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Sample records for mamey pouteria sapota

  1. Carotenoid Composition of the Fruit of Red Mamey (Pouteria sapota).

    PubMed

    Murillo, Enrique; Turcsi, Erika; Szabó, Ildikó; Mosquera, Yesuri; Agócs, Attila; Nagy, Veronika; Gulyás-Fekete, Gergely; Deli, József

    2016-09-28

    The detailed carotenoid analysis of red mamey (Pouteria sapota) was achieved by HPLC-DAD-MS, chemical tests, and cochromatography with authentic samples. Altogether 47 components were detected and 34 identified from the total extract or after fractionation with column chromatography. The main carotenoids were cryptocapsin, sapotexanthin, and capsanthin 5,6-epoxide. Some further minor components containing the κ-end group with or without a hydroxy group and their 5,6-epoxy precursors were identified. Some comments are made about the biosynthesis of κ-carotenoids in red mamey.

  2. Cryptocapsinepoxide-type carotenoids from red mamey, Pouteria sapota.

    PubMed

    Gulyás-Fekete, Gergely; Murillo, Enrique; Kurtán, Tibor; Papp, Tamás; Illyés, Tünde-Zita; Drahos, László; Visy, Júlia; Agócs, Attila; Turcsi, Erika; Deli, József

    2013-04-26

    New carotenoids, cryptocapsin-5,6-epoxide, 3'-deoxycapsanthin-5,6-epoxide, and cryptocapsin-5,8-epoxides, have been isolated from the ripe fruits of red mamey (Pouteria sapota). Cryptocapsin-5,6-epoxide was prepared by partial synthesis via epoxidation of cryptocapsin, and the (5R,6S)- and (5S,6R)-stereoisomers were identified by HPLC-ECD analysis. Spectroscopic data of the natural (anti) and semisynthetic (syn) derivatives obtained by acid-catalyzed rearrangement of cryptocapsin-5,8-epoxide stereoisomers were compared for structural elucidation. Chiral HPLC separation of natural and semisynthetic samples of cryptocapsin-5,8-epoxides was performed, and HPLC-ECD analysis allowed configurational assignment of the separated stereoisomers.

  3. In situ inactivation of polyphenol oxidase in mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota) by microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Sampedro, José G; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Nájera, Hugo

    2012-04-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is the enzyme responsible for quality loss in most fruits and vegetables. Quality loss is mainly because of oxidative chemical reactions which generate the darkening of tissues. Mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota) after harvesting suffers a rapid quality decay trough activation of PPO. However, PPO may be inactivated in situ by chemical or thermal treatment. In food processing, microwave treatment (MT) has been used recently as an alternative for PPO inactivation. In this study, it was observed that mamey fruit pulp subjected to a gently MT resulted in a higher PPO activity as the generated heat induced in situ the increase in PPO activity. In contrast, PPO was completely inactivated after long MT by using a high microwave power. Temperature in mamey pulp after MT reached a maximum of 79 °C; although PPO was active up to 60 °C. PPO was completely inactivated when conventional blanching treatment was performed but required a higher temperature (92 °C/300 s). The optimum energy intensity (E(opt)) for PPO inactivation by MT was 0.51 kJ/g or 937 W/165 s. Under this condition, the remaining PPO activity was inversely proportional to energy intensity (E). Interestingly, MT resulted in a negligible damage in microstructure of mamey pulp, although blanching treatment resulted in large damaging effects on tissue organization and shape. Therefore, MT is proposed as an effective way to completely inactivate PPO without causing any significant damage to fruit tissues and shape; as preservation of color, flavor, and taste would be favored. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Purification and partial biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase from mamey (Pouteria sapota).

    PubMed

    Palma-Orozco, Gisela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Sampedro, José G; Nájera, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    While a long shelf life for fruit products is highly desired, enzymatic browning is the main cause of quality loss in fruits and is therefore a main problem for the food industry. In this study polyphenol oxidase (PPO), the main enzyme responsible for browning was isolated from mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota) and characterized biochemically. Two isoenzymes (PPO 1 and PPO 2) were obtained upon ammonium sulfate precipitation and hydrophobic and ion exchange chromatography; PPO 1 was purified up to 6.6-fold with 0.28% yield, while PPO 2 could not be characterized as enzyme activity was completely lost after 24 h of storage. PPO 1 molecular weight was estimated to be 16.1 and 18 kDa by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively, indicating that the native state of the PPO 1 is a monomer. The optimum pH for PPO 1 activity was 7. The PPO 1 was determined to be maximum thermally stable up to 35°C. Kinetic constants for PPO 1 were K(m)=44 mM and K(m)=1.3 mM using catechol and pyrogallol as substrate, respectively. The best substrates for PPO 1 were pyrogallol, 4-methylcatechol and catechol, while ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulfite were the most effective inhibitors.

  5. Domestication of perennial fruit trees: the case of mamey (Pouteria sapota) in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, and for the chemicals extracted from its bark, leaves and roots having fungitoxic, insecticidal, anti-inflamatory, anti-oxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Currently, there is no gen...

  6. Characterization of Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota [Jacq.] H.E. Moore & Stearn.) germplasm at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota [Jacq.] H.E. Moore & Stearn) is a tropical tree fruit in the Sapotaceae, which is native to Central America and southern Mexico. The tree is used for timber and shade; however it is the sweet, nutrient and vitamin rich fruit that is eaten out of hand, in milkshakes...

  7. Isolation of β-Cryptoxanthin-epoxides, Precursors of Cryptocapsin and 3'-Deoxycapsanthin, from Red Mamey (Pouteria sapota).

    PubMed

    Turcsi, Erika; Murillo, Enrique; Kurtán, Tibor; Szappanos, Ádám; Illyés, Tünde-Zita; Gulyás-Fekete, Gergely; Agócs, Attila; Avar, Péter; Deli, József

    2015-07-08

    From an extract of red mamey (Pouteria sapota) β-cryptoxanthin-5,6-epoxide, β-cryptoxanthin-5',6'-epoxide, 3'-deoxycapsanthin, and cryptocapsin were isolated and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MS). Epoxidation of β-cryptoxanthin delivered the β-(5'R,6'S)- and (5'S,6'R)-cryptoxanthin-5',6'-epoxides, which were identified by HPLC-ECD analysis. These carotenoids among others are quite common in the fruits of Central America, and as they are natural provitamins A, they should play an important role in the diet of the mostly vitamin A deficient population of this region.

  8. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-09

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed.

  9. Molecular markers developed for Pouteria sapota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, and for the chemicals extracted from its bark, leaves and roots having fungitoxic, insecticidal, anti-inflamatory, anti-oxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. We reported high throughpu...

  10. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in alfalfa, mung bean, cilantro, and mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) food matrices using DNA microarray chip hybridization.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Nusrat; Sharma, Devang; Al-Khaldi, Sufian F

    2009-09-01

    Four different food matrices (alfalfa, cilantro, mamey sapote, and mung bean) were contaminated with three different dilutions 10(6), 10(4), and 10(3) cfu/g of Yersinia enterocolitica. DNA was isolated from each food mix and used in chromosomal amplifications. The amplified DNA was used as templates in single PCR reactions of the four genes (virF, ail, yst, and blaA) followed by mixing the four reactions for one PCR primer extension reaction. The presence and the limit of detection of four genes in four food matrices were established by microarray hybridization. Data revealed the diversity of signal intensities. Neither the microarray chip hybridization nor the single PCR amplification could detect virF's presence located on a plasmid. Ail was detected in 10(3) cfu/g, whereas blaA and yst were detected from 10(5) to 10(6) cfu/g in all food matrices. Therefore, the ail gene could be the gene of choice in identifying Y. enterocolitica in alfalfa, cilantro, mamey, and mung bean. Other genes--blaA, yst, virF--exhibited wide variability in hybridization signals, highlighting the need of a better DNA purification step prior to DNA microarray hybridization.

  11. Development of a Large Set of Microsatellite Markers in Zapote Mamey (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn) and Their Potential Use in the Study of the Species.

    PubMed

    Arias, Renée S; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Sobolev, Victor S; Blancarte-Jasso, Nasib H; Simpson, Sheron A; Ballard, Linda L; Duke, Mary V; Liu, Xiaofen F; Irish, Brian M; Scheffler, Brian E

    2015-06-22

    Pouteria sapota is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, as well as for its fungitoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, its genetics is mostly unknown, including aspects about its genetic diversity and domestication process. We did high-throughput sequencing of microsatellite-enriched libraries of P. sapota, generated 5223 contig DNA sequences, 1.8 Mbp, developed 368 microsatellites markers and tested them on 29 individuals from 10 populations (seven wild, three cultivated) from Mexico, its putative domestication center. Gene ontology BLAST analysis of the DNA sequences containing microsatellites showed potential association to physiological functions. Genetic diversity was slightly higher in cultivated than in the wild gene pool (HE = 0.41 and HE = 0.35, respectively), although modified Garza-Williamson Index and Bottleneck software showed evidence for a reduction in genetic diversity for the cultivated one. Neighbor Joining, 3D Principal Coordinates Analysis and assignment tests grouped most individuals according to their geographic origin but no clear separation was observed between wild or cultivated gene pools due to, perhaps, the existence of several admixed populations. The developed microsatellites have a great potential in genetic population and domestication studies of P. sapota but additional sampling will be necessary to better understand how the domestication process has impacted the genetic diversity of this fruit crop.

  12. Carotenoids and carotenoid esters of orange- and yellow-fleshed mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn) fruit and their post-prandial absorption in humans.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Esquivel, Patricia

    2017-04-15

    Although different genotypes of mamey sapote with distinct pulp colors are consumed in countries from Central to South America, in-depth knowledge on genotype-related differences of their carotenoid profile is lacking. Since the fruit was found to contain the potentially vitamin A-active keto-carotenoids sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin, we sought to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the carotenoid profile of different genotypes by HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin were present in all genotypes. Keto-carotenoids such as cryptocapsin, capsoneoxanthin, and their esters were most abundant in orange-fleshed fruit, whereas several carotenoid epoxides prevailed in yellow-fleshed fruit. Differing carotenoid profiles were associated with different color hues of the fruit pulp, while the widely variable carotenoid content (3.7-8.0mg/100gFW) was mainly reflected by differences in color intensity (chroma C(∗)). Furthermore, the post-prandial absorption of sapotexanthin to human plasma was proven for the first time. Besides sapotexanthin, cryptocapsin was found to be resorbed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic diversity and structure in Mamey [P. sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn] by using microsatellite markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, as well as for the fungitoxic, anti-inflamatory and anti-oxidant activity of extracts from its bark, leaves and roots, though its genetics is unknown. We did high-throughput sequencing of micr...

  14. Yield and fruit quality traits of mamey sapote grown at two locations in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) cultivars grown on an Oxisol and Ultisol were evaluated for four years under intensive management at Isabela and Corozal, Puerto Rico, respectively. There were significant differences in number and weight of fruit per hectare between locations and years. Signific...

  15. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using Pouteria sapota in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sathya; Vinodhini, Shanmugam; Elanchezhiyan, Chakravarthy; Rajeswari, Devi

    2017-03-21

    Medicinal plants and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have proven to be good sources of agents effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study focused on the green synthesis of AgNPs from the aqueous leaf extract of Pouteria sapota in order to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic properties of this extract and the synthesized AgNPs. The AgNPs were biologically synthesized under ambient conditions from an aqueous leaf extract of P. sapota using the hot percolation method and were characterized using spectroscopic methods, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The in vitro antidiabetic activity of the aqueous leaf extract and AgNPs was confirmed by non-enzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin, glucose uptake by yeast cells following exposure of cells to 5 or 10 mmol/L glucose solution, and inhibition of α-amylase. Further, in vivo antidiabetic activity was assessed in streptozotocin-induced rats. Rats were treated with aqueous leaf extract (100 mg/kg) or AgNPs (10 mg/kg) for 28 days. Following treatment, rats were killed for biochemical and histopathological analysis of kidney and liver samples. A significant reduction in blood sugar levels was noted in rats treated with leaf extract or AgNPs. Results of in vitro and in vivo analyses in rats treated with leaf extract or AgNPs show that both the extract and the biologically synthesized AgNPs have antidiabetic activity. The aqueous leaf extract of P. sapota and AgNPs exhibited efficient antidiabetic activity in the rat model of diabetes and therefore could have potential for development for medical applications in the future. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Development of a large set of microsatellite markers in Zapote Maney (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) (H.E. Moore & Stearn) and their potential use in the study of the species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, and for the chemicals extracted from its bark, leaves and roots having fungitoxic, insecticidal, anti-inflamatory, anti-oxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Currently, there is no gen...

  17. Analysis of polyphenolic antioxidants from the fruits of three pouteria species by selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Yang, Hui; Basile, Margaret J; Kennelly, Edward J

    2004-09-22

    Pouteria campechiana, Pouteria sapota, and Pouteria viridis are tropical plants in the Sapotaceae family that bear edible fruits. The fresh fruits of these three Pouteria species were each extracted, and activity-guided fractionations were performed to identify the antioxidant constituents. Seven polyphenolic antioxidants, gallic acid (1), (+)-gallocatechin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (-)-epicatechin (4), dihydromyricetin (5), (+)-catechin-3-O-gallate (6), and myricitrin (7), were isolated and identified. Extracts of the three Pouteria fruits were analyzed by a selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantify their polyphenolic antioxidants. The highest level of the seven measured polyphenols was found in P. sapota, the second highest in P. viridis, and the lowest in P. campechiana. The levels of the seven polyphenols corresponded with the results of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, by which P. sapota had the highest antioxidant activity, P. viridis the second highest, and P. campechiana the lowest.

  18. Polysaccharide based edible coating on sapota fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, Joslin; Athmaselvi, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable and have short shelf life at the ambient conditions. The edible coatings have been used on different agricultural products in order to extend their post harvest life. In the present study, the polysaccharide based edible coating made up of sodium alginate and pectin (2%) was studied on the shelf life of sapota fruits. The coating of the fruits is done by dipping method with two dipping time (2 and 4 min). The both control and coated sapota fruits were stored at refrigerated temperature (4±1°C). The physico-chemical analysis including acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, pH, weight loss, colour and firmness were measured on 1, 8, 15, 23 and 30th day of storage. There was significant difference (p≤0.05) in these physico-chemical parameters between control and coated sapota fruits with 2 and 4 min dipping time. The sensory analysis of control and coated sapota fruits showed that, the polysaccharide coating with 2 minutes dipping time was effective in maintaining the organoleptic properties of the fruits.

  19. Acute toxicity of seeds of the sapodilla (Achras sapota L.).

    PubMed

    Singh, P D; Simon, W R; West, M E

    1984-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sapodilla seed (Achras sapota L.) was acutely toxic to mice and rats (i.p. LD50 = 190 and 250 mg/kg, respectively) with symptoms of dyspnoea, apnoea and convulsions. Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic separation of the seed constituents yielded a brown amorphous solid containing saponin. This was heat-stable and toxic by the i.p. route (LD50 = 30-50 mg/kg) but non-toxic by the oral route in mice and rats. It is proposed that the toxicity of the sapodilla seed is due mainly to the saponin content.

  20. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist

    PubMed Central

    Dutok, Carlos M. S.; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. PMID:26273696

  1. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of "Zapote" Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist.

    PubMed

    Dutok, Carlos M S; Berenguer-Rivas, Clara Azalea; Rodríguez-Leblanch, Elizabeth; Pérez-Jackson, Liliana; Chil-Nuñez, Idelsy; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Reyes-Tur, Bernardo; Queiroz, Margareth M C

    2015-01-01

    The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, "Mamey or Zapote," in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating.

  2. Sapodilla plum (Achras sapota) induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mrinal; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Koroth, Jinsha; Bhattacharya, Souvari; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2014-08-21

    Intake of fruits rich in antioxidants in daily diet is suggested to be cancer preventive. Sapota is a tropical fruit grown and consumed extensively in several countries including India and Mexico. Here we show that methanolic extracts of Sapota fruit (MESF) induces cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis suggested activation of apoptosis, without arresting cell cycle progression. Annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining demonstrated that Sapota fruit extracts potentiate apoptosis rather than necrosis in cancer cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, activation of MCL-1, PARP-1, and Caspase 9 suggest that MESF treatment leads to activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. More importantly, we show that MESF treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor growth and a 3-fold increase in the life span of tumor bearing animals compared to untreated tumor mice.

  3. Sapodilla Plum (Achras sapota) Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cell Lines and Inhibits Tumor Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Mrinal; Hegde, Mahesh; Chiruvella, Kishore K.; Koroth, Jinsha; Bhattacharya, Souvari; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2014-01-01

    Intake of fruits rich in antioxidants in daily diet is suggested to be cancer preventive. Sapota is a tropical fruit grown and consumed extensively in several countries including India and Mexico. Here we show that methanolic extracts of Sapota fruit (MESF) induces cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cell lines. Cell cycle analysis suggested activation of apoptosis, without arresting cell cycle progression. Annexin V-propidium iodide double-staining demonstrated that Sapota fruit extracts potentiate apoptosis rather than necrosis in cancer cells. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of proapoptotic proteins, activation of MCL-1, PARP-1, and Caspase 9 suggest that MESF treatment leads to activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. More importantly, we show that MESF treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor growth and a 3-fold increase in the life span of tumor bearing animals compared to untreated tumor mice. PMID:25142835

  4. Migration Patterns, Densities, and Growth of Neritina punctulata Snails in Rio Espiritu Santo and Rio Mameyes, Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Treesearch

    MARK PYRON; ALAN P. COVICH

    2003-01-01

    Snail size-frequency distributions in Rios Espiritu Santo and Mameyes, which drain the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, showed that Neritina punctulata with shell lengths greater than 30 mm were the most abundant size class at upstream sites. The highest densities for all size classes were at the downstream sites. Growth rates were 0.015 mm/day for a large...

  5. Measuring the economic benefit of maintaining the ecological integrity of the Río Mameyes in Puerto Rico.

    Treesearch

    Armando González-Cabán; John. Loomis

    1999-01-01

    A contingent valuation in-person survey of Puerto Rican households was performed from April to August 1995 to estimate their willingness-to-pay for preserving instream flows in the Río Mameyes and avoiding a dam on the Río Fajardo. Annual willingness-to-pay was $21 for each river. When expanded to the 1 million households in Puerto Rico for the 5-year period households...

  6. Daños por depredación y tamano de concha del caracol diádromo Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) en el Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros; Andrea. Arroyave-Rincón

    2009-01-01

    Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico. We compared predators’ damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages...

  7. Response of different maturity stages of sapota (Manilkara achras Mill.) cv. Kallipatti to in-package ethylene absorbent.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Wangdup; Pal, R K; Sen, Sangita; Jha, S K

    2011-12-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable due to their climacteric nature. The rapid softening of fruits is primarily due to high activity of many oxidative enzymes and liberation of ethylene. Harvest maturity plays a crucial role in deciding the marketability of climacteric fruits in general. Attempt has been made to evaluate the response of ethylene absorbent on variable maturity groups of harvested Sapota cv. Kallipatti with the objective to delay the ripening during transit and extend its marketability during storage at ambient condition (27-32 °C & 65-75% R.H.). Harvested fruits having three different degree of ripeness (as maturity indices viz. mature, half-ripe and ripe) were packed with or without ethylene absorbent sachets (Bioconservación, France) in 10 kg CFB boxes and transported from Dahnu to Delhi covering a distant of approximately 2500 KM by truck on road along with conventional packaging as control. The fruits were evaluated immediately on arrival at Delhi and subsequently during storage for various physical, physiological, biochemical and decay parameters. Mature fruits with ethylene absorbent exhibited maximum delay in ripening, low ethylene liberation, weight loss and high fruit firmness. The response of ethylene absorbent to extend the marketability of ripe fruit was not significant.

  8. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Pouteria campechiana on acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Sasikumar, J M; Christabel, P Hephzibah; Jeyadevi, R; Ananth, D Arul

    2014-03-01

    Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. is used as a remedy for coronary trouble, liver disorders, epilepsy, skin disease, and ulcer. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of polyphenolic-rich P. campechiana fruit extract against acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of egg fruit were estimated followed by the determination of antioxidant activities. Treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract effectively scavenged the free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all antioxidant models. The presence of polyphenolic compounds were confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The animals were treated with acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) thrice at the interval of every 5 days after the administration of P. campechiana aqueous extract and silymarin (50 mg/kg). Acetaminophen treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress in liver, leading to an increase of serum marker enzymes. However, treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract significantly reduced the elevated liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase) and increased the antioxidant enzymes (viz., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. These results strongly suggest that P. campechiana fruit extract has strong antioxidant and significant hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Variability of traits and bioactive compounds in the fruit and pulp of six mamey apple (Mammea americana L.) accessions.

    PubMed

    Péroumal, Armelle; Adenet, Sandra; Rochefort, Katia; Fahrasmane, Louis; Aurore, Guylène

    2017-11-01

    Our objective was to compare fruit morphology, physico-chemistry and bioactive compounds content of the edible pulp of six Mammea americana accessions. The results showed that this fruit was rather big, weighing on average 600 to 1100g depending on the accession, and spherical to oblate-shaped. The pulp represented between 50 and 70% of the weight of the whole fruit. The pulp adhered only partially to the seeds in 5 of the 6 accessions studied, while the last one exhibited full adherence. The fresh pulp was acidic, sweet, succulent and crunchy. The fruits studied had a variety of qualities, providing various opportunities for post-harvest uses: fruit salads, nectar preparation, jams and jellies, or export. We have established for the first time the total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids contents in the pulp of mamey apple fruits. The pulp colour was highly correlated with total phenolic compounds and total carotenoids contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Typhoid fever outbreak associated with frozen mamey pulp imported from Guatemala to the western United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Loharikar, Anagha; Newton, Anna; Rowley, Patricia; Wheeler, Charlotte; Bruno, Tami; Barillas, Haroldo; Pruckler, James; Theobald, Lisa; Lance, Susan; Brown, Jeffrey M; Barzilay, Ezra J; Arvelo, Wences; Mintz, Eric; Fagan, Ryan

    2012-07-01

    Fifty-four outbreaks of domestically acquired typhoid fever were reported between 1960 and 1999. In 2010, the Southern Nevada Health District detected an outbreak of typhoid fever among persons who had not recently travelled abroad. We conducted a case-control study to examine the relationship between illness and exposures. A case was defined as illness with the outbreak strain of Salmonella serotype Typhi, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), with onset during 2010. Controls were matched by neighborhood, age, and sex. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were completed using logistic regression. Traceback investigation was completed. We identified 12 cases in 3 states with onset from 15 April 2010 to 4 September 2010. The median age of case patients was 18 years (range, 4-48 years), 8 (67%) were female, and 11 (92%) were Hispanic. Nine (82%) were hospitalized; none died. Consumption of frozen mamey pulp in a fruit shake was reported by 6 of 8 case patients (75%) and none of the 33 controls (matched odds ratio, 33.9; 95% confidence interval, 4.9). Traceback investigations implicated 2 brands of frozen mamey pulp from a single manufacturer in Guatemala, which was also implicated in a 1998-1999 outbreak of typhoid fever in Florida. Reporting of individual cases of typhoid fever and subtyping of isolates by PFGE resulted in rapid detection of an outbreak associated with a ready-to-eat frozen food imported from a typhoid-endemic region. Improvements in food manufacturing practices and monitoring will prevent additional outbreaks.

  11. Medida de los beneficios económicos de la integridad ecológica del Río Mameyes en Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Armando Gonzalez-Caban; John Loomis

    1999-01-01

    Se realizó una valoración de contingencia a través de una encuesta en persona de los jefes de familia puertorriqueños, de abril a agosto de 1995, para estimar su consentimiento-parapagar por la preservación de niveles de agua en el Río Mameyes, y evitar la construcción de la represa propuesta...

  12. Pouteria torta epicarp as a useful source of α-amylase inhibitor in the control of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    de Sales, Paloma Michelle; de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Dartora, Mariana; Resck, Inês Sabioni; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris Maria; de Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2017-03-10

    Type 2 diabetes plays a major role in public health, affecting about 400 million adults. One of the used strategies to control type 2 diabetes is the inhibition of α-amylase activity to reduce post-prandial blood glucose levels. Therefore, in past decades, the search of new α-amylase inhibitors has led to the evaluation of natural products as a source of these compounds. Pouteria torta (Sapotaceae) is widespread in Brazil and bears edible fruits. Epicarp and pulp crude extracts of fresh fruits were studied for in vitro α-amylase inhibition activity. The pulp did not present activity while epicarp, usually considered as waste, showed a high α-amylase inhibitory capacity when compared with acarbose and Triticum aestivum. Therefore, an assay-guided fractionation study of epicarp crude extract was performed. Fraction VI shows very high inhibitory activity with IC50 of 9 μg/mL. However, subsequent fractionation led to lower inhibition potential (IC50 of 22.1 μg/mL). The qualitative characterization of fraction VI were performed by chromatographic and spectrometric analysis and showed the presence of epicatechin, catechin, sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity were also assessed and there seemed to be no correlation between phenolic or flavonoids-rich fractions and antioxidant capacity or α-amylase inhibitory activity.

  13. Weathering processes in the Rio Icacos and Rio Mameyes watersheds in Eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter I in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buss, Heather L.; White, Arthur F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Streams draining watersheds of the two dominant lithologies (quartz diorite and volcaniclastic rock) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of eastern Puerto Rico have very high fluxes of bedrock weathering products. The Río Blanco quartz diorite in the Icacos watershed and the Fajardo volcaniclastic rocks in the Mameyes watershed have some of the fastest documented rates of chemical weathering of siliceous rocks in the world. Rapid weathering produces thick, highly leached saprolites in both watersheds that lie just below the soil and largely isolate subsurface biogeochemical and hydrologic processes from those in the soil. The quartz diorite bedrock in the Icacos watershed weathers spheroidally, leaving large, relatively unweathered corestones that are enveloped by slightly weathered rock layers called rindlets. The rindlets wrap around the corestones like an onionskin. Within the corestones, biotite oxidation is thought to induce the spheroidal fracturing that leads to development of rindlets; plagioclase in the rindlets dissolves, creating additional pore spaces. Near the rindlet-saprolite interface, the remaining plagioclase dissolves, hornblende dissolves to completion, and precipitation of kaolinite, gibbsite, and goethite becomes pervasive. In the saprolite, biotite weathers to kaolinite and quartz begins to dissolve. In the soil layer, both quartz and kaolinite dissolve. The volcaniclastic bedrock of the Mameyes watershed weathers even faster than the quartz diorite bedrock of the Icacos watershed, leaving thicker saprolites that are devoid of all primary minerals except quartz. The quartz content of volcaniclastic bedrock may help to control watershed geomorphology; high-quartz rocks form thick saprolites that blanket ridges. Hydrologic flow paths within the weathering profiles vary with total fluid flux, and they influence the chemistry of streams. Under low-flow conditions, the Río Icacos and its tributaries are fed by rainfall and by groundwater from

  14. Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Activity of a Traditional Maya Herbal Preparation Composed of Pouteria Campechiana, Chrysophyllum Cainito, Citrus Limonum, and Annona Muricata.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Sanchez-Recillas, Amanda; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Ramírez Camacho, Mario A

    2017-02-08

    Preclinical Research The purpose of this work was to assess the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal preparation, composed of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana (P. campechiana), Chrysophyllum cainito (C. cainito), Citrus limonum (C. limonum), and Annona muricata (A. muricata), that is commonly used in combination (PCCA) in traditional Mayan medicine for the treatment of diabetes and pain. An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 for each plant. The systemic antinociceptive effect of PCCA extract (50-600 mg/kg, p.o.) was dose-dependent in the rat formalin (1%) producing 66% antinociceptive response at 400 mg/kg, p.o. A concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect of the PCCA extract (20-160 mg/paw) was also demonstrated in the rat capsaicin (0.2%) test. The PCCA extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had antihyperalgesic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of PCCA and supports the use of the plant extracts in Mayan folk medicine.Drug Dev Res, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Flavonoid Detection in Hydroethanolic Extract of Pouteria torta (Sapotaceae) Leaves by HPLC-DAD and the Determination of Its Mutagenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daryne L.M.G.; Rinaldo, Daniel; Varanda, Eliana A.; de Sousa, Juliana F.; Nasser, Ana L.M.; Silva, Ana C.Z.; Baldoqui, Débora C.; Vilegas, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It is well known that phytotherapy has grown in popularity in recent years. Because a drug cannot be administered without ensuring its effectiveness and safety, the standardization and regulation of phytotherapeutic drugs are required by the global market and governmental authorities. This article describes a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection analysis method for the simultaneous detection of myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminopyranoside present in the hydroethanolic extract (ethanol/H2O, 7:3, v/v) of Pouteria torta. The mutagenic activity of the extract was evaluated on Salmonella typhimurium and by an in vivo micronucleus test on the peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice. The linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, and precision of the assay were evaluated. The analytical curves were linear and exhibited good repeatability (with a deviation of less than 5%) and demonstrated good recovery (within the 83–107% range). The results demonstrate that the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a mutagenic activity in both assays, suggesting caution in the use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:25055245

  16. Characterization of main primary and secondary metabolites and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties in the mesocarp of three biotypes of Pouteria lucuma.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Claudia; Gálvez, Lena; Cobos, Ariel; Olaeta, José Antonio; Defilippi, Bruno G; Chirinos, Rosana; Campos, David; Pedreschi, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Pouteria lucuma is an Andean fruit from pre-Incas' times highly appreciated due to its characteristic flavor and taste in its homeland. We characterized the primary (e.g., sugars and organic acids), and secondary (e.g., phenolics and carotenoids) and in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of Rosalia, Montero and Leiva 1 lucuma biotypes. Significant differences were found in these metabolites and functional properties related to biotype and ripeness stage. Results showed significant amounts of sugars (119.4-344 mg total sugars g(-1)DW) and organic acids (44.4-30.0 mg g(-1)DW) and functional associated compounds such as ascorbic acid (0.35-1.07 mg g(-1)DW), total phenolics (0.7-61.6 mg GAE g(-1)DW) and total carotenoids (0.22-0.50 mg β-carotene g(-1)DW). Important in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties were found and provide the base for the standardization of lucuma harvest and postharvest focused not only on the enhancement of sensory but functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  18. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  19. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXXI. Pouteria.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    species. Perforation plates simple. Tyloses thin-walled, thick-walled, and commonly sclerotic in the dense heartwood. Axial parenchyma typically banded...generally less than -3- 500 pm high. Intervessel pitting 6-8 pm or 8-10 pm in diameter. Tyloses (in heartwood) commonly thick-walled or sclerotic

  20. Interactions between terrestrial mammals and the fruits of two neotropical rainforest tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A.; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian frugivory is a distinctive biotic interaction of tropical forests; however, most efforts in the Neotropics have focused on cases of animals foraging in the forest canopy, in particular primates and bats. In contrast much less is known about this interaction when it involves fruits deposited on the forest floor and terrestrial mammals. We conducted a camera-trapping survey to analyze the characteristics of the mammalian ensembles visiting fruits of Licania platypus and Pouteria sapota deposited on the forest floor in a well preserved tropical rainforest of Mexico. Both tree species produce large fruits but contrast in their population densities and fruit chemical composition. In particular, we expected that more species of terrestrial mammals would consume P. sapota fruits due to its higher pulp:seed ratio, lower availability and greater carbohydrate content. We monitored fruits at the base of 13 trees (P. sapota, n = 4 and L. platypus, n = 9) using camera-traps. We recorded 13 mammal species from which we had evidence of 8 consuming or removing fruits. These eight species accounted for 70% of the species of mammalian frugivores active in the forest floor of our study area. The ensemble of frugivores associated with L. platypus (6 spp.) was a subset of that associated with P. sapota (8 spp). Large body-sized species such as Tapirus bairdii, Pecari tajacu and Cuniculus paca were the mammals more frequently interacting with fruits of the focal species. Our results further our understanding of the characteristics of the interaction between terrestrial mammalian frugivores and large-sized fruits, helping to gain a more balanced view of its importance across different tropical forests and providing a baseline to compare against defaunated forests.

  1. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHYLLOPHAGA VANDINEI (COLEOPTERA: SCARABAEIDAE)EMERGENCE WITHIN AND AROUND A MAMEY SAPOTE ORCHARD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method of accurately monitoring Phyllophaga vandinei, an important pest of fruit trees in Puerto Rico, is urgently needed. Cone emergence cages have been used, but it has been unclear how effective they are. This study demonstrates that deployment and placement of the traps has a great impact on t...

  2. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries.

  3. 77 FR 50686 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Type: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Avocado, mamey sapote, mango, rambutan; and pome fruit group 11-10..., Ethyl Ester. Product Type: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Avocado, mamey sapote, mango, rambutan; and pome...- Naphthalenacetic Acid, Sodium Salt. Product Type: Fungicide. Proposed Uses: Avocado, mamey sapote, mango,...

  4. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    PubMed

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  5. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXVIII. Labatia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    a distinct entity until the 1930’s when it was submerged in Pouteria . In 1972 it was reestablished as the new genus Neolabatia and stated to be very...appreciable differences in wood anatomy, Labatia is here regarded as distinct from Pouteria . Preface The Sapotaceae form an important part of the... Pouteria and has since been maintained in this status by most authors. Of the contemporary authors, Aubriville (1,2) / reinstated Labatia to generic status

  6. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. V, Calocarpum

    Treesearch

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    Calocarpum, long maintained as a distinct taxon, is now generally considered as a synonym of Pouteria. The wood anatomy is quite different from Pouteria (sensu stricto) and the author is of the opinion that reduction to synonomy is not justified. The anatomical evidence supports the treatment of Calocarpum by the monographer Charles Baehni.

  7. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. XVIII, Gomphiluma

    Treesearch

    B.F. Kukachka

    1980-01-01

    As now constituted, Gomphiluma consists of two species of small trees limited to the Brazilian Amazon. Formerly submerged in the large genus Pouteria, Gomphiluma was reinstated to generic status by Aubréville in 1961. The pale brown wood of moderate density is quite unlike that of Pouteria and appears more nearly allied with certain species of Micropholis.

  8. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXXVI. Syzygiopsis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    to Pouteria oppositifolia (Ducke) Baehni (2) in 1942. In 1946 Cronquist (3) described another species, Syzygiopsis sericea, with the qualifying...Amgricaines. Adansonia 1(2):173. 2. Baehni, Charles. 1942. MNmoires sur les Sapotacies. II. Le Genre Pouteria. Candollea 9:359. 3. Cronquist , Arthur. 1946

  9. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. XXIII, Gayella

    Treesearch

    B.F. Kukachka

    1981-01-01

    Gayella splendens (A. DC.) Aubr., the sole member of this genus, is a tall shrub, endemic to Chile. Baehni and Eyma place G. splendens in Pouteria but Aubréville recognizes Gayella as distinct. Anatomically, the alliance of Gayella is not with Pouteria but with Pradosia and particularly with lactescens and ptychandra.

  10. Studies on the volatile fraction composition of three native Amazonian-Brazilian fruits: Murici (Byrsonima crassifolia L., Malpighiaceae), bacuri (Platonia insignis M., Clusiaceae), and sapodilla (Manilkara sapota L., Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Uekane, Thais M; Nicolotti, Luca; Griglione, Alessandra; Bizzo, Humberto R; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Rocha-Leão, Maria Helena M; Rezende, Claudia M

    2017-03-15

    The volatile fraction of murici, bacuri and sapodilla are here studied because of their increasing interest for consumers, abundance of production in Brazil, and the general demand for new flavors and aromas. Their volatile profiles were studied by two High Concentration Capacity Headspace techniques (HCC-HS), Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) and Headspace Sorptive Extraction (HSSE), in combination with GC-MS. Murici volatile fraction mainly contains esters (38%), carboxylic acids (19%), aldehydes (11%), alcohols (14%), others (13%) and sulfur compounds; bacuri is characterized by terpenes (41%), non-terpenic alcohols (24%), esters (15%), aldehydes (6%), and others (12%); sapodilla consists of esters (33%), alcohols (27%), terpenes (18%) and others (21%). The GC-MS component co-elution was overcome by GC×GC-qMS. The adoption of modern analysis technologies afforded to achieve a better knowledge of the volatile fraction composition of these fruit pulps by increasing substantially the number of compounds identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXXV. Urbanella.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    34 Baehni (4) accepted Calocarpum as a valid genus but made Urbanella a synonym. Cronquist (5) reduced Calocarpum to a synonym of Pouteria as did Pilz (7...Pouteria chiricana (Standley) Baehni but of "uncertain status." Cronquist (5) added the floral description which has been perpetuated by Pilz (7). 5...citation should have been Record G-10. Cronquist (5) cited Englesing 46 from Nicaragua and several others in addition to the preceding. Anatomically

  12. 76 FR 28675 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ..., birida, black sapote, canistel, cherimoya, custard apple, feijoa, guava, ilama, jaboticaba, longan, mamey...; soybeans; vegetable, legume, crop group 6; acerola; atemoya; avocado; birida; black sapote; canistel... glands were target organs in oral subchronic ] toxicity studies in the dog; whereas, the...

  13. 7 CFR 1540.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... chilled vegetables provided in heading 0701 through 0709 (except subheading 0709.52.00) and heading 0714... subheadings 0805.90.00, tamarinds and kiwi fruit of subheading 0810.90.20, and cashew apples, mameyes...

  14. 7 CFR 1540.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... chilled vegetables provided in heading 0701 through 0709 (except subheading 0709.52.00) and heading 0714... subheadings 0805.90.00, tamarinds and kiwi fruit of subheading 0810.90.20, and cashew apples, mameyes...

  15. 7 CFR 1540.41 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... chilled vegetables provided in heading 0701 through 0709 (except subheading 0709.52.00) and heading 0714... subheadings 0805.90.00, tamarinds and kiwi fruit of subheading 0810.90.20, and cashew apples, mameyes...

  16. A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi (Hemiptera, Diaspididae, Aspidiotinae), associated with Mammea americana L. (Malpighiales, Calophyllaceae) from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Dones, Ramón A; Evans, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi Dones and Evans is described and illustrated from specimens collected on mamey (Mammea americana) from Puerto Rico. A key to the species of Mycetaspis is provided.

  17. A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi (Hemiptera, Diaspididae, Aspidiotinae), associated with Mammea americana L. (Malpighiales, Calophyllaceae) from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Dones, Ramón A.; Evans, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi Dones and Evans is described and illustrated from specimens collected on mamey (Mammea americana) from Puerto Rico. A key to the species of Mycetaspis is provided. PMID:21852924

  18. Delayed post-harvest ripening-associated changes in Manilkara zapota L. var. Kalipatti with composite edible coating.

    PubMed

    Vishwasrao, Chandrahas; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited research on extending the shelf-life of sapota (Manilkara zapota L. var. Kalipatti) fruit. An edible coating made up of methyl cellulose (MC) and palm oil (PO) was applied to study the extension in shelf-life. Changes in physical and chemical properties of fruit were studied along with peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and pectin methylesterase (PME) activities during post-harvest ripening of sapota. The fruits coated with 15 g L(-1) MC and 11.25 g L(-1) PO showed significant (P < 0.05) delay in physiological weight loss, decrease in fruit firmness losses as well as slower fruit darkening. The coating on the fruits resulted in better retention of ascorbic acid, delayed the loss of total phenolic content, and delayed the increase in total soluble solids and total reducing sugars as compared to control fruits. The coating either delayed or reduced the enzyme activities of POD, PPO and PME of the fruit. The results suggest that edible coating made up of MC-PO has potential to maintain the quality of sapota fruit. The edible coating extended the shelf-life of sapota fruit by 3 days preserving fruit quality up to 7 days at 24 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 5 %RH. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae : XV. Sandwithiodoxa

    Treesearch

    Bohumil Francis Kukachka

    1980-01-01

    Sandwithiodoxa is a monotypic genus established by Aubréville and Pellegrin based on Pouteria egregia Sandwith, making the new combination Sandwithiodoxa egregia (Sandw.) Aubr. and Pellegr. The wood is light brown, very hard and heavy with an average specific gravity of 1.09. Individual specimens attain a specific gravity of 1.21. Floristically it is said to have...

  20. First record of Anastrepha flavipennis Greene (Diptera: Tephritidae) and of its host in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, E C; Silva, N M; Silva, F C C; Pena, M R

    2011-01-01

    Anastrepha flavipennis Greene was obtained from Pouteria glomerata (Sapotaceae) fruits, known as "abiurana-da-várzea" in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first record of A. flavipennis for the state of Amazonas and of P. glomerata as a host for this fruit fly in the Amazon Basin.

  1. 40 CFR 180.510 - Pyriproxyfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Salal 1.0 Sapodilla 1.0 Sapote, black 1.0 Sapote, mamey 1.0 Sapote, white 0.30 Sesame, seed 0.02 Soursop... Tea 0.02 Vegetable, bulb, group 3, except onion, bulb 0.70 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.10 Vegetable...

  2. 40 CFR 180.515 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Salal 0.10 Sapodilla 0.10 Sapote, black 0.10 Sapote, mamey 0.10 Sheep, fat 0.10 Sheep, meat 0.10 Sheep....10 Strawberrypear 0.10 Sugar apple 0.10 Sugarcane 0.15 Sunflower, seed 0.10 Tea, dried 0.10 Ti...

  3. 40 CFR 180.510 - Pyriproxyfen; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Salal 1.0 Sapodilla 1.0 Sapote, black 1.0 Sapote, mamey 1.0 Sapote, white 0.30 Sesame, seed 0.02 Soursop... Tea 0.02 Vegetable, bulb, group 3, except onion, bulb 0.70 Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9 0.10 Vegetable...

  4. 40 CFR 180.582 - Pyraclostrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., black 0.6 Sapote, mamey 0.6 Sesame, seed 0.45 Sorghum, grain, forage 5.0 Sorghum, grain, grain 0.60..., seed 0.45 Tallowwood, seed 0.45 Tea oil plant, seed 0.45 Vegetable, bulb, group 3 0.9 Vegetable...

  5. The tropical germplasm repository program at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is the only research entity within the National Plant Germplasm system in the insular Caribbean region. It houses germplasm collections of cultivated tropical/subtropical germplasm of bananas/plantains, cacao, mamey sapote, sapodilla, Spanish lime,...

  6. Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Treesearch

    JUAN F. BLANCO; FREDERICK N. SCATENA

    2005-01-01

    Massive upstream migrations of neritid snails (Neritidae: Gastropoda) occur in tropical and subtropical streams worldwide, but their seasonality and proximate causes are unknown. We monitored massive upstream migrations of Neritina virginea for 99 weeks, and conducted a detailed study of snail density, size, and hydraulic descriptors in lower Río Mameyes, northeastern...

  7. 77 FR 47539 - Paraquat Dichloride; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... apple, black sapote, mango, sapodilla, canistel, mamey sapote, feijoa, jaboticaba, wax jambu, starfruit... dogs). Effects in the respiratory tract are observed after acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures... = 0.45 mg/kg/ cRfD = 0.0045...... Chronic toxicity in dogs. day. cPAD = .0045....... LOAEL = 0.93...

  8. 40 CFR 180.466 - Fenpropathrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., tart 5.0 Citrus, dried pulp 4.0 Citrus, oil 75 Cotton, refined oil 3.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 1.0 Egg... Sapodilla 1.0 Sapote, black 1.0 Sapote, mamey 1.0 Sheep, fat 1.0 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.1 Sheep, meat 0.1...

  9. 40 CFR 180.507 - Azoxystrobin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Soybean, hulls 1.0 Soybean, seed 0.5 Spanish lime 2.0 Spearmint, tops 30 Spice Subgroup 19B, except black..., grain 0.2 Rye, straw 1.5 Sapodilla 2.0 Sapote, black 2.0 Sapote, mamey 2.0 Sapote, white 2.0 Sorghum...

  10. 40 CFR 180.466 - Fenpropathrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., tart 5.0 Citrus, dried pulp 4.0 Citrus, oil 75 Cotton, refined oil 3.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 1.0 Egg... Sapodilla 1.0 Sapote, black 1.0 Sapote, mamey 1.0 Sheep, fat 1.0 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.1 Sheep, meat 0.1...

  11. 40 CFR 180.532 - Cyprodinil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Caneberry subgroup 13A 10 Canistel 1.2 Canola, seed 1 0.03 Citrus, dried pulp 8.0 Citrus, oil 340 Fruit....0 Rambutan 2.0 Salal 3.0 Sapodilla 1.2 Sapote, black 1.2 Sapote, mamey 1.2 Spanish lime 2.0 Star...

  12. 40 CFR 180.466 - Fenpropathrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Citrus, oil 75 Cotton, refined oil 3.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 1.0 Custard apple 1.5 Egg 0.05 Feijoa 3.0... Rambutan 7.0 Sapodilla 1.0 Sapote, black 1.0 Sapote, mamey 1.0 Sheep, fat 1.0 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.1...

  13. 40 CFR 180.532 - Cyprodinil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Caneberry subgroup 13A 10 Canistel 1.2 Canola, seed 1 0.03 Citrus, dried pulp 8.0 Citrus, oil 340 Fruit....0 Rambutan 2.0 Salal 3.0 Sapodilla 1.2 Sapote, black 1.2 Sapote, mamey 1.2 Spanish lime 2.0 Star...

  14. 40 CFR 180.593 - Etoxazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cotton, gin byproducts 1.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Fruit, pome, group 11 0.20 Fruit, small vine... Sapodilla 0.20 Sapote, black 0.20 Sapote, mamey 0.20 Sheep, fat 0.02 Sheep, liver 0.01 Spearmint, oil 20...

  15. 40 CFR 180.466 - Fenpropathrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pulp 4.0 Citrus, oil 75 Cotton, refined oil 3.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 1.0 Custard apple 1.5 Egg 0.05....0 Sapote, black 1.0 Sapote, mamey 1.0 Sheep, fat 1.0 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.1 Sheep, meat 0.1...

  16. 40 CFR 180.466 - Fenpropathrin; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., tart 5.0 Citrus, dried pulp 4.0 Citrus, oil 75 Cotton, refined oil 3.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 1.0 Egg... Sapodilla 1.0 Sapote, black 1.0 Sapote, mamey 1.0 Sheep, fat 1.0 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.1 Sheep, meat 0.1...

  17. Healthful and nutritional components in select Florida tropical fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya and ripe papaya) were evaluated for phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (v...

  18. 40 CFR 180.546 - Mefenoxam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Canistel 0.40 Custard apple 0.20 Herbs, dried 55 Herbs, fresh 8.0 Kiwifruit 0.10 Mango 0.40 Onion, bulb..., mamey 0.40 Spinach 10 Star apple 0.40 Starfruit 0.20 Sugar apple 0.20 (b) Section 18 emergency...

  19. 40 CFR 180.546 - Mefenoxam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Canistel 0.40 Custard apple 0.20 Herbs, dried 55 Herbs, fresh 8.0 Kiwifruit 0.10 Mango 0.40 Onion, bulb..., mamey 0.40 Spinach 10 Star apple 0.40 Starfruit 0.20 Sugar apple 0.20 (b) Section 18 emergency...

  20. 40 CFR 180.546 - Mefenoxam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Canistel 0.40 Custard apple 0.20 Herbs, dried 55 Herbs, fresh 8.0 Kiwifruit 0.10 Mango 0.40 Onion, bulb..., mamey 0.40 Spinach 10 Star apple 0.40 Starfruit 0.20 Sugar apple 0.20 (b) Section 18 emergency...

  1. 40 CFR 180.546 - Mefenoxam; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Canistel 0.40 Custard apple 0.20 Herbs, dried 55 Herbs, fresh 8.0 Kiwifruit 0.10 Mango 0.40 Onion, bulb..., mamey 0.40 Spinach 10 Star apple 0.40 Starfruit 0.20 Sugar apple 0.20 (b) Section 18 emergency...

  2. Antioxidant, anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities of Phyllanthus emblica, Manilkara zapota and silymarin: an in vitro comparative study for anti-aging applications.

    PubMed

    Pientaweeratch, Sirinya; Panapisal, Vipaporn; Tansirikongkol, Anyarporn

    2016-09-01

    Context Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) (amla), Manilkara zapota L.P. Royen (Sapotaceae) (sapota) and silymarin are reported to contain antioxidant effects. However, information on other biological activities relating to the anti-aging properties is limited. Objective To compare in vitro antioxidants, anti-collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-2) and anti-elastase properties as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents of amla, sapota and silymarin as potential anti-aging ingredients. Materials and methods The ethanol amla and sapota fruit extracts were prepared by three cycles of maceration with 24 h duration each. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents were determined. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The effects of MMP-1, MMP-2 and elastase inhibitions were determined by using the EnzChek® assay kits (Molecular-Probes, Eugene, OR). Results Amla exhibited the highest in TPC (362.43 ± 11.2 mg GAE/g) while silymarin showed the highest in TFC (21.04 ± 0.67 mg QE/g). Results of antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS methods showed that amla possessed the most potent capacity with IC50 values of 1.70 ± 0.07 and 4.45 ± 0.10 μg/mL, respectively. Highest inhibitions against MMP-1, MMP-2 and elastase were detected for sapota with IC50 values of 89.61 ± 0.96, 86.47 ± 3.04 and 35.73 ± 0.61 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion Test extracts offered anti-aging properties in different mechanisms. Amla showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant property with moderate anti-collagenase. Silymarin exhibited measurable flavonoid content with anti-elastase effect. Sapota showed the highest collagenase and elastase inhibitions with moderate antioxidant effect. Thus, extracts might be added as a mixture to gain the overall anti-aging effects.

  3. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae: V. Calocarpum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    In 1946, Cronquist (3) made the transfer Pouteria scierocarpa (Pittier) Cronquist and most recently in 1976, Lundell (4) made the new...Calocarpum mammosum, the type of the genus. In 1946, Cronquist (3) described two additional species from Panama which were included in his “Calocarpum group...Lundell (4) made the new combinations : Calocarpum cooperi ( Cronquist ) Lundell and Calocarpum fossicolum ( Cronquist ) Lundell. Wood of fossicolum was

  4. Plants from Brazilian Cerrado with Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Paula Monteiro; Elias, Silvia Taveira; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; de Paula, José Elias; Gomes, Sueli Maria; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Silva, Elton Clementino; Silveira, Dâmaris; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plant species from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p<0.05) tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC50 value of 11.88 µg/mL, compared to kojic acid (IC50 value of 13.14 µg/mL). Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 30.01 µg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations. PMID:23173036

  5. Identification and quantification of carotenoids, by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS, from Amazonian fruits.

    PubMed

    de Rosso, Veridiana V; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2007-06-27

    The major and minor carotenoids from six fruits, buriti (Mauritia vinifera), mamey (Mammea americana), marimari (Geoffrola striata), peach palm (Bactrys gasipaes), physalis (Physalis angulata), and tucuma (Astrocaryum aculeatum), all native to the Amazonia region, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-mass spectrometry detector (HPLC-PDA-MS/MS), fulfilling the recommended criteria for identification. A total of 60 different carotenoids were separated on a C30 column, all-trans-beta-carotene being the major carotenoid found in all fruits. The presence of apo-10'-beta-carotenol, found in mamey, was not previously reported in foods. In addition, this is the first time that the identification of beta-zeacarotene in natural sources is supported by MS data. The total carotenoid content ranged from 38 microg/g in marimari to 514 microg/g in buriti. All fruits analyzed can be considered good sources of provitamin A, especially buriti, with 7280 RE/100 g.

  6. Draft genome sequence of a strictly anaerobic dichloromethane-degrading bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Kleindienst, Sara; Higgins, Steven A.; Tsementzi, Despina; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.; Mack, E. Erin; Loffler, Frank E.

    2016-03-03

    Here, an anaerobic, dichloromethane-degrading bacterium affiliated with novel Peptococcaceae was maintained in a microbial consortium. The organism originated from pristine freshwater sediment collected from Rio Mameyes in Luquillo, Puerto Rico, in October 2009 (latitude 18°21'43.9", longitude –65°46'8.4"). The draft genome sequence is 2.1 Mb and has a G+C content of 43.5%.

  7. Draft genome sequence of a strictly anaerobic dichloromethane-degrading bacterium

    DOE PAGES

    Kleindienst, Sara; Higgins, Steven A.; Tsementzi, Despina; ...

    2016-03-03

    Here, an anaerobic, dichloromethane-degrading bacterium affiliated with novel Peptococcaceae was maintained in a microbial consortium. The organism originated from pristine freshwater sediment collected from Rio Mameyes in Luquillo, Puerto Rico, in October 2009 (latitude 18°21'43.9", longitude –65°46'8.4"). The draft genome sequence is 2.1 Mb and has a G+C content of 43.5%.

  8. 40 CFR 180.593 - Etoxazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 10 Pistachio 0.01 Plum 0.15 Plum, prune, dried 0.30 Sapodilla 0.20 Sapote, black 0.20 Sapote, mamey 0... 0.02 Star apple 0.20 Tangerine 1 0.10 Tea, dried * 15 Tomato 0.20 1There are no U.S. registrations.... registrations for tea as of April 13, 2011. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. (c) Tolerances with regional...

  9. 40 CFR 180.593 - Etoxazole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....5 Canistel 0.20 Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, liver 0.01 Corn, field, forage 0.80 Corn, field, grain 0.01....02 Goat, liver 0.01 Grape, raisin 1.5 Hop, dried cones 7.0 Horse, fat 0.02 Horse, liver 0.01 Mango 0... Sapodilla 0.20 Sapote, black 0.20 Sapote, mamey 0.20 Sheep, fat 0.02 Sheep, liver 0.01 Spearmint, oil...

  10. 40 CFR 180.516 - Fludioxonil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., gin byproducts 0.05 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Flax, seed 0.05 Fruit, citrus, group 10 10 Fruit....0 Pulasan 1.0 Rambutan 1.0 Rapeseed, forage 0.01 Rapeseed, seed 0.01 Safflower, seed 0.01 Salal 2.0 Sapodilla 0.45 Sapote, black 0.45 Sapote, mamey 0.45 Spanish lime 1.0 Star apple 0.45 Strawberry 2.0...

  11. 40 CFR 180.635 - Spinetoram; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., seed 0.04 Spanish lime 0.30 Spearmint, tops 3.5 Spice, subgroup 19B, except black pepper 1.7 Star apple... Cotton, gin byproducts 1.5 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.04 Cranberry 0.04 Custard apple 0.30 Date 0.10 Egg 0... Sapodilla 0.30 Sapote, black 0.30 Sapote, mamey 0.30 Sapote, white 0.30 Sheep, fat 5.5 Sheep, liver 0.85...

  12. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....0 Cherry, tart 5.0 Cilantro, leaves 9.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.02 Currant 3.0 Egg 0.02 Fruit... Poultry, meat 0.02 Poultry, meat byproducts 0.02 Sapodilla 3.0 Sapote, black 3.0 Sapote, mamey 3.0 Sheep... Soybean, hay 15 Soybean, refined oil 0.40 Soybean, seed 0.25 Spearmint, tops 3.0 Star apple 3.0 Strawberry...

  13. 40 CFR 180.516 - Fludioxonil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., gin byproducts 0.05 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Flax, seed 0.05 Fruit, citrus, group 10 10 Fruit....0 Pulasan 1.0 Rambutan 1.0 Rapeseed, forage 0.01 Rapeseed, seed 0.01 Safflower, seed 0.01 Salal 2.0 Sapodilla 0.45 Sapote, black 0.45 Sapote, mamey 0.45 Spanish lime 1.0 Star apple 0.45 Strawberry 2.0...

  14. 40 CFR 180.516 - Fludioxonil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., gin byproducts 0.05 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Flax, seed 0.05 Fruit, citrus, group 10 10 Fruit....0 Pulasan 1.0 Rambutan 1.0 Rapeseed, forage 0.01 Rapeseed, seed 0.01 Safflower, seed 0.01 Salal 2.0 Sapodilla 0.45 Sapote, black 0.45 Sapote, mamey 0.45 Spanish lime 1.0 Star apple 0.45 Strawberry 2.0...

  15. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....0 Cherry, tart 5.0 Cilantro, leaves 9.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.02 Currant 3.0 Egg 0.02 Fruit... Poultry, meat 0.02 Poultry, meat byproducts 0.02 Sapodilla 3.0 Sapote, black 3.0 Sapote, mamey 3.0 Sheep... Soybean, hay 15 Soybean, refined oil 0.40 Soybean, seed 0.25 Spearmint, tops 3.0 Star apple 3.0 Strawberry...

  16. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....0 Cherry, tart 5.0 Cilantro, leaves 9.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.02 Currant 3.0 Egg 0.02 Fruit... Poultry, meat 0.02 Poultry, meat byproducts 0.02 Sapodilla 3.0 Sapote, black 3.0 Sapote, mamey 3.0 Sheep... Soybean, hay 15 Soybean, refined oil 0.40 Soybean, seed 0.25 Spearmint, tops 3.0 Star apple 3.0 Strawberry...

  17. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....0 Cherry, tart 5.0 Cilantro, leaves 9.0 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.02 Currant 3.0 Egg 0.02 Fruit... Poultry, meat 0.02 Poultry, meat byproducts 0.02 Sapodilla 3.0 Sapote, black 3.0 Sapote, mamey 3.0 Sheep... Soybean, hay 15 Soybean, refined oil 0.40 Soybean, seed 0.25 Spearmint, tops 3.0 Star apple 3.0 Strawberry...

  18. 40 CFR 180.476 - Triflumizole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., calculated as stoichiometric equivalent of the parent compound. Commodity Parts per million Apple 0.5 Apple, dry pomace 2.0 Apple, wet pomace 2.0 Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 8.0 Brassica, leafy greens..., black 2.5 Sapote, mamey 2.5 Star apple 2.5 Strawberry 2.0 Swiss chard 18 Turnip, greens 40 Vegetable...

  19. 40 CFR 180.476 - Triflumizole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., calculated as stoichiometric equivalent of the parent compound. Commodity Parts per million Apple 0.5 Apple, dry pomace 2.0 Apple, wet pomace 2.0 Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 8.0 Brassica, leafy greens..., black 2.5 Sapote, mamey 2.5 Star apple 2.5 Strawberry 2.0 Swiss chard 18 Turnip, greens 40 Vegetable...

  20. 40 CFR 180.476 - Triflumizole; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., calculated as stoichiometric equivalent of the parent compound. Commodity Parts per million Apple 0.5 Apple, dry pomace 2.0 Apple, wet pomace 2.0 Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5A 8.0 Brassica, leafy greens..., black 2.5 Sapote, mamey 2.5 Star apple 2.5 Strawberry 2.0 Swiss chard 18 Turnip, greens 40 Vegetable...

  1. 40 CFR 180.494 - Pyridaben; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., black 0.10 None Sapote, mamey 0.10 None Sheep, fat 0.05 None Sheep, meat 0.05 None Sheep, meat byproduct... Apple, wet pomace 0.75 None Canistel 0.10 None Cattle, fat 0.05 None Cattle, meat 0.05 None Cattle, meat... 2.5 None Goat, fat 0.0 None Goat, meat 0.05 None Goat, meat byproducts 0.05 None Grape 1.5 None Hog...

  2. 40 CFR 180.494 - Pyridaben; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., black 0.10 None Sapote, mamey 0.10 None Sheep, fat 0.05 None Sheep, meat 0.05 None Sheep, meat byproduct... Apple, wet pomace 0.75 None Canistel 0.10 None Cattle, fat 0.05 None Cattle, meat 0.05 None Cattle, meat... 2.5 None Goat, fat 0.0 None Goat, meat 0.05 None Goat, meat byproducts 0.05 None Grape 1.5 None Hog...

  3. 40 CFR 180.494 - Pyridaben; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., black 0.10 None Sapote, mamey 0.10 None Sheep, fat 0.05 None Sheep, meat 0.05 None Sheep, meat byproduct... Apple, wet pomace 0.75 None Canistel 0.10 None Cattle, fat 0.05 None Cattle, meat 0.05 None Cattle, meat... 2.5 None Goat, fat 0.0 None Goat, meat 0.05 None Goat, meat byproducts 0.05 None Grape 1.5 None Hog...

  4. 40 CFR 180.494 - Pyridaben; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., black 0.10 None Sapote, mamey 0.10 None Sheep, fat 0.05 None Sheep, meat 0.05 None Sheep, meat byproduct... Apple, wet pomace 0.75 None Canistel 0.10 None Cattle, fat 0.05 None Cattle, meat 0.05 None Cattle, meat... 2.5 None Goat, fat 0.0 None Goat, meat 0.05 None Goat, meat byproducts 0.05 None Grape 1.5 None Hog...

  5. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXIX. Eglerodendron.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    the basis of its 5-merous flowers, five-chambered ovary, and the stamens are inserted at the base of the corolla tube; in Pouteria the flowers are 4...merous, the ovary is four chambered, and the stamens are inserted near the middle of the corolla tube. This species is limited to the Amazon Basin and...other genera of this family (fig. 2); body cells tabular. Vessel-ray pitting irregular in shape and size . Ray cell contents light to dark brown and

  6. Regression models for estimating leaf area of seedlings and adult individuals of Neotropical rainforest tree species.

    PubMed

    Brito-Rocha, E; Schilling, A C; Dos Anjos, L; Piotto, D; Dalmolin, A C; Mielke, M S

    2016-01-01

    Individual leaf area (LA) is a key variable in studies of tree ecophysiology because it directly influences light interception, photosynthesis and evapotranspiration of adult trees and seedlings. We analyzed the leaf dimensions (length - L and width - W) of seedlings and adults of seven Neotropical rainforest tree species (Brosimum rubescens, Manilkara maxima, Pouteria caimito, Pouteria torta, Psidium cattleyanum, Symphonia globulifera and Tabebuia stenocalyx) with the objective to test the feasibility of single regression models to estimate LA of both adults and seedlings. In southern Bahia, Brazil, a first set of data was collected between March and October 2012. From the seven species analyzed, only two (P. cattleyanum and T. stenocalyx) had very similar relationships between LW and LA in both ontogenetic stages. For these two species, a second set of data was collected in August 2014, in order to validate the single models encompassing adult and seedlings. Our results show the possibility of development of models for predicting individual leaf area encompassing different ontogenetic stages for tropical tree species. The development of these models was more dependent on the species than the differences in leaf size between seedlings and adults.

  7. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-20

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, <0.1 to 16.7 micromol Trolox equiv/g puree, and 2.1 to 620.2 microg gallic acid equiv/g puree, respectively. The TAA, TDF, and pectin ranged from 7.5 to 188.8 mg/100 g, 0.9 to 7.2 g/100 g, and 0.20 to 1.04 g/100 g, respectively. The antioxidant activities, TSP, TAA, TDF, and pectin were influenced by cultivar (papaya, guava, and dragon fruit) and ripening stage (papaya and/or mango). Antioxidant activity showed high correlations with levels of TSP compounds (r = 0.96) but low correlations with levels of ascorbic acid (r = 0.35 and 0.23 for ORAC and DPPH data, respectively). The antioxidant activities evaluated by both ORAC and DPPH showed similar trends where red guava and carambola exhibited the highest and sapodilla and green papaya exhibited the lowest levels. Guava and mamey sapote exhibited the highest TDF and pectin levels. Many of the tropical fruits were shown to contain an abundance of hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid conjugates, and flavone glycosides. Preliminary descriptions are given of the phenols in red/white pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature.

  8. Seasonal variation and processing of vascular plant organic matter in tropical montane catchments as reflected by riverine DOC compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, P.; Dyda, R. Y.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical rivers are responsible for two thirds of global fluxes of terrigenous organic matter to the oceans, yet because of their remote locations relative to most industrialized countries, they are poorly studied compared to temperate and even Arctic rivers. This study measured lignin biomarkers on weekly samples from two Puerto Rican rivers, the Mameyes and the Rio Icacos, over the course of ~9 months in order to investigate watershed controls on organic matter export via rivers. In both rivers, carbon-normalized yields of lignin increased with discharge, indicating higher organic matter contributions from vascular plants and lower contributions from microbial sources. Lignin biomarkers can be used to distinguish between conifer and deciduous trees as well as woody and nonwoody tissues, and the source signatures of the two rivers were essentially the same, indicating similar vegetation and sources of organic materials to both rivers. Thus, differences in diagenetic lignin parameters can be attributed to differences in processing within the two watersheds. For example, the Rio Icacos is a much flashier system with much higher sediment loads during storm events, which can lead to significant exchange of organic matter between the dissolved and particulate phase. Acid to aldehyde ratios for vanillyl and syringyl lignin phenols, (Ad:Al)v and (Ad:Al)s, are commonly used indicators of degradation. Plots of (Ad:Al)s vs. (Ad:Al)v for the two rivers reveal a significantly steeper slope for the Mameyes, which could reflect differences in the mineralogy between the systems, as the Mameyes watershed is underlain by volcaniclastic materials while the Rio Icacos is underlain by granodiorite. It is a commonly held assumption that base materials and soils should exert a strong influence on riverine organic matter compositions, but paired watershed studies are comparatively rare even in temperate climates. Hence, measureable differences between the two systems studied here

  9. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

  10. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application.

  11. A capture-recapture model of amphidromous fish dispersal.

    PubMed

    Smith, W E; Kwak, T J

    2014-04-01

    Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2·5 year period to estimate transition probabilities between upper and lower elevations and survival probabilities with a multistate Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. A sub-set of fishes were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked at weekly intervals to estimate fine-scale dispersal. Changes in spatial and temporal distributions of tagged fishes indicated that neither G. dormitor nor A. monticola moved into the lowest, estuarine reaches of Río Mameyes during two consecutive reproductive periods, thus demonstrating that both species follow an amphidromous, rather than catadromous, migratory strategy. Further, both species were relatively sedentary, with restricted linear ranges. While substantial dispersal of these species occurs at the larval stage during recruitment to fresh water, the results indicate minimal dispersal in spawning adults. Successful conservation of diadromous fauna on tropical islands requires management at both broad basin and localized spatial scales.

  12. A capture-recapture model of amphidromous fish dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult movement scale was quantified for two tropical Caribbean diadromous fishes, bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor and mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola, using passive integrated transponders (PITs) and radio-telemetry. Large numbers of fishes were tagged in Rio Mameyes, Puerto Rico, U.S.A., with PITs and monitored at three fixed locations over a 2-5 year period to estimate transition probabilities between upper and lower elevations and survival probabilities with a multistate Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. A sub-set of fishes were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked at weekly intervals to estimate fine-scale dispersal. Changes in spatial and temporal distributions of tagged fishes indicated that neither G. dormitor nor A. monticola moved into the lowest, estuarine reaches of Rio Mameyes during two consecutive reproductive periods, thus demonstrating that both species follow an amphidromous, rather than catadromous, migratory strategy. Further, both species were relatively sedentary, with restricted linear ranges. While substantial dispersal of these species occurs at the larval stage during recruitment to fresh water, the results indicate minimal dispersal in spawning adults. Successful conservation of diadromous fauna on tropical islands requires management at both broad basin and localized spatial scales.

  13. Taxonomic description of in situ bee pollen from the middle Eocene of Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grímsson, FriĐgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Engel, Michael S.; Wappler, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The middle Eocene Messel and Eckfeld localities are renowned for their excellently preserved faunas and diverse floras. Here we describe for the first time pollen from insect-pollinated plants found in situ on well-preserved ancient bees using light and scanning electron microscopy. There have been 140 pollen types reported from Messel and 162 pollen types from Eckfeld. Here we document 23 pollen types, six from Messel and 18 from Eckfeld (one is shared). The taxa reported here are all pollinated by insects and mostly not recovered in the previously studied dispersed fossil pollen records. Typically, a single or two pollen types are found on each fossil bee specimen, the maximum number of distinct pollen types on a single individual is five. Only five of the 23 pollen types obtained are angiosperms of unknown affinity, the remainder cover a broad taxonomic range of angiosperm trees and include members of several major clades: monocots (1 pollen type), fabids (7), malvids (4), asterids (5) and other core eudicots (1). Seven types each can be assigned to individual genera or infrafamilial clades. Since bees visit only flowers in the relative vicinity of their habitat, the recovered pollen provides a unique insight into the autochthonous palaeo-flora. The coexistence of taxa such as Decodon, Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron and other Tilioideae, Mastixoideae, Olax, Pouteria and Nyssa confirms current views that diverse, thermophilic forests thrived at the Messel and Eckfeld localities, probably under a warm subtropical, fully humid climate. Our study calls for increased attention to pollen found in situ on pollen-harvesting insects such as bees, which can provide new insights on insect-pollinated plants and complement even detailed palaeo-palynological knowledge obtained mostly from pollen of wind-pollinated plants in the dispersed pollen record of sediments. In the case of Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron, Olax and Pouteria the pollen collected by the middle Eocene

  14. Taxonomic description of in situ bee pollen from the middle Eocene of Germany.

    PubMed

    Grímsson, FriĐgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Labandeira, Conrad C; Engel, Michael S; Wappler, Torsten

    2017-01-02

    The middle Eocene Messel and Eckfeld localities are renowned for their excellently preserved faunas and diverse floras. Here we describe for the first time pollen from insect-pollinated plants found in situ on well-preserved ancient bees using light and scanning electron microscopy. There have been 140 pollen types reported from Messel and 162 pollen types from Eckfeld. Here we document 23 pollen types, six from Messel and 18 from Eckfeld (one is shared). The taxa reported here are all pollinated by insects and mostly not recovered in the previously studied dispersed fossil pollen records. Typically, a single or two pollen types are found on each fossil bee specimen, the maximum number of distinct pollen types on a single individual is five. Only five of the 23 pollen types obtained are angiosperms of unknown affinity, the remainder cover a broad taxonomic range of angiosperm trees and include members of several major clades: monocots (1 pollen type), fabids (7), malvids (4), asterids (5) and other core eudicots (1). Seven types each can be assigned to individual genera or infrafamilial clades. Since bees visit only flowers in the relative vicinity of their habitat, the recovered pollen provides a unique insight into the autochthonous palaeo-flora. The coexistence of taxa such as Decodon, Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron and other Tilioideae, Mastixoideae, Olax, Pouteria and Nyssa confirms current views that diverse, thermophilic forests thrived at the Messel and Eckfeld localities, probably under a warm subtropical, fully humid climate. Our study calls for increased attention to pollen found in situ on pollen-harvesting insects such as bees, which can provide new insights on insect-pollinated plants and complement even detailed palaeo-palynological knowledge obtained mostly from pollen of wind-pollinated plants in the dispersed pollen record of sediments. In the case of Elaeocarpus, Mortoniodendron, Olax and Pouteria the pollen collected by the middle Eocene bees

  15. Influence of Soil Erosion and Landslide Occurrence on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Loss in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dialynas, Y. G.; Bastola, S.; Bras, R. L.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Silver, W. L.; Arnone, E.; Noto, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical rainforests play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle. The Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) in Puerto Rico is characterized by intense erosion and landslide occurrence, which have been historically influenced by human activity and land use change, and drive the redistribution and burial of soil organic C (SOC) across the landscape. Estimates of regional C budgets do not systematically account for linkages between hydrological, geomorphological, and biogeochemical processes, which control the fate of eroded SOC. We quantify the impacts of erosion and rainfall-triggered landslides on SOC oxidation and accumulation at the Mameyes and Icacos watersheds. We developed and calibrated a spatially-explicit model of SOC dynamics, i.e. tRIBS-ECO (Triangulated Irregular Network-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator-Erosion and Carbon Oxidation), based on a coupled physically-based hydro-geomorphic model. The model inputs we used include measurements of SOC content at different horizons, and SOC oxidation and production rates derived from SOC turnover characteristics. We demonstrate the extent to which depth-dependent SOC oxidation and production are altered at eroding hillslopes and at landslide locations, and how this is being moderated by management practices. We estimated the SOC deposition rates at the floodplains of Mameyes and Icacos rivers, part of which is fluvially transported out of the system. The contrasting lithology of the two watersheds leads to different hydro-geomorphological behavior which controls the redistribution and storage of SOC. Results showed that topography and heterogeneity of tropical vegetation lead to significant spatial variability of the erosion-induced soil CO2 flux to the atmosphere. We highlight the importance of the representation of SOC redistribution driven by local variation in lithological and geomorphological characteristics and hydroclimatic conditions in attempts to quantify watershed-scale soil C

  16. Neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of fruit residues.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya

    2013-11-01

    Neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn., Sapindaceae) and salacca (Salacca edulis Reinw., Arecaceae) pericarp, and sapodilla (Achras sapota L., Sapotaceae) and tamarind Srichompu cultivar (Tamarindus indica L., Caesalpiniaceae) seed coat extracts were evaluated on cultured cholinergic P19-derived neurons. All the extracts, at a very low concentration (1 ng/mL of litchi and salacca pericarp extracts, 10 ng/mL of sapodilla and 100 ng/mL of tamarind seed coat extracts), enhanced the survival of cultured neurons (% viability more than 100%) by XTT reduction assay. The extracts were further evaluated for their neuritogenicity by observing cell morphology by phase-contrast microscopy and neuroprotective activity in serum deprivation and pre- and co-administration of hydrogen peroxide models. The phase-contrast micrographs displayed that all of the extracts possessed neurogenic activity by promoting the neurite outgrowth of the cultured neurons. Moreover, these extracts can protect neurons from oxidative stress-caused cell death in a serum deprivation model, and prevent and protect neuron cells from the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide. In this study we assured that the neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of these extracts derived from the phenolic components and flavonoids contained in the extracts by acting as signaling molecules to enhance neuron survival and promote neurite outgrowth. These results suggest that all of the extracts are potentially sources of neuritogenic and neuroprotective components which might be used either as pharmaceutical products or dietary supplements for neurodegenerative disorder patients, for example, those suffering from Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Landslides and sediment budgets in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter F in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The low-latitude regions of the Earth are undergoing profound, rapid landscape change as forests are converted to agriculture to support growing population. Understanding the effects of these land-use changes requires analysis of watershed-scale geomorphic processes to better inform and manage this usually disorganized process. The investigation of hillslope erosion and the development of sediment budgets provides essential information for resource managers. Four small, montane, humid-tropical watersheds in the Luquillo Experimental Forest and nearby Río Grande de Loíza watershed, Puerto Rico (18° 20' N., 65° 45' W.), were selected to compare and contrast the geomorphic effects of land use and bedrock geology. Two of the watersheds are underlain largely by resistant Cretaceous volcaniclastic rocks but differ in land use and mean annual runoff: the Mameyes watershed, with predominantly primary forest cover and runoff of 2,750 millimeters per year, and the Canóvanas watershed, with mixed secondary forest and pasture and runoff of 970 millimeters per year. The additional two watersheds are underlain by relatively erodible granitic bedrock: the forested Icacos watershed, with runoff of 3,760 millimeters per year and the agriculturally developed Cayaguás watershed, with a mean annual runoff of 1,620 millimeters per year. Annual sediment budgets were estimated for each watershed using landslide, slopewash, soil creep, treethrow, suspended sediment, and streamflow data. The budgets also included estimates of sediment storage in channel beds, bars, floodplains, and in colluvial deposits. In the two watersheds underlain by volcaniclastic rocks, the forested Mameyes and the developed Canóvanas watersheds, landslide frequency (0.21 and 0.04 landslides per square kilometer per year, respectively), slopewash (5 and 30 metric tons per square kilometer per year), and suspended sediment yield (325 and 424 metric tons per square kilometer per year), were lower than in the

  18. Effect of logging on rodent scatter-hoarding dynamics in tropical forests: implications for plant recruitment.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that logging affects the scatter-hoarding behavior of rodents, which, in turn, negatively affects the quantity and quality of Pouteria campechiana (Sapotaceae) seed dispersal. A series of seed stations was established in logged and unlogged forests of ejido Señor, Yucatan Peninsula, and comparisons were made between logged and unlogged forests in terms of: (i) seed removal; (ii) number of seeds hoarded; (iii) hoarding distance; and (iv) the number of recruits and the survival of hoarded seeds. The number of both hoarded and removed seeds was significantly higher in unlogged sites. Furthermore, the mean distance of hoarding was greater in unlogged compared with logged sites. Although recruitment and survival were present in both logged and unlogged sites, there were more surviving seedlings in unlogged sites. The data indicate that both the quantity and quality of seed dispersal are negatively affected by logging because of a change in the rodent scatter-hoarding dynamics. These changes suggest that plant-animal interactions are crucial to the understanding of the ecology and conservation of managed tropical forests.

  19. Growth dynamics of root and shoot hydraulic conductance in seedlings of five neotropical tree species: scaling to show possible adaptation to differing light regimes.

    PubMed

    Tyree, Melvin T; Velez, Virginia; Dalling, J W

    1998-04-01

    The dynamics of growth (shoot and root dry weights, surface areas, hydraulic conductances, and root length) were measured in seedlings of five neotropical tree species aged 4-16 months. The species studied included two light-demanding pioneers (Miconia argentea and Apeiba membranacea) and three shade-tolerant young- or old-forest species (Pouteria reticulata, Gustavia superba, and Trichilia tuberculata). Growth analysis revealed that shoot and root dry weights and hydraulic conductances and leaf area all increased exponentially with time. Alternative methods of scaling measured parameters to reveal differences that might explain adaptations to microsites are discussed. Scaling root conductance to root surface area or root length revealed a few species differences but nothing that correlated with adaptation to light regimes. Scaling of root surface area or root length to root dry weight revealed that pioneers produced significantly more root area and length per gram dry weight investment than shade-tolerant species. Scaling of root and shoot hydraulic conductances to leaf area and scaling of root conductance to root dry weight and shoot conductance to shoot dry weight also revealed that pioneers were significantly more conductive to water than shade-tolerant species. The advantages of scaling hydraulic parameters to leaf surface area are discussed in terms of the Ohm's law analogue of water flow in plants.

  20. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies.

  1. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data for precipitation, stream water, and groundwater in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel; Rosario-Torres, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Puerto Rico is located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea (18.2 °N, 66.3 °W), with the Atlantic Ocean on its northern coast. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program study area in which most of these data were collected comprises the El Yunque National Forest and surrounding area of eastern Puerto Rico. Samples were collected in two forested watersheds, the Rio Mameyes and the Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco, on opposite sides of a ridge in the Luquillo Mountains on the eastern end of the island (fig. 1). Elevation in both watersheds ranges from sea level to approximately 1,000 meters (m). Near sea level, land use is mixed pasture, moist forest, and residential, grading to completely forested within the boundaries of El Yunque National Forest. Forest type changes with elevation from tabonuco to palo colorado to sierra palm to cloud forest above approximately 950 m (Murphy and others, 2012). The Rio Mameyes watershed is oriented north-northeast, and the basin is underlain by volcaniclastic bedrock (basaltic to andesitic volcanic sandstone/mudstone/conglomerate/breccia). The Rio Icacos/Rio Blanco watershed is oriented south-southeast. The Rio Icacos is one of the headwaters of the Rio Blanco and is underlain by quartz diorite. The lower Rio Blanco basin is underlain by andesitic volcaniclastic bedrock. This report also contains a long-term rain isotope dataset from the San Agustin site, in north-central Puerto Rico (fig. 1). Puerto Rico has a tropical climate dominated by easterly trade winds, and seasonal climate patterns affect the hydrology of the study area. The summer wet season is characterized by convective precipitation from tropical easterly waves, troughs, and cyclonic low-pressure systems, including tropical storms and hurricanes; in contrast, the drier winter season is characterized by trade-wind showers and frontal systems. The highest single-event rainfall totals tend to be associated with tropical storms

  2. Just passing through --- high Hg deposition to Puerto Rico forest moves quickly off the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanley, J. B.; Willenbring, J. K.; Kaste, J. M.; Occhi, M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) in wet deposition at the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico, averages 28 μg m-2 yr-1, higher than any site in the USA Mercury Deposition Network. Despite the high deposition, Hg content of soils, vegetation, and biota are below global averages. The low Hg content of watershed surfaces, coupled with exceptionally high stream total Hg flux, suggest that most of the Hg passes through the watershed with minimal retention. We assessed Hg dynamics in two adjacent watersheds, Rio Icacos underlain by quartz diorite, and Rio Mameyes underlain by volcaniclastic rocks. At both sites, high-flow Hg concentrations approached 100 ng L-1, dominated by particulate Hg. In order to assess the apparent pass-through nature of Hg in this tropical forest, we measured 7Be and 10Be isotopes from natural, cosmogenic fallout adsorbed on stream suspended particles to constrain the Hg age /residence time and source (atmospheric vs. geogenic or legacy Hg from 19th century gold mining). Ubiquitous 7Be (half-life 53 days) and relatively high 7Be/10Be ratios on suspended particles suggest that stream Hg was dominated by erosion from exposed surfaces, supporting a short residence time. The low watershed retention of the high Hg throughput limits adverse biological effects in this tropical ecosystem.

  3. Determination of some physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Estrada-Mota, Iván; Estrada-León, Raciel; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Vargas y Vargas, María de Lourdes; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The aim to the study was to determine the physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fruits from Yucatan, Mexico such as star apple, cashew, mombin, mamey sapote, white sapote, sugar apple, sapodilla, dragon fruit, nance, ilama, custard apple, mamoncillo and black sapote. The physicochemical characteristics were different between fruits and were good sources of bioactive compounds. The edible part with the highest values of antioxidant activity were mamoncillo, star apple, mombin, cashew, white sapote, ilama, custard apple, sugar apple, and nance. Total soluble phenols content showed a correlation with antioxidant activity by ABTS (R=0.52, P⩽0.05) and DPPH (R=0.43, P⩽0.05). A high correlation was obtained between the two assays (ABTS and DPPH) used to measure antioxidant activity in the tropical fruit species under study (R=0.82, P⩽0.05). The results show promising perspectives for the exploitation and use of tropical fruits studied with significant levels of nutrients and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.

  5. Tropical river suspended sediment and solute dynamics in storms during an extreme drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Kathryn E.; Shanley, James B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Perdrial, Julia N.; Plante, Alain F.; McDowell, William H.

    2017-05-01

    Droughts, which can strongly affect both hydrologic and biogeochemical systems, are projected to become more prevalent in the tropics in the future. We assessed the effects of an extreme drought during 2015 on stream water composition in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. We demonstrated that drought base flow in the months leading up to the study was sourced from trade-wind orographic rainfall, suggesting a resistance to the effects of an otherwise extreme drought. In two catchments (Mameyes and Icacos), we sampled a series of four rewetting events that partially alleviated the drought. We collected and analyzed dissolved constituents (major cations and anions, organic carbon, and nitrogen) and suspended sediment (inorganic and organic matter (particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen)). The rivers appeared to be resistant to extreme drought, recovering quickly upon rewetting, as (1) the concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships deviated little from the long-term patterns; (2) "new water" dominated streamflow during the latter events; (3) suspended sediment sources had accumulated in the channel during the drought flushed out during the initial events; and (4) the severity of the drought, as measured by the US drought monitor, was reduced dramatically after the rewetting events. Through this interdisciplinary study, we were able to investigate the impact of extreme drought through rewetting events on the river biogeochemistry.

  6. Native carotenoids composition of some tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Enrique; Giuffrida, Daniele; Menchaca, Dania; Dugo, Paola; Torre, Germana; Meléndez-Martinez, Antonio J; Mondello, Luigi

    2013-10-15

    Many tropical fruits can be considered a reservoir of bioactive substances with a special interest due to their possible health-promoting properties. The interest in carotenoids from a nutritional standpoint has recently greatly increased, because of their important health benefits. Here we report the native carotenoids composition in six tropical fruits from Panama, which is considered a region of great biodiversity. The native carotenoid composition was directly investigated by an HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS methodology, for the first time. In Corozo 32 different carotenoids were detected, including a high content of β-carotene and lycopene. Sastra showed the highest content of zeaxanthin among the fruit investigated. In Sapote 22 different carotenoids were detected, including β-carotene and 10 different zeaxanthin-di-esters. Frutita showed a very high content of the apo-carotenoid β-citraurin, and of a number of its esters. In Maracuyà chino 14 carotenoids were detected, including a high amounts of mono-esterified lauric acid with β-cryptoxanthin and with cryptocapsin. Mamey rojo was characterised by ketocarotenoids with κ rings, both hydroxylated and not hydroxylated.

  7. Road and stream network connectivity and potential: northeastern Puerto Rico, an exploratory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrill, K. R.; Laituri, M. J.; Helmer, E. H.; Ramirez, J. A.; Blanco, J. F.; Hein, K.; Pike, A. S.

    2008-07-01

    Interactions between road and stream networks are complex and are influenced by a range of environmental and road design characteristics. These interactions are not clearly understood and are the subjects of current research. To increase understanding of these interactions we explore the concepts of Road and Stream Network Connectivity (R/S Connectivity) and Road and Stream Network Connectivity Potential (RSNCP). Lastly we provide a methodology for study and analysis of R/S connectivity. This study focuses on road induced alterations to sediment and water flow processes, which are important road effects of R/S connectivity. For 25 river road crossings (RRC) in the Rio Mameyes and Rio Espiritu watersheds of Northeastern Puerto Rico, a multi-scale Geographic Information Systems (GIS) database measuring environmental and road characteristic variables was developed specifically to measure variables influencing sediment and water flow. Multivariate analysis methods were used to select the environmental and road characteristic variables which were used in multiple linear regression models for three biota variables (Decapod Richness, Adult Fish Richness, and Total Richness), and four stream habitat geomorphology variables (Median Channel Grain Size, Active Channel Maximum Depth, Pool Volume, and Active Channel Width). Explained variance (R2) from modeling results ranged from 0.22 to 0.86, demonstrating that the GIS derived variables can successfully be used to model important stream biota and geomorphology response variables.

  8. Development of a novel micro-assay for evaluation of peroxyl radical scavenger capacity: application to carotenoids and structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eliseu; Mariutti, Lilian R B; Chisté, Renan C; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2012-12-01

    A micro-assay was developed and validated, using a microplate reader in 96-well format, C(11)-BODIPY(581/591) as fluorescent probe and AIBN as ROO() generator. The structure-activity relationship was established for 15 carotenoid standards, indicating that the opening of the β-ionone ring and the increase of chromophore extension in the carotenoid structure were the major factors leading to the increase of ROO() scavenging capacity. The values for ROO() scavenging capacity were calculated using α-tocopherol as reference compound. Among the studied carotenoids, all-trans-lycopene was the most efficient ROO() scavenger (8.67±0.74) followed by all-trans-astaxanthin (6.50±0.62). All the carotenoids showed to be more effective ROO() scavengers than α-tocopherol and some hydrophilic compounds. Finally, the method was successfully applied to assay the ROO() scavenging capacity of carotenoid extracts from two Amazonian fruits, peach palm (7.83±0.21) and mamey (6.90±0.44). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival and enumeration of the fecal indicators Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Escherichia coli in a tropical rain forest watershed.

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, M; Estrada, E; Hazen, T C

    1985-01-01

    The density of Bifidobacterium spp., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total anaerobic bacteria, acridine orange direct counts, percentages of total bacterial community activity and respiration, and 12 physical and chemical parameters were measured simultaneously at six sites for 12 months in the Mameyes River rain forest watershed, Puerto Rico. The densities of all bacteria were higher than those reported for uncontaminated temperate rivers, even though other water quality parameters would indicate that all uncontaminated sites were oligotrophic. The highest densities for all indicator bacteria were at the site receiving sewage effluent; however, the highest elevation site in the watershed had the next highest densities. Correlations between bacterial densities, nitrates, temperature, phosphates, and total phosphorus indicated that all viable counts were related to nutrient levels, regardless of the site sampled. In situ diffusion chamber studies at two different sites indicated that E. coli could survive, remain physiologically active, and regrow at rates that were dependent on nutrient levels of the ambient waters. Bifidobacterium adolescentis did not survive at either site but did show different rates of decline and physiological activity at the two sites. Bifidobacteria show promise as a better indicator of recent fecal contamination in tropical freshwaters than E. coli or fecal coliforms; however, the YN-6 medium did not prove to be effective for enumeration of bifidobacteria. The coliform maximum contaminant levels for assessing water usability for drinking and recreation appear to be unworkable in tropical freshwaters. PMID:3901921

  10. Performance of seedlings of a shade-tolerant tropical tree species after moderate addition of N and P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárate Tandalla, Daisy; Leuschner, Christoph; Homeier, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition to tropical forests is predicted to increase in future in many regions due to agricultural intensification. We conducted a seedling transplantation experiment in a tropical premontane forest in Ecuador with a locally abundant late-successional tree species (Pouteria torta, Sapotaceae) aimed at detecting species-specific responses to moderate N and P addition and to understand how increasing nutrient availability will affect regeneration. From locally collected seeds, 320 seedlings were produced and transplanted to the plots of the Ecuadorian Nutrient Manipulation Experiment (NUMEX) with three treatments (moderate N addition: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1, moderate P addition: 10 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and combined N and P addition) and a control (80 plants per treatment). After 12 months, mortality, relative growth rate, leaf nutrient content and leaf herbivory rate were measured. N and NP addition significantly increased the mortality rate (70 % vs. 54 % in the control). However, N and P addition also increased the diameter growth rate of the surviving seedlings. N and P addition did not alter foliar nutrient concentrations and leaf N:P ratio, but N addition decreased the leaf C:N ratio and increased SLA. P addition (but not N addition) resulted in higher leaf area loss to herbivore consumption and also shifted carbon allocation to root growth. This fertilization experiment with a common rainforest tree species conducted in old-growth forest shows that already moderate doses of added N and P are affecting seedling performance which most likely will have consequences for the competitive strength in the understory and the recruitment success of P. torta. Simultaneous increases in growth, herbivory and mortality rates make it difficult to assess the species' overall performance and predict how a future increase in nutrient deposition will alter the abundance of this species in the Andean tropical montane forests.

  11. Antimalarial plants used by indigenous people of the Upper Rio Negro in Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kffuri, Carolina Weber; Lopes, Moisés Ahkʉtó; Ming, Lin Chau; Odonne, Guillaume; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira

    2016-02-03

    This is the first intercultural report of antimalarial plants in this region. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used against malaria by indigenous people in the Upper Rio Negro region and to review the literature on antimalarial activity and traditional use of the cited species. Participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and ethnobotanical walks were conducted with 89 informants in five indigenous communities between April 2010 and November 2013 to obtain information on the use of medicinal plants against malaria. We reviewed academic databases for papers published in scientific journals up to January 2014 in order to find works on ethnopharmacology, ethnobotany, and antimalarial activity of the species cited. Forty-six plant species belonging to 24 families are mentioned. Fabaceae (17.4%), Arecaceae (13.0%) and Euphorbiaceae (6.5%) account together for 36.9% of these species. Only seven plant species showed a relatively high consensus. Among the plant parts, barks (34.0%) and roots (28.0%) were the most widely used. Of the 46 species cited, 18 (39.1%) have already been studied for their antimalarial properties according to the literature, and 26 species (56.5%) have no laboratory essays on antimalarial activity. Local traditional knowledge of the use of antimalarials is still widespread in indigenous communities of the Upper Rio Negro, where 46 plants species used against malaria were recorded. Our studies highlight promising new plants for future studies: Glycidendron amazonicum, Heteropsis tenuispadix, Monopteryx uaucu, Phenakospermum guianensis, Pouteria ucuqui, Sagotia brachysepala and notably Aspidosperma schultesii, Ampelozizyphus amazonicus, Euterpe catinga, E. precatoria, Physalis angulata, Cocos nucifera and Swartzia argentea with high-use consensus. Experimental validation of these remedies may help in developing new drugs for malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Water quality and mass transport in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter E in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality of four small watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico has been monitored since 1991 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets program. These watersheds represent a montane, humid-tropical environment and differ in geology and land cover. Two watersheds are located on granitic rocks, and two are located on volcaniclastic rock. For each bedrock type, one watershed is covered with mature rainforest in the Luquillo Mountains, and the other watershed is undergoing reforestation after being affected by agricultural practices typical of eastern Puerto Rico. A subwatershed of the Icacos watershed, the Guabá, was also monitored to examine scaling effects. The water quality of the rivers draining forest, in the Icacos and Guabá (granitic watersheds) and Mameyes (a volcaniclastic watershed), show little contamination by human activities. The water is well oxygenated and has a nearly neutral pH, and nutrient concentrations are low. Concentrations of nutrients in the disturbed watersheds, the Cayaguás (granitic rock) and Canóvanas (volcaniclastic rock), are greater than in the forested watersheds, indicating some inputs from human activities. High in-stream productivity in the Canóvanas watershed leads to occasional oxygen and calcite supersaturation and carbon dioxide undersaturation. Suspended sediment concentrations in all watersheds are low, except during major storms. Most dissolved constituents derived from bedrock weathering or atmospheric deposition (including sodium, magnesium, calcium, silica, alkalinity, and chloride) decrease in concentration with increasing runoff, reflecting dilution from increased proportions of overland or near-surface flow. Strongly bioactive constituents (dissolved organic carbon, potassium, nitrate, ammonium ion, and phosphate) commonly display increasing concentration with increasing runoff, regardless of their ultimate origin (bedrock or atmosphere). The concentrations of many of the

  13. Assessment of Concentrations of Heavy Metals and Phthalates in Two Urban Rivers of the Northeast of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Colón, Ana I; Piñero-Santiago, Luis E; Rivera, Nilsa M; Sosa, María A

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization adjacent to rivers has increased in recent years and is considered a source of environmental contamination. The resulting increase in number of urban rivers in highly populated areas, such as the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, has led to the appearance of synthetic as well as naturally occurring chemicals not previously observed nor regularly monitored in freshwater habitats. Some of these chemicals, such as heavy metals and plasticizers, have been shown to affect endocrine, respiratory, and nervous system function in animals and humans, even at relatively low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of such emergent contaminants on rivers of urbanized areas on the northeast of Puerto Rico, as one element in the assessment of the impact of urbanism on water quality in these communities. To accomplish this, we used Inductively Coupled Plasma and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry to measure amounts of heavy metals and phthalates, respectively, in superficial water of three rivers of Puerto Rico: Mameyes (non-urban), Río Piedras (urban river without a dam), and La Plata (urban river with a dam). The urban rivers had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals arsenic, barium, cadmium, manganese, and antimony, when compared with the reference non-urban river. Manganese was the only metal found in concentrations higher than limits established by the EPA for drinking water. Of eight phthalates amenable to measurement with the chosen protocol and instrumentation, only dibutyl phthalate was detected, only in the La Plata river, and at concentrations ranging from 3 to 8 parts-per-billion. These findings suggest that urbanism close to rivers of Puerto Rico is likely having an impact on water quality and thus further study to identify the potential sources, as well as the inclusion of these emergent contaminants on the list of chemicals regularly monitored by government agencies is justified. PMID:27148470

  14. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids.

  15. Tropical river suspended load and solute dynamics in storms within an extreme drought, Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K. E.; Shanley, J. B.; Perdrial, N.; Scholl, M. A.; Perdrial, J. N.; Plante, A. F.; McDowell, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    Drought is projected to become more prevalent in the tropics under a changing climate. Drought affects hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in the critical zone, which in turn can affect transport of solutes and solids to marine receiving waters. To assess the effects of drought, we examined stream biogeochemistry at two montane rivers during a series of four rewetting events in late August 2015 within an extreme drought in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO), Puerto Rico. We analyzed particulate load (suspended sediment, mineralogy, particulate organic carbon, particulate nitrogen) and dissolved load (dissolved organic carbon, major solutes). Both Río Icacos and Rio Mameyes have continuous streamflow gages, and Río Icacos also had in-stream sensors for specific conductance, turbidity, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) for detailed insight into river behavior. Using solute concentrations and stable isotopes, we determined that new water dominated streamflow during the rewetting period, indicating the importance of rainfall during drought. Relations of suspended sediment and solute concentrations to discharge during rewetting events did not vary from the long-term record, indicating a lack of sediment and solute buildup during drought. Sources of suspended minerals varied through the rewetting events, depending on catchment geology, where particulate minerals varied between primary and secondary minerals over the hydrograph. Sources of particulate organic matter progressively shifted from in-channel sources in the first storms, to mineral soil, and vegetation and organic soil in later storms. These findings suggest that these tropical rivers in the LCZO are resilient to extreme drought.

  16. Integration of a Physically based Distributed Hydrological Model with a Model of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling: A Case Study at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastola, S.; Dialynas, Y. G.; Bras, R. L.; Arnone, E.; Noto, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of carbon and nitrogen cycles, increasingly influenced by human activities, are the key to the functioning of ecosystems. These cycles are influenced by the composition of the substrate, availability of nitrogen, the population of microorganisms, and by environmental factors. Therefore, land management and use, climate change, and nitrogen deposition patterns influence the dynamics of these macronutrients at the landscape scale. In this work a physically based distributed hydrological model, the tRIBS model, is coupled with a process-based multi-compartment model of the biogeochemical cycle to simulate the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen (CN) in the Mameyes River basin, Puerto Rico. The model includes a wide range of processes that influence the movement, production, alteration of nutrients in the landscape and factors that affect the CN cycling. The tRIBS integrates geomorphological and climatic factors that influence the cycling of CN in soil. Implementing the decomposition module into tRIBS makes the model a powerful complement to a biogeochemical observation system and a forecast tool able to analyze the influences of future changes on ecosystem services. The soil hydrologic parameters of the model were obtained using ranges of published parameters and observed streamflow data at the outlet. The parameters of the decomposition module are based on previously published data from studies conducted in the Luquillio CZO (budgets of soil organic matter and CN ratio for each of the dominant vegetation types across the landscape). Hydrological fluxes, wet depositon of nitrogen, litter fall and its corresponding CN ratio drive the decomposition model. The simulation results demonstrate a strong influence of soil moisture dynamics on the spatiotemporal distribution of nutrients at the landscape level. The carbon in the litter pool and the nitrate and ammonia pool respond quickly to soil moisture content. Moreover, the CN ratios of the plant litter have

  17. River Suspended Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Transport in Two Montane Catchments in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory of Puerto Rico over 25 years: 1989 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, K. E.; Plante, A. F.; Willenbring, J. K.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Gonzalez, G.; Stallard, R. F.; Murphy, S. F.; Vann, D. R.; Leon, M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Physical erosion in mountain catchments mobilizes large amounts of sediment, while exporting carbon and nutrients from forest ecosystems. This study expands from previous studies quantifying river suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon loads in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, in Puerto Rico. We evaluate the influences on river suspended load due to i) underlying basin geology, ii) hillslope debris and biomass supply, and iii) hurricanes and large storms. In the Mameyes and Icacos catchments of the Luquillo Mountains, we estimate suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon yields over a 25-year period using streamflow discharge determined from stage measurements at 15-intervals, with estimates of discharge replacing gaps in data, and over 3000 suspended sediment samples. We estimate variation in suspended sediment loads over time, and examine variation in particulate organic carbon loads. Mass spectrometry was used to determine organic carbon concentrations. We confirm that higher suspended sediment fluxes occurred i) in the highly weathered quartz diorite catchment rather than the predominantly volcaniclastic catchment, ii) on the rising limb of the hydrograph once a threshold discharge had been reached, and iii) during hurricanes and other storm events, and we explore these influences on particulate organic carbon transport. Transport of suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon in the rivers shows considerable hysteresis, and we evaluate the extent to which hysteresis affects particulate fluxes over time and between catchments. Because particulate organic carbon is derived from the critical zone and transported during high flow, our research highlights the role of major tropical storms in controlling carbon storage in the critical zone and the coastal ocean.

  18. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Imbert Formation, northern Dominican Republic: a record of syn-collisional basin development and ophiolite emplacement during Caribbean island arc-North America continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, Á.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2015-12-01

    Located in northern Dominican Republic, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic mélange originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward tectono-stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional piggy-back basin during the Caribbean island arc-North America continent collision. The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite (the Puerto Plata complex) and a serpentinite subduction channel (the Río San Juan complex), and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (chaotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group. The 40Ar/39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ~45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to be the source of the ophiolitic fragments in the Imbert Fm, during of shortly after the

  19. Droplets to Deluges: Combining Stable-Isotope and Meteorological Data to Resolve Climate Controls on Recharge and Runoff in Tropical Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Determining which rain-producing weather patterns contribute most to water supply is important in areas where climate change is expected to influence large-scale atmospheric parameters controlling precipitation. Tropical mountain watersheds receive high rainfall, but their resilience to drought conditions is not well understood. Their hydrology may include extremely frequent small precipitation events as well as infrequent events with extreme amounts. Isotope hydrology studies in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico (LUQ) and the Hawaiian Islands compared rain, cloud water, stream and groundwater measurements to build understanding of the climate patterns that contribute to recharge and baseflow. Despite small annual fluctuation in land surface temperature, precipitation stable isotope composition varied seasonally, had a large range (δ 18O = -0.73 to -20.4‰, δ 2H = +12 to -154‰) and correlated with cloud altitude (atmospheric temperature) and storm history in both places. Permeability, storage capacity and antecedent moisture control how rainfall is partitioned into overland flow, plant-available soil moisture, and shallow and deep groundwater pathways on its way to the stream channel. In LUQ, orographic rain and cloud water were more important than convective rainfall in maintaining baseflow; a significant proportion of convective rainfall became runoff. In contrast, stream isotopic composition showed that a large storm supplied baseflow for 18 months in Hawaiian volcanic terrane. Over 3 years in LUQ, seasonal variation in deuterium excess indicated runoff in the 1780 ha Mameyes basin was about 25% quickflow (transit time < 7 days) and 75% groundwater. In a 1.5 ha headwater catchment, nightly cloud water deposition sustained stream water levels, and cloud water contribution to streamflow was evident in isotopic samples. Further research linking weather patterns, precipitation, and subsurface flow partitioning will help with water management in a changing

  20. Assessment of Concentrations of Heavy Metals and Phthalates in Two Urban Rivers of the Northeast of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Colón, Ana I; Piñero-Santiago, Luis E; Rivera, Nilsa M; Sosa, María A

    2016-03-20

    Urbanization adjacent to rivers has increased in recent years and is considered a source of environmental contamination. The resulting increase in number of urban rivers in highly populated areas, such as the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, has led to the appearance of synthetic as well as naturally occurring chemicals not previously observed nor regularly monitored in freshwater habitats. Some of these chemicals, such as heavy metals and plasticizers, have been shown to affect endocrine, respiratory, and nervous system function in animals and humans, even at relatively low concentrations. The purpose of this study was to measure concentrations of such emergent contaminants on rivers of urbanized areas on the northeast of Puerto Rico, as one element in the assessment of the impact of urbanism on water quality in these communities. To accomplish this, we used Inductively Coupled Plasma and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry to measure amounts of heavy metals and phthalates, respectively, in superficial water of three rivers of Puerto Rico: Mameyes (non-urban), Río Piedras (urban river without a dam), and La Plata (urban river with a dam). The urban rivers had significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals arsenic, barium, cadmium, manganese, and antimony, when compared with the reference non-urban river. Manganese was the only metal found in concentrations higher than limits established by the EPA for drinking water. Of eight phthalates amenable to measurement with the chosen protocol and instrumentation, only dibutyl phthalate was detected, only in the La Plata river, and at concentrations ranging from 3 to 8 parts-per-billion. These findings suggest that urbanism close to rivers of Puerto Rico is likely having an impact on water quality and thus further study to identify the potential sources, as well as the inclusion of these emergent contaminants on the list of chemicals regularly monitored by government agencies is justified.

  1. Floristic composition and similarity of 15 hectares in Central Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Kátia Emidio; Martins, Sebastião Venancio; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Santos, Nerilson Terra; de Azevedo, Celso Paulo; Matos, Francisca Dionizia de Almeida; do Amaral, Ieda Leão

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most diverse areas in the world. Research on high tropical forest diversity brings up relevant contributions to understand the mechanisms that result and support such diversity. In the present study we describe the species composition and diversity of 15 one-ha plots in the Amazonian terra firme dense forest in Brazil, and compare the floristic similarity of these plots with other nine one-ha plots. The 15 plots studied were randomly selected from permanent plots at the Embrapa Experimental site, Amazonas State in 2005. The diversity was analysed by using species richness and Shannon's index, and by applying the Sorensen's index for similarity and unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) as clustering method. Mantel test was performed to study whether the differences in species composition between sites could be explained by the geographic distance between them. Overall, we identified 8 771 individuals, 264 species and 51 plant families. Most of the species were concentrated in few families and few had large number of individuals. Families presenting the highest species richness were Fabaceae (Faboideae: 22spp., Mimosoideae: 22spp.), Sapotaceae: 22spp., Lecythidaceae: 15 and Lauraceae: 13. Burseraceae had the largest number of individuals with 11.8% of the total. The ten most abundant species were: Protium hebetatum (1 037 individuals), Eschweilera coriacea (471), Licania oblongifolia (310), Pouteria minima (293), Ocotea cernua (258), Scleronema micranthum (197), Eschweilera collina (176), Licania apelata (172), Naucleopsis caloneura (170) and Psidium araca (152), which represented 36.5% of all individuals. Approximately 49% of species had up to ten individuals and 13% appeared only once in all sampled plots, showing a large occurrence of rare species. Our study area is on a forest presenting a high tree species diversity with Shannon's diversity index of 4.49. The dendrogram showed two groups of plots with low similarity between them

  2. Decomposition dynamics of mixed litter in a seasonally flooded forest near the Orinoco river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianoni, Alessia; Chacón, Noemí; Méndez, Carlos L.; Flores, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the decomposition of a litter mixture in the seasonally flooded forest of a tributary of the Orinoco river. This mixture was prepared using three litter species, based on the litter fall rate observed over a complete hydro-period (2012-2013). The mixture loading ratio was 0.46 of Pouteria orinocoensis (Sapotaceae), 0.38 of Alibertia latifolia (Rubiaceae) and 0.16 of Acosmium nitens (Fabaceae). The initial chemical composition of each single litter species was also determined. Litterbags (20 × 20 cm, 2 mm opening) containing either each single species or the mixture, were deployed on the flooded forest soil and sampled after 30, 240, 270, 300 and 330 days. There were differences in initial total N and P concentrations, with A. nitens (AN) showing the highest nutrient concentrations (%NAN = 1.86 ± 0.19; %PAN = 0.058 ± 0.008) and P. orinocoensis (PO) and A. latifolia (AL) the lowest (%NPO = 0.92 ± 0.06; %NAL = 1.04 ± 0.04; %PPO = 0.029 ± 0.005; %PAL = 0.032 ± 0.001). Litter from AN showed the greatest mass loss (55%) and fastest decomposition rate (k = 0.00185 ± 0.00028) while litter from AL and the mixture showed the smallest mass loss (24% and 27% respectively) and the slowest decomposition rate (kAL = 0.00078 ± 0.00012 and kMIX = 0.00077 ± 0.00006). Decomposition rates were significantly and positively correlated with initial N (r = 0.556, p < 0.05) and P concentrations (r = 0.482, p < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between the expected decomposition rate and the observed decomposition rate of the mixture (additive response). To test the nature of the additivity, an enhancement factor (f) on decomposition rates for each single species was calculated. The species with the highest and smallest value of f were AN and AL, respectively. The fact that two out of the three species had values significantly different from 1, suggests that the additivity detected in our mixture was a consequence of the counterbalancing of

  3. Quantification soil production and erosion using isotopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosseto, Anthony; Suresh, P. O.

    2010-05-01

    Soil is a critical resource, especially in the context of a rapidly growing world's population. Thus, it is crucial to be able to quantify how soil resources evolve with time and how fast they become depleted. Over the past few years, the application of cosmogenic isotopes has permitted to constrain rates of soil denudation. By assuming constant soil thickness, it is also possible to use these denudation rates to infer soil production rates (Heimsath et al. 1997). However, in this case, it is not possible to discuss any imbalance between erosion and production, which is the core question when interested in soil resource sustainability. Recently, the measurement of uranium-series isotopes in soils has been used to quantify the residence time of soil material in the weathering profile and to infer soil production rates (Dequincey et al. 2002; Dosseto et al. 2008). Thus, the combination of U-series and cosmogenic isotopes can be used to discuss how soil resources evolve with time, whether they are depleting, increasing or in steady-state. Recent work has been undertaken in temperate southeastern Australia where a several meters thick saprolite is developed over a graniodioritc bedrock and underlains a meter or less of soil (Dosseto et al., 2008) and in tropical Puerto Rico, also in a granitic catchment. Results show that in an environment where human activity is minimal, soil and saprolite are renewed as fast as they are destroyed through denudation. Further work is investigating these processes at other sites in southeastern Australia (Frogs Hollow; Heimsath et al. 2001) and Puerto Rico (Rio Mameyes catchment; andesitic bedrock). Results will be presented and a review of the quantification of the rates of soil evolution using isotopic techniques will be given. Dequincey, O., F. Chabaux, et al. (2002). Chemical mobilizations in laterites: Evidence from trace elements and 238U-234U-230Th disequilibria. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66(7): 1197-1210. Dosseto, A., S. P

  4. Streamwise decrease of the 'unsteady' virtual velocity of gravel tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klösch, Mario; Gmeiner, Philipp; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    Gravel tracers are usually inserted and transported on top of the riverbed, before they disperse vertically and laterally due to periods of intense bedload, the passage of bed forms, lateral channel migration and storage on bars. Buried grains have a lower probability of entrainment, resulting in a reduction of overall mobility, and, on average, in a deceleration of the particles with distance downstream. As a consequence, the results derived from tracer experiments and their significance for gravel transport may depend on the time scale of the investigation period, complicating the comparison of results from different experiments. We developed a regression method, which establishes a direct link between the transport velocity and the unsteady flow variables to yield an 'unsteady' virtual velocity, while considering the tracer slowdown with distance downstream in the regression. For that purpose, the two parameters of a linear excess shear velocity formula (the critical shear velocity u*c and coefficient a) were defined as functions of the travelled distance since the tracer's insertion. Application to published RFID tracer data from the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico, showed that during the investigation period the critical shear velocity u*c of tracers representing the median bed particle diameter (0.11 m) increased from 0.36 m s-1 to 0.44 m s-1, while the coefficient a decreased from the dimensionless value of 4.22 to 3.53, suggesting a reduction of the unsteady virtual velocity at the highest shear velocity in the investigation period from 0.40 m s-1 to 0.08 m s-1. Consideration of the tracer slowdown improved the root mean square error of the calculated mean displacements of the median bed particle diameter from 8.82 m to 0.34 m. As in previous work these results suggest the need of considering the history of transport when deriving travel distances and travel velocities, depending on the aim of the tracer study. The introduced method now allows estimating the

  5. Approaches to stream solute load estimation for solutes with varying dynamics from five diverse small watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.; Burns, Douglas A.; Shanley, James B.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Bae, Kikang; Wild, Adam; Yang, Yang; Yi, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Estimating streamwater solute loads is a central objective of many water-quality monitoring and research studies, as loads are used to compare with atmospheric inputs, to infer biogeochemical processes, and to assess whether water quality is improving or degrading. In this study, we evaluate loads and associated errors to determine the best load estimation technique among three methods (a period-weighted approach, the regression-model method, and the composite method) based on a solute's concentration dynamics and sampling frequency. We evaluated a broad range of varying concentration dynamics with stream flow and season using four dissolved solutes (sulfate, silica, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon) at five diverse small watersheds (Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT; Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH; Biscuit Brook Watershed, NY; Panola Mountain Research Watershed, GA; and Río Mameyes Watershed, PR) with fairly high-frequency sampling during a 10- to 11-yr period. Data sets with three different sampling frequencies were derived from the full data set at each site (weekly plus storm/snowmelt events, weekly, and monthly) and errors in loads were assessed for the study period, annually, and monthly. For solutes that had a moderate to strong concentration–discharge relation, the composite method performed best, unless the autocorrelation of the model residuals was <0.2, in which case the regression-model method was most appropriate. For solutes that had a nonexistent or weak concentration–discharge relation (modelR2 < about 0.3), the period-weighted approach was most appropriate. The lowest errors in loads were achieved for solutes with the strongest concentration–discharge relations. Sample and regression model diagnostics could be used to approximate overall accuracies and annual precisions. For the period-weighed approach, errors were lower when the variance in concentrations was lower, the degree of autocorrelation in the concentrations was

  6. Stable-isotope and solute-chemistry approaches to flow characterization in a forested tropical watershed, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Shanley, James B.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Willenbring, Jane K; Occhi, Marcie; González, Grizelle

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of changing climate has led to uncertainty about the resilience of forested mountain watersheds in the tropics. In watersheds where frequent, high rainfall provides ample runoff, we often lack understanding of how the system will respond under conditions of decreased rainfall or drought. Factors that govern water supply, such as recharge rates and groundwater storage capacity, may be poorly quantified. This paper describes 8-year data sets of water stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) of precipitation (4 sites) and a stream (1 site), and four contemporaneous stream sample sets of solute chemistry and isotopes, used to investigate watershed response to precipitation inputs in the 1780-ha Río Mameyes basin in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico. Extreme δ2H and δ18O values from low-pressure storm systems and the deuterium excess (d-excess) were useful tracers of watershed response in this tropical system. A hydrograph separation experiment performed in June 2011 yielded different but complementary information from stable isotope and solute chemistry data. The hydrograph separation results indicated that 36% of the storm rain that reached the soil surface left the watershed in a very short time as runoff. Weathering-derived solutes indicated near-stream groundwater was displaced into the stream at the beginning of the event, followed by significant dilution. The more biologically active solutes exhibited a net flushing behavior. The d-excess analysis suggested that streamflow typically has a recent rainfall component (∼25%) with transit time less than the sampling resolution of 7 days, and a more well-mixed groundwater component (∼75%). The contemporaneous stream sample sets showed an overall increase in dissolved solute concentrations with decreasing elevation that may be related to groundwater inputs, different geology, and slope position. A considerable amount of water from rain events runs off as quickflow and bypasses

  7. The Relative Importance of Convective and Trade-wind Orographic Precipitation to Streamflow in the Luquillo Mountains, Eastern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, M. A.; Shanley, J. B.; Occhi, M.; Scatena, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico (18.3° N) have abundant rainfall and stream discharge, but relatively little storage capacity. Therefore, the water supply is vulnerable to drought and water availability may be affected by projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics due to global warming. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, precipitation patterns were analyzed, and stable-isotope signatures of precipitation from different seasonal weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Stable isotope data include cloud water, rainfall, throughfall, streamflow, and groundwater from the Rio Mameyes and Rio Icacos/ Rio Blanco watersheds. Precipitation inputs have a wide range of stable isotope values, from fog/cloud water with δ2H and δ18O averaging +3.2‰, -1.74‰ respectively, to tropical storm rain with values as low as -154‰, -20.4‰. Spatial and temporal patterns of water isotopic values on this Caribbean island are different than higher latitude, continental watersheds. The data exhibit a 'reverse seasonality', with higher isotopic values in winter and lower values in summer; and stable isotope values of stream water do not decrease as expected with increasing altitude, because of cloud water input. Rain isotopic values vary predictably with local and mesoscale weather patterns and correlate strongly with cloud altitude. This correlation allows us to assign isotopic signatures to different sources of precipitation, and to investigate which climate patterns contribute to streamflow and groundwater recharge. At a measurement site at 615 m in the Luquillo Mountains, the average length of time between rain events was 15 h, and 45% of the rain events were <2 mm, reflecting the frequent small rain events of the trade-wind orographic rainfall weather pattern. Long

  8. The Imbert Formation of northern Hispaniola: a tectono-sedimentary record of arc-continent collision and ophiolite emplacement in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, Á.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2016-01-01

    In northern Hispaniola, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic "mélange" originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary (subduction) complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data from northern Hispaniola indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional basin. This basin was transported on top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex slab and structurally underlying accreted units of the Rio San Juan complex, as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units.

    The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (chaotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group.

    The 40Ar / 39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ˜ 45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to

  9. How does a single precipitation event erode a landscape? Clues from meteoric 7Be and 10Be analysis of suspended sediments and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhi, M.; Willenbring, J. K.; Kaste, J. M.; Scholl, M. A.; Shanley, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Stream sediment contains a history recorded in isotopes that cling to suspended particles. In this study we exploit this recorded history in order to understand how a single precipitation event erodes the landscape at two watershed sites (Bisley I and Mameyes) within the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico. We use fallout cosmogenic radionuclides Beryllium-7 (7Be) and Beryllium-10 (10Be) to determine the provenance of suspended sediment at various stages of a hydrograph. Sediments from source areas within the watersheds, such as stable ridge crests and active landslide scars, were also sampled and analyzed. Exploiting the large difference in half-life, the 10Be/7Be ratio of suspended sediments coupled with the concentration and nature of organic material present show original depth of mobilized stream sediment in the hillslope. The storm hydrographs of a one-month recurrence interval storm on June 7th, 2011 were sampled at both watersheds. In the small watershed (0.067 km2), storm discharge and total suspended solids (TSS) show short lag times between the initiation of precipitation and the initial rise of the hydrograph and no lag time between peak discharge and peak TSS. The larger site (17.8 km2) had a lag time of approximately 30 minutes between the initiation of precipitation and a rise in discharge and had a 15-minute lag between peak stage (which occurred first) and peak TSS, highlighting the longer travel distances that particles must take to reach the stream sampling point in the larger basin. We compare fallout 7Be nuclide concentration in source sediments and assume a simple, two end-member model to mix these sources in the stream. Soil sediments collected from stable ridge crests ('old') have relatively high average 7Be concentrations of 2.7x106 atoms/g±10% and sediments collected from active landslide scars ('new') have relatively low 7Be concentrations of 4.0x104 atoms/g±15%. Suspended sediments had an average 7Be concentration of 7.2x

  10. Deterministic and stochastic dynamics of bed load tracer particles in a coarse grained river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.; Martin, R. L.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mechanics of a single coarse sediment particle, and the mechanics of sediment transport at the flood scale, is critical to linking event scale bed load transport rates to annual bed load fluxes. We present research on the dynamics of coarse sediment tracer particles tagged with passive radio transponder tags, observing motion resulting from individual floods and the cumulative transport over many floods spanning two years, in the Mameyes River in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. This region presents an ideal study area due to the high frequency of coarse sediment mobilizing events, which allows us to field test the applicability of recently-proposed deterministic and stochastic theories for particle motion. Data for each flood are composed of (1) measured 'flight' lengths for each transported particle, (2) the fraction of tagged particles mobilized, and (3) high-resolution river stage measurements. At the single flood scale, measured tracer particle flight lengths are exponentially distributed, and modal flight lengths scale linearly with excess shear velocity. This is in quantitative agreement with recent theory and laboratory experiments, suggesting that moving particles' velocity is determined by momentum balance with the fluid. The fraction of mobile particles per event increases rapidly with flood stage, creating a logistic-like curve whose inflection point is used to empirically define the threshold of motion. This finding is in contrast to the linear relation observed in small-scale experiments and predicted from momentum balance between sediment and fluid; we use a particle Stokes number argument to suggest that a collision cascade from grain-grain interactions is responsible for the nonlinear relation between mobile fraction and fluid stress, in dynamical equivalence with aeolian sand transport. To examine particle dispersion and relate it to transport mechanics, it is necessary to remove the time over which the fluid stress is

  11. Particle mobility over flood and annual timescales in mountain streams of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Linking the mechanics of fluvial and hillslope processes is critical for understanding how landscapes are sculpted. Over short timescales, the rate of bed load transport in mountain streams is determined by transport mechanics: channel hydraulics, bed configuration, and the intensity of flow events. At larger timescales, the rate of bed load transport represents the supply of coarse-grained sediment from hillslopes. Linking the mechanics of event-scale bed load transport to longer duration bed load transport rates is necessary for understanding mountain stream dynamics. We present a unique dataset using passive integrated transponder radio frequency identification (PIT RFID) tagged tracer particles in three streams in the humid tropical region of Northeast Puerto Rico. This region receives an average of four meters of precipitation per year. Importantly, precipitation occurs in short duration, high intensity events that are capable of mobilizing coarse sediment multiple times per year. Although landslides and debris flows are active in the area, most river reaches show strong evidence of being organized by bed load transport. The high frequency of cobble/boulder transport makes Luquillo an ideal location to study bed load transport in mountain streams. Tracer particles (375 total) were placed during the summers of 2010 and 2011 in three reaches within the Mameyes river catchment with slopes and drainage areas ranging from .007-.09 and .028-24.2 km2 respectively. Grain size distributions of the median grain diameter for the three study reaches range from 2-1100 mm. Grain size distributions of the tracer particles were picked to match that of the study reach grain size distribution greater than 50 mm. Hydrodynamic forcing was parameterized using a time series of Shields stress, estimated for each reach from nearby USGS stream gaging stations. Tracer particle transport distances were recorded following single events, and on a yearly basis. At the single-flood scale

  12. Nitrate and Phosphate Concentration Trends in Selected Puerto Rico Rivers over the Past Four Decades--The Impact of Human Activity on Tropical Island Landscapes and Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troester, J. W.

    2001-12-01

    For more than four decades, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected riverine nutrient concentration data in Puerto Rico, a mountainous Caribbean tropical island. During the last forty years the population of this 9043 square km island has increased from about 2.4 to 3.8 million people. Much of the island has been developed for agriculture, and later for industry and urbanization. Data from gaging stations located within four of the larger, mixed land-use drainage basins of Puerto Rico were compiled and analyzed. The stations selected were the Rio Grande de Manati at Highway 2 (Station 50038100), Rio de la Plata at Highway 2 (Station 50046000), Rio Grande de Patillas near Patillas (Station 50092000), and Rio Grande de Anasco near San Sebastian (Station 50144000). Analytical results were compared with a shorter-term data set from smaller forested watersheds (that are part of the USGS Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) Program) to evaluate the impact of human activity on the water quality. During the 1960's, discharge weighted average concentrations (DWAC) of dissolved nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate-N) ranged from 0.10 to 0.51 mg/L in the four rivers. DWAC of nitrate-N increased and peaked in the 1970's and 1980's (range of 0.35 to 1.00 mg/L), and have subsequently decreased (range of 0.30 to 0.95 mg/L). DWAC of nitrate-N declined, even though the average nitrate-N concentration continued to increase in three of these rivers. The decrease in DWAC of nitrate-N may reflect the changes in land use from the 1960's to present, which includes an increase in forest and a decrease in cropland throughout much of Puerto Rico. However, the largest decrease (from 0.77 to 0.34 mg/L) occurred in the Rio de la Plata after it was dammed in 1974. DWAC of nitrate-N in the four rivers were several times higher than the total nitrate-N observed at gaging stations in undisturbed forested watersheds, such as at the Rio Mameyes near Sabana (Station 50065500) and the Rio