreas Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Mulalic, Edvin; Delibegovic, Samir

    2016-06-01

    MALT lymphoma accounts for 7-8% of all B-cell lymphomas and at least 50% of primary gastric lymphoma, with the highest incidence at between 50 and 60 years of age. Aggressive forms are rare, as are indications for multi-visceral resection. A patient, 33 years old, was admitted to the tertiary hospital due to a biopsy at a small community hospital confirming adenocarcinoma of the stomach. She was Helicobacter pylori positive. CT showed thickening of the fundus and corpus wall, up to 2.7. cm., with numerous lymph nodes, along the small curvature and in the peripancreatic region, up to 1.5 cm in size. There was close contact between the changed and tumorous posterior wall of the stomach and the anterior surface of the pancreas. Neoplasm of the stomach was found that had infiltrated the body and tail of the pancreas and spleen hilum. Infiltration of the left crura of the diaphragm was also found, ex tempore biopsy showed inflammatory infiltration without elements of neoplasm. Total gastrectomy with omentectomy, and subtotal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. Definitive patho-histological diagnosis confirmed MALT lymphoma of the stomach with pancreas infiltration, but no tumor cells were found on the spleen. Additional staining and immunohistological examination of the specimen from the community hospital showed that this was a misdiagnosis of carcinoma, and the specimen also contained MALT lymphoma. MALT lymphoma frequently occurs in the stomach. For patients with MALT, systematic staging is indicated. If MALT is considered in the differential diagnosis, multiple random systematic biopsies within the stomach wall are needed to optimize diagnostic accuracy. Samples should be subject to immune phenotype analysis6. The main tumor cells of MALT are: CD 20+, CD 5-, CD 10-, CD 23-, CD 43+-. It is obvious that this kind of analysis cannot be accomplished in a small community hospital in a poor country such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, and suspicion of MALT indicates

  10. Chlamydia psittaci is variably associated with ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma in different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Chanudet, E; Zhou, Y; Bacon, C M; Wotherspoon, A C; Müller-Hermelink, H-K; Adam, P; Dong, H Y; de Jong, D; Li, Y; Wei, R; Gong, X; Wu, Q; Ranaldi, R; Goteri, G; Pileri, S A; Ye, H; Hamoudi, R A; Liu, H; Radford, J; Du, M-Q

    2006-07-01

    Infectious agents play a critical role in MALT lymphoma development. Studies from Italy showed Chlamydia psittaci infection in 87% of ocular adnexal MALT lymphomas and complete or partial regression of the lymphoma after C. psittaci eradication in four of nine cases. However, C. psittaci was not demonstrated in ocular adnexal MALT lymphomas from the USA. This study was thus designed to investigate further the role of C. psittaci, and other infectious agents commonly associated with chronic eye disease, in the development of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma. The presence of C. psittaci, C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1, HSV2), and adenovirus 8 and 19 (ADV8, ADV19) was assessed separately by polymerase chain reaction in 142 ocular adnexal MALT lymphomas, 53 non-marginal zone lymphomas, and 51 ocular adnexal biopsies without a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD), from six geographical regions. C. psittaci was detected at similar low frequencies in non-LPD and non-marginal zone lymphoma groups from different geographical regions (0-14%). Overall, the prevalence of C. psittaci was significantly higher in MALT lymphomas (22%) than in non-LPD (10%, p=0.042) and non-marginal zone lymphoma cases (9%, p=0.033). However, the prevalence of C. psittaci infection in MALT lymphoma showed marked variation among the six geographical regions examined, being most frequent in Germany (47%), followed by the East Coast of the USA (35%) and the Netherlands (29%), but relatively low in Italy (13%), the UK (12%), and Southern China (11%). No significant differences in the detection of C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, HSV1, HSV2, ADV8, and ADV19 were found between lymphomas and controls from different geographical regions. In conclusion, our results show that C. psittaci, but not C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, HSV1, HSV2, ADV8 or ADV19, is associated with ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma and that this association is variable in different geographical areas. Copyright

  11. Structural changes of malt proteins during boiling.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bei; Li, Lin; Liu, Guo-Qin; Li, Bing; Zhu, Yu-Kui; Liao, Liao-Ning

    2009-03-09

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and structure of proteins derived from two malt varieties (Baudin and Guangmai) during wort boiling were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results showed that both protein content and amino acid composition changed only slightly during boiling, and that boiling might cause a gradual unfolding of protein structures, as indicated by the decrease in surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl content and enthalpy value, as well as reduced alpha-helix contents and markedly increased random coil contents. It was also found that major component of both worts was a boiling-resistant protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa, and that according to the two-dimensional electrophoresis and SE-HPLC analyses, a small amount of soluble aggregates might be formed via hydrophobic interactions. It was thus concluded that changes of protein structure caused by boiling that might influence beer quality are largely independent of malt variety.

  12. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2013-03-01

    Germination can be used to improve the sensory and nutritional properties of cereal and pseudocereal grains. Oat and quinoa are rich in minerals, vitamins and fibre while quinoa also contains high amounts of protein of a high nutritional value. In this study, oat and quinoa malts were produced and incorporated in a rice and potato based gluten free formulation. Germination of oat led to a drastic increase of α-amylase activity from 0.3 to 48 U/g, and minor increases in proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Little change was observed in quinoa except a decrease in proteolytic activity from 9.6 to 6.9 U/g. Oat malt addition decreased batter viscosities at both proofing temperature and during heating. These changes led to a decrease in bread density from 0.59 to 0.5 g/ml and the formation of a more open crumb, but overdosing of oat malt deteriorated the product as a result of excessive amylolysis during baking. Quinoa malt had no significant effect on the baking properties due to low α-amylase activity. Despite showing a very different impact on the bread quality, both malts influenced the electrophoretic patterns of rice flour protein similarly. This suggests that malt induced proteolysis does not influence the technological properties of a complex gluten free formulation.

  13. Redox-dependent interaction between thaumatin-like protein and β-glucan influences malting quality of barley.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surinder; Tripathi, Rajiv K; Lemaux, Peggy G; Buchanan, Bob B; Singh, Jaswinder

    2017-07-18

    Barley is the cornerstone of the malting and brewing industry. It is known that 250 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the grain are associated with 19 malting-quality phenotypes. However, only a few of the contributing genetic components have been identified. One of these, on chromosome 4H, contains a major malting QTL, QTL2, located near the telomeric region that accounts, respectively, for 28.9% and 37.6% of the variation in the β-glucan and extract fractions of malt. In the current study, we dissected the QTL2 region using an expression- and microsynteny-based approach. From a set of 22 expressed sequence tags expressed in seeds at the malting stage, we identified a candidate gene, TLP8 ( thaumatin-like protein 8 ), which was differentially expressed and influenced malting quality. Transcript abundance and protein profiles of TLP8 were studied in different malt and feed varieties using quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The experiments demonstrated that TLP8 binds to insoluble (1, 3, 1, 4)-β-D glucan in grain extracts, thereby facilitating the removal of this undesirable polysaccharide during malting. Further, the binding of TLP8 to β-glucan was dependent on redox. These findings represent a stride forward in our understanding of the malting process and provide a foundation for future improvements in the final beer-making process.

  14. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley price and quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... highest additional value price will be used until the number of bushels covered at the higher additional... barley contract or malting barley price agreement, you must provide us with a copy of your current crop... contract or malting barley price agreement is not provided to us by the acreage reporting date. (c) Under...

  15. Effect of kilning on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of pale malts.

    PubMed

    Woffenden, Helen M; Ames, Jennifer M; Chandra, Sachin; Anese, Monica; Nicoli, M Cristina

    2002-08-14

    Pale malts were prepared using standard and rapid kilning regimes that differed in the temperature and moisture profiles in the kiln. Samples were taken over the last 9 h of kilning, that is, at 18, 20, 22, 25, and 27 h. Antioxidant activity, assessed by redox potential, scavenging of the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS*+), and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), increased at moisture levels below 6.7% for both regimes. The 27 h malt exposed to the rapid regime (moisture content of 4.8%) had a higher activity than the 27 h standard regime sample (moisture content of 4.8%). None of the malts scavenged oxygen. Pro-oxidant activity profiles were different for the malts obtained using each regime and, at 27 h, the rapid procedure gave malt with higher activity. Levels of (+)-catechin and ferulic acid (the most abundant phenolic compounds identified) generally increased as the moisture content of malt fell below 6.7%. Differences in antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of the 27 h malts are partly attributed to the Maillard reaction, as evidenced by lower L* and higher b* values and higher levels of Maillard-derived flavor compounds, in the sample obtained by the rapid procedure. Levels of lipid-derived flavor compounds were significantly higher after 27 h of kilning using the rapid procedure.

  16. Impact of the Soak and the Malt on the Physicochemical Properties of the Sorghum Starches

    PubMed Central

    Claver, Irakoze Pierre; Zhang, Haihua; Li, Qin; Zhu, Kexue; Zhou, Huiming

    2010-01-01

    Starches were isolated from soaked and malted sorghum and studied to understand their physicochemical and functional properties. The swelling power (SP) and the water solubility index (WSI) of both starches were nearly similar at temperatures below 50 °C, but at more than 50 °C, the starch isolated from malted sorghum showed lower SP and high WSI than those isolated from raw and soaked sorghum. The pasting properties of starches determined by rapid visco-analyzer (RVA) showed that malted sorghum starch had a lower viscosity peak value (86 BU/RVU) than raw sorghum starch (454 BU/RVU). For both sorghum, X-ray diffractograms exhibited an A-type diffraction pattern, typical of cereal starches and the relative degrees of crystallinity ranged from 9.62 to 15.50%. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that raw sorghum starch showed an endotherm with a peak temperature (Tp) at 78.06 °C and gelatinization enthalpies of 2.83 J/g whereas five-day malted sorghum starch had a Tp at 47.22 °C and gelatinization enthalpies of 2.06 J/g. Storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of all starch suspensions increased steeply to a maximum at 70 °C and then decreased with continuous heating. The structural analysis of malted sorghum starch showed porosity on the granule’s surface susceptible to the amylolysis. The results showed that physicochemical and functional properties of sorghum starches are influenced by soaking and malting methods. PMID:21152287

  17. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... by volume must derive a minimum of 2.55% alcohol by volume from the fermentation of barley malt and..., bitterness, or other characteristics derived from fermentation. [TTB T.D.-21, 70 FR 234, Jan. 3, 2005] ...

  18. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by volume must derive a minimum of 2.55% alcohol by volume from the fermentation of barley malt and..., bitterness, or other characteristics derived from fermentation. [TTB T.D.-21, 70 FR 234, Jan. 3, 2005] ...

  19. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by volume must derive a minimum of 2.55% alcohol by volume from the fermentation of barley malt and..., bitterness, or other characteristics derived from fermentation. [TTB T.D.-21, 70 FR 234, Jan. 3, 2005] ...

  20. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by volume must derive a minimum of 2.55% alcohol by volume from the fermentation of barley malt and..., bitterness, or other characteristics derived from fermentation. [TTB T.D.-21, 70 FR 234, Jan. 3, 2005] ...

  1. 27 CFR 7.11 - Use of ingredients containing alcohol in malt beverages; processing of malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by volume must derive a minimum of 2.55% alcohol by volume from the fermentation of barley malt and..., bitterness, or other characteristics derived from fermentation. [TTB T.D.-21, 70 FR 234, Jan. 3, 2005] ...

  2. [Gastric perforation by MALT lymphoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    López-Zamudio, José; Ramírez-González, Luis Ricardo; Núñez-Márquez, Julia; Fuentes Orozco, Clotilde; González Ojeda, Alejandro; Leonher-Ruezga, Karla Lisseth

    2015-01-01

    Gastric non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare tumour that represents approximately 7% of all stomach cancers and 2% of all lymphomas. The most frequent location of gastric MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas is in the antrum in 41% of the cases, and 33% can be multifocal. The risk of spontaneous perforation of a gastric MALT lymphoma is 4-10%. 24 year old male patient carrying the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, who began with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen and fever 72 hours before arriving in the emergency room. A computed tomography was performed that showed free fluid in the cavity, and gastric wall thickening. The patient underwent a laparotomy, finding absence of the anterior wall of the stomach, sealed with the left lobe of the liver, colon and omentum. Total gastrectomy, with oesophagosty and jejunostomy tube, was performed. Gastric perforation secondary to a MALT lymphoma is rare, with high mortality. There is limited information reported of this complication and should be highly suspected in order to provide appropriate treatment for a complication of this type. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumor-associated macrophages as major source of APRIL in gastric MALT lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Munari, Fabio; Lonardi, Silvia; Cassatella, Marco A; Doglioni, Claudio; Cangi, Maria Giulia; Amedei, Amedeo; Facchetti, Fabio; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Rugge, Massimo; Fassan, Matteo; de Bernard, Marina; D'Elios, Mario M; Vermi, William

    2011-06-16

    Lymphoid hyperplasia of gastric mucosa associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection represents a preneoplastic condition of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), which may evolve to a B-cell lymphoma. While it is well established that the initial neoplastic proliferation of B cells is antigen-driven and dependent on the helper activity of HP-specific T cells, it needs to be elucidated which cytokine or soluble factor(s) promote B-cell activation and lymphomagenesis. Herein, we originally report that gastric MALT lymphoma express high levels of a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL), a novel cytokine crucial in sustaining B-cell proliferation. By immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that APRIL is produced almost exclusively by gastric lymphoma-infiltrating macrophages located in close proximity to neoplastic B cells. We also show that macrophages produce APRIL on direct stimulation with both HP and HP-specific T cells. Collectively, our results represent the first evidence for an involvement of APRIL in gastric MALT lymphoma development in HP-infected patients.

  4. Endosperm structure affects the malting quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Wilhelmson, Annika; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Rajala, Ari; Reinikainen, Pekka; Kotaviita, Erja; Simolin, Helena; Home, Silja

    2005-09-07

    Twenty-seven barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) samples collected from growing sites in Scandinavia in 2001 and 2002 were examined to study the effect of endosperm structure on malting behavior. Samples were micromalted, and several malt characteristics were measured. Samples were classified as having a mealier or steelier endosperm on the basis of light transflectance (LTm). Because endosperm structure is greatly dependent on protein content, three barley sample pairs with similar protein contents were chosen for further analysis. During malting, the steelier barley samples produced less root mass, but showed higher respiration losses and higher activities of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes. Malts made from steelier barley had a less friable structure, with more urea-soluble D hordein and more free amino nitrogen and soluble protein. The reason for these differences may lie in the structure or localization of the hordeins as well as the possible effects of endosperm packing on water uptake and movement of enzymes.

  5. Multiresidue determination of pesticides in malt beverages by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jon W; Webster, Michael G; Bezabeh, Dawit Z; Hengel, Mathew J; Ngim, Kenley K; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Ebeler, Susan E

    2004-10-20

    A method was developed to determine pesticides in malt beverages using solid phase extraction on a polymeric cartridge and sample cleanup with a MgSO4-topped aminopropyl cartridge, followed by capillary gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode [GC-MS(SIM)]. Three GC injections were required to analyze and identify organophosphate, organohalogen, and organonitrogen pesticides. The pesticides were identified by the retention times of peaks of the target ion and qualifier-to-target ion ratios. GC detection limits for most of the pesticides were 5-10 ng/mL, and linearity was determined from 50 to 5000 ng/mL. Fortification studies were performed at 10 ng/mL for three malt beverages that differ in properties such as alcohol content, solids, and appearance. The recoveries from the three malt beverages were greater than 70% for 85 of the 142 pesticides (including isomers) studied. The data showed that the different malt beverage matrixes had no significant effect on the recoveries. This method was then applied to the screening and analysis of malt beverages for pesticides, resulting in the detection of the insectide carbaryl and the fungicide dimethomorph in real samples. The study indicates that pesticide levels in malt beverages are significantly lower than the tolerance levels set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for malt beverage starting ingredients. The use of the extraction/cleanup procedure and analysis by GC-MS(SIM) proved effective in screening malt beverages for a wide variety of pesticides. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  6. Results of radiotherapy for Peyronie's disease

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Niewald, Marcus; Wenzlawowicz, Knut v.; Fleckenstein, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of radiotherapy for Peyronie's disease. Patients and Methods: In the time interval 1983-2000, 154 patients in our clinic were irradiated for Peyronie's disease. Of those, 101 had at least one complete follow-up data set and are the subject of this study. In the majority of patients, penis deviation was between 30 and 50{sup o}, there were one or two indurated foci with a diameter between 5 and 15 mm. Pain was recorded in 48/92 patients. Seventy-two of the 101 patients received radiotherapy with a total dose of 30 Gy, and 25 received 36 Gymore » in daily fractions of 2.0 Gy. The remaining patients received the following dosage: 34 Gy (1 patient), 38-40 Gy (3 patients). Mean duration of follow-up was 5 years. Results: The best results ever at any time during follow-up were an improvement of deviation in 47%, reduction of number of foci in 32%, reduction of size of foci in 49%, and less induration in 52%. Approximately 50% reported pain relief after radiotherapy. There were 28 patients with mild acute dermatitis and only 4 patients with mild urethritis. There were no long-term side effects. Conclusion: Our results compare well with those of other studies in the literature. In our patient cohort, radiotherapy was an effective therapy option with only very rare and mild side effects.« less

  7. The Impact of Single-Container Malt Liquor Sales Restrictions on Urban Crime.

    PubMed

    McKee, Patricia; Erickson, Darin J; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben; Less, Elyse Levine; Joshi, Spruha; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2017-04-01

    Many US cities have adopted legal restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales in response to reports of crime and nuisance behaviors around retail alcohol outlets. We assessed whether these policies are effective in reducing crime in urban areas. We used a rigorous interrupted time-series design with comparison groups to examine monthly crime rates in areas surrounding alcohol outlets in the 3 years before and after adoption of malt liquor sales restrictions in two US cities. Crime rates in matched comparison areas not subject to restrictions served as covariates. Novel methods for matching target and comparison areas using virtual neighborhood audits conducted in Google Street View are described. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, sales of single containers of 16 oz or less were prohibited in individual liquor stores (n = 6). In Washington, D.C., the sale of single containers of any size were prohibited in all retail alcohol outlets within full or partial wards (n = 6). Policy adoption was associated with modest reductions in crime, particularly assaults and vandalism, in both cities. All significant outcomes were in the hypothesized direction. Our results provide evidence that retail malt liquor sales restrictions, even relatively weak ones, can have modest effects on a range of crimes. Policy success may depend on community support and concurrent restrictions on malt liquor substitutes.

  8. Synchronous triple occurrence of MALT lymphoma, schwannoma, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong W; Joo, Mee; Kim, Han S; Lee, Woo Y

    2017-06-14

    We present a case of a 56-year-old man with 3 synchronous gastric tumors. The patient presented with melena, and 3 gastric abnormalities were detected on gastroduodenoscopic examination, including a small ulcerative lesion in the gastric antrum, a submucosal mass in the gastric body, and severe erosion in the fundus. Histological examination of biopsy samples yielded respective diagnoses of gastric adenocarcinoma, gastritis, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The patient first received medication to eradicate any underlying Helicobacter pylori infection, which might have been a cause of the MALT lymphoma. Four weeks later, after examination of repeat biopsy samples revealed that the MALT lymphoma had resolved, the patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy. Further histological examination of resected tissue confirmed the antrum lesion as adenocarcinoma and the body lesion as schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of synchronous triple primary gastric adenocarcinoma, MALT lymphoma, and schwannoma.

  9. THE MILLIMETER ASTRONOMY LEGACY TEAM 90 GHz (MALT90) PILOT SURVEY

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Barris, Elizabeth

    We describe a pilot survey conducted with the Mopra 22 m radio telescope in preparation for the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). We identified 182 candidate dense molecular clumps using six different selection criteria and mapped each source simultaneously in 16 different lines near 90 GHz. We present a summary of the data and describe how the results of the pilot survey shaped the design of the larger MALT90 survey. We motivate our selection of target sources for the main survey based on the pilot detection rates and demonstrate the value of mapping in multiple linesmore » simultaneously at high spectral resolution.« less

  10. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    PubMed

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  11. The microbiology of malting and brewing.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bamforth, Charles W

    2013-06-01

    Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing.

  12. The Microbiology of Malting and Brewing

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Brewing beer involves microbial activity at every stage, from raw material production and malting to stability in the package. Most of these activities are desirable, as beer is the result of a traditional food fermentation, but others represent threats to the quality of the final product and must be controlled actively through careful management, the daily task of maltsters and brewers globally. This review collates current knowledge relevant to the biology of brewing yeast, fermentation management, and the microbial ecology of beer and brewing. PMID:23699253

  13. Occurrence of (Z)-3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene in Different Types of Beer and Malt Beer as a Result of 3-Deoxyhexosone Interconversion.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Nobis, Arndt; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-06

    In beer, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) are important sugar degradation products, but little is known about the relevance of the interconversion reaction between these compounds in different types of beer. In the present study, 3-DG was quantitated at concentrations of 12.9-52.7 mg/L and 3-DGal at concentrations of 6.0-26.4 mg/L in different types of beer (pilsner, wheat, bock, dark, and alcohol-free beers). The concentrations in malt beer tended to be higher. Largely overlapping concentration ranges precluded a classification of beers by their 3-deoxyglycosone contents. 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as an important intermediate and quantitated in beer and malt beer for the first time. The E and Z isomers of the corresponding quinoxaline were synthesized by a new synthetic approach and isolated by semipreparative HPLC. An assay was developed for quantitation of (E)- and (Z)-3,4-DGE by HPLC-MS/MS, and the Z isomer was determined at concentrations of 0.3-1.7 mg/L in beer and 0.5-4.8 mg/L in malt beer samples. The E isomer was shown to be of little importance. Concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were twice as high as those of (Z)-3,4-DGE in beer samples (0.4-3.7 mg/L) but much higher in malt beer samples (1.6-336 mg/L).

  14. Ronald Malt or Chen Zhongwei: Who performed the first surgical replantation?

    PubMed

    Fan, Ka-Wai

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the contributions of the two pioneers of the surgical procedure of replantation-Ronald Malt in the US and Chen Zhongwei in China. Ronald Malt performed the reattachment surgery on a boy who had an accident in 1962, but he published his case report two years later in 1964. Chen Zhongwei performed a similar surgery on a worker who cut off his forearm in 1963, but he published his case report the same year. There is some debate about which one of these reputed surgeons should be given credit for being the first one to perform this breakthrough surgery, because although Malt was the first to perform the procedure, Zhongwei was the first to report it. To shed light on this controversy, criteria for scientific priority suggested by Ronald Vale and Anthony Hyman were applied. Although the criteria mainly favored Zhongwei as the pioneer of this procedure, he did not entirely fulfill one of the criteria. Therefore, the article could not present a definitive answer to the question, and it concludes by pointing out the highly commendable achievements and contributions of both Ronald Malt and Chen Zhongwei.

  15. [Fluctuant pulmonary nodules as presentation of a MALT lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Dolz Aspas, R; Toyas Miazza, C; Ruiz Ruiz, F; Morales Rull, J L; Pérez Calvo, J I

    2003-11-01

    Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a group of non- Hodgkin"s lymphomas of low malignancy degree. The most frequent location is the gastrointestinal tract. Its primary pulmonary presentation is unusual and heterogeneous from point of view radiological. Woman 61 years old with antecedents of vitiligo, gastric ulcus, cirrhosis by VHC, that go into the hospital by sudden disnea, thoracic paint with pleural characterises and fever of 38.5 degrees C, Her thorax radiography and thoracic TAC showed nodes that affect to different pulmonary lobes. The cytology by PAAF confirms their malignant nature. In subsequent radiological controls it was notice the nodels took away completely and returns in different pulmonary place in each recurrence. The presentation like fluctuant pulmonary nodes is exceptional in a MALT lymphoma. It was described a higher incidence of VHC infection and tumour. The evidence of chronic hepatitis by virus C disease, and local chronic inflammatory process as well as autoimmune disorders may be considerate like a factor that contribute to MALT lymphoma.

  16. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  17. Effects of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley on the immunomodulatory response in ICR mice and in Molt-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min; Hong, Seung-Heon; Um, Jae-Young

    2010-07-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a unicellular and microscopic algae that is currently used in a variety of forms of tablets, capsules and liquid as a biological response modifier. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley for its potential reduction of the immobility time in ICR mice and on the cytokine regulation in human T cell line, Molt-4. After a forced swimming test, the changes in aspects of blood biochemical parameters due to the administration of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley were examined. The effect of hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by the malted barley-treated group for 14 days on the immobility time was significantly reduced in comparison with that of the control group (P < 0.01). The plasma level of blood urea nitrogen was significantly decreased in hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley-treated group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley increased interferon-gamma and interlukin-2 levels in Molt-4 cells. These results indicate that hydrolyzed Chlorella vulgaris by malted barley is useful for immune function improvements, enhanced physical stamina, and as a candidate for an anti-fatigue or antidepressant agent.

  18. Keeping It Simple: Can We Estimate Malting Quality Potential Using an Isothermal Mashing Protocol and Common Laboratory Instrumentation?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current methods for generating malting quality metrics have been developed largely to support commercial malting and brewing operations, providing accurate, reproducible analytical data to guide malting and brewing production. Infrastructure to support these analytical operations often involves sub...

  19. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits, wine...

  20. BCL10 aberations and NF-kappa B activation involving p65 are absent or rare in primary gastric MALT lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hajder, Jelena; Marisavljević, Dragomir; Stanisavljević, Natasa; Mihaljević, Biljana; Kovcin, Vladimir; Marković, Olivera; Zivković, Radmila

    2014-11-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma accounts for 5-17% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The molecular pathogenesis of MALT lymphomas is not well-established. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunohistochemically determined nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in tumor cells of gastric MALT lymphoma and its impact on the patogenesis and outcome of the disease. Medical records of 35 patients with newly diagnosed gastric MALT lymphoma were analyzed and biopsy specimens were immunostained for BCL10 and NF-kappaB expression (p65 subunit). The median age of 35 patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma was 63.5 years (male/female = 21/14). Symptoms were present in 23/35 (65.7%) patients with the weight loss as the most common symptom. Gastric MALT lymphomas were usually localized in the stomach corpus and corpus and antrum (45.7% and 31.2%, respectively). H. pylon infection was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66.7%) patients. Treatment options were as follows: immunochemotherapy in 10 (28.5%) patients, surgery in 9 (25.8%) patients, combined surgery and chemotherapy in 14 (40%) patients and supportive measures in 2 (5.7%) patients. Complete remission was achieved in 13 (37.10/) patients and partial remission in two (5.7%/) patients. Sixteen (45.7%/) patients had disease progression (p < 0.001). Cytoplasmatic expression of BCL10 in tumor cells was detected in 19 (54.3%) specimens. Nuclear expression was detected in no specimen. Cytoplasmic expression of NF-kappaB was present in 22 (65.7%) specimens, but nuclear expression was not detected in any specimens. Nuclear expressions (activation)of NF-kappaB p65 subunit and BCL10 were not detected in specimens of gastric MALT lymphoma. The correlation of nuclear coexpression of BCL10 and NF-kappaB in gastric MALT lymphoma was not established. These results indicate that other mechanisms and signal pathways are active in lymphogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma, as that apoptotic inhibition is not

  1. Optimization of combined microwave-hot air roasting of malt based on energy consumption and neo-formed contaminants content.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, S; Laguerre, J C; Tattiyakul, J; Neugnot, B; Boivin, P; Morales, F J; Birlouez-Aragon, I

    2010-05-01

    To produce specialty malt, malts were roasted by combined microwave-hot air at various specific microwave powers (SP = 2.5 to 3 W/g), microwave heating times (t(mw) = 3.3 to 3.5 min), oven temperatures (T(oven) = 180 to 220 degrees C), and oven heating times (t(oven) = 60 to 150 min). The response variables, color, energy consumption by microwave (E(mw)) and oven (E(oven)), total energy consumption (E(tot)), quantity of neo-formed contaminants (NFCs), which include hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, furan, and acrylamide were determined. Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to analyze and predict the optimum conditions for the specialty malt. Production using combined microwave-hot air roasting process based on minimum energy consumption and level of NFCs. At 95% confident level, SP, T(oven), and t(oven) were the most influencing effects with regard to E(tot), whereas t(mw) did not affect E(tot). T(oven) and t(oven) significantly affected malt color. Only T(oven) significantly influenced the NFCs content. The optimum parameters were: SP = 2.68 W/g for 3.44 min, T(oven) = 206 degrees C for 136 min for coffee malt, SP = 2.5 W/g for 3.48 min, T(oven) = 214 degrees C for 136 min for chocolate malt, and SP = 2.5 W/g for 3.48 min, T(oven) = 211 degrees C for 150 min for black malt. Comparing with conventional process, combined microwave-hot air reduced E(tot) by approximately 40%, 26%, and 26% for coffee, chocolate, and black malts, respectively, and reduced HMF, furfural, furan, and acrylamide contents by 40%, 18%, 23%, and 95%, respectively, for black malt. An important goal for research institutions and the brewery industry is to produce colored malt by combining microwave and hot air roasting, while saving energy, getting desirable color, and avoiding the formation of carcinogenic and toxic neo-formed contaminants (NFCs). Therefore, one objective of this study was to compare energy consumption and content of NFCs during roasting of malt by hot air-only and

  2. MicroRNA-150 Is up-regulated in extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT type.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Niklas; Kuba, Johannes; Senft, Andrea; Schillert, Arne; Bernard, Veronica; Thorns, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms promoting malignant transformation from chronic Helicobacter pylori-gastritis to gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) are insufficiently characterized. This follow-up study aimed to validate candidate microRNAs (miRs) in the process of neoplastic transformation. MicroRNA expression signatures (n=20) were generated for a total of 60 cases of gastric lesions ranging from Wotherspoon 0-5 employing a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of the cohort was supplemented by PCR-based immunoglobulin heavy chain recombination studies. Quantitative expression of miR-150, miR-142.3p, miR-375 and miR-494 was significantly de-regulated in samples from MALT lymphoma compared to those from gastritis. The previously reported up-regulation of miR-150 in marginal zone lymphoma of MALT type was verified in an independent cohort of lymphoma samples employing a modified methodology. This further substantiates the role of miR-150 as a potential oncomiR in MALT lymphoma.

  3. A phase II study of bortezomib in patients with MALT lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Troch, Marlene; Jonak, Constanze; Müllauer, Leonhard; Püspök, Andreas; Formanek, Michael; Hauff, Wolfgang; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Chott, Andreas; Raderer, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a phase II study to evaluate bortezomib in patients with MALT-lymphoma. Sixteen patients entered the trial, 4 had gastric MALT-lymphoma, 7 of the ocular adnexa, one of the colon, and 2 of the parotid, and one patient each the lung and the breast. Bortezomib was given at 1.5 mg/m2 days 1, 4, 8 and 11; repeated every 21 days. The overall response rate was 80% (13/16); 7 patients achieved complete remission (43%), 6 partial response (37%) and 3 stable disease. After a median follow-up of 23 months (range; 8–26), all patients are alive and 4 have relapsed. Fifteen patients required dose reductions due to either neuropathy (7 patients) or diarrhea (8 patients). Bortezomib appears to be active in patients with MALT-lymphoma. However, an unexpectedly high rate of toxicities was seen, warranting assessment of combination schedules with bortezomib at a lower dose than given in our study (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier: NCT 00373906). PMID:19336742

  4. Characteristics associated with the consumption of malted drinks among Malaysian primary school children: findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Loy, S L; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Karim, Norimah A; Tan, S Y; Appukutty, M; Abdul Razak, Nurliyana; Thielecke, F; Hopkins, S; Ong, M K; Ning, C; Tee, E S

    2015-12-30

    The consumption of beverages contributes to diet quality and overall nutrition. Studies on malted drinks, one of the widely consumed beverage choices among children in Asia, however, have received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of malted drink consumption and explored associations of sociodemographic characteristics, nutrient intakes, weight status and physical activity levels with malted drink consumption among primary school children in Malaysia. Data for this analysis were from the MyBreakfast Study, a national cross-sectional study conducted from April to October 2013 throughout all regions in Malaysia. A total of 2065 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years were included in the present analysis. Data on two days 24-h dietary recall or record, anthropometry, physical activity and screen time were recorded. Associations between malted drink consumption and related factors were examined using binary logistic regression, adjusting for region, area, gender, ethnicity and household income. Among children aged 6 to 12 years, 73.5% reported consuming malted drinks for at least once per week. Consumption of malted drinks was significantly associated with region (χ(2) = 45.64, p < 0.001), gender (χ(2) = 4.41, p = 0.036) and ethnicity (χ(2) = 13.74, p = 0.008). Malted drink consumers had similar total energy intake but higher micronutrient intakes compared to non-consumers. High physical activity level (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.99) and lower screen time during weekends (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86, 0.99) were independently associated with malted drink consumption among 6 to 9 year-old children, but not among 10 to 12 year-old children. No association was observed between malted drink consumption and weight status. Malted drink consumption is prevalent among Malaysian primary school children, particularly higher among boys, indigenous children and those who lived in the East Coast region of Malaysia. Consuming malted drinks is

  5. Overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 in Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma Resistant to Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yoshimasa; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tsugawa, Hitoshi; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Hirata, Kenro; Hosoe, Naoki; Nakamura, Masahiko; Mukai, Makio; Saito, Hidetsugu; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can function as endogenous silencers of target genes and play critical roles in human malignancies. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, the miRNA expression profile was analyzed. miRNA microarray analysis with tissue specimens from gastric MALT lymphomas and surrounding non-tumor mucosae revealed that a hematopoietic-specific miRNA miR-142 and an oncogenic miRNA miR-155 were overexpressed in MALT lymphoma lesions. The expression levels of miR-142-5p and miR-155 were significantly increased in MALT lymphomas which do not respond to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. The expression levels of miR-142-5p and miR-155 were associated with the clinical courses of gastric MALT lymphoma cases. Overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 was also observed in Helicobacter heilmannii-infected C57BL/6 mice, an animal model of gastric MALT lymphoma. In addition, miR-142-5p and miR-155 suppress the proapoptotic gene TP53INP1 as their target. The results of this study indicate that overexpression of miR-142-5p and miR-155 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma. These miRNAs might have potential application as therapeutic targets and novel biomarkers for gastric MALT lymphoma. PMID:23209550

  6. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves HOIL1 reducing linear ubiquitination by LUBAC to dampen lymphocyte NF-κB signalling

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Theo; Fung, Shan-Yu; Renner, Florian; Blank, Michael A.; Dufour, Antoine; Kang, Sohyeong; Bolger-Munro, Madison; Scurll, Joshua M.; Priatel, John J.; Schweigler, Patrick; Melkko, Samu; Gold, Michael R.; Viner, Rosa I.; Régnier, Catherine H.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Overall, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Antigen receptor signalling activates the canonical NF-κB pathway via the CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 (CBM) signalosome involving key, yet ill-defined roles for linear ubiquitination. The paracaspase MALT1 cleaves and removes negative checkpoint proteins, amplifying lymphocyte responses in NF-κB activation and in B-cell lymphoma subtypes. To identify new human MALT1 substrates, we compare B cells from the only known living MALT1mut/mut patient with healthy MALT1+/mut family members using 10-plex Tandem Mass Tag TAILS N-terminal peptide proteomics. We identify HOIL1 of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex as a novel MALT1 substrate. We show linear ubiquitination at B-cell receptor microclusters and signalosomes. Late in the NF-κB activation cycle HOIL1 cleavage transiently reduces linear ubiquitination, including of NEMO and RIP1, dampening NF-κB activation and preventing reactivation. By regulating linear ubiquitination, MALT1 is both a positive and negative pleiotropic regulator of the human canonical NF-κB pathway—first promoting activation via the CBM—then triggering HOIL1-dependent negative-feedback termination, preventing reactivation. PMID:26525107

  7. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    PubMed

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  9. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...— Damaged kernels 1 (percent) Foreign material (percent) Other grains (percent) Skinned and broken kernels....0 10.0 15.0 1 Injured-by-frost kernels and injured-by-mold kernels are not considered damaged kernels or considered against sound barley. Notes: Malting barley shall not be infested in accordance with...

  10. Significance of Cholinergic and Peptidergic Nerves in Stress-Induced Ulcer and MALT Lymphoma Formation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masahiko; Overby, Anders; Uehara, Akina; Oda, Masaya; Takahashi, Shinichi; Murayama, Somay Y; Matsui, Hidenori

    2017-10-30

    Backgound: The role of enteric nerves has previously been demonstrated in the formation of several gastric diseases. In the present review, the significance of the cholinergic nerves in stress-induced ulcer formation as well as the importance of substance P in the formation of gastric MALT lymphoma is discussed. The stress-induced ulcer was induced by the plaster bandage methods in rats. The gastric MALT lymphoma was formed by the peroral infection of gastric mucosal homogenate of the infected mouse in C57BL/6 mice. For the stress-induced ulcer, the distribution of the cholinergic nerves and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry and autoradiography of water soluble compounds using 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate was performed. To the MALT lymphoma study, the distribution of the substance P and effect of substance P antagonist, spantide II, was investigated by immunohistochemical studies. The stress induced ulcer formation was shown to be related to the hyperactivity of the cholinergic nerves. The gastric MALT lymphoma was shown to be related to the increased localization of substance P. Stress-induced ulceration as a model of hyperactivity of the cholinergic nerves was proved to be a useful approach, while substance P and its role in MALT lymphoma formation may serve as a tool to clarify the neuroimmune modulation of chronic infectious diseases. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition augments killing of CD79 mutant diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Eitelhuber, Andrea C.; Kutzner, Kerstin; Vincendeau, Michelle; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Survival of activated B cell-subtype (ABC) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is driven by chronic B cell receptor (BCR) signaling that activates the canonical NF-κB pathway. Inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib has been shown to kill ABC DLBCL cells that carry activating mutations in the BCR adaptor CD79. However, mutations in BTK or in downstream components such as CARMA1/CARD11 can render lymphomas Ibrutinib resistant. Therefore, we assessed here the simultaneous inhibition of BTK and the protease MALT1 that acts downstream of CARMA1 and is essential for ABC DLBCL tumor growth. We show that in CD79 mutant cells BTK is a crucial upstream regulator of MALT1, but dispensable in CARMA1 mutant ABC DLBCL. Combined inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib and MALT1 by S-Mepazine additively impaired MALT1 cleavage activity and expression of NF-κB pro-survival factors. Thereby, combinatorial Ibrutinib and S-Mepazine treatment enhanced killing of CD79 mutant ABC DLBCL cells. Moreover, while expression of oncogenic CARMA1 in CD79 mutant cells conferred Ibrutinib resistance, double mutant cells were still sensitive to MALT1 inhibition by S-Mepazine. Thus, based on the genetic background combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition may improve effectiveness of therapeutic treatment and reduce the chances for the development of drug resistances. PMID:26540570

  12. Susan Isaacs and the Malting House School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Philip

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that psychoanalysis has over the years had a significant impact on the education of children with mental health problems. Its contribution to the theory and practice of mainstream education is less well documented. This paper gives an account of the five-year (1924-1929) history of the Malting House School in Cambridge. The school…

  13. Gluten-Free Sources of Fermentable Extract: Effect of Temperature and Germination Time on Quality Attributes of Teff [Eragrostis tef (zucc.) Trotter] Malt and Wort.

    PubMed

    Di Ghionno, Lidia; Marconi, Ombretta; Lee, Eung Gwan; Rice, Christopher J; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-06-14

    This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior of a white teff variety called Witkop during malting by using different parameters (germination temperature and duration) and to identify the best malting program. Samples were evaluated for standard quality malt and wort attributes, pasting characteristics, β-glucan and arabinoxylan content, and sugar profile. It was concluded that malting teff at 24 °C for 6 days produced acceptable malt in terms of quality attributes and sugar profile for brewing. The main attributes were 80.4% extract, 80.9% fermentability, 1.53 mPa s viscosity, 7.4 EBC-U color, 129 mg/L FAN, and 72.1 g/L of total fermentable sugars. Statistical analysis showed that pasting characteristics of teff malt were negatively correlated with some malt quality attributes, such as extract and fermentability. Witkop teff appeared to be a promising raw material for malting and brewing. However, the small grain size may lead to difficulties in handling malting process, and a bespoke brewhouse plant should be developed for the production at industrial scale.

  14. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  15. Positive and negative impacts of specialty malts on beer foam: a comparison of various cereal products for their foaming properties.

    PubMed

    Combe, Alexander L; Ang, Justin K; Bamforth, Charles W

    2013-07-01

    The foam stability of beer is dependent on the presence of foam-stabilizing polypeptides derived from the cereals from which it is made. It has long been argued that there is a tendency to boost the foam-stabilizing capabilities of these polypeptides at the heating stages involved in the production of the grist materials. The present study started with the intent to confirm whether these changes occurred and to assess the extent to which different cereal products differed in their foam-stabilizing tendencies. Cereal products differ enormously in their foam-stabilizing capabilities. Heavily roasted grains, notably black malt and roast barley, do have superior foaming properties. However, certain specialty malts, notably crystal malts, display inferior foam performance. The observed foaming pattern is a balance between their content of foam-positive and foam-negative components. Products such as pale malt do contain foam-negative materials but have a net balance in favour of foam-stabilizing entities. By contrast, wheat malt and especially black malt have a heavy preponderance of foam-positive components. Crystal malt displays the converse behaviour: it contains low-molecular-weight foam-negative species. Several of the cereal products appear to contain higher-molecular-weight foam inhibitors, but it appears that they are merely species that are of inherently inferior foam-stabilizing capability to the foaming polypeptides from egg white that were employed to probe the system. The foam-damaging species derived from crystal malt carried through to beers brewed from them. Intense heating in the production of cereal products does lead to enhanced foam performance in extracts of those products. However, not all speciality malts display superior foam performance, through their development of foam-negative species of lower molecular weight. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Gibberellic acid (GA3) induced changes in proanthocyanidins and malt quality of two- and six-row husked barleys.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S K; Luthra, Y P; Sood, D R; Aggarwal, N K

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of husked barleys for proanthocyanidins and malt quality attributes has shown that not a single variety is free of proanthocyanidins. The proanthocyanidins in barley grains varied from 3.85 to 4.94 mg/g as catechin equivalent. The concentration of proanthocyanidins decreased, while total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, diastatic power and beta-amylase activity increased during maltings as well as with exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) application. Alfa 93 (two-row) and RD2560 (six-row) varieties appeared to be superior for malting and brewing purposes on the basis of proanthocyanidins, total phenols, diastatic power and beta-amylase activity. It is suggested that exogenous application of GA3 at 15 ppm may be useful for producing good quality malt from barley grains.

  17. 5. American elevator looking east barely visible behind American malt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. American elevator looking east barely visible behind American malt house with Russell-Miller flour mill to right (now Eonacara and idle). - American Elevator, 87 Childs Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ATLASGAL clumps with IRAS flux and MALT90 data (Stephens+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, I. W.; Jackson, J. M.; Whitaker, J. S.; Contreras, Y.; Guzman, A. E.; Sanhueza, P.; Foster, J. B.; Rathborne, J. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90GHz (MALT90) survey (Foster+ 2011, J/ApJS/197/25; 2013PASA...30...38F; Jackson+ 2013PASA...30...57J) mapped 16 lines for 3246 clumps, primarily high-mass star-forming clumps that are >200M⊙, as identified from the ATLASGAL 870um survey (Schuller et al. 2009A&A...504..415S). In order to compare luminosities derived from IRAS (LIR) to molecular line luminosities from MALT90 (Lmolecule), we first matched the MALT90 clumps to the IRAS Point Source Catalog v2.1 (PSC; see Cat. II/125). See section 2.1 for further explanations. (1 data file).

  19. Optimization of the malting process for nutritional improvement of finger millet and amaranth flours in the infant weaning food industry.

    PubMed

    Najdi Hejazi, Sara; Orsat, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    Malting is a beneficial approach to improve the nutritional value of cereals used in infant preparations. Malted finger millet and amaranth might be considered as potentially appropriate gluten-free alternatives for common wheat-based weaning products, especially in case of those suffering from celiac disease. In this study, the effects of germination temperature and duration on the main nutrients of malted finger millet and amaranth, are evaluated and optimized. Grains were germinated for 24, 36 and 48 h at 22, 26 and 30 °C. In the case of finger millet, germinating for 48 h at 30 °C resulted into 17% increase in protein availability, 10% increase in total energy and 60% reduction in resistant starch (RS). For amaranth, germinating for 48 h at 26 °C was preferable, resulting in 8% increase in protein availability, 11% increase in total energy, 70% reduction in RS and a 10% increase in the linoleic acid.

  20. TRAF2-binding BIR1 domain of c-IAP2/MALT1 fusion protein is essential for activation of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Garrison, J B; Samuel, T; Reed, J C

    2009-04-02

    Marginal zone mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B-cell lymphoma is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation occurs frequently in MALT lymphomas and creates a chimeric NF-kappaB-activating protein containing the baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains of c-IAP2 (inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2) fused with portions of the MALT1 protein. The BIR1 domain of c-IAP2 interacts directly with TRAF2 (TNFalpha-receptor-associated factor-2), but its role in NF-kappaB activation is still unclear. Here, we investigated the role of TRAF2 in c-IAP2/MALT1-induced NF-kappaB activation. We show the BIR1 domain of c-IAP2 is essential for NF-kappaB activation, whereas BIR2 and BIR3 domains are not. Studies of c-IAP2/MALT1 BIR1 mutant (E47A/R48A) that fails to activate NF-kappaB showed loss of TRAF2 binding, but retention of TRAF6 binding, suggesting that interaction of c-IAP2/MALT1 with TRAF6 is insufficient for NF-kappaB induction. In addition, a dominant-negative TRAF2 mutant or downregulation of TRAF2 achieved by small interfering RNA inhibited NF-kappaB activation by c-IAP2/MALT1 showing that TRAF2 is indispensable. Comparisons of the bioactivity of intact c-IAP2/MALT1 oncoprotein and BIR1 E47A/R48A c-IAP2/MALT1 mutant that cannot bind TRAF2 in a lymphoid cell line provided evidence that TRAF2 interaction is critical for c-IAP2/MALT1-mediated increases in the NF-kappaB activity, increased expression of endogenous NF-kappaB target genes (c-FLIP, TRAF1), and resistance to apoptosis.

  1. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley price and quality endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a qualified person using standardized equipment that is widely used in the malting industry that... seed under the terms of the seed contract. 6. In lieu of the definitions and provisions regarding units...

  2. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.522 Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  3. MicroRNAs 142-3p, miR-155 and miR-203 Are Deregulated in Gastric MALT Lymphomas Compared to Chronic Gastritis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Concepción; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Ferraro, Mariana; Seoane, Agustín; Sánchez-González, Blanca; Pairet, Silvia; Pons, Aina; Barranco, Luis; Vela, María Carmen; Gimeno, Eva; Colomo, Lluís; Besses, Carles; Navarro, Alfons; Salar, Antonio

    2017-01-02

    Over the last years, our knowledge on pathogenesis of gastric MALT lymphoma has greatly improved, but its morphological diagnosis is still hampered by overlapping histological features with advanced chronic gastritis. MicroRNAs are deregulated in lymphomas, but their role and usefulness in gastric MALT lymphoma has not been extensively investigated. We analyzed the expression of 384 miRNAs using TaqMan microRNA assay in a training series of 10 gastric MALT lymphomas, 3 chronic gastritis and 2 reactive lymph nodes. Then, significantly deregulated miRNAs were individually assessed by real-time PCR in a validation series of 16 gastric MALT lymphomas and 12 chronic gastritis. Gastric MALT lymphoma is characterized by a specific miRNA expression profile. Among the differentially expressed miRNAs, a significant overexpression of miR-142-3p and miR-155 and down-regulation of miR-203 was observed in gastric MALT lymphoma when compared to chronic gastritis. miR-142-3p, miR-155 and miR-203 expression levels might be helpful biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between gastric MALT lymphomas and chronic gastritis. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. MaLT - Combined Motor and Language Therapy Tool for Brain Injury Patients Using Kinect.

    PubMed

    Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra

    2017-03-23

    The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients' engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients' performance is monitored through MaLT's reporting facility

  5. Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

    2014-06-25

    Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency.

  6. From malt to wheat beer: A comprehensive multi-toxin screening, transfer assessment and its influence on basic fermentation parameters.

    PubMed

    Mastanjević, Kristina; Šarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael; Warth, Benedikt; Mastanjević, Krešimir; Šantek, Božidar; Krstanović, Vinko

    2018-07-15

    The aim was to determine the mycotoxin transfer rate into beer during a semi-industrial production process and the effect of fungicide treatment in the field on mycotoxins concentrations in beer. To ensure the usual practical agronomical conditions, sample A was treated with fungicide Prosaro® 250, and sample B was infected with Fusarium culmorum spores, in order to obtain infected malt. Malt was produced using standard procedure and beer was produced in a semi-industrial unit. During fermentation measurement of sugars (maltotriose and maltose), glycerol and ethanol content was performed on a daily basis. Multiple toxins were determined in malt and beer. Deoxynivalenol (DON), its modified plant metabolite DON-3-glucoside (DON-glucoside), brevianamide F, tryptophol, linamarin, lotaustralin, culmorin (CUL), 15-hydroxy-CUL and 5-hydroyx-CUL were detected in all samples. Results indicate that F. culmorum infection did not influence the fermentation process or the alcohol concentration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

  8. Regression of gastric malt-lymphoma under specific therapy may be predict by endoscopic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Băncilă, Ion; Stoia, Răzvan; Gheorghe, Liana; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dobre, Camelia; Brescan, Raluca

    2004-06-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas represent a relatively new described class of rare lymphomas, characterized by an indolent course and favourable outcome with specific therapy. Gastric MALT lymphomas are associated with chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. We report the case of a 67 year old man admitted for an 8-month history of epigastric pain, anorexia and progressive weight loss. He was diagnosed with low-grade primary gastric MALT lymphoma by endoscopy, histopathological examination of gastric mucosa (light microscopy and immunohistochemistry) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The patient received a 2-week course of anti-HP therapy and chemotherapy with Chlorambucil 0.1 mg/kg/day was started. During the follow-up, continuous improvement of clinical status, endoscopic and EUS appearance was noted. We conclude that, facing the trend toward nonsurgical treatment modalities for primary gastric lymphoma, EUS appears an important tool for staging the disease and defining cases suitable for anti-HP, radio- and chemotherapy, as well as for the detection of local recurrence.

  9. Effect of sorghum type and malting on production of free amino nitrogen in conjunction with exogenous protease enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dlamini, Bhekisisa C; Buys, Elna M; Taylor, John R N

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum types suitable for brewing and bioethanol production are required. The effect of sorghum type (white non-tannin versus white type II tannin) on free amino nitrogen (FAN) production from sorghum grain and malt using exogenous protease enzymes was investigated over extended incubation at moderate temperature (45 °C). With grain in the absence of exogenous proteases, white non-tannin sorghum produced substantially higher levels of FAN than white type II tannin sorghum, due to the tannins in the latter. Incubating sorghum grain with neutral proteinase and amino-peptidase in combination improved FAN production. The two sorghum types produced similar FAN levels when malted and incubated in the absence of the exogenous proteases. When both sorghums were malted and incubated with neutral proteinase alone substantially more FAN yield (124-126 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred than with grains (61-84 mg 100 g(-1)). The combination of amino-peptidase and proteinase did not improve FAN further. Neither, did malting influence wort free amino acid profile. Group B amino acids constituted the highest percentage (42-47%). With grain, white non-tannin sorghum plus proteinase and amino-peptidase yields the highest FAN, with malt both white non-tannin and white type II tannin sorghums plus proteinase yield the highest FAN. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Radiotherapy in poor risk patients with stage I cancer of the endometrium: results of not giving external beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    DeCruze, B; Guthrie, D

    1999-01-01

    Poor prognosis (poorly differentiated and/or deep myometrial invasion) Stage I endometrial cancer can have a relapse rate as high as 50%. Traditionally, most clinical oncologists treat these patients with external beam radiotherapy after surgery but there is no evidence to show that this improves survival. The retrospective study looks at the results of not giving external beam radiotherapy in 25 consecutive patients and compares the results with a group of 13 consecutive patients who did have such treatment. The two groups were comparable with regard to age, degree of differentiation and degree of invasion. Survival was comparable in the two groups. There is no evidence of any obvious decrease in survival from withholding external beam radiotherapy, but this was not a prospective randomized controlled trial. This study illustrates that it is essential that the Medical Research Council ASTEC trial should be supported because this will determine the true place of external beam radiotherapy in such patients.

  11. Ten-year results of quality assurance in radiotherapy chart round.

    PubMed

    Taghavi Bayat, Bardia; Gill, Suki; Siva, Shankar; Tai, Keen Hun; Joon, Michael Lim; Foroudi, Farshad

    2013-04-23

    The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) initiated a unique instrument to audit the quality of patient notes and radiotherapy prescriptions. We present our experience collected over ten years from the use of the RANZCR audit instrument. In this study, the results of data collected prospectively from January 1999 to June 2009 through the audit instrument were assessed. Radiotherapy chart rounds were held weekly in the uro-oncology tumour stream and real time feedback was provided. Electronic medical records were retrospectively assessed in September 2009 to see if any omissions were subsequently corrected. In total 2597 patients were audited. One hundred and thirty seven (5%) patients had one hundred and ninety nine omissions in documentation or radiotherapy prescription. In 79% of chart rounds no omissions were found at all, in 12% of chart rounds one omission was found and in 9% of chart rounds two or more omissions were found. Out of 199 omissions, 95% were of record keeping and 2% were omissions in the treatment prescription. Of omissions, 152 (76%) were unfiled investigation results of which 77 (51%) were subsequently corrected. Real-time audit with feedback is an effective tool in assessing the standards of radiotherapy documentation in our department, and also probably contributed to the high level of attentiveness. A large proportion of omissions were investigation results, which highlights the need for an improved system of retrieval of investigation results in the radiation oncology department.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MALT-45, a 7mm survey of the southern Galaxy (Jordan+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, C. H.; Walsh, A. J.; Lowe, V.; Voronkov, M. A.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Purcell, C. R.; Barnes, P. J.; Burton, M. G.; Cunningham, M. R.; Hill, T.; Jackson, J. M.; Longmore, S. N.; Peretto, N.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2018-03-01

    MALT-45 is an untargeted Galactic plane survey for spectral lines which are commonly bright in star-forming regions at 45GHz (7mm waveband). We have so far observed 5 square degrees within the region bounded by 330°<=l<=335°, b=+/-0.5°. MALT-45 observations were conducted on the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), which provides 2x2048MHz broad-band continuum windows for observing. Section 1.1 discusses the primary lines surveyed, and their rest frequencies dictate the positions of the broad-band windows for MALT-45. Within the frequency ranges of the broad-band windows, we survey for 12 spectral lines. (2 data files).

  13. 75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages; Comment Period... Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages, a notice of proposed... wines sold in the United States. The letter explained that because DISCUS is in the process of...

  14. Genetic errors of the human CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex: molecular, immunological, and clinical heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    de Diego, Rebeca Pérez; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Cerdán, Antonio Ferreira; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These three CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate NF-κB in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the three components of the CBM complex, including the two adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the two core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Bi-allelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutant alleles underlie several different immunological and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to two distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections, of unclear cellular basis, are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1 and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, humans with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between humans and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of MALT1, BCL10 and CARD11 have also been found in other patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including LOF and GOF mutations, highlights the contribution of each of the components of the CBM to human immunity. PMID:26277595

  15. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B.; Safriet, D.

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors formore » malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.« less

  16. Flow cytometry in the differential diagnostics of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, Zbigniew; Stasiołek, Mariusz; Dedecjus, Marek; Smolewski, Piotr; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A combination of traditional cytology methods with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) material is considered a powerful diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions suspected of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the FACS-based diagnostic process of thyroid lesions in a clinical situation where ultrasound and cytological examinations did not allow differentiation between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and MALT-L. The patients analysed in this study presented significantly different clinical courses of thyroid disease: quickly enlarging painless tumour of the thyroid right lobe in the first case, and chronic HT with palpable tumour in the thyroid isthmus in the second patient. Due to the suspicion of MALT-L resulting from indeterminate ultrasound and FNAB-cytology results, FNAB material was obtained from all the previously examined thyroid lesions and directly subjected to FACS assessment, encompassing κ/λ light chain restriction analysis, as well as measurements of B and T cell surface antigens. The FACS analysis of FNAB material obtained from our patients did not show any definite signs of light chain restriction. Although one of the samples showed a borderline value of κ/λ ratio (κ/λ = 0.31), further immunophenotyping confirmed clonal expansion in none of the examined thyroid regions. Histopathological findings documented the diagnosis of HT in both clinical cases. We believe that FACS represents a useful and reliable complementary diagnostic measure in FNAB-based differential diagnosis of lymphoproliferative thyroid disorders.

  17. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma: Updated Review of Clinical Outcomes and the Molecular Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Saito, Yoshimasa; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2009-06-01

    In most H. pylori-positive patients, gastric low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas regress both endoscopically and histopathologically after H. pylori eradication, but no factors that can be predictive of the response to the eradication have been definitively identified, and there is little information on how to determine the optimal observation period before additional treatment can be started. Here, clinical studies dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of gastric MALT lymphomas and H. pylori published during the last 5 years were systematically reviewed, and studies identifying the molecular approaches involved in the pathogenesis were summarized. Most of the clinical studies indicate a favorable effect of H. pylori eradication on the clinical outcome of gastric MALT lymphomas. Some studies suggest the necessity of additional treatment in nonresponders to H. pylori eradication, while others suggest the adoption of a watch-and-wait strategy. The molecular characteristics of MALT lymphomas could play an important role in prognostic prediction and the selection of further therapeutic intervention after the eradication. This updated review of gastric MALT lymphomas illustrates the potential efficacy of H. pylori eradication in tumor remission, but further molecular characterization is necessary to establish the most suitable therapeutic strategy for patients who do not respond to eradication.

  18. Deregulation of a distinct set of microRNAs is associated with transformation of gastritis into MALT lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Thorns, Christoph; Kuba, Johannes; Bernard, Veronica; Senft, Andrea; Szymczak, Silke; Feller, Alfred C; Bernd, Heinz-Wolfram

    2012-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the transformation from chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis to gastric extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma) are poorly understood. This study aims to identify microRNAs that might be involved in the process of neoplastic transformation. We generated microRNA signatures by RT-PCR in 68 gastric biopsy samples representing normal mucosa, gastritis, suspicious lymphoid infiltrates, and overt MALT lymphoma according to Wotherspoon criteria. Analyses revealed a total of 41 microRNAs that were significantly upregulated (n = 33) or downregulated (n = 8) in succession from normal mucosa to gastritis and to MALT lymphoma. While some of these merely reflect the presence of lymphocytes (e.g. miR-566 and miR-212) or H. pylori infection (e.g. miR-155 and let7f), a distinct set of five microRNAs (miR-150, miR-550, miR-124a, miR-518b and miR-539) was shown to be differentially expressed in gastritis as opposed to MALT lymphoma. This differential expression might therefore indicate a central role of these microRNAs in the process of malignant transformation.

  19. Regional yield predictions of malting barley by remote sensing and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Braun, Matthias; Kuehbauch, Walter

    2004-02-01

    Yield forecasts are of high interest to the malting and brewing industry in order to allow the most convenient purchasing policy of raw materials. Within this investigation, malting barley yield forecasts (Hordeum vulgare L.) were performed for typical growing regions in South-Western Germany. Multisensoral and multitemporal Remote Sensing data on one hand and ancillary meteorological, agrostatistical, topographical and pedological data on the other hand were used as input data for prediction models, which were based on an empirical-statistical modeling approach. Since spring barley production is depending on acreage and on the yield per area, classification is needed, which was performed by a supervised multitemporal classification algorithm, utilizing optical Remote Sensing data (LANDSAT TM/ETM+). Comparison between a pixel-based and an object-oriented classification algorithm was carried out. The basic version of the yield estimation model was conducted by means of linear correlation of Remote Sensing data (NOAA-AVHRR NDVI), CORINE land cover data and agrostatistical data. In an extended version meteorological data (temperature, precipitation, etc.) and soil data was incorporated. Both, basic and extended prediction systems, led to feasible results, depending on the selection of the time span for NDVI accumulation.

  20. Maltose effects on barley malt diastatic power enzyme activity and thermostability at high isothermal mashing temperature: I. ß-amylase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hypothesis that maltose would increase the thermostability of barley malt beta-amylase activity during isothermal mashing was tested at 68, 73 and 78°C and compared to isothermal mashing at 63°C. Finely ground malts of the two-row cultivar Harrington and the six-row cultivar Morex were incubated...

  1. Structural and mutational analyses of Aes, an inhibitor of MalT in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schiefner, André; Gerber, Kinga; Brosig, Alexander; Boos, Winfried

    2014-02-01

    The acyl esterase Aes effectively inhibits the transcriptional activity of MalT-the central activator of maltose and maltodextrin utilizing genes in Escherichia coli. To provide better insight into the nature of the interaction between Aes and MalT, we determined two different crystal structures of Aes-in its native form and covalently modified by a phenylmethylsulfonyl moiety at its active site serine. Both structures show distinct space groups and were refined to a resolution of 1.8 Å and 2.3 Å, respectively. The overall structure of Aes resembles a canonical α/β-hydrolase fold, which is extended by a funnel-like cap structure that forms the substrate-binding site. The catalytic triad of Aes, comprising residues Ser165, His292, and Asp262, is located at the bottom of this funnel. Analysis of the crystal-packing contacts of the two different space groups as well as analytical size-exclusion chromatography revealed a homodimeric arrangement of Aes. The Aes dimer adopts an antiparallel contact involving both the hydrolase core and the cap, with its twofold axis perpendicular to the largest dimension of Aes. To identify the surface area of Aes that is responsible for the interaction with MalT, we performed a structure-based alanine-scanning mutagenesis to pinpoint Aes residues that are significantly impaired in MalT inhibition, but still exhibit wild-type expression and enzymatic activity. These residues map to a shallow slightly concave surface patch of Aes at the opposite site of the dimerization interface and indicate the surface area that interacts with MalT. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Infection, Chronic Inflammation, and Genomic Transformations in Gastric MALT Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Witkowska, Magdalena; Smolewski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, it is believed that the main role in the development of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma plays Helicobacter pylori infection. This world-wide distributed bacteria is in charge of most cases of not only upper gastrointestinal tract disorders but also some of extragastric problems. Constant stimulation of the immune system causes a B-lymphocytes proliferation, which is considered to be responsible for the neoplastic transformation. On the other hand, there are 10%–20% of patients who do not respond to Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment. This group has often a chromosome translocation, which suggests that there is another unknown, so far, pathogenetic mechanism of MALT lymphoma. Majority of genetic abnormalities are connected with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, which activates the uncontrolled proliferation of neoplastic cells. Translocations already described in studies are t(11;18)(q21;q21), which is the most common, t(14;18)(q32;q21), t(14;18)(q32;q21), and t(3;14)(p14.1;q32). This non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is an indolent type originated outside lymph nodes. In more than 50% of cases, it occurs in the stomach. Occasionally, it can be found in salivary and thyroid gland, lung, breast, bladder, skin, or any other place in the human body. This paper is a review of the current knowledge on etiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and follow-up of gastric MALT lymphoma. PMID:23606792

  3. High levels of FOXP3⁺ regulatory T cells in gastric MALT lymphoma predict responsiveness to Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Iwaya, Yugo; Kobayashi, Motohiro; Momose, Masanobu; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Akamatsu, Taiji; Tanaka, Eiji; Ohtani, Haruo; Fukuda, Minoru; Nakayama, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori eradication is a first-line treatment of gastric MALT lymphoma, roughly 25% of patients do not respond to treatment. CD4⁺ FOXP3⁺ regulatory T (Treg) cells regulate immune responses in physiological conditions and various inflammatory conditions, including H. pylori-associated diseases. Our goal was to determine how Treg cells affect responsiveness to H. pylori eradication therapy. We performed dual immunohistochemistry for CD4 and FOXP3 to evaluate the prevalence of FOXP3⁺ Treg cells in the stomach of 63 patients with MALT lymphoma and 55 patients with chronic active gastritis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was carried out to determine the best cut-off point in differentiating H. pylori eradication responders from nonresponders. Both the FOXP3⁺/CD4⁺ cell ratio and the absolute number of FOXP3⁺ cells per high-power field in MALT lymphoma were significantly greater in H. pylori eradication responders compared with nonresponders, suggesting that Treg cells function in regression mechanisms of MALT lymphomas. Cut-off points with good sensitivities and specificities were obtained to predict eradication outcome. A high number of Treg cells or a high ratio of Treg cells to the total number of CD4⁺ T cells in gastric MALT lymphoma could predict responsiveness to eradication therapy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of beer quality attributes between beers brewed with 100% barley malt and 100% barley raw material.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Auer, Andrea; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2012-03-15

    Brewing with 100% barley using the Ondea® Pro exogenous brewing enzyme product was compared to brewing with 100% barley. The use of barley, rather than malt, in the brewing process and the consequences for selected beer quality attributes (foam formation, colloidal stability and filterability, sensory differences, protein content and composition) was considered. The quality attributes of barley, malt, kettle-full-wort, cold wort, unfiltered beer and filtered beer were assessed. A particular focus was given to monitoring changes in the barley protein composition during the brewing process and how the exogenous OndeaPro® enzymes influenced wort protein composition. All analyses were based on standard brewing methods described in ASBC, EBC or MEBAK. To monitor the protein changes two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. It was shown that by brewing beer with 100% barley and an appropriate addition of exogenous Ondea® Pro enzymes it was possible to efficiently brew beer of a satisfactory quality. The production of beers brewed with 100% barley resulted in good process efficiency (lautering and filtration) and to a final product whose sensory quality was described as light, with little body and mouthfeel, very good foam stability and similar organoleptic qualities compared to conventional malt beer. In spite of the sensory evaluation differences could still be seen in protein content and composition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A Review of Update Clinical Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Among various types of ion species, carbon ions are considered to have the most balanced, optimal properties in terms of possessing physically and biologically effective dose localization in the body. This is due to the fact that when compared with photon beams, carbon ion beams offer improved dose distribution, leading to the concentration of the sufficient dose within a target volume while minimizing the dose in the surrounding normal tissues. In addition, carbon ions, being heavier than protons, provide a higher biological effectiveness, which increases with depth, reaching the maximum at the end of the beam's range. This is practically an ideal property from the standpoint of cancer radiotherapy. Clinical studies have been carried out in the world to confirm the efficacy of carbon ions against a variety of tumors as well as to develop effective techniques for delivering an efficient dose to the tumor. Through clinical experiences of carbon ion radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, a significant reduction in the overall treatment time with acceptable toxicities has been obtained in almost all types of tumors. This means that carbon ion radiotherapy has meanwhile achieved for itself a solid place in general practice. This review describes clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy together with physical, biological and technological aspects of carbon ions. PMID:22798685

  6. 18F-FDG PET/CT in gastric MALT lymphoma: a bicentric experience.

    PubMed

    Albano, Domenico; Bertoli, Mattia; Ferro, Paola; Fallanca, Federico; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria; Giubbini, Raffaele; Bertagna, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The role of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in evaluating gastric MALT lymphoma is still controversial. In the literature the detection rate of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma is variable, and the reason for this heterogeneity is not still clear. Our aim was to investigate the particular metabolic behavior of these lymphoma. Sixty-nine patients (26 female, 43 male) with histologically confirmed gastric MALT lymphoma who underwent a 18F-FDG-PET/CT for initial staging from two centers were included. The PET images were analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively by measuring the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio and compared with Ann Arbor stage, epidemiological (age, sex), histological (presence of gastritis, ulcer, H. pylori infection, plasmacytic differentiation, Ki-67 index), and morphological (tumor size, superficial lesions or mass-forming) characteristics. Thirty-six patients (52 %) had positive PET/CT (average SUVmax was 9±6.7; lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio 3.7±2.6, lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio 4.8±3.3) at the corresponding gastric lesion; the remaining 33 were not 18F-FDG-avid. In the univariate analysis, 18F-FDG avidity was significantly associated with morphological features (mass forming p<0.001 and high maximum diameter p<0.001), Ann Arbor stage (p=0.010), and Ki67 index (p<0.001) and not correlated with age, sex, presence of gastritis, ulcer, Helicobacter pylori infection, and plasmacytic differentiation. In the multivariate analysis, the correlations with gross morphological appearance, Ann Arbor stage, and Ki-67 score were confirmed. SUVmax, lesion-to-liver SUVmax ratio, and lesion-to-blood pool SUVmax ratio correlated significantly only with Ki67 index (p=0.047; p=0.012; p=0.042). 18F-FDG avidity was noted in 52 % of gastric MALT lymphoma and this avidity is correlated with gross morphological characteristics, tumor stage, and Ki-67 index. SUVmax, lesion

  7. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Venyo, Anthony Kodzo-Grey

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB) is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18)(q21: 21). Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment. PMID:24511310

  8. Radiotherapy of Langerhans' Cell Histiocytosis : Results and Implications of a National Patterns-of-Care Study.

    PubMed

    Olschewski, Thomas; Seegenschmiedt, Michael Heinrich

    2006-11-01

    This patterns-of-care study was performed to define the current clinical experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in adults in Germany and to define open questions resulting from this study. A standardized questionnaire was sent to 198 German radiotherapy institutions. Data about patient characteristics, stage of disease, practice and fractionation of radiotherapy, outcome of therapy, etc. were systematically evaluated. 123 of 198 institutions answered the complete questionnaire (62.1%). Only 23 of the 123 institutions (18.7%) reported experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of adults. 18 institutions with 98 patients were evaluable. The majority of patients (72 of 98) was treated on a linear accelerator. The median single dose of radiotherapy was 2 Gy, while the median total dose was 24 Gy. 81 of 89 evaluable patients (91%) reached a local control of the treated lesion(s), 69 of those had a complete remission. Eight of 89 patients (9%) developed an in-field recurrence. 87.8% of patients experienced no acute and 97% of patients no late side effects of radiotherapy. Clinical experience with radiotherapy of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in adults in Germany is still very limited. Nevertheless, the clinical results-with high remission and local control rates-confirm the effectiveness of radiotherapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of this disease. Due to the small number of patients in this study despite higher incidence rates, the knowledge of this disease has to be multiplied in Germany. Future patients should be systematically included into a prospective radiotherapy registry.

  9. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director, in his discretion, may require marks, brands, stamps..., brands, stamps, labels, or similar devices required by Federal, State, or local statute or regulation may... measurement shall be done at a public store, warehouse, or other appropriate facility. (c) Marks, brands...

  10. Textile dye removal from aqueous solutions by malt bagasse: Isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Klaiani B; Chaves, Eduardo S; Sanchez, Jefferson D S; Watanabe, Erica R L R; Pietrobelli, Juliana M T A; Lenzi, Giane G

    2016-02-01

    The biosorption of orange solimax TGL 182% (OS-TGL) textile dye onto new and low cost biossorbent (malt bagasse) in aqueous solutions was investigated. The malt bagasse was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and specific surface area (BET method).Batch biosorption experiments were conducted in order to determine the following parameters: particles size, pH, agitation speed, temperature, contact time, biomass dosage, influence of the ionic strength and, finally, the influence of other textile dye on the OS-TGL biosorption. The optimum conditions for OS-TGL removal were obtained at pH 1.5, agitation speed of 150rpm, contact time of 180min and biomass dosage 2, 8gL(-1). The results show that the kinetics of biosorption followed a pseudo-second-order model and by increasing the temperature from 293 up to 313K, the biosorption capacity was improved. The Langmuir model showed better fit and the estimated biosorption capacity was 23.2mgg(-1). The negative values of Gibbs free energy, ΔG°, and positive value of enthalpy, ΔH°, confirm the spontaneous nature and endothermic character of the biosorption process. The results of the ionic strength effect indicated that the biosorption process under study had a strong tolerance in high salt concentrations. The removal capacity (>95%) was not affected with the presence of other textile dyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic treatment as sole management of Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma: a single center experience with prolonged follow-up.

    PubMed

    Raderer, Markus; Wöhrer, Stefan; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Dolak, Werner; Lagler, Heimo; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Muellauer, Leonhard; Chott, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Relatively little is known about the long-term outcome of patients with Helicobacter pylori (HP)-negative gastric lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) with antibiotic therapy as sole management. We have analyzed all patients with HP-negative gastric MALT lymphoma undergoing antibiotic therapy as sole management of their disease. HP negativity was defined as negative histology, breath test and serology, and response to treatment, survival and long-term outcome was assessed together with clinico-pathological characteristics including t(11; 18) (q21; q21) translocation. Out of 97 patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, 24 were HP-negative, and 13 (5 females and 8 males) underwent only antibiotic management for initial therapy. Eight had stage I and five were found to have stage II disease, with three patients suffering from an underlying autoimmune disease. Antibiotic therapy consisted of standard HP eradication regimens consisting of clarithromycin in all patients, along with metronidazole in seven and amoxicillin in six plus a proton-pump inhibitor. After a median follow-up of 95 months (42-, 181+), 12/13 patients are alive. Six patients with stage I disease achieved an objective response (five complete (CR) and one partial remission, 46 %), four had stable disease (lasting 11-27 months), and three progressed. All patients with stable disease received chemotherapy, but only one patient due to clear cut progression. One patient relapsed 23 months after initial CR, and achieved a second CR with antibiotics now lasting 87 months. These results indicate that a relevant percentage of patients with HP-negative gastric MALT lymphoma may benefit from antibiotic therapy and do not require additional oncological therapies. Our data suggest that the remissions seen in these patients might be durable as evidenced by prolonged follow-up in our series.

  12. Barley malt increases hindgut and portal butyric acid, modulates gene expression of gut tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors in rats fed high-fat diets, but high advanced glycation end-products partially attenuate the effects.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yadong; Teixeira, Cristina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Sae-Lim, Watina; Tareke, Eden; Andersson, Roger; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    Barley malt, a product of controlled germination, has been shown to produce high levels of butyric acid in the cecum and portal serum of rats and may therefore have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to investigate how four barley malts, caramelized and colored malts, 50-malt and 350-malt, differing in functional characteristics concerning beta-glucan content and color, affect short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), barrier function and inflammation in the hindgut of rats fed high-fat diets. Male Wistar rats were given malt-supplemented high-fat diets for four weeks. Low and high-fat diets containing microcrystalline cellulose were incorporated as controls. All diets contained 70 g kg(-1) dietary fiber. The malt-fed groups were found to have had induced higher amounts of butyric and propionic acids in the hindgut and portal serum compared with controls, while cecal succinic acid only increased to a small extent. Fat increased the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the small intestine and distal colon of the rats, as well as the concentration of some amino acids in the portal plasma, but malt seemed to counteract these adverse effects to some extent. However, the high content of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in caramelized malt tended to prohibit the positive effects on occludin in the small intestine and plasma amino acids seen with the other malt products. In conclusion, malting seems to be an interesting process for producing foods with positive health effects, but part of these effects may be destroyed if the malt contains a high content of AGE.

  13. There's Trouble in Paradise: Problems with Educational Metadata Encountered during the MALTED Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthienvichienchai, Rachada; Sasse, M. Angela; Wheeldon, Richard

    This paper investigates the usability of educational metadata schemas with respect to the case of the MALTED (Multimedia Authoring Language Teachers and Educational Developers) project at University College London (UCL). The project aims to facilitate authoring of multimedia materials for language learning by allowing teachers to share multimedia…

  14. Investigating on the fermentation behavior of six lactic acid bacteria strains in barley malt wort reveals limitation in key amino acids and buffer capacity.

    PubMed

    Nsogning, Sorelle Dongmo; Fischer, Susann; Becker, Thomas

    2018-08-01

    Understanding lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation behavior in malt wort is a milestone towards flavor improvement of lactic acid fermented malt beverages. Therefore, this study aims to outline deficiencies that may exist in malt wort fermentation. First, based on six LAB strains, cell viability and vitality were evaluated. Second, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, pH value and buffering capacity (BC) were monitored. Finally, the implication of key amino acids, fructose and wort BC on LAB growth was determined. Short growth phase coupled with prompt cell death and a decrease in metabolic activity was observed. Low wort BC caused rapid pH drop with lactic acid accumulation, which conversely increased the BC leading to less pH change at late-stage fermentation. Lactic acid content (≤3.9 g/L) was higher than the reported inhibitory concentration (1.8 g/L). Furthermore, sugars were still available but fructose and key amino acids lysine, arginine and glutamic acid were considerably exhausted (≤98%). Wort supplementations improved cell growth and viability leading to conclude that key amino acid depletion coupled with low BC limits LAB growth in malt wort. Then, a further increase in organic acid reduces LAB viability. This knowledge opens doors for LAB fermentation process optimization in malt wort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. METRO-APEX Volume 14.1: Industrialist's Manual No. 4, Gestalt Malt Brewery. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The Industrialist's Manual No. 4 (Gestalt Malt Brewery) is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an expansion…

  16. [Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Based on Outcome of Domestic Treatment].

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Tae

    2016-10-25

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori eradication can be performed as a primary therapy regardless of H. pylori status. In Korea, six articles were published about low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma with H. pylori . Complete regression rate after H. pylori eradication is reported at 74.5% to 94.4%. Radiotherapy results in favorable clinical long-term outcomes in patients with early-stage gastric MALT lymphoma who fail H. pylori eradication therapy and those who are H. pylori negative. Chemotherapy could be reserved for patients with metastatic or high-grade lymphoma. In gastric MALT lymphoma, patients with polypoid type on initial endoscopy had a higher likelihood of recurrence than those with diffuse infiltration or ulceration types. The depth of invasion, location of lesions, and chromosomal abnormality with t(11;18) together are predictive factors for failure to remission by H. pylori eradication.

  17. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Low-Risk Endometrial Cancers: Final Results of a Phase I Study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.i; Cilla, Savino M.P.; Ferrandina, Gabriella

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose of short-course radiotherapy (intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique) to the upper two thirds of the vagina in endometrial cancers with low risk of local recurrence. Patients and Methods: A Phase I clinical trial was performed. Eligible patients had low-risk resected primary endometrial adenocarcinomas. Radiotherapy was delivered in 5 fractions over 1 week. The planning target volume was the clinical target volume plus 5 mm. The clinical target volume was defined as the upper two thirds of the vagina as evidenced at CT simulation by a vaginal radio-opaque device. The planning target volume was irradiated bymore » a seven-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique, planned by the Plato Sunrise inverse planning system. A first cohort of 6 patients received 25 Gy (5-Gy fractions), and a subsequent cohort received 30 Gy (6-Gy fractions). The Common Toxicity Criteria scale, version 3.0, was used to score toxicity. Results: Twelve patients with endometrial cancer were enrolled. Median age was 58 years (range, 49-74 years). Pathologic stage was IB (83.3%) and IC (16.7%). Median tumor size was 30 mm (range, 15-50 mm). All patients completed the prescribed radiotherapy. No patient experienced a dose-limiting toxicity at the first level, and the radiotherapy dose was escalated from 25 to 30 Gy. No patients at the second dose level experienced dose-limiting toxicity. The most common Grade 2 toxicity was gastrointestinal, which was tolerable and manageable. Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose of short-course radiotherapy was 30 Gy at 6 Gy per fraction. On the basis of this result, we are conducting a Phase II study with radiotherapy delivered at 30 Gy.« less

  18. MALT1 is not alone after all: identification of novel paracaspases.

    PubMed

    Hulpiau, Paco; Driege, Yasmine; Staal, Jens; Beyaert, Rudi

    2016-03-01

    Paracaspases and metacaspases are two families of caspase-like proteins identified in 2000. Up until now paracaspases were considered a single gene family with one known non-metazoan paracaspase in the slime mold Dictyostelium and a single animal paracaspase called MALT1. Human MALT1 is a critical signaling component in many innate and adaptive immunity pathways that drive inflammation, and when it is overly active, it can also cause certain forms of cancer. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of two new vertebrate paracaspases, PCASP2 and PCASP3. Functional characterization indicates that both scaffold and protease functions are conserved across the three vertebrate paralogs. This redundancy might explain the loss of two of the paralogs in mammals and one in Xenopus. Several of the vertebrate paracaspases currently have incorrect or ambiguous annotations. We propose to annotate them accordingly as PCASP1, PCASP2, and PCASP3 similar to the caspase gene nomenclature. A comprehensive search in other metazoans and in non-metazoan species identified additional new paracaspases. We also discovered the first animal metacaspase in the sponge Amphimedon. Comparative analysis of the active site suggests that paracaspases constitute one of the several subclasses of metacaspases that have evolved several times independently.

  19. Long-term results of VBM and radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    O'Conner, D.; Clifford, P.; Edwards, W.G.

    1982-09-01

    A report of a prospective pilot study is presented of 198 patients with advanced head and neck cancer, Stage III and IV, treated over 7 years with a combination of radical radiotherapy and a multidrug cytotoxic regimen, VBM (Vincristine, Bleomycin and Methotrexate) given synchronously during radiotherapy. All patients considered had disease classified as follows: T1 or T2 with clinically positive nodes (N+) and T3 or T4, irrespective of nodal status (N') were acceptable. Radiotherapy was divided into three equal sub-courses. The total dose aimed at was 60-66 Gy (1.8-2 Gy fractions daily).Usually three or four courses of VBM were given,more » one before the first sub-course of radiotherapy and the others immediately after each sub-course. The intervals allowed between each sub-course of radiation produced a median reduction over all patients of 4.5% in TDF (ret NSD) below the standard course of 30 x 20 Gy in 6 weeks. Survival and recurrence-free data were fully documented. The crude actuarial survival probability was 41% at 60 months (198 patients). The probability of remaining totally recurrence-free (disease-free deaths excluded) was 52% at 60 months. The presence of N+ disease affected adversely both survival and non-recurrence, 30% vs 61% and 46% vs 67%, respectively, at 30 months. Reduced survival was in part a result of an increased number of treatment-related deaths and metastases in N+ disease. Maintained local remission of disease above the clavicle was observed in 122/198 patients (62%). Salvage surgery was performed in 28/76 patients and 11 were rendered free of local disease during follow-up. This prospective pilot study shows results which are an improvement on our previous experience with radiotherapy and surgery alone and on the disease control generally reported.« less

  20. Long-Term Outcome and Patterns of Failure in Primary Ocular Adnexal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Treated With Radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hashimoto, Naoki; Sasaki, Ryohei, E-mail: rsasaki@med.kobe-u.ac.jp; Nishimura, Hideki

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term treatment outcome and disease behavior of primary ocular adnexal MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma (POAML) after treatment with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients (42 male, 36 female) diagnosed with stage I POAML between 1991 and 2010 at Kobe University Hospital were included. The median age was 60 years (range, 22-85 years). The median radiation dose administered was 30.6 Gy. Rituximab-based targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy was performed in 20 patients (25.6%). Local control (LC), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up duration was 66more » months. Major tumor sites were conjunctiva in 37 patients (47.4%), orbita in 29 (37.2%), and lacrimal glands in 12 (15.4%). The 5- and 10-year OS rates were 98.1% and 95.3%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year LC rates were both 100%, and the 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 88.5% and 75.9%, respectively. Patients treated with a combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy and/or chemotherapy had a trend for a better RFS compared with those treated with radiotherapy alone (p = 0.114). None developed greater than Grade 2 acute morbidity. There were 14 patients who experienced Grade 2 morbidities (cataract: 14; retinal disorders: 7; dry eye: 3), 23 patients who had Grade 3 morbidities (cataract: 23; dry eye: 1), and 1 patient who had Grade 4 glaucoma. Conclusions: Radiotherapy for POAML was shown to be highly effective and safe for LC and OS on the basis of long-term observation. The absence of systemic relapse in patients with combined-modality treatment suggests that lower doses of radiation combined with targeted therapy may be worth further study.« less

  1. [Rituximab therapy for systemic manifestations and MALT lymphomas of the parotid gland in Sjögren's disease: preliminary data].

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, O A; Vasil'ev, V I; Sedyshev, S Kh; Safonova, T N; Rodionova, E B; Kokosadze, N V; Aleksandrova, E N; Cherkasova, M V; Radenska-Lopovok, S G; Nasonov, E L

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of rituximab (RT) in cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CGV) and MALT lymphomas of the parotid gland (PG) in patients with Sjögren's disease (SD). RT therapy was performed in 13 patients with SD and CGV and in 17 with SD and PC MALT lymphoma. Eleven patients with SD received RT monotherapy and 19 with this disease had combined therapy with RT and cyclophosphan (CP). RT was used intravenously dropwise at a dose of 500 mg weekly or once every two weeks in combination with intravenous dropwise CP 1000 mg the next day with 4-6 per course. For the diagnosis of MALT lymphomas, all the patients with SD underwent incisional PG biopsy under local anesthesia at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. PG biopsy specimens were histologically and immunohistochemically studied at the Russian Cancer Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. In 11 cases, B-cell clonality was identified from immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain genes rearrangements, by using polymerase chain reaction at the Hematology Research Center, Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation. Cutaneous manifestations of vasculitis disappeared in 75% of cases after monotherapy with RT and in 100% of cases after combination therapy with RT and CP. At 6-month follow-up, a complete response to therapy remained in 25% of the patients after a course of monotherapy and in 83% after combined therapy. Serum monoclonal Ig cryoglobulins and their urinary light chains ceased to be detectable in 75% of the patients in both groups at 3 months. At 6 months, a recurrence of mixed monoclonal cryoglobulinemia was seen in 50 and 43% of cases after monotherapy and combined therapy, respectively. The clinical and laboratory response of cryoglobunemic glomerulonephritis to combined therapy with RT and CP was complete in 60% of cases at 6-month follow-up. After RT monotherapy, the patients with SD and PG MALT lymphoma achieved a complete clinical

  2. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Sylvia A.; Wolfe, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malT con double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalTcon, the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism. PMID:21912549

  3. Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantiora, Dimitra

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production. Dimitra Pantiora1, Hrissi K. Karapanagioti1, Ioannis D. Manariotis2, Alexis Lycourghiotis1, Christos Kordulis1,3 (1) University of Patras, Department of Chemistry, GR 26500, Patras, Greece, (2) University of Patras, Department of Civil Engineering, Patras, Greece, (3) Institute of Chemical Engineering Science (FORTH/ ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, GR 26500, Patras, Greece Biodiesel is an attractive renewable fuel, environmentally friendly, and can readily be synthesized from the triglycerides found in animal fats and vegetable oils. It can be used in existing engines. Biodiesel consists of fatty acid alkyl esters. Conversion of triglycerides to biodiesel fuel is commonly achieved through a series of transesterification reactions involving the reaction of an alkoxy group of an ester (i.e., mono-, di-, or triglyceride) with that of a small alcohol (usually methanol). This reaction is traditionally catalyzed by homogeneous catalysts, such as bases or mineral acids. Basic catalysts have been proved to be much more active than acidic ones. However, due to environmental (waste water) and economic concerns (catalyst separation and product and by-product cleaning), heterogeneous catalysts are much more desirable. In the present study we have evaluated the use of biochar, produced from malt spent rootlets, as a potential basic catalyst, for transesterification of triglycerides using triacetin as a probe molecule. The biochar used in this study was prepared by heating malt spent rootlets in an oxygen-limited environment. It is a carbon rich material, containing 66% C, 22% O, 0.45% Mg, 0.86% Si, 5.7% K, 1.5% Cl, 0.61% Ca, and 2.4% P. Aqueous suspension of this material equilibrates at pH= 10. This is probably due to high K content. Furthermore, it exhibits high specific surface area (SSA= 183 m2g-1). The above described characteristics make this material very promising catalyst for

  4. Single-Fraction Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Early Cosmetic Results

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Beal, Kathryn; McCormick, Beryl; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cosmetic outcome of patients treated with wide local excision and intraoperative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 women were treated on a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy at wide local excision. The eligibility criteria included age >60, tumor size {<=}2.0 cm, clinically negative lymph nodes, and biopsy-established diagnosis. After wide local excision, a custom breast applicator was placed in the excision cavity, and a dose of 20 Gy was prescribed to a depth of 1 cm. After 18 patients were treated, the dose was constrained laterallymore » to 18 Gy. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated by photographs at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Four examiners graded the photographs for symmetry, edema, discoloration, contour, and scarring. The grades were evaluated in relationship to the volume of irradiated tissue, tumor location, and dose at the lateral aspects of the cavity. Results: The median volume of tissue receiving 100% of the prescription dose was 47 cm{sup 3} (range, 20-97 cm{sup 3}). Patients with {<=}47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue had better cosmetic outcomes than did the women who had >47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue. Women who had received 18 Gy at the lateral aspects of their cavities had better cosmetic outcomes than did women who had received 20 Gy at the lateral aspects. When comparing the 6- and 12-month results, the scores remained stable for 63%, improved for 17%, and worsened for 20%. Conclusion: Intraoperative radiotherapy appears feasible for selected patients. A favorable cosmetic outcome appears to be related to a smaller treatment volume. The cosmetic outcome is acceptable, although additional follow-up is necessary.« less

  5. Fungal community, Fusarium head blight complex and secondary metabolites associated with malting barley grains harvested in Umbria, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Beccari, Giovanni; Senatore, Maria Teresa; Tini, Francesco; Sulyok, Michael; Covarelli, Lorenzo

    2018-05-20

    In recent years, due to the negative impact of toxigenic mycobiota and of the accumulation of their secondary metabolites in malting barley grains, monitoring the evolution of fungal communities in a certain cultivation area as well as detecting the different mycotoxins present in the raw material prior to malting and brewing processes have become increasingly important. In this study, a survey was carried out on malting barley samples collected after their harvest in the Umbria region (central Italy). Samples were analyzed to determine the composition of the fungal community, to identify the isolated Fusarium species, to quantify fungal secondary metabolites in the grains and to characterize the in vitro mycotoxigenic profile of a subset of the isolated Fusarium strains. The fungal community of barley grains was mainly composed of microorganisms belonging to the genus Alternaria (77%), followed by those belonging to the genus Fusarium (27%). The Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex was represented by nine species with the predominance of Fusarium poae (37%), followed by Fusarium avenaceum (23%), Fusarium graminearum (22%) and Fusarium tricinctum (7%). Secondary metabolites biosynthesized by Alternaria and Fusarium species were present in the analyzed grains. Among those biosynthesized by Fusarium species, nivalenol and enniatins were the most prevalent ones. Type A trichothecenes (T-2 and HT-2 toxins) as well as beauvericin were also present with a high incidence. Conversely, the number of samples contaminated with deoxynivalenol was low. Conjugated forms, such as deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and HT-2-glucoside, were detected for the first time in malting barley grains cultivated in the surveyed area. In addition, strains of F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum showed the ability to biosynthesize in vitro high concentrations of enniatins. The analysis of fungal secondary metabolites, both in the grains and in vitro, revealed also the presence of other compounds, for which

  6. [Successful treatment with rituximab in a patient with primary thymic MALT lymphoma complicated with acquired von Willebrand syndrome and Sjögren syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tamiko; Kimura, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Hayashi, Haeru; Fujimoto, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Yuko; Ogawa, Takashi; Kusama, Hiroshi; Fukutake, Katsuyuki; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2011-04-01

    A 53-year-old female developed epigastric discomfort and back pain in 2007. Diagnostic imaging studies demonstrated a soft tissue tumor with heterogeneous enhancement in the anterior mediastinum and multiple nodules in the right lung. She underwent expanded thymectomy with subtotal resection of the right lung. The pathological diagnosis was primary thymic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The patient complained of ocular discomfort, oral dryness and continuous nasal bleeding in 2007. Detailed examination led to a diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. Rituximab treatment for residual disease achieved not only a reduction of the lung MALT lymphoma but also clinical and hematological remission of both syndromes. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of primary thymic MALT lymphoma accompanied by Sjögren and acquired von Willebrand syndromes.

  7. MALT1 Inhibition Is Efficacious in Both Naïve and Ibrutinib-Resistant Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Saba, Nakhle S; Wong, Deanna H; Tanios, Georges; Iyer, Jessica R; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia; Dadashian, Eman L; Liu, Delong; Fontan, Lorena; Flemington, Erik K; Nichols, Cydney M; Underbayev, Chingiz; Safah, Hana; Melnick, Ari; Wiestner, Adrian; Herman, Sarah E M

    2017-12-15

    The clinical efficacy displayed by ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been challenged by the frequent emergence of resistant clones. The ibrutinib target, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is essential for B-cell receptor signaling, and most resistant cases carry mutations in BTK or PLCG2 , a downstream effector target of BTK. Recent findings show that MI-2, a small molecule inhibitor of the para-caspase MALT1, is effective in preclinical models of another type of BCR pathway-dependent lymphoma. We therefore studied the activity of MI-2 against CLL and ibrutinib-resistant CLL. Treatment of CLL cells in vitro with MI-2 inhibited MALT1 proteolytic activity reduced BCR and NF-κB signaling, inhibited nuclear translocation of RelB and p50, and decreased Bcl-xL levels. MI-2 selectively induced dose and time-dependent apoptosis in CLL cells, sparing normal B lymphocytes. Furthermore, MI-2 abrogated survival signals provided by stromal cells and BCR cross-linking and was effective against CLL cells harboring features associated with poor outcomes, including 17p deletion and unmutated IGHV Notably, MI-2 was effective against CLL cells collected from patients harboring mutations conferring resistance to ibrutinib. Overall, our findings provide a preclinical rationale for the clinical development of MALT1 inhibitors in CLL, in particular for ibrutinib-resistant forms of this disease. Cancer Res; 77(24); 7038-48. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. E2A-positive gastric MALT lymphoma has weaker plasmacytoid infiltrates and stronger expression of the memory B-cell-associated miR-223: possible correlation with stage and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Yun; Chen, Shee-Uan; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Lin, Chung-Wu

    2010-11-01

    Extranodal marginal-zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue of the stomach (gastric MALT lymphoma) is derived from memory B cells of the marginal zone. Normal memory B cells do not express markers of germinal-center B cells, such as E2A (immunoglobulin enhancer-binding factor E12/E47), B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), or activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). E2A is a transcription factor that induces somatic hypermutations and blocks plasma cell differentiation. In 50 stage-I(E)/II(E1) gastric MALT lymphomas, we confirmed that all cases were BCL6(-)/AID(-), but a subset (50%, 25/50) was E2A(+). As E2A(-) and E2A(+) gastric MALT lymphomas had similar numbers of somatic hypermutations without intraclonal variations, which implied an origin from memory B cells, the expression of E2A was best regarded as a marker of aberrant follicular differentiation. Although the status of somatic hypermutation was not affected by E2A, E2A(+) gastric MALT lymphoma showed less plasmacytoid infiltrates and higher expressions of miRNA-223, a microRNA associated with memory B cells. Clinically, E2A(+) gastric MALT lymphomas were more likely to spread to perigastric lymph nodes and were less responsive to Helicobacter eradication therapy than were E2A(-) gastric MALT lymphomas. Taken together, aberrant E2A expression is a diagnostic feature of a subtype of gastric MALT lymphoma with weaker plasmacytoid infiltrates and stronger miR-223 expression. A prospective study would be necessary to verify the association between E2A expression and a poor response to Helicobacter eradication therapy.

  9. Malting process optimization for protein digestibility enhancement in finger millet grain.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sara Najdi; Orsat, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a nutritious, gluten-free, and drought resistant cereal containing high amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and minerals. However, bio-availability of these nutrients is restricted due to the presence of an excessive level of anti-nutrient components, mainly phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate. It has been shown that a well-designed malting/germination process can significantly reduce these anti-nutrients and consequently enhance the nutrient availability. In the present study, the effects of two important germination factors, duration and temperature, on the enhancement of in-vitro protein digestibility of finger millet were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Based on a central composite design, the grains were germinated for 24, 36, and 48 h at 22, 26, and 30 °C. For all factor combinations, protein, peptide, phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents were evaluated and digestibility was assessed. It was shown that during the malting/germinating process, both temperature and duration factors significantly influenced the investigated quantities. Germination of finger millet for 48 h at 30 °C increased protein digestibility from 74 % (for native grain) up to 91 %. Besides, it notably decreased phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents by 45 %, 46 %, and 29 %, respectively. Linear correlations between protein digestibility and these anti-nutrients were observed.

  10. Differential somatostatin and CXCR4 chemokine receptor expression in MALT-type lymphoma of gastric and extragastric origin.

    PubMed

    Stollberg, Susann; Kämmerer, Daniel; Neubauer, Elisa; Schulz, Stefan; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus; Lupp, Amelie

    2016-11-01

    Whereas the different somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 are known to be expressed in a wide variety of human malignancies, comprehensive data are still lacking for MALT-type lymphomas. Overall, 55 cases of MALT-type lymphoma of both gastric and extragastric origin were evaluated for the SSTR subtype and CXCR4 expression by means of immunohistochemistry using novel monoclonal rabbit antibodies. The stainings were rated by means of the immunoreactive score and correlated with clinical data. While the CXCR4 was detected in 92 % of the cases investigated, the SSTR subtypes were much less frequently present. The SSTR5 was expressed in about 50 % of the cases, followed by the SSTR3, the SSTR2A, the SSTR4 and the SSTR1, which were present in 35, 27, 18 or 2 %, respectively, of the tumors only. Gastric lymphomas displayed a significantly higher SSTR3, SSTR4 and SSTR5 expression than extragastric tumors. A correlation between CXCR4 and Ki-67 expression was seen in gastric lymphomas, whereas primarily in extragastric tumors SSTR5 negativity was associated with poor patient outcome. The CXCR4 may serve as a promising target for diagnostics and therapy of MALT-type lymphomas, while the SSTRs appear not suitable in this respect.

  11. The sustainable utilization of malting industry wastewater biological treatment sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, T. A.; Svintsov, A. V.; Chernysh, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the research of using the sludge from malting industry wastewater’s biological treatment and the calcium carbonate slurry as organo-mineral fertilizing additives. The sludge, generated as a result of industrial wastewater biological treatment, is subject to dumping at solid domestic waste landfills, which has a negative impact on the environment, though its properties and composition allow using it as an organic fertilizer. The physical and chemical properties of both wastes have been studied; the recommendations concerning the optimum composition of soil mix, containing the above-mentioned components, have been provided. The phytotoxic effect on the germination capacity and sprouts of cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Hordéum vulgáre) and oats (Avena sativa) in soil mixes has been determined. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the sludge does not exceed the allowable level; it is also free of pathogenic flora and helminthes.

  12. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, María Soledad; Decundo, Julieta; Martinez, Mauro; Dieguez, Susana Nelly; Moreyra, Federico; Moreno, Maria Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012–2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum, 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g); 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae, those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina. PMID:29439459

  13. Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, María Soledad; Decundo, Julieta; Martinez, Mauro; Dieguez, Susana Nelly; Moreyra, Federico; Moreno, Maria Virginia; Stenglein, Sebastian Alberto

    2018-02-11

    Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating small cereal grains are Fusarium graminearum and F. poae ; with both elaborating diverse toxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively. The objective of our work during the 2012-2014 growing seasons was to screen crops for the most commonly isolated Fusarium species and to quantify DON and NIV toxins in natural malting-barley samples from different producing areas of Argentina. We identified 1180 Fusarium isolates in the 119 samples analyzed, with 51.2% being F. graminearum , 26.2% F. poae and 22.6% other species. We found high concentrations of mycotoxins, at maximum values of 12 μg/g of DON and 7.71 μg/g of NIV. Of the samples, 23% exhibited DON at an average of 2.36 μg/g, with 44% exceeding the maximum limits (average of 5.24 μg/g); 29% contained NIV at an average of 2.36 μg/g; 7% contained both DON and NIV; and 55% were without DON or NIV. Finally, we report the mycotoxin contamination of the grain samples produced by F. graminearum and F. poae , those being the most frequent Fusarium species present. We identified the main Fusarium species affecting natural malting-barley grains in Argentina and documented the presence of many samples with elevated concentrations of DON and NIV. To our knowledge, the investigation reported here was the first to quantify the contamination by Fusarium and its toxins in natural samples of malting barley in Argentina.

  14. Gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cured with Helicobacter pylori eradication regardless of whether it contains features of MALT lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Kei; Yamashita, Kentaro; Goto, Akira; Adachi, Takeya; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Ryo; Saito, Mayuko; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old patient was diagnosed with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. The pathological findings were consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); however, a small area showed features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Biopsy specimens were referred to two other pathologists, both of whom diagnosed the case as pure DLBCL, denying the area of MALT lymphoma. As the lymphoma was limited to the submucosal layer and the patient's general condition was excellent, eradication of Helicobacter pylori was selected as the initial treatment. The lymphoma completely disappeared three months after the eradication treatment, and complete remission has been maintained for nearly two years.

  15. Lymphomagenic CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling drives malignant B-cell proliferation via cooperative NF-κB and JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Knies, Nathalie; Alankus, Begüm; Weilemann, Andre; Tzankov, Alexandar; Brunner, Kristina; Ruff, Tanja; Kremer, Marcus; Keller, Ulrich B; Lenz, Georg; Ruland, Jürgen

    2015-12-29

    The aggressive activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by aberrant B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and constitutive nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation, which is required for tumor cell survival. BCR-induced NF-κB activation requires caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 (CARD11), and CARD11 gain-of-function mutations are recurrently detected in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To investigate the consequences of dysregulated CARD11 signaling in vivo, we generated mice that conditionally express the human DLBCL-derived CARD11(L225LI) mutant. Surprisingly, CARD11(L225LI) was sufficient to trigger aggressive B-cell lymphoproliferation, leading to early postnatal lethality. CARD11(L225LI) constitutively associated with B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) to simultaneously activate the NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades. Genetic deficiencies of either BCL10 or MALT1 completely rescued the phenotype, and pharmacological inhibition of JNK was, similar to NF-κB blockage, toxic to autonomously proliferating CARD11(L225LI)-expressing B cells. Moreover, constitutive JNK activity was observed in primary human activated B cell-like (ABC)-DLBCL specimens, and human ABC-DLBCL cells were also sensitive to JNK inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrate that enforced activation of CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling is sufficient to drive transformed B-cell expansion in vivo and identify the JNK pathway as a therapeutic target for ABC-DLBCL.

  16. Dosimetric inter-institutional comparison in European radiotherapy centres: Results of IAEA supported treatment planning system audit.

    PubMed

    Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla; Petrovic, Borislava; Grezdo, Joseph; Chelminski, Krzysztof; do Carmo Lopes, Maria; Izewska, Joanna; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    One of the newer audit modalities operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) involves audits of treatment planning systems (TPS) in radiotherapy. The main focus of the audit is the dosimetry verification of the delivery of a radiation treatment plan for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy using high energy photon beams. The audit has been carried out in eight European countries - Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Poland and Portugal. The corresponding results are presented. The TPS audit reviews the dosimetry, treatment planning and radiotherapy delivery processes using the 'end-to-end' approach, i.e. following the pathway similar to that of the patient, through imaging, treatment planning and dose delivery. The audit is implemented at the national level with IAEA assistance. The national counterparts conduct the TPS audit at local radiotherapy centres through on-site visits. TPS calculated doses are compared with ion chamber measurements performed in an anthropomorphic phantom for eight test cases per algorithm/beam. A set of pre-defined agreement criteria is used to analyse the performance of TPSs. TPS audit was carried out in 60 radiotherapy centres. In total, 190 data sets (combination of algorithm and beam quality) have been collected and reviewed. Dosimetry problems requiring interventions were discovered in about 10% of datasets. In addition, suboptimal beam modelling in TPSs was discovered in a number of cases. The TPS audit project using the IAEA methodology has verified the treatment planning system calculations for 3D conformal radiotherapy in a group of radiotherapy centres in Europe. It contributed to achieving better understanding of the performance of TPSs and helped to resolve issues related to imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning.

  17. A comparative assessment of antioxidant properties, total phenolic content of einkorn, wheat, barley and their malts.

    PubMed

    Fogarasi, Attila-Levente; Kun, Szilárd; Tankó, Gabriella; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Hegyesné-Vecseri, Beáta

    2015-01-15

    Two einkorn wheat, one barley, three optional winter cultivation wheat and five winter cultivation wheat samples harvested in Hungary in 2011, and their malts were evaluated for their DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, ferric reduction capacity (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC). All einkorn and barley samples exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The einkorn samples show higher polyphenol content than the other wheat samples. In all cases the barley sample had the highest antioxidant potential and polyphenol content. The einkorn malts had high DPPH and ABTS radical cation scavenging activities, but the phenolic content was lower against wheat samples. There was significant difference between the antioxidant potential of optional and winter cultivation wheat samples except on ABTS scavenging activities. Einkorn wheat is potentially a new raw material to produce organic beer that might have beneficial effects with its increased antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The status of the AMS system at MALT in its 20th year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Chuichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoko S.; Ito, Seiji; Morita, Akira; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Kawamoto, Marina; Tokuyama, Hironori

    2015-10-01

    MALT (Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator, The University of Tokyo) was designed for a 'highly sensitive and precise elemental and isotopic microanalysis system' using an ion-beam generated by a Pelletron™ 5UD tandem accelerator. Currently, a multi-nuclide AMS (10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 129I) system is available and shows good performance in both precision and sensitivity, and the accelerator serves for PIXE, NRA, ERDA/RBS measurements as well. The total operation time of the accelerator has been over 95,000 hours since the start of MALT, 20 years ago. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, many projects related to 129I have been conducted. The retrospective reconstruction of the 131I distribution at the accident from 129I is one of the most important missions for dose evaluation of the residents. The accident-derived 129I is also quite useful as a tracer for the general iodine dynamics in the environment. As a new tool for environmental assessment related to nuclear activity, including the global fallout from past atmospheric nuclear bomb testing, effects from the spent fuel reprocessing plant, and nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and FDNPP, a 236U-AMS system is now under development.

  19. Malt sprout, an underused beer by-product with promising potential for the growth and dehydration of lactobacilli strains.

    PubMed

    Cejas, Luján; Romano, Nelson; Moretti, Ana; Mobili, Pablo; Golowczyc, Marina; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Malt sprout (MS), a by-product of the malt industry obtained by removing rootlets and sprouts from the seed of germinated barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), was used as culture, dehydration and storage medium of three strains of lactobacilli: Lactobacillus salivarius CM-CIDCA 1231B and CM-CIDCA 1232Y and Lactobacillus plantarum CIDCA 83114. The three strains were grown in MS and MS supplemented with 20% w/v fructo-oligosaccharides (MS FOS). Bacterial growth was determined by registering the decrease of pH and by plate counting. Comparable results with those of microorganisms grown in MRS (controls) were observed in terms of lag times, ΔpH and acidification rates. Furthermore, during fermentation, a significant increase of DP6 (FOS with degree of polymerization 6) was observed at expenses of inulin and DP7, probably indicating their hydrolysis. A concomitant decrease of DP3, sucrose and monosaccharides was also observed, as result of their bacterial consumption during growth. The presence of FOS in the fermented media protected microorganisms during freeze-drying and storage, as no decrease of culturability was observed after 60 days at 4 °C (> 10 8 CFU/mL). Using MS appears as an innovative strategy for the production of lactobacilli at large scale, supporting their use for the elaboration of functional foods containing prebiotics and probiotics.

  20. Initial Results from the Royal College of Radiologists' UK National Audit of Anal Cancer Radiotherapy 2015.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, R; Drinkwater, K; O'Cathail, S M; Adams, R; Glynne-Jones, R; Harrison, M; Hawkins, M A; Sebag-Montefiore, D; Gilbert, D C

    2017-03-01

    UK guidance was recently developed for the treatment of anal cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). We audited the current use of radiotherapy in UK cancer centres for the treatment of anal cancer against such guidance. We describe the acute toxicity of IMRT in comparison with patient population in the audit treated with two-phase conformal radiotherapy and the previous published data from two-phase conformal radiotherapy, in the UK ACT2 trial. A Royal College of Radiologists' prospective national audit of patients treated with radiotherapy in UK cancer centres was carried out over a 6 month period between February and July 2015. Two hundred and forty-two cases were received from 40/56 cancer centres (71%). In total, 231 (95%) underwent full dose radiotherapy with prophylactic nodal irradiation. Of these, 180 (78%) received IMRT or equivalent, 52 (22%) two-phase conformal (ACT2) technique. The number of interruptions in radiotherapy treatment in the ACT2 trial was 15%. Interruptions were noted in 7% (95% confidence interval 0-14%) of courses receiving two-phase conformal and 4% (95% confidence interval 1-7%) of those receiving IMRT. The percentage of patients completing the planned radiotherapy dose, irrelevant of gaps, was 90% (95% confidence interval 82-98%) and 96% (95% confidence interval 93-99%), in two-phase conformal and IMRT respectively. The toxicity reported in the ACT2 trial, in patients receiving two-phase conformal in the audit and in patients receiving IMRT in the audit was: any toxic effect 71%, 54%, 48%, non-haematological 62%, 49%, 40% and haematological 26%, 13%, 18%, respectively. IMRT implementation for anal cancer is well underway in the UK with most patients receiving IMRT delivery, although its usage is not yet universal. This audit confirms that IMRT results in reduced acute toxicity and minimised treatment interruptions in comparison with previous two-phase conformal techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of

  1. Partial purification of saccharifying and cell wall-hydrolyzing enzymes from malt in waste from beer fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Kang, Minkyung; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-06-01

    A number of hydrolyzing enzymes that are secreted from malt during brewing, including cell wall-hydrolyzing, saccharide-hydrolyzing, protein-degrading, lipid-hydrolyzing, and polyphenol and thiol-hydrolyzing enzymes, are expected to exist in an active form in waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB). In this study, the existence of these enzymes was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, after which enzyme extract was partially purified through a series of purification steps. The hydrolyzing enzyme activity was then measured under various conditions at each purification step using carboxymethyl cellulose as a substrate. The best hydrolyzing activities of partially purified enzymes were found at pH 4.5 and 50 °C in a citrate buffer system. The enzymes showed highest thermal stability at 30 °C when exposed for prolonged time. As the temperature increased gradually from 25 to 70 °C, yeast cells in the chemically defined medium with enzyme extract lost their cell wall and viability earlier than those without enzyme extract. Cell wall degradation and the release of cell matrix into the culture media at elevated temperature (45-70 °C) in the presence of enzyme extract were monitored through microscopic pictures. Saccharification enzymes from malt were relatively more active in the original WBFB than supernatant and diluted sediments. The presence of hydrolyzing enzymes from malt in WBFB is expected to play a role in bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation without the need for additional enzymes, nutrients, or microbial cells via a cell-free enzyme system.

  2. Enraged about radiotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, K.

    1994-01-01

    The use of radiotherapy in treating breast cancer has meant that many women are able to avoid mastectomy, which is both physically and psychologically damaging. The side effects of radiotherapy, however, are given little attention. Many women have developed brachial plexus injury after radiotherapy for breast cancer, often resulting in severe pain and loss of use of the arm. There is no effective treatment for this injury and little help can be offered. In addition, many of the women did not require radiotherapy of nodal areas. A pressure group has been formed to support these women, to establish the right to compensation, and to ensure that radiotherapy regimens given to future patients will not damage the brachial plexus. Images p188-a PMID:8312773

  3. Does Delayed-Time-Point Imaging Improve 18F-FDG-PET in Patients With MALT Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Giraudo, Chiara; Senn, Daniela; Hartenbach, Markus; Weber, Michael; Rausch, Ivo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Herold, Christian J.; Hacker, Marcus; Pones, Matthias; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Müllauer, Leonhard; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Raderer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), delayed–time-point 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) performs better than standard–time-point 18F-FDG-PET. Materials and Methods Patients with untreated histologically verified MALT lymphoma, who were undergoing pretherapeutic 18F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) and consecutive 18F-FDG-PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a single 18F-FDG injection, in the course of a larger-scale prospective trial, were included. Region-based sensitivity and specificity, and patient-based sensitivity of the respective 18F-FDG-PET scans at time points 1 (45–60 minutes after tracer injection, TP1) and 2 (100–150 minutes after tracer injection, TP2), relative to the reference standard, were calculated. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) ratios were also assessed. Results 18F-FDG-PET at TP1 was true positive in 15 o f 23 involved regions, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 was true-positive in 20 of 23 involved regions; no false-positive regions were noted. Accordingly, region-based sensitivities and specificities were 65.2% (confidence interval [CI], 45.73%–84.67%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1; and 87.0% (CI, 73.26%–100%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2, respectively. FDG-PET at TP1 detected lymphoma in at least one nodal or extranodal region in 7 of 13 patients, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 in 10 of 13 patients; accordingly, patient-based sensitivity was 53.8% (CI, 26.7%–80.9%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1, and 76.9% (CI, 54.0%–99.8%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood maximum standardized uptake value ratios were significantly lower at TP1 (ratios, 1.05 ± 0.40 and 1.52 ± 0.62) than at TP2 (ratios, 1.67 ± 0.74 and 2.56 ± 1.10; P = 0.003 and P = 0.001). Conclusions Delayed–time-point imaging

  4. Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage.

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, I; Stenwig, H

    1996-01-01

    A general medium named malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar (MYSA) containing oxgall was designed. The medium was intended for the enumeration and isolation of molds and yeasts in routine examinations of animal feed stuffs. In this study MYSA was tested as a general medium for mycological examination of silage. The medium was compared with dichloran-rose bengal medium (DRBC) in an examination of more than 500 specimens of big bale grass silage. Selected characteristics of known fungal species commonly isolated from feeds were examined after growth on MYSA and DRBC and on malt extract agar, used as a noninhibitory control medium. MYSA suppressed bacterial growth, without affecting the growth of fungi common in feeds. The fungi growing on MYSA were easily recognized, and the medium seemed to slow radial growth of fungal colonies, which permitted, easy counting. The number of species found was higher on MYSA than on DRBC. When we compared MYSA with DRBC for mycological examination of grass silage samples, MYSA was found to be the medium of choice. PMID:8837416

  5. Autoimmune neutropenia preceding Helicobacter pylori-negative MALT lymphoma with nodal dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Saori; Yamazaki, Sho; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Morita, Ken; Yoshimi, Akihide; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN), resulting from granulocyte-specific autoantibodies, is much less frequent than other autoimmune hematologic disorders including autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). These autoimmune disorders may precede, synchronize, or follow collagen disorders, viral infections, and lymphoid neoplasms. Herein we present the first case of AIN in association with Helicobacter pylori-negative mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with nodal dissemination. In our case, AIN, accompanied by ITP, occurred prior to the clinical manifestation of lymphoma. AIN and ITP were well managed afterwards, but they relapsed in accordance with the recurrence of lymphoma. The administration of prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg daily alleviated the cytopenias within a week. In general, combination chemotherapy is performed for the treatment of lymphoma-associated autoimmune hematologic disorders and indeed seems to be effective. Our case indicates that corticosteroid monotherapy may be effective for lymphoma-associated AIN especially when AIN precedes the onset of lymphoma. PMID:25337296

  6. Role of IκB kinase β in regulating the remodeling of the CARMA1-Bcl10-MALT1 complex.

    PubMed

    Karim, Zubair A; Hensch, Nicole R; Qasim, Hanan; Alshbool, Fatima Z; Khasawneh, Fadi T

    2018-06-02

    The current work investigates the notion that inducible clustering of signaling mediators of the IKK pathway is important for platelet activation. Thus, while the CARMA1, Bcl10, and MALT1 (CBM) complex is essential for triggering IKK/NF-κB activation upon platelet stimulation, the signals that elicit its formation and downstream effector activation remain elusive. We demonstrate herein that IKKβ is involved in membrane fusion, and serves as a critical protein kinase required for initial formation and the regulation of the CARMA1/MALT1/Bcl10/CBM complex in platelets. We also show that IKKβ regulates these processes via modulation of phosphorylation of Bcl10 and IKKγ polyubiquitination. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IKKβ regulates membrane fusion and the remodeling of the CBM complex formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual Function After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Prospective Clinical Trial

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wiegner, Ellen A.; King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@stanford.ed

    Purpose: To study the sexual quality of life for prostate cancer patients after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC)-validated quality-of-life questionnaire, the sexual function of 32 consecutive patients who received prostate SBRT in a prospective Phase II clinical trial were analyzed at baseline, and at median times of 4, 12, 20, and 50 months after treatment. SBRT consisted of 36.25 Gy in five fractions of 7.25 Gy using the Cyberknife. No androgen deprivation therapy was given. The use of erectile dysfunction (ED) medications was monitored. A comprehensive literature review for radiotherapy-alonemore » modalities based on patient self-reported questionnaires served as historical comparison. Results: Median age at treatment was 67.5 years, and median follow-up was 35.5 months (minimum 12 months). The mean EPIC sexual domain summary score, sexual function score, and sexual bother score decreased by 45%, 49%, and 25% respectively at 50 months follow-up. These differences reached clinical relevance by 20 months after treatment. Baseline ED rate was 38% and increased to 71% after treatment (p = 0.024). Use of ED medications was 3% at baseline and progressed to 25%. For patients aged <70 years at follow-up, 60% maintained satisfactory erectile function after treatment compared with only 12% aged {>=}70 years (p = 0.008). Penile bulb dose was not associated with ED. Conclusions: The rates of ED after treatment appear comparable to those reported for other modalities of radiotherapy. Given the modest size of this study and the uncertainties in the physiology of radiotherapy-related ED, these results merit further investigations.« less

  8. 76 FR 3584 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 5 [Docket No. TTB-2010-0008; Notice No. 111] RIN 1513-AB79 Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages Correction In proposed rule document 2010-27733 beginning...

  9. The Temperature Fuzzy Control System of Barleythe Malt Drying Based on Microcontroller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaoyang; Bi, Yang; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Jingjing; Yun, Jianmin

    The control strategy of temperature and humidity in the beer barley malt drying chamber based on fuzzy logic control was implemented.Expounded in this paper was the selection of parameters for the structure of the regulatory device, as well as the essential design from control rules based on the existing experience. A temperature fuzzy controller was thus constructed using relevantfuzzy logic, and humidity control was achieved by relay, ensured the situation of the humidity to control the temperature. The temperature's fuzzy control and the humidity real-time control were all processed by single chip microcomputer with assembly program. The experimental results showed that the temperature control performance of this fuzzy regulatory system,especially in the ways of working stability and responding speed and so on,was better than normal used PID control. The cost of real-time system was inquite competitive position. It was demonstrated that the system have a promising prospect of extensive application.

  10. Results of a randomized comparison of radiotherapy and bromodeoxyuridine with radiotherapy alone for brain metastases: Report of RTOG trial 89-05

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Phillips, T.L.; Scott, C.B.; Leibel, S.A.

    1995-09-30

    The purpose of this trial was to determine if the addition of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to radiotherapy prolongs survival when compared to radiotherapy alone in patients with brain metastases. Seventy-two patients with brain metastases were randomized to 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions of 2.5 Gy or to the same dose with BrdUrd 0.8 g/m{sup 2} per day for 4 days of each of 3 weeks. Patients were stratified by primary site (breast, lung or other), number of metastases (single or multiple) and age (<60 vs. >60). There was no significant difference between the two treatment arms (p = 0.904). The studymore » was open from October 1989 to March 1993 and accrued 72 patients. Only one patient in the RT only arm remains alive. The two treatment arms were balanced with respect to all stratification variables. Toxicity due to radiotherapy was similar in both arms. BrdUrd caused significant Grade 4 and 5 hematologic and skin toxicity in five patients. Two patients died due to hematologic toxicity and one from a Stevens-Johnson type skin reaction. Phenytoin played a role in the skin reactions and ranitidine was associated with the hematologic deaths. Ranitidine was eliminated, BrdUrd was discontinued after any hematologic toxicity, and no further Grade 4 or 5 toxicities were seen. The median survival was 6.12 months in the radiotherapy group and 4.3 in the BrdUrd group (p = 0.904). Patients with solitary brain metastases had significantly better survival (p = 0.031). BrdUrd did not enhance the efficacy of the radiotherapy regiment tested, in spite of the fact that brain metastases have shown high labeling indices. The toxicity of this schedule of BrdUrd administration was apparently increased by ranitidine and phenytoin. 16 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.« less

  11. Maltose effects on barley malt diastatic power enzyme activity and thermostability at high isothermal mashing temperature: II. Alpha-amylase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maltose, the primary product of starch degradation during mashing, has the potential as a compatible solute to affect the activity of and increase the thermostability of barley malt alpha-amylase activity at high temperatures used in mashing and temperatures above those normally used in mashing. To ...

  12. Activation of hip prostheses in high energy radiotherapy and resultant dose to nearby tissue.

    PubMed

    Keehan, Stephanie; Smith, Ryan L; Millar, Jeremy; Esser, Max; Taylor, Michael L; Lonski, Peta; Kron, Tomas; Franich, Rick D

    2017-03-01

    High energy radiotherapy can produce contaminant neutrons through the photonuclear effect. Patients receiving external beam radiation therapy to the pelvis may have high-density hip prostheses. Metallic materials such as those in hip prostheses, often have high cross-sections for neutron interaction. In this study, Thackray (UK) prosthetic hips have been irradiated by 18 MV radiotherapy beams to evaluate the additional dose to patients from the activation products. Hips were irradiated in- and out-of field at various distances from the beam isocenter to assess activation caused in-field by photo-activation, and neutron activation which occurs both in and out-of-field. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors were used to measure the subsequent gamma-ray emissions and their half-lives. High sensitivity Mg, Cu, P doped LiF thermoluminescence dosimeter chips (TLD-100H) were used to measure the subsequent dose at the surface of a prosthesis over the 12 h following an in-field irradiation of 10,000 MU to a hip prosthesis located at the beam isocenter in a water phantom. 53 Fe, 56 Mn, and 52 V were identified within the hip following irradiation by radiotherapy beams. The dose measured at the surface of a prosthesis following irradiation in a water phantom was 0.20 mGy over 12 h. The dose at the surface of prostheses irradiated to 200 MU was below the limit of detection (0.05 mGy) of the TLD100H. Prosthetic hips are activated by incident photons and neutrons in high energy radiotherapy, however, the dose resulting from activation is very small. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Amifostine reduces side effects and improves complete response rate during radiotherapy: Results of a meta-analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sasse, Andre Deeke; Gontijo de Oliveira Clark, Luciana; Sasse, Emma Chen

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of amifostine in diminishing radiotherapy side effects and whether or not it protects the tumor. Methods and Materials: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 included randomized controlled trials, comprising 1451 patients, comparing the use of radiotherapy vs. radiotherapy plus amifostine for cancer treatment. Results: The use of amifostine significantly reduced the risk of developing mucositis (odds ratio [OR], 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.48; p < 0.00001), esophagitis (OR, 0.38; CI, 0.26-0.54; p < 0.00001), acute xerostomia (OR, 0.24; CI, 0.15-0.36; p < 0.00001), late xerostomia (OR, 0.33; CI, 0.21-0.51; p radiotherapy was not itself affected by the use of this drug and patients receiving amifostine were able to achieve higher rates of complete response.« less

  14. Local recurrence as immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease 10 years after radiotherapy to ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Ichimura, Kouichi; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, a 48-year-old woman developed a left orbital mass with lacrimal gland involvement and then, in 2003, a right orbital mass with lacrimal gland involvement, both of which were diagnosed as extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). She underwent 30 Gy external beam radiation to bilateral orbital lesions. The lymphoma cells in both lesions did not share the same clonality, as shown by amplification by polymerase chain reaction of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. Immunoglobulin light chain analysis by immunohistochemistry and messenger RNA in situ hybridization showed λ chain monotype in the left orbital lesion but κ chain monotype in the right orbital lesion. She developed recurrent left orbital mass with high uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography fused with computed tomography in 2010, and excisional biopsy disclosed the formation of follicles and infiltration with immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive plasma cells mainly in interfollicular areas. The immunoglobulin light chain analysis showed the λ chain and κ chain bitype. With the immunohistopathological diagnosis of IgG4-related disease, the serum IgG4 level was found to show elevation at 376 mg/dL, and the patient chose observation. This is the first reported case of development of IgG4-related disease after bilataral orbital MALT lymphoma with external beam radiotherapy.

  15. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in a patient with bilateral orbital and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Hiyama, Atsuto; Takeda, Koumei; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2009-09-01

    Orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an uncommon disease, while the incidence is recently increasing. We describe the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) findings in a case of bilateral orbital MALT lymphomas with a coexisting gastric lesion. Although only the lesion in the left orbit was initially identified on MR imaging, FDG PET/CT scan unexpectedly and additionally could identify the tiny lesion of the contralateral orbit and the gastric lesion. This patient received radiotherapy to all these lesions, with a combination of rituximab monoclonal antibody therapy. The follow-up PET/CT studies at 3, 6, and 9 months and 1.5 years after treatment showed regression or disappearance of all these FDG-avid lesions. Accurate localization and staging are crucial to select an adequate treatment in MALT lymphoma at any location. This case indicates the feasibility of FDG PET/CT scan for accurate localization and staging and also for monitoring treatment in patients with orbital MALT lymphoma.

  16. Bone marrow involvement is rare in superficial gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    The initial staging work-up of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma includes bone marrow examination. Since gastric MALT lymphoma is mostly detected in early stages with the national cancer screening programme in Korea, bone marrow is rarely involved. To investigate the incidence of bone marrow involvement in gastric MALT lymphomas and the role of bone marrow examination for an initial staging work-up. Patients diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma at Seoul National University Hospital from January 2005 to July 2014 were enrolled. Clinical databases of the patients were retrospectively reviewed. Out of 105 patients, 91 (86.7%) were classified as stage IE1. Among these patients, 78 patients with Helicobacter pylori infection underwent eradication therapy, and complete remission was achieved in 74 cases (94.9%). Twelve out of 13 patients (92.3%) without H. pylori infection underwent radiotherapy or surgery and all achieved complete remission. Bone marrow involvement was proven in only one patient (1.0%). Bone marrow involvement was rare in patients with only superficial gastric MALT lymphoma without extragastric invasion. Further studies are warranted to identify the risk factors of bone marrow involvement in gastric MALT lymphoma. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Initial Results of Hypofractionated Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takanori; Shibuya, Kei; Koyama, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Masahiko; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Hirohumi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    To report initial results of hypofractionated carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for cholangiocarcinoma. Data regarding seven patients with cholangiocarcinoma treated by C-ion RT were analyzed. Prescribed doses were 52.8 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE)] or 60.0 Gy (RBE) in four fractions for intrahepatic cases and 12 fractions for hilar hepatic/close to gastro-intestinal tract cases. Local control and overall survival were evaluated and toxicity was graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The median follow-up period was 16 months. There were two patients with stage I cancer, one with stage II, one with stage III, and three with stage IVA. Local control was achieved in five out of seven patients (71%) and survival was maintained in six out of seven patients (86%). There were no occurrences of acute or late toxicity of grade 3 or higher. Initial results show that hypofractionated C-ion RT appears to be tolerated and effective for cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary results of proton radiotherapy for pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma: a multi-institutional study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Demizu, Yusuke; Fukushima, Takashi; Ishida, Yuji; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Numajiri, Haruko; Fuji, Hiroshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate preliminary results of proton radiotherapy (PRT) for pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). From 1987 to 2014, PRT was conducted as initial radiotherapy in 55 patients (35 males, 20 females, median age 5 years, range 0-19) with RMS at four institutes in Japan. Thirty-one, 18, and six patients had embryonal, alveolar, and other RMS, respectively. One, 11, 37, and six patients were in IRSG groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively, and the COG risk group was low, intermediate, and high for nine, 39, and seven patients, respectively. The irradiation dose was 36-60 GyE (median: 50.4 GyE). The median follow-up period was 24.5 months (range: 1.5-320.3). The 1- and 2-year overall survival rates were 91.9% (95% CI: 84.3-99.5%) and 84.8% (95% CI 75.2-94.3%), respectively, and these rates were 100% and 100%, 97.1% and 90.1%, and 57.1% and 42.9% for COG low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. There were 153 adverse events of Grade ≥3, including 141 hematologic toxicities in 48 patients (87%) and 12 radiation-induced toxicities in nine patients (16%). Proton-specific toxicity was not observed. PRT has the same treatment effect as photon radiotherapy with tolerable acute radiation-induced toxicity. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Multigene methylation analysis of ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma and their relationship to Chlamydophila psittaci infection and clinical characteristics in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choung, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Young A; Lee, Min Joung; Kim, Namju; Khwarg, Sang In

    2012-04-06

    We investigated the aberrant promoter methylation status of known or suspected tumor suppressor genes in ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) and the possible association with clinical characteristics and Chlamydophila psittaci infection. Thirty-five cases of ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma cases were examined for the methylation status of nine genes using methylation-specific PCR and for the detection of C. psittaci DNA using PCR. The medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics including the response of the lymphoma to the therapy, and C. psittaci infection status were evaluated for possible association with methylation frequencies. CpG island methylation in nine genes was variously found as follows; DAPK (94.3%), ECAD (77.1%), MT1G (48.6%), THBS1 (37.1%), RAR-β (31.4%), p16 (20%), MGMT (5.7%), p14 (0%), and RASSF1A (0%). Methylation was not observed in any of 13 control cases. C. psittaci DNA was observed in 25 (75.8%) of 33 patients with available tumor tissues, and ECAD hypermethylation was significantly higher in C. psittaci-positive cases (P = 0.041). Promoter hypermethylation status was not correlated with clinical characteristics. Aberrant CpG island methylation of tumor suppressor genes is a frequent event in ocular adnexal MALT lymphoma. In particular, high frequencies of DAPK and ECAD methylation may be strongly correlated with ocular adnexal MALT lymphomagenesis in South Korea. Furthermore, ECAD hypermethylation is closely associated with C. psittaci infection, which may shed light on the mechanisms of bacterium-induced oncogenesis.

  20. Comparisons of modern United States and Canadian malting barley cultivars with those from pre-Prohibition: II. Amylolytic enzyme activities and thermostabilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    United States and Canadian pre-Prohibition and modern elite malting barley cultivars were evaluated for activities of alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and limit dextrinase over the course of Congress mashing to determine the changes in activities and thermostabilities since the end of ...

  1. Biochar from malt spent rootlets for the removal of mercury from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutsika, Lamprini; Manariotis, Ioannis; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is receiving increased attention as a promising material in environmental applications. It is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. One of the many proposed applications of biochars is the removal of metals (e.g., lead, mercury, etc.) from aqueous solutions. Mercury is one of the heavy metals of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentration and thus, its removal from aqueous systems is desirable. Malt spent rootlets is a by-product formed during beer production, it is inexpensive and it is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of biochar, produced from malt spent rootlets, to remove mercury from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were conducted at room temperature (25oC) to obtain the optimum sorption conditions under different pH values, biomass dose, contact time, and solution ionic strength. Sorption kinetics and equilibrium capacity constants were determined at the optimum pH value. Furthermore, the effect of different leaching solutions on mercury desorption from the biochar was examined. All studies with mercury and biochar were conducted at pH 5 that was determined to be the optimum pH for sorption. The proportion of mercury removal increased with the increased dose of the biochar, i.e. from 71% removal for biochar dose of 0.3 g/L, it reached almost 100% removal for biochar dose ˜1 g/L. Based on the isotherm data, the maximum biochar sorption capacity (qmax) for mercury was 99 mg/g. Based on the sorption kinetic data, (qmax) was achieved after 2 h; it should be mentioned that 30% of the (qmax) was observed within the first 5 min. Five leaching solutions were tested for mercury desorption (H2O, HCl, EDTA, NaCl and HNO3). HCl resulted in the highest extraction percentage of the sorbed mercury. The desorbing mercury percentages at 24 h for HCl concentrations 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 2 M were 62, 59, 62, 69

  2. Precision radiotherapy for cancer of the pancreas: technique and results. [Photons and electrons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dobelbower, R.R. Jr.; Borgelt, B.B.; Strubler, K.A.

    1980-09-01

    Forty patients with locally extensive, unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas received precision high dose (PHD) radiation therapy with a 45 MeV betatron. PHD radiotherapy was generally well tolerated. During treatment, only 7 patients experienced significant nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or anorexia. Late gastrointestinal radiation reactions were observed in 7 patients. Twelve patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The projected survival of patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with PHD radiotherapy is comparable to that of patients with resectable disease operated on for cure. The projected one year survival rate is 49%.

  3. Clinical results from first use of prostate stent as fiducial for radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Holmberg, Mats; Larsen, Erik Hoejkjaer; Fabrin, Knud; Fisker, Rune V

    2011-05-01

    A clinical feasibility study using a removable prostate stent as fiducial for image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized prostate cancer (PC). The study included patients with local or locally advanced PC. The clinical target volume (CTV) was outlined on magnetic resonance (MR) images co-registered to planning computer tomography (CT) images. Daily online IGRT was delivered using the stent as fiducial. Risk of migration was estimated using multiple MR. Acute urinary toxicity was scored using the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Late gastro-intestinal (GI) and genito-urinary (GU) toxicity was scored using the Radio Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score, biochemical failure (BF) was defined as an elevation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) above nadir plus 2 ng/ml after radiotherapy. One hundred men were enrolled in the study. Ninety completed radiotherapy with the stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent was seen, but three cases of dislocation of the stent to the bladder were observed. Acute urinary toxicity based on IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients who had gold markers (GM) as fiducials. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of urinary retention. Late GI and GU toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, but longer observation time is needed. This study reports the first clinical results of using a prostate stent as fiducial. No migration of the stent observed. Dislocation of the stent to the urinary bladder was observed in three cases, requiring removal of the stent and insertion of a new fiducial. Acute toxicity during radiotherapy evaluated from IPSS was comparable to toxicity in patients with GM. Removal of the stent was associated with a high frequency of post procedural urinary retention. Late toxicity and BF were comparable to those of other studies, though longer observation time is needed.

  4. Radiotherapy equipment and departments in the European countries: final results from the ESTRO-HERO survey.

    PubMed

    Grau, Cai; Defourny, Noémie; Malicki, Julian; Dunscombe, Peter; Borras, Josep M; Coffey, Mary; Slotman, Ben; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Lievens, Yolande; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Feyen, Karen; Hadjieva, Tatiana; Odrazka, Karel; Grau Eriksen, Jesper; Jaal, Jana; Bly, Ritva; Chauvet, Bruno; Willich, Normann; Polgar, Csaba; Johannsson, Jakob; Cunningham, Moya; Magrini, Stefano; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Untereiner, Michel; Pirotta, Martin; Karadjinovic, Vanja; Levernes, Sverre; Sladowski, Krystol; Lurdes Trigo, Maria; Šegedin, Barbara; Rodriguez, Aurora; Lagerlund, Magnus; Pastoors, Bert; Hoskin, Peter; Vaarkamp, Jaap; Cleries Soler, Ramon

    2014-08-01

    Documenting the distribution of radiotherapy departments and the availability of radiotherapy equipment in the European countries is an important part of HERO - the ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology project. HERO has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The aim of the current report is to describe the distribution of radiotherapy equipment in European countries. An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European countries, principally through their national societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy departments and equipment (questionnaire items 26-29), analyzed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis is based on validated responses from 28 of the 40 European countries defined by the European Cancer Observatory (ECO). A large variation between countries was found for most parameters studied. There were 2192 linear accelerators, 96 dedicated stereotactic machines, and 77 cobalt machines reported in the 27 countries where this information was available. A total of 12 countries had at least one cobalt machine in use. There was a median of 0.5 simulator per MV unit (range 0.3-1.5) and 1.4 (range 0.4-4.4) simulators per department. Of the 874 simulators, a total of 654 (75%) were capable of 3D imaging (CT-scanner or CBCT-option). The number of MV machines (cobalt, linear accelerators, and dedicated stereotactic machines) per million inhabitants ranged from 1.4 to 9.5 (median 5.3) and the average number of MV machines per department from 0.9 to 8.2 (median 2.6). The average number of treatment courses per year per MV machine varied from 262 to 1061 (median 419). While 69% of MV units were capable of IMRT only 49% were equipped for image guidance (IGRT). There was a clear relation between socio-economic status, as

  5. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis with primary pulmonary MALT lymphoma masquerading as metastatic lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Upadhaya, Sunil; Baig, Mohd; Towfiq, Basim; Al Hadidi, Samer

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis is a very rare form of localized amyloidosis involving the lung, with very little known about its nature. It is usually associated with indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder and also connective tissue disorders. No definite treatment guideline exists. Many patients respond to chemotherapy with low risk of progression and a ‘wait and watch’ strategy is also considered a valid treatment option. In this report the authors present a case of nodular pulmonary amyloidosis with pulmonary mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma that presented with features of metastatic malignant disease and after definitive diagnosis decided not to undergo treatment. PMID:28808514

  6. Comparisons of modern United States and Canadian malting barley cultivars with those from pre-prohibition: III. Wort sugar production during mashing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to compare wort sugar production during mashing of barley malts of pre-Prohibition varieties and modern elite cultivars. Four of the five modern cultivars utilized were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in glucose production than all six pre-Prohibition barley varieties at al...

  7. Experimental results and model calculations of excitation functions relevant to the production of specific radioisotopes for metabolic radiotherapy and for pet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menapace, E.; Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M. L.; Groppi, F.

    2004-10-01

    First results are given from the comparison of experimental values and model calculations on accelerator-produced high specific activity radionuclides in no-carrier-added (NCA) form. The relevant radioisotopes are: 64Cu, produced by natZn(d, αxn) and natZn(d,2p) reactions, for simultaneous positron/negatron metabolic radiotherapy and PET imaging; 66Ga high-energy positron emitter (4.2 MeV), produced by natZn(d, xn) reactions, for metabolic radiotherapy and for PET; 186gRe, produced by 186W(p,n) and 186W(d,2n) reactions, for negatron (1.1 MeV) metabolic radiotherapy; 211At/ 211Po, produced by 209Bi( α,2n) reaction (with spike of gamma emitter 210At produced by 209Bi( α,3n) reaction) and 225Ac/ 213Bi/ 213Po, produced by 226Ra(p,2n) reaction, both for high-LET radiotherapy.

  8. Carbon-ion radiotherapy for marginal lymph node recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Wakatsuki, Masaru; Kato, Shingo; Kamada, Tadashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-04-05

    Recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy often occur at common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes as marginal lymph node recurrences. Patients with these recurrences have a chance of long-term survival by optimal re-treatment with radiotherapy. However, the re-irradiation often overlaps the initial and the secondary radiotherapy fields and can result in increased normal tissue toxicities in the bowels or the stomach. Carbon-ion radiotherapy, a form of particle beam radiotherapy using accelerated carbon ions, offers more conformal and sharp dose distribution than X-ray radiotherapy. Therefore, this approach enables the delivery of high radiation doses to the target while sparing its surrounding normal tissues. Marginal lymph node recurrences in common iliac lymph nodes after radiotherapy were treated successfully by carbon-ion radiotherapy in two patients. These two patients were initially treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. However, the diseases recurred in the lymph nodes near the border of the initial radiotherapy fields after 22 months and 23 months. Because re-irradiation with X-ray radiotherapy may deliver high doses to a section of the bowels, carbon-ion radiotherapy was selected to treat the lymph node recurrences. A total dose of 48 Gy (RBE) in 12 fractions over 3 weeks was given to the lymph node recurrences, and the tumors disappeared completely with no severe acute toxicities. The two patients showed no evidence of disease for 75 months and 63 months after the initial radiotherapy and for 50 months and 37 months after the carbon-ion radiotherapy, respectively. No severe late adverse effects are observed in these patients. The two presented cases suggest that the highly conformal dose distribution of carbon-ion radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of marginal lymph node recurrences after radiotherapy. In addition, the higher biological effect of carbon

  9. miR-181d/MALT1 regulatory axis attenuates mesenchymal phenotype through NF-κB pathways in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Liu, Xing; Liu, Yanwei; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Chuanbao; Wang, Zheng; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yongzhi

    2017-06-28

    The mesenchymal (MES) subtype of glioblastoma (GBM) indicated a more malignant phenotype and worse prognosis compared with their proneural (PN) counterpart. The plasticity between PN and MES transcriptome signatures provided an approach for clinical intervention. However, few miRNAs have been identified to participate in the shift between subtypes. Here, we utilized transcriptomic data and experimental evidences to prove that miR-181d was a novel regulator of NFκB signaling pathway by directly repressing MALT1, leading to induced PN markers and reduced MES genes. Functionally, ectopic expression of miR-181d suppressed GBM cell proliferation, colony formation and anchor-independent growth, as well as migration, invasion and tube formation. Moreover, miR-181d overexpression increased radio- and chemo-sensitivity for GBM cells. Rescue of MALT1 could partially reverse the effects of miR-181d in GBM malignant behaviors. Clinically, miR-181d could serve as a prognostic indicator for GBM patients. Taken together, we concluded that loss of miR-181d contributes to aggressive biological processes associated with MES phenotype via NFκB signaling, which broaden our insights into the underlying mechanisms in subtype transition and miRNA-based tailored medicine for GBM management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antiproliferation and induction of cell death of Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) extract fermented by brewer malt waste on breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Teo, Ivy Tuang Ngo; Chui, Chung Hin; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On; Lau, Fung Yi; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Wong, Raymond Siu Ming; Kok, Stanton Hon Lung; Cheng, Chor Hing; Chan, Albert Sun Chi; Ho, Kwok Ping

    2005-11-01

    Astaxanthin has been shown to have antiproliferative activity on breast cancer and skin cancer cells. However, the high cost of production, isolation and purification of purified astaxanthin from natural sources or chemically synthetic methods limit its usage on cancer therapy. We show that astaxanthin could be produced by fermentating the Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) yeast cells with brewer malt waste using a 20 L B. Braun fermentor. The percentage composition of astaxanthin from the P. rhodozyma was >70% of total pigment as estimated by the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of this P. rhodozyma cell extract (PRE) was demonstrated on breast cancer cell lines including the MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB231 (estrogen receptor negative) by using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-arboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] (MTS) assay. No apoptotic cell death, but growth inhibitory effect was induced after 48 h of PRE incubation as suggested by morphological investigation. Anchorage-dependent clonogenicity assay showed that PRE could reduce the colony formation potential of both breast cancer cell lines. Cell death was observed from both breast cancer cell lines after incubation with PRE for 6 days. Taken together, our results showed that by using an economic method of brewer malt waste fermentation, we obtained P. rhodozyma with a high yield of astaxanthin and the corresponding PRE could have short-term growth inhibition and long-term cell death activity on breast cancer cells.

  11. Intraoperative radiotherapy. Literature updating with an overview of results presented at the 6th International Symposium of Intraoperative Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Calvo, F A; Santos, M; Azinovic, I

    1998-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy is a technique that can be integrated into multidisciplinary treatment strategies in oncology. A radiation boost delivered with high energy electron beams can intensify locoregional antitumor therapy in patients undergoing cancer surgery. Intraoperative radiotherapy can increase the therapeutic index of the conventional combination of surgery and radiotherapy by improving the precision of radiation dose location, while decreasing the normal tissue damage in mobile structures and enhancing the biological effect of radiation when combined with surgical debulking. Intraoperative radiotherapy has been extensively investigated in clinical oncology in the last 15 years. Commercially available linear accelerators require minimal changes to be suitable for intraoperative radiotherapy. Its successful implementation in clinical protocols depends on the support given by the single institutions and on a clinical research-oriented mentality. Tumors where intraoperative radiotherapy as a treatment component has shown promising rates of local control include locally advanced rectal, gastric and gynecologic cancer, bone and soft tissue sarcoma. Intraoperative radiotherapy can be applied to brain tumors, head and neck cancer, NSCLC and pancreatic carcinoma.

  12. Malt in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases concentrations of butyric acid in the distal colon and serum in rats compared with other barley products but decreases viable counts of cecal bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bränning, Camilla E; Nyman, Margareta E

    2011-01-01

    Several substances, including glutamine and propionic acid but in particular butyric acid, have been proposed to be important for colonic health. β-Glucans lead to the formation of comparatively high amounts of butyric acid, and germinated barley foodstuff obtained from brewer's spent grain (BSG), containing high amounts of β-glucans and glutamine, has been reported to reduce the inflammatory response in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. The present study examines how 3 barley products, whole grain barley, malt, and BSG, affect SCFA in the hindgut and serum of rats and whether the addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271 to each of these diets would have further effects. Amino acids in plasma and the cecal composition of the microbiota were also analyzed. The butyric acid concentration in the distal colon and serum was higher in the malt groups than in the other groups as was the serum concentration of propionic acid. The concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were higher in the cecum and serum of rats given L. rhamnosus than in those not given this strain. The proportion of plasma glutamine and the cecal number of bifidobacteria were lower in the malt groups than in the other groups. L. rhamnosus decreased the number of cecal bifidobacteria, whereas plasma glutamine was unaffected. We conclude that malt together with L. rhamnosus 271 had greater effects on propionic and butyric acid concentrations in rats than the other barley products. This is interesting when developing food with effects on colonic health.

  13. MALT-45: A 7 mm survey of the southern Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher Harry

    2015-09-01

    -0 for CS lies within the 7mm waveband, which also contains the poorly understood class I CH3OH maser. Unlike the class II variant, class I masers are not exclusively associated with HMSF, but do appear in star-forming regions across a wide range of evolutionary stages. A large problem for class I CH3OH maser studies is the bias in the targeted searches which have been used to find them; they have only been identified towards other masing regions (such as class II CH3OH), and therefore the properties of these masers are somewhat unclear. In this thesis, results focus on the MALT-45 survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in auto-correlation ('single-dish' mode). To date, MALT-45 has mapped the Galactic plane within 330° *lt; < l < 335°, jbj< 0:5°, which contains several known star-forming regions, including the G333 giant molecular cloud. MALT-45 surveys 12 spectral lines, but primarily CS (1-0), class I CH3OH masers and SiO (1-0) v = 0; 1; 2; 3. Bright, extended CS emission is detected across the survey region, and highlight two distinct velocities, due to different spiral arms of the Galaxy. In addition to the previously known 19 class I CH3OH masers, 58 new masers were detected. SiO masers were detected towards 47 regions, in various combinations of vibrational mode v = 1; 2; 3, all towards evolved infrared stars. Thermal SiO v = 0 emission is also detected across the survey region. Major science results from MALT-45 include: (i) A CS to NH3 comparison, which highlights cold, dense clumps as well as hot, evolved clumps. The cold and dense clumps appear to have self-absorption of CS emission in their centres and a relative over-abundance of NH3, while evolved clumps appear to have very little NH3 emission, despite being a dense gas tracer; (ii) Almost all (94 per cent) of ATLASGAL 870 um dust emission point sources are associated with at least a 3σ peak of CS emission; (iii) By comparing with peak CS velocities, class I CH3OH masers are good

  14. Supplements of transgenic malt or grain containing (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase increase the nutritive value of barley-based broiler diets to that of maize.

    PubMed

    Von Wettstein, D; Warner, J; Kannangara, C G

    2003-07-01

    1. A diet with addition to normal barley of malt from transgenic barley expressing a protein engineered, thermotolerant Bacillus (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination has previously been demonstrated to provide a broiler chicken weight gain comparable to maize diets. It also reduced dramatically the number of birds with adhering sticky droppings, but did not entirely eliminate sticky droppings. One of the objectives of the broiler chicken trials reported here was to determine if higher concentrations of transgenic malt could alleviate the sticky droppings. 2. Another aim was to investigate the feasibility of using mature transgenic grain containing the thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase as feed addition and to compare diets containing transgenic grain to a diet with the recommended amount of a commercial beta-glucanase-based product. 3. Inclusion of 75 or 151 g/kg transgenic malt containing 4.7 or 98 mg/kg thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase with 545 or 469 g/kg non-transgenic barley instead of maize yielded a weight gain in Cornish Cross broiler chickens indistinguishable from presently used maize diets. The gene encoding the enzyme is expressed in the aleurone with a barley alpha-amylase gene promoter and the enzyme is synthesised with a signal peptide for secretion into the endosperm of the malting grain. 4. Equal weight gain was achieved, when the feed included 39 g/kg transgenic barley grain [containing 66 mg/kg thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase] and 581 g/kg non-transgenic barley instead of maize. In this case, the gene encoding the enzyme has been expressed with the D-hordein gene (Hor3-1) promoter during grain maturation. The enzyme is synthesised as a precursor with a signal peptide for transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted into the storage vacuoles. Deposition of the enzyme in the prolamin storage protein bodies of the endosperm protects it from degradation during the programmed cell death of the endosperm in the

  15. Discovery of Novel Bmy1 Alleles Increasing β-Amylase Activity in Chinese Landraces and Tibetan Wild Barley for Improvement of Malting Quality via MAS

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xue; Westcott, Sharon; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Guijun; Lance, Reg; Zhang, Guoping; Sun, Dongfa; Li, Chengdao

    2013-01-01

    China has a large barley germplasm collection which has not been well characterized and is therefore underutilized. The Bmy1 locus encoding the β-amylase enzyme on chromosome 4H has been well characterized in the worldwide barley germplasm collections due to its importance in the malting and brewing industry. The Bmy1 locus was chosen as an indicator to understand genetic potential for improvement of malting quality in Chinese landraces and Tibetan wild barley. The genetic diversity of 91 barley accessions was assessed using allele specific Multiplex-ready molecular markers. Eight accessions were further sequenced, based on the Multiplex-ready marker diversity for Bmy1 in the germplasm. Six of the eight accessions clustered together in a unique group, and showed similarities to ‘Haruna Nijo’, wild barley accession PI296896 and ‘Ashqelon’. Sequence comparisons with the known Bmy1 alleles identified not only the existing 13 amino acid substitutions, but also a new substitution positioned at A387T from a Chinese landrace W127, which has the highest β-amylase activity. Two new alleles/haplotypes namely Bmy1-Sd1c and Bmy1-Sd5 were designated based on different amino acid combinations. We identified new amino acid combination of C115, D165, V233, S347 and V430 in the germplasm. The broad variation in both β-amylase activity and amino acid composition provides novel alleles for the improvement of malting quality for different brewing styles, which indicates the high potential value of the Chinese landraces and Tibetan wild barley. PMID:24019884

  16. Effectiveness of Radiotherapy for Elderly Patients With Glioblastoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Scott, Jacob; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Chinnaiyan, Prakash

    Purpose: Radiotherapy plays a central role in the definitive treatment of glioblastoma. However, the optimal management of elderly patients with glioblastoma remains controversial, as the relative benefit in this patient population is unclear. To better understand the role that radiation plays in the treatment of glioblastoma in the elderly, we analyzed factors influencing patient survival using a large population-based registry. Methods and Materials: A total of 2,836 patients more than 70 years of age diagnosed with glioblastoma between 1993 and 2005 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Demographic and clinical variables used in the analysismore » included gender, ethnicity, tumor size, age at diagnosis, surgery, and radiotherapy. Cancer-specific survival and overall survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using Cox regression. Results: Radiotherapy was administered in 64% of these patients, and surgery was performed in 68%. Among 2,836 patients, 46% received surgery and radiotherapy, 22% underwent surgery only, 18% underwent radiotherapy only, and 14% did not undergo either treatment. The median survival for patients who underwent surgery and radiotherapy was 8 months. The median survival for patients who underwent radiotherapy only was 4 months, and for patients who underwent surgery only was 3 months. Those who received neither surgery nor radiotherapy had a median survival of 2 months (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that radiotherapy significantly improved cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.49) after adjusting for surgery, tumor size, gender, ethnicity, and age at diagnosis. Other factors associated with Cancer-specific survival included surgery, tumor size, age at diagnosis, and ethnicity. Analysis using overall survival as the endpoint yielded very similar results. Conclusions

  17. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptability of a beverage made from malted and fermented cereal: case of gowe from Benin.

    PubMed

    Adinsi, Laurent; Akissoé, Noël H; Dalodé-Vieira, Générose; Anihouvi, Victor B; Fliedel, Geneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory profile of gowe beverage was established with 10 gowe samples by 22 semitrained panelists. Besides, consumer study was performed on four representative gowe samples with 141 African ordinary consumers using a modified quantitative descriptive analysis. Gowe samples significantly differed (P < 0.05) with respect to all the sensory attributes, except for cereal odor and cereal taste (P > 0.05). The principal component analysis plot revealed the effects of raw material and process: Sorghum gowe was differently scored from maize gowe samples (P < 0.05). Gowe types from saccharification step (SSaF, SSaSF) evidenced higher scores with respect to fermented odor (41.7) and acidic taste (47.9), while those without saccharification had lower scores of fermented odor and acidic taste, with values of 18.4 and 16.9, respectively. No significant difference was evidenced with respect to the addition of "non malted flour" before or after saccharification. Regarding consumer testing, three distinct patterns of consumer acceptability were observed, which were grouped as "Sugary gowe likers" (63.1% of consumers) followed by "Sugary and saccharified sorghum gowe likers" (20.6%) and "Pure maize gowe dislikers" (16.3%). Irrespective of the consumers cluster, saccharified malted sorghum gowe without sugar was the unique sample scored more than 6 over 9.

  18. [Task sharing with radiotherapy technicians in image-guided radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Diaz, O; Lorchel, F; Revault, C; Mornex, F

    2013-10-01

    The development of accelerators with on-board imaging systems now allows better target volumes reset at the time of irradiation (image-guided radiotherapy [IGRT]). However, these technological advances in the control of repositioning led to a multiplication of tasks for each actor in radiotherapy and increase the time available for the treatment, whether for radiotherapy technicians or radiation oncologists. As there is currently no explicit regulatory framework governing the use of IGRT, some institutional experiments show that a transfer is possible between radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technicians for on-line verification of image positioning. Initial training for every technical and drafting procedures within institutions will improve audit quality by reducing interindividual variability. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Radiotherapy staffing in the European countries: final results from the ESTRO-HERO survey.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Yolande; Defourny, Noémie; Coffey, Mary; Borras, Josep M; Dunscombe, Peter; Slotman, Ben; Malicki, Julian; Bogusz, Marta; Gasparotto, Chiara; Grau, Cai; Kokobobo, Arianit; Sedlmayer, Felix; Slobina, Elena; Coucke, Philippe; Gabrovski, Roumen; Vosmik, Milan; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Jaal, Jana; Dejean, Catherine; Polgar, Csaba; Johannsson, Jakob; Cunningham, Moya; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Back, Carlo; Pirotta, Martin; Karadjinovic, Vanja; Levernes, Sverre; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Trigo, Maria Lurdes; Šegedin, Barbara; Palacios, Amalia; Pastoors, Bert; Beardmore, Charlotte; Erridge, Sara; Smyth, Gaile; Cleries Soler, Ramon

    2014-08-01

    The ESTRO Health Economics in Radiation Oncology (HERO) project has the overall aim to develop a knowledge base of the provision of radiotherapy in Europe and build a model for health economic evaluation of radiation treatments at the European level. The first milestone was to assess the availability of radiotherapy resources within Europe. This paper presents the personnel data collected in the ESTRO HERO database. An 84-item questionnaire was sent out to European countries, through their national scientific and professional radiotherapy societies. The current report includes a detailed analysis of radiotherapy staffing (questionnaire items 47-60), analysed in relation to the annual number of treatment courses and the socio-economic status of the countries. The analysis was conducted between February and July 2014, and is based on validated responses from 24 of the 40 European countries defined by the European Cancer Observatory (ECO). A large variation between countries was found for most parameters studied. Averages and ranges for personnel numbers per million inhabitants are 12.8 (2.5-30.9) for radiation oncologists, 7.6 (0-19.7) for medical physicists, 3.5 (0-12.6) for dosimetrists, 26.6 (1.9-78) for RTTs and 14.8 (0.4-61.0) for radiotherapy nurses. The combined average for physicists and dosimetrists is 9.8 per million inhabitants and 36.9 for RTT and nurses. Radiation oncologists on average treat 208.9 courses per year (range: 99.9-348.8), physicists and dosimetrists conjointly treat 303.3 courses (range: 85-757.7) and RTT and nurses 76.8 (range: 25.7-156.8). In countries with higher GNI per capita, all personnel categories treat fewer courses per annum than in less affluent countries. This relationship is most evident for RTTs and nurses. Different clusters of countries can be distinguished on the basis of available personnel resources and socio-economic status. The average personnel figures in Europe are now consistent with, or even more favourable than

  20. Outcome of accelerated radiotherapy alone or accelerated radiotherapy followed by exenteration of the nasal cavity in dogs with intranasal neoplasia: 53 cases (1990-2002).

    PubMed

    Adams, William M; Bjorling, Dale E; McAnulty, Jonathan E; Green, Eric M; Forrest, Lisa J; Vail, David M

    2005-09-15

    To compare long-term results of radiotherapy alone versus radiotherapy followed by exenteration of the nasal cavity in dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia. Retrospective study. 53 dogs with malignant intranasal neoplasia. All dogs underwent radiotherapy consisting of administration of 10 fractions of 4.2 Gy each on consecutive weekdays. For dogs in the surgery group (n=13), follow-up computed tomography was performed, and dogs were scheduled for surgery if persistent or recurrent tumor was seen. Perioperative complications for dogs that underwent surgery included hemorrhage requiring transfusion (2 dogs) and subcutaneous emphysema (8). Rhinitis and osteomyelitis-osteonecrosis occurred significantly more frequently in dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group (9 and 4 dogs, respectively) than in dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (4 and 3 dogs, respectively). Two- and 3-year survival rates were 44% and 24%, respectively, for dogs in the radiotherapy group and 69% and 58%, respectively, for dogs in the surgery group. Overall median survival time for dogs in the radiotherapy and surgery group (477 months) was significantly longer than time for dogs in the radiotherapy-only group (19.7 months). Results suggest that exenteration of the nasal cavity significantly prolongs survival time in dogs with intranasal neoplasia that have undergone radiotherapy. Exenteration after radiotherapy may increase the risk of chronic complications.

  1. Gold Nanoparticle Hyperthermia Reduces Radiotherapy Dose

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lynn; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Vadas, Timothy M.; Smilowitz, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can absorb near infrared light, resulting in heating and ablation of tumors. Gold nanoparticles have also been used for enhancing the dose of X-rays in tumors during radiotherapy. The combination of hyperthermia and radiotherapy is synergistic, importantly allowing a reduction in X-ray dose with improved therapeutic results. Here we intratumorally infused small 15 nm gold nanoparticles engineered to be transformed from infrared-transparent to infrared-absorptive by the tumor, which were then heated by infrared followed by X-ray treatment. Synergy was studied using a very radioresistant subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCCVII) in mice. It was found that the dose required to control 50% of the tumors, normally 55 Gy, could be reduced to <15 Gy (a factor of >3.7). Gold nanoparticles therefore provide a method to combine hyperthermia and radiotherapy to drastically reduce the X-ray radiation needed, thus sparing normal tissue, reducing the side effects, and making radiotherapy more effective. PMID:24990355

  2. Phase II Trial of Radiotherapy After Hyperbaric Oxygenation With Multiagent Chemotherapy (Procarbazine, Nimustine, and Vincristine) for High-Grade Gliomas: Long-Term Results

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Inoue, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term results of a Phase II trial of radiotherapy given immediately after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) with multiagent chemotherapy in adults with high-grade gliomas. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed high-grade gliomas were administered radiotherapy in daily 2 Gy fractions for 5 consecutive days per week up to a total dose of 60 Gy. Each fraction was administered immediately after HBO, with the time interval from completion of decompression to start of irradiation being less than 15 minutes. Chemotherapy consisting of procarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine and was administered during and after radiotherapy. Results: A total ofmore » 57 patients (39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas) were enrolled from 2000 to 2006, and the median follow-up of 12 surviving patients was 62.0 months (range, 43.2-119.1 months). All 57 patients were able to complete a total radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy immediately after HBO with one course of concurrent chemotherapy. The median overall survival times in all 57 patients, 39 patients with glioblastoma and 18 patients with Grade 3 gliomas, were 20.2 months, 17.2 months, and 113.4 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, histologic grade alone was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (p < 0.001). During treatments, no patients had neutropenic fever or intracranial hemorrhage, and no serious nonhematologic or late toxicities were seen in any of the 57 patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy delivered immediately after HBO with multiagent chemotherapy was safe, with virtually no late toxicities, and seemed to be effective in patients with high-grade gliomas.« less

  3. MALT90 Kinematic Distances to Dense Molecular Clumps

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Whitaker, J. Scott; Jackson, James M.; Sanhueza, Patricio

    Using molecular-line data from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90), we have estimated kinematic distances to 1905 molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μ m continuum survey over the longitude range 295° <  l  < 350°. The clump velocities were determined using a flux-weighted average of the velocities obtained from Gaussian fits to the HCO{sup +}, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1–0) transitions. The near/far kinematic distance ambiguity was addressed by searching for the presence or absence of absorption or self-absorption features in 21 cm atomic hydrogen spectra from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. Our algorithm provides anmore » estimation of the reliability of the ambiguity resolution. The Galactic distribution of the clumps indicates positions where the clumps are bunched together, and these locations probably trace the locations of spiral arms. Several clumps fall at the predicted location of the far side of the Scutum–Centaurus arm. Moreover, a number of clumps with positive radial velocities are unambiguously located on the far side of the Milky Way at galactocentric radii beyond the solar circle. The measurement of these kinematic distances, in combination with continuum or molecular-line data, now enables the determination of fundamental parameters such as mass, size, and luminosity for each clump.« less

  4. Hypothyroidism After Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy in Children and Adolescents: Preliminary Results of the 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Boelling, Tobias, E-mail: Tobias.Boelling@uni-muenster.de; Department of Radiotherapy, Paracelsus Clinic Osnabrueck, Osnabrueck; Geisenheiser, Alina

    Purpose: The 'Registry for the Evaluation of Side Effects After Radiotherapy in Childhood and Adolescence' (RiSK) has been established to prospectively characterize dose-volume effects of radiation in terms of side effects. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the function of the thyroid gland after radiotherapy to the head-and-neck region in children and adolescents. Methods and Materials: Detailed information regarding radiation doses to at-risk organs has been collected across Germany since 2001. Thyroid function was evaluated by blood value examinations of thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Information regarding thyroid hormone substitution was requested from the treating physicians. Results: Untilmore » May 2009, 1,086 patients from 62 centers were recruited, including 404 patients (median age, 10.9 years) who had received radiotherapy to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis. Follow-up information was available for 264 patients (60.9%; median follow-up, 40 months), with 60 patients (22.7%) showing pathologic values. In comparison to patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (median dose, 12 Gy), patients with radiation doses of 15 to 25 Gy to the thyroid gland had a hazard ratio of 3.072 (p = 0.002) for the development of pathologic thyroid blood values. Patients with greater than 25 Gy to the thyroid gland and patients who underwent craniospinal irradiation had hazard ratios of 3.768 (p = 0.009) and 5.674 (p < 0.001), respectively. The cumulative incidence of thyroid hormone substitution therapy did not differ between defined subgroups. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid function impairment, including damage to the thyroid gland and/or hypophysis, can frequently be observed after radiotherapy in children. A structured follow-up examination is advised.« less

  5. Conformal radiotherapy, reduced boost volume, hyperfractionated radiotherapy, and online quality control in standard-risk medulloblastoma without chemotherapy: Results of the French M-SFOP 98 protocol

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carrie, Christian; Muracciole, Xavier; Gomez, Frederic

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Between December 1998 and October 2001, patients <19 years old were treated for standard-risk medulloblastoma according to the Medulloblastome-Societe Francaise d'Oncologie Pediatrique 1998 (M-SFOP 98) protocol. Patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy (36 Gy in 36 fractions) to the craniospinal axis, a boost with conformal therapy restricted to the tumor bed (to a total dose of 68 Gy in 68 fractions), and no chemotherapy. Records of craniospinal irradiation were reviewed before treatment start. Results: A total of 48 patients were considered assessable. With a median follow-up of 45.7 months, the overall survival and progression-free survival rate at 3 years was 89%more » and 81%, respectively. Fourteen major deviations were detected and eight were corrected. No relapses occurred in the frontal region and none occurred in the posterior fossa outside the boost volume. Nine patients were available for volume calculation without reduction of the volume irradiated. We observed a reduction in the subtentorial volume irradiated to >60 Gy, but a slight increase in the volume irradiated to 40 Gy. No decrease in intelligence was observed in the 22 children tested during the first 2 years. Conclusion: This hyperfractionated radiotherapy protocol with a reduced boost volume and without chemotherapy was not associated with early relapses in children. Moreover, intellectual function seemed to be preserved. These results are promising.« less

  6. Feeding value of different levels of malt sprout and katikala atella on nutrient utilization and growth performance of sheep fed basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Abdu, Yunus

    2014-03-01

    Nonconventional agro-industrial by-products such as traditional liquor residues (locally called katikala atella) are widely used by livestock farmers in Ethiopia. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the supplementary value of katikala atella and malt sprout (MS) on performance of sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay. Thirty intact yearling male sheep with an average initial body weight of 17.4 ± 0.74 kg (mean ± SD) were assigned to the treatments in a completely randomized block design: atella alone (T1), 75 % atella + 25 % malt sprout (MS) (T2), 50 % atella + 50 % MS (T3), 25 % atella + 75 % MS (T4), MS alone (T5), and Rhodes grass hay alone (T6). Grass hay was fed ad libitum to all treatments. The total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep fed T4, T5, and T3 diets were the highest (P < 0.05), while sheep receiving T6 had the lowest DM intake. The highest (P < 0.05) total crude protein (CP) intake was for sheep fed T5 diet, while the lowest was for those fed T6 diet. Sheep receiving T3 diet had higher (P < 0.05) DM, OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility as compared with those fed T1, T2, and T6 diets. Sheep supplemented with 50-100 % malt sprout had similar (P > 0.05) DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. The highest (P < 0.05) average daily gain was for sheep fed T3, T4, and T5 diets, while sheep in T6 lost body weight. Sheep fed T5 diet had the highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention, while those fed T6 diet had the lowest. The study has shown that a mixture diet consisting of equal parts of katikala atella and malt sprout (T3) are found to be superior in most of the required nutrient characteristics.

  7. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (without surgery) compared with radiotherapy alone in localized carcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Rebecca, W O; Richard, M A

    2003-01-01

    between the treatment arms. Absolute risk difference and number needed to treat (NNT) were used to express the magnitude of difference where appropriate. Thirteen randomized trials were included in the analysis. There were eight concomitant and five sequential radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RTCT) studies. The studies were analyzed separately due to observed heterogeneity across all the studies and biological considerations. Concomitant RTCT provided significant overall reduction in mortality at 1 and 2 years. The mortality in the control arms was 62% and 83% respectively. Combined RTCT provided an absolute reduction of mortality by 7% (95% CI 1-15%) and 7% (95% CI 0-15%) respectively. Expressed as NNT, this is 12 and 12 respectively. At longer follow up, the results were heterogeneous, cautioning against pooling of the data. There was a reduction in the overall local recurrence rate. The local recurrence rate for the control arms was in the order of 68%. Combined RTCT provided an absolute reduction of local recurrence rate of 12% (95% CI 3-22%) with a NNT of 9. There was significant increase of severe and life threatening toxicities with a NNH of 6, with this approach. The sensitivity analysis did not identify any factor that interacted with the results, or subgroup in which the benefit appear to be limited to. The results from the sequential RTCT studies were heterogeneous and could not be pooled. Factors hypothesized a priori did not identify any single source that could account for a significant component of the heterogeneity. Examining the results individually, there was no data to support clinical benefit. This approach was also accompanied by significant toxicities. When a non-operative approach is selected, then concomitant RTCT is superior to the RT alone. This approach is accompanied by significant toxicities. In patients who are in good general condition, and the risk benefit has been thoroughly discussed with the patient, co thoroughly discussed with the

  8. Radiotherapy and Hyperthermia for Treatment of Primary Locally Advanced Cervix Cancer: Results in 378 Patients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Franckena, Martine; Lutgens, Ludy C.; Koper, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report response rate, pelvic tumor control, survival, and late toxicity after treatment with combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia (RHT) for patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma (LACC) and compare the results with other published series. Methods and Materials: From 1996 to 2005, a total of 378 patients with LACC (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB2-IVA) were treated with RHT. External beam radiotherapy (RT) was applied to 46-50.4 Gy and combined with brachytherapy. The hyperthermia (HT) was prescribed once weekly. Primary end points were complete response (CR) and local control. Secondary end points were overall survival, disease-specific survival,more » and late toxicity. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics predictive for the end points were identified in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Overall, a CR was achieved in 77% of patients. At 5 years, local control, disease-specific survival, and incidence of late toxicity Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Grade 3 or higher were 53%, 47%, and 12%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, number of HT treatments emerged as a predictor of outcome in addition to commonly identified prognostic factors. Conclusions: The CR, local control, and survival rates are similar to previously observed results of RHT in the randomized Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial. Reported treatment results for currently applied combined treatment modalities (i.e., RT with chemotherapy and/or HT) do not permit definite conclusions about which combination is superior. The present results confirm previously shown beneficial effects from adding HT to RT and justify the application of RHT as first-line treatment in patients with LACC as an alternative to chemoradiation.« less

  9. Sensory evaluation and consumer acceptability of a beverage made from malted and fermented cereal: case of gowe from Benin

    PubMed Central

    Adinsi, Laurent; Akissoé, Noël H; Dalodé-Vieira, Générose; Anihouvi, Victor B; Fliedel, Geneviève; Mestres, Christian; Hounhouigan, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory profile of gowe beverage was established with 10 gowe samples by 22 semitrained panelists. Besides, consumer study was performed on four representative gowe samples with 141 African ordinary consumers using a modified quantitative descriptive analysis. Gowe samples significantly differed (P < 0.05) with respect to all the sensory attributes, except for cereal odor and cereal taste (P > 0.05). The principal component analysis plot revealed the effects of raw material and process: Sorghum gowe was differently scored from maize gowe samples (P < 0.05). Gowe types from saccharification step (SSaF, SSaSF) evidenced higher scores with respect to fermented odor (41.7) and acidic taste (47.9), while those without saccharification had lower scores of fermented odor and acidic taste, with values of 18.4 and 16.9, respectively. No significant difference was evidenced with respect to the addition of “non malted flour” before or after saccharification. Regarding consumer testing, three distinct patterns of consumer acceptability were observed, which were grouped as “Sugary gowe likers” (63.1% of consumers) followed by “Sugary and saccharified sorghum gowe likers” (20.6%) and “Pure maize gowe dislikers” (16.3%). Irrespective of the consumers cluster, saccharified malted sorghum gowe without sugar was the unique sample scored more than 6 over 9. PMID:25649142

  10. Bevacizumab, temozolomide, and radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma: comprehensive safety results during and after first-line therapy.

    PubMed

    Saran, Frank; Chinot, Olivier L; Henriksson, Roger; Mason, Warren; Wick, Wolfgang; Cloughesy, Timothy; Dhar, Sunita; Pozzi, Emanuela; Garcia, Josep; Nishikawa, Ryo

    2016-07-01

    The proposed use of bevacizumab with radiotherapy/temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma raised potential safety concerns. Bevacizumab has been linked with stroke, bleeding events, and wound-healing complications in other tumor types; these events are of particular concern for glioblastoma (highly vascular tumors that are usually resected). Published data on the interaction of bevacizumab with radiotherapy/temozolomide are also limited. We report safety data from a phase III randomized trial (Avastin in Glioblastoma), focusing on these considerations. Eligible patients received: radiotherapy and temozolomide plus bevacizumab/placebo, 6 cycles; a 4-week treatment break; temozolomide plus bevacizumab/placebo, 6 cycles; and bevacizumab/placebo until progression. Data on adverse events (AEs) were collected throughout. Bevacizumab-treated patients (n = 461) had a longer median safety follow-up time (12.3 vs 8.5 mo), and a higher proportion completed 6 cycles of maintenance temozolomide (64.6% vs 36.9%) versus placebo (n = 450). The incidences of relevant AEs (bevacizumab vs placebo, respectively) were: arterial thromboembolic events (5.9% vs 1.6%); cerebral hemorrhage (3.3% vs 2.0%); wound-healing complications (6.9% vs 4.7%); thrombocytopenia (34.1% vs 27.3%); radiotherapy-associated skin injury (8.2% vs 9.3%); alopecia (39.0% vs 36.0%); gastrointestinal perforation (including gastrointestinal abscesses and fistulae, 1.7% vs 0.4%); and radiotherapy-associated injury (0.4% vs 0.0%). Overall, 15.8% and 23.8% of bevacizumab- and placebo-treated patients had surgery (including biopsy) after progression. Within 30 days of postprogression surgery, AE incidence was 10.9% (bevacizumab) and 23.4% (placebo). The safety profile was consistent with that expected from radiotherapy/temozolomide plus bevacizumab. The increased AE incidence with bevacizumab did not impact patients' ability to receive standard-of-care treatment or to undergo further surgery. © The Author

  11. Radiation-related quality of life parameters after targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer: results from the randomized phase III trial TARGIT-A.

    PubMed

    Welzel, Grit; Boch, Angela; Sperk, Elena; Hofmann, Frank; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Gerhardt, Axel; Suetterlin, Marc; Wenz, Frederik

    2013-01-07

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is a new treatment approach for early stage breast cancer. This study reports on the effects of IORT on radiation-related quality of life (QoL) parameters. Two hundred and thirty women with stage I-III breast cancer (age, 31 to 84 years) were entered into the study. A single-center subgroup of 87 women from the two arms of the randomized phase III trial TARGIT-A (TARGeted Intra-operative radioTherapy versus whole breast radiotherapy for breast cancer) was analyzed. Furthermore, results were compared to non-randomized control groups: n = 90 receiving IORT as a tumor bed boost followed by external beam whole breast radiotherapy (EBRT) outside of TARGIT-A (IORT-boost), and n = 53 treated with EBRT followed by an external-beam boost (EBRT-boost). QoL was collected using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires C30 (QLQ-C30) and BR23 (QLQ-BR23). The mean follow-up period in the TARGIT-A groups was 32 versus 39 months in the non-randomized control groups. Patients receiving IORT alone reported less general pain (21.3 points), breast (7.0 points) and arm (15.1 points) symptoms, and better role functioning (78.7 points) as patients receiving EBRT (40.9; 19.0; 32.8; and 60.5 points, respectively, P < 0.01). Patients receiving IORT alone also had fewer breast symptoms than TARGIT-A patients receiving IORT followed by EBRT for high risk features on final pathology (IORT-EBRT; 7.0 versus 29.7 points, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences between TARGIT-A patients receiving IORT-EBRT compared to non-randomized IORT-boost or EBRT-boost patients and patients receiving EBRT without a boost. In the randomized setting, important radiation-related QoL parameters after IORT were superior to EBRT. Non-randomized comparisons showed equivalent parameters in the IORT-EBRT group and the control groups.

  12. [Current status and potential perspectives in classical radiotherapy technology].

    PubMed

    Dabić-Stanković, Kata M; Stanković, Jovan B; Radosević-Jelić, Ljiljana M

    2004-01-01

    After purchase of radiotherapy equipment in 2003, classic radiation therapy in Serbia will reach the highest world level. In order to define the highest standards in radiation technology, we analyzed the current status and potential perspectives of radiation therapy. An analysis of present situation in the USA, assumed as the most developed in the world, was done. Available data, collected in the last 3 years (equipment assortment, therapy modalities, workload and manpower) for 284 radiotherapy centers, out of potential 2050, were analyzed. Results were presented as crude percentage and matched to point current status. The analysis showed that CLINAC accelerators are the most popular (82.7%), as well as, ADAC (43.7%) and Focus (CMS) (27.4%) systems for therapy planning. Movement towards virtual simulation is evident (59.3%), although classic "simulation" is not fully eliminated from the radiotherapy chain. The most popular brachytherapy afterloader is Microselectron HDR (71%). About 64.4% centers use IMPAC communication/verification/record system that seems more open than Varis. All centers practice modern radiotherapy modalities and techniques (CPRT, IMRT, SRS/SRT, TBI, IORT, IVBHRT, HDR BHRT, etc.). CT and MRI availability is out of question, but PET is available in 3% of centers, however this percentage is rapidly growing. Up to 350 new patients per year are treated by one accelerator (about 35 pts. a day). Centers are relatively small and utilize 2-3 accelerators on average. Average FTE staffing norm is 4 radiation oncologists, 2-3 medical radiotherapy physicists, about 3 certified medical dosimetrists and about 6 radiotherapy technologists. In the past 5 years relative stagnation in classic radiotherapy has been observed. In spite of substantial investments in technology and consequent improvements, as well as wide introduction of computers in radiotherapy, radiotherapy results have not changed significantly. Vendor developement strategies do not point that

  13. Treatment Strategy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shotaro; Matsumoto, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Recent trends and current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment strategy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma are reviewed. Helicobacter pylori infection plays the causative role in the pathogenesis, and H pylori eradication is the first-line treatment of this disease, which leads to complete remission in 60% to 90% of cases. A Japanese multicenter study confirmed that the long-term outcome of gastric MALT lymphoma after H pylori eradication is excellent. Treatment strategies for patients not responding to H pylori eradication including "watch and wait" strategy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, rituximab immunotherapy, and combination of these should be tailored in consideration of the disease extent in each patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Results of a multicentric in silico clinical trial (ROCOCO): comparing radiotherapy with photons and protons for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Erik; Engelsman, Martijn; Rasch, Coen; Persoon, Lucas; Qamhiyeh, Sima; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Verhaegen, Frank; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Lambin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This multicentric in silico trial compares photon and proton radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer patients. The hypothesis is that proton radiotherapy decreases the dose and the volume of irradiated normal tissues even when escalating to the maximum tolerable dose of one or more of the organs at risk (OAR). Twenty-five patients, stage IA-IIIB, were prospectively included. On 4D F18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans, the gross tumor, clinical and planning target volumes, and OAR were delineated. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) photon and passive scattered conformal proton therapy (PSPT) plans were created to give 70 Gy to the tumor in 35 fractions. Dose (de-)escalation was performed by rescaling to the maximum tolerable dose. Protons resulted in the lowest dose to the OAR, while keeping the dose to the target at 70 Gy. The integral dose (ID) was higher for 3DCRT (59%) and IMRT (43%) than for PSPT. The mean lung dose reduced from 18.9 Gy for 3DCRT and 16.4 Gy for IMRT to 13.5 Gy for PSPT. For 10 patients, escalation to 87 Gy was possible for all 3 modalities. The mean lung dose and ID were 40 and 65% higher for photons than for protons, respectively. The treatment planning results of the Radiation Oncology Collaborative Comparison trial show a reduction of ID and the dose to the OAR when treating with protons instead of photons, even with dose escalation. This shows that PSPT is able to give a high tumor dose, while keeping the OAR dose lower than with the photon modalities.

  15. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (without surgery) compared with radiotherapy alone in localized carcinoma of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Wong, R; Malthaner, R

    2001-01-01

    between the treatment arms. Absolute risk difference and number needed to treat (NNT) were used to express the magnitude of difference where appropriate. Thirteen randomized trials were included in the analysis. There were eight concomitant and five sequential radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RTCT) studies. The studies were analyzed separately due to observed heterogeneity across all the studies and biological considerations. Concomitant RTCT provided significant overall reduction in mortality at 1 and 2 years. The mortality in the control arms was 67% and 86% respectively. Combined RTCT provided an absolute reduction of mortality by 9% (95% CI 2-17%) and 8% (95% CI 1-17%) respectively. Expressed as NNT, this is 11 and 10 respectively. At longer follow up, the results were heterogeneous, cautioning against pooling of the data. There was a reduction in the overall local recurrence rate. The local recurrence rate for the control arms was in the order of 69%. Combined RTCT provided an absolute reduction of local recurrence rate of 5% (95% CI 4-26%) with a NNT of 7. There was significant increase of severe and life threatening toxicities with a NNH of 6, with this approach. With the sensitivity analysis, there was a suggestion that cisplatin based and 5FU based chemotherapy studies were reasonable regimens to employ when using this strategy. The results from the sequential RTCT studies were heterogeneous and could not be pooled. Factors hypothesized a priori did not identify any single source that could account for a significant component of the heterogeneity. Examining the results individually, there was no data to support clinical benefit. This approach was also accompanied by significant toxicities. When a non-operative approach is selected, then concomitant RTCT is superior to the RT alone. This approach is accompanied by significant toxicities. In patients who are in good general condition, and the risk benefit has been thoroughly discussed with the patient, concomitant

  16. Intraoperative radiotherapy given as a boost for early breast cancer: Long-term clinical and cosmetic results

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lemanski, Claire; Azria, David; Thezenas, Simon

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: The standard radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer consists of 50 Gy external beam RT (EBRT) to the whole breast followed by an electron boost of 10-16 Gy to the tumor bed, but this has several cosmetic disadvantages. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) could be an alternative to overcome these. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 50 women with early breast cancer operated on in a dedicated IORT facility. Median dose of 10 Gy was delivered using 9-MeV electron beams. All patients received postoperative EBRT (50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions). Late toxicity and cosmetic results were assessed independently by two physicians accordingmore » to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event v3.0 grading system and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires. Results: After a median follow-up of 9.1 years (range, 5-15 years), two local recurrences were observed within the primary tumor bed. At the time of analysis, 45 patients are alive with (n = 1) or without disease. Among the 42 disease-free remaining patients, 6 experienced Grade 2 late subcutaneous fibrosis within the boost area. Overall, the scores indicated a very good quality of life and cosmesis was good to excellent in the evaluated patients. Conclusion: Our results confirm that IORT given as a boost after breast-conserving surgery is a reliable alternative to conventional postoperative fractionated boost radiation.« less

  17. Efficiency of biochar produced from malt spent rootlets to remove mercury and dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenidou, Charoula; Manariotis, Ioannis; Karapanagioti, Hrissi

    2017-04-01

    Considerable research effort has been focused on the production of biochar from carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions as a mitigation measure for global warming once it is used as a soil amendment. Furthermore, the use of biochar as an added value product, such as sorbent or catalyst, is desirable and could be more profitable. Biochar is obtained from the incomplete combustion of carbon-rich biomass under oxygen-limited conditions. Various organic-rich wastes including wood chips, animal manure, and crop residues have been used for biochar production. The present study presents the findings of an experimental work, which investigated the use of biochar produced from malt spent rootlets (MSR), which is a beer production by-product, to remove Hg(II) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. MSR was pyrolyzed at temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 600, 750, 850, and 900oC, under limited oxygen conditions. The increase of temperature resulted in significantly increased BET surface areas. The mercury sorption capacity was affected by pyrolysis temperature, and was increased by increasing the pyrolysis temperature. The maximum sorption capacity was 100-110 mg Hg(II)/g biochar at a temperature range of 750-850oC. The MB sorption capacity of biochar was also affected by pyrolysis temperature.

  18. Patterns of radiotherapy infrastructure in Japan and in other countries with well-developed radiotherapy infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Konishi, Kenta; Komatsu, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Tomonari; Shikama, Naoto

    2018-05-01

    In high-income countries, the number of radiotherapy machine per population reaches a sufficient level. However, the patterns of infrastructure of radiotherapy in high-income countries are not well known. Among 29 high-income countries with gross national income of $25,000 or more per capita, we selected 23 countries whose total number of newly diagnosed cancer patients in 2012 was reported in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Statistics 2017. The numbers of radiotherapy centers and teletherapy machines in each of these 23 countries were collected using the Dictionary of Radiotherapy Centers database. The number of cancer patients per teletherapy machine was 452.35-1398.22 (median 711.66) with a three-fold variation, whereas the number of cancer patients per radiotherapy center varied even more widely, from 826.16 to 5159.86 (median 2259.83) with a six-fold variation. The average number of teletherapy machines per radiotherapy center also ranged widely, from 1.24 to 8.29 (median 3.11) with a seven-fold variation. The number of teletherapy machines in each country was almost proportional to that of cancer patients, and the number of teletherapy machines per radiotherapy center was inversely related to the number of radiotherapy centers per cancer patients. The number of teletherapy machines per radiotherapy center in Japan was 1.24, the most fragmented among the high-income countries. The percentage of large radiotherapy centers having three or more teletherapy machines in Japan was the smallest among 23 high-income countries. Optimization of the radiotherapy infrastructure in Japan should be carefully considered.

  19. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rades, Dirk; Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Stoehr, Monika

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week.more » Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.« less

  20. Combined treatment of inoperable carcinomas of the uterine cervix with radiotherapy and regional hyperthermia. Results of a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, S; Harder, C; Wurm, R; Buchali, A; Blohmer, J; Gellermann, J; Wust, P; Randow, H; Budach, V

    1998-10-01

    The disappointing results for inoperable, advanced tumors of the uterine cervix after conventional radiotherapy alone necessitates improving of radiation therapy. Simultaneous chemotherapy or altered radiation fractionation, such as accelerated regimen, increase acute toxicity and treatment is often difficult to deliver in the planned manner. The purpose of this phase II study was to investigate the toxicity and effectiveness of a combined approach with radiotherapy and regional hyperthermia. From January 1994 to October 1995 18 patients with advanced carcinomas of the uterine cervix were treated in combination with radiotherapy and hyperthermia. The patients were treated with 6 to 20 MV photons delivered by a linear accelerator in a 4-field-box technique to a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. In the first and fourth week 2 regional hyperthermia treatments were each applied with the Sigma-60 applicator from a BSD-2000 unit. After this a boost to the primary tumor was given with high-dose-rate iridium-192 brachytherapy by an afterloading technique with 4 x 5 Gy at point A to a total of 20 Gy and for the involved parametrium anterioposterior-posterioanterior to 9 Gy in 5 fractions. The acute toxicity was low and similar to an external radiotherapy alone treatment. No Grade III/IV acute toxicity was found. The median age was 47 years (range 34 to 67 years). In 16 of 18 patients a rapid tumor regression was observed during combined thermo-radiotherapy, which allowed the use of intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy in these cases. Complete and partial remission were observed in 13 and 4 cases, respectively. One patient did not respond to the treatment. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 17 to 36 months). The local tumor control rate was 48% at 2 years. Median T20, T50 and T90 values were 41.7 degrees C (range 40.3 to 43.2 degrees C), 41.1 degrees C (range 39.2 to 42.5 degrees C) and 39.9 degrees C (range 37.7 to 41.9 degrees C), respectively. Cumulative

  1. Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Pancreatic Cancer in Japan: Results of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) Survey

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j; Ito, Yoshinori; Karasawa, Katsuyuki

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns of radiotherapy practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national survey of radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer treated between 2000 and 2006 was conducted by the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG). Detailed information on 870 patients from 34 radiation oncology institutions was accumulated. Results: The median age of all patients was 64 years (range, 36-88), and 80.2% of the patients had good performance status. More than 85% of patients had clinical Stage T3-T4 disease, and 68.9% of patients had unresectable disease at diagnosis. Concerning radiotherapy (RT), 49.8% of patients were treatedmore » with radical external beam RT (EBRT) (median dose, 50.4 Gy), 44.4% of patients were treated with intraoperative RT (median dose, 25 Gy) with or without EBRT (median dose, 45 Gy), and 5.9% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 50 Gy). The treatment field consisted of the primary tumor (bed) only in 55.6% of the patients. Computed tomography-based treatment planning and conformal RT was used in 93.1% and 83.1% of the patients treated with EBRT, respectively. Chemotherapy was used for 691 patients (79.4%; before RT for 66 patients; during RT for 531; and after RT for 364). Gemcitabine was the most frequently used drug, followed by 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: This study describes the general patterns of RT practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Most patients had advanced unresectable disease, and radical EBRT, as well as intraoperative RT with or without EBRT, was frequently used. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine was commonly used in conjunction with RT during the survey period.« less

  2. [Image-guided radiotherapy and partial delegation to radiotherapy technicians: Clermont-Ferrand experience].

    PubMed

    Loos, G; Moreau, J; Miroir, J; Benhaïm, C; Biau, J; Caillé, C; Bellière, A; Lapeyre, M

    2013-10-01

    The various image-guided radiotherapy techniques raise the question of how to achieve the control of patient positioning before irradiation session and sharing of tasks between radiation oncologists and radiotherapy technicians. We have put in place procedures and operating methods to make a partial delegation of tasks to radiotherapy technicians and secure the process in three situations: control by orthogonal kV imaging (kV-kV) of bony landmarks, control by kV-kV imaging of intraprostatic fiducial goldmarkers and control by cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging for prostate cancer. Significant medical overtime is required to control these three IGRT techniques. Because of their competence in imaging, these daily controls can be delegated to radiotherapy technicians. However, to secure the process, initial training and regular evaluation are essential. The analysis of the comparison of the use of kV/kV on bone structures allowed us to achieve a partial delegation of control to radiotherapy technicians. Controlling the positioning of the prostate through the use and automatic registration of fiducial goldmarkers allows better tracking of the prostate and can be easily delegated to radiotherapy technicians. The analysis of the use of daily cone beam CT for patients treated with intensity modulated irradiation is underway, and a comparison of practices between radiotherapy technicians and radiation oncologists is ongoing to know if a partial delegation of this control is possible. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  4. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    greater total benefit of $365·4 billion ($12·8 billion in low-income countries, $67·7 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $284·7 billion in upper-middle-income countries). The returns, by the human-capital approach, are projected to be less with the nominal cost model, amounting to $16·9 billion in 2015-35 (-$14·9 billion in low-income countries; -$18·7 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $50·5 billion in upper-middle-income countries). The returns with the efficiency model were projected to be greater, however, amounting to $104·2 billion (-$2·4 billion in low-income countries, $10·7 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $95·9 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Our results provide compelling evidence that investment in radiotherapy not only enables treatment of large numbers of cancer cases to save lives, but also brings positive economic benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing radiotherapy for lung cancer using immunoadjuvants delivered in situ from new design radiotherapy biomaterials: a preclinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yao; Yasmin-Karim, Sayeda; Moreau, Michele; Sinha, Neeharika; Sajo, Erno; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-12-01

    Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients. In this preliminary study, the potential of such an approach is investigated for lung cancer using anti-CD40 antibody. First the benefit of using the anti-CD40 delivered in situ to enhance radiotherapy was tested in mice with subcutaneous tumors generated with the Lewis Lung cancer cell line LL/2 (LLC-1). The tumors were implanted on both flanks of the mice to simulate metastasis. Tumors on one flank were treated with and without anti-CD40 and the survival benefits compared. An experimentally determined in vivo diffusion coefficient for nanoparticles was then employed to estimate the time for achieving intratumoral distribution of the needed minimal concentrations of anti-CD40 nanoparticles if released from a multifuntional radiotherapy biomaterials. The studies show that the use of anti-CD40 significantly enhanced radiotherapy effect, slowing the growth of the treated and untreated tumors, and increasing survival. Meanwhile our calculations indicate that for a 2-4 cm tumor and 7 mg g-1 IA concentrations, it would take 4.4-17.4 d, respectively, following burst release, for the required concentration of IA nanoparticles to accumulate throughout the tumor during image-guided radiotherapy. The distribution of IA could be customized as a function of loading concentrations or nanoparticle size to fit current

  6. Enhancing radiotherapy for lung cancer using immunoadjuvants delivered in situ from new design radiotherapy biomaterials: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yao; Yasmin-Karim, Sayeda; Moreau, Michele; Sinha, Neeharika; Sajo, Erno; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-12-21

    Studies show that radiotherapy of a primary tumor in combination with immunoadjuvants (IA) can result in increased survival or immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However, toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of IA have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. To minimize the toxicities and prime a more potent immune response, Ngwa et al have proposed that inert radiotherapy biomaterials such as fiducials could be upgraded to multifunctional ones loaded with IA for in situ delivery directly into the tumor sub-volume at no additional inconvenience to patients. In this preliminary study, the potential of such an approach is investigated for lung cancer using anti-CD40 antibody. First the benefit of using the anti-CD40 delivered in situ to enhance radiotherapy was tested in mice with subcutaneous tumors generated with the Lewis Lung cancer cell line LL/2 (LLC-1). The tumors were implanted on both flanks of the mice to simulate metastasis. Tumors on one flank were treated with and without anti-CD40 and the survival benefits compared. An experimentally determined in vivo diffusion coefficient for nanoparticles was then employed to estimate the time for achieving intratumoral distribution of the needed minimal concentrations of anti-CD40 nanoparticles if released from a multifuntional radiotherapy biomaterials. The studies show that the use of anti-CD40 significantly enhanced radiotherapy effect, slowing the growth of the treated and untreated tumors, and increasing survival. Meanwhile our calculations indicate that for a 2-4 cm tumor and 7 mg g -1 IA concentrations, it would take 4.4-17.4 d, respectively, following burst release, for the required concentration of IA nanoparticles to accumulate throughout the tumor during image-guided radiotherapy. The distribution of IA could be customized as a function of loading concentrations or nanoparticle size to fit current

  7. Patient safety in external beam radiotherapy, results of the ACCIRAD project: Recommendations for radiotherapy institutions and national authorities on assessing risks and analysing adverse error-events and near misses.

    PubMed

    Malicki, Julian; Bly, Ritva; Bulot, Mireille; Godet, Jean-Luc; Jahnen, Andreas; Krengli, Marco; Maingon, Philippe; Prieto Martin, Carlos; Skrobala, Agnieszka; Valero, Marc; Jarvinen, Hannu

    2018-05-02

    The ACCIRAD project, commissioned by the European Commission (EC) to develop guidelines for risk analysis of accidental and unintended exposures in external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), was completed in the year 2014. In 2015, the "General guidelines on risk management in external beam radiotherapy" were published as EC report Radiation Protection (RP)-181. The present document is the third and final report of the findings from the ACCIRAD project. The main aim of this paper is to describe the key features of the risk management process and to provide general guidelines for radiotherapy departments and national authorities on risk assessment and analysis of adverse error-events and near misses. The recommendations provided here and in EC report RP-181 are aimed at promoting the harmonisation of risk management systems across Europe, improving patient safety, and enabling more reliable inter-country comparisons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence-based optimal number of radiotherapy fractions for cancer: A useful tool to estimate radiotherapy demand.

    PubMed

    Wong, Karen; Delaney, Geoff P; Barton, Michael B

    2016-04-01

    The recently updated optimal radiotherapy utilisation model estimated that 48.3% of all cancer patients should receive external beam radiotherapy at least once during their disease course. Adapting this model, we constructed an evidence-based model to estimate the optimal number of fractions for notifiable cancers in Australia to determine equipment and workload implications. The optimal number of fractions was calculated based on the frequency of specific clinical conditions where radiotherapy is indicated and the evidence-based recommended number of fractions for each condition. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impact of variables on the model. Of the 27 cancer sites, the optimal number of fractions for the first course of radiotherapy ranged from 0 to 23.3 per cancer patient, and 1.5 to 29.1 per treatment course. Brain, prostate and head and neck cancers had the highest average number of fractions per course. Overall, the optimal number of fractions was 9.4 per cancer patient (range 8.7-10.0) and 19.4 per course (range 18.0-20.7). These results provide valuable data for radiotherapy services planning and comparison with actual practice. The model can be easily adapted by inserting population-specific epidemiological data thus making it applicable to other jurisdictions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Computer image analysis in caryopses quality evaluation as exemplified by malting barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koszela, K.; Raba, B.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Czekała, W.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Przybył, J.

    2015-07-01

    One of the purposes to employ modern technologies in agricultural and food industry is to increase the efficiency and automation of production processes, which helps improve productive effectiveness of business enterprises, thus making them more competitive. Nowadays, a challenge presents itself for this branch of economy, to produce agricultural and food products characterized by the best parameters in terms of quality, while maintaining optimum production and distribution costs of the processed biological material. Thus, several scientific centers seek to devise new and improved methods and technologies in this field, which will allow to meet the expectations. A new solution, under constant development, is to employ the so-called machine vision which is to replace human work in both quality and quantity evaluation processes. An indisputable advantage of employing the method is keeping the evaluation unbiased while improving its rate and, what is important, eliminating the fatigue factor of the expert. This paper elaborates on the topic of quality evaluation by marking the contamination in malting barley grains using computer image analysis and selected methods of artificial intelligence [4-5].

  10. High-Dose Conformal Radiotherapy Reduces Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality: Results of a Meta-analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com; Godoi Bernardes da Silva, Lucas; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To determine in a meta-analysis whether prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), biochemical or clinical failure (BCF), and overall mortality (OM) in men with localized prostate cancer treated with conformal high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT) are better than those in men treated with conventional-dose radiotherapy (CDRT). Methods and Materials: The MEDLINE, Embase, CANCERLIT, and Cochrane Library databases, as well as the proceedings of annual meetings, were systematically searched to identify randomized, controlled studies comparing conformal HDRT with CDRT for localized prostate cancer. Results: Five randomized, controlled trials (2508 patients) that met the study criteria were identified. Pooled results from these randomized, controlled trialsmore » showed a significant reduction in the incidence of PCSM and BCF rates at 5 years in patients treated with HDRT (p = 0.04 and p < 0.0001, respectively), with an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of PCSM and BCF at 5 years of 1.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Two trials evaluated PCSM with 10 years of follow up. The pooled results from these trials showed a statistical benefit for HDRT in terms of PCSM (p = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, trials that used androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) showed an ARR for BCF of 12.9% (number needed to treat = 7.7, p < 0.00001), whereas trials without ADT had an ARR of 13.6% (number needed to treat = 7, p < 0.00001). There was no difference in the OM rate at 5 and 10 years (p = 0.99 and p = 0.11, respectively) between the groups receiving HDRT and CDRT. Conclusions: This meta-analysis is the first study to show that HDRT is superior to CDRT in preventing disease progression and prostate cancer-specific death in trials that used conformational technique to increase the total dose. Despite the limitations of our study in evaluating the role of ADT and HDRT, our data show no benefit for HDRT arms in terms of BCF in trials with or without ADT.« less

  11. Does Delayed-Time-Point Imaging Improve 18F-FDG-PET in Patients With MALT Lymphoma?: Observations in a Series of 13 Patients.

    PubMed

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Giraudo, Chiara; Senn, Daniela; Hartenbach, Markus; Weber, Michael; Rausch, Ivo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Herold, Christian J; Hacker, Marcus; Pones, Matthias; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Müllauer, Leonhard; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Raderer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), delayed-time-point 2-F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (F-FDG-PET) performs better than standard-time-point F-FDG-PET. Patients with untreated histologically verified MALT lymphoma, who were undergoing pretherapeutic F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) and consecutive F-FDG-PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a single F-FDG injection, in the course of a larger-scale prospective trial, were included. Region-based sensitivity and specificity, and patient-based sensitivity of the respective F-FDG-PET scans at time points 1 (45-60 minutes after tracer injection, TP1) and 2 (100-150 minutes after tracer injection, TP2), relative to the reference standard, were calculated. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) ratios were also assessed. F-FDG-PET at TP1 was true positive in 15 o f 23 involved regions, and F-FDG-PET at TP2 was true-positive in 20 of 23 involved regions; no false-positive regions were noted. Accordingly, region-based sensitivities and specificities were 65.2% (confidence interval [CI], 45.73%-84.67%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for F-FDG-PET at TP1; and 87.0% (CI, 73.26%-100%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for F-FDG-PET at TP2, respectively. FDG-PET at TP1 detected lymphoma in at least one nodal or extranodal region in 7 of 13 patients, and F-FDG-PET at TP2 in 10 of 13 patients; accordingly, patient-based sensitivity was 53.8% (CI, 26.7%-80.9%) for F-FDG-PET at TP1, and 76.9% (CI, 54.0%-99.8%) for F-FDG-PET at TP2. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood maximum standardized uptake value ratios were significantly lower at TP1 (ratios, 1.05 ± 0.40 and 1.52 ± 0.62) than at TP2 (ratios, 1.67 ± 0.74 and 2.56 ± 1.10; P = 0.003 and P = 0.001). Delayed-time-point imaging may improve F-FDG-PET in MALT lymphoma.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Bae; Koo, Ja Seol

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common type of extranodal lymphoma, and most commonly affects the stomach. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are the most common histologic types of gastric lymphoma. Despite its increasing incidence, diagnosis of gastric lymphoma is difficult at an earlier stage due to its nonspecific symptoms and endoscopic findings, and, thus, a high index of suspicion, and multiple, deep, repeated biopsies at abnormally and normally appearing sites in the stomach are needed. In addition, testing for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and endoscopic ultrasonography to determine the depth of tumor invasion and involvement of regional lymph nodes is essential for predicting response to H. pylori eradication and for assessment of disease progression. In addition, H. pylori infection and MALT lymphoma development are associated, and complete regression of low-grade MALT lymphomas after H. pylori eradication has been demonstrated. Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy can be used in cases that show poor response to H. pylori eradication, negativity for H. pylori infection, or high-grade lymphoma. PMID:24659867

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Bae; Koo, Ja Seol

    2014-03-21

    Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common type of extranodal lymphoma, and most commonly affects the stomach. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are the most common histologic types of gastric lymphoma. Despite its increasing incidence, diagnosis of gastric lymphoma is difficult at an earlier stage due to its nonspecific symptoms and endoscopic findings, and, thus, a high index of suspicion, and multiple, deep, repeated biopsies at abnormally and normally appearing sites in the stomach are needed. In addition, testing for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and endoscopic ultrasonography to determine the depth of tumor invasion and involvement of regional lymph nodes is essential for predicting response to H. pylori eradication and for assessment of disease progression. In addition, H. pylori infection and MALT lymphoma development are associated, and complete regression of low-grade MALT lymphomas after H. pylori eradication has been demonstrated. Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy can be used in cases that show poor response to H. pylori eradication, negativity for H. pylori infection, or high-grade lymphoma.

  14. Intensity modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost vs. conventional radiotherapy with sequential boost for breast cancer - A preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsin-Hua; Hou, Ming-Feng; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Huang, Ming-Yii; Tsuei, Le-Ping; Chen, Fang-Ming; Ou-Yang, Fu; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to assess the acute dermatological adverse effect from two distinct RT techniques for breast cancer patients. We compared intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) and conventional radiotherapy followed by sequential boost (CRT-SB). The study population was composed of 126 consecutive female breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving surgery. Sixty-six patients received IMRT-SIB to 2 dose levels simultaneously. They received 50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy per fraction to the whole breast and 60.2 Gy at 2.15 Gy per fraction to the tumor bed by integral boost. Sixty patients in the CRT-SB group received 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the whole breast followed by a boost irradiation to tumor bed in 5-7 fractions to a total dose of 60-64 Gy. Acute skin toxicities were documented in agreement with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3 (CTCAE v.3.0). Ninety-eight patients had grade 1 radiation dermatitis while 14 patients had grade 2. Among those with grade 2, there were 3 patients in IMRT-SIB group (4.5%) while 11 in CRT-SB group (18.3%). (P = 0.048) There was no patient with higher than grade 2 toxicity. Three year local control was 99.2%, 3-year disease free survival was 97.5% and 3-year overall survival was 99.2%. A significant reduction in the severity of acute radiation dermatitis from IMRT-SIB comparing with CRT-SB is demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiotherapy for Tracheal-Bronchial Cystic Adenoid Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Levy, A; Omeiri, A; Fadel, E; Le Péchoux, C

    2018-01-01

    Primary tracheal-bronchial adenoid cystic carcinoma (thoracic adenoid cystic carcinoma; TACC) is a rare and aggressive malignant tumour. Radiotherapy results have not been previously individualised in this setting. Records of 31 patients with TACC (74% tracheal and 26% bronchial) who received radiotherapy between February 1984 and September 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Surgical removal of the primary tumour was carried out for most (71%) patients, and 13/22 (59%) had R1 or R2 (1/22) margins. The mean tumour size was 4.1 cm, 10 (32%) had associated lymph node involvement and 13 (41%) had perineural invasion (PNI). Adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy were delivered for 22 (71%) and nine patients, respectively. The mean delivered dose was 62 Gy (40-70 Gy) and eight patients had a radiotherapy boost (mean 19 Gy, range 9-30 Gy, two with endobronchial brachytherapy). At a median follow-up of 5.7 years, the 5 year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 88% and 61%, respectively. There were three local relapses and 10 metastatic relapses (mean delay 3.2 years), resulting in 5 year local and metastatic relapse rates of 10% and 26%, respectively. The prognostic factors in the univariate analysis for both decreased overall survival and PFS were: age ≥50 years (hazard ratio 6.2 and 3.8) and the presence of PNI (hazard ratio 10.3 and 4.1); and for PFS only: a radiotherapy dose ≤ 60 Gy (hazard ratio 3.1). Late toxicities were: tracheotomy due to symptomatic tracheal stenosis (n = 5), G3 dyspnoea (n = 4), hypothyroidism (n = 5) and pericarditis (n = 4). Radiotherapy dose may affect local control and the presence of PNI should be considered as an adverse prognostic factor. TACC irradiation conferred good local control rates, when comparing these results with historical series. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Sacral Chordoma: Results of Phase I-II and Phase II Clinical Trials

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Imai, Reiko, E-mail: r_imai@nirs.go.j; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To summarize the results of treatment for sacral chordoma in Phase I-II and Phase II carbon ion radiotherapy trials for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 38 patients with medically unresectable sacral chordomas treated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan between 1996 and 2003. Of the 38 patients, 30 had not received previous treatment and 8 had locally recurrent tumor after previous resection. The applied carbon ion dose was 52.8-73.6 Gray equivalents (median, 70.4) in a total of 16 fixed fractions within 4 weeks. Results: The median patient agemore » was 66 years. The cranial tumor extension was S2 or greater in 31 patients. The median clinical target volume was 523 cm{sup 3}. The median follow-up period was 80 months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 86%, and the 5-year local control rate was 89%. After treatment, 27 of 30 patients with primary tumor remained ambulatory with or without supportive devices. Two patients experienced severe skin or soft-tissue complications requiring skin grafts. Conclusion: Carbon ion radiotherapy appears effective and safe in the treatment of patients with sacral chordoma and offers a promising alternative to surgery.« less

  17. SU-F-R-01: Preclinical Radioimmunogenomics Study to Design Personalized Radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abdollahi, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiogenomics is an active area of research to find clinical correlation between genomics and radiotherapy outcomes. In this era, many different biological issues should be taken into account. In this study we aimed to introduce “Radioimmunogenomics” as a new approach to study immunogetics issue regard to radiotherapy induced clinical manifestations. Methods: We studied different immunological pathways and signaling molecules which underling radiation response of normal and malignant tissues. In the other hand, we found many genes and proteins are responsible to radiation effects on biological tissues. We defined a theoretical framework to correlate these genes with radiotherapy outcomes asmore » TCP and NTCP biological dose tools. Results: Our theoretical results showed, high-throughput immunogenomics biomarkers can be correlated with radiotherapy outcomes. Genes regarding to inflammation, apoptosis, repair molecules and many other immunological markers can be defined as radioimmune markers to predict radiotherapy response. Conclusion: Radioimmunogenomics can be used as a new personalized radiotherapy research area to enhance treatment outcome as well as quality of life.« less

  18. Stereotactic body radiotherapy in lung cancer: an update *

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Cintra Vita; Ferreira, Paula Pratti Rodrigues; de Moraes, Fabio Ynoe; Neves, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Gadia, Rafael; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For early-stage lung cancer, the treatment of choice is surgery. In patients who are not surgical candidates or are unwilling to undergo surgery, radiotherapy is the principal treatment option. Here, we review stereotactic body radiotherapy, a technique that has produced quite promising results in such patients and should be the treatment of choice, if available. We also present the major indications, technical aspects, results, and special situations related to the technique. PMID:26398758

  19. Radiation-induced heart disease in lung cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), which affects the patients’ prognosis with both acute and late side effects, has been published extensively in the radiotherapy of breast cancer, lymphoma and other benign diseases. Studies on RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy, however, are less extensive and clear even though the patients with lung cancer are delivered with higher doses to the heart during radiation treatment. Methods: In this article, after extensive literature search and analysis, we reviewed the current evidence on RIHD in lung cancer patients after their radiation treatments and investigated the potential risk factors for RIHD as compared to other types of cancers. Result: Cardiac toxicity has been found highly relevant in lung cancer radiotherapy. So far, the crude incidence of cardiac complications in the lung cancer patients after radiotherapy has been up to 33%. Conclusion: The dose to the heart, the lobar location of tumor, the treatment modality, the history of heart and pulmonary disease and smoking were considered as potential risk factors for RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy. As treatment techniques improve over the time with better prognosis for lung cancer survivors, an improved prediction model can be established to further reduce the cardiac toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27741117

  20. Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sonja; Debus, Jürgen; Neuhof, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Solitary plasmocytoma occurring in bone (solitary plasmocytoma of the bone, SBP) or in soft tissue (extramedullary plasmocytoma, EP) can be treated effectively and with little toxicity by local radiotherapy. Ten-year local control rates of up to 90% can be achieved. Patients with multiple myeloma often suffer from symptoms such as pain or neurological impairments that are amenable to palliative radiotherapy. In a palliative setting, short treatment schedules and lower radiation doses are used to reduce toxicity and duration of hospitalization. In future, low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) may play a role in a potentially curative regimen with nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

  1. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Murphy, Erin S., E-mail: murphye3@ccf.or; Suh, John H.

    2011-03-15

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation tomore » >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.« less

  2. Oral mucosal melanoma treated with carbon ion radiotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Musha, Atsushi; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Shirai, Katsuyuki; Yokoo, Satoshi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2016-10-18

    Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare disease with a relatively poor prognosis. Carbon ion radiotherapy has been shown to be effective against radiotherapy-resistant tumors owing to its excellent dose concentration and high biological effect. Our patient was a 66-year-old Japanese man with oral mucosal melanoma of his right maxillary gingiva (T4aN0M0). He received carbon ion radiotherapy at 57.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Concomitant chemotherapy (dacarbazine + nimustine + vincristine) was administered at the same time as carbon ion radiotherapy initiation. Two courses of adjuvant chemotherapy were given after carbon ion radiotherapy. Although he experienced grade 2 acute oral mucositis, his symptoms improved within a few weeks of undergoing carbon ion radiotherapy. He was alive at the time of reporting, 35 months after treatment, without any recurrence. Late toxicity has not been observed. Carbon ion radiotherapy for oral mucosal melanoma resulted in a good local effect.

  3. Exposure to Glycolytic Carbon Sources Reveals a Novel Layer of Regulation for the MalT Regulon.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Sylvia A; Wolfe, Alan J

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria adapt to changing environments by means of tightly coordinated regulatory circuits. The use of synthetic lethality, a genetic phenomenon in which the combination of two nonlethal mutations causes cell death, facilitates identification and study of such circuitry. In this study, we show that the E. coli ompR malT(con) double mutant exhibits a synthetic lethal phenotype that is environmentally conditional. MalT(con), the constitutively active form of the maltose system regulator MalT, causes elevated expression of the outer membrane porin LamB, which leads to death in the absence of the osmoregulator OmpR. However, the presence and metabolism of glycolytic carbon sources, such as sorbitol, promotes viability and unveils a novel layer of regulation within the complex circuitry that controls maltose transport and metabolism.

  4. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer: how much does it really cost?

    PubMed

    Lievens, Yolande; Obyn, Caroline; Mertens, Anne-Sophie; Van Halewyck, Dries; Hulstaert, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of randomized evidence, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being accepted as superior to conventional radiotherapy for patients with T1-2N0 non-small-cell lung cancer in the periphery of the lung and unfit or unwilling to undergo surgery. To introduce SBRT in a system of coverage with evidence development, a correct financing had to be determined. A time-driven activity-based costing model for radiotherapy was developed. Resource cost calculation of all radiotherapy treatments, standard and innovative, was conducted in 10 Belgian radiotherapy centers in the second half of 2012. The average cost of lung SBRT across the 10 centers (6221&OV0556;) is in the range of the average costs of standard fractionated 3D-conformal radiotherapy (5919&OV0556;) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (7379&OV0556;) for lung cancer. Hypofractionated 3D-conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy schemes are less costly (3993&OV0556; respectively 4730&OV0556;). The SBRT cost increases with the number of fractions and is highly dependent of personnel and equipment use. SBRT cost varies more by centre than conventional radiotherapy cost, reflecting different technologies, stages in the learning curve and a lack of clear guidance in this field. Time-driven activity-based costing of radiotherapy is feasible in a multicentre setup, resulting in real-life resource costs that can form the basis for correct reimbursement schemes, supporting an early yet controlled introduction of innovative radiotherapy techniques in clinical practice.

  5. Development of three-dimensional radiotherapy techniques in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Charlotte E.

    Radiotherapy following conservation surgery decreases local relapse and death from breast cancer. Currently, the challenge is to minimise the morbidity caused by this treatment without losing efficacy. Despite many advances in radiation techniques in other sites of the body, the majority of breast cancer patients are still planned and treated using 2-dimensional simple radiotherapy techniques. In addition, breast irradiation currently consumes 30% of the UK's radiotherapy workload. Therefore, any change to more complex treatment should be of proven benefit. The primary objective of this research is to develop and evaluate novel radiotherapy techniques to decrease irradiation of normal structures and improve localisation of the tumour bed. I have developed a forward-planned intensity modulated (IMRT) breast radiotherapy technique, which has shown improved dosimetry results compared to standard breast radiotherapy. Subsequently, I have developed and implemented a phase III randomised controlled breast IMRT trial. This National Cancer Research Network adopted trial will answer an important question regarding the clinical benefit of breast IMRT. It will provide DNA samples linked with high quality clinical outcome data, for a national translational radiogenomics study investigating variation in normal tissue toxicity. Thus, patients with significant late normal tissue side effects despite good dose homogeneity will provide the best model for finding differences due to underlying genetics. I evaluated a novel technique using high definition free-hand 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in a phantom study, and the results suggested that this is an accurate and reproducible method for tumour bed localisation. I then compared recognised methods of tumour bed localisation with the 3D ultrasound method in a clinical study. The 3D ultrasound technique appeared to accurately represent the shape and spatial position of the tumour cavity. This tumour bed localisation research

  6. Management of patients with implanted cardiac devices during radiotherapy: results of a Spanish survey in radiation oncology departments.

    PubMed

    Sabater, S; Montero, A; López Fernández, T; González Ferrer, J J; Arenas, M

    2018-05-23

    There is an increasing number of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED), either pacemakers or defibrillators, who are receiving a course of radiotherapy. Several guidelines have been published by national societies, but no Spanish national guidelines for management of these patients have been published. More importantly, national clinical practice regarding these patients is not standardised. Members of the Spanish Breast Cancer Radiation Oncology Group (GEORM in Spanish) were surveyed through an online questionnaire on behalf of the Spanish radiation oncology departments. Only 39.3% of the Spanish radiation oncology departments have policies aimed at CIED carrier patients. Regardless of that, 96.4% of those who responded to the survey refer these patients to their Cardiology department before the start of the course of radiotherapy, and 17.8% of respondents said to manipulate the CIED without any cardiology department direction. A wide range of responses was obtained related to concepts such as "distance from the irradiation field to the CIED" or "safe accumulated doses". Our results demonstrate the need for national guidelines for CIED patients and the need to promote educational activities addressed to standardise clinical management of these patients in the radiation oncology departments.

  7. Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    James, Nicholas D; Hussain, Syed A; Hall, Emma; Jenkins, Peter; Tremlett, Jean; Rawlings, Christine; Crundwell, Malcolm; Sizer, Bruce; Sreenivasan, Thiagarajan; Hendron, Carey; Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel; Huddart, Robert A

    2012-04-19

    Radiotherapy is an alternative to cystectomy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In other disease sites, synchronous chemoradiotherapy has been associated with increased local control and improved survival, as compared with radiotherapy alone. In this multicenter, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 360 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer to undergo radiotherapy with or without synchronous chemotherapy. The regimen consisted of fluorouracil (500 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day) during fractions 1 to 5 and 16 to 20 of radiotherapy and mitomycin C (12 mg per square meter) on day 1. Patients were also randomly assigned to undergo either whole-bladder radiotherapy or modified-volume radiotherapy (in which the volume of bladder receiving full-dose radiotherapy was reduced) in a partial 2-by-2 factorial design (results not reported here). The primary end point was survival free of locoregional disease. Secondary end points included overall survival and toxic effects. At 2 years, rates of locoregional disease-free survival were 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59 to 74) in the chemoradiotherapy group and 54% (95% CI, 46 to 62) in the radiotherapy group. With a median follow-up of 69.9 months, the hazard ratio in the chemoradiotherapy group was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.96; P=0.03). Five-year rates of overall survival were 48% (95% CI, 40 to 55) in the chemoradiotherapy group and 35% (95% CI, 28 to 43) in the radiotherapy group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.09; P=0.16). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were slightly more common in the chemoradiotherapy group than in the radiotherapy group during treatment (36.0% vs. 27.5%, P=0.07) but not during follow-up (8.3% vs. 15.7%, P=0.07). Synchronous chemotherapy with fluorouracil and mitomycin C combined with radiotherapy significantly improved locoregional control of bladder cancer, as compared with radiotherapy alone, with no significant increase in adverse events. (Funded by Cancer

  8. Combinations of Radiotherapy and Immunotherapy for Melanoma: A Review of Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Christopher A.; Postow, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy has long played a role in the management of melanoma. Recent advances have also demonstrated the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma. Preclinical data suggest a biologic interaction between radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Several clinical studies corroborate these findings. This review will summarize the outcomes of studies reporting on patients with melanoma treated with a combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Vaccine therapies often use irradiated melanoma cells, and may be enhanced by radiotherapy. The cytokines interferon-alpha and interleukin-2 have been combined with radiotherapy in several small studies, with some evidence suggesting increased toxicity and/or efficacy. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, has been combined with radiotherapy in several notable case studies and series. Finally, pilot studies of adoptive cell transfer have suggested radiotherapy may improve the efficacy of treatment. The review will demonstrate that the combination of radiotherapy and immunotherapy has been reported in several notable case studies, series and clinical trials. These clinical results suggest interaction and the need for further study. PMID:24661650

  9. Surgery Followed by Radiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression From Unfavorable Tumors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Bajrovic, Amira

    Purpose: Despite a previously published randomized trial, controversy exists regarding the benefit of adding surgery to radiotherapy for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). It is thought that patients with MSCC from relatively radioresistant tumors or tumors associated with poor functional outcome after radiotherapy alone may benefit from surgery. This study focuses on these tumors. Methods and Materials: Data from 67 patients receiving surgery plus radiotherapy (S+RT) were matched to 134 patients (1:2) receiving radiotherapy alone (RT). Groups were matched for 10 factors and compared for motor function, ambulatory status, local control, and survival. Additional separate matched-pair analyses were performed formore » patients receiving direct decompressive surgery plus stabilization of involved vertebrae (DDSS) and patients receiving laminectomy (LE). Results: Improvement of motor function occurred in 22% of patients after S+RT and 16% after RT (p = 0.25). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 67% and 61%, respectively (p = 0.68). Of nonambulatory patients, 29% and 19% (p = 0.53) regained ambulatory status. One-year local control rates were 85% and 89% (p = 0.87). One-year survival rates were 38% and 24% (p = 0.20). The matched-pair analysis of patients receiving LE showed no significant differences between both therapies. In the matched-pair analysis of patients receiving DDSS, improvement of motor function occurred more often after DDSS+RT than RT (28% vs. 19%, p = 0.024). Posttreatment ambulatory rates were 86% and 67% (p = 0.30); 45% and 18% of patients regained ambulatory status (p = 0.29). Conclusions: Patients with MSCC from an unfavorable primary tumor appeared to benefit from DDSS but not LE when added to radiotherapy in terms of improved functional outcome.« less

  10. Melatonin prevents possible radiotherapy-induced thyroid injury.

    PubMed

    Arıcıgil, Mitat; Dündar, Mehmet Akif; Yücel, Abitter; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Akif; Aktan, Meryem; Alan, Mehmet Akif; Fındık, Sıdıka; Kılınç, İbrahim

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin in radiotherapy-induced thyroid gland injury in an experimental rat model. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups: the control group, melatonin treatment group, radiotherapy group and melatonin plus radiotherapy group. The neck region of each rat was defined by simulation and radiated with 2 Gray (Gy) per min with 6-MV photon beams, for a total dose of 18 Gy. Melatonin was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg through intraperitoneal injection, 15 min prior to radiation exposure. Thirty days after the beginning of the study, rats were decapitated and analyses of blood and thyroid tissue were performed. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the radiotherapy group were significantly higher than those in the melatonin plus radiotherapy group (p < .05), whereas interleukin-10 (IL-10) and glutathione (GSH) values were higher in the melatonin plus radiotherapy group (p < .05). The infiltration of inflammatory cells and percentage of apoptosis in the radiotherapy group were significantly higher than those in the melatonin plus radiotherapy group (p < .05). Melatonin helped protect thyroid gland structure against the undesired cytotoxic effects of radiotherapy in rats.

  11. Protons and more: state of the art in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Indrani S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of modern radiotherapy is to deliver a precise high dose of radiation which will result in reproductive death of the cells. Radiation should transverse within the tumour volume whilst minimising damage to surrounding normal tissue. Overall 40% of cancers which are cured will have received radiotherapy. Current state of the art treatment will incorporate cross-sectional imaging and multiple high energy X-ray beams in processes called intensity modulated radiotherapy and image guided radiotherapy. Brachytherapy enables very high radiation doses to be delivered by the direct passage of a radiation source through or within the tumour volume and similar results can be achieved using rotational stereotactic X-ray beam techniques. Protons have the characteristics of particle beams which deposit their energy in a finite fixed peak at depth in tissue with no dose beyond this point - the Bragg peak. This has advantages in certain sites such as the spine adjacent to the spinal cord and particularly in children when the overall volume of tissue receiving radiation can be minimised. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  12. Examining Determinants of Radiotherapy Access: Do Cost and Radiotherapy Inconvenience Affect Uptake of Breast-conserving Treatment for Early Breast Cancer?

    PubMed

    Lam, J; Cook, T; Foster, S; Poon, R; Milross, C; Sundaresan, P

    2015-08-01

    Radiotherapy utilisation is likely affected by multiple factors pertaining to radiotherapy access. Radiotherapy is an integral component of breast-conserving treatment (BCT) for early breast cancer. We aimed to determine if stepwise improvements in radiotherapy access in regional Australia affected the uptake of BCT and thus radiotherapy. Breast cancer operations in the Central Coast of New South Wales between January 2010 and March 2014 for T1-2N0-1M0 invasive or in situ (≤5 cm) disease in female patients eligible for BCT were examined. BCT uptake was calculated for three 1 year periods: period 1 (local radiotherapy available at cost to user or out of area radiotherapy with travel cost and inconvenience); period 2 (as per period 1 + publicly funded transport and radiotherapy at out of area facilities at no cost to user); period 3 (as per period 1 + publicly funded local radiotherapy at no cost to user). In total, 574 cases met eligibility criteria. BCT declined with increasing distance to publicly funded radiotherapy (P = 0.035). BCT rates for periods 1, 2 and 3 were 63% (113/180), 61% (105/173) and 71% (156/221). There were no statistically significant differences in BCT between periods 1 and 2 in the whole cohort or within age, histology or tumour size subgroups. Overall, there was a 9% increase in BCT in the whole cohort in period 3 compared with periods 1 and 2 (P = 0.031). This increase was statistically significant for women over 70 years (19% increase, P = 0.034), for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (25% increase, P = 0.013) and for women with primary tumours that were ≤10 mm (21% increase, P = 0.016). Improving the affordability of radiotherapy through publicly funded transport and radiotherapy at out of area facilities did not improve BCT uptake in a region where radiotherapy was locally available, albeit at cost to the user. Improving both affordability and convenience through the provision of local publicly funded radiotherapy increased BCT

  13. Primary radiotherapy with surgery in reserve for advanced laryngeal carcinoma. Results and complications.

    PubMed

    Croll, G A; Gerritsen, G J; Tiwari, R M; Snow, G B

    1989-08-01

    A retrospective study of a selected group of 58 patients with T3 and T4 squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx presenting between 1974 and 1984 was undertaken. These patients were treated primarily with radical radiotherapy and salvage surgery in reserve. The aim of this study was to examine survival, recurrence rate and the complications after salvage surgery. In 30 patients the tumor was classified as a T3 and in 28 as a T4. In 14 patients (24%) nodal disease in the neck was present prior to the radiotherapy. Follow-up in all patients continued for at least 3 years or until death. Nineteen patients (33%) developed locally recurrent tumor and five (9%) developed nodal metastases to the neck. The recurrence in almost every patient was detected within 2 years after completion of the irradiation. Thirty patients (52%) are alive of whom 29 have no evidence of disease. Of these 30 patients 22 (73%) have their larynx intact and functioning. The 5-year adjusted acturial survival for the whole group of patients is 73%, for the T3N0 group 87% and for the T4N0 group 75%. Patients with nodal disease responded poorly. After salvage surgery severe postoperative complications developed in 37% of the patients. There were no deaths following salvage surgery.

  14. Radiotherapy-induced hearing loss in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gudelj, Goran; Trotić, Robert; Herceg, Tonko; Parazajder, Domagoj; Vagić, Davor; Geber, Goran

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a hypothesized correlation of development of a sensorineural hearing loss and radiotherapy in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. This prospective study included a total of 50 patients, which after strict exclusion critera (audiologic problems before RT primary tumors of the auditory system, spread of the primary tumor to any part of the auditory system) resulted in 23 analyzed patients, ranging between 50 and 76 years of age, with a mean age of 60. Audiometry measuring frequency-specific thresholds was performed in three time points: one month before radiotherapy, one and six months after radiotherapy. A significant statistical difference in hearing tresholds after radiotherapy was found in 6 out of 23 patients. An obvious tendency towards hearing loss without statistical significance at 250 and 4000 Hz was found for a whole tested population (p < or = 0.3 with Bonferroni correction). Observed tendency towards hearing loss after radiotherapy of laryngeal carcinoma was related to side of the tumor and less severe when chemotherapy was not added as adjuvant therapy. These results should help to decrease a rate of hearing loss by careful planing of ear protection, by using observed frequencies as relevant markers of hearing loss and by reconsidering adjuvant chemoterapy during radiotherapy of laryngeal carcinoma.

  15. Contribution of FDOPA PET to radiotherapy planning for advanced glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowson, Nicholas; Fay, Michael; Thomas, Paul; Jeffree, Rosalind; McDowall, Robert; Winter, Craig; Coulthard, Alan; Smith, Jye; Gal, Yaniv; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Crozier, Stuart; Rose, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Despite radical treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, advanced gliomas recur within months. Geographic misses in radiotherapy planning may play a role in this seemingly ineluctable recurrence. Planning is typically performed on post-contrast MRIs, which are known to underreport tumour volume relative to FDOPA PET scans. FDOPA PET fused with contrast enhanced MRI has demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity than MRI alone. One sign of potential misses would be differences between gross target volumes (GTVs) defined using MRI alone and when fused with PET. This work examined whether such a discrepancy may occur. Materials and Methods: For six patients, a 75 minute PET scan using 3,4-dihydroxy-6-18F-fluoro-L-phynel-alanine (18F-FDOPA) was taken within 2 days of gadolinium enhanced MRI scans. In addition to standard radiotherapy planning by an experienced radiotherapy oncologist, a second gross target volume (GTV) was defined by an experienced nuclear medicine specialist for fused PET and MRI, while blinded to the radiotherapy plans. The volumes from standard radiotherapy planning were compared to the PET defined GTV. Results: The comparison indicated radiotherapy planning would change in several cases if FDOPA PET data was available. PET-defined contours were external to 95% prescribed dose for several patients. However, due to the radiotherapy margins, the discrepancies were relatively small in size and all received a dose of 50 Gray or more. Conclusions: Given the limited size of the discrepancies it is uncertain that geographic misses played a major role in patient outcome. Even so, the existence of discrepancies indicates that FDOPA PET could assist in better defining margins when planning radiotherapy for advanced glioma, which could be important for highly conformal radiotherapy plans.

  16. The med AUSTRON/OGRO patterns of care study on radiotherapy indications in Austria.

    PubMed

    Mock, Ulrike; Mayer, Ramona; Potter, Richard; Jäger, Robert; Vutuc, Christian; Eiter, Helmut; Hammer, Josef; Hawliczek, Robert; Hirn, Brigitte; Knocke-Abulesz, Tomas-Henrik; Kogelnik, Hans-Dieter; Lukas, Peter; Nechville, Elisabeth; Pakisch, Brigitte; Papauschek, Michael; Ing Raunik, Wolfgang; Rhomberg, Walter; Sabitzer, Hubert; Schratter-Sehn, Annemarie; Sedlmayer, Felix; Wedrich, Irene; Auberger, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    In Austria a national survey was conducted by Med AUSTRON/Osterreichische Gesellschaft for Radio--Onkologie, Radiobiologie und Medizinische Radiophysik (OGRO) in order to estimate the indications, patient numbers and radiotherapy treatment planning procedures and performances at all Austrian radiotherapy institutes. Results were correlated with incidence rates (Austrian cancer registry) to determine patterns of radiotherapy practice in Austria. At 12 radiotherapy departments of Austria data of all patients receiving irradiation within a 3 months (2002/2003) period were assessed. On the basis of a questionnaire number of treated patients, indications, and parameters of disease (stage, histology) and treatment modalities were evaluated. Results were analysed with regard to different tumour groups, according to academic and non academic hospitals, and correlated with epidemiological data on cancer incidence. In total, 3783 patients were registered within this period. According to the different tumour entities percentages of patients receiving radiotherapy within initial treatment varied from 3% to 90 % (e.g. brain tumours: 77%, breast cancer: 90%, prostate cancer: 35%). The most frequent indications to radiotherapy per radiotherapy department were breast cancer (range 22%-35%; mean 26%), urological tumours (range 6%-27%; mean 12%) and bone metastases (mean 10%, range 3%-17%). In Austria breast cancer, urological tumours and bone metastases are representing the most common indications to radiotherapy. Among the different departments variations in indications to radiotherapy were observed. Our study is the first evaluation of radiotherapeutic management in Austria.

  17. Evaluation of Adherence to Quality Measures for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy in the United States: Results from the Quality Research in Radiation Oncology (QRRO) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Lee, W. Robert; Zietman, Anthony; Khalid, Najma; Crozier, Cheryl; Owen, Jean; Wilson, J. Frank

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of using proposed quality indicators to assess radiotherapy quality in prostate cancer management based on a 2007 stratified random survey of treating academic and non-academic US institutions. Methods and Materials 414 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy were selected from 45 institutions. Indicators used as specific measurable clinical performance measures to represent surrogates for quality of radiotherapy delivery included established measures, such as the use of prescription doses ≥75 Gy for intermediate- and high-risk EBRT patients and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in conjunction with EBRT for patients with high-risk disease, and emerging measures, including daily target localization (image-guidance) to correct for organ motion for EBRT patients. Results 167 patients (47%) were treated with 6 MV photons, 31 (9%) were treated with 10 MV, 65 (18%) received 15 MV, and the remaining 90 (26%) 16–23 MV. For intermediate- plus high-risk patients (n=181), 78% were treated to ≥75 Gy. Among favorable-risk patients, 72% were treated to ≥75 Gy. Among high-risk EBRT patients, 60 (87%) were treated with ADT in conjunction with EBRT and 13% (n=9) with radiotherapy alone. Among low- and intermediate-risk patients, 10% and 42%, respectively, were treated with ADT plus EBRT. For 24% of EBRT patients (85/354), weekly electronic portal imaging was obtained as verification films without daily target localization and the remaining 76% were treated with daily localization of the target using various methods. Conclusions Adherence to defined quality indicators was observed in a majority of patients. ≈90% of high-risk patients are treated with ADT plus EBRT and ≈80% of intermediate- and high-risk patients receive prescription doses >=75 Gy, consistent with the published results of randomized trials. PMID:23471563

  18. The launch of the first UK charity devoted to radiotherapy: ACORRN -- Action Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Price, P

    2011-01-01

    The Academic Clinical Oncology and Radiobiology Research Network (ACORRN) was set up to support research and development in radiotherapy in the UK. This innovative networking initiative was launched initially by the National Cancer Research Institute in 2005 to harness the power of the radiation research base in the UK. Through an interactive website a co-ordinated network of multidisciplinary radiation researchers has been established. The network has developed to a stage where it can be self-funding and dedicated to improving radiotherapy for cancer. A patient interactive section and extended support for service development will ensure that anyone treated in the UK will have immediate access to the best knowledge in the country. This provides a solution for cost-effectiveness and future improvement of cancer care and is seen as a new model to support healthcare development and delivery. The charity ACORRN - Action Radiotherapy aims to support radiotherapy research and development and was launched in the House of Lords in July 2010.

  19. Radical radiotherapy incorporating a brachytherapy boost for the treatment of carcinoma of the thoracic oesophagus: results from a cohort of patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Churn, M; Jones, B; Myint, A Sun

    2002-04-01

    derived from the linear quadratic model. In this series no advantage was found in terms of local control or survival for patients receiving radiotherapy doses resulting in a BED Gy10 greater than 75% of the maximum. Similarly, no significant increase in complications was noted in those patients receiving doses resulting in a BED Gy3 > 75% of the maximum. The merits and hazards of the ILBT boost used in radical radiotherapy are discussed and the relevant literature reviewed.

  20. Fate of phytochemicals during malting and fermentation of type III tannin sorghum and impact on product biofunctionality.

    PubMed

    Kayodé, A P Polycarpe; Mertz, Christian; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Brat, Pierre; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2013-02-27

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of sorghum bioprocessing into Gowé on iron bioavailability and antioxidant properties of the final products. Gowé is an African sour beverage, whose process combines malting and fermenting of sorghum grains. The effects of the durations of germination and fermentation on the phytochemicals were evaluated using a central composite design. The antioxidant capacity and iron bioavailability of the derived flour were also evaluated. During the germination process, the tannin content of the grain decreased from 429.5 to 174.1 mg/100 g DM, while the total phenolic content increased from 300.3 to 371.5 mg GAE/100 g DM. The phenolic acid contents of the flour were significantly modified as a result of the durations of germination and fermentation. Both germination and fermentation enhanced the antioxidant capacity of sorghum flour, and antioxidant characteristics were significantly correlated with the levels of total phenolics, tannins, and phenolic acids. Phytate content of sorghum grain decreased drastically from 1003 to 369.1 mg/100 g DM when the duration of germination or fermentation increased. This was associated with an increase in the bioavailability of iron.

  1. Integer programming for improving radiotherapy treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ming; Li, Yi; Kou, Bo; Zhou, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    Patients received by radiotherapy departments are diverse and may be diagnosed with different cancers. Therefore, they need different radiotherapy treatment plans and thus have different needs for medical resources. This research aims to explore the best method of scheduling the admission of patients receiving radiotherapy so as to reduce patient loss and maximize the usage efficiency of service resources. A mix integer programming (MIP) model integrated with special features of radiotherapy is constructed. The data used here is based on the historical data collected and we propose an exact method to solve the MIP model. Compared with the traditional First Come First Served (FCFS) method, the new method has boosted patient admission as well as the usage of linear accelerators (LINAC) and beds. The integer programming model can be used to describe the complex problem of scheduling radio-receiving patients, to identify the bottleneck resources that hinder patient admission, and to obtain the optimal LINAC-bed radio under the current data conditions. Different management strategies can be implemented by adjusting the settings of the MIP model. The computational results can serve as a reference for the policy-makers in decision making.

  2. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Salivary Glands: A Multicenter Rare Cancer Network Study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Anacak, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.anacak@ege.edu.tr; Miller, Robert C.; Constantinou, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Involvement of salivary glands with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is rare. This retrospective study was performed to assess the clinical profile, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands. Methods and Materials: Thirteen member centers of the Rare Cancer Network from 10 countries participated, providing data on 63 patients. The median age was 58 years; 47 patients were female and 16 were male. The parotid glands were involved in 49 cases, submandibular in 15, and minor glands in 3. Multiple glands were involved in 9 patients. Staging was as follows: IE in 34, IIEmore » in 12, IIIE in 2, and IV in 15 patients. Results: Surgery (S) alone was performed in 9, radiotherapy (RT) alone in 8, and chemotherapy (CT) alone in 4 patients. Forty-one patients received combined modality treatment (S + RT in 23, S + CT in 8, RT + CT in 4, and all three modalities in 6 patients). No active treatment was given in one case. After initial treatment there was no tumor in 57 patients and residual tumor in 5. Tumor progression was observed in 23 (36.5%) (local in 1, other salivary glands in 10, lymph nodes in 11, and elsewhere in 6). Five patients died of disease progression and the other 5 of other causes. The 5-year disease-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival were 54.4%, 93.2%, and 81.7%, respectively. Factors influencing disease-free survival were use of RT, stage, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Factors influencing disease-specific survival were stage, recurrence, and residual tumor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this report represents the largest series of MALT lymphomas of the salivary glands published to date. This disease may involve all salivary glands either initially or subsequently in 30% of patients. Recurrences may occur in up to 35% of patients at 5 years; however, survival is not affected. Radiotherapy is the only treatment modality that improves disease

  3. Cost-effectiveness of modern radiotherapy techniques in locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James D; Chang, Daniel T; Abelson, Jon; Daly, Megan E; Yeung, Heidi N; Nelson, Lorene M; Koong, Albert C

    2012-02-15

    Radiotherapy may improve the outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer but at an increased cost. In this study, the authors evaluated the cost-effectiveness of modern radiotherapy techniques in the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. A Markov decision-analytic model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of 4 treatment regimens: gemcitabine alone, gemcitabine plus conventional radiotherapy, gemcitabine plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT); and gemcitabine with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Patients transitioned between the following 5 health states: stable disease, local progression, distant failure, local and distant failure, and death. Health utility tolls were assessed for radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments and for radiation toxicity. SBRT increased life expectancy by 0.20 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) at an increased cost of $13,700 compared with gemcitabine alone (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER] = $69,500 per QALY). SBRT was more effective and less costly than conventional radiotherapy and IMRT. An analysis that excluded SBRT demonstrated that conventional radiotherapy had an ICER of $126,800 per QALY compared with gemcitabine alone, and IMRT had an ICER of $1,584,100 per QALY compared with conventional radiotherapy. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the probability of cost-effectiveness at a willingness to pay of $50,000 per QALY was 78% for gemcitabine alone, 21% for SBRT, 1.4% for conventional radiotherapy, and 0.01% for IMRT. At a willingness to pay of $200,000 per QALY, the probability of cost-effectiveness was 73% for SBRT, 20% for conventional radiotherapy, 7% for gemcitabine alone, and 0.7% for IMRT. The current results indicated that IMRT in locally advanced pancreatic cancer exceeds what society considers cost-effective. In contrast, combining gemcitabine with SBRT increased clinical effectiveness beyond that of gemcitabine alone at a cost potentially acceptable by

  4. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J; Benjamin, Linus C; Wu, Bosco; de Campos Silva, Thomaz; McLachlan, Craig S; McKay, Michael J; Last, Andrew J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dose-escalated (DE) radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) and ADT. Methods and materials Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Results Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2.1% and 3.4%, respectively. No grade 3 or 4 late toxicities were reported. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen (P=0.001) and Gleason score (P=0.03) were significant in predicting biochemical failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusion There is a high probability of tumor control with DE IG-IMRT combined with androgen deprivation, and this is a technique with a low probability of significant late toxicity. Our long term results corroborate the safety and efficacy of treating with IG-IMRT to high doses

  5. Radiotherapy for gastric lymphoma: a planning study of 3D conformal radiotherapy, the half-beam method, and intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Koji; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Wakita, Akihisa; Nakamura, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Yoshio, Kotaro; Murakami, Naoya; Morota, Madoka; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2014-11-01

    During radiotherapy for gastric lymphoma, it is difficult to protect the liver and kidneys in cases where there is considerable overlap between these organs and the target volume. This study was conducted to compare the three radiotherapy planning techniques of four-fields 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), half-field radiotherapy (the half-beam method) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) used to treat primary gastric lymphoma in which the planning target volume (PTV) had a large overlap with the left kidney. A total of 17 patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were included. In DLBCL, immunochemotherapy (Rituximab + CHOP) was followed by radiotherapy of 40 Gy to the whole stomach and peri-gastric lymph nodes. 3DCRT, the half-field method, and IMRT were compared with respect to the dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) to the kidneys, liver and PTV. The mean dose and gEUD for 3DCRT was higher than for IMRT and the half-beam method in the left kidney and both kidneys. The mean dose and gEUD of the left kidney was 2117 cGy and 2224 cGy for 3DCRT, 1520 cGy and 1637 cGy for IMRT, and 1100 cGy and 1357 cGy for the half-beam method, respectively. The mean dose and gEUD of both kidneys was 1335 cGy and 1559 cGy for 3DCRT, 1184 cGy and 1311 cGy for IMRT, and 700 cGy and 937 cGy for the half-beam method, respectively. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the liver revealed a larger volume was irradiated in the dose range <25 Gy with 3DCRT, while the half-beam method irradiated a larger volume of liver with the higher dose range (>25 Gy). IMRT and the half-beam method had the advantages of dose reduction for the kidneys and liver. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  6. Critical role of bevacizumab scheduling in combination with pre-surgical chemo-radiotherapy in MRI-defined high-risk locally advanced rectal cancer: results of the branch trial

    PubMed Central

    Avallone, Antonio; Pecori, Biagio; Bianco, Franco; Aloj, Luigi; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Romano, Carmela; Granata, Vincenza; Marone, Pietro; Leone, Alessandra; Botti, Gerardo; Petrillo, Antonella; Caracò, Corradina; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo R.; Muto, Paolo; Romano, Giovanni; Comella, Pasquale; Budillon, Alfredo; Delrio, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that an intensified preoperative regimen including oxaliplatin plus raltitrexed and 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (OXATOM/FUFA) during preoperative pelvic radiotherapy produced promising results in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Preclinical evidence suggests that the scheduling of bevacizumab may be crucial to optimize its combination with chemo-radiotherapy. Patients and methods This non-randomized, non-comparative, phase II study was conducted in MRI-defined high-risk LARC. Patients received three biweekly cycles of OXATOM/FUFA during RT. Bevacizumab was given 2 weeks before the start of chemo-radiotherapy, and on the same day of chemotherapy for 3 cycles (concomitant-schedule A) or 4 days prior to the first and second cycle of chemotherapy (sequential-schedule B). Primary end point was pathological complete tumor regression (TRG1) rate. Results The accrual for the concomitant-schedule was early terminated because the number of TRG1 (2 out of 16 patients) was statistically inconsistent with the hypothesis of activity (30%) to be tested. Conversely, the endpoint was reached with the sequential-schedule and the final TRG1 rate among 46 enrolled patients was 50% (95% CI 35%–65%). Neutropenia was the most common grade ≥3 toxicity with both schedules, but it was less pronounced with the sequential than concomitant-schedule (30% vs. 44%). Postoperative complications occurred in 8/15 (53%) and 13/46 (28%) patients in schedule A and B, respectively. At 5 year follow-up the probability of PFS and OS was 80% (95%CI, 66%–89%) and 85% (95%CI, 69%–93%), respectively, for the sequential-schedule. Conclusions These results highlights the relevance of bevacizumab scheduling to optimize its combination with preoperative chemo-radiotherapy in the management of LARC. PMID:26320185

  7. Secondary malignancy following radiotherapy for thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Christopher C; Chang, Eun Hae; Al-Kharazi, Khalid; Pickles, Tom

    2016-01-01

    To describe the first case of a secondary meningioma in a patient after radiation treatment for thyroid eye disease (TED). Secondarily to identify any additional cases of secondary malignancy resulting from radiotherapy for thyroid eye disease from our institutional experience. Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a self-limiting auto-immune disorder causing expansion of orbital soft tissue from deposition of glycosaminoglycans and collagen, leading to significant cosmetic and functional morbidity. Established management options for TED include: glucocorticosteroids, orbital radiotherapy, and surgical orbital decompression. Two large series on radiotherapy for TED have been reported without any cases of secondary malignancy. The case of a patient with visual failure, found to have a sphenoid wing meningioma after previous TED radiotherapy is described. We then reviewed 575 patients with at least 3-year follow-up receiving radiotherapy for TED at British Columbia Cancer Agency to identify other possible secondary malignancies. The patient had postoperative improvement in her vision without any identified complications. Three additional cases of hematologic malignancy were identified. The calculated risk in our population of developing a radiation-induced meningioma after TED with at least 3 years of follow-up of is 0.17% (1/575); with hematopoetic malignancies the risk for secondary malignancy is 0.7% (4/575). Our calculated risk for secondary malignancy (0.17%, 0.7%) is similar to the reported theoretical risk published in the literature (0.3-1.2%). There is real risk for the development of a secondary malignancy after radiotherapy treatment of TED and treatment options should include consideration for this potential.

  8. Stereotactic radiotherapy of primary lung cancer and other targets: results of consultant meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yasushi; Wulf, Joern; Lax, Ingmar; Timmerman, Robert; Zimmermann, Frank; Stojkovski, Igor; Jeremic, Branislav

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and identify both advantages and disadvantages of its use in developing countries, a meeting composed of consultants of the International Atomic Energy Agency was held in Vienna in November 2006. Owing to continuous developments in the field, the meeting was extended by subsequent discussions and correspondence (2007-2010), which led to the summary presented here. The advantages and disadvantages of SBRT expected to be encountered in developing countries were identified. The definitions, typical treatment courses, and clinical results were presented. Thereafter, minimal methodology/technology requirements for SBRT were evaluated. Finally, characteristics of SBRT for developing countries were recommended. Patients for SBRT should be carefully selected, because single high-dose radiotherapy may cause serious complications in some serial organs at risk. Clinical experiences have been reported in some populations of lung cancer, lung oligometastases, liver cancer, pancreas cancer, and kidney cancer. Despite the disadvantages expected to be experienced in developing countries, SBRT using fewer fractions may be useful in selected patients with various extracranial cancers with favorable outcome and low toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long term results after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngioma: maximal tumor control with minimal side effects.

    PubMed

    Harrabi, Semi B; Adeberg, Sebastian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2014-09-16

    There are already numerous reports about high local control rates in patients with craniopharyngioma but there are only few studies with follow up times of more than 10 years. This study is an analysis of long term control, tumor response and side effects after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for patients with craniopharyngioma. 55 patients who were treated with FSRT for craniopharyngioma were analyzed. Median age was 37 years (range 6-70 years), among them eight children < 18 years. Radiotherapy (RT) was indicated for progressive disease after neurosurgical resection or postoperatively after repeated resection or partial resection. A median dose of 52.2 Gy (50 - 57.6 Gy) was applied with typical dose per fraction of 1.8 Gy five times per week. The regular follow up examinations comprised in addition to contrast enhanced MRI scans thorough physical examinations and clinical evaluation. During median follow up of 128 months (2 - 276 months) local control rate was 95.3% after 5 years, 92.1% after 10 years and 88.1% after 20 years. Overall survival after 10 years was 83.3% and after 20 years 67.8% whereby none of the deaths were directly attributed to craniopharyngioma. Overall treatment was tolerated well with almost no severe acute or chronic side effects. One patient developed complete anosmia, another one's initially impaired vision deteriorated further. In 83.6% of the cases with radiological follow up a regression of irradiated tumor residues was monitored, in 7 cases complete response was achieved. 44 patients presented themselves initially with endocrinologic dysfunction none of them showed signs of further deterioration during follow up. No secondary malignancies were observed. Long term results for patients with craniopharyngioma after stereotactic radiotherapy are with respect to low treatment related side effects as well as to local control and overall survival excellent.

  10. Cardiac Side-effects From Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C W; Kirby, A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy reduces the risk of cancer recurrence and death. However, it usually involves some radiation exposure of the heart and analyses of randomised trials have shown that it can increase the risk of heart disease. Estimates of the absolute risks of radiation-related heart disease are needed to help oncologists plan each individual woman's treatment. The risk for an individual woman varies according to her estimated cardiac radiation dose and her background risk of ischaemic heart disease in the absence of radiotherapy. When it is known, this risk can then be compared with the absolute benefit of the radiotherapy. At present, many UK cancer centres are already giving radiotherapy with mean heart doses of less than 3 Gy and for most women the benefits of the radiotherapy will probably far outweigh the risks. Technical approaches to minimising heart dose in breast cancer radiotherapy include optimisation of beam angles, use of multileaf collimator shielding, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, treatment in a prone position, treatment in deep inspiration (including the use of breath-hold and gating techniques), proton therapy and partial breast irradiation. The multileaf collimator is suitable for many women with upper pole left breast cancers, but for women with central or lower pole cancers, breath-holding techniques are now recommended in national UK guidelines. Ongoing work aims to identify ways of irradiating pan-regional lymph nodes that are effective, involve minimal exposure of organs at risk and are feasible to plan, deliver and verify. These will probably include wide tangent-based field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy or arc radiotherapy techniques in combination with deep inspiratory breath-hold, and proton beam irradiation for women who have a high predicted heart dose from intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chronowski, Gregory M., E-mail: gchronowski@mdanderson.org; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n =more » 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity

  12. Efficacy of Rasayana Avaleha as adjuvant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in reducing adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Purvi; Thakar, A B; Baghel, M S; Sisodia, Arvind; Deole, Yogesh

    2010-10-01

    Cancer is the most dreadful disease affecting mankind. The available treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy have cytotoxic effects, which are hazardous to the normal cells of the patient, causing many unnecessary effects. This further leads to complications of the therapy, impaired health, and deterioration of quality of life, resulting in mandatory stoppage of the treatment. In the present study, the efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation, Rasayana Avaleha, has been evaluated as an adjuvant medication to modern radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A total of 36 cancer patients were registered in this trial and were divided into two groups, group A and group B. In group A, the patients were treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy along with adjuvant Rasayana Avaleha (RT + CT + RA), while in group B only radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RT + CT) were given, as the control group. After assessing the results, it was observed that Rasayana Avaleha gave better results in controlling the adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in comparison with the control group. Therefore, Rasayana Avaleha has proved to be an effective adjuvant therapy in protecting patients from the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  13. [Development of quality assurance/quality control web system in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Mochizuki, Toshihiko; Yokoyama, Kazutoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Nakamura, Satoshi; Ueki, Heihachi; Shiozawa, Keiko; Sasaki, Koji; Fuse, Masashi; Abe, Yoshihisa; Itami, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Our purpose is to develop a QA/QC (quality assurance/quality control) web system using a server-side script language such as HTML (HyperText Markup Language) and PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor), which can be useful as a tool to share information about QA/QC in radiotherapy. The system proposed in this study can be easily built in one's own institute, because HTML can be easily handled. There are two desired functions in a QA/QC web system: (i) To review the results of QA/QC for a radiotherapy machine, manuals, and reports necessary for routinely performing radiotherapy through this system. By disclosing the results, transparency can be maintained, (ii) To reveal a protocol for QA/QC in one's own institute using pictures and movies relating to QA/QC for simplicity's sake, which can also be used as an educational tool for junior radiation technologists and medical physicists. By using this system, not only administrators, but also all staff involved in radiotherapy, can obtain information about the conditions and accuracy of treatment machines through the QA/QC web system.

  14. Current role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozyigit, Gokhan; Gultekin, Melis

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in females. Advances in systemic therapies and radiotherapy (RT) provided long survival rates in breast cancer patients. RT has a major role in the management of breast cancer. During the past 15 years several developments took place in the field of imaging and irradiation techniques, intensity modulated RT, hypofractionation and partial-breast irradiation. Currently, improvements in the RT technology allow us a subsequent decrease in the treatment-related complications such as fibrosis and long-term cardiac toxicity while improving the loco-regional control rates and cosmetic results. Thus, it is crucial that modern radiotherapy techniques should be carried out with maximum care and efficiency. Several randomized trials provided evidence for the feasibility of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer. However, the role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer will continue to be defined by the mature results of randomized trials. Current review will provide an up-to-date evidence based data on the role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer. PMID:25114857

  15. The intensity of radiotherapy-elicited immune response is associated with esophageal cancer clearance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-lu; Jin, Long; Li, Yao-Dong; He, Chen-chen; Guo, Xi-jing; Liu, Rui; Yang, Yun-Yi; Han, Su-xia

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the standard therapeutic modalities for esophageal cancer, achieving its main antitumor efficacy through DNA damage. However, accumulating evidence shows that radiotherapy can substantially alter the tumor microenvironment, particularly with respect to its effects on immune cells. We hypothesized that the immune response elicited by radiotherapy may be as important as the radiation itself for successful treatment. More specifically, immunomodulatory cytokines may enhance the effectiveness of radiotherapy. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured changes in the serum interferon-gamma (IFN- γ ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations during radiotherapy and compared these modifications with outcomes. We found that serum concentrations of IL-2 and IFN- γ were positively associated with local response to radiotherapy in esophageal cancer. More generally, the intensity of the radiotherapy-elicited immune response was positively associated with local response to radiotherapy in esophageal cancer. Changes in serum IL-2 and IFN- γ concentrations were further associated with increased risks of acute hematologic toxicity and acute organ toxicity of the esophagus, lung, and skin. These results suggest that deciphering the mechanisms of radiotherapy-elicited immune response may help in the development of therapeutic interventions that would enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and convert some ineffective responses to effective responses.

  16. The role of intraoperative radiotherapy in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Skandarajah, A R; Lynch, A C; Mackay, J R; Ngan, S; Heriot, A G

    2009-03-01

    Combined multimodality therapy is becoming standard treatment for many solid tumors, but the role of intraoperative radiotherapy in the management of solid tumors remains uncertain. The aim is to review the indication, application, and outcomes of intraoperative radiotherapy in the management of nongynecological solid tumors. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane database for studies between 1965 and 2008 assessing intraoperative radiotherapy, using the keywords "intraoperative radiotherapy," "colorectal cancer," "breast cancer," "gastric cancer," "pancreatic cancer," "soft tissue tumor," and "surgery." Only publications in English with available abstracts and regarding adult humans were included, and the evidence was critically evaluated. Our search retrieved 864 publications. After exclusion of nonclinical papers, duplicated papers and exclusion of brachytherapy papers, 77 papers were suitable to assess the current role of intraoperative radiotherapy. The clinical application and evidence base of intraoperative radiotherapy for each cancer is presented. Current studies in all common cancers show an additional benefit in local recurrence rates when intraoperative radiotherapy is included in the multimodal treatment. However, intraoperative radiotherapy may not improve overall survival and has significant morbidity depending on the site of the tumor. Intraoperative radiotherapy does have a role in the multidisciplinary management of solid tumors, but further studies are required to more precisely determine the extent of benefit.

  17. Genome-wide transcription responses to synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Carl N; Yang, Yuqing; Forrester, Helen B; Li, Jason; Zaitseva, Marina; Cann, Leonie; Restall, Tina; Anderson, Robin L; Crosbie, Jeffrey C; Rogers, Peter A W

    2012-10-01

    The majority of cancer patients achieve benefit from radiotherapy. A significant limitation of radiotherapy is its relatively low therapeutic index, defined as the maximum radiation dose that causes acceptable normal tissue damage to the minimum dose required to achieve tumor control. Recently, a new radiotherapy modality using synchrotron-generated X-ray microbeam radiotherapy has been demonstrated in animal models to ablate tumors with concurrent sparing of normal tissue. Very little work has been undertaken into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that differentiate microbeam radiotherapy from broad beam. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the whole genome transcriptional response of in vivo microbeam radiotherapy versus broad beam irradiated tumors. We hypothesized that gene expression changes after microbeam radiotherapy are different from those seen after broad beam. We found that in EMT6.5 tumors at 4-48 h postirradiation, microbeam radiotherapy differentially regulates a number of genes, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen gene family members, and other immunity-related genes including Ciita, Ifng, Cxcl1, Cxcl9, Indo and Ubd when compared to broad beam. Our findings demonstrate molecular differences in the tumor response to microbeam versus broad beam irradiation and these differences provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of microbeam radiotherapy and broad beam.

  18. [Effects of radiotherapy on lymphocyte populations in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Gava, A; Moro, L; De Angeli, S; Coghetto, F; Marazzato, G; Fantin, P; Patrese, P

    1988-11-01

    The authors report on the results of the immune monitoring of a study population of 31 patients with lung cancer who were treated with radiotherapy. A synthetic thymic pentapeptide, thymopentin, was employed whose effect was evaluated on the immunological parameters analyzed. After radiotherapy, a considerable and homogeneous decrement was observed in several lymphocytic subsets (less sensible in activated T-cells), together with a progressive decrement in the helper/suppressor ratio, in the long run. Monocytes and null cells showed more radioresistance. Thymopentin had no influence on the tested immunological parameters up to 6 months after radiotherapy; later on, a slightly more balanced helper/suppressor ratio could be noticed in the surviving patients who had been treated with thymopentin.

  19. Fiducial marker guided prostate radiotherapy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Suneil; Hounsell, Alan R; O'Sullivan, Joe M

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is an essential tool in the accurate delivery of modern radiotherapy techniques. Prostate radiotherapy positioned using skin marks or bony anatomy may be adequate for delivering a relatively homogeneous whole-pelvic radiotherapy dose, but these surrogates are not reliable when using reduced margins, dose escalation or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Fiducial markers (FMs) for prostate IGRT have been in use since the 1990s. They require surgical implantation and provide a surrogate for the position of the prostate gland. A variety of FMs are available and they can be used in a number of ways. This review aimed to establish the evidence for using prostate FMs in terms of feasibility, implantation procedures, types of FMs used, FM migration, imaging modalities used and the clinical impact of FMs. A search strategy was defined and a literature search was carried out in Medline. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, which resulted in 50 articles being included in this review. The evidence demonstrates that FMs provide a more accurate surrogate for the position of the prostate than either external skin marks or bony anatomy. A combination of FM alignment and soft-tissue analysis is currently the most effective and widely available approach to ensuring accuracy in prostate IGRT. FM implantation is safe and well tolerated. FM migration is possible but minimal. Standardization of all techniques and procedures in relation to the use of prostate FMs is required. Finally, a clinical trial investigating a non-surgical alternative to prostate FMs is introduced. PMID:27585736

  20. Palliative radiotherapy practice within Western European countries: impact of the radiotherapy financing system?

    PubMed

    Lievens, Y; Van den Bogaert, W; Rijnders, A; Kutcher, G; Kesteloot, K

    2000-09-01

    To analyze the reimbursement modalities for radiotherapy in the different Western European countries, as well as to investigate if these differences have an impact on the palliative radiotherapy practice for bone metastases. A questionnaire was sent to 565 radiotherapy centres included in the 1997 ESTRO directory. In this questionnaire the reimbursement strategy applied in the different centres was assessed, with respect to the use of a budget (departmental or hospital budget), case payment and/or fee-for-service reimbursement. The differences were analyzed according to country and to type and size of the radiotherapy centre. A total of 170 centres (86% of the responders) returned the questionnaire. Most frequent is budget reimbursement: some form of budget reimbursement is found in 69% of the centres, whereas 46% of the centres are partly reimbursed through fee-for-service and 35% through case payment. The larger the department, the more frequent the reimbursement through a budget or a case payment system and the less the importance of fee-for-service reimbursement (chi(2): P=0.0012; logit: P=0.0055). Whereas private centres are almost equally reimbursed by fee-for-service financing as by budget or case payment, radiotherapy departments in university hospitals receive the largest part of their financial resources through a budget or by case payment (83%) (chi(2): P=0.002; logit: P=0.0073). A correlation between the country and the radiotherapy reimbursement system was also demonstrated (P=0.002), radiotherapy centres in Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom being almost entirely reimbursed through a budget and/or case payment and centres in Germany and Switzerland mostly through a fee-for-service system. In budget and case payment financing lower total number of fractions and lower total dose (chi(2): P=0.003; logit: P=0.0120) as well as less shielding blocks (chi(2): P=0.003; logit: P=0.0066) are used. A same tendency is found for the use of isodose

  1. Estimating radiotherapy demands in South East Asia countries in 2025 and 2035 using evidence-based optimal radiotherapy fractions.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Noorazrul; Roslan, Nurhaziqah

    2018-01-08

    As about 50% of cancer patients may require radiotherapy, the demand of radiotherapy as the main treatment to treat cancer is likely to rise due to rising cancer incidence. This study aims to quantify the radiotherapy demand in countries in Southeast Asia (SEA) in 2025 and 2035 using evidence-based optimal radiotherapy fractions. SEA country-specific cancer incidence by tumor site for 2015, 2025 and 2035 was extracted from the GLOBOCAN database. We utilized the optimal radiotherapy utilization rate model by Wong et al. (2016) to calculate the optimal number of fractions for all tumor sites in each SEA country. The available machines (LINAC & Co-60) were extracted from the IAEA's Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) from which the number of available fractions was calculated. The incidence of cancers in SEA countries are expected to be 1.1 mil cases (2025) and 1.4 mil (2035) compared to 0.9 mil (2015). The number of radiotherapy fractions needed in 2025 and 2035 are 11.1 and 14.1 mil, respectively, compared to 7.6 mil in 2015. In 2015, the radiotherapy fulfillment rate (RFR; required fractions/available fractions) varied between countries with Brunei, Singapore and Malaysia are highest (RFR > 1.0 - available fractions > required fractions), whereas Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Timor-Leste and Vietnam have RFR < 0.5. RFR is correlated to GDP per capita (ρ = 0.73, P = 0.01). To allow RFR ≥1 in 2025 and 2035, another 866 and 1177 machines are required, respectively. The number are lower if longer running hours are implemented. With the optimal number of radiotherapy fractions, estimation for number of machines required can be obtained which will guide acquisition of machines in SEA countries. RFR is low with access varied based on the economic status. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Critical role of bevacizumab scheduling in combination with pre-surgical chemo-radiotherapy in MRI-defined high-risk locally advanced rectal cancer: Results of the BRANCH trial.

    PubMed

    Avallone, Antonio; Pecori, Biagio; Bianco, Franco; Aloj, Luigi; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Romano, Carmela; Granata, Vincenza; Marone, Pietro; Leone, Alessandra; Botti, Gerardo; Petrillo, Antonella; Caracò, Corradina; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo R; Muto, Paolo; Romano, Giovanni; Comella, Pasquale; Budillon, Alfredo; Delrio, Paolo

    2015-10-06

    We have previously shown that an intensified preoperative regimen including oxaliplatin plus raltitrexed and 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid (OXATOM/FUFA) during preoperative pelvic radiotherapy produced promising results in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Preclinical evidence suggests that the scheduling of bevacizumab may be crucial to optimize its combination with chemo-radiotherapy. This non-randomized, non-comparative, phase II study was conducted in MRI-defined high-risk LARC. Patients received three biweekly cycles of OXATOM/FUFA during RT. Bevacizumab was given 2 weeks before the start of chemo-radiotherapy, and on the same day of chemotherapy for 3 cycles (concomitant-schedule A) or 4 days prior to the first and second cycle of chemotherapy (sequential-schedule B). Primary end point was pathological complete tumor regression (TRG1) rate. The accrual for the concomitant-schedule was early terminated because the number of TRG1 (2 out of 16 patients) was statistically inconsistent with the hypothesis of activity (30%) to be tested. Conversely, the endpoint was reached with the sequential-schedule and the final TRG1 rate among 46 enrolled patients was 50% (95% CI 35%-65%). Neutropenia was the most common grade ≥ 3 toxicity with both schedules, but it was less pronounced with the sequential than concomitant-schedule (30% vs. 44%). Postoperative complications occurred in 8/15 (53%) and 13/46 (28%) patients in schedule A and B, respectively. At 5 year follow-up the probability of PFS and OS was 80% (95%CI, 66%-89%) and 85% (95%CI, 69%-93%), respectively, for the sequential-schedule. These results highlights the relevance of bevacizumab scheduling to optimize its combination with preoperative chemo-radiotherapy in the management of LARC.

  3. [Bladder-conserving treatment for bladder cancer: potential of and developments in radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Pieters, Bradley R; Koning, Caro C E

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the bladder and construction of a neobladder. Recently, important improvements have been made in the potential for bladder-conserving treatment using radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy has undergone technological improvements, as a result of which it is possible to radiate the tumour more precisely while decreasing radiation to healthy tissue. Radiochemotherapy improves local recurrence-free and overall survival compared with radiotherapy alone. The results of this combined treatment are comparable with those of surgery. Additionally, Dutch radiotherapy departments have collected data in a national database of 1040 selected patients with confined bladder cancer. These patients were treated with external beam radiation, limited surgery and brachytherapy. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 75%. Bladder conserving treatment options for muscle-invasive bladder cancer should be discussed during the multidisciplinary meeting.

  4. A case study of the neuropsychological outcomes following microsurgery, conventional radiotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy for an adult's recurrent craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Preece, David; Allan, Alfred; Becerra, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    To examine the neuropsychological outcomes for an adult patient, 2 years after receiving microsurgery and conventional radiotherapy for a recurrent craniopharyngioma; and the impact of a further intervention, stereotactic radiotherapy, on this level of neuropsychological functioning. JD, a 30 year old male whose recurrent craniopharyngioma had 2 years earlier been treated with two operations and conventional radiotherapy. JD was assessed (using standardized clinical tests) before and after a course of stereotactic radiotherapy. Prior to stereotactic radiotherapy (and 2 years after microsurgery and conventional radiotherapy) JD's IQ was intact, but considerable impairments were present in executive functioning, memory, theory of mind and processing speed. Fifteen months after stereotactic radiotherapy, all neuropsychological domains remained largely static or improved, supporting the utility of this treatment option in the neuropsychological domain. However, deficits in executive functioning, memory and processing speed remained. These findings suggest that, even after multiple treatments, substantial cognitive impairments can be present in an adult patient with a recurrent craniopharyngioma. This profile of deficits underlines the inadequacy of relying purely on IQ as a marker for cognitive health in this population and emphasizes the need to include neuropsychological impairments as a focus of rehabilitation with these patients.

  5. Seizure control following radiotherapy in patients with diffuse gliomas: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rudà, Roberta; Magliola, Umberto; Bertero, Luca; Trevisan, Elisa; Bosa, Chiara; Mantovani, Cristina; Ricardi, Umberto; Castiglione, Anna; Monagheddu, Chiara; Soffietti, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Little information is available regarding the effect of conventional radiotherapy on glioma-related seizures. Methods In this retrospective study, we analyzed the seizure response and outcome following conventional radiotherapy in a cohort of 43 patients with glioma (33 grade II, 10 grade III) and medically intractable epilepsy. Results At 3 months after radiotherapy, seizure reduction was significant (≥50% reduction of frequency compared with baseline) in 31/43 patients (72%) of the whole series and in 25/33 patients (76%) with grade II gliomas, whereas at 12 months seizure reduction was significant in 26/34 (76%) and in 19/25 (76%) patients, respectively. Seizure reduction was observed more often among patients displaying an objective tumor response on MRI, but patients with no change on MRI also had a significant seizure reduction. Seizure freedom (Engel class I) was achieved at 12 months in 32% of all patients and in 38% of patients with grade II tumors. Timing of radiotherapy and duration of seizures prior to radiotherapy were significantly associated with seizure reduction. Conclusions This study showed that a high proportion of patients with medically intractable epilepsy from diffuse gliomas derive a significant and durable benefit from radiotherapy in terms of epilepsy control and that this positive effect is not strictly associated with tumor shrinkage as shown on MRI. Radiotherapy at tumor progression seems as effective as early radiotherapy after surgery. Prospective studies must confirm and better characterize the response to radiotherapy. PMID:23897633

  6. Innovations in Radiotherapy Technology.

    PubMed

    Feain, I J; Court, L; Palta, J R; Beddar, S; Keall, P

    2017-02-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries, together with remote and low socioeconomic populations within high-income countries, lack the resources and services to deal with cancer. The challenges in upgrading or introducing the necessary services are enormous, from screening and diagnosis to radiotherapy planning/treatment and quality assurance. There are severe shortages not only in equipment, but also in the capacity to train, recruit and retain staff as well as in their ongoing professional development via effective international peer-review and collaboration. Here we describe some examples of emerging technology innovations based on real-time software and cloud-based capabilities that have the potential to redress some of these areas. These include: (i) automatic treatment planning to reduce physics staffing shortages, (ii) real-time image-guided adaptive radiotherapy technologies, (iii) fixed-beam radiotherapy treatment units that use patient (rather than gantry) rotation to reduce infrastructure costs and staff-to-patient ratios, (iv) cloud-based infrastructure programmes to facilitate international collaboration and quality assurance and (v) high dose rate mobile cobalt brachytherapy techniques for intraoperative radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Might Increase Pneumonitis Risk Relative to Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients Receiving Combined Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy: A Modeling Study of Dose Dumping

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vogelius, Ivan S.; Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI; Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To model the possible interaction between cytotoxic chemotherapy and the radiation dose distribution with respect to the risk of radiation pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 18 non-small-cell lung cancer patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy at the University of Wisconsin were selected for the present modeling study. Three treatment plans were considered: the delivered tomotherapy plans; a three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan; and a fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan. The IMRT and 3D-CRT plans were generated specifically for the present study. The plans were optimized without adjusting for the chemotherapy effect. The effect of chemotherapy was modeledmore » as an independent cell killing process by considering a uniform chemotherapy equivalent radiation dose added to all voxels of the organ at risk. The risk of radiation pneumonitis was estimated for all plans using the Lyman and the critical volume models. Results: For radiotherapy alone, the critical volume model predicts that the two IMRT plans are associated with a lower risk of radiation pneumonitis than the 3D-CRT plan. However, when the chemotherapy equivalent radiation dose exceeds a certain threshold, the radiation pneumonitis risk after IMRT is greater than after 3D-CRT. This threshold dose is in the range estimated from clinical chemoradiotherapy data sets. Conclusions: Cytotoxic chemotherapy might affect the relative merit of competing radiotherapy plans. More work is needed to improve our understanding of the interaction between chemotherapy and the radiation dose distribution in clinical settings.« less

  8. Use of Polymethyl Methacrylate-Based Cement for Cosmetic Correction of Donor-Site Defect following Transposition of Temporalis Myofascial Flap and Evaluation of Results after Adjuvant Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mandlik, Dushyant; Gupta, Karan; Patel, Daxesh; Patel, Purvi; Toprani, Rajendra; Patel, Kaustubh

    2015-11-01

    Temporalis myofascial flap is a versatile flap for reconstruction of the oral cavity defects, but results in an esthetically compromised deformity at the donor site. We used polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cement to correct the volume loss defect caused by temporalis myofascial flap and evaluated its results before and after adjuvant radiotherapy. We discuss our experience of using PMMA cement to augment donor-site deformity in 25 patients (17 males, 8 females) between years 2005 and 2009. The primary defect was a result of the ablative surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper alveolar and the buccoalveolar sulcus. A modified curved hemicoronal incision was used as an access for better cosmetic outcome. The volume of cement required was decided during the surgery. All patients are in regular follow-up, alive and free of complications at implant site, except one patient who developed wound dehiscence. The condition of the implant was evaluated by postoperative computed tomographic scan, repeated after adjuvant radiotherapy in cases required. There were no radiation-induced changes in the contour and volume of the implants. Cosmetic result of the implant was reported satisfactory by the patients postoperatively.  Restoration of the temporal area defect after the temporalis myofascial flap harvest with the use of PMMA cement is an easy and safe method, with excellent esthetic results. The implant is stable and resistant to any changes in contour and loss of volume even after adjuvant radiotherapy, with no added morbidity to the patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Postoperative radiotherapy in the management of keloids.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Claudia C; Ibarra, Carla M; Arbulo, Douglas L; Russo, Moisés N; Solé, Claudio P

    2016-01-01

    The high recurrence rate following keloid resection has generated interest in adjuvant treatments for this disease. This study assesses keloid recurrence when treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy. Retrospective analysis of resected keloids in patients referred to a Chilean radiation oncology centre between 2006 and 2013. Local recurrence was defined as new tissue growth on the surgical scar margin. Around103 keloids were analysed in 63 patients treated with 15 Gy in three fraction radiotherapy which was initiated on the same day as the surgery (75% of cases). The median keloid diameter was 6 cm; the most common site was thoracic (22%); the most common cause was prior surgery (35%); 37% caused symptoms, and several (47%) had received prior treatment with corticosteroids (32%), or surgery (30%). The median follow-up was three years, and 94% of recurrences occurred during the first year following treatment. Uni and multivariate analyses showed that an absence of symptoms was a protective factor for recurrence (OR: 0.24), while the time interval from onset to treatment with surgery plus radiotherapy >4.2 years was a risk factor (OR: 2.23). The first year recurrence rate was 32% and stabilised at 32% by the second year with no recurrences after 15 months. The combination of surgery and radiotherapy proved to be a good therapeutic alternative in the management of keloids. Our results are similar to those described in the literature for a dose of 15 Gy. Given these results, our centre will implement a new dose escalation protocol to improve future outcomes.

  10. Accelerated Radiotherapy, Carbogen, and Nicotinamide (ARCON) in the Treatment of Advanced Bladder Cancer: Mature Results of a Phase II Nonrandomized Study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hoskin, Peter; Marie Curie Research Wing, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middx; Rojas, Ana Ph.D.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that accelerated radiotherapy combined with carbogen and nicotinamide (ARCON) was an effective approach to use in the radical treatment of patients with advanced bladder carcinoma. Interim analysis from this Phase II study showed that it achieved a high level of locoregional control and overall survival (OS) and an acceptable level of adverse events. Methods and Materials: From 1994 to 2000, a total of 105 consecutive patients with high-grade superficial or muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma were given accelerated radiotherapy (50-55 Gy in 4 weeks) with carbogen alone or ARCON. End points of the study were OS, disease-specific, andmore » local regional relapse-free survival, and for late adverse events, urinary (altered urination frequency, incontinence, hematuria, and urgency) and bowel dysfunction (stool frequency and blood loss). Results: At 5 and 10 years, local regional relapse-free survival rates were 44% after ARCON excluding the effect of salvage treatment and 62% after ARCON including the effect of salvage treatment (p = 0.04). Five- and 10-year rates were 35% and 27% for OS and 47% and 46% for disease-specific survival. The highest actuarial rate for Grade 3 or worse late urinary or bowel dysfunction was observed for altered urinary frequency (44% of patients had urinary events every 1 hour or less) and stool frequency of four or more events (26% at 5 years). Conclusions: Historic comparisons with other studies indicate no evidence of an increase in severe or worse adverse events and good permanent control of bladder disease after ARCON radiotherapy.« less

  11. [Radiotherapy in cancers of the oesophagus, the gastric cardia and the stomach].

    PubMed

    Créhange, G; Huguet, F; Quero, L; N'Guyen, T V; Mirabel, X; Lacornerie, T

    2016-09-01

    Localized oesophageal and gastric cancers have a poor prognosis. In oesophageal cancer, external radiotherapy combined with concomitant chemotherapy is accepted as part of the therapeutic armamentarium in a curative intent in the preoperative setting for resectable tumours; or without surgery in inoperable patients or non-resectable tumours due to wide local and/or regional extension. Data from the literature show conflicting results with no clinical evidence in favour of either a unique dose protocol or consensual target volume definition in the setting of exclusive chemoradiation. In the preoperative setting, chemoradiotherapy has become the standard in oesophageal cancer, even though there is no evidence that surgery may be beneficial in locally advanced tumours that respond to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The main cause of failure after exclusive chemoradiotherapy in oesophageal cancer is locoregional relapse suggesting that doses and volumes usually considered may be inadequate. In gastric cancer, radiotherapy may be indicated postoperatively in patients with resected tumours that include less than D2 lymph node dissection or in the absence of perioperative chemotherapy. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy in gastric cancers is still under investigation. The evolving techniques of external radiotherapy, such as image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arctherapy (VMAT) have reduced the volume of lung and heart exposed to radiation, which seems to have diminished radiotherapy-related morbi-mortality rates. Given this, quality assurance for radiotherapy and protocols for radiotherapy delivery must be better standardized. This article on the indications for radiotherapy and the techniques used in oesophageal and gastric cancers is included in a special issue dedicated to national recommendations from the French society of radiation oncology (SFRO) on radiotherapy indications, planning, dose prescription, and techniques of radiotherapy delivery

  12. Breast Cancer Patients’ Experience of External-Beam Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical component of treatment for the majority of women with breast cancer, particularly those who receive breast conserving surgery. Although medically beneficial, radiotherapy can take a physical and psychological toll on patients. However, little is known about the specific thoughts and feelings experienced by women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy. Therefore, the study aim was to use qualitative research methods to develop an understanding of these thoughts and feelings based on 180 diary entries, completed during radiotherapy by 15 women with Stage 0-III breast cancer. Thematic analysis identified four primary participant concerns: (a) a preoccupation with time; (b) fantasies (both optimistic and pessimistic) about life following radiotherapy; (c) the toll their side-effect experience takes on their self-esteem; and (d) feeling mystified by radiotherapy. These themes are consistent with previous literature on illness and identity. These findings have implications for the treatment and care of women undergoing breast cancer radiotherapy. PMID:19380502

  13. Radiotherapy of rectal cancer in elderly patients: Real-world data assessment in a decade.

    PubMed

    Diao, Peng; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Garcia, Max-Adrien; Espenel, Sophie; Rehailia-Blanchard, Amel; de Lavigerie, Blandine; Vial, Nicolas; de Laroche, Guy; Vallard, Alexis; Magné, Nicolas

    2018-06-01

    There is paucity of data on the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy in rectal cancer (RC) elderly patients. The objective was to identify management strategies and resulting outcomes in RC patients ≥70 years undergoing radiotherapy. A retrospective study included consecutive RC patients ≥70 years undergoing rectal radiotherapy. From 2004-2015, 340 RC patients underwent pre-operative (n = 238; 70%), post-operative (n = 41, 12%), or exclusive (n = 61, 18%) radiotherapy, with a median age of 78.5 years old (range: 70-96). Radiotherapy protocols were tailored, with 54 different radiotherapy programs (alteration of the total dose, and/or fractionation, and/or volume). Median follow-up was 27.1 months. Acute and late grade 3-4 radio-induced toxicities were reported in 3.5% and 0.9% of patients. Metastatic setting (OR = 6.60, CI95% 1.47-46.03, p = 0.02), exclusive radiotherapy (OR = 5.08, CI95% 1.48-18.21, p = 0.009), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (OR = 6.42, CI95% 1.31-24.73, p = 0.01) were associated with grade ≥3 acute toxicities in univariate analysis. Exclusive radiotherapy (OR = 9.79, CI95% 2.49-43.18, p = 0.001) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (OR = 12.62, CI95% 2.05-71.26, p = 0.003) were independent predictive factors of grade ≥3 acute toxicities in multivariate analysis. A complete pathological response was achieved in 12 out of 221 pre-operative patients (5.4%). Age, tumor stage, and surgery were independent predictive factors of survival in multivariate analysis. At end of follow-up, 7.1% of patients experienced local relapse. Radiotherapy for RC in elderly patients appeared safe and manageable, perhaps due to the tailoring of radiotherapy protocols. Tailored management resulted in acceptable rate of local tumor control. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Mediators Associated with the Inflammatory Response in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Nice; Cicchetti, Alessandro; Palorini, Federica; Magnani, Tiziana; Zuco, Valentina; Pennati, Marzia; Campi, Elisa; Allavena, Paola; Pesce, Samantha; Villa, Sergio; Avuzzi, Barbara; Morlino, Sara; Visentin, Maria Emanuela; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    A recent "hot topic" in prostate cancer radiotherapy is the observed association between acute/late rectal toxicity and the presence of abdominal surgery before radiotherapy. The exact mechanism is unclear. Our working hypothesis was that a previous surgery may influence plasma level of inflammatory molecules and this might result in enhanced radiosensitivity. We here present results on the feasibility of monitoring the expression of inflammatory molecules during radiotherapy. Plasma levels of a panel of soluble mediators associated with the inflammatory response were measured in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. We measured 3 cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF alpha), 2 chemokines (CCL2 and CXCL8), and the long pentraxin PTX3. 20 patients were enrolled in this feasibility evaluation. All patients were treated with IMRT at 78 Gy. 3/20 patients reported grade 2 acute rectal toxicity, while 4/20 were scored as grade 2 late toxicity. CCL2 was the most interesting marker showing significant increase during and after radiotherapy. CCL2 levels at radiotherapy end could be modelled using linear regression including basal CCL2, age, surgery, hypertension, and use of anticoagulants. The 4 patients with late toxicity had CCL2 values at radiotherapy end above the median value. This trial is registered with ISRCTN64979094.

  15. [Porting Radiotherapy Software of Varian to Cloud Platform].

    PubMed

    Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Liu, Xiangxiang; Xie, Zhao; Xie, Yaoqin

    2017-09-30

    To develop a low-cost private cloud platform of radiotherapy software. First, a private cloud platform which was based on OpenStack and the virtual GPU hardware was builded. Then on the private cloud platform, all the Varian radiotherapy software modules were installed to the virtual machine, and the corresponding function configuration was completed. Finally the software on the cloud was able to be accessed by virtual desktop client. The function test results of the cloud workstation show that a cloud workstation is equivalent to an isolated physical workstation, and any clients on the LAN can use the cloud workstation smoothly. The cloud platform transplantation in this study is economical and practical. The project not only improves the utilization rates of radiotherapy software, but also makes it possible that the cloud computing technology can expand its applications to the field of radiation oncology.

  16. Very Early Salvage Radiotherapy Improves Distant Metastasis-Free Survival.

    PubMed

    Abugharib, Ahmed; Jackson, William C; Tumati, Vasu; Dess, Robert T; Lee, Jae Y; Zhao, Shuang G; Soliman, Moaaz; Zumsteg, Zachary S; Mehra, Rohit; Feng, Felix Y; Morgan, Todd M; Desai, Neil; Spratt, Daniel E

    2017-03-01

    Early salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer is commonly advocated in place of adjuvant radiotherapy. We aimed to determine the optimal definition of early salvage radiotherapy. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective study of 657 men who underwent salvage radiotherapy between 1986 and 2013. Two comparisons were made to determine the optimal definition of early salvage radiotherapy, including 1) the time from radical prostatectomy to salvage radiotherapy (less than 9, 9 to 21, 22 to 47 or greater than 48 months) and 2) the level of detectable pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen (0.01 to 0.2, greater than 0.2 to 0.5 or greater than 0.5 ng/ml). Outcomes included freedom from salvage androgen deprivation therapy, and biochemical relapse-free, distant metastases-free and prostate cancer specific survival. Median followup was 9.8 years. Time from radical prostatectomy to salvage radiotherapy did not correlate with 10-year biochemical relapse-free survival rates (R 2 = 0.18). Increasing pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen strongly correlated with biochemical relapse-free survival (R 2 = 0.91). Increasing detectable pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen (0.01 to 0.2, greater than 0.2 to 0.5 and greater than 0.5 ng/ml) predicted worse 10-year biochemical relapse-free survival (62%, 44% and 27%), freedom from salvage androgen deprivation therapy (77%, 66% and 49%), distant metastases-free survival (86%, 79% and 66%, each p <0.001) and prostate cancer specific survival (93%, 89% and 80%, respectively, p = 0.001). On multivariable analysis early salvage radiotherapy (prostate specific antigen greater than 0.2 to 0.5 ng/ml) was associated with a twofold increase in biochemical failure, use of salvage androgen deprivation therapy and distant metastases compared to very early salvage radiotherapy (prostate specific antigen 0.01 to 0.2 ng/ml). The duration from radical prostatectomy to salvage

  17. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Madani, Indira; Vakaet, Luc; Bonte, Katrien

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional (two-dimensional) radiotherapy in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer (UPC). Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and September 2006, 23 patients with UPC of squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT. Extended putative mucosal and bilateral nodal sites were irradiated to a median dose of 66 Gy. In 19 patients, IMRT was performed after lymph node dissection, and in 4 patients primary radiotherapy was given. The conventional radiotherapy group (historical control group) comprised 18 patients treated to a median dose of 66 Gy betweenmore » August 1994 and October 2003. Results: Twenty patients completed treatment. As compared with conventional radiotherapy, the incidence of Grade 3 acute dysphagia was significantly lower in the IMRT group (4.5% vs. 50%, p = 0.003). By 6 months, Grade 3 xerostomia was detected in 11.8% patients in the IMRT group vs. 53.4% in the historical control group (p = 0.03). No Grade 3 dysphagia or skin fibrosis was observed after IMRT but these were noted after conventional radiotherapy (26.7%, p = 0.01) and 26.7%, p = 0.03) respectively). With median follow-up of living patients of 17 months, there was no emergence of primary cancer. One patient had persistent nodal disease and another had nodal relapse at 5 months. Distant metastases were detected in 4 patients. The 2-year overall survival and distant disease-free probability after IMRT did not differ significantly from those for conventional radiotherapy (74.8% vs. 61.1% and 76.3% vs. 68.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Use of IMRT for UPC resulted in lower toxicity than conventional radiotherapy, and was similar in efficacy.« less

  18. Risk-adaptive radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yusung

    Currently, there is great interest in integrating biological information into intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning with the aim of boosting high-risk tumor subvolumes. Selective boosting of tumor subvolumes can be accomplished without violating normal tissue complication constraints using information from functional imaging. In this work we have developed a risk-adaptive optimization-framework that utilizes a nonlinear biological objective function. Employing risk-adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer, it is possible to increase the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) by up to 35.4 Gy in tumor subvolumes having the highest risk classification without increasing normal tissue complications. Subsequently, we have studied the impact of functional imaging accuracy, and found on the one hand that loss in sensitivity had a large impact on expected local tumor control, which was maximal when a low-risk classification for the remaining low risk PTV was chosen. While on the other hand loss in specificity appeared to have a minimal impact on normal tissue sparing. Therefore, it appears that in order to improve the therapeutic ratio a functional imaging technique with a high sensitivity, rather than specificity, is needed. Last but not least a comparison study between selective boosting IMRT strategies and uniform-boosting IMRT strategies yielding the same EUD to the overall PTV was carried out, and found that selective boosting IMRT considerably improves expected TCP compared to uniform-boosting IMRT, especially when lack of control of the high-risk tumor subvolumes is the cause of expected therapy failure. Furthermore, while selective boosting IMRT, using physical dose-volume objectives, did yield similar rectal and bladder sparing when compared its equivalent uniform-boosting IMRT plan, risk-adaptive radiotherapy, utilizing biological objective functions, did yield a 5.3% reduction in NTCP for the rectum. Hence, in risk-adaptive radiotherapy the

  19. Waiting time for radiotherapy in women with cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Maria Isabel; Azevedo e Silva, Gulnar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the waiting time for radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer. METHODS This descriptive study was conducted with 342 cervical cancer cases that were referred to primary radiotherapy, in the Baixada Fluminense region, RJ, Southeastern Brazil, from October 1995 to August 2010. The waiting time was calculated using the recommended 60-day deadline as a parameter to obtaining the first cancer treatment and considering the date at which the diagnosis was confirmed, the date of first oncological consultation and date when the radiotherapy began. Median and proportional comparisons were made using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. RESULTS Most of the women (72.2%) began their radiotherapy within 60 days from the diagnostic confirmation date. The median of this total waiting time was 41 days. This median worsened over the time period, going from 11 days (1995-1996) to 64 days (2009-2010). The median interval between the diagnostic confirmation and the first oncological consultation was 33 days, and between the first oncological consultation and the first radiotherapy session was four days. The median waiting time differed significantly (p = 0.003) according to different stages of the tumor, reaching 56 days, 35 days and 30 days for women whose cancers were classified up to IIA; from IIB to IIIB, and IVA-IVB, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Despite most of the women having had access to radiotherapy within the recommended 60 days, the implementation of procedures to define the stage of the tumor and to reestablish clinical conditions took a large part of this time, showing that at least one of these intervals needs to be improved. Even though the waiting times were ideal for all patients, the most advanced cases were quickly treated, which suggests that access to radiotherapy by women with cervical cancer has been reached with equity. PMID:26786473

  20. Optimisation in radiotherapy. III: Stochastic optimisation algorithms and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Ebert, M

    1997-12-01

    This is the final article in a three part examination of optimisation in radiotherapy. Previous articles have established the bases and form of the radiotherapy optimisation problem, and examined certain types of optimisation algorithm, namely, those which perform some form of ordered search of the solution space (mathematical programming), and those which attempt to find the closest feasible solution to the inverse planning problem (deterministic inversion). The current paper examines algorithms which search the space of possible irradiation strategies by stochastic methods. The resulting iterative search methods move about the solution space by sampling random variates, which gradually become more constricted as the algorithm converges upon the optimal solution. This paper also discusses the implementation of optimisation in radiotherapy practice.

  1. Survey on deep learning for radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Noblet, Vincent; Mazzara, Christophe; Lallement, Alex

    2018-07-01

    More than 50% of cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, either exclusively or in combination with other methods. The planning and delivery of radiotherapy treatment is a complex process, but can now be greatly facilitated by artificial intelligence technology. Deep learning is the fastest-growing field in artificial intelligence and has been successfully used in recent years in many domains, including medicine. In this article, we first explain the concept of deep learning, addressing it in the broader context of machine learning. The most common network architectures are presented, with a more specific focus on convolutional neural networks. We then present a review of the published works on deep learning methods that can be applied to radiotherapy, which are classified into seven categories related to the patient workflow, and can provide some insights of potential future applications. We have attempted to make this paper accessible to both radiotherapy and deep learning communities, and hope that it will inspire new collaborations between these two communities to develop dedicated radiotherapy applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Definitive radiotherapy for extramedullary plasmacytomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Michalaki, V J; Hall, J; Henk, J M; Nutting, C M; Harrington, K J

    2003-10-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck region (EMPHN) is an uncommon malignant plasma cell neoplasm. In this study we conducted a retrospective analysis of our experience of EMPHN with particular emphasis on the role of definitive radiotherapy. From 1982 to 2001, 10 patients (6 males, 4 females) with EMPHN were treated in our institution. Of nine patients treated at initial diagnosis, all received definitive radiotherapy. One patient treated at relapse underwent surgical resection followed by post-operative radiotherapy. The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (range 35-84 years). The disease was most frequently localized in the paranasal sinuses (50%). All nine patients who received definitive radiotherapy at a dose of 40-50 Gy achieved a complete response. The median follow up period was 29 months (range 7-67 months). Four patients (40%) relapsed, three have died of their disease. Two patients (20%) with paranasal sinus disease subsequently relapsed with multiple myeloma at 10 months and 24 months, respectively. Our results indicate that treatment of EMPHN with radiotherapy achieves excellent rates of local control. The relapse rate in neck nodes of 10% does not justify elective irradiation of the uninvolved neck.

  3. [Principles of radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Esik, Olga; Horváth, Akos; Bajcsay, András; Hideghéty, Katalin; Agócs, László; Pikó, Béla; Lengyel, Zsolt; Petrányi, Agota; Pisch, Julianna

    2002-01-01

    The long-term survival probability for Hungarian lung cancer patients is 10% worse than the best results published in the most highly developed countries (the mean 5-year survival probability in Hungary is 5%, in contrast with the 15% survival probability in the USA). On the basis of the international recommendations and personal experience, an attempt was made to formulate the guidelines for radiotherapy as one of the fundamental non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment modalities for national use. An expert panel was set up comprising physicians from 6 radiotherapeutic centers (the National Institute of Oncology / Semmelweis University, Budapest; the Beth Israel Medical Center, New York; the University of Kaposvár; the University of Essen; the University of Debrecen; and the County Hospital of Gyula). Experts in two important medical fields closely related to radiotherapy (surgery and diagnostic imaging) were also engaged in the elaboration of the manuscript. Discussion of the most important principles of the radiotherapy and an overview of the prognostic factors was followed by a critical analysis of the protocols applied in the radiotherapy of Hungarian NSCLC patients during recent decades. The new guidelines suggested for the radiotherapy of NSCLC are presented separately for the postoperative period, marginally resectable tumors, and the aggressive or non-aggressive radiotherapy of inoperable tumors. Detailed accounts are given of the techniques of external irradiation and brachytherapy, and of the acute and late radiation-induced damage of normal tissues. The authors believe that this document may be instrumental in improving the survival index of Hungarian NSCLC patients in the near future.

  4. Post-radiotherapy hypothyroidism in dogs treated for thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Amores-Fuster, I; Cripps, P; Blackwood, L

    2017-03-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common adverse event after head and neck radiotherapy in human medicine, but uncommonly reported in canine patients. Records of 21 dogs with histologically or cytologically confirmed thyroid carcinoma receiving definitive or hypofractionated radiotherapy were reviewed. Nine cases received 48 Gy in 12 fractions, 10 received 36 Gy in 4 fractions and 2 received 32 Gy in 4 fractions. Seventeen cases had radiotherapy in a post-operative setting. Ten cases developed hypothyroidism (47.6%) after radiotherapy. The development of hypothyroidism was not associated with the radiotherapy protocol used. Median time to diagnosis of hypothyroidism was 6 months (range, 1-13 months). Hypothyroidism is a common side effect following radiotherapy for thyroid carcinomas. Monitoring of thyroid function following radiotherapy is recommended. No specific risk factors have been identified. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pachkoria, Ketevan; Zhang Hong; Adell, Gunnar

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy.more » Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p {<=} 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors.« less

  6. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Plus Hypnosis for Distress During Breast Radiotherapy: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Guy H; Sucala, Madalina; Dillon, Matthew J; Schnur, Julie B

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a common and effective treatment for women with breast cancer. However, radiotherapy has also been shown to adversely affect patients' emotional well-being. Currently, few mind-body interventions are designed to improve patients' quality of life during radiotherapy. One intervention which has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the breast cancer radiotherapy setting is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to either the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis (n = 50) or Attention Control (n = 50) group. Results revealed significant benefits of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress at the mid-point (d = 0.54), the conclusion (d = 0.64), and 4 weeks following the conclusion (d = 0.65) of radiotherapy (all ps < 0.05). In summary, results support further study of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis as an evidence-based intervention to reduce emotional distress in women with breast cancer. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis has the benefits of being brief, noninvasive, lacking side-effects, and producing beneficial effects which last beyond the conclusion of radiotherapy. Given these strengths, we propose that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis is a strong candidate for greater dissemination and implementation in cancer populations.

  7. Redesigning Radiotherapy Quality Assurance: Opportunities to Develop an Efficient, Evidence-Based System to Support Clinical Trials-Report of the National Cancer Institute Work Group on Radiotherapy Quality Assurance

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bekelman, Justin E., E-mail: bekelman@uphs.upenn.edu; Deye, James A.; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: In the context of national calls for reorganizing cancer clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a 2-day workshop to examine challenges and opportunities for optimizing radiotherapy quality assurance (QA) in clinical trial design. Methods and Materials: Participants reviewed the current processes of clinical trial QA and noted the QA challenges presented by advanced technologies. The lessons learned from the radiotherapy QA programs of recent trials were discussed in detail. Four potential opportunities for optimizing radiotherapy QA were explored, including the use of normal tissue toxicity and tumor control metrics, biomarkers of radiation toxicity, new radiotherapy modalities such asmore » proton beam therapy, and the international harmonization of clinical trial QA. Results: Four recommendations were made: (1) to develop a tiered (and more efficient) system for radiotherapy QA and tailor the intensity of QA to the clinical trial objectives (tiers include general credentialing, trial-specific credentialing, and individual case review); (2) to establish a case QA repository; (3) to develop an evidence base for clinical trial QA and introduce innovative prospective trial designs to evaluate radiotherapy QA in clinical trials; and (4) to explore the feasibility of consolidating clinical trial QA in the United States. Conclusion: Radiotherapy QA can affect clinical trial accrual, cost, outcomes, and generalizability. To achieve maximum benefit, QA programs must become more efficient and evidence-based.« less

  8. Evaluation of Mediators Associated with the Inflammatory Response in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bedini, Nice; Cicchetti, Alessandro; Palorini, Federica; Magnani, Tiziana; Zuco, Valentina; Pennati, Marzia; Campi, Elisa; Allavena, Paola; Pesce, Samantha; Villa, Sergio; Avuzzi, Barbara; Morlino, Sara; Visentin, Maria Emanuela; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Valdagni, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    A recent “hot topic” in prostate cancer radiotherapy is the observed association between acute/late rectal toxicity and the presence of abdominal surgery before radiotherapy. The exact mechanism is unclear. Our working hypothesis was that a previous surgery may influence plasma level of inflammatory molecules and this might result in enhanced radiosensitivity. We here present results on the feasibility of monitoring the expression of inflammatory molecules during radiotherapy. Plasma levels of a panel of soluble mediators associated with the inflammatory response were measured in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical radiotherapy. We measured 3 cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and TNF alpha), 2 chemokines (CCL2 and CXCL8), and the long pentraxin PTX3. 20 patients were enrolled in this feasibility evaluation. All patients were treated with IMRT at 78 Gy. 3/20 patients reported grade 2 acute rectal toxicity, while 4/20 were scored as grade 2 late toxicity. CCL2 was the most interesting marker showing significant increase during and after radiotherapy. CCL2 levels at radiotherapy end could be modelled using linear regression including basal CCL2, age, surgery, hypertension, and use of anticoagulants. The 4 patients with late toxicity had CCL2 values at radiotherapy end above the median value. This trial is registered with ISRCTN64979094. PMID:29682101

  9. Long-Term Results After High-Dose Radiotherapy and Adjuvant Hormones in Prostate Cancer: How Curable Is High-Risk Disease?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zapatero, Almudena, E-mail: azapatero.hlpr@salud.madrid.org; Garcia-Vicente, Feliciano; Martin de Vidales, Carmen

    Purpose: To analyze long-term outcome and prognostic factors for high-risk prostate cancer defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria treated with high-dose radiotherapy and androgen deprivation in a single institution. Methods and Materials: A total of 306 patients treated between 1995 and 2007 in a radiation dose-escalation program fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network high-risk criteria. Median International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements radiation dose was 78 Gy (range, 66.0-84.1 Gy). Long-term androgen deprivation (LTAD) was administered in 231 patients, short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) in 59 patients, and no hormones in 16 patients. The Phoenix (nadir plus 2 ng/mL)more » consensus definition was used for biochemical control. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent prognostic impact of clinical and treatment factors. Median follow-up time was 64 months (range, 24-171 months). Results: The actuarial overall survival at 5 and 10 years was 95.7% and 89.8%, respectively, and the corresponding biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was 89.5% and 67.2%, respectively. Fourteen patients (4.6%) developed distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that Gleason score >7 (p = 0.001), pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >20 ng/mL (p = 0.037), higher radiation dose (p = 0.005), and the use of adjuvant LTAD vs. STAD (p = 0.011) were independent prognostic factors affecting bDFS in high-risk disease. The 5-year bDFS for patients treated with LTAD plus radiotherapy dose >78 Gy was 97%. Conclusions: For high-risk patients the present series showed that the use of LTAD in conjunction with higher doses (>78 Gy) of radiotherapy was associated with improved biochemical tumor control. We observed that the presence of Gleason sum >7 and pretreatment PSA level >20 ng/mL in the same patient represents a 6.8 times higher risk of PSA failure. These men could be considered for clinical

  10. Evaluation of Adherence to Quality Measures for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy in the United States: Results from the Quality Research in Radiation Oncology (QRRO) Survey.

    PubMed

    Zelefsky, Michael J; Lee, W Robert; Zietman, Anthony; Khalid, Najma; Crozier, Cheryl; Owen, Jean; Wilson, J Frank

    2013-01-01

    To test the feasibility of using proposed quality indicators to assess radiotherapy quality in prostate cancer management based on a 2007 stratified random survey of treating academic and non-academic US institutions. 414 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy were selected from 45 institutions. Indicators used as specific measurable clinical performance measures to represent surrogates for quality of radiotherapy delivery included established measures, such as the use of prescription doses ≥75 Gy for intermediate- and high-risk EBRT patients and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in conjunction with EBRT for patients with high-risk disease, and emerging measures, including daily target localization (image-guidance) to correct for organ motion for EBRT patients. 167 patients (47%) were treated with 6 MV photons, 31 (9%) were treated with 10 MV, 65 (18%) received 15 MV, and the remaining 90 (26%) 16-23 MV. For intermediate- plus high-risk patients (n=181), 78% were treated to ≥75 Gy. Among favorable-risk patients, 72% were treated to ≥75 Gy. Among high-risk EBRT patients, 60 (87%) were treated with ADT in conjunction with EBRT and 13% (n=9) with radiotherapy alone. Among low- and intermediate-risk patients, 10% and 42%, respectively, were treated with ADT plus EBRT. For 24% of EBRT patients (85/354), weekly electronic portal imaging was obtained as verification films without daily target localization and the remaining 76% were treated with daily localization of the target using various methods. Adherence to defined quality indicators was observed in a majority of patients. ≈90% of high-risk patients are treated with ADT plus EBRT and ≈80% of intermediate- and high-risk patients receive prescription doses >=75 Gy, consistent with the published results of randomized trials.

  11. A phase III randomized trial comparing adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus standard adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy in operable node-positive breast cancer: Final results

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rouesse, Jacques; Lande, Brigitte de la; Bertheault-Cvitkovic, Frederique

    Purpose: To compare concomitant and sequential adjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimens in node-positive, operable breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized, French, multicenter, phase III trial enrolling 638 eligible women with prior breast surgery and positive axillary dissection. Patients in Arm A received 500 mg/m{sup 2} 5-fluorouracil, 12 mg/m{sup 2} mitoxantrone, and 500 mg/m{sup 2} cyclophosphamide, with concomitant radiotherapy (50 Gy {+-} 10-20-Gy boost). Patients in Arm B received 500 mg/m{sup 2} 5-fluorouracil, 60 mg/m{sup 2} epirubicin, and 500 mg/m{sup 2} cyclophosphamide, with subsequent radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was administered on Day 1 every 21 days for 4 cycles. Results: Medianmore » treatment durations were 64 and 126 days (Arms A and B, respectively), with no significant difference in overall or disease-free survival. Five-year locoregional relapse-free survival favored patients with conservative surgery (two thirds of the population), with less local and/or regional recurrence in Arm A than in Arm B (3% vs. 9%; p 0.01). Multivariate analysis in this subgroup showed a 2.8-fold increased risk of locoregional recurrence with sequential chemoradiotherapy, independent of other prognostic factors (p = 0.027). Febrile neutropenia and Grade 3-4 leukopenia were significantly more frequent in Arm A. Subclinical left ventricular ejection fraction events at 1 year were more frequent with concomitant radiotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Concomitant radiotherapy with adjuvant fluorouracil, mitoxantrone, and cyclophosphamide has significantly better locoregional control in node-positive breast cancer after conservative surgery and 50% shorter treatment, albeit with slightly more acute toxicity. With mitoxantrone no longer available for adjuvant breast cancer treatment, alternative concomitant chemoradiotherapy studies are needed.« less

  12. Prognostic factors, patterns of recurrence and toxicity for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Matthias F; Lang, Kristin; Krug, David; Koerber, Stefan A; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Kieser, Meinhard; Debus, Juergen; Sterzing, Florian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of definitive chemo-radiation or radiotherapy alone in patients with esophageal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of n = 238 patients with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus treated with definitive radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy at our institution between 2000 and 2012. Patients of all stages were included to represent actual clinical routine. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Moreover, treatment-related toxicity and patterns of recurrence were assessed. Patients recieved either chemo-radiation (64%), radiotherapy plus cetuximab (10%) or radiotherapy alone (26%). In 69%, a boost was applied, resulting in a median cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy; the remaining 31% received a median total dose of 50 Gy. For the entire cohort, the median OS and PFS were 15.0 and 11.0 months, respectively. In multivariate analysis, important prognostic factors for OS and PFS were T stage (OS: P = 0.005; PFS: P = 0.006), M stage (OS: P = 0.015; PFS: P = 0.003), concomitant chemotherapy (P < 0.001) and radiation doses of >55 Gy (OS: P = 0.019; PFS: P = 0.022). Recurrences occurred predominantly as local in-field relapse or distant metastases. Toxicity was dominated by nutritional impairment (12.6% with G3/4 dysphagia) and chemo-associated side effects. Definitive chemo-radiation in patients with esophageal cancer results in survival rates comparable with surgical treatment approaches. However, local and distant recurrence considerably restrict prognosis. Further advances in radio-oncological treatment strategies are necessary for improving outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  13. Recent advances in intensity modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Xi, Mian; Lin, Steven H

    2017-07-01

    Radiotherapy is an important component of the standard of care for esophageal cancer. In the past decades, significant improvements in the planning and delivery of radiation techniques have led to better dose conformity to the target volume and improved normal tissue sparing. Areas covered: This review focuses on the advances in radiotherapy techniques and summarizes the availably dosimetric and clinical outcomes of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy, proton therapy, and four-dimensional radiotherapy for esophageal cancer, and discusses the challenges and future development of proton therapy. Expert commentary: Although three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy is the standard radiotherapy technique in esophageal cancer, the retrospectively comparative studies strongly suggest that the dosimetric advantage of IMRT over three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy can translate into improved clinical outcomes, despite the lack of prospective randomized evidence. As a novel form of conventional IMRT technique, volumetric modulated arc therapy can produce equivalent or superior dosimetric quality with significantly higher treatment efficiency in esophageal cancer. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy has the potential to achieve further clinical improvement due to their physical properties; however, prospective clinical data, long-term results, and cost-effectiveness are needed.

  14. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to address the open question in regard

  15. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    2010-02-01

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  16. Hippocampus-sparing radiotherapy using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the primary brain tumor: the result of dosimetric study and neurocognitive function assessment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Su; Wee, Chan Woo; Seok, Jin-Yong; Hong, Joo Wan; Chung, Jin-Beom; Eom, Keun-Yong; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Chae-Yong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, In Ah

    2018-02-20

    We hypothesized that hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy via volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) could preserve the neurocognitive function (NCF) of patients with primary brain tumors treated with radiotherapy. We reviewed data from patients with primary brain tumors who underwent hippocampal-sparing brain radiotherapy via VMAT between February 2014 and December 2015. The optimization criteria for the contralateral hippocampus was a maximum dose (D max ) of less than 17 Gy. For NCF evaluations, the Seoul Verbal Learning Test for total recall, delayed recall, and recognition (SVLT-TR, DR, and Recognition) was performed at baseline and at seven months after radiotherapy. A total of 26 patients underwent NCF testing seven months after radiotherapy. Their median age was 49.5 years (range 26-77 years), and 14 (53.8%) had grade III/IV tumors. The median D max to the contralateral hippocampus was 16.4 Gy (range 3.5-63.4). The median mean dose to the contralateral hippocampus, expressed as equivalent to a 2-Gy dose (EQD 2/2 ), was 7.4 Gy 2 (0.7-13.1). The mean relative changes in SVLT-TR, SVLT-DR, and SVLT-Recognition at seven months compared to the baseline were - 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], - 19.6% to 4.2%), - 9.2% (95% CI, - 25.4% to 7.0%), and - 3.4% (- 12.7% to 5.8%), respectively. Two patients (7.7%) showed deteriorated NCF in the SVLT-TR and SVLT-DR, and three (11.5%) in the SVLT-Recognition. The mean dose of the left hippocampus and bilateral hippocampi were significantly higher in patients showing deterioration of the SVLT-TR and SVLT-Recognition than in those without deterioration. The contralateral hippocampus could be effectively spared in patients with primary brain tumor via VMAT to preserve the verbal memory function. Further investigation is needed to identify those patients who will most benefit from hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy of the primary brain tumor.

  17. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  18. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-03-01

    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Time, space and technology in radiotherapy departments: how do these factors impact on patients' experiences of radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Merchant, S; O'Connor, M; Halkett, G

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapists (RTs) plan and deliver radiotherapy treatment for patients diagnosed with cancer. They need to communicate regularly with their patients and may have a role to play in reducing patient anxiety and distress. The objectives were to explore how the environment of radiotherapy departments supports or inhibits communication generally and information giving and supportive care provision in particular. An ethnographic approach was used to gather rich descriptive data through observations and interviews conducted in two Australian radiotherapy centres. Time, space and a technology driven culture was found to negatively affect the quality of interaction that occurred between RTs and their patients. This research has shown design/modification of spaces is needed in the radiotherapy environment to reflect a patient care centred culture and to enhance opportunities for RTs to provide supportive care for their patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Efficacy of low-dose radiotherapy in painful gonarthritis: experiences from a retrospective East German bicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of low-dose radiotherapy in painful gonarthritis. Methods We assessed the medical records of 1037 patients with painful gonarthritis who had undergone low-dose radiotherapy between 1981 and 2008. The subjective patient perception of the response to irradiation as graded immediately or up to two months after the completion of a radiotherapy series was evaluated and correlated with age, gender, radiological grading and the duration of symptoms before radiotherapy. Moreover, we performed a mail survey to obtain additional long-term follow-up information and received one hundred and six evaluable questionnaires. Results We assessed 1659 series of radiotherapy in 1037 patients. In 79.3% of the cases the patients experienced a slight, marked or complete pain relief immediately or up to two months after the completion of radiotherapy. Gender, age and the duration of pain before radiotherapy did not have a significant influence on the response to irradiation. In contrast, severe signs of osteoarthritis were associated with more effective pain relief. In more than 50% of the patients who reported a positive response to irradiation a sustained period of symptomatic improvement was observed. Conclusions Our results confirm that low-dose radiotherapy is an effective treatment for painful osteoarthritis of the knee. In contrast to an earlier retrospective study, severe signs of osteoarthritis constituted a positive prognostic factor for the response to irradiation. A randomized trial is urgently required to compare radiotherapy with other treatment modalities. PMID:23369282

  1. Long-term results of conservative surgery and radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ using lung density correction: the University of Michigan experience.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Merav A; Sturtz, David E; Griffith, Kent A; Douglas, Kathye R; Hayman, James A; Lichter, Allen S; Pierce, Lori J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to review the treatment outcomes of 198 patients treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and whole breast radiation therapy using lung density correction for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Between April 1985 and December 2002, 198 patients with 200 lesions diagnosed as DCIS (AJCC stage 0) were treated at the University of Michigan. All underwent BCS and whole breast radiotherapy. Median total follow-up was 6.2 years (range: 0.8-18.2). The 5- and 10-year cumulative rates of in-breast only failure were 5.9% (95% CI: 2.6-9.3%) and 9.8% (95% CI: 5.2-14.4%), respectively. Factors that significantly predicted for an increased risk of local failure were family history of breast cancer, positive or close surgical margins and age radiotherapy using lung density correction resulted in high rates of local control at 5 and 10 years with excellent cosmetic results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report outcome in a series of patients with DCIS treated with lung density correction and results compare favorably with other series in which plans were calculated using unit density.

  2. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Shea W; Aherne, Noel J; Benjamin, Linus C; Wu, Bosco; de Campos Silva, Thomaz; McLachlan, Craig S; McKay, Michael J; Last, Andrew J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    Dose-escalated (DE) radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) and ADT. Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2.1% and 3.4%, respectively. No grade 3 or 4 late toxicities were reported. Pretreatment prostate specific antigen (P=0.001) and Gleason score (P=0.03) were significant in predicting biochemical failure on multivariate analysis. There is a high probability of tumor control with DE IG-IMRT combined with androgen deprivation, and this is a technique with a low probability of significant late toxicity. Our long term results corroborate the safety and efficacy of treating with IG-IMRT to high doses and compares favorably with published series for

  3. Clinical evaluation of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, S A; Newbold, K L; Harrington, K J; Nutting, C M

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy and surgery are the principal curative modalities in treatment of head and neck cancer. Conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy result in significant side effects and altered quality of life. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can spare the normal tissues, while delivering a curative dose to the tumour-bearing tissues. This article reviews the current role of IMRT in head and neck cancer from the point of view of normal tissue sparing, and also reviews the current published literature by individual head and neck cancer subsites. In addition, we briefly discuss the role of image guidance in head and neck IMRT, and future directions in this area. PMID:22556403

  4. Phase II Trial of Combined High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and External Beam Radiotherapy for Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate: Preliminary Results of RTOG 0321

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hsu, I-Chow, E-mail: ihsu@radonc.ucsf.ed; Bae, Kyounghwa; Shinohara, Katsuto

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To estimate the rate of late Grade 3 or greater genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) after treatment with external beam radiotherapy and prostate high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Each participating institution submitted computed tomography-based HDR brachytherapy dosimetry data electronically for credentialing and for each study patient. Patients with locally confined Stage T1c-T3b prostate cancer were eligible for the present study. All patients were treated with 45 Gy in 25 fractions using external beam radiotherapy and one HDR implant delivering 19 Gy in two fractions. All AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria formore » Adverse Events, version 3.0. Late GU/GI AEs were defined as those occurring >9 months from the start of the protocol treatment, in patients with {>=}18 months of potential follow-up. Results: A total of 129 patients from 14 institutions were enrolled in the present study. Of the 129 patients, 125 were eligible, and AE data were available for 112 patients at analysis. The pretreatment characteristics of the patients were as follows: Stage T1c-T2c, 91%; Stage T3a-T3b, 9%; prostate-specific antigen level {<=}10 ng/mL, 70%; prostate-specific antigen level >10 but {<=}20 ng/mL, 30%; and Gleason score 2-6, 10%; Gleason score 7, 72%; and Gleason score 8-10, 18%. At a median follow-up of 29.6 months, three acute and four late Grade 3 GU/GI AEs were reported. The estimated rate of late Grade 3-5 GU and GI AEs at 18 months was 2.56%. Conclusion: This is the first prospective, multi-institutional trial of computed tomography-based HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. The technique and doses used in the present study resulted in acceptable levels of AEs.« less

  5. Palliative Radiotherapy for Bone Metastases: An ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lutz, Stephen, E-mail: slutz@bvha.or; Berk, Lawrence; Chang, Eric

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To present guidance for patients and physicians regarding the use of radiotherapy in the treatment of bone metastases according to current published evidence and complemented by expert opinion. Methods and Materials: A systematic search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database between 1998 and 2009 yielded 4,287 candidate original research articles potentially applicable to radiotherapy for bone metastases. A Task Force composed of all authors synthesized the published evidence and reached a consensus regarding the recommendations contained herein. Results: The Task Force concluded that external beam radiotherapy continues to be the mainstay for the treatment of pain and/ormore » prevention of the morbidity caused by bone metastases. Various fractionation schedules can provide significant palliation of symptoms and/or prevent the morbidity of bone metastases. The evidence for the safety and efficacy of repeat treatment to previously irradiated areas of peripheral bone metastases for pain was derived from both prospective studies and retrospective data, and it can be safe and effective. The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy holds theoretical promise in the treatment of new or recurrent spine lesions, although the Task Force recommended that its use be limited to highly selected patients and preferably within a prospective trial. Surgical decompression and postoperative radiotherapy is recommended for spinal cord compression or spinal instability in highly selected patients with sufficient performance status and life expectancy. The use of bisphosphonates, radionuclides, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty for the treatment or prevention of cancer-related symptoms does not obviate the need for external beam radiotherapy in appropriate patients. Conclusions: Radiotherapy is a successful and time efficient method by which to palliate pain and/or prevent the morbidity of bone metastases. This Guideline reviews the available data to define its

  6. Adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pradier, Olivier; Christiansen, Hans; Schmidberger, Heinz

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and to show that a less invasive surgery with organ preservation in combination with radiotherapy is an alternative to a radical treatment. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 2000, 208 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after surgical CO{sub 2} laser resection. Primary sites included oral cavity, 38; oropharynx, 88; larynx, 36; hypopharynx, 46. Disease stages were as follows: Stage III, 40 patients; Stage IV, 168 patients.more » Before 1994, the treatment consisted of a split-course radiotherapy with carboplatinum (Treatment A). After 1994, the patients received a conventional radiotherapy (Treatment B). Results: Patients had 5-year locoregional control and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates of 68% and 48%, respectively. The 5-year DSS was 70% and 44% for Stages III and IV, respectively (p = 0.00127). Patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater or equal to 13.5 g/dL before radiotherapy had a 5-year DSS of 55% as compared with 39% for patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater than 13.5 g/dL (p = 0.0054). Conclusion: In this series of patients with advanced head-and-neck tumors, transoral laser surgery in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy resulted in locoregional control and DSS rates similar to those reported for radical surgery followed by radiotherapy. Treatment B has clearly been superior to Treatment A. A further improvement of our treatment regimen might be expected by the combination of adjuvant radiotherapy with concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy.« less

  7. Cost analysis of cetuximab (Erbitux) plus radiotherapy (ERT) versus concomitant cisplatin plus radiotherapy (CRT) within an NHS oncology unit (single institution): a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sundus, Yahya; Dawn, Dawson; Carol, Glaister; Susan, Merrick

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this feasibility study is to define the resource effectiveness of cetuximab vs cisplatin given concomitantly with radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma within a National Health Service clinical oncology unit. Methods: 20 patients with Stage 3 or 4 head and neck squamous cell cancers were randomized to receive either cetuximab with radiotherapy (ERT) or cisplatin with radiotherapy concurrent with external beam radiotherapy 70 Gy in 35 fractions on a 1 : 1 basis over a 12-month duration. The study compared the resource utilization of ERT vs cisplatin with radiotherapy taking into account drug costs, clinical management and the costs of managing treatment-related toxicity from first fraction of radiotherapy to 6 months after the completion of therapy. Outcome measures were quality of life (recorded at the entry, end of radiotherapy, 6 weeks post treatment and 6 months post treatment), admissions to hospital, delays to radiotherapy, locoregional control and survival. Results: Total drug costs including cost of nutritional supplements for patients treated with cetuximab were £7407.45 compared with £3959.07 for patients treated with cisplatin. Unscheduled admissions for toxicity management were significantly more common in the ERT arm. Healthcare personnel spent significantly more time delivering unscheduled outpatient care for patients receiving cisplatin than for those receiving cetuximab (p = 0.01). No significant difference in the quality of life was suggested at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The mean time to removal of percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) after completion of radiotherapy was 49.7 weeks in the cisplatin arm and 18.5 weeks in the cetuximab arm (p = 0.04). There was a statistically significant difference in patient-reported use of PEG between the cisplatin and cetuximab arms at 6 months following completion of treatment (p = 0.04). At 21 months, overall survival was 80% in the cisplatin arm vs 50% in the

  8. Nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS) in pediatric and young adult patients: Results from a prospective study using limited-margin radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tinkle, Christopher L; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Sykes, April; Lu, Zhaohua; Hua, Chia-Ho; Neel, Michael D; Bahrami, Armita; Shulkin, Barry L; Kaste, Sue C; Pappo, Alberto; Spunt, Sheri L; Krasin, Matthew J

    2017-11-15

    Indications for and delivery of adjuvant therapies for pediatric nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS) have been derived largely from adult studies; therefore, significant concern remains regarding radiation exposure to normal tissue. The authors report long-term treatment outcomes and toxicities for pediatric and young adult patients with high-grade NRSTS who were treated on a prospective trial using limited-margin radiotherapy. Sixty-two patients (ages 3-22 years) with predominantly high-grade NRSTS requiring radiation were treated on a phase 2 institutional study of conformal external-beam radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy using a 1.5-cm to 2-cm anatomically constrained margin. The estimated cumulative incidence of local failure, Gray's method estimated cumulative incidence of local failure, Kaplan-Meier method estimated survival, competing-risk regression model determined predictors of disease outcome, and toxicity was reported according to CTCAE v2.0. At a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range, 0.2-10.9 years), 9 patients had experienced local failure. The 5-year overall cumulative incidence of local failure was 14.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2%-25%), and all but 1 local failure occurred outside the highest-dose irradiation volume. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for event-free and overall survival were 49.3% (95% CI, 36.3%-61.1%) and 67.9% (95% CI, 54.2%-78.3%), respectively. Multivariable analysis indicated that younger age was the only independent predictor of local recurrence (P = .004). The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade 3 or 4 late toxicity was 15% (95% CI, 7.2%-25.3%). The delivery of limited-margin radiotherapy using conformal external-beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy provides a high rate of local tumor control without an increase in marginal failures and with acceptable treatment-related morbidity. Cancer 2017;123:4419-29. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. [Clinical evaluation of heavy-particle radiotherapy using dose volume histogram (DVH)].

    PubMed

    Terahara, A; Nakano, T; Tsujii, H

    1998-01-01

    Radiotherapy with heavy particles such as proton and heavy-charged particles is a promising modality for treatment of localized malignant tumors because of the good dose distribution. A dose calculation and radiotherapy planning system which is essential for this kind of treatment has been developed in recent years. It has the capability to compute the dose volume histogram (DVH) which contains dose-volume information for the target volume and other interesting volumes. Recently, DVH is commonly used to evaluate and compare dose distributions in radiotherapy with both photon and heavy particles, and it shows that a superior dose distribution is obtained in heavy particle radiotherapy. DVH is also utilized for the evaluation of dose distribution related to clinical outcomes. Besides models such as normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumor control probability (TCP), which can be calculated from DVH are proposed by several authors, they are applied to evaluate dose distributions themselves and to evaluate them in relation to clinical results. DVH is now a useful and important tool, but further studies are needed to use DVH and these models practically for clinical evaluation of heavy-particle radiotherapy.

  10. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Chopra, Mona

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed inmore » another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control.« less

  11. Helicobacter pylori and the t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation in gastric low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Nakamura, S; Yonezumi, M; Suzuki, T; Matsuura, A; Yatabe, Y; Yokoi, T; Ohashi, K; Seto, M

    2000-03-01

    The reported regression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type gastric low-grade B-cell lymphoma following treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has not yet been comprehensively analyzed, especially in relation to the recently identified c-IAP2-MALT1 / MLT gene alteration resulting from the t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation found in MALT lymphoma. The relationship between MALT lymphomas and H. pylori was investigated in 30 patients who received an antibacterial treatment. Patients were followed up by means of endoscopy and biopsy. Molecular genetic analyses focused on the presence or absence of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene and / or MALT1 / MLT gene alteration resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation. H. pylori was positive in 26 of the 30 patients. The overall success rate of cure of H. pylori infection was 96% (25 / 26). Thirteen patients (52%) showed complete remission (CR) of lymphoma, nine (36%) partial remission (PR), and three (12%) registered no change (NC). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between CR and PR / NC patients in age ( < 60 or 60), in lymphoma location (single or multiple sites) and in the presence or absence of gene rearrangement before eradication (P < 0.05). Endoscopy showed a cobblestone appearance only in PR cases and polypoid features predominantly in NC cases. Two NC patients with polypoid gross appearance showed rearrangements involving either c-IAP2 or MALT1 gene in Southern blot analysis, while none of seven other resected patients with non-polypoid superficial gross appearance showed rearrangement. Gastric MALT lymphoma could be pragmatically subdivided into three groups, CR (MALT-A), PR (MALT-B), and NC (MALT-C) on the basis of the reaction to eradication of H. pylori. We speculate that MALT-A may represent an incipient neoplasm or dysplasia, MALT-B a neoplasm activated by antigenic stimulation of H. pylori, and MALT-C a lymphoma independent of H. pylori

  12. Mathematical modelling of radiotherapy strategies for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Enderling, Heiko; Anderson, Alexander R A; Chaplain, Mark A J; Munro, Alastair J; Vaidya, Jayant S

    2006-07-07

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (Targit) is a new concept of partial breast irradiation where single fraction radiotherapy is delivered directly to the tumour bed. Apart from logistic advantages, this strategy minimizes the risk of missing the tumour bed and avoids delay between surgery and radiotherapy. It is presently being compared with the standard fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in randomized trials. In this paper we present a mathematical model for the growth and invasion of a solid tumour into a domain of tissue (in this case breast tissue), and then a model for surgery and radiation treatment of this tumour. We use the established linear-quadratic (LQ) model to compute the survival probabilities for both tumour cells and irradiated breast tissue and then simulate the effects of conventional EBRT and Targit. True local recurrence of the tumour could arise either from stray tumour cells, or the tumour bed that harbours morphologically normal cells having a predisposition to genetic changes, such as a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in genes that are crucial for tumourigenesis, e.g. tumour suppressor genes (TSGs). Our mathematical model predicts that the single high dose of radiotherapy delivered by Targit would result in eliminating all these sources of recurrence, whereas the fractionated EBRT would eliminate stray tumour cells, but allow (by virtue of its very schedule) the cells with LOH in TSGs or cell-cycle checkpoint genes to pass on low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage and consequently mutations that may favour the development of a new tumour. The mathematical model presented here is an initial attempt to model a biologically complex phenomenon that has until now received little attention in the literature and provides a 'proof of principle' that it is possible to produce clinically testable hypotheses on the effects of different approaches of radiotherapy for breast cancer.

  13. Induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy in non-endemic undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx: optimal compliance and promising 4-year results.

    PubMed

    Ponzanelli, Anna; Vigo, Viviana; Marcenaro, Michela; Bacigalupo, Almalina; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Ravetti, Jean-Luis; Corvò, Renzo; Benasso, Marco

    2008-08-01

    Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Induction chemotherapy may improve the results further by enhancing both loco-regional and distant control. Fifty patients with untreated, stage IV (UICC 1992) undifferentiated NPC were initially treated with three courses of epidoxorubicin, 90 mg/m(2), day 1 and cisplatin, 40 mg/m(2), days 1 and 2, every three weeks and then underwent three courses of cisplatin, 20 mg/m(2)/day, days 1-4 and fluorouracil, 200mg/m(2)/day, days 1-4 (weeks 1, 4, 7), alternated to three splits of radiation (week 2-3, 5-6, 8-9-10) up to 70 Gy. All patients but one received 3 cycles of induction chemotherapy. Toxicities from induction chemotherapy were grade III or IV mucositis (2%), grade III or IV nausea/vomiting (22%), grade III or IV hematological toxicity (6%). At the end of induction phase 12% of CRs, 84% of PRs were recorded. Toxicities from alternating chemo-radiotherapy were grade III or IV mucositis (30%), grade III or IV nausea/vomiting (8%), grade III or IV hematological toxicity (24%). Overall, 86% of CRs and 14% of PRs were observed. Four-year progression free survival and overall survival rates are 71% and 81%, respectively. In a small number of patients studied, no correlation between the level of EGFR overexpression and outcomes was detected. In locally advanced UNPC our combined program including induction chemotherapy followed by alternating chemo-radiotherapy is active and gives promising long-term outcomes with acceptable toxicity and optimal patients' compliance. This program merits to be tested in a phase III trial.

  14. Investment in radiotherapy infrastructure positively affected the economic status of an oncology hospital

    PubMed Central

    Śmigielska, Mirella; Milecki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is among the most efficient treatment methods of cancer. However, a radiotherapy base needs a substantial financial investment, especially before the beginning of its operation, and in some cases, in developing countries such a huge investment may cause some financial disturbances for a hospital concerned. Aim To assess the influence of investments modernizing the radiotherapy base in the period between 2000 and 2007 on the financial condition of the oncology hospital in the region with population of about 3 million. Material and methods Financial reports and medical statistics for the period between 2000 and 2007 from the studied oncology hospital and a recognized staffing model, as well as data on epidemiological situation of the region have been used to calculate the economic effects of financial investment in the radiotherapy base. Results The growth of RT therapeutic potential has been driven by two cost-effective investment programmes. The total amount invested in both programmes was PLN 127,191,000. The number of radiotherapy patients treated in the hospital increased from 2301 in 2000 to 4799 in 2007 with a the same number of five therapeutic machines, although all five of them were replaced over that period. Investments modernizing the radiotherapy base lead to a significant increase in depreciation and operating costs, which adversely affects financial results of the hospital. Conclusion Long term trends showed that investments had positive influence on hospital performance shown both in increased income and larger number of patients treated. PMID:24377017

  15. Conformal Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Advanced Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma With Intracranial Extension: An Institutional Experience

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chakraborty, Santam, E-mail: drsantam@gmail.com; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Patil, Vijay Maruti

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of conformal radiotherapy in advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in a tertiary care institution. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart review was conducted for 8 patients treated with conformal radiotherapy between 2006 and 2009. The median follow-up was 17 months. All patients had Stage IIIB disease with intracranial extension. Radiotherapy was considered as treatment because patients were deemed inoperable owing to extensive intracranial/intraorbital extension or proximity to optic nerve. All but 1 patient were treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy using seven coplanar fields. Median (range) dose prescribed was 39.6 (30-46) Gy. Actuarial analysis of local control and descriptivemore » analysis of toxicity profile was conducted. Results: Despite the large and complex target volume (median planning target volume, 292 cm{sup 3}), intensity-modulated radiotherapy achieved conformal dose distributions (median van't Reit index, 0.66). Significant sparing of the surrounding organs at risk was obtained. No significant Grade 3/4 toxicities were experienced during or after treatment. Actual local control at 2 years was 87.5%. One patient died 1 month after radiotherapy secondary to massive epistaxis. The remaining 7 patients had progressive resolution of disease and were symptom-free at last follow-up. Persistent rhinitis was the only significant toxicity, seen in 1 patient. Conclusions: Conformal radiotherapy results in good local control with minimal acute and late side effects in juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas, even in the presence of advanced disease.« less

  16. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley

    PubMed Central

    Morcia, Caterina; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Badeck, Franz W.; Lattanzio, Veronica M.T.; Pascale, Michelangelo; Terzi, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011–2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. The percentage of samples with a T-2 and HT-2 content above the EU indicative levels for barley of 200 μg/kg ranges from 2% to 19.6% in the 2011–2014 period. The fungal species responsible for the production of these toxins in 100% of positive samples has been identified as Fusarium langsethiae, a well-known producer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A positive correlation between the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and of the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was found. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. langsethiae—and of its toxic metabolites T-2 and HT-2—in malting barley grown in Italy. PMID:27556490

  17. Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 Toxins in Italian Malting Barley.

    PubMed

    Morcia, Caterina; Tumino, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Roberta; Badeck, Franz W; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Pascale, Michelangelo; Terzi, Valeria

    2016-08-20

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins are two of the most toxic members of type-A trichothecenes, produced by a number of Fusarium species. The occurrence of these mycotoxins was studied in barley samples during a survey carried out in the 2011-2014 growing seasons in climatically different regions in Italy. The percentage of samples found positive ranges from 22% to 53%, with values included between 26 and 787 μg/kg. The percentage of samples with a T-2 and HT-2 content above the EU indicative levels for barley of 200 μg/kg ranges from 2% to 19.6% in the 2011-2014 period. The fungal species responsible for the production of these toxins in 100% of positive samples has been identified as Fusarium langsethiae, a well-known producer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A positive correlation between the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and of the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins was found. This is the first report on the occurrence of F. langsethiae-and of its toxic metabolites T-2 and HT-2-in malting barley grown in Italy.

  18. Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived frommore » their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p < 0.0001) but an increase in FT4 (p < 0.0001) and T4 (p < 0.022) levels during the radiotherapy course. The threshold dose required to produce significant changes was 12 Gy (Biologically Effective Dose in 2-Gy fractions, BED{sub 2}). There were significant rises in the patients' pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson's correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients may

  19. Phase I Results of Vinorelbine With Concurrent Radiotherapy in Elderly Patients With Unresectable, Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: West Japan Thoracic Oncology Group (WJTOG3005-DI)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Harada, Hideyuki, E-mail: h.harada@scchr.jp; Seto, Takashi; Igawa, Satoshi

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of concurrent vinorelbine and thoracic radiotherapy in elderly patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were 71 years of age or older with unresectable Stage III NSCLC. Patients were treated with thoracic radiotherapy (60 Gy) and concurrent vinorelbine (20 mg/m{sup 2} in Level 1 and 25 mg/m{sup 2} in Level 2) on Days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks for two cycles, followed by adjuvant vinorelbine (25 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks for two cycles. Results: Four patients were enrolled at Levelmore » 1. One patient experienced Grade 3 febrile neutropenia at Level 1 and the dose was escalated to Level 2. At Level 2, 2 of 6 patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (Grade 4 neutropenia in 1 patient and Grade 3 infection in another). Three of 6 patients developed late Grade 2 or 3 pneumonitis. Therefore, the dose was de-escalated to Level 1. An additional 6 patients were enrolled at Level 1, 4 of whom experienced dose-limiting toxicities (incomplete radiotherapy because of Grade 2 pneumonitis in 1 patient and Grade 3 infection in 1, Grade 3 febrile neutropenia in 1, and Grade 3 esophagitis in 1). Moreover, late Grade 3 pneumothorax and Grade 5 pneumonitis occurred in 1 and 1 patient, respectively. Overall, Grade 2, 3 and 5 pneumonitis occurred in 3, 3, and 1 among 16 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Concurrent vinorelbine and thoracic radiotherapy resulted in a high incidence of severe pneumonitis when the standard dose of this agent was used for elderly patients. We therefore recommend caution in the use of this regimen and schedule for elderly patients.« less

  20. [Salvage cryotherapy of prostate cancer after failed external radiotherapy and brachytherapy: Morbidity and mid-term oncological results].

    PubMed

    Gevorgyan, A; Hétet, J-F; Robert, M; Duchattelle-Dussaule, V; Corno, L; Boulay, I; Baumert, H

    2018-04-01

    To study the oncologic and functional results of salvage cryotherapy after failure of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Patients treated by total salvage cryotherapy (3rd generation) in 2 centers (Groupe Hospitalier Saint-Joseph in Paris and Clinique Jule-Verne Nantes) in between January 2008 and April 2016 were included. The biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) was calculated using the Phoenix criteria (PSA>nadir+2ng/mL). The functional results were assessed clinically. Ninety-seven patients with an average follow up of 39.4months were evaluated retrospectively. The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival (5y-BRFS) among all patients was 58.1% (IC à 95% [45.9-68.5]). Low and intermediate risk patients (d'Amico classification) were less prone to biochemical recurrence than high risk (81.05% (IC à 95% [64.1-90.5]) 5y-BRFS as opposed to 35.09% (IC à 95% [20.1-50.4]) respectively) (P<0.0001). As were patients with a Gleason score≤7 75.35% (IC à 95% [59.7-85.6]) compared to 32.31% (IC à 95% [16.5-49.2]) for higher Gleason (>7 scores [P=0.0002]). A Gleason score>7 (OR=6.9; P=0.002), PSA nadir>1ng/mL (OR=25.8; P=0.0026) and peri-urethral invasion (OR=35.8; P<0.001) were major risk factors for local recurrence in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, only PSA nadir>1ng/mL (OR=12.9; P=0.042) and peri-urethral invasion (OR=21.6; P=0.0003) remain major risk factors for recurrence. About 13 (16.46%) patients were incontinent of which 3 (3.79%) required placement of an artificial urinary sphincter. Erectile dysfunction was present in 66 (83.5%) patients. Recto-urethral fistula was uncommon in 1 patient (1.27%). Salvage cryotherapy after failure of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy is a reliable and reproducible technique with promising oncological and functional results. Study of prognostic factors will help better select eligible patients in the future. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    PubMed

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  2. Updates on clinical studies of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To establish guidelines for the selenium supplementation in radiotherapy we assessed the benefits and risks of selenium supplementation in radiotherapy. Clinical studies on the use of selenium in radiotherapy were searched in the PubMed electronic database in January 2013. Sixteen clinical studies were identified among the 167 articles selected in the initial search. Ten articles were observational studies, and the other 6 articles reported studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in patients with cancer who underwent radiotherapy. The studies were conducted worldwide including European, American and Asian countries between 1987 and 2012. Plasma, serum or whole blood selenium levels were common parameters used to assess the effects of radiotherapy and the selenium supplementation status. Selenium supplementation improved the general conditions of the patients, improved their quality of life and reduced the side effects of radiotherapy. At the dose of selenium used in these studies (200–500 μg/day), selenium supplementation did not reduce the effectiveness of radiotherapy, and no toxicities were reported. Selenium supplementation may offer specific benefits for several types of cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy. Because high-dose selenium and long-term supplementation may be unsafe due to selenium toxicity, more evidence-based information and additional research are needed to ensure the therapeutic benefits of selenium supplementation. PMID:24885670

  3. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC and NCIC CTG EN.5 randomised trials): pooled trial results, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Blake, P; Swart, Ann Marie; Orton, J; Kitchener, H; Whelan, T; Lukka, H; Eisenhauer, E; Bacon, M; Tu, D; Parmar, M K B; Amos, C; Murray, C; Qian, W

    2009-01-10

    Early endometrial cancer with low-risk pathological features can be successfully treated by surgery alone. External beam radiotherapy added to surgery has been investigated in several small trials, which have mainly included women at intermediate risk of recurrence. In these trials, postoperative radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of isolated local recurrence but there is no evidence that it improves recurrence-free or overall survival. We report the findings from the ASTEC and EN.5 trials, which investigated adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in women with early-stage disease and pathological features suggestive of intermediate or high risk of recurrence and death from endometrial cancer. Between July, 1996, and March, 2005, 905 (789 ASTEC, 116 EN.5) women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage disease from 112 centres in seven countries (UK, Canada, Poland, Norway, New Zealand, Australia, USA) were randomly assigned after surgery to observation (453) or to external beam radiotherapy (452). A target dose of 40-46 Gy in 20-25 daily fractions to the pelvis, treating five times a week, was specified. Primary outcome measure was overall survival, and all analyses were by intention to treat. These trials were registered ISRCTN 16571884 (ASTEC) and NCT 00002807 (EN.5). After a median follow-up of 58 months, 135 women (68 observation, 67 external beam radiotherapy) had died. There was no evidence that overall survival with external beam radiotherapy was better than observation, hazard ratio 1.05 (95% CI 0.75-1.48; p=0.77). 5-year overall survival was 84% in both groups. Combining data from ASTEC and EN.5 in a meta-analysis of trials confirmed that there was no benefit in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio 1.04; 95% CI 0.84-1.29) and can reliably exclude an absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy at 5 years of more than 3%. With brachytherapy used in 53% of women in ASTEC/EN.5, the local recurrence rate in the observation group at 5 years

  4. Low-Dose Radiotherapy in Indolent Lymphoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rossier, Christine; Schick, Ulrike; Miralbell, Raymond

    Purpose: To assess the response rate, duration of response, and overall survival after low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Methods and Materials: Forty-three (24 women, 19 men) consecutive patients with indolent lymphoma or CLL were treated with a total dose of 4 Gy (2 x 2 Gy) using 6- 18-MV photons. The median age was 73 years (range, 39-88). Radiotherapy was given either after (n = 32; 75%) or before (n = 11; 25%) chemotherapy. The median time from diagnosis was 48 months (range, 1-249). The median follow-up period was 20 monthsmore » (range, 1-56). Results: The overall response rate was 90%. Twelve patients (28%) had a complete response, 15 (35%) had a partial response, 11 (26%) had stable disease, and 5 (11%) had progressive disease. The median overall survival for patients with a positive response (complete response/partial response/stable disease) was 41 months; for patients with progressive disease it was 6 months (p = 0.001). The median time to in-field progression was 21 months (range, 0-24), and the median time to out-field progression was 8 months (range, 0-40). The 3-year in-field control was 92% in patients with complete response (median was not reached). The median time to in-field progression was 9 months (range, 0.5-24) in patients with partial response and 6 months (range, 0.6-6) in those with stable disease (p < 0.05). Younger age, positive response to radiotherapy, and no previous chemotherapy were the best factors influencing the outcome. Conclusions: Low-dose involved-field radiotherapy is an effective treatment in the management of patients with recurrent low-grade lymphoma or CLL.« less

  5. Dose constraints for moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: The French genito-urinary group (GETUG) recommendations.

    PubMed

    Langrand-Escure, J; de Crevoisier, R; Llagostera, C; Créhange, G; Delaroche, G; Lafond, C; Bonin, C; Bideault, F; Sargos, P; Belhomme, S; Pasquier, D; Latorzeff, I; Supiot, S; Hennequin, C

    2018-04-01

    Considering recent phase III trials results, moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy can be considered as a standard treatment for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer management. This assessment call for a framework allowing homogeneous and reproducible practices in the different centers using this radiotherapy schedule. The French Genito-Urinary Group (GETUG) provides here recommendations for daily practice of moderate hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer, with indications, dose, fractionation, pre-treatment planning, volume of interest delineation (target volume and organs at risk) and margins, dose constraints and radiotherapy techniques. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Available evidence on re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy following high-dose previous thoracic radiotherapy for lung malignancies.

    PubMed

    De Bari, Berardino; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Mazzola, Rosario; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Trovò, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo; Alongi, Filippo

    2015-06-01

    Patients affected with intra-thoracic recurrences of primary or secondary lung malignancies after a first course of definitive radiotherapy have limited therapeutic options, and they are often treated with a palliative intent. Re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) represents an appealing approach, due to the optimized dose distribution that allows for high-dose delivery with better sparing of organs at risk. This strategy has the goal of long-term control and even cure. Aim of this review is to report and discuss published data on re-irradiation with SABR in terms of efficacy and toxicity. Results indicate that thoracic re-irradiation may offer satisfactory disease control, however the data on outcome and toxicity are derived from low quality retrospective studies, and results should be cautiously interpreted. As SABR may be associated with serious toxicity, attention should be paid for an accurate patients' selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accelerated partial breast irradiation using robotic radiotherapy: a dosimetric comparison with tomotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rault, Erwann; Lacornerie, Thomas; Dang, Hong-Phuong; Crop, Frederik; Lartigau, Eric; Reynaert, Nick; Pasquier, David

    2016-02-27

    coverage and the sparing of the lung and heart. However, the CK may be used to reduce high doses received by the NTBTV more efficiently. Robotic stereotactic radiotherapy may be used for APBI to more efficiently spare the NTBTV and improve cosmetic results of APBI.

  8. Radiotherapy demand and activity in England 2006-2020.

    PubMed

    Round, C E; Williams, M V; Mee, T; Kirkby, N F; Cooper, T; Hoskin, P; Jena, R

    2013-09-01

    This paper compares the predictions of radiotherapy demand for England from the Malthus model with those from the earlier National Radiotherapy Advisory Group (NRAG) model, from the international literature and also with observed radiotherapy usage in England as a whole as recorded in the English radiotherapy dataset (RTDS). We reviewed the evidence base for radiotherapy for each type and stage of cancer using national and international guidelines, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and key clinical trials. Twenty-two decision trees were constructed and radiotherapy demand was calculated using English cancer incidence data for 2007, 2008 and 2009, accurate to the Primary Care Trust (PCT) level (population 91,500-1,282,384). The stage at presentation was obtained from English cancer registry data. In predictive mode, the model can take account of changes in cancer incidence as the population grows and ages. The Malthus model indicates reduced indications for radiotherapy, principally for lung cancer and rarer tumours. Our estimate of the proportion of patients who should receive radiotherapy at some stage of their illness is 40.6%. This is lower than previous estimates of about 50%. Nevertheless, the overall estimate of demand in terms of attendances is similar for the NRAG and Malthus models. The latter models that 48,827 attendances should have been delivered per million population in 2011. National data from RTDS show 32,071 attendances per million in 2011. A 50% increase in activity would be required to match estimated demand. This underprovision extends across all cancers and represents reduced access and the use of dose fractionation at odds with international norms of evidence-based practice. By 2016, demand is predicted to grow to about 55,206 attendances per million and by 2020 to 60,057. Services have increased their activity by 14% between 2006 and 2011, but estimated demand has increased by 11%. Access remains low and English radiotherapy dose

  9. Evolving Clinical Cancer Radiotherapy: Concerns Regarding Normal Tissue Protection and Quality Assurance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy, which is one of three major cancer treatment methods in modern medicine, has continued to develop for a long period, more than a century. The development of radiotherapy means allowing the administration of higher doses to tumors to improve tumor control rates while minimizing the radiation doses absorbed by surrounding normal tissues through which radiation passes for administration to tumors, thereby reducing or removing the incidence of side effects. Such development of radiotherapy was accomplished by the development of clinical radiation oncology, the development of computers and machine engineering, the introduction of cutting-edge imaging technology, a deepened understanding of biological studies on the effects of radiation on human bodies, and the development of quality assurance (QA) programs in medical physics. The development of radiotherapy over the last two decades has been quite dazzling. Due to continuous improvements in cancer treatment, the average five-year survival rate of cancer patients has been close to 70%. The increases in cancer patients’ complete cure rates and survival periods are making patients’ quality of life during or after treatment a vitally important issue. Radiotherapy is implemented in approximately 1/3 to 2/3s of all cancer patients; and has improved the quality of life of cancer patients in the present age. Over the last century, as a noninvasive treatment, radiotherapy has unceasingly enhanced complete tumor cure rates and the side effects of radiotherapy have been gradually decreasing, resulting in a tremendous improvement in the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:26908993

  10. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapymore » based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).« less

  11. A prospective study: current problems in radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in yogyakarta, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Maarten A; Fles, Renske; Indrasari, Sagung R; Herdini, Camelia; Wildeman, Pieter L; van Diessen, Judi N A; Tjokronagoro, Maesadji; Tan, I Bing

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence in Indonesia. Previous study in Yogyakarta revealed a complete response of 29% and a median overall survival of less than 2 years. These poor treatment outcome are influenced by the long diagnose-to-treatment interval to radiotherapy (DTI) and the extended overall treatment time of radiotherapy (OTT). This study reveals insight why the OTT and DTI are prolonged. All patients treated with curative intent radiotherapy for NPC between July 2011 until October 2012 were included. During radiotherapy a daily diary was kept, containing information on DTI, missed radiotherapy days, the reason for missing and length of OTT. Sixty-eight patients were included. The median DTI was 106 days (95% CI: 98-170). Fifty-nine patients (87%) finished the treatment. The median OTT for radiotherapy was 57 days (95% CI: 57-65). The main reason for missing days was an inoperative radiotherapy machine (36%). Other reasons were patient's poor condition (21%), public holidays (14%), adjustment of the radiation field (7%), power blackout (3%), inoperative treatment planning system (2%) and patient related reasons (9%). Patient's insurance type was correlated to DTI in disadvantage for poor people. Yogyakarta has a lack of sufficient radiotherapy units which causes a delay of 3-4 months, besides the OTT is extended by 10-12 days. This influences treatment outcome to a great extend. The best solution would be creating sufficient radiotherapy units and better management in health care for poor patients. The growing economy in Indonesia will expectantly in time enable these solutions, but in the meantime solutions are needed. Solutions can consist of radiation outside office hours, better maintenance of the facilities and more effort from patient, doctor and nurse to finish treatment in time. These results are valuable when improving cancer care in low and middle income countries.

  12. Internet-based computer technology on radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chow, James C L

    2017-01-01

    Recent rapid development of Internet-based computer technologies has made possible many novel applications in radiation dose delivery. However, translational speed of applying these new technologies in radiotherapy could hardly catch up due to the complex commissioning process and quality assurance protocol. Implementing novel Internet-based technology in radiotherapy requires corresponding design of algorithm and infrastructure of the application, set up of related clinical policies, purchase and development of software and hardware, computer programming and debugging, and national to international collaboration. Although such implementation processes are time consuming, some recent computer advancements in the radiation dose delivery are still noticeable. In this review, we will present the background and concept of some recent Internet-based computer technologies such as cloud computing, big data processing and machine learning, followed by their potential applications in radiotherapy, such as treatment planning and dose delivery. We will also discuss the current progress of these applications and their impacts on radiotherapy. We will explore and evaluate the expected benefits and challenges in implementation as well.

  13. [Prevention of osteoporosis by foods and dietary supplements. Chocolate malt drink MILO: nutrition in children and calcium absorption].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Yoichi; Kumagai, Akiko

    2006-10-01

    Calcium is not sufficiently consumed by Japanese at any age groups. Childhood is an important period, when they should earn bone minerals to reach higher peak bone mass for reducing the risk of osteoporosis in their later life. Children require higher calcium consumption per body weight than adults, and also establish their dietary pattern in this period. MILO has attracted widespread popularity as a good-taste chocolate-flavored malt drink with balanced nutrients for children. We developed FOSHU MILO with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) aiming at improving absorption of calcium, which is originally rich in the products. Using the calcium stable isotope (44)Ca, we found that the urinary excretion in the subject fed the products with FOS was higher than that of control product without FOS, suggesting that the FOSHU MILO is effective in promoting calcium absorption from the intestines. MILO could contribute to bone health by increasing consumption of calcium and/or improving the calcium bioavailability.

  14. The Benefits of Providing External Beam Radiotherapy in Low- and Middle-income Countries.

    PubMed

    Yap, M L; Hanna, T P; Shafiq, J; Ferlay, J; Bray, F; Delaney, G P; Barton, M

    2017-02-01

    More than half of all cancer diagnoses worldwide occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and the incidence is projected to rise substantially within the next 20 years. Radiotherapy is a vital, cost-effective treatment for cancer; yet there is currently a huge deficit in radiotherapy services within these countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential outcome benefits if external beam radiotherapy was provided to all patients requiring such treatment in LMICs, according to the current evidence-based guidelines. Projected estimates of these benefits were calculated to 2035, obtained by applying the previously published Collaboration for Cancer Outcomes, Research and Evaluation (CCORE) demand and outcome benefit estimates to cancer incidence and projection data from the GLOBOCAN 2012 data. The estimated optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate for all LMICs was 50%. There were about 4.0 million cancer patients in LMICs who required radiotherapy in 2012. This number is projected to increase by 78% by 2035, a far steeper increase than the 38% increase expected in high-income countries. National radiotherapy benefits varied widely, and were influenced by case mix. The 5 year population local control and survival benefits for all LMICs, if radiotherapy was delivered according to guidelines, were estimated to be 9.6% and 4.4%, respectively, compared with no radiotherapy use. This equates to about 1.3 million patients who would derive a local control benefit in 2035, whereas over 615 000 patients would derive a survival benefit if the demand for radiotherapy in LMICs was met. The potential outcome benefits were found to be higher in LMICs. These results further highlight the urgent need to reduce the gap between the supply of, and demand for, radiotherapy in LMICs. We must attempt to address this 'silent crisis' as a matter of priority and the approach must consider the complex societal challenges unique to LMICs. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College

  15. Sequence of Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jobsen, Jan J., E-mail: J.Jobsen@mst.nl; Palen, Job van der; Department of Research Methodology, Measurement and Data Analysis, Faculty of Behavioural Science, University of Twente

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The optimal sequence of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in breast-conserving therapy is unknown. Methods and Materials: From 1983 through 2007, a total of 641 patients with 653 instances of breast-conserving therapy (BCT), received both chemotherapy and radiotherapy and are the basis of this analysis. Patients were divided into three groups. Groups A and B comprised patients treated before 2005, Group A radiotherapy first and Group B chemotherapy first. Group C consisted of patients treated from 2005 onward, when we had a fixed sequence of radiotherapy first, followed by chemotherapy. Results: Local control did not show any differences among the threemore » groups. For distant metastasis, no difference was shown between Groups A and B. Group C, when compared with Group A, showed, on univariate and multivariate analyses, a significantly better distant metastasis-free survival. The same was noted for disease-free survival. With respect to disease-specific survival, no differences were shown on multivariate analysis among the three groups. Conclusion: Radiotherapy, as an integral part of the primary treatment of BCT, should be administered first, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.« less

  16. Quality assurance in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kouloulias, V E

    2003-03-01

    In 1999, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), being a European pioneer in the field of cancer research as well as in quality assurance (QA), launched an Emmanuel van der Schueren fellowship for QA in radiotherapy. In this paper, the work that has been done during the first E. van der Schueren fellowship is reported, focusing on four phase III EORTC clinical trials: 22921 for rectal cancer, 22961 and 22991 for prostate cancer and 22922 for breast cancer. A historical review of the QA programme of the EORTC Radiotherapy group during the past 20 years is included.

  17. Combined radiotherapy and Corynebacterium parvum treatment of rat tumors with different immunogenicity. [X rays

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moroson, H.; Stowe, S.; Rotman, M.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence is presented that combined radiotherapy and Corynebacterium parvum treatment gives better results than radiotherapy alone in rats bearing a chemically-induced highly-immunogenic transplanted fibrosarcoma termed BP 179; however, similar behavior is not observed with either of two weakly-immunogenic mammary carcinomas, 13762 or ME/H. Relative immunogenicity is determined by the ability of immunized rats to reject tumor cell challenge. Both 13762 and ME/H carcinomata grow progressively and metastasize early to the retroperitoneal cavity and lungs if they are left untreated. Local radiotherapy of the primary tumor has no influence on growth of metastases whether it is combined with C. parvum ormore » not. Results of cell-mediated cytotoxicity studies with lymphocytes from BP 179 and ME/H tumor bearing rats treated with radiation or radiation plus C. parvum support the in vivo findings of combined radiotherapy. These data suggest that unlike strongly immunogenic tumors, weakly immunogenic tumors will not respond better to C. parvum combined with radiation therapy.« less

  18. Chromosomal Radiosensitivity in Lymphocytes of Cervix Cancer Patients—Correlation with Side Effect after Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegierek-Ciuk, Aneta; Lankoff, Anna; Lisowska, Halina; Banasik-Nowak, Anna; Arabski, Michał; Kedzierawski, Piotr; Florek, Agnieszka; Wojcik, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that cancer patients receiving similar radiotherapy treatments differ widely in normal tissue reactions ranging from undetectable to unacceptably severe levels. Therefore, an important goal of radiobiological research is to establish a test which would allow identifying individual radiosensitivity of patients prior to radiotherapy. The aim of the presented study is to assess the relationship between lymphocyte intrinsic radiosensitivity in vitro and early reaction of normal tissue in cervix cancer patients treated by radiotherapy. The following endpoints are analyzed in vitro: frequency of micronuclei, the kinetics of DNA repair and apoptosis. Acute normal tissue reaction to radiotherapy in the skin, bladder and rectum are scored according to the EORTC/RTOG scale. Our results show a wide inter-individual variability in chromosomal radiosensitivity in vitro. The majority of patients show a Grade 0, 1 or 2 reaction for all organs studied. No statistically significant correlation has been observed between the in vitro results in lymphocytes and the degree of early normal tissue and organ reaction.

  19. Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Kong, A; Johnson, N; Cornes, P; Simera, I; Collingwood, M; Williams, C; Kitchener, H

    2007-04-18

    The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (both pelvic external beam radiotherapy and vaginal intracavity brachytherapy) in stage I endometrial cancer following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH and BSO) remains unclear. To assess the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, Physician Data Query (PDQ) of National Cancer Institute. Handsearching was also carried out where appropriate. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared adjuvant radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial cancer were included. Quality of the studies was assessed and data collected using a predefined data collection form. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence and endometrial cancer death. Data on quality of life (QOL) and morbidity were also collected. A meta-analysis on included trials was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software 4.2. The meta-analysis was performed on four trials (1770 patients). The addition of pelvic external beam radiotherapy to surgery reduced locoregional recurrence, a relative risk (RR) of 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.44, p < 0.00001), which is a 72% reduction in the risk of pelvic relapse (95% CI 56% to 83%) and an absolute risk reduction of 6% (95% CI of 4 to 8%). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one locoregional recurrence is 16.7 patients (95% CI 12.5 to 25). The reduction in the risk of locoregional recurrence did not translate into either a reduction in the risk of distant recurrence or death from all causes or endometrial cancer death. A subgroup analysis of women with multiple high risk factors (including stage 1c and grade 3) showed a trend toward the reduction in the risk of death from all causes and endometrial cancer

  20. The desire to survive: the adaptation process of adult cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu Huan; Wang, Shou-Yu; Hsu, Tsui Hua; Wang, Kai Wei K

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the primary treatment strategies for cancer. However, patients not only deal with the side-effects of radiotherapy, but they must also endure the psychological distress caused by cancer. This study explores how cancer patients adapt to the treatment process when receiving radiotherapy. This study used a grounded theory approach, and eight in-depth interviews were conducted with newly diagnosed cancer patients who received radiotherapy as a primary treatment. The core category that emerged from this study was "the desire to survive". The categories and subcategories that emerged from the data include facing unknown situations (e.g. searching for relevant information and decision-making considerations, and listening to healthcare professionals' suggestions), experiencing the pain of treatment (e.g. tolerating side-effects, tolerating inconvenience during the treatment, accepting support during the treatment, and adjusting lifestyles), and chances to extend life (e.g. accepting fate, determination to undergo the treatment, and adjusting negative emotions). The study results provide a better understanding of the experiences of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Healthcare professionals should provide effective medical management for side-effects and psychological support to cancer patients during the journey of radiotherapy. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  1. Radiotherapy utilization in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Fidarova, Elena; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Barton, Michael B; Jones, Glenn W; Mackillop, William J; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Gan, John V; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kochbati, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2018-05-30

    The planning of national radiotherapy (RT) services requires a thorough knowledge of the country's cancer epidemiology profile, the radiotherapy utilization (RTU) rates and a future projection of these data. Previous studies have established RTU rates in high-income countries. Optimal RTU (oRTU) rates were determined for nine middle-income countries, following the epidemiological evidence-based method. The actual RTU (aRTU) rates were calculated dividing the total number of new notifiable cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in 2012 by the total number of cancer patients diagnosed in the same year in each country. An analysis of the characteristics of patients and treatments in a series of 300 consecutive radiotherapy patients shed light on the particular patient and treatments profile in the participating countries. The median oRTU rate for the group of nine countries was 52% (47-56%). The median aRTU rate for the nine countries was 28% (9-46%). These results show that the real proportion of cancer patients receiving RT is lower than the optimal RTU with a rate difference between 10-42.7%. The median percent-unmet need was 47% (18-82.3%). The optimal RTU rate in middle-income countries did not differ significantly from that previously found in high-income countries. The actual RTU rates were consistently lower than the optimal, in particular in countries with limited resources and a large population. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cetuximab and Radiotherapy in Laryngeal Preservation for Cancers of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, James; Giralt, Jordi; Harari, Paul; Spencer, Sharon; Schulten, Jeltje; Hossain, Anwar; Chang, Shao-Chun; Chin, Steve; Baselga, José

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The appropriate use of surgery or radiotherapy-based approaches for organ preservation has been the subject of much debate. Unfortunately, there has been a lack of improvement in overall survival for patients with laryngeal carcinoma in the last 30 years. OBJECTIVE To assess the rates of laryngeal preservation and laryngectomy-free survival in patients receiving cetuximab and radiotherapy (CRT) and patients receiving radiotherapy alone. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients were enrolled in a multicenter, open-label, stratified, randomized, phase 3 study from April 1, 1999, through March 31, 2002, from 73 centers in the United States and 14 other countries. A secondary subgroup analysis of patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma was undertaken. Rates of laryngeal preservation and laryngectomy-free survival were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Quality of life was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire and head and neck module. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Laryngeal preservation and laryngectomy-free survival. RESULTS Of the 424 patients included in the trial, 168 treated patients with cancer of the larynx or hypopharynx were included in this analysis (90 in the CRT group and 78 in the radiotherapy alone group). The median (range) age of the patients was 59 (40-80) years in the CRT group and 61 (35-81) years in the radiotherapy alone group. In the CRT group, 72 patients (80.0%) were male and 18 (20.0%) were female. In the radiotherapy alone group, 62 (79.5%) were male and 16 (20.5%) were female. The rates of laryngeal preservation at 2 years were 87.9% for CRT vs 85.7% for radiotherapy alone, with an HR of 0.57 (95% CI, 0.23-1.42; P = .22). Similarly, the HR for laryngectomy-free survival comparing CRT vs radiotherapy alone was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.54-1.11; P = .17). This study was not

  3. Radiotherapy-induced hypopituitarism: a review.

    PubMed

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Dixit, Sanjay

    2012-05-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder caused by impaired hormonal secretions from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Radiotherapy is the most common cause of iatrogenic hypopituitarism. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis inadvertently gets irradiated in patients receiving prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for leukemia, total body irradiation and radiotherapy for intracranial, base skull, sinonasal and nasopharyngeal tumors. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism (RIH) is insidious, progressive and largely nonreversible. Mostly, RIH involves one hypothalamic-pituitary axis; however, multiple hormonal axes deficiency starts developing at higher doses. Although the clinical effects of the hypopituitarism are more profound in children and young adults, its implications in older adults are being increasingly recognized. The risk continues to persist or increase up to 10 years following radiation exposure. The clinical management of hypopituitarism is challenging both for the patients and healthcare providers. Here we have reviewed the scale of the problem, the risk factors and the management of RIH.

  4. Declining Use of Radiotherapy for Adverse Features After Radical Prostatectomy: Results From the National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Sineshaw, Helmneh M; Gray, Phillip J; Efstathiou, Jason A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) use in prostate cancer (PCa) after the publication of major randomized trials have not been well characterized. To describe patterns of postoperative RT use after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with adverse pathologic features in the United States. Retrospective analysis of 97 270 patients with PCa diagnosed between 2005 and 2011 whose presentation and outcomes were recorded in the National Cancer Data Base. Temporal changes in receipt of postoperative RT and factors associated with receipt of this treatment using the Cochran-Armitage trend test and multiple logistic regression, respectively. Between 2005 and 2011, receipt of postoperative RT decreased steadily from 9.1% to 7.3% (ptrend<0.001). Use of RT with or without androgen deprivation therapy monotonically decreased with advancing age from 8.5% in patients aged 18-59 yr to 6.8% in patients aged 70-79 yr (ptrend<0.001). Receipt of RT was higher at community cancer programs compared with teaching/research centers (14% vs 7.3%; odds ratio [OR]: 2.16; p<0.001), in those with pT3-4 disease and positive margins compared with those with pT3-4 and negative margins (17% vs 5.9%; OR: 2.89; p<0.001), and in patients with a Gleason score of 8-10 compared with those with a Gleason score of 2-6 (17% vs 4.2%; OR: 3.50; p<0.001). Limitations include lack of postprostatectomy prostate-specific antigen level. Postoperative RT use for localized PCa in patients with adverse pathologic features is declining in the United States. In this report, we show that use of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer with adverse pathologic features is declining. Patients treated at community cancer programs, those with locally advanced disease and positive margins, and those with a high Gleason score were more likely to receive postoperative radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC and NCIC CTG EN.5 randomised trials): pooled trial results, systematic review, and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Early endometrial cancer with low-risk pathological features can be successfully treated by surgery alone. External beam radiotherapy added to surgery has been investigated in several small trials, which have mainly included women at intermediate risk of recurrence. In these trials, postoperative radiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of isolated local recurrence but there is no evidence that it improves recurrence-free or overall survival. We report the findings from the ASTEC and EN.5 trials, which investigated adjuvant external beam radiotherapy in women with early-stage disease and pathological features suggestive of intermediate or high risk of recurrence and death from endometrial cancer. Methods Between July, 1996, and March, 2005, 905 (789 ASTEC, 116 EN.5) women with intermediate-risk or high-risk early-stage disease from 112 centres in seven countries (UK, Canada, Poland, Norway, New Zealand, Australia, USA) were randomly assigned after surgery to observation (453) or to external beam radiotherapy (452). A target dose of 40–46 Gy in 20–25 daily fractions to the pelvis, treating five times a week, was specified. Primary outcome measure was overall survival, and all analyses were by intention to treat. These trials were registered ISRCTN 16571884 (ASTEC) and NCT 00002807 (EN.5). Findings After a median follow-up of 58 months, 135 women (68 observation, 67 external beam radiotherapy) had died. There was no evidence that overall survival with external beam radiotherapy was better than observation, hazard ratio 1·05 (95% CI 0·75–1·48; p=0·77). 5-year overall survival was 84% in both groups. Combining data from ASTEC and EN.5 in a meta-analysis of trials confirmed that there was no benefit in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio 1·04; 95% CI 0·84–1·29) and can reliably exclude an absolute benefit of external beam radiotherapy at 5 years of more than 3%. With brachytherapy used in 53% of women in ASTEC/EN.5, the local

  6. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma): Predicting the Risk of Hydrocephalus;Vestibular schwannoma; Hydrocephalus; Fractionated; Stereotactic radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Powell, Ceri; Micallef, Caroline; Gonsalves, Adam

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence and predictive factors for the development of hydrocephalus in patients with acoustic neuromas (AN) treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Seventy-two patients with AN were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy between 1998 and 2007 (45-50 Gy in 25-30 fractions over 5 to 6 weeks). The pretreatment MRI scan was assessed for tumor characteristics and anatomic distortion independently of subsequent outcome and correlated with the risk of hydrocephalus. Results: At a median follow-up of 49 months (range, 1-120 months), 5-year event-free survival was 95%. Eight patients (11%) developed hydrocephalus within 19 months of radiotherapy,more » which was successfully treated. On univariate analysis, pretreatment factors predictive of hydrocephalus were maximum diameter (p = 0.005), proximity to midline (p = 0.009), displacement of the fourth ventricle (p = 0.02), partial effacement of the fourth ventricle (p < 0.001), contact with the medulla (p = 0.005), and more brainstem structures (p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for fourth ventricular effacement, no other variables remained independently associated with hydrocephalus formation. Conclusions: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy results in excellent tumor control of AN, albeit with a risk of developing hydrocephalus. Patients at high risk, identified as those with larger tumors with partial effacement of the fourth ventricle before treatment, should be monitored more closely during follow-up. It would also be preferable to offer treatment to patients with progressive AN while the risk of hydrocephalus is low, before the development of marked distortion of fourth ventricle before tumor diameter significantly exceeds 2 cm.« less

  7. Hypothyroidism After Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wu, Y.-H.; Wang, H-M.; Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term incidence and possible predictive factors for posttreatment hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Four hundred and eight sequential NPC patients who had received regular annual thyroid hormone surveys prospectively after radiotherapy were included in this study. Median patient age was 47.3 years, and 286 patients were male. Thyroid function was prospectively evaluated by measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and serum free thyroxine (FT4) levels. Low FT4 levels indicated clinical hypothyroidism in this study. Results: With a median follow-up of 4.3 years (range, 0.54-19.7 years), themore » incidence of low FT4 level was 5.3%, 9.0%, and 19.1% at 3, 5, and 10 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Hypothyroidism was more common with early T stage (p = 0.044), female sex (p = 0.037), and three-dimensional conformal therapy with the altered fractionation technique (p = 0.005) after univariate analysis. N stage, chemotherapy, reirradiation, and neck electron boost did not affect the incidence of hypothyroidism. Younger age and conformal therapy were significant factors that determined clinical hypothyroidism after multivariate analysis. Overall, patients presented with a low FT4 level about 1 year after presenting with an elevated TSH level. Conclusion: Among our study group of NPC patients, 19.1% experienced clinical hypothyroidism by 10 years after treatment. Younger age and conformal therapy increased the risk of hypothyroidism. We suggest routine evaluation of thyroid function in NPC patients after radiotherapy. The impact of pituitary injury should be also considered.« less

  8. 3D ultrasound-based patient positioning for radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael H.; Rohling, Robert N.; Archip, Neculai; Clark, Brenda G.

    2006-03-01

    A new 3D ultrasound-based patient positioning system for target localisation during radiotherapy is described. Our system incorporates the use of tracked 3D ultrasound scans of the target anatomy acquired using a dedicated 3D ultrasound probe during both the simulation and treatment sessions, fully automatic 3D ultrasound-toultrasound registration, and OPTOTRAK IRLEDs for registering simulation CT to ultrasound data. The accuracy of the entire radiotherapy treatment process resulting from the use of our system, from simulation to the delivery of radiation, has been validated on a phantom. The overall positioning error is less than 5mm, which includes errors from estimation of the irradiated region location in the phantom.

  9. Recruitment in Radiotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeley, T. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Faculty Board of Radiotherapy and Oncology of the Royal College of Radiobiologists surveyed the factors thought to influence recruitment into the specialty. Possible factors listed in replies of 36 questionnaires are offered. (LBH)

  10. Quality of life and satisfaction with information after radical prostatectomy, radical external beam radiotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nicolaisen, Marianne; Müller, Stig; Patel, Hitendra R H; Hanssen, Tove Aminda

    2014-12-01

    To assess patients' symptoms, quality of life and satisfaction with information three to four years after radical prostatectomy, radical external beam radiotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy and to analyse differences between treatment groups and the relationship between disease-specific, health-related and overall quality of life and satisfaction with information. Radical prostate cancer treatments are associated with changes in quality of life. Differences between patients undergoing different treatments in symptoms and quality of life have been reported, but there are limited long-term data comparing radical prostatectomy with radical external beam radiotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study sample included 143 men treated with radical prostatectomy and/or radical external beam radiotherapy. Quality of life was measured using the 12-item Short Form Health Survey and the 50-item Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite Instrument. Questions assessing overall Quality of life and satisfaction with information were included. Descriptive statistics and interference statistical methods were applied to analyse the data. Radical external beam radiotherapy was associated with less urinary incontinence and better urinary function. There were no differences between the groups for disease-specific quality of life sum scores. Sexual quality of life was reported very low in all groups. Disease-specific quality of life and health-related quality of life were associated with overall quality of life. Patients having undergone surgery were more satisfied with information, and there was a positive correlation between quality of life and patient satisfaction. Pretreatment information and patient education lead to better quality of life and satisfaction. This study indicates a need for structured, pretreatment information and follow-up for all men going through radical prostate cancer treatment. Long-term quality of life

  11. [Description of latest generation equipment in external radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Pellejero, S; Lozares, S; Mañeru, F

    2009-01-01

    Both the planning systems and the form of administering radiotherapy have changed radically since the introduction of 3D planning. At present treatment planning based on computerised axial tomography (CAT) images is standard practice in radiotherapy services. In recent years lineal accelerators for medical use have incorporated technology capable of administering intensity modulated radiation beams (IMRT). With this mode distributions of conformed doses are generated that adjust to the three dimensional form of the white volume, providing appropriate coverage and a lower dose to nearby risk organs. The use of IMRT is rapidly spreading amongst radiotherapy centres throughout the world. This growing use of IMRT has focused attention on the need for greater control of the geometric uncertainties in positioning the patient and control of internal movements. To this end, both flat and volumetric image systems have been incorporated into the treatment equipment, making image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) possible. This article offers a brief description of the latest advances included in the planning and administration of radiotherapy treatment.

  12. PET imaging in adaptive radiotherapy of gastrointestinal tumours.

    PubMed

    Bulens, Philippe; Thomas, Melissa; Deroose, Christophe M; Haustermans, Karin

    2018-06-04

    Radiotherapy is the standard of care in the multimodality treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) tumours, such as oesophageal cancer, gastric cancer, rectal cancer and anal cancer. Additionally, radiotherapy has served as an alternative for surgery in patients with liver cancer, cancer of the biliary tract and pancreatic cancer. Positron-emission tomography (PET), generally in combination with computed tomography (CT), has an established role in the diagnosis, response assessment and (re-)staging of several GI tumours. However, the additional value of PET in adaptive radiotherapy, i.e. during the radiation treatment course and in the delineation process, is still unclear. When performed during radiotherapy, PET aims at assessing treatment-induced variations in functional tumour volumes to reduce the radiation target volume. Moreover, in the radiation treatment planning, tumour delineation could be more accurate by incorporating PET to identify the metabolic tumour volume. This review focuses on the additional value of PET for adaptive radiotherapy protocols as well as for the target volume adaptation for individualised treatment strategies in oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic, liver, biliary tract, rectal and anal neoplasms.

  13. SU-E-J-36: A Flexible Integration of Key Technologies in Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Accurate Radiotherapy System (ARTS-IGRT).

    PubMed

    Jia, J; Liu, F; Ren, Q; Pei, X; Cao, R; Wu, Y

    2012-06-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is becoming increasingly important in the planning and delivery of radiotherapy. With the aim of implementing the key technologies in a flexible and integrated way in IGRT for accurate radiotherapy system (ARTS), a prototype system named as ARTS-IGRT was designed and completed to apply main principles in image-guided radiotherapy. The basic workflow of the ARTS-IGRT software was completed with five functional modules including management of patient information, X-ray image acquisition, 2D/2D anatomy match, 2D/3D match as well as marker-based match. For 2D/2D match, an image registration method was proposed based on maximization of mutual information with multi-resolution and regions of interest. For the 2D/3D registration, optimizations have been employed to improve the existing digitally reconstructed radiography generation algorithm based on ray-casting, and also an image registration method based on implanted markers with different numbers was adopted for 3D/3D match. In additional, the kV X-Ray imaging on rail device was finished for a better internal anatomy image checking at any angle. Together with an infrared device, a positioning and tracking system was developed as well for accurate patient setup and motion monitoring during each treatment. A lot of tests were carried out based on the head phantom to testify the availability of the improved algorithms. Compared with a set of controlled experiments adopted on the released commercial IGRT platform in the hospital, the functions of both software and hardware were testified comprehensively. The results showed a validity verification of ARTS-IGRT. The accuracy and efficiency of ARTS-IGRT on both software and hardware proved to be valid. And also with a flexible and user-friendly interface it can meet the principles of clinical radiotherapy practice. Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province (11040606Q55) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China

  14. Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery - a comparative effectiveness research study.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Stefanie; Niyazi, Maximilian; Niemoeller, Olivier M; Li, Minglun; Roeder, Falk; Eckel, Renate; Schubert-Fritschle, Gabriele; Scheithauer, Heike R; Harbeck, Nadia; Engel, Jutta; Belka, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective outcome study was to validate the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in breast conserving therapy (BCT) and to evaluate possible causes for omission of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS) in a non-trial population. Data were provided by the population-based Munich Cancer Registry. The study included epidemiological data of 30.811 patients diagnosed with breast cancer from 1998 to 2012. The effect of omitting radiotherapy was analysed using Kaplan-Meier-estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression. Variables predicting omission of radiotherapy were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Use of postoperative radiotherapy after BCS was associated with significant improvements in local control and survival. 10-year loco-regional recurrence-free-survival was 90.8% with postoperative radiotherapy vs. 77.6% with surgery alone (p<0.001). 10-year overall survival rates were 55.2% with surgery alone vs. 82.2% following postoperative radiotherapy (p<0.001). Variables predicting omission of postoperative radiotherapy included advanced age (women ⩾80 years; OR: 0.082; 95% CI: 0.071-0.094, p<0.001). This study shows a decrease in local control and a survival disadvantage if postoperative radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery is omitted in an unselected cohort of primary breast cancer patients. Due to its epidemiological nature, it cannot answer the question in whom postoperative radiotherapy can be safely omitted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Partial-breast radiotherapy after breast conservation surgery for patients with early breast cancer (UK IMPORT LOW trial): 5-year results from a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Coles, Charlotte E; Griffin, Clare L; Kirby, Anna M; Titley, Jenny; Agrawal, Rajiv K; Alhasso, Abdulla; Bhattacharya, Indrani S; Brunt, Adrian M; Ciurlionis, Laura; Chan, Charlie; Donovan, Ellen M; Emson, Marie A; Harnett, Adrian N; Haviland, Joanne S; Hopwood, Penelope; Jefford, Monica L; Kaggwa, Ronald; Sawyer, Elinor J; Syndikus, Isabel; Tsang, Yat M; Wheatley, Duncan A; Wilcox, Maggie; Yarnold, John R; Bliss, Judith M

    2017-09-09

    Local cancer relapse risk after breast conservation surgery followed by radiotherapy has fallen sharply in many countries, and is influenced by patient age and clinicopathological factors. We hypothesise that partial-breast radiotherapy restricted to the vicinity of the original tumour in women at lower than average risk of local relapse will improve the balance of beneficial versus adverse effects compared with whole-breast radiotherapy. IMPORT LOW is a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3, non-inferiority trial done in 30 radiotherapy centres in the UK. Women aged 50 years or older who had undergone breast-conserving surgery for unifocal invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of grade 1-3, with a tumour size of 3 cm or less (pT1-2), none to three positive axillary nodes (pN0-1), and minimum microscopic margins of non-cancerous tissue of 2 mm or more, were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 40 Gy whole-breast radiotherapy (control), 36 Gy whole-breast radiotherapy and 40 Gy to the partial breast (reduced-dose group), or 40 Gy to the partial breast only (partial-breast group) in 15 daily treatment fractions. Computer-generated random permuted blocks (mixed sizes of six and nine) were used to assign patients to groups, stratifying patients by radiotherapy treatment centre. Patients and clinicians were not masked to treatment allocation. Field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy was delivered using standard tangential beams that were simply reduced in length for the partial-breast group. The primary endpoint was ipsilateral local relapse (80% power to exclude a 2·5% increase [non-inferiority margin] at 5 years for each experimental group; non-inferiority was shown if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% CI for the local relapse hazard ratio [HR] was less than 2·03), analysed by intention to treat. Safety analyses were done in all patients for whom data was available (ie, a modified intention-to-treat population). This study is

  16. Vaginal dilator therapy for women receiving pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miles, Tracie; Johnson, Nick

    2014-09-08

    Vaginal dilation therapy is advocated after pelvic radiotherapy to prevent stenosis (abnormal narrowing of the vagina), but can be uncomfortable and psychologically distressing. To assess the benefits and harms of different types of vaginal dilation methods offered to women treated by pelvic radiotherapy for cancer. Searches included the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to June week 2, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 24) and CINAHL (1982 to 2013). Comparative data of any type, which evaluated dilation or penetration of the vagina after pelvic radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Two review authors independently assessed whether potentially relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. We found no trials and therefore analysed no data. We identified no studies for inclusion in the original review or for this update. However, we felt that some studies that were excluded warranted discussion. These included one randomised trial (RCT), which showed no improvement in sexual scores associated with encouraging women to practise dilation therapy; a recent small RCT that did not show any advantage to dilation over vibration therapy during radiotherapy; two non-randomised comparative studies; and five correlation studies. One of these showed that objective measurements of vaginal elasticity and length were not linked to dilation during radiotherapy, but the study lacked power. One study showed that women who dilated tolerated a larger dilator, but the risk of objectivity and bias with historical controls was high. Another study showed that the vaginal measurements increased in length by a mean of 3 cm after dilation was introduced 6 to 10 weeks after radiotherapy, but there was no control group; another case series showed the opposite. Three recent studies showed less stenosis associated with prophylactic dilation after radiotherapy. One small case series suggested that dilation years after radiotherapy might restore the

  17. Risk Factors of Developing Long-Lasting Breast Pain After Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lundstedt, Dan, E-mail: dan.lundstedt@vgregion.se; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg; Gustafsson, Magnus

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastasesmore » had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33-5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long

  18. The Results of a Laboratory Feasibility Study for the Biological Treatment of Umatilla Groundwater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    high fructose corn syrup Kroger brand lactose Columbia River Processors, Boardman, OR cheese whey Columbia River Processors, Boardman, OR lactate...Processing Roy Dugan 541·481-3771 79588 Rippee Road 55 High Fructose Corn Syrup Malt Products Corp. Joanne McGuire 530-677-8282 #677 Blackstrap...communication with experts) tested in Run 1 were: • high - fructose corn sugar (based on promising results obtained using soft drink by-products

  19. The cost of radiotherapy in a decade of technology evolution.

    PubMed

    Van de Werf, Evelyn; Verstraete, Jan; Lievens, Yolande

    2012-01-01

    To quantify changes in radiotherapy costs occurring in a decade of medical-technological evolution. The activity-based costing (ABC) model of the University Hospitals Leuven (UHL) radiotherapy (RT) department was adapted to current RT standards. It allocated actual resource costs to the treatments based on the departmental work-flow and patient mix in 2009. A benchmark with the former model analyzed the cost increases related to changes in RT infrastructure and practice over 10 years. A considerable increase in total RT costs was observed, resulting from higher capital investments (96%) and personnel cost (103%), the latter dominating the total picture. Treatment delivery remains the most costly activity, boosted by the cost of improved quality assurance (QA), 23% of total product costs, coming along with more advanced RT techniques. Hence, cost increases at the product level are most obvious for complex treatments, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), representing cost increases ranging between 38% and 88% compared to conformal approaches. The ABC model provides insight into the financial consequences of evolving technology and practice. Such data are a mandatory first step in our strive to prove RT cost-effectiveness and thus support optimal reimbursement and provision of radiotherapy departments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Voice quality after endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: objective measurements emphasizing the Voice Handicap Index

    PubMed Central

    Caminero Cueva, Maria Jesús; Señaris González, Blanca; Llorente Pendás, José Luis; Gorriz Gil, Carmen; López Llames, Aurora; Alonso Pantiga, Ramón; Suárez Nieto, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the functional outcome and self-evaluation of the voice of patients with T1 glottic carcinoma treated with endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy. We performed an objective voice evaluation, as well as a physical, emotional and functional well being assessment of 19 patients treated with laser surgery and 18 patients treated with radiotherapy. Voice quality is affected both by surgery and radiotherapy. Voice parameters only show differences in the maximum phonation time between both treatments. Results in the Voice Handicap Index show that radiotherapy has less effect on patient voice quality perception. There is a reduced impact on the patient’s perception of voice quality after radiotherapy, despite there being no significant differences in vocal quality between radiotherapy and laser cordectomy. PMID:17999074

  1. Barriers to radiotherapy access at the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anakwenze, Chidinma P; Ntekim, Atara; Trock, Bruce; Uwadiae, Iyobosa B; Page, Brandi R

    2017-08-01

    Nigeria has the biggest gap between radiotherapy availability and need, with one machine per 19.4 million people, compared to one machine per 250,000 people in high-income countries. This study aims to identify its patient-level barriers to radiotherapy access. This was a cross sectional study consisting of patient questionnaires ( n  = 50) conducted in January 2016 to assess patient demographics, types of cancers seen, barriers to receiving radiotherapy, health beliefs and practices, and factors leading to treatment delay. Eighty percent of patients could not afford radiotherapy without financial assistance and only 6% of the patients had federal insurance, which did not cover radiotherapy services. Of the patients who had completed radiotherapy treatment, 91.3% had experienced treatment delay or often cancellation due to healthcare worker strike, power failure, machine breakdown, or prolonged wait time. The timeliness of a patient's radiotherapy care correlated with their employment status and distance from radiotherapy center ( p  < 0.05). Barriers to care at a radiotherapy center in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) have previously not been well characterized. These findings can be used to inform efforts to expand the availability of radiotherapy and improve current treatment capacity in Nigeria and in other LMICs.

  2. Partial breast radiotherapy with simple teletherapy techniques.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Gábor; Újhidy, Dóra; Együd, Zsófia; Kiscsatári, Laura; Marosi, Gusztáv; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Varga, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    A prospective pilot study of partial breast irradiation (PBI) with conventional vs hypofractionated schedules was set out. The study aimed to determine efficacy, acute and late side effects, and the preference of photon vs electron irradiation based on individual features. Patients were enrolled according to internationally accepted guidelines on PBI. Conformal radiotherapy plans were generated with both photon and electron beams, and the preferred technique based on dose homogeneity and the radiation exposure of healthy tissues was applied. For electron dose verification, a special phantom was constructed. Patients were randomized for fractionation schedules of 25 × 2 vs 13 × 3Gy. Skin and breast changes were registered at the time of and ≥1 year after the completion of radiotherapy. Dose homogeneity was better with photons. If the tumor bed was located in the inner quadrants, electron beam gave superior results regarding conformity and sparing of organ at risk (OAR). If the tumor was situated in the lateral quadrants, conformity was better with photons. A depth of the tumor bed ≥3.0cm predicted the superiority of photon irradiation (odds ratio [OR] = 23.6, 95% CI: 5.2 to 107.5, p < 0.001) with >90% sensitivity and specificity. After a median follow-up of 39 months, among 72 irradiated cases, 1 local relapse out of the tumor bed was detected. Acute radiodermatitis of grade I to II, hyperpigmentation, and telangiectasia developed ≥1 year after radiotherapy, exclusively after electron beam radiotherapy. The choice of electrons or photons for PBI should be based on tumor bed location; the used methods are efficient and feasible. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  4. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  5. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.; Doyle, Barney L.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  6. Dosimetry audits and intercomparisons in radiotherapy: A Malaysian profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Noor, Noramaliza; Nisbet, A.; Hussein, M.; Chu S, Sarene; Kadni, T.; Abdullah, N.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Quality audits and intercomparisons are important in ensuring control of processes in any system of endeavour. Present interest is in control of dosimetry in teletherapy, there being a need to assess the extent to which there is consistent radiation dose delivery to the patient. In this study we review significant factors that impact upon radiotherapy dosimetry, focusing upon the example situation of radiotherapy delivery in Malaysia, examining existing literature in support of such efforts. A number of recommendations are made to provide for increased quality assurance and control. In addition to this study, the first level of intercomparison audit i.e. measuring beam output under reference conditions at eight selected Malaysian radiotherapy centres is checked; use being made of 9 μm core diameter Ge-doped silica fibres (Ge-9 μm). The results of Malaysian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) participation in the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit services during the period between 2011 and 2015 will also been discussed. In conclusion, following review of the development of dosimetry audits and the conduct of one such exercise in Malaysia, it is apparent that regular periodic radiotherapy audits and intercomparison programmes should be strongly supported and implemented worldwide. The programmes to-date demonstrate these to be a good indicator of errors and of consistency between centres. A total of ei+ght beams have been checked in eight Malaysian radiotherapy centres. One out of the eight beams checked produced an unacceptable deviation; this was found to be due to unfamiliarity with the irradiation procedures. Prior to a repeat measurement, the mean ratio of measured to quoted dose was found to be 0.99 with standard deviation of 3%. Subsequent to the repeat measurement, the mean distribution was 1.00, and the standard deviation was 1.3%.

  7. Second malignancies after chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Hodgkin disease.

    PubMed

    Chronowski, Gregory M; Wilder, Richard B; Levy, Larry B; Atkinson, Edward N; Ha, Chul S; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Barista, Ibrahim; Rodriguez, Maria A; Sarris, Andreas H; Hess, Mark A; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the incidence of second malignancies after combined-modality therapy for adults with Hodgkin disease and relate it to the details of initial treatment. We retrospectively studied 286 patients ranging in age from 16 to 88 years with stage I or II Hodgkin disease who were treated between 1980 and 1995 with chemotherapy followed 3 to 4 weeks later by radiotherapy. Patients received a median of three cycles of induction chemotherapy. Mitoxantrone, vincristine, vinblastine, and prednisone was used in 161 cases, mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) in 67 cases, Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine in 19 cases, lomustine, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone/doxorubicin, bleomycin, dacarbazine, and lomustine in 18 cases, and other chemotherapeutic regimens in the remaining 21 cases. The median radiotherapy dose was 40 Gy given in 20 daily 2-Gy fractions. Median follow-up of surviving patients was 7.4 years. There were 2,230 person-years of observation. Significantly increased relative risks (RR) were observed for acute myeloid leukemia (RR, 69.3; 95% CI, 14.3-202.6) and melanoma (RR, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.5-21.3). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial risks of acute myeloid leukemia were 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.3%, respectively. Patients treated with MOPP had the highest 15-year actuarial risk of leukemia (1.6%). The 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial risks of solid tumors were 1.9%, 9.3%, and 16.8%, respectively. Consolidative radiotherapy to both sides of the diaphragm resulted in a trend toward an increased risk of solid tumors relative to radiotherapy to only one side of the diaphragm (p = 0.08). In an effort to reduce the risk of second malignancies, we have stopped using the alkylating agents nitrogen mustard and procarbazine and elective paraaortic and splenic radiotherapy after chemotherapy.

  8. Bayesian network models for error detection in radiotherapy plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalet, Alan M.; Gennari, John H.; Ford, Eric C.; Phillips, Mark H.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to design and develop a probabilistic network for detecting errors in radiotherapy plans for use at the time of initial plan verification. Our group has initiated a multi-pronged approach to reduce these errors. We report on our development of Bayesian models of radiotherapy plans. Bayesian networks consist of joint probability distributions that define the probability of one event, given some set of other known information. Using the networks, we find the probability of obtaining certain radiotherapy parameters, given a set of initial clinical information. A low probability in a propagated network then corresponds to potential errors to be flagged for investigation. To build our networks we first interviewed medical physicists and other domain experts to identify the relevant radiotherapy concepts and their associated interdependencies and to construct a network topology. Next, to populate the network’s conditional probability tables, we used the Hugin Expert software to learn parameter distributions from a subset of de-identified data derived from a radiation oncology based clinical information database system. These data represent 4990 unique prescription cases over a 5 year period. Under test case scenarios with approximately 1.5% introduced error rates, network performance produced areas under the ROC curve of 0.88, 0.98, and 0.89 for the lung, brain and female breast cancer error detection networks, respectively. Comparison of the brain network to human experts performance (AUC of 0.90 ± 0.01) shows the Bayes network model performs better than domain experts under the same test conditions. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of comprehensive probabilistic models as part of decision support systems for improved detection of errors in initial radiotherapy plan verification procedures.

  9. Improving external beam radiotherapy by combination with internal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, A; Koi, L; Zöphel, K; Sihver, W; Kotzerke, J; Baumann, M; Krause, M

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is dose dependent, but the dose that can be applied to solid tumour lesions is limited by the sensitivity of the surrounding tissue. The combination of EBRT with systemically applied radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising approach to increase efficacy of radiotherapy. Toxicities of both treatment modalities of this combination of internal and external radiotherapy (CIERT) are not additive, as different organs at risk are in target. However, advantages of both single treatments are combined, for example, precise high dose delivery to the bulk tumour via standard EBRT, which can be increased by addition of RIT, and potential targeting of micrometastases by RIT. Eventually, theragnostic radionuclide pairs can be used to predict uptake of the radiotherapeutic drug prior to and during therapy and find individual patients who may benefit from this treatment. This review aims to highlight the outcome of pre-clinical studies on CIERT and resultant questions for translation into the clinic. Few clinical data are available until now and reasons as well as challenges for clinical implementation are discussed.

  10. Active middle ear implant after lateral petrosectomy and radiotherapy for ear cancer.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, Giovanni; Sprinzl, Georg M; Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Marchesi, Paolo; Mercante, Giuseppe; Spriano, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Tumor of the temporal bone is a rare disease with a very poor prognosis. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy are usually the recommended treatments for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external and middle ear, which may cause conductive hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the audiologic results and compliance of active middle ear implant (AMEI) and establish the feasibility of the procedure in a patient treated for middle ear cancer. A 73-year-old patient treated with lateral petrosectomy, neck dissection, reconstruction/obliteration by pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, and postoperative full dose radiotherapy for external and middle ear SCC was selected for AMEI. Preoperative audiometric and speech audiometry tests were performed on both ears before and after the activation. Pure tone free field audiometry. Binaural free field speech audiogram. Aided pure tone free field audiometry AMEI results show an increase in air conduction. Speech audiogram showed better discrimination scores in AMEI-aided situations. No complications were observed. AMEI after surgery followed by radiotherapy for middle ear cancer is feasible. Acoustic results in obliterated ear are satisfactory.

  11. Carbon Beam Radio-Therapy and Research Activities at HIMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, Mitsutaka

    2007-05-01

    Radio-therapy with carbon ion beam has been carried out since 1994 at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) in NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences). Now, many types of tumors can be treated with carbon beam with excellent local controls of the tumors. Stimulated with good clinical results, requirement of the dedicated compact facility for carbon beam radio-therapy is increased. To realize this requirement, design study of the facility and the R&D's of the key components in this design are promoted by NIRS. According successful results of these activities, the dedicated compact facility will be realized in Gunma University. In this facility, the established irradiation method is expected to use, which is passive irradiation method with wobbler magnets and ridge filter. In this presentation, above R&D's will be presented together with clinical results and basic research activities at HIMAC.

  12. Results of salvage radiotherapy after inadequate surgery in invasive cervical carcinoma patients: A retrospective analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Saibishkumar, Elantholi P.; Patel, Firuza D.; Ghoshal, Sushmita

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of salvage radiotherapy (RT) after inadequate surgery in patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2001, 105 invasive cervical carcinoma patients were treated at our center with external beam RT with or without intracavitary RT after having undergone total/subtotal hysterectomy at outside institutions. Results: The median follow-up was 34 months. The gap between surgery and RT was 23-198 days (median, 80). Clinically visible residual disease was present in 81 patients (77.1%). Total hysterectomy had been done in 82 patients (78%) and subtotal hysterectomy in 23 patients (22%). The 5-yearmore » overall survival, disease-free survival, and pelvic control rates of all patients were 55.2%, 53.3%, and 72.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, older age, total hysterectomy, hemoglobin level >10 g% before RT, nonsquamous histologic type, use of intracavitary RT, a shorter gap between surgery and RT, and the absence of, or a small volume of, residual disease favorably affected the outcome. The 5-year actuarial rate of late toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Criteria) was 19% in the rectum, 4.8% in the bladder, 24.8% in the skin, and 14.3% in the small intestine. Conclusions: Inadequate and inappropriate surgery in invasive cervical cancer with resulting gross residual disease is common in India. Factors such as the use of intracavitary RT, the correction of anemia, and a shorter gap between surgery and RT will enable postoperative RT to achieve acceptable results with minimal morbidity.« less

  13. Clinical experience with image-guided radiotherapy in an accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy protocol.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Charles E; Tallhamer, Michael; Johnson, Tim; Hunter, Kari; Howell, Kathryn; Kercher, Jane; Widener, Jodi; Kaske, Terese; Paul, Devchand; Sedlacek, Scot; Carter, Dennis L

    2010-02-01

    To explore the feasibility of fiducial markers for the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in an accelerated partial breast intensity modulated radiotherapy protocol. Nineteen patients consented to an institutional review board approved protocol of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker placement and treatment with IGRT. Patients (1 patient with bilateral breast cancer; 20 total breasts) underwent ultrasound guided implantation of three 1.2- x 3-mm gold markers placed around the surgical cavity. For each patient, table shifts (inferior/superior, right/left lateral, and anterior/posterior) and minimum, maximum, mean error with standard deviation were recorded for each of the 10 BID treatments. The dose contribution of daily orthogonal films was also examined. All IGRT patients underwent successful marker placement. In all, 200 IGRT treatment sessions were performed. The average vector displacement was 4 mm (range, 2-7 mm). The average superior/inferior shift was 2 mm (range, 0-5 mm), the average lateral shift was 2 mm (range, 1-4 mm), and the average anterior/posterior shift was 3 mm (range, 1 5 mm). This study shows that the use of IGRT can be successfully used in an accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy protocol. The authors believe that this technique has increased daily treatment accuracy and permitted reduction in the margin added to the clinical target volume to form the planning target volume. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiotherapy for malignancy in patients with scleroderma: The Mayo Clinic experience

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gold, Douglas G.; Miller, Robert C.; Petersen, Ivy A.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of acute and chronic adverse effects in patients with scleroderma who receive radiotherapy for treatment of cancer. Methods and Materials: Records were reviewed of 20 patients with scleroderma who received radiotherapy. Acute and chronic toxic effects attributable to radiotherapy were analyzed, and freedom from radiation-related toxicity was calculated. Results: Of the 20 patients, 15 had acute toxic effects, with Grade 3 or higher toxicity for 3 patients. Seven patients had self-limited Grade 1 or 2 radiation dermatitis, and no patient had Grade 3 or higher radiation dermatitis. Thirteen patients had chronic toxic effects, with Grademore » 3 or higher chronic toxicity for 3 patients. The median estimated time to any grade chronic toxicity was 0.4 years, and the median estimated time to Grade 3 or higher chronic toxicity has not been reached. Conclusions: The results suggest that although some patients with scleroderma treated with radiation experience considerable toxic effects, the occurrence of Grade 3 or higher toxicity may be less than previously anticipated.« less

  15. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  16. Radiotherapy of Painful Vertebral Hemangiomas: The Single Center Retrospective Analysis of 137 Cases

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miszczyk, Leszek, E-mail: leszek@io.gliwice.pl; Tukiendorf, Andrzej

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: An evaluation of dose-response relationship and an attempt to define predictive factors. Methods and Materials: A total of 137 cases of painful vertebral hemangioma irradiations (101 patients). Fraction dose (fd) varied from 2 to 15 Gy (123 fractionated and 14 radiosurgical treatments), and total dose (TD) from 8 to 30 Gy (111 cases irradiated with fd of 2 GY to TD of 24 Gy). We evaluated pain relief, changes in analgesic requirements, and reossification. Results: Means of pain relief 1, 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy (defined as a decrease of primary pain level expressed in percent) weremore » 60.5%, 65.4%, 68.3%, and 78.4%, respectively. Proportion of patients with no need for analgesics and patients using tramadol were 39%, 40%, 44%, 57%, and 20%, 17%, 22%, and 11% in these times. The proportion of patients experiencing complete/partial pain relief changed from 36/48% 1 month, to 64/22% 1.5 years after radiotherapy. No impact of radiotherapy on reossification was found. The positive impact of fd and TD increase for analgesics uptake reduction and pain relief was found. An increase of the fd by 1 Gy results in 27% chance of analgesics uptake reduction and 3.8% reduction of pain, whereas 14% analgesics uptake reduction and 2.2% of pain reduction in case of the TD. The predictive factors improving results were found: female gender, older age, better performance states (the chance of the lower analgesic treatment decreases over 2.5 times in comparison to the higher Zubrod degree), bigger Hb concentration, shorter symptoms duration and lower analgesics uptake before radiotherapy. Conclusions: The obtained data support the efficacy of radiotherapy in improving pain secondary to vertebral hemangioma, with the degree of pain amelioration being related to increasing fd and TD. The positive predictive factors were defined: female gender, older age, better performance status, increased Hb concentration, shorter symptoms duration, and lower analgesics

  17. Optical spectroscopy of radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy responses in normal rat skin shows vascular breakdown products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles de Andrade, Cintia; Nogueira, Marcelo S.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Andreozzi, Jacqueline; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy are non-systemic cancer treatment options with different mechanisms of damage. So combining these techniques has been shown to have some synergy, and can mitigate their limitations such as low PDT light penetration or radiotherapy side effects. The present study monitored the induced tissue changes after PDT, radiotherapy, and a combination protocol in normal rat skin, using an optical spectroscopy system to track the observed biophysical changes. The Wistar rats were treated with one of the protocols: PDT followed by radiotherapy, PDT, radiotherapy and radiotherapy followed by PDT. Reflectance spectra were collected in order to observe the effects of these combined therapies, especially targeting vascular response. From the reflectance, information about oxygen saturation, met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentration, blood volume fraction (BVF) and vessel radius were extracted from model fitting of the spectra. The rats were monitored for 24 hours after treatment. Results showed that there was no significant variation in the vessel size or BVF after the treatments. However, the PDT caused a significant increase in the met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentrations, indicating an important blood breakdown. These results may provide an important clue on how the damage establishment takes place, helping to understand the effect of the combination of those techniques in order to verify the existence of a known synergistic effect.

  18. Measurement of radiation dose with BeO dosimeters using optically stimulated luminescence technique in radiotherapy applications.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Serdar; Güneş Tanır, A; Meriç, Niyazi; Aydınkarahaliloğlu, Ercan

    2015-09-01

    The radiation dose delivered to the target by using different radiotherapy applications has been measured with the help of beryllium oxide (BeO) dosimeters to be placed inside the rando phantom. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy (3DCRT), Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy (IMAT) have been used as radiotherapy application. Individual treatment plans have been made for the three radiotherapy applications of rando phantom. The section 4 on the phantom was selected as target and 200 cGy doses were delivered. After the dosimeters placed on section 4 (target) and the sections 2 and 6 (non-target) were irradiated, the result was read through the OSL technique on the Risø TL/OSL system. This procedure was repeated three times for each radiotherapy application. The doses delivered to the target and the non-target sections as a result of the 3DCRT, IMRT and IMAT plans were analyzed. The doses received by the target were measured as 204.71 cGy, 204.76 cGy and 205.65 cGy, respectively. The dose values obtained from treatment planning system (TPS) were compared to the dose values obtained using the OSL technique. It has been concluded that, the radiation dose can be measured with the OSL technique by using BeO dosimeters in medical practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of routine postoperative radiotherapy after sector resection and axillary dissection for breast cancer stage I. Results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Liljegren, G; Karlsson, G; Bergh, J; Holmberg, L

    1997-08-01

    routine postoperative radiotherapy after sector resection and axillary dissection in breast cancer stage I per avoided local recurrence and gained QALY is high. The cost per gained QALY show great variation depending on utility value, which in this study was derived from external observers and not from the patients themselves. These results stress the importance of identifying risk factors for local recurrence, better understanding of impact on quality of life of a local recurrence and adding cost evaluations to clinical trials in early breast cancer.

  20. Radiotherapy access in Belgium: How far are we from evidence-based utilisation?

    PubMed

    Lievens, Y; De Schutter, H; Stellamans, K; Rosskamp, M; Van Eycken, L

    2017-10-01

    Underutilisation of radiotherapy has been observed worldwide. To evaluate the current situation in Belgium, optimal utilisation proportions (OUPs) adopted from the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology - Health Economics in Radiation Oncology (ESTRO-HERO) project were compared to actual utilisation proportions (AUPs) and with radiotherapy advised during the multidisciplinary cancer team (MDT) meetings. In addition, the impact of independent variables was analysed. AUPs and advised radiotherapy were calculated overall and by cancer type for 110,810 unique cancer diagnoses in 2009-2010. Radiotherapy utilisation was derived from reimbursement data and distinguished between palliative and curative intent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy (BT). Sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of the follow-up period, the survival length and patient's age were performed. Advised radiotherapy was calculated based on broad treatment categories as reported at MDT meetings. The overall AUP of 37% (39% including BT) was lower than the OUP of 53%, but in line with advised radiotherapy (35%). Large variations by tumour type were observed: in some tumours (e.g. lung and prostate cancer) AUP was considerably lower than OUP, whereas in others there was reasonable concordance (e.g. breast and rectal cancer). Overall, 84% of treatments started within 9 months following diagnosis. Survival time influenced AUP in a cancer type-dependent way. Elderly patients received less radiotherapy. Although the actually delivered radiotherapy in Belgium aligns well to MDT advices, it is lower than the evidence-based optimum. Further analysis of potential barriers is needed for radiotherapy forecasting and planning, and in order to promote adequate access to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiotherapy in the treatment of solitary plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Jyothirmayi, R; Gangadharan, V P; Nair, M K; Rajan, B

    1997-05-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) are rare. High local control rates are reported with radiotherapy, although the optimal dose and extent of radiotherapy portals remains controversial. Between 1983 and 1993, 30 patients with solitary plasmacytoma were seen at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India. 23 patients had SPB and seven EMP. The mean age was 52 years and the male to female ratio 3.2:1. Diagnosis of SPB was confirmed by biopsy in 16 patients and tumour excision in seven. 20 patients received megavoltage radiotherapy to the bone lesion with limited margins, and one received chemotherapy. Two patients who underwent complete tumour excision received no further treatment. All seven patients with EMP received megavoltage radiotherapy, four following biopsy and three after tumour excision. Local control was achieved in all patients with SPB. Nine progressed to multiple myeloma and one developed a solitary plasmacytoma in another bone. Six patients with EMP achieved local control. Three later progressed to multiple myeloma and one had local relapse. Median time to relapse was 28 months in SPB and 30 months in EMP. 5-year overall survival rates were 82% and 57% for patients with SPB and EMP, respectively. The corresponding progression free survival rates were 55% and 50%, respectively. Age, sex, site of tumour, serum M protein and haemoglobin levels did not significantly influence progression free survival. The extent of surgery, radiotherapy dose or time to relapse were not significant prognostic factors. Radiotherapy appears to be an effective modality of treatment of solitary plasmacytoma. No dose-response relationship is observed, and high local control rates are achieved with limited portals. Progression to multiple myeloma is the commonest pattern of failure, although no prognostic factors for progression are identified. The role of chemotherapy in preventing disease progression needs further evaluation.

  2. Relationship between radiotherapy and gastroesophageal reflux disease in causing tracheoesophageal voice rehabilitation failure.

    PubMed

    Cocuzza, Salvatore; Bonfiglio, Marco; Chiaramonte, Rita; Serra, Agostino

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to analyze the association of radiotherapy with gastroesophageal reflux as determinant of fistula related pathology, in voice prosthesis patients. Retrospective study. Sixty-one laryngectomy patients were enrolled between 2005 and 2012. All patients underwent phonatory rehabilitation with voice prosthesis, along with evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, for which proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) were prescribed. We analyzed the occurrence of fistula-related problems among patients who received postoperative radiotherapy and those patients who did not. We observed a higher rate of failure of speech rehabilitation in laryngectomy patients with gastroesphageal reflux: this occurred when they had a history of postoperative radiotherapy (45%) compared with patients who did not (17%) (P < 0.05), although all patients were treated with PPIs. Our results seem to confirm the importance of postoperative radiotherapy with gastroesophageal reflux for the determinism of fistula-related problems. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dosimetry audit of radiotherapy treatment planning systems.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Chełmiński, Krzysztof; Rostkowska, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    In radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) various calculation algorithms are used. The accuracy of dose calculations has to be verified. Numerous phantom types, detectors and measurement methodologies are proposed to verify the TPS calculations with dosimetric measurements. A heterogeneous slab phantom has been designed within a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) of the IAEA. The heterogeneous phantom was developed in the frame of the IAEA CRP. The phantom consists of frame slabs made with polystyrene and exchangeable inhomogeneity slabs equivalent to bone or lung tissue. Special inserts allow to position thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) capsules within the polystyrene slabs below the bone or lung equivalent slabs and also within the lung equivalent material. Additionally, there are inserts that allow to position films or ionisation chamber in the phantom. Ten Polish radiotherapy centres (of 30 in total) were audited during on-site visits. Six different TPSs and five calculation algorithms were examined in the presence of inhomogeneities. Generally, most of the results from TLD were within 5 % tolerance. Differences between doses calculated by TPSs and measured with TLD did not exceed 4 % for bone and polystyrene equivalent materials. Under the lung equivalent material, on the beam axis the differences were lower than 5 %, whereas inside the lung equivalent material, off the beam axis, in some cases they were of around 7 %. The TLD results were confirmed with the ionisation chamber measurements. The comparison results of the calculations and the measurements allow to detect limitations of TPS calculation algorithms. The audits performed with the use of heterogeneous phantom and TLD seem to be an effective tool for detecting the limitations in the TPS performance or beam configuration errors at audited radiotherapy departments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Abdominal Free Flap and Adjuvant Radiotherapy: Evaluation of Quality of Life and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pont, Luis Parra; Marcelli, Stefano; Robustillo, Manuel; Song, Dajiang; Grandes, Daniel; Martin, Marcos; Iglesias, Israel; Aso, Jorge; Laloumet, Iñaki; Díaz, Antonio J

    2017-10-01

    The effects of postoperative radiotherapy on free flap-based breast reconstruction are still controversial. Poor outcomes, breast distortion, and fat necrosis have been traditionally documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether adjuvant radiotherapy affects the quality of life, satisfaction, and cosmetic result in patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction with autologous free flap. Between January of 2013 and December of 2016, 230 patients underwent mastectomy with immediate free flap reconstruction at the authors' institution. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they received postmastectomy radiotherapy. Quality of life measured with the BREAST-Q questionnaire, self-reported aesthetic outcomes, and general satisfaction were assessed and compared. Fat necrosis of the flap and its severity were also analyzed as the main surgical outcomes. Mean follow-up time after reconstruction was 23 months (range, 6 to 48 months). No significant difference in quality of life or satisfaction scores were found between patients that underwent postmastectomy radiotherapy and patients who did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy. There were no significant differences in rates of fat necrosis between the groups (11.1 percent versus 13.76 percent; p = 0.75). Postmastectomy radiotherapy in patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction with free flaps does not seem to affect quality of life, satisfaction with the outcome, or the cosmetic result as perceived by the patients. The potential need for postoperative radiotherapy should not hinder women from the benefits of autologous immediate breast reconstruction. Therapeutic, III.

  5. Analysis of regional radiotherapy dosimetry audit data and recommendations for future audits

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, A; Mzenda, B; Kearton, J; Wills, R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Regional interdepartmental dosimetry audits within the UK provide basic assurances of the dosimetric accuracy of radiotherapy treatments. Methods This work reviews several years of audit results from the South East Central audit group including megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) photons, electrons and iodine-125 seeds. Results Apart from some minor systematic errors that were resolved, the results of all audits have been within protocol tolerances, confirming the long-term stability and agreement of basic radiation dosimetric parameters between centres in the audit region. There is some evidence of improvement in radiation dosimetry with the adoption of newer codes of practice. Conclusion The value of current audit methods and the limitations of peer-to-peer auditing is discussed, particularly the influence of the audit schedule on the results obtained, where no “gold standard” exists. Recommendations are made for future audits, including an essential requirement to maintain the monitoring of basic fundamental dosimetry, such as MV photon and electron output, but audits must also be developed to include new treatment technologies such as image-guided radiotherapy and address the most common sources of error in radiotherapy. PMID:21159805

  6. Estimating the costs of intensity-modulated and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Yong, J H E; McGowan, T; Redmond-Misner, R; Beca, J; Warde, P; Gutierrez, E; Hoch, J S

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for many cancers, but up-to-date estimates of the costs of radiotherapy are lacking. In the present study, we estimated the unit costs of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (imrt) and 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-crt) in Ontario. An activity-based costing model was developed to estimate the costs of imrt and 3D-crt in prostate cancer. It included the costs of equipment, staff, and supporting infrastructure. The framework was subsequently adapted to estimate the costs of radiotherapy in breast cancer and head-and-neck cancer. We also tested various scenarios by varying the program maturity and the use of volumetric modulated arc therapy (vmat) alongside imrt. From the perspective of the health care system, treating prostate cancer with imrt and 3D-crt respectively cost $12,834 and $12,453 per patient. The cost of radiotherapy ranged from $5,270 to $14,155 and was sensitive to analytic perspective, radiation technique, and disease site. Cases of head-and-neck cancer were the most costly, being driven by treatment complexity and fractions per treatment. Although imrt was more costly than 3D-crt, its cost will likely decline over time as programs mature and vmat is incorporated. Our costing model can be modified to estimate the costs of 3D-crt and imrt for various disease sites and settings. The results demonstrate the important role of capital costs in studies of radiotherapy cost from a health system perspective, which our model can accommodate. In addition, our study established the need for future analyses of imrt cost to consider how vmat affects time consumption.

  7. The anal canal as a risk organ in cervical cancer patients with hemorrhoids undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunsoo; Baek, Jong Geun; Jo, Sunmi

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance of the anal canal tends to be ignored in patients with cervical cancer undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy. However, patients with hemorrhoids may be troubled with low radiation dose. We tried to analyze the dose-volume statistics of the anal canal in patients undergoing whole pelvic radiotherapy. The records of 31 patients with cervical cancer who received definite or postoperative radiotherapy at one institution were reviewed. Acute anal symptoms, such as anal pain and bleeding, were evaluated from radiotherapy start to 1 month after radiotherapy completion. Various clinical and dosimetric factors were analyzed to characterize relations with acute anal complications. The anal verge was located an average of 1.2 cm (range -0.6~3.9) below the lower border of the ischial tuberosity and an average of 2.7 cm (range -0.6~5.7) behind the sacral promontory level. The presence of hemorrhoids before radiotherapy was found to be significantly associated with acute radiation-induced anal symptoms (p = 0.001), and the mean induction dose for anal symptoms was 36.9 Gy. No patient without hemorrhoids developed an anal symptom during radiotherapy. Dosimetric analyses of V30 and V40 showed marginal correlations with anal symptoms (p = 0.07). The present study suggests a relation between acute anal symptoms following radiotherapy and acute hemorrhoid aggravation. Furthermore, the location of the anal verge was found to be variable, and consequently doses administered to the anal canal also varied substantially. Our results caution careful radiation treatment planning for whole pelvic radiotherapy, and that proper clinical management be afforded patients with hemorrhoids during radiotherapy.

  8. [Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

    2013-10-01

    Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of radiotherapy reporting in randomized controlled trials of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Soon, Yu Yang; Chen, Desiree; Tan, Teng Hwee; Tey, Jeremy

    2018-06-07

    Good radiotherapy reporting in clinical trials of prostate radiotherapy is important because it will allow accurate reproducibility of radiotherapy treatment and minimize treatment variations that can affect patient outcomes. The aim of our study is to assess the quality of prostate radiotherapy (RT) treatment reporting in randomized controlled trials in prostate cancer. We searched MEDLINE for randomized trials of prostate cancer, published from 1996 to 2016 and included prostate RT as one of the intervention arms. We assessed if the investigators reported the ten criteria adequately in the trial reports: RT dose prescription method; RT dose-planning procedures; organs at risk (OAR) dose constraints; target volume definition, simulation procedures; treatment verification procedures; total RT dose; fractionation schedule; conduct of quality assurance (QA) as well as presence or absence of deviations in RT treatment planning and delivery. We performed multivariate logistic regression to determine the factors that may influence the quality of reporting. We found 59 eligible trials. There was significant variability in the quality of reporting. Target volume definition, total RT dose and fractionation schedule were reported adequately in 97% of included trials. OAR constraints, simulation procedures and presence or absence of deviations in RT treatment planning and delivery were reported adequately in 30% of included trials. Twenty-four trials (40%) reported seven criteria or more adequately. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that trials that published their quality assurance results and cooperative group trials were more likely to have adequate quality in reporting in at least seven criteria. There is significant variability in the quality of reporting on prostate radiotherapy treatment in randomized trials of prostate cancer. We need to have consensus guidelines to standardize the reporting of radiotherapy treatment in randomized trials.

  10. Pelvic radiotherapy in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis: Refining the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Felefly, T; Mazeron, R; Huertas, A; Canova, C H; Maroun, P; Kordahi, M; Morice, P; Deutsch, É; Haie-Méder, C; Chargari, C

    2017-04-01

    Conflicting results concerning the toxicity of radiotherapy in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis were reported in literature. This work describes the toxicity profiles of patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing pelvic radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancies at our institution. Charts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who underwent pelvic radiotherapy for cervical or endometrial cancer in a curative intent at the Gustave-Roussy Cancer Campus between 1990 and 2015 were reviewed for treatment-related toxicities. Acute and late effects were graded as per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 scoring system. Eight patients with cervical cancer and three with endometrial cancer were identified. Median follow-up was 56 months. Median external beam radiotherapy dose was 45Gy. All patients received a brachytherapy boost using either pulse- or low-dose rate technique. Concomitant chemotherapy was used in seven cases. Median time from rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis to external beam radiation therapy was 5 years. No severe acute gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity was reported. One patient had grade 3 dermatitis. Any late toxicity occurred in 7 /11 patients, and one patient experienced severe late toxicities. One patient with overt systemic rheumatoid arthritis symptoms at the time of external beam radiation therapy experienced late grade 3 ureteral stenosis, enterocolitis and lumbar myelitis. Pelvic radiotherapy, in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis, appears to be feasible, with potentially slight increase in low grade late events compared to other anatomic sites. Patients with overt systemic rheumatoid arthritis manifestation at the time of radiotherapy might be at risk of potential severe toxicities. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Advances in Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Sameer K.; Simpson, Daniel R.; Rose, Brent S.; Sandhu, Ajay P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy has a well-established role in the management of head and neck cancers. Over the past decade, a variety of new imaging modalities have been incorporated into the radiotherapy planning and delivery process. These technologies are collectively referred to as image-guided radiotherapy and may lead to significant gains in tumor control and radiation side effect profiles. In the following review, these techniques as they are applied to head and neck cancer patients are described, and clinical studies analyzing their use in target delineation, patient positioning, and adaptive radiotherapy are highlighted. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of potential areas of further radiotherapy advancement. PMID:19644564

  12. Low-Dose Palliative Radiotherapy for Cutaneous B- and T-Cell Lymphomas

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Neelis, Karen J.; Schimmel, Erik C.; Vermeer, Maarten H.

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of low-dose palliative radiotherapy for both low-grade malignant cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCLs) and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (mycosis fungoides). Methods and Materials: A total of 18 patients with low-grade CBCL (10 primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell and 8 primary cutaneous follicle center lymphomas) with 44 symptomatic plaques and tumors underwent low-dose (4 Gy in two fractions) local radiotherapy. A total of 31 patients with mycosis fungoides were treated at 82 symptomatic sites, initially with 4 Gy and later with 8 Gy in two fractions. Results: The complete response rate for CBCL lesions was 72%. Of themore » 44 B-cell lymphoma lesions, 13 were re-treated to the same site after a median of 6.3 months because of persistent (n = 8) or recurrent (n = 5) symptomatic disease. Of the mycosis fungoides patients treated with 4 Gy in two fractions (17 lesions), 70% failed to respond. Increasing the dose to 8 Gy in two fractions yielded a complete response rate of 92% (60 of 65 lesions). The patients in whom low-dose radiotherapy failed were retreated with 20 Gy in eight fractions. Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that low-dose involved-field radiotherapy induces a high response rate in both CBCL and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma lesions without any toxicity. Therefore, this treatment is now our standard palliative treatment. At progression, it is safe and feasible to apply greater radiation doses.« less

  13. A Kindler syndrome-associated squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Ademar; Trinca, William Correia; Flores, Thais Pires; Costa, Andrea Barleze; Brito, Claudio de Sá; Weigert, Karen Loureiro; Matos, Maryana Schwartzhaupt; Nicolini, Carmela; Obst, Fernando Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Kindler syndrome1, 2 is a genetic disorder mainly characterized by increased skin fragility and photosensitivity,3, 4 making the use of treatments based on radiation difficult or even prohibited. Thus, cases reporting Kindler syndrome patients treated with radiotherapy are rare. In this study, we report clinical outcomes and care provided for a rare case of a Kindler syndrome patient submitted to radiotherapy. Diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma involving the buccal mucosa, the patient was exclusively treated with radiotherapy, with 70 Gy delivered on the PTV with the Volumetric Modulated Arc technique. The patient's reaction regarding control of the lesion is relevant compared to patients not affected by the syndrome. We noticed acute reactions of the skin and buccal mucosa after few radiotherapy sessions, followed by a fast reduction in the tumor volume. The efficacy of radiotherapy along with multidisciplinary actions allowed treatment continuity, leading to a complete control of the lesion and life quality improvement and showed that the use of radiotherapy on Kindler syndrome patients is possible.

  14. Treatment of unicentric and multicentric Castleman disease and the role of radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chronowski, G M; Ha, C S; Wilder, R B; Cabanillas, F; Manning, J; Cox, J D

    2001-08-01

    Although surgery is considered standard therapy for unicentric Castleman disease, favorable responses to radiotherapy also have been documented. The authors undertook this study to analyze the clinical factors, treatment approaches, and outcomes of patients with unicentric or multicentric Castleman disease, and to report the outcomes of patients with unicentric Castleman disease treated with radiotherapy. The authors reviewed the medical records of 22 patients who had received a histologic diagnosis of Castleman disease at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1988 and 1999. One patient with a concurrent histopathologic diagnosis of nonsecretory multiple myeloma was excluded from the study. In all patients, the diagnosis of Castleman disease was based on the results of lymph node biopsies. Disease was categorized as being either unicentric or multicentric and further subdivided into hyaline vascular, plasma cell, or mixed variant histologic types. Clinical variables and outcomes were analyzed according to treatment, which consisted of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Records from 21 patients were analyzed: 12 had unicentric disease, and 9 had multicentric disease. The mean follow-up time for the entire series was 51 months (median, 40 months). Four patients with unicentric disease were treated with radiotherapy alone: 2 remain alive and symptom free, 2 died of causes unrelated to Castleman disease and had no evidence of disease at last follow-up. Eight patients with unicentric disease were treated with complete or partial surgical resection, and all are alive and asymptomatic. All nine patients with multicentric disease were treated with combination chemotherapy: five are alive with no evidence of disease, and four are alive with progressive disease. Surgery results in excellent rates of cure in patients with unicentric Castleman disease; radiotherapy can also achieve clinical response and cure in selected patients. Multicentric

  15. Investment in radiotherapy infrastructure positively affected the economic status of an oncology hospital.

    PubMed

    Smigielska, Mirella; Milecki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy is among the most efficient treatment methods of cancer. However, a radiotherapy base needs a substantial financial investment, especially before the beginning of its operation, and in some cases, in developing countries such a huge investment may cause some financial disturbances for a hospital concerned. To assess the influence of investments modernizing the radiotherapy base in the period between 2000 and 2007 on the financial condition of the oncology hospital in the region with population of about 3 million. Financial reports and medical statistics for the period between 2000 and 2007 from the studied oncology hospital and a recognized staffing model, as well as data on epidemiological situation of the region have been used to calculate the economic effects of financial investment in the radiotherapy base. The growth of RT therapeutic potential has been driven by two cost-effective investment programmes. The total amount invested in both programmes was PLN 127,191,000. The number of radiotherapy patients treated in the hospital increased from 2301 in 2000 to 4799 in 2007 with a the same number of five therapeutic machines, although all five of them were replaced over that period. Investments modernizing the radiotherapy base lead to a significant increase in depreciation and operating costs, which adversely affects financial results of the hospital. Long term trends showed that investments had positive influence on hospital performance shown both in increased income and larger number of patients treated.

  16. Radiobiological concepts for treatment planning of schemes that combines external beam radiotherapy and systemic targeted radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabián Calderón Marín, Carlos; González González, Joaquín Jorge; Laguardia, Rodolfo Alfonso

    2017-09-01

    The combination of radiotherapy modalities with external bundles and systemic radiotherapy (CIERT) could be a reliable alternative for patients with multiple lesions or those where treatment planning maybe difficult because organ(s)-at-risk (OARs) constraints. Radiobiological models should have the capacity for predicting the biological irradiation response considering the differences in the temporal pattern of dose delivering in both modalities. Two CIERT scenarios were studied: sequential combination in which one modality is executed following the other one and concurrent combination when both modalities are running simultaneously. Expressions are provided for calculation of the dose-response magnitudes Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP). General results on radiobiological modeling using the linear-quadratic (LQ) model are also discussed. Inter-subject variation of radiosensitivity and volume irradiation effect in CIERT are studied. OARs should be under control during the planning in concurrent CIERT treatment as the administered activity is increased. The formulation presented here may be used for biological evaluation of prescriptions and biological treatment planning of CIERT schemes in clinical situation.

  17. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Svartberg, Johan; Department of Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromso

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone bindingmore » globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.« less

  18. Postoperative Radiotherapy Patterns of Care and Survival Implications for Medulloblastoma in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Kann, Benjamin H; Park, Henry S; Lester-Coll, Nataniel H; Yeboa, Debra N; Benitez, Viviana; Khan, Atif J; Bindra, Ranjit S; Marks, Asher M; Roberts, Kenneth B

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative radiotherapy to the craniospinal axis is standard-of-care for pediatric medulloblastoma but is associated with long-term morbidity, particularly in young children. With the advent of modern adjuvant chemotherapy strategies, postoperative radiotherapy deferral has gained acceptance in children younger than 3 years, although it remains controversial in older children. To analyze recent postoperative radiotherapy national treatment patterns and implications for overall survival in patients with medulloblastoma ages 3 to 8 years. Using the National Cancer Data Base, patients ages 3 to 8 years diagnosed as having histologically confirmed medulloblastoma in 2004 to 2012, without distant metastases, who underwent surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy with or without postoperative radiotherapy at facilities nationwide accredited by the Commission on Cancer were identified. Patients were designated as having "postoperative radiotherapy upfront" if they received radiotherapy within 90 days of surgery or "postoperative radiotherapy deferred" otherwise. Factors associated with postoperative radiotherapy deferral were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Overall survival (OS) was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests and multivariable Cox regression. Statistical tests were 2-sided. Postoperative radiotherapy utilization and overall survival. Among 816 patients, 123 (15.1%) had postoperative radiotherapy deferred, and 693 (84.9%) had postoperative radiotherapy upfront; 36.8% of 3-year-olds and 4.1% of 8-year-olds had postoperative radiotherapy deferred (P < .001). On multivariable logistic regression, variables associated with postoperative radiotherapy deferral were age (odds ratio [OR], 0.57 per year; 95% CI, 0.49-0.67 per year) and year of diagnosis (OR, 1.18 per year; 95% CI, 1.08-1.29 per year). On survival analysis, with median follow-up of 4.8 years, OS was improved for those receiving postoperative radiotherapy upfront vs

  19. Quality of life after whole brain radiotherapy compared with radiosurgery of the tumor bed: results from a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kepka, L; Tyc-Szczepaniak, D; Osowiecka, K; Sprawka, A; Trąbska-Kluch, B; Czeremszynska, B

    2018-02-01

    A recent randomized trial (NCT01535209) demonstrated no difference in neurocognitive function between stereotactic radiotherapy of the tumor bed (SRT-TB) and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in patients with resected single brain metastasis. Patients treated with SRT-TB had lower overall survival compared with the WBRT arm. Here, we compared the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients who received WBRT vs. SRT-TB. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL (EORTC QLQ-C30 with the QLQ-BN20 module) before RT, 2 months after RT, and every 3 months thereafter. HRQOL results are presented as mean scores and compared between groups. Of 59 randomized patients, 37 (64%) were eligible for HRQOL analysis, 15 received SRT-TB, and 22 had WBRT. There were no differences between groups in global health status and main function scales/symptoms (except for drowsiness and appetite loss, which were worse with WBRT 2 months after RT). Global health status decreased 2 and 5 months after RT, but significantly only for SRT-TB (p = 0.025). Physical function decreased significantly 5 months after SRT-TB (p = 0.008). Future uncertainty worsened after RT, but significantly only for SRT-TB after 2 months (p = 0.036). Patients treated with WBRT had significant worsening of appetite, hair loss, and drowsiness after treatment. Despite higher symptom burden after WBRT attributed to the side effects of RT (such as appetite loss, drowsiness, and hair loss), global health status, physical functioning, and future uncertainty favored WBRT compared with SRT-TB. This may be related to the compromised brain tumor control with omission of WBRT.

  20. Multimodality image integration for radiotherapy treatment: an easy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Andres; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel; Santos, Juan A.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Benito, Carlos; Garcia-Barreno, Rafael

    2001-05-01

    The interest of using combined MR and CT information for radiotherapy planning is well documented. However, many planning workstations do not allow to use MR images, nor import predefined contours. This paper presents a new simple approach for transferring segmentation results from MRI to a CT image that will be used for radiotherapy planning, using the same original CT format. CT and MRI images of the same anatomical area are registered using mutual information (MI) algorithm. Targets and organs at risk are segmented by the physician on the MR image, where their contours are easy to track. A locally developed software running on PC is used for this step, with several facilities for the segmentation process. The result is transferred onto the CT by slightly modifying up and down the original Hounsfield values of some points of the contour. This is enough to visualize the contour on the CT, but does not affect dose calculations. The CT is then stored using the original file format of the radiotherapy planning workstation, where the technician uses the segmented contour to design the correct beam positioning. The described method has been tested in five patients. Simulations and patient results show that the dose distribution is not affected by the small modification of pixels of the CT image, while the segmented structures can be tracked in the radiotherapy planning workstation-using adequate window/level settings. The presence of the physician is not requires at the planning workstation, and he/she can perform the segmentation process using his/her own PC. This new approach makes it possible to take advantage from the anatomical information present on the MRI and to transfer the segmentation to the CT used for planning, even when the planning workstation does not allow to import external contours. The physician can draw the limits of the target and areas at risk off-line, thus separating in time the segmentation and planning tasks and increasing the efficiency.

  1. Teff (Eragrostis tef) as a raw material for malting, brewing and manufacturing of gluten-free foods and beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Mekonnen Melaku; Zarnkow, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The demand for gluten-free foods is certainly increasing. Interest in teff has increased noticeably due to its very attractive nutritional profile and gluten-free nature of the grain, making it a suitable substitute for wheat and other cereals in their food applications as well as foods for people with celiac disease. The main objective of this article is to review researches on teff, evaluate its suitability for different food applications, and give direction for further research on its applications for health food market. Teff is a tropical low risk cereal that grows in a wider ecology and can tolerate harsh environmental conditions where most other cereals are less viable. It has an excellent balance of amino acid composition (including all 8 essential amino acids for humans) making it an excellent material for malting and brewing. Because of its small size, teff is made into whole-grain flour (bran and germ included), resulting in a very high fiber content and high nutrient content in general. Teff is useful to improve the haemoglobin level in human body and helps to prevent malaria, incidence of anaemia and diabetes. The nutrient composition of teff grain indicates that it has a good potential to be used in foods and beverages worldwide. The high levels of simple sugars and α-amino acids as a result of breakdown of starch and protein, respectively, are essential for fermentation and beer making.

  2. Equatorial Dynamics Observed by Rocket, Radar, and Satellite During the CADRE/MALTED Campaign. 1; Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    In August 1994, the Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Equatorial Dynamics (MALTED) Program was conducted from the Alcantara rocket site in northeastern Brazil as part of the International Guard Rocket Campaign to study equatorial dynamics, irregularities, and instabilities in the ionosphere. This site was selected because of its proximity to the geographic (2.3 deg S) and magnetic (approx. 0.5 deg S) equators. MALTED was concerned with planetary wave modulation of the diurnal tidal amplitude, which exhibits considerable amplitude variability at equatorial and subtropical latitudes. Our goals were to study this global modulation of the tidal motions where tidal influences on the thermal structure are maximum, to study the interaction of these tidal structures with gravity waves and turbulence at mesopause altitudes, and to gain a better understanding of dynamic influences and variability on the equatorial middle atmosphere. Four (two daytime and two nighttime) identical Nike-Orion payloads designed to investigate small-scale turbulence and irregularities were coordinated with 20 meteorological falling-sphere rockets designed to measure temperature and wind fields during a 10-day period. These in situ measurements were coordinated with observations of global-scale mesospheric motions that were provided by various ground based radars and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) through the Coupling and Dynamics of Regions Equatorial (CADRE) campaign. The ground-based observatories included the Jicamarca radar observatory near Lima, Peru, and medium frequency (MF) radars in Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Adelaide. Since all four Nike-Orion flights penetrated and overflew the electrojet with apogees near 125 km, these flights provided additional information about the electrodynamics and irregularities in the equatorial ionospheric E region and may provide information on wave coupling between the mesosphere and the electrojet. Simultaneous with these flights, the

  3. Equatorial dynamics observed by rocket, radar, and satellite during the CADRE/MALTED campaign 1. Programmatics and small-scale fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Lehmacher, Gerald A.; Schmidlin, Frank J.; Fritts, David C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Friedrich, M.; Swartz, W. E.

    1997-11-01

    In August 1994, the Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Equatorial Dynamics (MALTED) Program was conducted from the Alca‸ntara rocket site in northeastern Brazil as part of the International Guará Rocket Campaign to study equatorial dynamics, irregularities, and instabilities in the ionosphere. This site was selected because of its proximity to the geographic (2.3°S) and magnetic (~0.5°S) equators. MALTED was concerned with planetary wave modulation of the diurnal tidal amplitude, which exhibits considerable amplitude variability at equatorial and subtropical latitudes. Our goals were to study this global modulation of the tidal motions where tidal influences on the thermal structure are maximum, to study the interaction of these tidal structures with gravity waves and turbulence at mesopause altitudes, and to gain a better understanding of dynamic influences and variability on the equatorial middle atmosphere. Four (two daytime and two nighttime) identical Nike-Orion payloads designed to investigate small-scale turbulence and irregularities were coordinated with 20 meteorological falling-sphere rockets designed to measure temperature and wind fields during a 10-day period. These in situ measurements were coordinated with observations of global-scale mesospheric motions that were provided by various ground based radars and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) through the Coupling and Dynamics of Regions Equatorial (CADRE) campaign. The ground-based observatories included the Jicamarca radar observatory near Lima, Peru, and medium frequency (MF) radars in Hawaii, Christmas Island, and Adelaide. Since all four Nike-Orion flights penetrated and overflew the electrojet with apogees near 125 km, these flights provided additional information about the electrodynamics and irregularities in the equatorial ionospheric E region and may provide information on wave coupling between the mesosphere and the electrojet. Simultaneous with these flights, the CUPRI 50

  4. Radiotherapy in marginal zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) for early-stage nodal and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). Materials and methods Patients with stage I (n = 22) and stage II (n = 8) MZL, who were treated with RT were reviewed. The primary tumor localisation was in the orbita (n = 12), stomach (n = 8), head and neck other than the orbita (n = 8), breast (n = 1) and one case of marginal zone lymphoma of the skin (n = 1). The median radiotherapy dose was 40 Gy (5 to 45 Gy). Results The median follow-up time was 103 months. The 5-year overall survival and event-free survival rates were 85 ± 7% and 71 ± 9%, respectively. There was no infield recurrence. Recurrence occurred outside of the radiation field in six patients. The relapses were treated with salvage RT and had excellent local control (100%) at five years after salvage RT. Conclusions Localized extranodal MZL have an excellent prognosis following moderate-dose RT. RT is also an effective salvage therapy in cases of localized recurrence. Further clinical studies should evaluate the optimal dose for MZL. PMID:23281682

  5. History of the development of radiotherapy in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Pinillos, Luis; Pinto, Joseph A; Sarria, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy was the first nonsurgical treatment for malignant tumours and represents one of the oldest disciplines of oncology. In Latin America, as in many parts of the world, the history of modern oncology begins with the implementation of radiation therapy facilities. The development of radiotherapy in Latin America was possible thanks to the seminal work of radiation oncologists in different countries. As a large territory, there is a need to implement modern facilities and equipment, but unfortunately there are disparities in the access and quality of radiotherapy services across Latin America and even within individual countries. In this review, we describe the history, challenges and success in the implementation of radiotherapy and the frustration caused by the lack of facilities in several Latin American countries.

  6. A statistical study towards high-mass BGPS clumps with the MALT90 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Jin-Long; Ning, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we perform a statistical investigation towards 50 high-mass clumps using data from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) and Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90-GHz survey (MALT90). Eleven dense molecular lines (N2H+(1–0), HNC(1–0), HCO+(1–0), HCN(1–0), HN13C(1–0), H13CO+(1–0), C2H(1–0), HC3N(10–9), SiO(2–1), 13CS(2–1)and HNCO(44,0 ‑ 30,3)) are detected. N2H+ and HNC are shown to be good tracers for clumps in various evolutionary stages since they are detected in all the fields. The detection rates of N-bearing molecules decrease as the clumps evolve, but those of O-bearing species increase with evolution. Furthermore, the abundance ratios [N2H+]/[HCO+] and log([HC3N]/[HCO+]) decline with log([HCO+]) as two linear functions, respectively. This suggests that N2H+ and HC3N transform to HCO+ as the clumps evolve. We also find that C2H is the most abundant molecule with an order of magnitude 10‑8. In addition, three new infall candidates, G010.214–00.324, G011.121–00.128 and G012.215–00.118(a), are discovered to have large-scale infall motions and infall rates with an order of magnitude 10‑3 M ⊙ yr‑1.

  7. The use of strontium-90 Beta radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for conjunctival melanoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Victoria M L; Papastefanou, Vasilios P; Liu, S; Stoker, Ian; Hungerford, John L

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims. To report the safety and efficacy of strontium (Sr(90)) beta radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for conjunctival melanoma. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken from 1999 to 2007 of all patients who underwent Sr(90) beta radiotherapy for incompletely excised conjunctival melanoma. Failure of treatment was defined as recurrence of a conjunctival melanoma at the same location following beta radiotherapy. Results. Twenty patients underwent Sr(90) beta radiotherapy for incompletely excised conjunctival melanoma. Median follow-up interval was 59 months (8-152). All patients had conjunctival melanoma involving the bulbar conjunctiva. Underlying diagnoses included PAM with atypia in 60% (12 of 20), PAM without atypia in 15% (3 of 20), and de novo conjunctival melanoma in 25% (5 of 20). Following Sr(90) beta radiotherapy, in 90% (18 out of 20) local control was achieved and visual acuity was not affected in any patient. Three patients (15%) had dry eye symptoms, episcleritis, and descemetcoele, respectively. No cataract or secondary glaucoma was reported. Conclusions. Sr(90) treatment is a very effective adjuvant treatment after excisional biopsy and cryotherapy for conjunctival melanoma with a local success rate of 90%. The treatment is not associated with significant side effects and visual acuity is not affected.

  8. The Use of Strontium-90 Beta Radiotherapy as Adjuvant Treatment for Conjunctival Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Victoria M. L.; Papastefanou, Vasilios P.; Liu, S.; Stoker, Ian; Hungerford, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims. To report the safety and efficacy of strontium (Sr90) beta radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment for conjunctival melanoma. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken from 1999 to 2007 of all patients who underwent Sr90 beta radiotherapy for incompletely excised conjunctival melanoma. Failure of treatment was defined as recurrence of a conjunctival melanoma at the same location following beta radiotherapy. Results. Twenty patients underwent Sr90 beta radiotherapy for incompletely excised conjunctival melanoma. Median follow-up interval was 59 months (8–152). All patients had conjunctival melanoma involving the bulbar conjunctiva. Underlying diagnoses included PAM with atypia in 60% (12 of 20), PAM without atypia in 15% (3 of 20), and de novo conjunctival melanoma in 25% (5 of 20). Following Sr90 beta radiotherapy, in 90% (18 out of 20) local control was achieved and visual acuity was not affected in any patient. Three patients (15%) had dry eye symptoms, episcleritis, and descemetcoele, respectively. No cataract or secondary glaucoma was reported. Conclusions. Sr90 treatment is a very effective adjuvant treatment after excisional biopsy and cryotherapy for conjunctival melanoma with a local success rate of 90%. The treatment is not associated with significant side effects and visual acuity is not affected. PMID:23431299

  9. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Borenstein, A.; Seidman, D.S.; Trau, H.

    1991-04-01

    A 36-year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC). Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years. This case emphasizes the typical slow development of (MAC). The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.

  10. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in head and neck cancers - an overview.

    PubMed

    Nutting, C M

    2012-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is effective in head and neck cancers. Following RT, dryness and dysphagia are the 2 major sequelae which alter the quality of life (QOL) significantly in these patients. There is randomized evidence that Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) effectively spares the parotid glands. IMRT has been attempted in all head and neck subsites with encouraging results (discussed below). Role of IMRT in swallowing structure (constrictor muscles) sparing is less clear.Further improvement in results may be possible by using functional imaging at the time of RT planning and by image guidance/verification at the time of treatment delivery. The following text discusses these issues in detail. Head and neck cancer, IMRT.

  11. The 1998 Australian external beam radiotherapy survey and IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audit.

    PubMed

    Huntley, R; Izewska, J

    2000-03-01

    The results of an updated Australian survey of external beam radiotherapy centres are presented. Most of the centres provided most of the requested information. The relative caseloads of various linear accelerator photon and electron beams have not changed significantly since the previous survey in 1995. The mean age of Australian LINACs is 7.1 years and that of other radiotherapy machines is 14.7 years. Every Australian radiotherapy centre participated in a special run of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose quality audit program, which was provided for Australian centres by the IAEA and WHO in May 1998. The dose quoted by the centres was in nearly every case within 1.5% of the dose assessed by the IAEA. This is within the combined standard uncertainty of the IAEA TLD service (1.8%). The results confirm the accuracy and precision of radiotherapy dosimetry in Australia and the adequate dissemination of the Australian standards from ARL (now ARPANSA) to the centres. The Australian standards have recently been shown to agree with those of other countries to within 0.25% by comparison with the BIPM.

  12. Limited Chemotherapy and Shrinking Field Radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (Primary Bone Lymphoma): Results From the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 Prospective Trial;Bone; Lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Christie, David, E-mail: david.christie@premion.com.au; Dear, Keith; Le, Thai

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). Methods and Materials: In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking fieldmore » technique. Results: The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Conclusions: Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen.« less

  13. Intermediate-term results of image-guided brachytherapy and high-technology external beam radiotherapy in cervical cancer: Chiang Mai University experience.

    PubMed

    Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Wanwilairat, Somsak; Tippanya, Damrongsak; Nobnop, Wannapha; Pukanhaphan, Nantaka; Galalae, Razvan M; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of image-guided brachytherapy combined with 3D conformal or intensity modulated external beam radiotherapy (3D CRT/IMRT) in cervical cancer at Chiang Mai University. From 2008 to 2011, forty-seven patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were enrolled in this study. All patients received high-technology (3D CRT/IMRT) whole pelvic radiotherapy with a total dose of 45-46 Gy plus image-guided High-Dose-Rate intracavitary brachytherapy 6.5-7 Gy × 4 fractions to a High-Risk Clinical Target Volume (HR-CTV) according to GEC-ESTRO recommendations. The dose parameters of the HR-CTV for bladder, rectum and sigmoid colon were recorded, as well as toxicity profiles. In addition, the endpoints for local control, disease-free, metastasis-free survival and overall survival were calculated. At the median follow-up time of 26 months, the local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 97.9%, 85.1%, and 93.6%, respectively. The mean dose of HR-CTV, bladder, rectum and sigmoid were 93.1, 88.2, 69.6, and 72 Gy, respectively. In terms of late toxicity, the incidence of grade 3-4 bladder and rectum morbidity was 2.1% and 2.1%, respectively. A combination of image-guided brachytherapy and IMRT/3D CRT showed very promising results of local control, disease-free survival, metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates. It also caused a low incidence of grade 3-4 toxicity in treated study patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of olfactory threshold in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mir Mohammad; Gerami, Hooshang; Rahimi, Abbas; Jafari, Manizheh

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment modality for patients with head and neck malignancies. As the nose lies within the field of radiotherapy of the head and neck, the olfactory fibers and olfactory receptors may be affected by radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in olfactory threshold in patients with head and neck malignancies who have received radiation to the head and neck. The olfactory threshold of patients with head and neck malignancies was assessed prospectively before radiation therapy and serially for up to 6 months after radiotherapy using sniff bottles. In vivo dosimetry was performed using 82 LiF (MCP) chips and a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. Sixty-one patients were recruited before radiotherapy was commenced. Seven patients did not return for evaluation after radiation. Fifty-four patients were available for follow-up assessment (28 women, 26 men; age, 22-86 years; median, 49 years). Total radiation dose was 50.1 Gy (range, 30-66 Gy). Mean olfactory threshold scores were found to deteriorate significantly at various timepoints after radiotherapy (11.7 before radiotherapy versus 4.0 at Month 6, general linear model, P<0.0001). With in vivo dosimetry, we found that the median measured dose to the olfactory area was 334 µC. We also identified a cutoff point according to the dose to the olfactory epithelium. Olfactory threshold was significantly decreased 2-6 weeks after initiation of therapy, with cumulative local radiation >135 µC (Mann-Whitney U test, P=0.01). Deterioration in olfactory threshold scores was found at 6 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Provided that these results are reproducible, an evaluation of olfactory functioning in patients with head and neck malignancies using in vivo dosimetry may be useful for determining the optimal dose for patients treated with conformal radiotherapy techniques while avoiding the side effects of radiation.

  15. Evaluation of Radiation-induced Class V Dental Caries in Patients with Head and Neck Cancers Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narmin; Seyednejad, Farshad; Oskoee, Parnian Alizadeh; Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2008-01-01

    Salivary glands are very susceptible to radiation and any disturbances in their function are detrimental to the hard tissues in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate posterior class V dental caries in patients with head and neck cancers undergoing radiotherapy. In this study, twenty seven patients undergoing conventional radiotherapy were included. Class V dental caries of posterior teeth in these patients were evaluated in three intervals: before treatment, 3 weeks after the initiation of the treatment, and at the end of the treatment. Differences of mean caries activity between intervals were evaluated using paired sample t-test. There were no class V decays prior to radiotherapy. Mean percentage of class V caries three weeks after radiotherapy and at the end of radiotherapy were 28.42% ± 14.41 and 67.05% ± 19.02, respectively. There were statistically signifi-cant differences in mean values among three stages (P = 0.00025). The results of the present study re-vealed that radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancers causes class V dental caries on posteri-or teeth.

  16. Radiotherapy for breast cancer: The predictable consequences of an unmet need.

    PubMed

    Rodin, Danielle; Knaul, Felicia M; Lui, Tracey Y; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2016-10-01

    Radiotherapy has had a transformative impact on the treatment of breast cancer, but is unavailable to the majority of breast cancer patients in low- and middle-income countries. In these settings, where many women present with advanced disease at an age when they are often the primary caregiver for their families, the lack of access to radiotherapy is particularly devastating. Until recently, this disparity has been largely neglected in the medical literature and it had been difficult to convince governments, industry, and policymakers of the importance of investing in radiotherapy, as well as broader cancer control strategies, in low-resource settings. The Lancet Radiotherapy Commission report published in 2015 challenged many assumptions about the affordability of radiotherapy treatment. Data from the Commission is presented here to support radiotherapy investment for breast cancer and discuss how the morbidity and premature mortality among adult women caused by breast cancer has a huge detrimental effect on both the health sector and the economy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Dental needs in Brazilian patients subjected to head and neck radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Ana Carolina de Mesquita Netto; Esteves, Sérgio Carlos Barros; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Márcio Ajudarte

    2009-01-01

    In spite of its recognized benefits in the treatment of malignant tumors, radiation therapy have several side effects in the head and neck region. The evaluation of oral conditions by a dentist is important to prevent or minimize these problems. The aim of this retrospective review was to analyze the dental needs in 357 patients who received radiotherapy in the head and neck region and were treated at Orocentro/FOP/UNICAMP, between January 1990 and December 2004. Review of patient files showed that dental examination before radiotherapy was not performed in 148 patients (41.5%) and was done in 209 patients (58.5%). From the total of examined patients, 94 (45%) did not require dental procedures at the moment of examination, while 115 (55%) presented some sort of dental need. Following the patients after the radiotherapy, it was observed that the group of patients that was evaluated before radiation presented less need of restorations, root canal filling and dental extractions than those who were not evaluated. The results of this study confirm that the evaluation of oral conditions prior to radiotherapy is essential to minimize the dental needs, emphasizing the importance of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team that treats cancer patients.

  18. Dosimetry audit simulation of treatment planning system in multicenters radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmuri, S.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Treatment Planning System (TPS) is an important modality that determines radiotherapy outcome. TPS requires input data obtained through commissioning and the potentially error occurred. Error in this stage may result in the systematic error. The aim of this study to verify the TPS dosimetry to know deviation range between calculated and measurement dose. This study used CIRS phantom 002LFC representing the human thorax and simulated all external beam radiotherapy stages. The phantom was scanned using CT Scanner and planned 8 test cases that were similar to those in clinical practice situation were made, tested in four radiotherapy centers. Dose measurement using 0.6 cc ionization chamber. The results of this study showed that generally, deviation of all test cases in four centers was within agreement criteria with average deviation about -0.17±1.59 %, -1.64±1.92 %, 0.34±1.34 % and 0.13±1.81 %. The conclusion of this study was all TPS involved in this study showed good performance. The superposition algorithm showed rather poor performance than either analytic anisotropic algorithm (AAA) and convolution algorithm with average deviation about -1.64±1.92 %, -0.17±1.59 % and -0.27±1.51 % respectively.

  19. Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid following radiotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rowe, L.D.; Lane, R.; Snow, J.B. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus is rare, representing only 4 to 8% of malignancies of the paranasal sinuses. An extraordinary case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus arising 30 years following high-dose radiotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma is presented. Second fatal mesenchymal and epithelial primaries have been described in 8.5% of patients with bilateral retinoblastomas previously treated with radiotherapy; however, papillary adenocarcinoma arising within the paranasal sinuses has not been reported. Aggressive treatment including partial maxillectomy, radical pansinusectomy, radical neck dissection followed by regional radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy failed to prevent the development of fatal hepatic metastases. The high incidencemore » of second fatal primary neoplasms in patients with bilateral retinoblastomas receiving radiation suggests an innate susceptibility that may add to the risk of radiotherapy.« less

  20. Redesigning Radiotherapy Quality Assurance: Opportunities to Develop an Efficient, Evidence-Based System to Support Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Bekelman, Justin E.; Deye, James A.; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Bentzen, Soren M.; Bruner, Deborah; Curran, Walter J.; Dignam, James; Efstathiou, Jason A.; FitzGerald, T. J.; Hurkmans, Coen; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Lee, J. Jack; Merchant, Timothy E.; Michalski, Jeff; Palta, Jatinder R.; Simon, Richard; Ten Haken, Randal K.; Timmerman, Robert; Tunis, Sean; Coleman, C. Norman; Purdy, James

    2012-01-01

    Background In the context of national calls for reorganizing cancer clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a two day workshop to examine the challenges and opportunities for optimizing radiotherapy quality assurance (QA) in clinical trial design. Methods Participants reviewed the current processes of clinical trial QA and noted the QA challenges presented by advanced technologies. Lessons learned from the radiotherapy QA programs of recent trials were discussed in detail. Four potential opportunities for optimizing radiotherapy QA were explored, including the use of normal tissue toxicity and tumor control metrics, biomarkers of radiation toxicity, new radiotherapy modalities like proton beam therapy, and the international harmonization of clinical trial QA. Results Four recommendations were made: 1) Develop a tiered (and more efficient) system for radiotherapy QA and tailor intensity of QA to clinical trial objectives. Tiers include (i) general credentialing, (ii) trial specific credentialing, and (iii) individual case review; 2) Establish a case QA repository; 3) Develop an evidence base for clinical trial QA and introduce innovative prospective trial designs to evaluate radiotherapy QA in clinical trials; and 4) Explore the feasibility of consolidating clinical trial QA in the United States. Conclusion Radiotherapy QA may impact clinical trial accrual, cost, outcomes and generalizability. To achieve maximum benefit, QA programs must become more efficient and evidence-based. PMID:22425219

  1. Impact of involved field radiotherapy in partial response after doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moser, Elizabeth C.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Carde, Patrice

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Whether salvage therapy in patients with advanced aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in partial remission (PR) should consist of radiotherapy or autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is debatable. We evaluated the impact of radiotherapy on outcome in PR patients treated in four successive European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trials for aggressive NHL. Patients and Methods: Records of 974 patients (1980-1999) were reviewed regarding initial response, final outcome, and type and timing of salvage treatment. After 8 cycles of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, 227 NHL patients were in PR and treated: 114 received involved field radiotherapy, 16 ASCT, 93 second-line chemotherapy,more » and 4 were operated. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after radiotherapy were estimated (Kaplan-Meier method) and compared with other treatments (log-rank). Impact on survival was evaluated by multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). Results: The median PFS in PR patients was 4.2 years and 48% remained progression-free at 5 years. Half of the PR patients converted to a complete remission. After conversion, survival was comparable to patients directly in complete remission. Radiotherapy resulted in better OS and PFS compared with other treatments, especially in patients with low to intermediate International Prognostic Index score, bulky disease, or nodal disease only. Correction by multivariate analysis for prognostic factors such as stage, bulky disease, and number of extranodal locations showed that radiotherapy was clearly the most significant factor affecting both OS and PFS. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis demonstrates that radiotherapy can be effective for patients in PR after fully dosed chemotherapy; assessment in a randomized trial (radiotherapy vs. ASCT) is justified.« less

  2. Theory, simulation and experiments for precise deflection control of radiotherapy electron beams.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, R; Leiva, J; Moncada, R; Rojas, L; Santibáñez, M; Valente, M; Velásquez, J; Young, H; Zelada, G; Yáñez, R; Guillen, Y

    2018-03-08

    Conventional radiotherapy is mainly applied by linear accelerators. Although linear accelerators provide dual (electron/photon) radiation beam modalities, both of them are intrinsically produced by a megavoltage electron current. Modern radiotherapy treatment techniques are based on suitable devices inserted or attached to conventional linear accelerators. Thus, precise control of delivered beam becomes a main key issue. This work presents an integral description of electron beam deflection control as required for novel radiotherapy technique based on convergent photon beam production. Theoretical and Monte Carlo approaches were initially used for designing and optimizing device´s components. Then, dedicated instrumentation was developed for experimental verification of electron beam deflection due to the designed magnets. Both Monte Carlo simulations and experimental results support the reliability of electrodynamics models used to predict megavoltage electron beam control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical evaluation of radiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer after metallic stent placement

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You-Tao; Yang, Guang; Liu, Yan; Shen, Bao-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer after expandable metallic stent placement. METHODS: Ten cases of advanced esophageal cancer were evaluated, 7 having complete obstruction and 3 with digestive-respiratory fistula. Ten nitinol stents were placed at the site of stenosis. Patients were treated with a total dose of 1200 cGy divided into 3 fractions of 400 cGy 4-7 d after stents placement. RESULTS: All the 10 stents were placed successfully at one time. After radiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer, the survival period of the cases ranged from 14 to 22 mo, with a mean survival of 17 mo. No re-stenosis occurred among all the 10 cases. CONCLUSION: Stent placement combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer is helpful to prolong patients’ survival and reduce occurrence of re-stenosis. PMID:15237455

  4. The role of radiotherapy in the management of POEMS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yang-Gun; Kim, Young-Suk; Suh, Chang-Ok; Kim, Yu Ri; Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Jaeho

    2014-11-28

    POEMS syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by an underlying plasma cell proliferative disease. In this study, we examined the treatment outcomes and role of radiotherapy in the management of POEMS syndrome. In total, 33 patients diagnosed with POEMS syndrome were analyzed. These patients presented with osteosclerotic myeloma (OSM, n = 13), Castleman's disease (CD, n = 4), OSM with CD (n = 10), and vascular endothelial growth factor elevation without gross lesions (VEGFe, n = 6), respectively. The patients were treated by radiotherapy alone (n = 4), chemotherapy alone (n = 16), or a combination thereof (n = 9). The clinical response rates of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were 75%, 69%, and 89%, respectively. In addition, the hematologic response rates were 50%, 69%, and 71%, respectively. Among the six patients with limited multiple lesions who underwent radiotherapy, the clinical symptoms were improved in five patients after radiotherapy. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 51 months, and the median overall survival (OS) was 65 months. In univariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy was significantly associated with better PFS (p = 0.007) and OS (p = 0.020). In contrast, underlying VEGFe was a significant factor worsening PFS (p = 0.035) and OS (p = 0.008). Radiotherapy produces a reliable clinical response and is effective in improving POEMS-associated symptoms that are refractory to chemotherapy in selected patients with clustered or limited multiple lesions that can be covered by single radiation field.

  5. Optimum dose of radiotherapy for chemodectomas of the middle ear

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, J.A.; Elkon, D.; Lim, M.L.

    Forty patients with chemodectomas of the middle ear were seen at the University of Virginia Hospital from 1932 to 1978. Surgery, post-operative