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Sample records for mammary cancer progression

  1. Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression Genetically Hyper-Muscular Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    1-0424 TITLE: Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer ? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression in...SUBTITLE Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer ? Evaluating Mammary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tumorigenesis and Progression in Genetically...activity independently reduce breast cancer . Conversely, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased breast cancer incidence

  2. Integrated extracellular matrix signaling in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieqing; Xiong, Gaofeng; Trinkle, Christine; Xu, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM), a major component of the cellular microenvironment, plays critical roles in normal tissue morphogenesis and disease progression. Binding of ECM to membrane receptor proteins, such as integrin, discoidin domain receptors, and dystroglycan, elicits biochemical and biomechanical signals that control cellular architecture and gene expression. These ECM signals cooperate with growth factors and hormones to regulate cell migration, differentiation, and transformation. ECM signaling is tightly regulated during normal mammary gland development. Deposition and alignment of fibrillar collagens direct migration and invasion of mammary epithelial cells during branching morphogenesis. Basement membrane proteins are required for polarized acinar morphogenesis and milk protein expression. Deregulation of ECM proteins in the long run is sufficient to promote breast cancer development and progression. Recent studies demonstrate that the integrated biophysical and biochemical signals from ECM and soluble factors are crucial for normal mammary gland development as well as breast cancer progression.

  3. Key signalling nodes in mammary gland development and cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in experimental models of breast cancer progression and in mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jacqueline; Bergin, Orla; Bianchi, Alessandro; McNally, Sara; Martin, Finian

    2009-01-01

    Seven classes of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) intracellular signalling cascades exist, four of which are implicated in breast disease and function in mammary epithelial cells. These are the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway, the ERK5 pathway, the p38 pathway and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. In some forms of human breast cancer and in many experimental models of breast cancer progression, signalling through the ERK1/2 pathway, in particular, has been implicated as being important. We review the influence of ERK1/2 activity on the organised three-dimensional association of mammary epithelial cells, and in models of breast cancer cell invasion. We assess the importance of epidermal growth factor receptor family signalling through ERK1/2 in models of breast cancer progression and the influence of ERK1/2 on its substrate, the oestrogen receptor, in this context. In parallel, we consider the importance of these MAPK-centred signalling cascades during the cycle of mammary gland development. Although less extensively studied, we highlight the instances of signalling through the p38, JNK and ERK5 pathways involved in breast cancer progression and mammary gland development.

  4. IMPACT OF OBESITY ON DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF MAMMARY TUMORS IN PRECLINICAL MODELS OF BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Margot P.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and/or obesity are known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. More recently increased body weight has also been associated with poor prognosis for both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. This relationship has primarily been identified through epidemiological studies. Additional information from in vitro studies has also been produced in attempts to delineate mechanisms of action for the association of obesity and body weight and breast cancer. This approach has identified potential growth factors such as insulin, leptin, estrogen and IGF-I which are reported to be modulated by body weight changes. However, in vitro studies are limited in scope and frequently use non-physiological concentrations of growth factors, while long follow-up is needed for human studies. Preclinical animal models provide an intermediary approach to investigate the impact of body weight and potential growth factors on mammary/breast tumor development and progression. Here results of a number of studies addressing this issue are presented. In the majority of the studies either genetically-obese or diet-induced obese rodent models have been used to investigate spontaneous, transgenic and carcinogen-induced mammary tumor development. To study tumor progression the major focus has been allograft studies in mice with either genetic or dietary-induced obesity. In general, obesity has been demonstrated to shorten mammary tumor latency and to impact tumor pathology. However, in rodents with defects in leptin and other growth factors the impact of obesity is not as straightforward. Future studies using more physiologically relevant obesity models and clearly distinguishing diet composition from body weight effects will be important in continuing to understand the factors associated with body weight’s impact on the mammary/breast cancer development and progression. PMID:24122258

  5. Human mammary cancer progression model recapitulates methylation events associated with breast premalignancy.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nancy; Crawford, Yongping G; Sigaroudinia, Mahvash; Nagrani, Shefali S; Wilson, Matthew B; Buehring, Gertrude C; Turashvili, Gulisa; Aparicio, Samuel; Gauthier, Mona L; Fordyce, Colleen A; McDermott, Kimberly M; Tlsty, Thea D

    2009-01-01

    We have previously identified a rare subpopulation of variant human mammary epithelial cells (vHMEC) with repressed p16INK4A that exist in disease-free women yet display premalignant properties, suggesting that they have engaged the process of malignant transformation. In order to gain insight into the molecular alterations required for vHMEC to progress to malignancy, and to characterize the epigenetic events associated with early progression, we examined the effect of oncogenic stress on the behavior of these cells. HMEC that express p16INK4A and vHMEC that do not, were transduced with constitutively active Ha-rasV12 and subsequently exposed to serum to determine whether signals from the cellular microenvironment could cooperate with ras to promote the malignant transformation of vHMEC. Epigenetic alterations were assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). vHMEC expressing Ha-rasV12 (vHMEC-ras) bypassed the classic proliferative arrest that has been previously documented in normal fibroblasts following oncogenic stress, and that we also observe here in normal HMEC. Moreover, vHMEC-ras cells exhibited many additional alterations that are observed during progression to malignancy such as the generation of chromosomal abnormalities, upregulation of telomerase activity, immortalization following exposure to serum, and anchorage-independent growth, but they did not form tumors following orthotopic injection in vivo. Associated with their early progression to malignancy was an increase in the number of genes methylated, two of which (RASSF1A and SFRP1) were also methylated in other immortalized mammary cell lines as well as in breast cancer cells and tissues. We have characterized a mammary progression model that recapitulates molecular and methylation alterations observed in many breast cancers. Our data suggest that concomitant methylation of RASSF1A and SFRP1 marks an early event in mammary transformation and may thus have prognostic

  6. Human mammary cancer progression model recapitulates methylation events associated with breast premalignancy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We have previously identified a rare subpopulation of variant human mammary epithelial cells (vHMEC) with repressed p16INK4A that exist in disease-free women yet display premalignant properties, suggesting that they have engaged the process of malignant transformation. In order to gain insight into the molecular alterations required for vHMEC to progress to malignancy, and to characterize the epigenetic events associated with early progression, we examined the effect of oncogenic stress on the behavior of these cells. Methods HMEC that express p16INK4A and vHMEC that do not, were transduced with constitutively active Ha-rasV12 and subsequently exposed to serum to determine whether signals from the cellular microenvironment could cooperate with ras to promote the malignant transformation of vHMEC. Epigenetic alterations were assessed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results vHMEC expressing Ha-rasV12 (vHMEC-ras) bypassed the classic proliferative arrest that has been previously documented in normal fibroblasts following oncogenic stress, and that we also observe here in normal HMEC. Moreover, vHMEC-ras cells exhibited many additional alterations that are observed during progression to malignancy such as the generation of chromosomal abnormalities, upregulation of telomerase activity, immortalization following exposure to serum, and anchorage-independent growth, but they did not form tumors following orthotopic injection in vivo. Associated with their early progression to malignancy was an increase in the number of genes methylated, two of which (RASSF1A and SFRP1) were also methylated in other immortalized mammary cell lines as well as in breast cancer cells and tissues. Conclusions We have characterized a mammary progression model that recapitulates molecular and methylation alterations observed in many breast cancers. Our data suggest that concomitant methylation of RASSF1A and SFRP1 marks an early event in mammary

  7. Bisected, complex N-glycans and galectins in mouse mammary tumor progression and human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miwa, Hazuki E; Koba, Wade R; Fine, Eugene J; Giricz, Orsi; Kenny, Paraic A; Stanley, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Bisected, complex N-glycans on glycoproteins are generated by the glycosyltransferase MGAT3 and cause reduced cell surface binding of galectins. Previously, we showed that MGAT3 reduces growth factor signaling and retards mammary tumor progression driven by the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) expressed in mammary epithelium under the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. However, the penetrance of the tumor phenotype became variable in mixed FVB/N and C57BL/6 female mice and we therefore investigated a congenic C57BL/6 Mgat3−/−/MMTV-PyMT model. In the absence of MGAT3, C57BL/6 Mgat3−/−/MMTV-PyMT females exhibited accelerated tumor appearance and increased tumor burden, glucose uptake in tumors and lung metastasis. Nevertheless, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or protein kinase B (AKT) was reduced in ∼20-week C57BL/6 MMTV-PyMT tumors lacking MGAT3. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein tyrosine kinase Src, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar to that of controls. All the eight mouse galectin genes were expressed in mammary tumors and tumor epithelial cells (TECs), but galectin-2 and -12 were not detected by western analysis in tumors, and galectin-7 was not detected in 60% of the TEC lines. From microarray data reported for human breast cancers, at least 10 galectin and 7 N-glycan N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc)-transferase (MGAT) genes are expressed in tumor tissue, and expression often varies significantly between different breast cancer subtypes. Thus, in summary, while MGAT3 and bisected complex N-glycans retard mouse mammary tumor progression, genetic background may modify this effect; identification of key galectins that promote mammary tumor progression in mice is not straightforward because all the eight galectin genes are expressed; and high levels of MGAT3, galectin-4, -8, -10, -13 and -14 transcripts correlate with better relapse-free survival in human breast cancer. PMID:24037315

  8. Bisected, complex N-glycans and galectins in mouse mammary tumor progression and human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Hazuki E; Koba, Wade R; Fine, Eugene J; Giricz, Orsi; Kenny, Paraic A; Stanley, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    Bisected, complex N-glycans on glycoproteins are generated by the glycosyltransferase MGAT3 and cause reduced cell surface binding of galectins. Previously, we showed that MGAT3 reduces growth factor signaling and retards mammary tumor progression driven by the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) expressed in mammary epithelium under the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. However, the penetrance of the tumor phenotype became variable in mixed FVB/N and C57BL/6 female mice and we therefore investigated a congenic C57BL/6 Mgat3(-/-)/MMTV-PyMT model. In the absence of MGAT3, C57BL/6 Mgat3(-/-)/MMTV-PyMT females exhibited accelerated tumor appearance and increased tumor burden, glucose uptake in tumors and lung metastasis. Nevertheless, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 or protein kinase B (AKT) was reduced in ∼20-week C57BL/6 MMTV-PyMT tumors lacking MGAT3. Activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), protein tyrosine kinase Src, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar to that of controls. All the eight mouse galectin genes were expressed in mammary tumors and tumor epithelial cells (TECs), but galectin-2 and -12 were not detected by western analysis in tumors, and galectin-7 was not detected in 60% of the TEC lines. From microarray data reported for human breast cancers, at least 10 galectin and 7 N-glycan N-acetylglucosaminyl (GlcNAc)-transferase (MGAT) genes are expressed in tumor tissue, and expression often varies significantly between different breast cancer subtypes. Thus, in summary, while MGAT3 and bisected complex N-glycans retard mouse mammary tumor progression, genetic background may modify this effect; identification of key galectins that promote mammary tumor progression in mice is not straightforward because all the eight galectin genes are expressed; and high levels of MGAT3, galectin-4, -8, -10, -13 and -14 transcripts correlate with better relapse-free survival in human breast cancer.

  9. Macrophages promote the progression of premalignant mammary lesions to invasive cancer.

    PubMed

    Carron, Emily C; Homra, Samuel; Rosenberg, Jillian; Coffelt, Seth B; Kittrell, Frances; Zhang, Yiqun; Creighton, Chad J; Fuqua, Suzanne A; Medina, Daniel; Machado, Heather L

    2017-01-31

    Breast cancer initiation, progression and metastasis rely on a complex interplay between tumor cells and their surrounding microenvironment. Infiltrating immune cells, including macrophages, promote mammary tumor progression and metastasis; however, less is known about the role of macrophages in early stage lesions. In this study, we utilized a transplantable p53-null model of early progression to characterize the immune cell components of early stage lesions. We show that macrophages are recruited to ductal hyperplasias with a high tumor-forming potential where they are differentiated and polarized toward a tumor-promoting phenotype. These macrophages are a unique subset of macrophages, characterized by pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive factors. Macrophage ablation studies showed that macrophages are required for both early stage progression and primary tumor formation. These studies suggest that therapeutic targeting of tumor-promoting macrophages may not only be an effective strategy to block tumor progression and metastasis, but may also have critical implications for breast cancer prevention.

  10. Mammary cancers and pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J M

    1979-01-01

    Uncertainties persist about management and prognosis of mammary cancers that occur during and after pregnancy and during lactation. Pathological features of mammary cancers occurring during pregnancy are the same as those in non-pregnant women and survival rates are comparable. Management should be the same as in non-pregnant patients. Termination of pregnancy does not improve survival but it should be advised if the prognosis is poor. Mastectomy apparently presents little danger to the fetus, though treatment such as chemotherapy and irradiation should be avoided. Women who have received treatment for mammary cancer need not be advised against subsequent pregnancy. Routine ovarian radiation in non-pregnant premenopausal women is not generally to be recommended, since it does not prolong survival and would deprive some of the chance of further pregnancy. In lactating women who develop mammary cancers survival is apparently not adversely affected. Lactation should be suppressed initially and followed by mastectomy. Regimens of immunotherapy, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy may then be begun. Until results of current trials of combined treatments of mammary cancers associated with pregnancy are available, management should be neither aggressive nor tentative. It should be based on a well-balanced concept of applying all available treatments, as in non-pregnant patients. PMID:376044

  11. Elimination of Progressive Mammary Cancer by Repeated Administrations of Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Globerson-Levin, Anat; Waks, Tova; Eshhar, Zelig

    2014-01-01

    Continuous oncogenic processes that generate cancer require an on-going treatment approach to eliminate the transformed cells, and prevent their further development. Here, we studied the ability of T cells expressing a chimeric antibody-based receptor (CAR) to offer a therapeutic benefit for breast cancer induced by erbB-2. We tested CAR-modified T cells (T-bodies) specific to erbB-2 for their antitumor potential in a mouse model overexpressing a human erbB-2 transgene that develops mammary tumors. Comparing the antitumor reactivity of CAR-modified T cells under various therapeutic settings, either prophylactic, prior to tumor development, or therapeutically. We found that repeated administration of CAR-modified T cells is required to eliminate spontaneously developing mammary cancer. Systemic, as well as intratumoral administered CAR-modified T cells accumulated at tumor sites and eventually eliminated the malignant cells. Interestingly, within a few weeks after a single CAR T cells' administration, and rejection of primary lesion, tumors usually relapsed both in treated mammary gland and at remote sites; however, repeated injections of CAR-modified T cells were able to control the secondary tumors. Since spontaneous tumors can arise repeatedly, especially in the case of syndromes characterized by specific susceptibility to cancer, multiple administrations of CAR-modified T cells can serve to control relapsing disease. PMID:24572294

  12. Elimination of progressive mammary cancer by repeated administrations of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells.

    PubMed

    Globerson-Levin, Anat; Waks, Tova; Eshhar, Zelig

    2014-05-01

    Continuous oncogenic processes that generate cancer require an on-going treatment approach to eliminate the transformed cells, and prevent their further development. Here, we studied the ability of T cells expressing a chimeric antibody-based receptor (CAR) to offer a therapeutic benefit for breast cancer induced by erbB-2. We tested CAR-modified T cells (T-bodies) specific to erbB-2 for their antitumor potential in a mouse model overexpressing a human erbB-2 transgene that develops mammary tumors. Comparing the antitumor reactivity of CAR-modified T cells under various therapeutic settings, either prophylactic, prior to tumor development, or therapeutically. We found that repeated administration of CAR-modified T cells is required to eliminate spontaneously developing mammary cancer. Systemic, as well as intratumoral administered CAR-modified T cells accumulated at tumor sites and eventually eliminated the malignant cells. Interestingly, within a few weeks after a single CAR T cells' administration, and rejection of primary lesion, tumors usually relapsed both in treated mammary gland and at remote sites; however, repeated injections of CAR-modified T cells were able to control the secondary tumors. Since spontaneous tumors can arise repeatedly, especially in the case of syndromes characterized by specific susceptibility to cancer, multiple administrations of CAR-modified T cells can serve to control relapsing disease.

  13. Ectopic runx2 expression in mammary epithelial cells disrupts formation of normal acini structure: implications for breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Jitesh; Imbalzano, Karen M; Underwood, Jean M; Cohet, Nathalie; Gokul, Karthiga; Akech, Jacqueline; van Wijnen, Andre J; Stein, Janet L; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Nickerson, Jeffrey A; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    The transcription factor Runx2 is highly expressed in breast cancer cells compared with mammary epithelial cells and contributes to metastasis. Here we directly show that Runx2 expression promotes a tumor cell phenotype of mammary acini in three-dimensional culture. Human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) form polarized, growth-arrested, acini-like structures with glandular architecture. The ectopic expression of Runx2 disrupts acini formation, and electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis revealed the absence of lumens. Characterization of the disrupted acini structures showed increased cell proliferation (Ki-67 positive cells), decreased apoptosis (Bcl-2 induction), and loss of basement membrane formation (absence of beta(4) integrin expression). In complementary experiments, inhibition of Runx2 function in metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by stable expression of either short hairpin RNA-Runx2 or a mutant Runx2 deficient in subnuclear targeting resulted in reversion of acini to more normal structures and reduced tumor growth in vivo. These novel findings provide direct mechanistic evidence for the biological activity of Runx2, dependent on its subnuclear localization, in promoting early events of breast cancer progression and suggest a molecular therapeutic target.

  14. Unraveling the microenvironmental influences on the normal mammary gland and induction and progression of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weigelt, Britta; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-06-26

    The normal mammary gland and invasive breast cancer are both complex 'organs' composed of multiple cell types as well as extracellular matrix (ECM) in three-dimensional (3D) space. Conventionally, both normal and malignant breast cells are studied in vitro as two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of epithelial cells, which results in the loss of structure and tissue function. Many laboratories are now investigating regulation of signaling function in normal mammary gland using 3D cultures. However, it is important also to assay malignant breast cells ex vivo in a physiologically relevant environment to more closely mimic tumor architecture, signal transduction regulation and tumor behavior in vivo. Here we present the potential of these 3D models for drug testing, target validation and guidance of patient selection for clinical trials. We argue also that in order to get full insight into the biology of the normal and malignant breast, and to create in vivo-like models for therapeutic approaches in humans, we need to continue to create more complex heterotypic models to approach the full context the cells encounter in the human body.

  15. Tumor-induced inflammation in mammary adipose tissue stimulates a vicious cycle of autotaxin expression and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Tang, Xiaoyun; Dewald, Jay; Dong, Wei-Feng; Mackey, John R; Hemmings, Denise G; McMullen, Todd P W; Brindley, David N

    2015-09-01

    Compared to normal tissues, many cancer cells overexpress autotaxin (ATX). This secreted enzyme produces extracellular lysophosphatidate, which signals through 6 GPCRs to drive cancer progression. Our previous work showed that ATX inhibition decreases 4T1 breast tumor growth in BALB/c mice by 60% for about 11 d. However, 4T1 cells do not produce significant ATX. Instead, the ATX is produced by adjacent mammary adipose tissue. We investigated the molecular basis of this interaction in human and mouse breast tumors. Inflammatory mediators secreted by breast cancer cells increased ATX production in adipose tissue. The increased lysophosphatidate signaling further increased inflammatory mediator production in adipose tissue and tumors. Blocking ATX activity in mice bearing 4T1 tumors with 10 mg/kg/d ONO-8430506 (a competitive ATX inhibitor, IC90 = 100 nM; Ono Pharma Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan) broke this vicious inflammatory cycle by decreasing 20 inflammatory mediators by 1.5-8-fold in cancer-inflamed adipose tissue. There was no significant decrease in inflammatory mediator levels in fat pads that did not bear tumors. ONO-8430506 also decreased plasma TNF-α and G-CSF cytokine levels by >70% and leukocyte infiltration in breast tumors and adjacent adipose tissue by >50%. Hence, blocking tumor-driven inflammation by ATX inhibition is effective in decreasing tumor growth in breast cancers where the cancer cells express negligible ATX.

  16. Transforming growth factor-(beta)s and mammary gland involution; functional roles and implications for cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Flanders, Kathleen C; Wakefield, Lalage M

    2009-06-01

    During rodent mammary gland involution there is a dramatic increase in the expression of the transforming growth factor-beta isoform, TGF-beta3. The TGF-betas are multifunctional cytokines which play important roles in wound healing and in carcinogenesis. The responses that are activated in the remodeling of the gland during involution have many similarities with the wound healing process and have been postulated to generate a mammary stroma that provides a microenvironment favoring tumor progression. In this review we will discuss the putative role of TGF-beta during involution, as well as its effects on the mammary microenvironment and possible implications for pregnancy-associated tumorigenesis.

  17. The importance of the microenvironment in breast cancer progression: recapitulation of mammary tumorigenesis using a unique human mammary epithelial cell model and a three-dimensional culture assay

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V.M.; Fischer, A.H.; Peterson, O.W.; Bissell, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dominant regulator of tissue development and homeostasis. “Designer microenvironments” in culture and in vivo model systems have shown that the ECM regulates growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in murine and human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) through a hierarchy of transcriptional events involving the intricate interplay between soluble and physical signaling pathways. Furthermore, these studies have shown that these pathways direct and in turn are influenced by the tissue structure. Tissue structure is directed by the cooperative interactions of the cell–cell and cell–ECM pathways and can be modified by stromal factors. Not surprisingly then, loss of tissue structure and alterations in ECM components are associated with the appearance and dissemination of breast tumors, and malignancy is associated with perturbations in cell adhesion, changes in adhesion molecules, and a stromal reaction. Several lines of evidence now support the contention that the pathogenesis of breast cancer is determined (at least in part) by the dynamic interplay between the ductal epithelial cells, the microenvironment, and the tissue structure (acini). Thus, to understand the mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis, the role of the microenvironment (ECM as well as the stromal cells) with respect to tissue structure should be considered and studied. Towards this goal, we have established a unique human MEC model of tumorigenesis, which in concert with a three-dimensional assay, recapitulates many of the genetic and morphological changes observed in breast cancer in vivo. We are currently using this system to understand the role of the microenvironment and tissue structure in breast cancer progression. PMID:9164652

  18. P190-B, a Novel RhoGAP, in Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    B overexpression during mammary gland involution, pl90-B/MMTV-rtTA bigenic female mice at eight weeks of age were bred to wildtype male mice. Age...for eight weeks at which time the mice were bred to wildtype FVB males . Three days after parturition mammary glands were collected and analyzed by H&E...overexpression during pregnancy and lactation, 12 week-old bigenic (n=6), and MTB (n=3) and wildtype littermate (n=3) control mice were bred to wildtype male

  19. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0402 TITLE: Mammary Cancer and Activation...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2013 – 31 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements 5a. CONTRACT...investigate molecular events occurring in the preclinical stages of mammary cancer. Specifically, the project investigates the intersection between the

  20. Pathologic progression of mammary carcinomas in a C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic rat model of human triple-negative and Her2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoenerhoff, M J; Shibata, M A; Bode, A; Green, J E

    2011-04-01

    The C3(1) component of the rat prostate steroid binding protein has been used to target expression of the SV40 T/t-antigen to the mammary epithelium of mice resulting in pre-neoplastic lesions that progress to invasive and metastatic cancer with molecular features of human basal-type breast cancer. However, there are major differences in the histologic architecture of the stromal and epithelial elements between the mouse and human mammary glands. The rat mammary gland is more enriched with epithelial and stromal components than the mouse and more closely resembles the cellular composition of the human gland. Additionally, existing rat models of mammary cancer are typically estrogen receptor positive and hormone responsive, unlike most genetically engineered mouse mammary cancer models. In an attempt to develop a mammary cancer model that might more closely resemble the pathology of human breast cancer, we generated a novel C3(1)/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic rat model that developed progressive mammary lesions leading to highly invasive adenocarcinomas. However, aggressive tumor development prevented the establishment of transgenic lines. Characterization of the tumors revealed that they were primarily estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative, and either her2/neu positive or negative, resembling human triple-negative or Her2 positive breast cancer. Tumors expressed the basal marker K14, as well as the luminal marker K18, and were negative for smooth muscle actin. The triple negative phenotype has not been previously reported in a rat mammary cancer model. Further development of a C3(1)SV40 T/t-antigen based model could establish valuable transgenic rat lines that develop basal-type mammary tumors.

  1. p190-B, A Novel RhoGAP, In Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    the membranes (data not shown). Acknowledgments We thank Shirley Small for her help with animal husbandry and colony management; Maria Gonzalez -Rimbau...buds and breast cancer. Cell Growth Differ 2000 11:343–354 13. Chakravarty G, Hadsell D, Buitrago W, Settleman J, Rosen JM 2003 p190-B RhoGAP regulates

  2. Mammary development and breast cancer: the role of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ercan, C; van Diest, P J; Vooijs, M

    2011-06-01

    The mammary gland is a highly regenerative organ that can undergo multiple cycles of proliferation, lactation and involution, a process controlled by stem cells. The last decade much progress has been made in the identification of signaling pathways that function in these stem cells to control self-renewal, lineage commitment and epithelial differentiation in the normal mammary gland. The same signaling pathways that control physiological mammary development and homeostasis are also often found deregulated in breast cancer. Here we provide an overview on the functional and molecular identification of mammary stem cells in the context of both normal breast development and breast cancer. We discuss the contribution of some key signaling pathways with an emphasis on Notch receptor signaling, a cell fate determination pathway often deregulated in breast cancer. A further understanding of the biological roles of the Notch pathway in mammary stem cell behavior and carcinogenesis might be relevant for the development of future therapies.

  3. Physiologically activated mammary fibroblasts promote postpartum mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiuchen; Burchard, Julja; Spellman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years of childbirth have poorer prognosis than nulliparous or pregnant women. Weaning-induced breast involution is implicated, as the collagen-rich, immunosuppressive microenvironment of the involuting mammary gland is tumor promotional in mice. To investigate the role of mammary fibroblasts, isolated mammary PDGFRα+ cells from nulliparous and postweaning mice were assessed for activation phenotype and protumorigenic function. Fibroblast activation during involution was evident by increased expression of fibrillar collagens, lysyl oxidase, Tgfb1, and Cxcl12 genes. The ability of mammary tumors to grow in an isogenic, orthotopic transplant model was increased when tumor cells were coinjected with involution-derived compared with nulliparous-derived mammary fibroblasts. Mammary tumors in the involution-fibroblast group had increased Ly6C+ monocytes at the tumor border, and decreased CD8+ T cell infiltration and tumor cell death. Ibuprofen treatment suppressed involution-fibroblast activation and tumor promotional capacity, concurrent with decreases in tumor Ly6C+ monocytes, and increases in intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration, granzyme levels, and tumor cell death. In total, our data identify a COX/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–dependent activated mammary fibroblast within the involuting mammary gland that displays protumorigenic, immunosuppressive activity, identifying fibroblasts as potential targets for the prevention and treatment of postpartum breast cancer. PMID:28352652

  4. Enhanced mammary progesterone receptor-A isoform activity in the promotion of mammary tumor progression by dietary soy in rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dietary contribution to breast cancer risk, recurrence, and progression remains incompletely understood. Increased consumption of soy and soy isoflavones is associated with reduced mammary cancer susceptibility in women and in rodent models of carcinogenesis. In rats treated with N-Methyl-N-Nitrosou...

  5. Folic Acid Supplementation Promotes Mammary Tumor Progression in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Deghan Manshadi, Shaidah; Ishiguro, Lisa; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Medline, Alan; Renlund, Richard; Croxford, Ruth; Kim, Young-In

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation may prevent the development of cancer in normal tissues but may promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic lesions. However, whether or not folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established (pre)neoplastic mammary lesions is unknown. This is a critically important issue because breast cancer patients and survivors in North America are likely exposed to high levels of folic acid owing to folic acid fortification and widespread supplemental use after cancer diagnosis. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established mammary tumors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet and mammary tumors were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene at puberty. When the sentinel tumor reached a predefined size, rats were randomized to receive a diet containing the control, 2.5x, 4x, or 5x supplemental levels of folic acid for up to 12 weeks. The sentinel mammary tumor growth was monitored weekly. At necropsy, the sentinel and all other mammary tumors were analyzed histologically. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the expression of proteins involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and mammary tumorigenesis was determined in representative sentinel adenocarcinomas. Although no clear dose-response relationship was observed, folic acid supplementation significantly promoted the progression of the sentinel mammary tumors and was associated with significantly higher sentinel mammary tumor weight and volume compared with the control diet. Furthermore, folic acid supplementation was associated with significantly higher weight and volume of all mammary tumors. The most significant and consistent mammary tumor-promoting effect was observed with the 2.5x supplemental level of folic acid. Folic acid supplementation was also associated with an increased expression of BAX, PARP, and HER2. Our data suggest that folic acid supplementation may promote the progression

  6. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    transcriptionally activated during pregnancy and lactation , and the mice are predisposed to develop mammary cancer after a minimum of 3 pregnancies and...pregnancy and lactation . After 3 pregnancies and lactations , but not after 1 pregnancy and lactation , females develop mammary cancers at an average...mated females per experimental condition (1 or 3 pregnancies/ lactations . 5 breeding strategy to develop triple transgenic cancer -prone and control

  7. In vivo MRI of early stage mammary cancers and the normal mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sanaz A; Conzen, Suzanne D; Fan, Xiaobing; Markiewicz, Erica; Krausz, Thomas; Newstead, Gillian M; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2011-08-01

    Since the advent of screening mammography, approximately one-quarter of newly diagnosed breast cancers are at the earliest preinvasive stage of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Concomitant with this improvement in early detection has been a growing clinical concern that distinguishing aggressive from indolent DCIS is necessary to optimize patient management. Genetically engineered mouse models offer an appealing experimental framework in which to investigate factors that influence and predict progression of preinvasive neoplasias. Because of the small size of early stage carcinomas in mice, high-resolution imaging techniques are required to effectively observe longitudinal progression. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI for assessment of in situ mammary neoplasias and early invasive mammary cancers that stochastically arise in mammary glands of C3(1) SV40 Tag transgenic mice. Additionally, images of normal mammary glands from wild-type FVB/N mice were acquired and compared with those from transgenic mice. Sixteen mice underwent MR examinations employing axial two-dimensional multi-slice gradient recalled echo scans (TR/TE =∼1000/5.5 ms) with fat suppression in a two-step process targeting both the upper and lower mammary glands. MRI successfully detected in situ and early invasive neoplasias in transgenic mice with high sensitivity and specificity. The average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of in situ lesions on fat-suppressed high-resolution T(1) -weighted images was 22.9, which was lower than that of invasive tumors, lymph nodes and muscle (average SNR of 29.5-34.9, p < 0.0001) but significantly higher than that of normal mammary tissue (average SNR = 5.5, p < 0.0001). Evaluation of wild-type mammary glands revealed no cancerous or benign lesions, and comparable image contrast characteristics (average SNR = 5.2) as compared with normal tissue areas of transgenic mice. This present study demonstrates that MRI is an excellent

  8. TGF-beta biology in mammary development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moses, Harold; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) was first implicated in mammary epithelial development by Daniel and Silberstein in 1987 and in breast cancer cells and hormone resistance by Lippman and colleagues in 1988. TGF-β is critically important for mammary morphogenesis and secretory function through specific regulation of epithelial proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix. Differential TGF-β effects on distinct cell types are compounded by regulation at multiple levels and the influence of context on cellular responses. Studies using controlled expression and conditional-deletion mouse models underscore the complexity of TGF-β biology across the cycle of mammary development and differentiation. Early loss of TGF-β growth regulation in breast cancer evolves into fundamental deregulation that mediates cell interactions and phenotypes driving invasive disease. Two outstanding issues are to understand the mechanisms of biological control in situ and the circumstances by which TGF-β regulation is subverted in neoplastic progression.

  9. Amphiregulin: role in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McBryan, Jean; Howlin, Jillian; Napoletano, Silvia; Martin, Finian

    2008-06-01

    Extensive epithelial cell proliferation underlies the ductal morphogenesis of puberty that generates the mammary tree that will eventually fill the fat pad. This estrogen-dependent process is believed to be essentially dependent on locally produced growth factors that act in a paracrine fashion. EGF-like growth factor ligands, acting through EGF receptors are some of the principal promoters of pubertal ductal morphogenesis. Amphiregulin is the most abundant EGF-like growth factor in the pubertal mammary gland. Its gene is transcriptionally regulated by ERalpha, and recent evidence identifies it as a key mediator of the estrogen-driven epithelial cell proliferation of puberty: The pubertal deficiency in mammary gland ductal morphogenesis in ERalpha, amphiregulin, and EGFR knockout mice phenocopy each other. As a prognostic indicator in human breast cancer, amphiregulin indicates an outcome identical to that predicted by ERalpha presence. Despite this, a range of studies both on preneoplastic human breast tissue and on cell culture based models of breast cancer, suggest a possibly significant role for amphiregulin in driving human breast cancer progression. Here we summarise our current understanding of amphiregulin's contribution to mammary gland development and breast cancer progression.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Genistein Mammary Cancer Chemoprevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    to collect a higher yield of proteins and hopefully allow success. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Genistein , Breast Cancer Chemoprevention, Proteomics, Rats ...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0433 TITLE: Proteomic Analysis of Genistein ...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Proteomic Analysis of Genistein Mammary Cancer Chemoprevention 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0433 5c. PROGRAM

  11. The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Samantha R; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and regulation of the mammary cellular hierarchy and we describe the development of the concepts that have guided our investigations. We outline recent advances in in vivo lineage tracing that is now challenging many of our assumptions regarding the behavior of mammary stem cells, and we show how understanding these cellular lineages has altered our view of breast cancer.

  12. Stromal Effects on Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Bryony S.; Werb, Zena

    2002-05-01

    Breast cancer manifests itself in the mammary epithelium, yet there is a growing recognition that mammary stromal cells also play an important role in tumorigenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer, and many of the stromal factors necessary for mammary development also promote or protect against breast cancer. Here we review our present knowledge of the specific factors and cell types that contribute to epithelial-stromal crosstalk during mammary development. To find cures for diseases like breast cancer that rely on epithelial-stromal crosstalk, we must understand how these different cell types communicate with each other.

  13. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0401 TITLE: Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...way as transcripts from the regular gene promoter. Transcriptional activation of retrotransposons is strongly linked with their CpG DNA methylation

  14. Postpartum mammary gland involution drives progression of ductal carcinoma in situ through collagen and COX-2.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Traci R; O'Brien, Jenean; Borges, Virginia F; Conklin, Matthew W; Keely, Patricia J; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Marusyk, Andriy; Tan, Aik-Choon; Schedin, Pepper

    2011-08-07

    The prognosis of breast cancer in young women is influenced by reproductive history. Women diagnosed within 5 years postpartum have worse prognosis than nulliparous women or women diagnosed during pregnancy. Here we describe a mouse model of postpartum breast cancer that identifies mammary gland involution as a driving force of tumor progression. In this model, human breast cancer cells exposed to the involuting mammary microenvironment form large tumors that are characterized by abundant fibrillar collagen, high cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and an invasive phenotype. In culture, tumor cells are invasive in a fibrillar collagen and COX-2-dependent manner. In the involuting mammary gland, inhibition of COX-2 reduces the collagen fibrillogenesis associated with involution, as well as tumor growth and tumor cell infiltration to the lung. These data support further research to determine whether women at high risk for postpartum breast cancer would benefit from treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during postpartum involution.

  15. Human mammary microenvironment better regulates the biology of human breast cancer in humanized mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ming-Jie; Wang, Jue; Xu, Lu; Zha, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Li-Jun; Wang, Shui

    2015-02-01

    During the past decades, many efforts have been made in mimicking the clinical progress of human cancer in mouse models. Previously, we developed a human breast tissue-derived (HB) mouse model. Theoretically, it may mimic the interactions between "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin and human breast cancer cells. However, detailed evidences are absent. The present study (in vivo, cellular, and molecular experiments) was designed to explore the regulatory role of human mammary microenvironment in the progress of human breast cancer cells. Subcutaneous (SUB), mammary fat pad (MFP), and HB mouse models were developed for in vivo comparisons. Then, the orthotopic tumor masses from three different mouse models were collected for primary culture. Finally, the biology of primary cultured human breast cancer cells was compared by cellular and molecular experiments. Results of in vivo mouse models indicated that human breast cancer cells grew better in human mammary microenvironment. Cellular and molecular experiments confirmed that primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model showed a better proliferative and anti-apoptotic biology than those from SUB to MFP mouse models. Meanwhile, primary cultured human breast cancer cells from HB mouse model also obtained the migratory and invasive biology for "species-specific" tissue metastasis to human tissues. Comprehensive analyses suggest that "species-specific" mammary microenvironment of human origin better regulates the biology of human breast cancer cells in our humanized mouse model of breast cancer, which is more consistent with the clinical progress of human breast cancer.

  16. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    retrotransposon transcriptional activity, and retrotransposon-driven transcription of cellular genes in an engineered mouse model of mammary cancer. RNA-seq and...transcriptional activity, and retrotransposon-driven transcription of cellular genes . Retrotransposon promoters are well recognized to function as alternative...promoters for different cellular genes , generating chimeric transcripts that may or may not function in the same way as transcripts from the regular

  17. Leukocytes in Mammary Development and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, Lisa M.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Leukocytes, of both the innate and adaptive lineages, are normal cellular components of all tissues. These important cells not only are critical for regulating normal tissue homeostasis, but also are significant paracrine regulators of all physiologic and pathologic tissue repair processes. This article summarizes recent insights regarding the trophic roles of leukocytes at each stage of mammary gland development and during cancer development, with a focus on Murids and humans. PMID:21123394

  18. Inbreeding and canine mammary cancer: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Dorn, C R; Schneider, R

    1976-09-01

    Using files of the Animal Neoplasm Registry (ANR) in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California, we conducted a retrospective study to compare the degree of inbreeding in the ancestry of purebred dogs with mammary and other cancers, and of those without tumors. Wright's coefficients of inbreeding, calculated for all animals in the three groups, ranged from 0.000 to 0.535. The median inbreeding coefficients of the mammary cancer and comparison groups (consisting of other cancers) were approximately twice that of the nonneoplastic group, but neither difference was statistically significant. Dogs with mammary adenocarcinoma and mixed mammary cancer had similar degrees of inbreeding.

  19. MMTV-PyMT and Derived Met-1 Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells as Models for Studying the Role of the Androgen Receptor in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Jessica L; Butterfield, Kiel T; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Norris, John D; Josan, Jatinder S; Pollock, Julie A; McDonnell, Donald P; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Richer, Jennifer K

    2017-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a faster rate of metastasis compared to other breast cancer subtypes, and no effective targeted therapies are currently FDA-approved. Recent data indicate that the androgen receptor (AR) promotes tumor survival and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in TNBC. Studies of AR in disease progression and the systemic effects of anti-androgens have been hindered by the lack of an AR-positive (AR+) immunocompetent preclinical model. In this study, we identified the transgenic MMTV-PyMT (mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle tumor-antigen) mouse mammary gland carcinoma model of breast cancer and Met-1 cells derived from this model as tools to study the role of AR in breast cancer progression. AR protein expression was examined in late-stage primary tumors and lung metastases from MMTV-PyMT mice as well as in Met-1 cells by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Sensitivity of Met-1 cells to the AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and anti-androgen therapy was examined using cell viability, migration/invasion, and anchorage-independent growth assays. Late-stage primary tumors and lung metastases from MMTV-PyMT mice and Met-1 cells expressed abundant nuclear AR protein, while negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Met-1 sensitivity to DHT and AR antagonists demonstrated a reliance on AR for survival, and AR antagonists inhibited invasion and anchorage-independent growth. These data suggest that the MMTV-PyMT model and Met-1 cells may serve as valuable tools for mechanistic studies of the role of AR in disease progression and how anti-androgens affect the tumor microenvironment.

  20. Stem cells in normal mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Yin, Xin; Ma, Tao; Lu, Jun

    2010-04-01

    The mammary gland is a structurally dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic alterations with age, menstrual cycle, and reproductive status. Mammary gland stem cells, the minor cell population within the mature organ, are thought to have multiple functions in regulating mammary gland development, tissue maintenance, major growth, and structural remodeling. In addition, accumulative evidence suggests that breast cancers are initiated and maintained by a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell features (called cancer stem cells). A variety of methods have been developed to identify and characterize mammary stem cells, and several signal transduction pathways have been identified to be essential for the self-renewal and differentiation of mammary gland stem cells. Understanding the origin of breast cancer stem cells, their relationship to breast cancer development, and the differences between normal and cancer stem cells may lead to novel approaches to breast cancer diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

  1. Wound healing-like immune program facilitates postpartum mammary gland involution and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly A; Jindal, Sonali; Durand-Rougely, Clarissa; Borges, Virginia F; Schedin, Pepper

    2015-04-15

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum have poor survival rates. The process of postpartum mammary gland involution, whereby the lactating gland remodels to its prepregnant state, promotes breast cancer progression in xenograft models. Macrophage influx occurs during mammary gland involution, implicating immune modulation in the promotion of postpartum breast cancer. Herein, we characterize the postpartum murine mammary gland and find an orchestrated influx of immune cells similar to that which occurs during wound healing. Further, the normal involuting gland may be in an immunosuppressed state as discerned by the transient presence of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and IL-10(+) macrophages with T cell suppressive function. To determine the influence of the postpartum immune microenvironment on mammary tumor promotion, we developed an immune-competent model. In this model, mammary tumors in the involution group are sixfold larger than nulliparous group tumors, have decreased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltrates and contain a greater number of macrophages with the ability to inhibit T cell activation. Targeting involution with a neutralizing antibody against the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 reduces tumor growth in involution group mice but not in nulliparous mice, implicating the involution microenvironment as the primary target of αIL-10 treatment. Relevance to women is implicated, as we find postlactational human breast tissue has transient high IL-10(+) and Foxp3(+) immune cell infiltrate. These data show an immune modulated microenvironment within the normal involuting mammary gland suggestive of immunosuppression, that when targeted reduces tumor promotion, revealing possible immune-based strategies for postpartum breast cancer.

  2. Wound healing-like immune program facilitates postpartum mammary gland involution and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Holly A.; Jindal, Sonali; Durand-Rougely, Clarissa; Borges, Virginia F.; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum have poor survival rates. The process of postpartum mammary gland involution, whereby the lactating gland remodels to its pre-pregnant state, promotes breast cancer progression in xenograft models. Macrophage influx occurs during mammary gland involution, implicating immune modulation in the promotion of postpartum breast cancer. Herein, we characterize the postpartum murine mammary gland and find an orchestrated influx of immune cells similar to that which occurs during wound healing. Further, the normal involuting gland may be in an immunosuppressed state as discerned by the transient presence of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and IL-10+ macrophages with T cell suppressive function. To determine the influence of the postpartum immune microenvironment on mammary tumor promotion, we developed an immune-competent model. In this model, mammary tumors in the involution group are six-fold larger than nulliparous group tumors, have decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltrates and contain a greater number of macrophages with the ability to inhibit T cell activation. Targeting involution with a neutralizing antibody against the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 reduces tumor growth in involution group mice but not in nulliparous mice, implicating the involution microenvironment as the primary target of αIL-10 treatment. Relevance to women is implicated, as we find post-lactational human breast tissue has transient high IL-10+ and Foxp3+ immune cell infiltrate. These data show an immune modulated microenvironment within the normal involuting mammary gland suggestive of immunosuppression, that when targeted reduces tumor promotion, revealing possible immune-based strategies for postpartum breast cancer. PMID:25187059

  3. Positional variations in mammary gland development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Veltmaat, Jacqueline M; Ramsdell, Ann F; Sterneck, Esta

    2013-06-01

    Most mammals develop their mammary glands in pairs of which the two counterparts are symmetrically displaced away from the ventral midline. Based on this symmetry and the same functional outcome as a milk-producing organ, the mammary glands are easily presumed to be mere copies of one another. Based on our analysis of published data with inclusion of new results related to mammary development and pathology in mice, we argue that this presumption is incorrect: Between and within pairs, mammary glands differ from one another, and tumor incidence and biology depend on the position along the anterior-posterior and the left-right axis as well. This insight has implications for experimental designs with mouse models and for data extrapolation between mammary glands within and between species. We suggest that improved documentation of location-specific mammary gland features will lead to more insights into the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland development and cancer biology in both mice and humans.

  4. Mammary gland stem cells and their application in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xing; Wang, Hui; Jiao, Baowei

    2017-02-07

    The mammary gland is an organ comprising two primary lineages, specifically the inner luminal and the outer myoepithelial cell layers. Mammary gland stem cells (MaSCs) are highly dynamic and self-renewing, and can give rise to these mammary gland lineages. The lineages are responsible for gland generation during puberty as well as expansion during pregnancy. In recent years, researchers have focused on understanding how MaSCs are regulated during mammary gland development and transformation of breast cancer. Here, we summarize the identification of MaSCs, and how they are regulated by the signaling transduction pathways, mammary gland microenvironment, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Moreover, we debate the evidence for their serving as the origin of breast cancer, and discuss the therapeutic perspectives of targeting breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). In conclusion, a better understanding of the key regulators of MaSCs is crucial for the clinical treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Genetic Susceptibility to Estrogen-Induced Mammary Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    mammary glands were reflected in mammary histology. (A and E) Thin sections from Fig. 3. E2 induced pituitary growth and hyperprolactinemia similarly in...with E2 5 (33%) exhibited a normal DNA profile where the great for 12 wk induced pituitary growth and hyperprolactinemia in majority of cells displayed...etal. , " terone, or PRL. Hyperprolactinemia has been shown to be sufficient to induce mammary cancer in certain strains of mouse 1 , (29-31) and rat

  6. Comparison of increased aromatase versus ERα in the generation of mammary hyperplasia and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cruz, Edgar S.; Sugimoto, Yasuro; Gallicano, G. Ian; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Furth, Priscilla A

    2011-01-01

    Factors associated with increased estrogen synthesis increase breast cancer risk. Increased aromatase and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in both normal epithelium and ductal carcinoma in situ lesions are found in conjunction with breast cancer, leading to the idea that altered estrogen signaling pathways predispose the mammary gland to cancer development. Here, we developed a transgenic mouse that conditionally expresses aromatase in the mammary gland, and used it along with a deregulated ERα expression model to investigate the molecular pathways involved in the development of mammary gland preneoplasia and carcinoma. Both increased ERα and aromatase expression led to the development of preneoplasia, but increased preneoplasia, in addition to carcinoma, was found in aromatase over-expressing mice. Increased prevalence of mammary pathological changes in mice expressing aromatase correlated with increased Cyclin E and Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 expression. Gain of both ERα and aromatase increased expression of ERα and progesterone receptor, but aromatase produced a higher increase than ERα, accompanied by higher levels of downstream target genes cyclin D1, c-Myc and RANKL. In summary, while gain of both ERα and aromatase activate abnormal growth pathways in the mammary gland, aromatase induced a wider range of abnormalities that was associated with a higher prevalence of mammary preneoplasia and cancer progression. PMID:21840986

  7. Hippo pathway in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peiguo; Feng, Jing; Chen, Ceshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that the Hippo signaling pathway plays crucial roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. Key components of the Hippo pathway regulate breast epithelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and stemness. Additionally, the Hippo pathway regulates breast tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. It is expected that the Hippo pathway will provide novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. This review will discuss and summarize the roles of several core components of the Hippo pathway in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

  8. Modeling mechanical interactions between cancerous mammary acini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeffrey; Liphardt, Jan; Rycroft, Chris

    2015-03-01

    The rules and mechanical forces governing cell motility and interactions with the extracellular matrix of a tissue are often critical for understanding the mechanisms by which breast cancer is able to spread through the breast tissue and eventually metastasize. Ex vivo experimentation has demonstrated the the formation of long collagen fibers through collagen gels between the cancerous mammary acini responsible for milk production, providing a fiber scaffolding along which cancer cells can disorganize. We present a minimal mechanical model that serves as a potential explanation for the formation of these collagen fibers and the resultant motion. Our working hypothesis is that cancerous cells induce this fiber formation by pulling on the gel and taking advantage of the specific mechanical properties of collagen. To model this system, we employ a new Eulerian, fixed grid simulation method to model the collagen as a nonlinear viscoelastic material subject to various forces coupled with a multi-agent model to describe individual cancer cells. We find that these phenomena can be explained two simple ideas: cells pull collagen radially inwards and move towards the tension gradient of the collagen gel, while being exposed to standard adhesive and collision forces.

  9. A mammary nodule mimicking breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Solaini, Leonardo; Bianchi, Anna; Filippini, Luigi; Lucini, Laura; Simoncini, Edda; Ragni, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary tumors are rare. Several clinical, radiologic, and histologic signs can help to distinguish metastases from breast primary tumors. In the present study, we present a case of a left-sided breast metastasis from renal cancer in a 44-year-old woman whose clinical presentation was a mammary nodule in the upper internal quadrant. The patient underwent quadrantectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy. The histology revealed a clear cell carcinoma. On computed tomography scan a 5×8-cm left renal mass with pulmonary, liver, and intrapericardial nodules was found. The patient underwent palliative care and died after 4 months. Metastasis to the breast is rare, but all of those clinical, radiologic, and histologic signs more typical of extramammary malignancies should always be considered in order to choose the best treatment strategy.

  10. Breast cancer detection using mammary ductoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Edward

    2005-06-01

    Mammary ductoscopy (MD) has been used as a tool to evaluate the breast for cancer for over 10 years. MD allows the direct visualization of the duct lumen, providing a more targeted approach to the diagnosis of disease arising in the ductal system, since the lesion can be visualized and samples collected in the area of interest. Initial studies of MD evaluated women with pathologic spontaneous nipple discharge (PND), while more recent reports are also using MD to assess women without PND for the presence of breast cancer. Cytologic assessment of MD is highly specific but less sensitive in the detection of breast cancer. Nonetheless, a MD sample from a breast with PND may rarely undergo cytologic review and be interpreted as consistent with malignancy, only later to undergo surgical resection demonstrating benign pathology. For this reason, PND specimens interpreted as malignant on cytologic review require histopathologic confirmation prior to instituting therapy. Additional sample evaluation using image or molecular analysis may improve the sensitivity and specificity of MD in breast cancer detection.

  11. A Comparative Approach of Tumor-Associated Inflammation in Mammary Cancer between Humans and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Pires, Isabel; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating cells of the immune system are widely accepted to be generic constituents of tumor microenvironment. It has been well established that the development of mammary cancer, both in humans and in dogs, is associated with alterations in numbers and functions of immune cells at the sites of tumor progression. These tumor infiltrating immune cells seem to exhibit exclusive phenotypic and functional characteristics and mammary cancer cells can take advantage of signaling molecules released by them. Cancer related inflammation has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, contributing to the acquisition of core hallmark capabilities that allow cancer cells to survive, proliferate, and disseminate. Indeed, recent studies in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors have identified a growing list of signaling molecules released by inflammatory cells that serve as effectors of their tumor-promoting actions. These include the COX-2, the tumor EGF, the angiogenic VEGF, other proangiogenic factors, and a large variety of chemokines and cytokines that amplify the inflammatory state. This review describes the intertwined signaling pathways shared by T-lymphocytic/macrophage infiltrates and important tissue biomarkers in both human and dog mammary carcinogenesis. PMID:28053982

  12. A Comparative Approach of Tumor-Associated Inflammation in Mammary Cancer between Humans and Dogs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Silva-Carvalho, Ricardo; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2016-01-01

    Infiltrating cells of the immune system are widely accepted to be generic constituents of tumor microenvironment. It has been well established that the development of mammary cancer, both in humans and in dogs, is associated with alterations in numbers and functions of immune cells at the sites of tumor progression. These tumor infiltrating immune cells seem to exhibit exclusive phenotypic and functional characteristics and mammary cancer cells can take advantage of signaling molecules released by them. Cancer related inflammation has an important role in mammary carcinogenesis, contributing to the acquisition of core hallmark capabilities that allow cancer cells to survive, proliferate, and disseminate. Indeed, recent studies in human breast cancer and in canine mammary tumors have identified a growing list of signaling molecules released by inflammatory cells that serve as effectors of their tumor-promoting actions. These include the COX-2, the tumor EGF, the angiogenic VEGF, other proangiogenic factors, and a large variety of chemokines and cytokines that amplify the inflammatory state. This review describes the intertwined signaling pathways shared by T-lymphocytic/macrophage infiltrates and important tissue biomarkers in both human and dog mammary carcinogenesis.

  13. Nitric Oxide in Mammary Tumor Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    smaller level TIMP-3. This indicated that invasion stimulating effects of endogenous NO are, at least in part , mediated by downregulation TIMP-2 and...vasculature: Inhibition retards tumor growth in vivo. In: Moncada S, Feelisch M, Busse R, Higgs EA (eds) Biology of Nitric Oxide. Part 4: Enzymology...useful in treating certain human cancers either as single agents or as a part of combination therapies. I. Introduction duction of proliferation

  14. Internal mammary node management in breast cancer. A review.

    PubMed

    Vrana, David; Gatek, Jiri; Cwiertka, Karel; Lukesova, Lucie; Koranda, Pavel

    2013-09-01

    Internal mammary nodes visualized during sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer, remain an unresolved management issue. Further, both internal mammary node (IMN) radiotherapy and biopsy have attendant risks and hence should be used with caution. The purpose of this review is to highlight the available data and evidence. A PubMed database from 1960 to 2012 using key words: internal mammary nodes, breast cancer radiotherapy planning, adjuvant radiotherapy, sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer and selected publications on the significance of internal mammary nodes in breast cancer treatment, published data and approaches used. We found 14513 relevant papers and we selected 30 that clearly investigated the management of internal mammary nodes during sentinel node search. We focused on the incidence of IMN metastasis (6 papers), risk factors associated with IMN drainage (9 reports), management of IMN and the impact on disease free and overall patient survival (15 papers). The evidence for breast cancer axillary nodes management is good but the data for other draining nodes such as internal mammary nodes are far less conclusive and further research is needed.

  15. A review of mammary ductoscopy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Tanaka, Kanji

    2004-01-01

    Breast carcinoma and hyperplasia are thought to start in the lining of the breast duct. Mammary ductoscopy is an emerging technique allowing direct visual access of the ductal system of the breast through the nipple. This article reviews and discusses the utility of mammary ductoscopy. Abnormalities can be identified successfully by mammary ductoscopy, and intraductal biopsy can be used when the tumor is a polypoid type. Ductal lavage using microcatheters is effective in identifying malignant cells in high-risk women and this has stimulated interest in exploring the role of mammary ductoscopy in breast cancer screening. Mammary ductoscopy combined with ductal lavage may have a role in the management of patients with nipple discharge, the guiding of breast-conserving surgery for cancer, and in screening for high-risk women. The addition of molecular and genetic analysis of cells obtained by mammary ductoscopy are likely to enhance the use of this technique. Mammary ductoscopy techniques are safe and appear useful for detecting abnormalities in the breast. The additional molecular biologic study or ductal lavage may enhance the ability to direct and limit subsequent surgery when removing the offending lesions.

  16. Notch in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Politi, Katerina; Feirt, Nikki; Kitajewski, Jan

    2004-10-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in many processes including cell fate determination and oncogenesis. In mice, the Notch1 and Notch4 genes are both targets for insertion and rearrangement by the mouse mammary tumor virus and these mutations promote epithelial mammary tumorigenesis. Moreover, expression of a constitutively active form of Notch4 in mammary epithelial cells inhibits epithelial differentiation and leads to tumor formation in this organ. These data implicate the Notch pathway in breast tumorigenesis and provide the foundation for future experiments that will aid in our understanding of the role of Notch in human breast cancer development. Here, we review studies of mammary tumorigenesis induced by Notch in mouse and in vitro culture models providing evidence that Notch activation is a causal factor in human breast cancer.

  17. Black cohosh increases metastatic mammary cancer in transgenic mice expressing c-erbB2.

    PubMed

    Davis, Vicki L; Jayo, Manuel J; Ho, Arline; Kotlarczyk, Mary P; Hardy, Mary L; Foster, Warren G; Hughes, Claude L

    2008-10-15

    Black cohosh is an herbal extract that is often used as an alternative to estrogen-based replacement therapies to treat hot flushes that frequently accompany the transition to menopause. Although cancer-free women as well as breast cancer patients and survivors use black cohosh to relieve vasomotor symptoms, there is limited information on its potential to influence breast cancer development or progression. Therefore, in this study, the effects of black cohosh on mammary tumorigenesis were investigated in the MMTV-neu mouse model due to its similarities to HER2(+) breast cancer, including stochastic development of mammary tumors, which frequently progress to metastatic disease. Using an adjusted dose for the mice to correlate to the recommended dose in women (40 mg/d), no differences were detected in the incidence or onset of mammary tumors in black cohosh-treated versus control females. The lack of effect on mammary tumor development suggests that black cohosh would not influence breast cancer risk if given to women before tumor formation. In contrast, black cohosh significantly increased the incidence of lung metastases in tumor-bearing animals compared with mice fed the isoflavone-free control diet. Additional studies will be needed to correlate these findings to women taking different black cohosh products at various times during breast cancer development; however, these results suggest caution for women using black cohosh, especially for extended periods of time. As metastatic progression is linked to patient survival, these data stress the importance of investigating how women's therapies influence all stages of mammary tumorigenesis, particularly for assessing their safety.

  18. A Multifaceted Role for Myd88-Dependent Signaling in Progression of Murine Mammary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Mary J.; Serrano, Antonio; Boateng, Kofi Y.; Parsons, Victoria A.; Phuong, Tiffany; Seifert, Alyssa; Ricca, Jacob M.; Tucker, Kyle C.; Eidelman, Alec S.; Carey, Maureen A.; Kurt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous data obtained in our laboratory suggested that there may be constitutive signaling through the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-dependent signaling cascade in murine mammary carcinoma. Here, we extended these findings by showing that, in the absence of an added Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, the myddosome complex was preformed in 4T1 tumor cells, and that Myd88 influenced cytoplasmic extracellular signal–regulated kinase (Erk)1/Erk2 levels, nuclear levels of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), tumor-derived chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) expression, and in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. In addition, RNA-sequencing revealed that Myd88-dependent signaling enhanced the expression of genes that could contribute to breast cancer progression and genes previously associated with poor outcome for patients with breast cancer, in addition to suppressing the expression of genes capable of inhibiting breast cancer progression. Yet, Myd88-dependent signaling in tumor cells also suppressed expression of genes that could contribute to tumor progression. Collectively, these data revealed a multifaceted role for Myd88-dependent signaling in murine mammary carcinoma. PMID:27812285

  19. Anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate induces canine mammary cancer cell aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Santos, Ana L; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness.

  20. On the possible role of mammary-derived growth hormone in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Jos H H

    2009-12-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has risen worldwide, especially in countries where it used to be low, very probably as a result of economic prosperity and changes in life-style. In women, the available data have resulted in the concept of progression from normal breast development to cancer through precursor lesions sensitive to hormones and growth factors that can be produced locally in the mammary gland, acting as paracrine or autocrine stimulating agents. The local endocrine environment in the breast can be different from the situation in the circulation. In the dog, growth hormone (GH) can be produced locally in the mammary glands and its production can be stimulated by progestins. This GH probably plays a paracrine role in the progesterone-induced proliferation and differentiation of mammary epithelium. There is increasing evidence that the local mammary progestin/GH-axis is operational not only in dogs but also in human breast cancer. No data are yet available on the production of mammary-derived GH in women.

  1. Anti-Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Oseltamivir Phosphate Induces Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Joana T.; Santos, Ana L.; Gomes, Catarina; Barros, Rita; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Mendes, Nuno; de Matos, Augusto J.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Oliveira, Maria José; Reis, Celso A.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir phosphate is a widely used anti-influenza sialidase inhibitor. Sialylation, governed by sialyltransferases and sialidases, is strongly implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In this study we evaluated the biological behavior of canine mammary tumor cells upon oseltamivir phosphate treatment (a sialidase inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro results showed that oseltamivir phosphate impairs sialidase activity leading to increased sialylation in CMA07 and CMT-U27 canine mammary cancer cells. Surprisingly, oseltamivir phosphate stimulated, CMT-U27 cell migration and invasion capacity in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. CMT-U27 tumors xenograft of oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice showed increased sialylation, namely α2,6 terminal structures and SLe(x) expression. Remarkably, a trend towards increased lung metastases was observed in oseltamivir phosphate-treated nude mice. Taken together, our findings revealed that oseltamivir impairs canine mammary cancer cell sialidase activity, altering the sialylation pattern of canine mammary tumors, and leading, surprisingly, to in vitro and in vivo increased mammary tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25850034

  2. Endocrine-active chemicals in mammary cancer causation and prevention.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sarah; Betancourt, Angela M; Wang, Jun; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2012-04-01

    Endocrine-active chemicals alter or mimic physiological hormones. These compounds are reported to originate from a wide variety of sources, and recent studies have shown widespread human exposure to several of these compounds. Given the role of the sex steroid hormone, estradiol, in human breast cancer causation, endocrine-active chemicals which interfere with estrogen signaling constitute one potential factor contributing to the high incidence of breast cancer. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine several common endocrine-active chemicals and their respective roles in breast cancer causation or prevention. The plastic component, bisphenol A (BPA), the synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), the by-product of organic combustion, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the soy component, genistein, and the red grape phytoalexin, resveratrol, have some degree of structural similarities to each other and estradiol. However, despite these structural similarities, the in vitro and in vivo properties of each of these chemicals vary greatly in terms of breast cancer causation and prevention. Early life exposure to BPA and DES increases rodent susceptibility to chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis, presumably through retardation of normal mammary gland maturation and/or disrupting the ratio of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland. On the other hand, early exposures to genistein and resveratrol protect rodents against chemically induced and spontaneous mammary cancers. This is reported to occur through the ability of genistein and resveratrol to accelerate mammary gland maturation. Interestingly, TCDD, which is the most structurally dissimilar to the above chemicals and functions as an anti-estrogen, also increases chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis through retardation of mammary gland maturation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors'. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The role of neutralizing antibodies for mouse mammary tumor virus transmission and mammary cancer development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Daniela; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Acha-Orbea, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) infection establishes chronic germinal centers and a lifelong neutralizing Ab response. We show that removal of the draining lymph node after establishment of the germinal center reaction led to complete loss of neutralizing Abs despite comparable infection levels in peripheral lymphocytes. Importantly, in the absence of neutralization, only the exocrine organs mammary gland, salivary gland, pancreas, and skin showed strikingly increased infection, resulting in accelerated mammary tumor development. Induction of stronger neutralization did not influence chronic infection levels of peripheral lymphoid organs but strongly inhibited mammary gland infection and virus transmission to the next generation. Taken together, we provide evidence that a tight equilibrium in virus neutralization allows limited infection of exocrine organs and controls cancer development in susceptible mouse strains. These experiments show that a strong neutralizing Ab response induced after infection is not able to control lymphoid MMTV infection. Strong neutralization, however, is capable of blocking amplification of mammary gland infection, tumor development, and virus transmission to the next generation. The results also indicate a role of neutralization in natural resistance to MMTV infection.

  4. Expression of the apoptotic markers in normal breast epithelium, benign mammary dysplasia and in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Koda, Mariusz; Kanczuga-Koda, Luiza; Reszec, Joanna; Sulkowska, Mariola; Famulski, Waldemar; Baltaziak, Marek; Kisielewski, Wojciech; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2004-08-01

    Apoptosis and proliferation are processes associated with the development and progression of breast cancer. The sensitivity of tumour cells to the induction of apoptosis depends on the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. The expression of Bak and Bcl-2 was examined using an immunohistochemical method in 71 primary breast cancers. Furthermore, Bcl-2 and Bak were assessed in the normal mammary gland as well as in benign mammary dysplasia adjacent to breast cancer. Positive immunostaining for Bcl-2 was observed in 77.8% of cases of normal breast epithelium (NBE), 93% of benign dysplasia without intraductal proliferation (BBD) as well as in 94% of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast (BIPL). Expression of Bak was detected in 39% of cases of NBE, 45% of BBD and in 67% of BIPL. In breast cancer Bcl-2 and Bak expression was found in 83% and 70% of the cases studied, respectively. Increased Bcl-2 expression in primary tumours significantly correlated with favourable prognostic factors, namely pT1, G2 and lack of metastases to the regional lymph nodes (p < 0.01, p < 0.03, p < 0.02, respectively). There were no relationships between Bak and the clinicopathological features studied, but our results indicate changes in the expression of Bak during breast cancer development and progression. It would appear to be important to assess and compare pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins between normal mammary gland, benign mammary dysplasia and the primary tumours of breast cancer. This knowledge should be helpful in understanding breast cancer development and progression.

  5. The role of mammary ductoscopy in breast cancer: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kapenhas-Valdes, Edna; Feldman, Sheldon M; Boolbol, Susan K

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among American women. It is the second most common cause of cancer death. Genetic analysis using comparative genetic hybridization (CGH) has shown evidence that the majority of breast cancers, approximately 85%, begin in the ductal epithelium with normal cells progressing to atypia and finally to carcinoma. Mammary ductoscopy, also referred to as the intraductal approach, is a new tool that allows direct visualization of the breast ductal system. It enables one to sample the ductal epithelium and may allow identification of early changes cytologically as well as potentially play an important role in aiding surgical excision. This may aid in detection of breast masses long before they are palpable or visible via mammography. Mammary ductoscopy may have a role in the evaluation of women with nipple discharge, high-risk women, or limiting the amount of tissue removed in breast conservation surgery for cancer.

  6. Differentiation of the mammary epithelial cell during involution: implications for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monks, Jenifer; Henson, Peter M

    2009-06-01

    That milk secretion is not the final differentiated state of the mammary alveolar cells is a relatively new concept. Recent work has suggested that secreting, mammary epithelial cells (MECs) have another function to perform before they undergo cell death in the involuting mammary gland. That is, they help in the final clearance and breakdown of their neighboring cells (and likely residual milk as well.) They become, for a short time, amateur phagocytes, or efferocytes, and then are believed to die and be cleared themselves. Although relatively little study has been made of this change in the functional state of the MEC, nevertheless we may speculate from the involution literature, and extend findings from other systems of apoptotic cell clearance, on some of the mechanisms involved. And with the finding that involution may represent a unique susceptibility window for the progression of metastatic breast cancer, we may suggest areas for future research along these lines as well.

  7. Elf5 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary gland development and breast cancer metastasis by transcriptionally repressing Snail2.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Rumela; Hwang, Julie; Andres Blanco, Mario; Wei, Yong; Lukačišin, Martin; Romano, Rose-Anne; Smalley, Kirsten; Liu, Song; Yang, Qifeng; Ibrahim, Toni; Mercatali, Laura; Amadori, Dino; Haffty, Bruce G; Sinha, Satrajit; Kang, Yibin

    2012-11-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process that occurs during organogenesis and in cancer metastasis. Despite recent progress, the molecular pathways connecting the physiological and pathological functions of EMT need to be better defined. Here we show that the transcription factor Elf5, a key regulator of mammary gland alveologenesis, controls EMT in both mammary gland development and metastasis. We uncovered this role for Elf5 through analyses of Elf5 conditional knockout animals, various in vitro and in vivo models of EMT and metastasis, an MMTV-neu transgenic model of mammary tumour progression and clinical breast cancer samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Elf5 suppresses EMT by directly repressing the transcription of Snail2, a master regulator of mammary stem cells and a known inducer of EMT. These findings establish Elf5 not only as a key cell lineage regulator during normal mammary gland development, but also as a suppressor of EMT and metastasis in breast cancer.

  8. Macrophages: Regulators of the Inflammatory Microenvironment during Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Brady, Nicholas J; Chuntova, Pavlina; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are critical mediators of inflammation and important regulators of developmental processes. As a key phagocytic cell type, macrophages evolved as part of the innate immune system to engulf and process cell debris and pathogens. Macrophages produce factors that act directly on their microenvironment and also bridge innate immune responses to the adaptive immune system. Resident macrophages are important for acting as sensors for tissue damage and maintaining tissue homeostasis. It is now well-established that macrophages are an integral component of the breast tumor microenvironment, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression, likely through many of the mechanisms that are utilized during normal wound healing responses. Because macrophages contribute to normal mammary gland development and breast cancer growth and progression, this review will discuss both resident mammary gland macrophages and tumor-associated macrophages with an emphasis on describing how macrophages interact with their surrounding environment during normal development and in the context of cancer.

  9. Macrophages: Regulators of the Inflammatory Microenvironment during Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Nicholas J.; Chuntova, Pavlina; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are critical mediators of inflammation and important regulators of developmental processes. As a key phagocytic cell type, macrophages evolved as part of the innate immune system to engulf and process cell debris and pathogens. Macrophages produce factors that act directly on their microenvironment and also bridge innate immune responses to the adaptive immune system. Resident macrophages are important for acting as sensors for tissue damage and maintaining tissue homeostasis. It is now well-established that macrophages are an integral component of the breast tumor microenvironment, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression, likely through many of the mechanisms that are utilized during normal wound healing responses. Because macrophages contribute to normal mammary gland development and breast cancer growth and progression, this review will discuss both resident mammary gland macrophages and tumor-associated macrophages with an emphasis on describing how macrophages interact with their surrounding environment during normal development and in the context of cancer. PMID:26884646

  10. The hedgehog signaling network, mammary stem cells, and breast cancer: connections and controversies.

    PubMed

    Lewis, M T; Visbal, A P

    2006-01-01

    Several signal transduction networks have been implicated in the regulation of mammary epithelial stem cell self-renewal and maintenance (Kalirai and Clarke 2006; Liu et al. 2005). These signaling networks include those of the Wnt, Notch, TGFO, EGF, FGF, IGF, and most recently, the Hedgehog (Hh) families of secreted ligands. However, we currently know very little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these signaling pathways function to regulate normal epithelial stem/progenitor cells. What is clear is that the regulatory signaling networks thought to control normal stem/progenitor cell self-renewal and maintenance are, with the current sole exception of the hedgehog network, well-documented to have contributory roles in mammary cancer development and disease progression when misregulated. In this review, genetic regulation of mammary gland development by hedgehog network genes is outlined, highlighting a developing controversy as to whether activated hedgehog signaling regulates normal regenerative mammary epithelial stem cells or, indeed, whether activated hedgehog signaling functions at all in ductal development. In addition, the question of whether inappropriate hedgehog network activation influences breast cancer development is addressed, with emphasis on the prospects for using hedgehog signaling antagonists clinically for breast cancer treatment or prevention.

  11. Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Lo Re, Daniele; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Homa, Agata; Pawłowski, Karol; Motyl, Tomasz; Murphy, Paul V.; Król, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6) on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. Results Our results showed that two of six fully synthetic analogues of migrastatin: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6) disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. Conclusion Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6) were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs. However, further in

  12. The angiotensin receptor blocker, Losartan, inhibits mammary tumor development and progression to invasive carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Rhiannon; Liew, Seng H.; Connelly, Angela A.; Yee, Nicholas S.; Deb, Siddhartha; Kumar, Beena; Vargas, Ana C.; O’Toole, Sandra A.; Parslow, Adam C.; Poh, Ashleigh; Putoczki, Tracy; Morrow, Riley J.; Alorro, Mariah; Lazarus, Kyren A.; Yeap, Evie F.W.; Walton, Kelly L.; Harrison, Craig A.; Hannan, Natalie J.; George, Amee J.; Clyne, Colin D.; Ernst, Matthias; Allen, Andrew M.; Chand, Ashwini L.

    2017-01-01

    Drugs that target the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) have recently come into focus for their potential utility as cancer treatments. The use of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors (ACEIs) to manage hypertension in cancer patients is correlated with improved survival outcomes for renal, prostate, breast and small cell lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrate that the Angiotensin Receptor Type I (AT1R) is linked to breast cancer pathogenesis, with unbiased analysis of gene-expression studies identifying significant up-regulation of AGTR1, the gene encoding AT1R in ER+ve/HER2−ve tumors correlating with poor prognosis. However, there is no evidence, so far, of the functional contribution of AT1R to breast tumorigenesis. We explored the potential therapeutic benefit of ARB in a carcinogen-induced mouse model of breast cancer and clarified the mechanisms associated with its success. Mammary tumors were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]antracene (DMBA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in female wild type mice and the effects of the ARB, Losartan treatment assessed in a preventative setting (n = 15 per group). Tumor histopathology was characterised by immunohistochemistry, real-time qPCR to detect gene expression signatures, and tumor cytokine levels measured with quantitative bioplex assays. AT1R was detected with radiolabelled ligand binding assays in fresh frozen tumor samples. We showed that therapeutic inhibition of AT1R, with Losartan, resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden; and no mammary tumor incidence in 20% of animals. We observed a significant reduction in tumor progression from DCIS to invasive cancer with Losartan treatment. This was associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation and a significant reduction in IL-6, pSTAT3 and TNFα levels. Analysis of tumor immune cell infiltrates, however, demonstrated no significant differences in the recruitment of lymphocytes or tumour

  13. A mammary stem cell population identified and characterized in late embryogenesis reveals similarities to human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Spike, Benjamin T; Engle, Dannielle D; Lin, Jennifer C; Cheung, Samantha K; La, Justin; Wahl, Geoffrey M

    2012-02-03

    Gene expression signatures relating mammary stem cell populations to breast cancers have focused on adult tissue. Here, we identify, isolate, and characterize the fetal mammary stem cell (fMaSC) state since the invasive and proliferative processes of mammogenesis resemble phases of cancer progression. fMaSC frequency peaks late in embryogenesis, enabling more extensive stem cell purification than achieved with adult tissue. fMaSCs are self-renewing, multipotent, and coexpress multiple mammary lineage markers. Gene expression, transplantation, and in vitro analyses reveal putative autocrine and paracrine regulatory mechanisms, including ErbB and FGF signaling pathways impinging on fMaSC growth. Expression profiles from fMaSCs and associated stroma exhibit significant similarities to basal-like and Her2+ intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. Our results reveal links between development and cancer and provide resources to identify new candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.

  14. Aggressive mammary carcinoma progression in Nrf2 knockout mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family, is a strategy for cancer chemopreventive phytochemicals. It is an important regulator of genes induced by oxidative stress, such as glutathione S-transferases, heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin 1, by activating the antioxidant response element (ARE). We hypothesized that (1) the citrus coumarin auraptene may suppress premalignant mammary lesions via activation of Nrf2/ARE, and (2) that Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice would be more susceptible to mammary carcinogenesis. Methods Premalignant lesions and mammary carcinomas were induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene treatment. The 10-week pre-malignant study was performed in which 8 groups of 10 each female wild-type (WT) and KO mice were fed either control diet or diets containing auraptene (500 ppm). A carcinogenesis study was also conducted in KO vs. WT mice (n = 30-34). Comparisons between groups were evaluated using ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier Survival statistics, and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results All mice treated with carcinogen exhibited premalignant lesions but there were no differences by genotype or diet. In the KO mice, there was a dramatic increase in mammary carcinoma growth rate, size, and weight. Although there was no difference in overall survival, the KO mice had significantly lower mammary tumor-free survival. Also, in the KO mammary carcinomas, the active forms of NF-κB and β-catenin were increased ~2-fold whereas no differences in oxidized proteins were observed. Many other tumors were observed, including lymphomas. Interestingly, the incidences of lung adenomas in the KO mice were significantly higher than in the WT mice. Conclusions We report, for the first time, that there was no apparent difference in the formation of premalignant lesions, but rather, the KO mice exhibited rapid, aggressive mammary carcinoma progression

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Estrogen-Induced Mammary Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Susceptibility to Estrogen -Induced Mammary Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. James D. Shull CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Nebraska Medical Center Omaha...DATES COVERED blank) November 2001 Final (01 Oct 98 - 01 Oct 01) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Genetic Susceptibility to Estrogen -Induced...Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Estrogens are important in the etiology of breast cancer. We have developed

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Genistein Mammary Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    American women. Even with improved technology for early detection and aggressive therapeutics, most often the disease is incurable once it is...the mammary glands of rats and we have been able to collect interstitial fluid. Task g) Now, we are investigating the use of chromatofocusing , 1-D gel...a chromatofocusing column from GE HealthCare (formally AmershamBioscience) and an automated gradient mixer and HPLC system (a BioRad "demo"). To date

  17. Neutrophils drive accelerated tumor progression in the collagen-dense mammary tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    García-Mendoza, María G; Inman, David R; Ponik, Suzanne M; Jeffery, Justin J; Sheerar, Dagna S; Van Doorn, Rachel R; Keely, Patricia J

    2016-05-11

    High mammographic density has been correlated with a 4-fold to 6-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer, and is associated with increased stromal deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen I. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for high breast tissue density are not completely understood. We previously described accelerated tumor formation and metastases in a transgenic mouse model of collagen-dense mammary tumors (type I collagen-α1 (Col1α1)(tm1Jae) and mouse mammary tumor virus - polyoma virus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyVT)) compared to wild-type mice. Using ELISA cytokine arrays and multi-color flow cytometry analysis, we studied cytokine signals and the non-malignant, immune cells in the collagen-dense tumor microenvironment that may promote accelerated tumor progression and metastasis. Collagen-dense tumors did not show any alteration in immune cell populations at late stages. The cytokine signals in the mammary tumor microenvironment were clearly different between wild-type and collagen-dense tumors. Cytokines associated with neutrophil signaling, such as granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulated factor (GM-CSF), were increased in collagen-dense tumors. Depleting neutrophils with anti-Ly6G (1A8) significantly reduced the number of tumors, and blocked metastasis in over 80 % of mice with collagen-dense tumors, but did not impact tumor growth or metastasis in wild-type mice. Our study suggests that tumor progression in a collagen-dense microenvironment is mechanistically different, with pro-tumor neutrophils, compared to a non-dense microenvironment.

  18. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1993-07-30

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is one of the leading dose-limiting effects of radiation exposure (Co90). Quantitative information at the cellular level is essential to an understanding of the mechanisms of radiogenic neoplastic initiation and the stages of promotion and progression to overt neoplasia. We have developed two experimental models, the rat thyroid and rat mammary clonogen transplant systems, for the quantitative study of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level in vivo (C185). The most important steps taken or completed during the current grant year include: (a) demonstration of the high age-dependent radiosensitivity of prepubertal rat mammary clonogens to radiogenic damage which may influence their susceptibility to neoplastic initiation, and (b) demonstration of the feasibility of using a molecular test for clonogenicity in which Simple Sequence Repeats in the DNA serve as identifying signals of the genotypic origin of the cells. We have also (c) set up a large carcinogenesis experiment to test the effect of close intercellular contact in thyroid glands in situ on promotion-progression of radiogenically initiated clonogens, (d) achieved considerable further concentration of thyroid clonogens, and (e) begun to explore whether thyroid cells can be induced to give rise to three dimensional multicellular structures in culture in reconstituted basement membrane. These are discussed in this report.

  19. Hypothyroidism reduces mammary tumor progression via Β-catenin-activated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    López Fontana, C M; Zyla, L E; Santiano, F E; Sasso, C V; Cuello-Carrión, F D; Pistone Creydt, V; Fanelli, M A; Carón, R W

    2017-02-13

    Experimental hypothyroidism retards mammary carcinogenesis promoting apoptosis of tumor cells. β-catenin plays a critical role in cell adhesion and intracellular signaling pathways conditioning the prognosis of breast cancer. However, the mechanistic connections associated with the expression of β-catenin in thyroid status and breast cancer are not known. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the expression and localization of β-catenin and apoptosis in mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in hypothyroid (Hypot) and euthyroid (EUT) rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with a dose of DMBA (15 mg/rat) at 55 days of age and were then divided into two groups: HypoT (0.01% 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water, n = 54) and EUT (untreated control, n = 43). Latency, incidence and progression of tumors were determined. At sacrifice, tumors were obtained for immunohistological studies and Western Blot. The latency was longer (p < 0.05), the incidence was lower (p < 0.0001) and tumor growth was slower (p < 0.01) in HypoT rats compared to EUT. The expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly higher in tumors of HypoT than in EUT (p < 0.05) indicating the activation of the intrinsic pathway. In this group, β-catenin was expressed in the plasma membrane and with less intensity, while its expression was nuclear and with greater intensity in the EUT (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of survivin was reduced in tumors of HypoT rats (p < 0.05). In conclusion, decreased expression of β-catenin and its normal location in membrane of mammary tumors are associated with augmented apoptosis via activation of the intrinsic pathway in HypoT rats.

  20. Biomarkers of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate-Mediated Mammary Cancer Chemoprevention in a Clinically Relevant Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a natural plant compound with chemopreventative potential against some cancers and the ability to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Methods Female mouse mammary tumor virus–neu mice were fed a control AIN-76A diet (n = 35) or the same diet supplemented with 3 µmol PEITC/g diet (n = 33) for 29 weeks, at which time they were killed. Breast tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological assessments, and incidence and size of macroscopic mammary tumors were assessed. Cell proliferation (Ki-67 staining), apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick-labeling), and neoangiogenesis (CD31 staining) were determined in tumor sections. Plasma levels of transthyretin were measured in treated and control mice. Expression of proteins in mammary tumor sections was determined by immunohistochemistry. Proteomic profiling was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Administration of PEITC for 29 weeks was associated with 53.13% decreased incidence of macroscopic mammary tumors (mean tumor incidence, PEITC-supplemented diet vs control diet, 18.75% vs 40.00%, difference = –21.25%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = –43.19% to 0.69%, P = .07) and with a 56.25% reduction in microscopic mammary carcinoma lesions greater than 2mm2 (mean incidence, PEITC-supplemented diet vs control diet, 18.75% vs 42.86%, difference = –24.11%, 95% CI = –46.35% to –1.86%, P = .04). PEITC-mediated mammary cancer growth inhibition was not because of suppression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression but was associated with reduced cellular proliferation and neoangiogenesis, increased apoptosis, and altered expression of several proteins, including decreased ATP synthase in the tumor and increased plasma levels of transthyretin. Conclusions PEITC inhibits the growth of mammary cancers in a

  1. RUNX2 in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Nicola; McDonald, Laura; Morris, Joanna S; Cameron, Ewan R; Blyth, Karen

    2013-06-01

    Runx2 is best known as an essential factor in osteoblast differentiation and bone development but, like many other transcription factors involved in development, is known to operate over a much wider tissue range. Our understanding of these other aspects of Runx2 function is still at a relatively early stage and the importance of its role in cell fate decisions and lineage maintenance in non-osseous tissues is only beginning to emerge. One such tissue is the mammary gland, where Runx2 is known to be expressed and participate in the regulation of mammary specific genes. Furthermore, differential and temporal expression of this gene is observed during mammary epithelial differentiation in vivo, strongly indicative of an important functional role. Although the precise nature of that role remains elusive, preliminary evidence hints at possible involvement in the regulation of mammary stem and/or progenitor cells. As with many genes important in regulating cell fate, RUNX2 has also been linked to metastatic cancer where in some established breast cell lines, retention of expression is associated with a more invasive phenotype. More recently, expression analysis has been extended to primary breast cancers where high levels of RUNX2 align with a specific subtype of the disease. That RUNX2 expression correlates with the so called "Triple Negative" subtype is particularly interesting given the known cross talk between Runx2 and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. This review summaries our current understanding of Runx2 in mammary gland development and cancer, and postulates a role that may link both these processes.

  2. Mammary Cancer and Activation of Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    cytes and ADS-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (ADS-iPSCs) (19) and primary mouse ES cells to isolated sperm and oocytes (20). We selected an...051 59 5 92% H9-IMR90 5875 7 669 782 605 58 91% oocyte - ES cell (mouse) 4727 1 204 883 334 25 93% sperm - ES cell (mouse) 4580 4 364 748 1027 104 91...collaborator, Dr. Anne Peaston, developed a genetically engineered mouse model in which a specific mammary cell population is fluorescently marked upon

  3. Field cancerization in mammary carcinogenesis - Implications for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivenbark, Ashley G; Coleman, William B

    2012-12-01

    The natural history of breast cancer unfolds with the development of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in normal breast tissue, and evolution of this pre-invasive neoplasm into invasive cancer. The mechanisms that drive these processes are poorly understood, but evidence from the literature suggests that mammary carcinogenesis may occur through the process of field cancerization. Clinical observations are consistent with the idea that (i) DCIS may arise in a field of altered breast epithelium, (ii) narrow surgical margins do not remove the entire altered field (contributing to recurrence and/or disease progression), and (iii) whole-breast radiation therapy is effective in elimination of the residual field of altered cells adjacent to the resected DCIS. Molecular studies suggest that the field of altered breast epithelial cells may carry cancer-promoting genetic mutations (or other molecular alterations) or cancer promoting epimutations (oncogenic alterations in the epigenome). In fact, most breast cancers develop through a succession of molecular events involving both genetic mutations and epimutations. Hence, in hereditary forms of breast cancer, the altered field reflects the entire breast tissue which is composed of cells with a predisposing molecular lesion (such as a BRCA1 mutation). In the example of a BRCA1-mutant patient, it is evident that local resection of a DCIS lesion or localized but invasive cancer will not result in elimination of the altered field. In sporadic breast cancer patients, the mechanistic basis for the altered field may not be so easily recognized. Nonetheless, identification of the nature of field cancerization in a given patient may guide clinical intervention. Thus, patients with DCIS that develops in response to an epigenetic lesion (such as a hypermethylation defect affecting the expression of tumor suppressor genes) might be treated with epigenetic therapy to normalize the altered field and reduce the risk of secondary occurrence of

  4. Internal Mammary and Medial Supraclavicular Irradiation in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Poortmans, Philip M; Collette, Sandra; Kirkove, Carine; Van Limbergen, Erik; Budach, Volker; Struikmans, Henk; Collette, Laurence; Fourquet, Alain; Maingon, Philippe; Valli, Mariacarla; De Winter, Karin; Marnitz, Simone; Barillot, Isabelle; Scandolaro, Luciano; Vonk, Ernest; Rodenhuis, Carla; Marsiglia, Hugo; Weidner, Nicola; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Glanzmann, Christoph; Kuten, Abraham; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Bartelink, Harry; Van den Bogaert, Walter

    2015-07-23

    The effect of internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph-node irradiation (regional nodal irradiation) added to whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation after surgery on survival among women with early-stage breast cancer is unknown. We randomly assigned women who had a centrally or medially located primary tumor, irrespective of axillary involvement, or an externally located tumor with axillary involvement to undergo either whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation in addition to regional nodal irradiation (nodal-irradiation group) or whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation alone (control group). The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were the rates of disease-free survival, survival free from distant disease, and death from breast cancer. Between 1996 and 2004, a total of 4004 patients underwent randomization. The majority of patients (76.1%) underwent breast-conserving surgery. After mastectomy, 73.4% of the patients in both groups underwent chest-wall irradiation. Nearly all patients with node-positive disease (99.0%) and 66.3% of patients with node-negative disease received adjuvant systemic treatment. At a median follow-up of 10.9 years, 811 patients had died. At 10 years, overall survival was 82.3% in the nodal-irradiation group and 80.7% in the control group (hazard ratio for death with nodal irradiation, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.00; P=0.06). The rate of disease-free survival was 72.1% in the nodal-irradiation group and 69.1% in the control group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00; P=0.04), the rate of distant disease-free survival was 78.0% versus 75.0% (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.98; P=0.02), and breast-cancer mortality was 12.5% versus 14.4% (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97; P=0.02). Acute side effects of regional nodal irradiation were modest. In patients with early-stage breast cancer, irradiation of the regional nodes had a marginal

  5. Social isolation induces autophagy in the mouse mammary gland: link to increased mammary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sumis, Allison; Cook, Katherine L; Andrade, Fabia O; Hu, Rong; Kidney, Emma; Zhang, Xiyuan; Kim, Dominic; Carney, Elissa; Nguyen, Nguyen; Yu, Wei; Bouker, Kerrie B; Cruz, Idalia; Clarke, Robert; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2016-10-01

    Social isolation is a strong predictor of early all-cause mortality and consistently increases breast cancer risk in both women and animal models. Because social isolation increases body weight, we compared its effects to those caused by a consumption of obesity-inducing diet (OID) in C57BL/6 mice. Social isolation and OID impaired insulin and glucose sensitivity. In socially isolated, OID-fed mice (I-OID), insulin resistance was linked to reduced Pparg expression and increased neuropeptide Y levels, but in group-housed OID fed mice (G-OID), it was linked to increased leptin and reduced adiponectin levels, indicating that the pathways leading to insulin resistance are different. Carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis was significantly higher in I-OID mice than in the other groups, but cancer risk was also increased in socially isolated, control diet-fed mice (I-C) and G-OID mice compared with that in controls. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (GRP78; IRE1) was upregulated in the mammary glands of OID-fed mice, but not in control diet-fed, socially isolated I-C mice. In contrast, expression of BECLIN1, ATG7 and LC3II were increased, and p62 was downregulated by social isolation, indicating increased autophagy. In the mammary glands of socially isolated mice, but not in G-OID mice, mRNA expressions of p53 and the p53-regulated autophagy inducer Dram1 were upregulated, and nuclear p53 staining was strong. Our findings further indicated that autophagy and tumorigenesis were not increased in Atg7(+/-) mice kept in social isolation and fed OID. Thus, social isolation may increase breast cancer risk by inducing autophagy, independent of changes in body weight.

  6. Muc4/sialomucin complex in the mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carraway, K L; Price-Schiavi, S A; Komatsu, M; Jepson, S; Perez, A; Carraway, C A

    2001-07-01

    MUC4 is a one of the membrane mucins of the mucin gene (MUC) family, characterized by mucin tandem repeat domains and a transmembrane domain which associates it with the cell plasma membrane. Although MUC4 is encoded by a single gene, it is produced by epithelial cells as a heterodimer through a proteolytic cleavage mechanism. This heterodimer is found in both membrane and soluble forms associated with epithelia. Functionally, MUC4 is proposed to provide a protective mechanism for vulnerable epithelia, such as those of the airway, eye, female reproductive tract and mammary gland. The protective mechanism(s) may be highjacked by some carcinomas, such as those of the breast, to increase tumor progression. Two mechanisms are proposed to contribute to the MUC4 functions. First, MUC4 acts as an anti-adhesive or anti-recognition barrier at epithelial or tumor cell surfaces. Second, MUC4 can bind the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 and alter its cellular signaling. Expression of MUC4 in mammary gland is repressed by posttranscriptional mechanisms involving basement membrane and TGF-beta, which are relieved during pregnancy to permit secretion of MUC4 into milk. These mechanisms are also abrogated in some breast cancers, providing a scenario for promotion of tumor progression. These observations imply important functions for MUC4 in both normal mammary function and in breast cancer.

  7. [Controversy about internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Fourquet, A

    2014-10-01

    Irradiation of lymph nodes areas after surgery of breast cancer, and specifically of the internal mammary chain, is an open question, frequently discussed. Three randomised trials (French, European-EORTC, Canadian) have been recently published or presented. The French trial did not show any benefit for internal mammary chain irradiation, but it was probably underpowered. The EORTC and Canadian trials demonstrated an improvement in overall survival after lymph nodes irradiation, including the internal mammary chain. The absolute benefit is 1.6% (hazard ratio-0.88 in a recent meta-analysis). Because this benefit is limited, it is important to define the characteristics of the patients who may benefit from this irradiation. Analyses of the randomized trials are not complete, and it is difficult at this moment to accurately define this population. However, cardiac and pulmonary toxicity of lymph nodes irradiation is well known. For each patient, evaluation of the potential late toxicity must be evaluated and so an accurate dosimetry for critical organs must be performed: the indication of internal mammary chain irradiation depends of the benefit/risk ratio. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Tracing anti-cancer and cancer-promoting actions of all-trans retinoic acid in breast cancer to a RARa epigenetic mechanism of mammary epithelial cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Stefano; Ren, MingQiang; Visconti, Nicolo; Corlazzoli, Francesca; Gagliostro, Vincenzo; Somenzi, Giulia; Yao, Jin; Sun, Yijun; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer cells is the ability to evade the growth inhibitory/pro-apoptotic action of physiological all-trans retinoic acid (RA) signal, the bioactive derivative of Vitamin A. However, as we and others reported, RA can also promote cancer cell growth and invasion. Here we show that anticancer and cancer-promoting RA actions in breast cancer have roots in a mechanism of mammary epithelial cell morphogenesis that involves both transcriptional (epigenetic) and non-transcriptional RARα (RARA) functions. We found that the mammary epithelial cell-context specific degree of functionality of the RARA transcriptional (epigenetic) component of this mechanism, by tuning the effects of the non-transcriptional RARA component, determines different cell fate decisions during mammary morphogenesis. Indeed, factors that hamper the RARA epigenetic function make physiological RA drive aberrant morphogenesis via non-transcriptional RARA, thus leading to cell transformation. Remarkably, also the cell context-specific degree of functionality of the RARA epigenetic component retained by breast cancer cells is critical to determine cell fate decisions in response to physiological as well as supraphysiological RA variation. Overall this study supports the proof of principle that the epigenetic functional plasticity of the mammary epithelial cell RARA mechanism, which is essential for normal morphogenetic processes, is necessary to deter breast cancer onset/progression consequent to the insidious action of physiological RA. PMID:27894085

  9. MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Boggs, R Michelle; Wright, Zachary M; Stickney, Mark J; Porter, Weston W; Murphy, Keith E

    2008-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-22-nt noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Oncomirs, a subclass of miRNAs, include genes whose expression, or lack thereof, are associated with cancers. Until the last decade, the domestic dog was an underused model for the study of various human diseases that have genetic components. The dog exhibits marked genetic and physiologic similarity to the human, thereby making it an excellent model for study and treatment of various hereditary diseases. Furthermore, because the dog presents with distinct, spontaneously occurring mammary tumors, it may serve as a model for genetic analysis and treatments of humans with malignant breast tumors. Because miRNAs have been found to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancers were compared to malignant canine mammary tumors (n = 6) and normal canine mammary tissue (n = 10). Resulting data revealed miR-29b and miR-21 to have a statistically significant (p < 0.05 by MANOVA analysis) upregulation in cancerous samples. The ten canine miRNAs follow the same pattern of expression as in the human, except for miR-145 which does not show a difference in expression between the normal and cancerous canine samples. In addition, when analyzed according to specific cancer phenotypes, miR-15a and miR-16 show a significant downregulation in canine ductal carcinomas while miRsR-181b, -21, -29b, and let-7f show a significant upregulation in canine tubular papillary carcinomas.

  10. 14-3-3ζ Orchestrates Mammary Tumor Onset and Progression via miR221-Mediated Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wyszomierski, Shannon L.; Wang, Qingfei; Li, Ping; Sahin, Ozgur; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Siyuan; Xiong, Yan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Hai; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Jitao D.; Medina, Daniel; Muller, William J.; Yu, Dihua

    2013-01-01

    14-3-3ζ is overexpressed in over 40% of breast cancers but its pathophysiological relevance to tumorigenesis has not been established. Here we show that 14-3-3ζ overexpression is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer. MMTV-LTR promoter driven HA-14-3-3ζ transgenic mice (MMTV-HA-14-3-3ζ) developed mammary tumors whereas control mice did not. Whey acidic protein promoter driven HA-14-3-3ζ transgenic mice (WAP-HA-14-3-3ζ) developed hyperplastic lesions and showed increased susceptibility to carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. When crossed with MMTV-neu transgenic mice, 14-3-3ζ.neu transgenic mice exhibited accelerated mammary tumorigenesis and metastasis compared to MMTV-neu mice. Mechanistically, 14-3-3ζ overexpression enhanced MAPK/c-Jun signaling leading to increased miR-221 transcription, which inhibited p27 CDKI translation, and consequently, promoted cell proliferation. Importantly, this 14-3-3ζ/miR-221/p27/proliferation axis is also functioning in patients' breast tumors and associates with high grade cancers. Taken together, our findings show that 14-3-3ζ overexpression has a causal role in mammary tumorigenesis and progression, acting through miR-221 in cooperation with known oncogenic events to drive neoplastic cell proliferation. PMID:24197133

  11. Pubertal high fat diet: effects on mammary cancer development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies linking dietary fat intake and obesity to breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results. This may be due to the difficulty of dissociating fat intake from obesity, and/or the lack of defined periods of exposure in these studies. The pubertal mammary gland is highly sensitive to cancer-causing agents. We assessed how high fat diet (HFD) affects inflammation, proliferative, and developmental events in the pubertal gland, since dysregulation of these can promote mammary tumorigenesis. To test the effect of HFD initiated during puberty on tumorigenesis, we utilized BALB/c mice, for which HFD neither induces obesity nor metabolic syndrome, allowing dissociation of HFD effects from other conditions associated with HFD. Methods Pubertal BALB/c mice were fed a low fat diet (12% kcal fat) or a HFD (60% kcal fat), and subjected to carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced tumorigenesis. Results HFD elevated mammary gland expression of inflammatory and growth factor genes at 3 and 4 weeks of diet. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), robustly induced at 4 weeks, has direct mitogenic activity in mammary epithelial cells and, as a potent inducer of NF-κB activity, may induce inflammatory genes. Three weeks of HFD induced a transient influx of eosinophils into the mammary gland, consistent with elevated inflammatory factors. At 10 weeks, prior to the appearance of palpable tumors, there were increased numbers of abnormal mammary epithelial lesions, enhanced cellular proliferation, increased growth factors, chemokines associated with immune-suppressive regulatory T cells, increased vascularization, and elevated M2 macrophages. HFD dramatically reduced tumor latency. Early developing tumors were more proliferative and were associated with increased levels of tumor-related growth factors, including increased plasma levels of HGF in tumor-bearing animals. Early HFD tumors also had increased

  12. Vitamin D receptor regulates autophagy in the normal mammary gland and in luminal breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E; Westerling, Thomas; Libby, Eric; Marusyk, Andriy; Cato, Laura; Cassani, Raymundo; Cameron, Lisa A; Ficarro, Scott B; Marto, Jarrod A; Klawitter, Jelena; Brown, Myles

    2017-03-14

    Women in North America have a one in eight lifetime risk of developing breast cancer (BC), and a significant proportion of these individuals will develop recurrent BC and will eventually succumb to the disease. Metastatic, therapy-resistant BC cells are refractory to cell death induced by multiple stresses. Here, we document that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) acts as a master transcriptional regulator of autophagy. Activation of the VDR by vitamin D induces autophagy and an autophagic transcriptional signature in BC cells that correlates with increased survival in patients; strikingly, this signature is present in the normal mammary gland and is progressively lost in patients with metastatic BC. A number of epidemiological studies have shown that sufficient vitamin D serum levels might be protective against BC. We observed that dietary vitamin D supplementation in mice increases basal levels of autophagy in the normal mammary gland, highlighting the potential of vitamin D as a cancer-preventive agent. These findings point to a role of vitamin D and the VDR in modulating autophagy and cell death in both the normal mammary gland and BC cells.

  13. Vitamin D receptor regulates autophagy in the normal mammary gland and in luminal breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Westerling, Thomas; Libby, Eric; Marusyk, Andriy; Cato, Laura; Cassani, Raymundo; Cameron, Lisa A.; Ficarro, Scott B.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Klawitter, Jelena; Brown, Myles

    2017-01-01

    Women in North America have a one in eight lifetime risk of developing breast cancer (BC), and a significant proportion of these individuals will develop recurrent BC and will eventually succumb to the disease. Metastatic, therapy-resistant BC cells are refractory to cell death induced by multiple stresses. Here, we document that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) acts as a master transcriptional regulator of autophagy. Activation of the VDR by vitamin D induces autophagy and an autophagic transcriptional signature in BC cells that correlates with increased survival in patients; strikingly, this signature is present in the normal mammary gland and is progressively lost in patients with metastatic BC. A number of epidemiological studies have shown that sufficient vitamin D serum levels might be protective against BC. We observed that dietary vitamin D supplementation in mice increases basal levels of autophagy in the normal mammary gland, highlighting the potential of vitamin D as a cancer-preventive agent. These findings point to a role of vitamin D and the VDR in modulating autophagy and cell death in both the normal mammary gland and BC cells. PMID:28242709

  14. Intraductal approach to breast cancer: the role of mammary ductoscopy.

    PubMed

    Deshmane, Vinay

    2010-09-01

    Mammary ductoscopy is a recent advance enabling direct visualisation and sampling of human mammary ducts using a micro endoscope. The majority of pre malignant and malignant changes in the breast arise from the epithelium lining the duct lobular unit, and access to this region by ductoscopy has the potential to revolutionise breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. The ability to sample ductal epithelium may allow identification of early malignant and pre-malignant cytological changes and assist surgical excision, facilitating diagnosis of non palpable cancer before detection on current imaging modalities. Presently, there are three main indications for ductoscopy in clinical practice viz. determining extent of resection for breast cancer, assessment of high risk individuals and in the management of patients with pathological nipple discharge. Our initial experience with ductoscopy in patients with nipple discharge undergoing surgery has been rewarding. Ductoscopy was feasible in 92% of patients. Abnormal findings on ductoscopy were associated with DCIS in 37% and DCIS with early invasive breast cancer in 21%, while normal ductoscopy correlated with a normal pathological assessment.

  15. Dietary compound isoliquiritigenin prevents mammary carcinogenesis by inhibiting breast cancer stem cells through WIF1 demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Xie, Xiaoming; Shen, Jiangang; Peng, Cheng; You, Jieshu; Peng, Fu; Tang, Hailin; Guan, Xinyuan; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the root of mammary tumorigenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that ISL efficiently limited the activities of breast CSCs. However, the cancer prevention activities of ISL and its precise molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report a novel function of ISL as a natural demethylation agent targeting WIF1 to prevent breast cancer. ISL administration suppressed in vivo breast cancer initiation and progression, accompanied by reduced CSC-like populations. A global gene expression profile assay further identified WIF1 as the main response gene of ISL treatment, accompanied by the simultaneous downregulation of β-catenin signaling and G0/G1 phase arrest in breast CSCs. In addition, WIF1 inhibition significantly relieved the CSC-limiting effects of ISL and methylation analysis further revealed that ISL enhanced WIF1 gene expression via promoting the demethylation of its promoter, which was closely correlated with the inhibition of DNMT1 methyltransferase. Molecular docking analysis finally revealed that ISL could stably dock into the catalytic domain of DNMT1. Taken together, our findings not only provide preclinical evidence to demonstrate the use of ISL as a dietary supplement to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis but also shed novel light on WIF1 as an epigenetic target for breast cancer prevention. PMID:25918249

  16. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    generous gift from Kornelia Polyak ) were cultured as previously described [5] and resuspended in PBS immediately prior to injection. Cells were used...Cancer Cell 2008, 13(5):394-406. 6. Polyak K, Hu M: Do myoepithelial cells hold the key for breast tumor progression? J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia

  17. Beneficial bacteria stimulate host immune cells to counteract dietary and genetic predisposition to mammary cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lakritz, Jessica R; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Levkovich, Tatiana; Varian, Bernard J; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Chatzigiagkos, Antonis; Mirabal, Sheyla; Alm, Eric J; Erdman, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest health benefits including protection from cancer after eating fermented foods such as probiotic yogurt, though the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we tested mechanistic hypotheses using two different animal models: the first model studied development of mammary cancer when eating a Westernized diet, and the second studied animals with a genetic predilection to breast cancer. For the first model, outbred Swiss mice were fed a Westernized chow putting them at increased risk for development of mammary tumors. In this Westernized diet model, mammary carcinogenesis was inhibited by routine exposure to Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC-PTA-6475 in drinking water. The second model was FVB strain erbB2 (HER2) mutant mice, genetically susceptible to mammary tumors mimicking breast cancers in humans, being fed a regular (non-Westernized) chow diet. We found that oral supplement with these purified lactic acid bacteria alone was sufficient to inhibit features of mammary neoplasia in both models. The protective mechanism was determined to be microbially-triggered CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes. When isolated and transplanted into other subjects, these L. reuteri-stimulated lymphocytes were sufficient to convey transplantable anti-cancer protection in the cell recipient animals. These data demonstrate that host immune responses to environmental microbes significantly impact and inhibit cancer progression in distal tissues such as mammary glands, even in genetically susceptible mice. This leads us to conclude that consuming fermentative microbes such as L. reuteri may offer a tractable public health approach to help counteract the accumulated dietary and genetic carcinogenic events integral in the Westernized diet and lifestyle. What's new? Can eating fermented foods like yogurt ward off cancer? Recent studies have suggested it's possible. To find out how, these authors isolated the probiotic bacteria involved in fermentation and fed them to mice that were

  18. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Progress report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1991-05-31

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process.

  19. Unplanned irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanyilmaz, Gul; Aktan, Meryem; Koc, Mehmet; Demir, Hikmettin; Demir, Lütfi Saltuk

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the incidental dose to the internal mammary chain (IMC) in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, to estimate the predictors affecting the magnitude of IMC receiving dose and to determine the predictive role of clinical parameters on survival. Between 2009 and 2015, 348 patients undergoing RT for breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent our department's routine procedure for breast cancer. The internal mammary lymph nodes were contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) concensus. Based on each patient's dose-volume histograms, the mean doses (D mean) to internal mammary gland were analyzed. Overall survival and disease-free survival were also evaluated. The median follow-up time was 38 (range 3-80) months. The D mean to IMC was 32.8 Gy and the dose delivered to IMC showed a greater coverage in modified radical mastectomy (MRM) group compared with breast conserving surgery (34.6 vs 26.7 Gy). The T-stage of tumor and the N-stage of tumor affected the incidental dose to IMC. The tumor size, the number of involved lymph nodes, the percentage of involved lymph nodes, hormonal status, advanced T-stage and advanced N-stage were the prognostic factors that affect survival. The IMC received meaningful incidental irradiation dose when treated with two opposite tangential fields and ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa with a single anterior field. The real effect of incidental dose on survival and the hypothesis about the benefit of incidental irradiation of IMC should be examined in clinical studies.

  20. Remodeling of endogenous mammary epithelium by breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Parashurama, Natesh; Lobo, Neethan A; Ito, Ken; Mosley, Adriane R; Habte, Frezghi G; Zabala, Maider; Smith, Bryan R; Lam, Jessica; Weissman, Irving L; Clarke, Michael F; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2012-10-01

    Poorly regulated tissue remodeling results in increased breast cancer risk, yet how breast cancer stem cells (CSC) participate in remodeling is unknown. We performed in vivo imaging of changes in fluorescent, endogenous duct architecture as a metric for remodeling. First, we quantitatively imaged physiologic remodeling of primary branches of the developing and regenerating mammary tree. To assess CSC-specific remodeling events, we isolated CSC from MMTV-Wnt1 (mouse mammary tumor virus long-term repeat enhancer driving Wnt1 oncogene) breast tumors, a well studied model in which tissue remodeling affects tumorigenesis. We confirm that CSC drive tumorigenesis, suggesting a link between CSC and remodeling. We find that normal, regenerating, and developing gland maintain a specific branching pattern. In contrast, transplantation of CSC results in changes in the branching patterns of endogenous ducts while non-CSC do not. Specifically, in the presence of CSC, we identified an increased number of branches, branch points, ducts which have greater than 40 branches (5/33 for CSC and 0/39 for non-CSC), and histological evidence of increased branching. Moreover, we demonstrate that only CSC implants invade into surrounding stroma with structures similar to developing mammary ducts (nine for CSC and one for non-CSC). Overall, we demonstrate a novel approach for imaging physiologic and pathological remodeling. Furthermore, we identify unique, CSC-specific, remodeling events. Our data suggest that CSC interact with the microenvironment differently than non-CSC, and that this could eventually be a therapeutic approach for targeting CSC.

  1. Mouse Mammary Cancer Models - Mechanisms and Markers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    levels in the Writ-I TG p5 3 +,1+ tutmors have been shown to be regulated by p53 ( Innocente el compared to either HWit-I TG p53 +, - LOH or Wnt-1 TG...intracellular cyclin BI levels ( Innocente et al., 1999; cells and has recently been shown to be a p53 target Taylor et al., 1999). p21 has also been shown to...and Smith HS. (1992). ./. Nail. Cancer Inst.. 84, Innocente SA. Abrahamson JL, Cogswcll JP and Lee JM. 845 855. (1999). Proc. Nail. Acad. Sri. USA, 96

  2. The role of the microenvironment in mammary gland development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Polyak, Kornelia; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-11-01

    The mammary gland is composed of a diverse array of cell types that form intricate interaction networks essential for its normal development and physiologic function. Abnormalities in these interactions play an important role throughout different stages of tumorigenesis. Branching ducts and alveoli are lined by an inner layer of secretory luminal epithelial cells that produce milk during lactation and are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells and basement membrane. The surrounding stroma comprised of extracellular matrix and various cell types including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and infiltrating leukocytes not only provides a scaffold for the organ, but also regulates mammary epithelial cell function via paracrine, physical, and hormonal interactions. With rare exceptions breast tumors initiate in the epithelial compartment and in their initial phases are confined to the ducts but this barrier brakes down with invasive progression because of a combination of signals emitted by tumor epithelial and various stromal cells. In this article, we overview the importance of cellular interactions and microenvironmental signals in mammary gland development and cancer.

  3. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Induces Centrosome Amplification and Aneuploid Mammary Tumors Independently of Alterations in p53 in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Milliken, Erin L.; Lozada, Kristen L.; Johnson, Emhonta; Landis, Melissa D.; Seachrist, Darcie D.; Whitten, Ira; Sutton, Amelia L.M.; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    Aneuploidy and genomic instability are common features of human cancers, including breast cancer; however, mechanisms by which such abnormalities develop are not understood. The exquisite dependence of the mammary gland on hormones for growth and development as well as hormonal contributions to breast cancer risk and progression suggest that tumorigenic mechanisms in the breast should be considered in the context of hormonal stimulation. We used transgenic mice that overexpress luteinizing hormone with subsequent ovarian hyperstimulation as a model to identify mechanisms involved in hormone-induced mammary cancer. Tumor pathology in these mice is highly variable, suggesting individual tumors undergo distinct initiating or promoting events. Supporting this notion, hormone-induced tumors display considerable chromosomal instability and aneuploidy, despite the presence of functional p53. The presence of extensive centrosome amplification in tumors and hyperplastic glands prior to tumor formation suggests that alterations in the ovarian hormonal milieu dysregulate the centrosome cycle in mammary epithelial cells, leading to aneuploidy and cancer. PMID:17891171

  4. Aurora kinase-A overexpression in mouse mammary epithelium induces mammary adenocarcinomas harboring genetic alterations shared with human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Treekitkarnmongkol, Warapen; Katayama, Hiroshi; Kai, Kazuharu; Sasai, Kaori; Jones, Jennifer Carter; Wang, Jing; Shen, Li; Sahin, Aysegul A; Gagea, Mihai; Ueno, Naoto T; Creighton, Chad J; Sen, Subrata

    2016-12-01

    Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis have revealed that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) amplification and overexpression characterize a distinct subset of human tumors across multiple cancer types. Although elevated expression of AURKA has been shown to induce oncogenic phenotypes in cells in vitro, findings from transgenic mouse models of Aurora-A overexpression in mammary glands have been distinct depending on the models generated. In the present study, we report that prolonged overexpression of AURKA transgene in mammary epithelium driven by ovine β-lactoglobulin promoter, activated through multiple pregnancy and lactation cycles, results in the development of mammary adenocarcinomas with alterations in cancer-relevant genes and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The tumor incidence was 38.9% (7/18) in Aurora-A transgenic mice at 16 months of age following 4-5 pregnancy cycles. Aurora-A overexpression in the tumor tissues accompanied activation of Akt, elevation of Cyclin D1, Tpx2 and Plk1 along with downregulation of ERα and p53 proteins, albeit at varying levels. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses of transgenic mouse mammary adenocarcinomas revealed copy gain of Glp1r and losses of Ercc5, Pten and Tcf7l2 loci. Review of human breast tumor transcriptomic data sets showed association of these genes at varying levels with Aurora-A gain of function alterations. Whole exome sequencing of the mouse tumors also identified gene mutations detected in Aurora-A overexpressing human breast cancers. Our findings demonstrate that prolonged overexpression of Aurora-A can be a driver somatic genetic event in mammary adenocarcinomas associated with deregulated tumor-relevant pathways in the Aurora-A subset of human breast cancer.

  5. Cell Polarity Proteins in Breast Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Rejon, Carlis; Al-Masri, Maia; McCaffrey, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer related death in women worldwide, is a heterogeneous disease with diverse subtypes that have different properties and prognoses. The developing mammary gland is a highly proliferative and invasive tissue, and some of the developmental programs may be aberrantly activated to promote breast cancer progression. In the breast, luminal epithelial cells exhibit apical-basal polarity, and the failure to maintain this organizational structure, due to disruption of polarity complexes, is implicated in promoting hyperplasia and tumors. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying loss of polarity will contribute to our knowledge of the early stages leading to the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we will discuss recent findings that support the idea that loss of apical-basal cell polarity is a crucial step in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. Oncogene induced loss of tissue organization shares a conserved cellular mechanism with developmental process, we will further describe the role of the individual polarity complexes, the Par, Crumbs, and Scribble, to couple cell division orientation and cell growth. We will examine symmetric or asymmetric cell divisions in mammary stem cell and their contribution to the development of breast cancer subtypes and cancer stem cells. Finally, we will highlight some of the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which changes in epithelial polarity programs promote invasion and metastasis through single cell and collective cell modes. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2215-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. THE RELEVANCE OF CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC IN THE MAMMARY GLAND CANCER.

    PubMed

    Anton, E; Ancuta, E; Doroftei, B; Ioanid, N; Anton, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women, while in Eastern Europe the most common form of diagnosed cancer. Out of the multiple possibilities of early detection of mammary neoplasia that have been elaborated, only mammography has proved to be a simple, efficient method and of a high sensitivity, almost 90% However, the cytological confirmation of diagnosis allows us to perform the preoperative radiotherapy treatment or poly chemotherapy. we analyzed the informative value of these diagnosis methods in stage I mammary gland cancer (MGC). In this way, in the present paper we demonstrated that collecting samples through fine-needle aspiration biopsy allows the cytological confirmation of the diagnosis of stage I MGC in 30.7% cases. In stage I MGC young patients, under 35 years, the cytological confirmation rate is 22.2% and is lower as compared to the cytological confirmation rate in patients older than 35 years which is 37.9% Also, for a tumor diameter < 0.5 cm, the prevalence of cytological confirmation was only 10.3%, while for the diameter of 0.6-1.0 cm the cytological confirmation was around 40.0%. Therefore, in order to improve the cytological diagnosis confirmation rate the tumor biopsy through the USG of the mammary glands is required. Moreover, the cytological investigation of the smear obtained by the first and second puncture was instrumental in confirming the diagnosis in 41.3% and 17.4% cases; the subsequent repetition of the punctures was not useful as it helped to confirmation of the diagnosis only in 9.3% cases. The frequency of diagnosis cytological confirmation depends on the tumor histopathological form and type of growth. Thus, the lowest prevalence was in the mixed forms--12.5% cases, lobular cancer--24.4% cases, while regarding the type of growth, for the rare forms the cytological confirmation rate was 7.7% and 31.5% cases for the schiros growth type.

  7. Deficiency of the p53/p63 target Perp alters mammary gland homeostasis and promotes cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Perp is a transcriptional target of both p53 during DNA damage-induced apoptosis and p63 during stratified epithelial development. Perp-/- mice exhibit postnatal lethality associated with dramatic blistering of the epidermis and oral mucosa, reflecting a critical role in desmosome-mediated intercellular adhesion in keratinocytes. However, the role of Perp in tissue homeostasis in other p63-dependent stratified epithelial tissues is poorly understood. Given that p63 is essential for proper mammary gland development and that cell adhesion is fundamental for ensuring the proper architecture and function of the mammary epithelium, here we investigate Perp function in the mammary gland. Methods Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis were performed to characterize Perp expression and localization in the mouse mammary epithelium throughout development. The consequences of Perp deficiency for mammary epithelial development and homeostasis were examined by using in vivo mammary transplant assays. Perp protein levels in a variety of human breast cancer cell lines were compared with those in untransformed cells with Western blot analysis. The role of Perp in mouse mammary tumorigenesis was investigated by aging cohorts of K14-Cre/+;p53fl/fl mice that were wild-type or deficient for Perp. Mammary tumor latency was analyzed, and tumor-free survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results We show that Perp protein is expressed in the mammary epithelium, where it colocalizes with desmosomes. Interestingly, although altering desmosomes through genetic inactivation of Perp does not dramatically impair mammary gland ductal development, Perp loss affects mammary epithelial homeostasis by causing the accumulation of inflammatory cells around mature mammary epithelium. Moreover, we show reduced Perp expression in many human breast cancer cell lines compared with untransformed cells. Importantly, Perp deficiency also promotes the development of mouse mammary

  8. Deficiency of the p53/p63 target Perp alters mammary gland homeostasis and promotes cancer.

    PubMed

    Dusek, Rachel L; Bascom, Jamie L; Vogel, Hannes; Baron, Sylvain; Borowsky, Alexander D; Bissell, Mina J; Attardi, Laura D

    2012-04-20

    Perp is a transcriptional target of both p53 during DNA damage-induced apoptosis and p63 during stratified epithelial development. Perp-/- mice exhibit postnatal lethality associated with dramatic blistering of the epidermis and oral mucosa, reflecting a critical role in desmosome-mediated intercellular adhesion in keratinocytes. However, the role of Perp in tissue homeostasis in other p63-dependent stratified epithelial tissues is poorly understood. Given that p63 is essential for proper mammary gland development and that cell adhesion is fundamental for ensuring the proper architecture and function of the mammary epithelium, here we investigate Perp function in the mammary gland. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis were performed to characterize Perp expression and localization in the mouse mammary epithelium throughout development. The consequences of Perp deficiency for mammary epithelial development and homeostasis were examined by using in vivo mammary transplant assays. Perp protein levels in a variety of human breast cancer cell lines were compared with those in untransformed cells with Western blot analysis. The role of Perp in mouse mammary tumorigenesis was investigated by aging cohorts of K14-Cre/+;p53fl/fl mice that were wild-type or deficient for Perp. Mammary tumor latency was analyzed, and tumor-free survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. We show that Perp protein is expressed in the mammary epithelium, where it colocalizes with desmosomes. Interestingly, although altering desmosomes through genetic inactivation of Perp does not dramatically impair mammary gland ductal development, Perp loss affects mammary epithelial homeostasis by causing the accumulation of inflammatory cells around mature mammary epithelium. Moreover, we show reduced Perp expression in many human breast cancer cell lines compared with untransformed cells. Importantly, Perp deficiency also promotes the development of mouse mammary cancer. Together, these

  9. Interplay between progesterone and prolactin in mammary development and implications for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heather J; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2012-06-24

    Progesterone and prolactin remodel mammary morphology during pregnancy by acting on the mammary epithelial cell hierarchy. The roles of each hormone in mammary development have been well studied, but evidence of signalling cross-talk between progesterone and prolactin is still emerging. Factors such as receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) may integrate signals from both hormones to orchestrate their joint actions on the epithelial cell hierarchy. Common targets of progesterone and prolactin signalling are also likely to integrate their pro-proliferative actions in breast cancer. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the interplay between progesterone and prolactin in mammary development may reveal therapeutic targets for breast cancer. This review summarises our understanding of Pg and PRL action in mammary gland development before focusing on molecular mechanisms of signalling cross-talk and the implications for breast cancer.

  10. Development of new therapy for canine mammary cancer with recombinant measles virus

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Koichiro; Yoneda, Misako; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Amagai, Yosuke; Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Ogihara, Kikumi; Naya, Yuko; Ikeda, Fusako; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising treatment strategy for cancer. We previously generated a recombinant measles virus (rMV-SLAMblind) that selectively uses a poliovirus receptor-related 4 (PVRL4/Nectin4) receptor, but not signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We demonstrated that the virus exerts therapeutic effects against human breast cancer cells. Here, we examined the applicability of rMV-SLAMblind to treating canine mammary cancers (CMCs). We found that the susceptibilities of host cells to rMV-SLAMblind were dependent on canine Nectin-4 expression. Nectin-4 was detected in four of nine CMC cell lines. The rMV-SLAMblind efficiently infected those four Nectin-4-positive cell lines and was cytotoxic for three of them (CF33, CHMm, and CTBm). In vivo experiment showed that the administration of rMV-SLAMblind greatly suppressed the progression of tumors in mice xenografted with a CMC cell line (CF33). Immunohistochemistry revealed that canine Nectin-4 was expressed in 45% of canine mammary tumors, and the tumor cells derived from one clinical specimen were efficiently infected with rMV-SLAMblind. These results suggest that rMV-SLAMblind infects CMC cells and displays antitumor activity in vitro, in xenografts, and ex vivo. Therefore, oncolytic virotherapy with rMV-SLAMblind can be a novel method for treating CMCs. PMID:27119113

  11. The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) disrupts mammary epithelial morphogenesis and promotes breast cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoting; Gallo, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy. Increasing levels of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), are associated with advancing breast cancer stage. In particular, higher TSPO levels are found in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors, compared with ER-positive tumors. In this study, we sought to define the roles of TSPO in the acquisition of breast cancer malignancy. Using a three-dimensional Matrigel culture system, we determined the impact of elevated TSPO levels on mammary epithelial morphogenesis. Our studies demonstrate that stable overexpression of TSPO in mammary epithelial MCF10A acini drives proliferation and provides partial resistance to luminal apoptosis, resulting in enlarged acinar structures with partially filled lumen that resemble early stage breast lesions leading to breast cancer. In breast cancer cell lines, TSPO silencing or TSPO overexpression significantly altered the migratory activity. In addition, we found that combination treatment with the TSPO ligands (PK 11195 or Ro5-4864) and lonidamine, a clinical phase II drug targeting mitochondria, decreased viability of ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, these data demonstrate that increases in TSPO levels at different stages of breast cancer progression results in the acquisition of distinct properties associated with malignancy. Furthermore, targeting TSPO, particularly in combination with other mitochondria-targeting agents, may prove useful for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.

  12. Embryonic mammary signature subsets are activated in Brca1-/- and basal-like breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is often suggested to result from development gone awry. Links between normal embryonic development and cancer biology have been postulated, but no defined genetic basis has been established. We recently published the first transcriptomic analysis of embryonic mammary cell populations. Embryonic mammary epithelial cells are an immature progenitor cell population, lacking differentiation markers, which is reflected in their very distinct genetic profiles when compared with those of their postnatal descendents. Methods We defined an embryonic mammary epithelial signature that incorporates the most highly expressed genes from embryonic mammary epithelium when compared with the postnatal mammary epithelial cells. We looked for activation of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature in mouse mammary tumors that formed in mice in which Brca1 had been conditionally deleted from the mammary epithelium and in human breast cancers to determine whether any genetic links exist between embryonic mammary cells and breast cancers. Results Small subsets of the embryonic mammary epithelial signature were consistently activated in mouse Brca1-/- tumors and human basal-like breast cancers, which encoded predominantly transcriptional regulators, cell-cycle, and actin cytoskeleton components. Other embryonic gene subsets were found activated in non-basal-like tumor subtypes and repressed in basal-like tumors, including regulators of neuronal differentiation, transcription, and cell biosynthesis. Several embryonic genes showed significant upregulation in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and/or grade 3 breast cancers. Among them, the transcription factor, SOX11, a progenitor cell and lineage regulator of nonmammary cell types, is found highly expressed in some Brca1-/- mammary tumors. By using RNA interference to silence SOX11 expression in breast cancer cells, we found evidence that SOX11 regulates breast cancer cell

  13. Development and characterization of a novel rat model of estrogen-induced mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Harenda, Quincy Eckert; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Seiler, Nicole L; Ding, Lina; Shull, James D

    2015-04-01

    The ACI rat model of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer is highly relevant for use in establishing the endocrine, genetic, and environmental bases of breast cancer etiology and identifying novel agents and strategies for preventing breast cancer. E2 treatment rapidly induces mammary cancer in female ACI rats and simultaneously induces pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia and adenoma. The pituitary tumors can result in undesired morbidity, which compromises long-term studies focused on mammary cancer etiology and prevention. We have defined the genetic bases of susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancers and pituitary tumors and have utilized the knowledge gained in these studies to develop a novel inbred rat strain, designated ACWi, that retains the high degree of susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer exhibited by ACI rats, but lacks the treatment-related morbidity associated with pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma. When treated with E2, female ACWi rats developed palpable mammary cancer at a median latency of 116 days, an incidence of 100% by 161 days and exhibited an average of 15.6 mammary tumors per rat following 196 days of treatment. These parameters did not differ from those observed for contemporaneously treated ACI rats. None of the E2-treated ACWi rats were killed before the intended experimental end point due to any treatment-related morbidity other than mammary cancer burden, whereas 20% of contemporaneously treated ACI rats exhibited treatment-related morbidity that necessitated premature killing. The ACWi rat strain is well suited for use by those in the research community, focusing on breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  14. Regulation of Wnt signaling activity for growth suppression induced by quercetin in 4T1 murine mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haesung; Seo, Eun-Min; Sharma, Ashish R; Ganbold, Bilguun; Park, Jongbong; Sharma, Garima; Kang, Young-Hee; Song, Dong-Keun; Lee, Sang-Soo; Nam, Ju-Suk

    2013-10-01

    Quercetin is a promising chemopreventive agent against cancer that inhibits tumor progression by inducing cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptotic cell death. Recently, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary tumorigenesis, where its abnormal activation is associated with the development of breast cancer. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the biological activities of quercetin against mammary cancer cells, and to determine whether quercetin could regulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Quercetin showed dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells. Treatment of 20 µM quercetin suppressed ~50% of basal TopFlash luciferase activity. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was confirmed by the reduced stabilization of the β-catenin protein. Among various antagonists screened for the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, the expression of DKK1, 2 and 3 was induced after treatment with 20 µM of quercetin. Stimulation with recombinant DKK1 protein, showed suppressive cell growth of mammary cancer cells instead of quercetin. When 4T1 cells were treated with recombinant Wnt3a or LiCl along with quercetin, both stimulators for the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were able to restore the suppressed cell viability by quercetin. Thus, our data suggest that quercetin exerts its anticancer activity through the downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity. These results indicate for the first time that quercetin decreases cell viability and induces apoptosis in murine mammary cancer cells, which is possibly mediated by DKK-dependent inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In conclusion, our findings suggest that quercetin has great potential value as chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment, especially in breast cancer controlled by Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity.

  15. The biology of progesterone receptor in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Obr, Alison E; Edwards, Dean P

    2012-06-24

    This paper reviews work on progesterone and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the mouse mammary gland that has been used extensively as an experimental model. Studies have led to the concept that progesterone controls proliferation and morphogenesis of the luminal epithelium in a tightly orchestrated manner at distinct stages of development by paracrine signaling pathways, including receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) as a major paracrine factor. Progesterone also drives expansion of stem cells by paracrine signals to generate progenitors required for alveologenesis. During mid-to-late pregnancy, progesterone has another role to suppress secretory activation until parturition mediated in part by crosstalk between PR and prolactin/Stat5 signaling to inhibit induction of milk protein gene expression, and by inhibiting tight junction closure. In models of hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumors, the progesterone/PR signaling axis enhances pre-neoplastic progression by a switch from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of proliferation and dysregulation of the RANKL signaling pathway. Limited experiments with normal human breast show that progesterone/PR signaling also stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by a paracrine mechanism; however, the signaling pathways and whether RANKL is a major mediator remains unknown. Work with human breast cancer cell lines, patient tumor samples and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer and that alteration in progesterone/PR signaling pathways contributes to early stage human breast cancer progression. However, loss of PR expression in primary tumors is associated with a less differentiated more invasive phenotype and worse prognosis, suggesting that PR may limit later stages of tumor progression.

  16. The Biology of Progesterone Receptor in the Normal Mammary gland and in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Obr, Alison; Edwards, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews work on progesterone and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the mouse mammary gland that has been used extensively as an experimental model. Studies have led to the concept that progesterone controls proliferation and morphogenesis of the luminal epithelium in a tightly orchestrated manner at distinct stages of development by paracrine signaling pathways, including receptor of activated nuclear factor κ ligand (RANKL) as a major paracrine factor. Progesterone also drives expansion of stem cells by paracrine signals to generate progenitors required for alveologenesis. During mid-to-late pregnancy, progesterone has another role to suppress secretory activation until parturition mediated in part by crosstalk between PR and prolactin/Stat5 signaling to inhibit induction of milk protein gene expression, and by inhibiting tight junction closure. In models of hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumors, the progesterone/PR signaling axis enhances pre-neoplastic progression by a switch from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of proliferation and dysregulation of the RANKL signaling pathway. Limited experiments with normal human breast show that progesterone/PR signaling also stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by a paracrine mechanism; however, the signaling pathways and whether RANKL is a major mediator remains unknown. Work with human breast cancer cell lines, patient tumor samples and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer and that alteration in progesterone/PR signaling pathways contributes to early stage human breast cancer progression. However, loss of PR expression in primary tumors is associated with a less differentiated more invasive phenotype and worse prognosis, suggesting that PR may limit later stages of tumor progression. PMID:22193050

  17. Robot-assisted internal mammary lymph chain excision for breast cancer: A case report.

    PubMed

    Du, Junze; Mo, Hongbiao; Fan, Linjun; Jiang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the status of internal mammary lymph nodes of breast cancer is critical in the accurate staging of breast cancer and the development of accurate therapeutic regimen for selected patients. Current techniques for dissection of internal mammary lymph node biopsy involve endoscopic or Traditional thoracic surgery, An important drawback of the current techniques is the great trauma caused by them. Da Vinci robotic surgery system (Intuitive Surgical Inc. Sunnyvale, CA) was used to perform the internal mammary lymph chain excision for a breast cancer patient with left internal mammary lymph node metastasis. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography examination and Ultrasonography examination. In this paper, we introduce a Robot-assisted technique for dissection of internal mammary lymph node biopsy with only 3 small trocar ports. This technique reduces the incision size and considerably reduce the trauma. The operation lasted a duration of 1.5 hours. The operation was carried out smoothly with removal of 9 internal mammary lymph nodes in total. The amount of intra operative bleeding was less than 10 ml. The patient's postoperative recovery was fast. 11-month postoperative follow-up showed that the patient recovered well after surgery, no local recurrence or distant metastasis was found, and no obvious discomfort was reported. Robot-assisted excision of internal mammary lymph chain in breast cancer is a safe, effective and simple operation with minimal invasion.

  18. Tumor Microenvironment Regulates Metastasis and Metastasis Genes of Mouse MMTV-PymT Mammary Cancer Cells In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Werbeck, J. L.; Thudi, N. K.; Martin, C. K.; Premanandan, C.; Yu, L.; Ostrowksi, M. C.; Rosol, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in breast cancer patients, yet there are challenges to modeling this process in vivo. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of injection site on tumor growth and metastasis and gene expression of breast cancer cells in vivo using the MMTV-PymT breast cancer model (Met-1 cells). Met-1 cells were injected into 5 sites (subcutaneous, mammary fat pad, tail vein, intracardiac, and intratibial), and tumors and metastases were monitored using bioluminescent imaging and confirmed with gross necropsy and histopathology. Met-1 tumors were analyzed based on morphology and changes in gene expression in each tissue microenvironment. There were 6 permissible sites of Met-1 tumor growth (mammary gland, subcutis, lung, adrenal gland, ovary, bone). Met-1 cells grew faster in the subcutis compared to mammary fat pad tumors (highest Ki-67 index). Morphologic differences were evident in each tumor microenvironment. Finally, 7 genes were differentially expressed in the Met-1 tumors in the 6 sites of growth or metastasis. This investigation demonstrates that breast cancer progression and metastasis are regulated by not only the tumor cells but also the experimental model and unique molecular signals from the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24091811

  19. Tumor microenvironment regulates metastasis and metastasis genes of mouse MMTV-PymT mammary cancer cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Werbeck, J L; Thudi, N K; Martin, C K; Premanandan, C; Yu, L; Ostrowksi, M C; Rosol, T J

    2014-07-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in breast cancer patients, yet there are challenges to modeling this process in vivo. The goal of this study was to analyze the effects of injection site on tumor growth and metastasis and gene expression of breast cancer cells in vivo using the MMTV-PymT breast cancer model (Met-1 cells). Met-1 cells were injected into 5 sites (subcutaneous, mammary fat pad, tail vein, intracardiac, and intratibial), and tumors and metastases were monitored using bioluminescent imaging and confirmed with gross necropsy and histopathology. Met-1 tumors were analyzed based on morphology and changes in gene expression in each tissue microenvironment. There were 6 permissible sites of Met-1 tumor growth (mammary gland, subcutis, lung, adrenal gland, ovary, bone). Met-1 cells grew faster in the subcutis compared to mammary fat pad tumors (highest Ki-67 index). Morphologic differences were evident in each tumor microenvironment. Finally, 7 genes were differentially expressed in the Met-1 tumors in the 6 sites of growth or metastasis. This investigation demonstrates that breast cancer progression and metastasis are regulated by not only the tumor cells but also the experimental model and unique molecular signals from the tumor microenvironment. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Progress report, January 1, 1990--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1992-05-20

    We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process.

  1. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    sorting data coming from human and mouse adult mammary gland , and coming from the fetal mammary rudiment, to define gene expression profiles of...AD_____________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0106 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human...SUBTITLE Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making Improve

  2. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion. We have used FAC sorting data coming from human and mouse adult mammary gland , and coming from the fetal mammary rudiment, to define gene...AD_____________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0107 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic

  3. Lipidomic approach to identify patterns in phospholipid profiles and define class differences in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dória, M Luísa; Cotrim, Zita; Macedo, Bárbara; Simões, Cláudia; Domingues, Pedro; Helguero, Luisa; Domingues, M Rosário

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Altered cellular functions of cancer cells lead to uncontrolled cellular growth and morphological changes. Cellular biomembranes are intimately involved in the regulation of cell signaling; however, they remain largely understudied. Phospholipids (PLs) are the main constituents of biological membranes and play important functional, structural and metabolic roles. The aim of this study was to establish if patterns in the PL profiles of mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells differ in relation to degree of differentiation and metastatic potential. For this purpose, PLs were analyzed using a lipidomic approach. In brief, PLs were extracted using Bligh and Dyer method, followed by a separation of PL classes by thin layer chromatography, and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). Differences and similarities were found in the relative levels of PL content between mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells and between breast cancer cells with different levels of aggressiveness. When compared to the total PL content, phosphatidylcholine levels were reduced and lysophosphatydilcholines increased in the more aggressive cancer cells; while phosphatidylserine levels remained unchanged. MS analysis showed alterations in the classes of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositides. In particular, the phosphatidylinositides, which are signaling molecules that affect proliferation, survival, and migration, showed dramatic alterations in their profile, where an increase of phosphatdylinositides saturated fatty acids chains and a decrease in C20 fatty acids in cancer cells compared with mammary epithelial cells was observed. At present, information about PL changes in cancer progression is lacking. Therefore, these data will be useful as a starting point to define possible PLs with prospective as biomarkers and disclose metabolic pathways with potential

  4. Evaluation of Leucocyte Functions Six Years after Tumour Autograft in Human Mammary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. Maxwell; Kelly, F.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Rodger, K. D.; Freshney, R. Ian

    1973-01-01

    Mammary cancer directed and nonspecific immunoassays were made in 3 groups of female patients. One group had primary mammary cancer treated by mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy plus an autograft of irradiated tumour (AIT) 40-66 months previously. A second age-matched group had mammary cancer comparable to the first group in clinical presentation and treatment except that no AIT was given. The third group consisted of non-cancer-bearing age-matched females. The migration of leucocytes from autografted patients was significantly inhibited in the presence of allogeneic mammary cancer cells from a standardized panel, compared with leucocytes from either non-autograft patients or non-cancer bearers. Selected data from a lymphocyte cytotoxicity test revealed a significantly greater kill of allogeneic mammary cancer target cells by autograft lymphocytes than by those of other groups. These indications of increased cancer directed cell mediated immunity in respect of sensitivity and toxicity in association with AIT require further elucidation under strictly controlled conditions. PMID:4807858

  5. Interstitial Fluid Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Murine Mammary Gland and Cancer and Human Breast Tissue and Cancer Determined by Novel Methods.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yamada, Akimitsu; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Allegood, Jeremy C; Tsuchida, Junko; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Huang, Wei-Ching; Terracina, Krista P; Adams, Barbara J; Rashid, Omar M; Milstien, Sheldon; Wakai, Toshifumi; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-06-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a determining factor for cancer biology and progression. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), produced by sphingosine kinases (SphKs), is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates processes important for cancer progression. Despite its critical roles, the levels of S1P in interstitial fluid (IF), an important component of the tumor microenvironment, have never previously been measured due to a lack of efficient methods for collecting and quantifying IF. The purpose of this study is to clarify the levels of S1P in the IF from murine mammary glands and its tumors utilizing our novel methods. We developed an improved centrifugation method to collect IF. Sphingolipids in IF, blood, and tissue samples were measured by mass spectrometry. In mice with a deletion of SphK1, but not SphK2, levels of S1P in IF from the mammary glands were greatly attenuated. Levels of S1P in IF from mammary tumors were reduced when tumor growth was suppressed by oral administration of FTY720/fingolimod. Importantly, sphingosine, dihydro-sphingosine, and S1P levels, but not dihydro-S1P, were significantly higher in human breast tumor tissue IF than in the normal breast tissue IF. To our knowledge, this is the first reported S1P IF measurement in murine normal mammary glands and mammary tumors, as well as in human patients with breast cancer. S1P tumor IF measurement illuminates new aspects of the role of S1P in the tumor microenvironment.

  6. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine in cancer progress

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong-Wei; Jing, Qing-Chuan; Liu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jing; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a naturally occurring bioactive sphingolipid in blood plasma, metabolizing from the hydrolysis of the membrane sphingolipid. It has been shown to exert multifunctional role in cell physiological regulation either as an intracellular second messenger or as an extracellular agent through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Because of elevated levels of SPC in malicious ascites of patients with cancer, the role of SPC in tumor progression has prompted wide interest. The factor was reported to affect the proliferation and/or migration of many cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells, epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells, rat C6 glioma cells, neuroblastoma cells, melanoma cells, and human leukemia cells. This review covers current knowledge of the role of SPC in tumor. PMID:26550104

  7. Incidental radiation to uninvolved internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Arora, Divya; Frakes, Jessica; Scott, Jacob; Opp, Daniel; Johnson, Carol; Song, Juhee; Harris, Eleanor

    2015-06-01

    Routine treatment of clinically uninvolved internal mammary nodes in breast cancer patients requiring post-mastectomy radiation therapy is controversial. The purpose of this study was to measure the incidental radiation dose to the internal mammary lymph nodes not included in the planning target volume (PTV) in women with breast cancer receiving post-mastectomy radiation therapy. This retrospective protocol utilized CT-based 3D conformal treatment plans. Fifty consecutive patients were included in the analysis: 25 left breast and 25 right breast patients. 3D conformal treatment plans chest wall tangent fields and matched supraclavicular were used. All plans were prescribed to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the chest wall and 46 Gy in 23 fractions to the supraclavicular field. The internal mammary node chain was intentionally not included in the target volume. For purposes of this study, internal mammary vessels were contoured following the Radiation Therapy Oncologist Group atlas with a 7-mm PTV expansion, utilizing original CT simulation images. The internal mammary nodes were contoured in between the first 3 and first 5 intercostal spaces for comparison. Percent volume of internal mammary node PTV receiving 95 % of the prescribed dose (47.5 Gy) with 7-mm expansion and first 5 intercostal spaces for all patients was 25.2 % (range 0.04-97.6 %, standard deviation (SD) 23.5). The mean internal mammary node dose for all patients was 24.98 Gy (range 3.54-55.93 Gy, SD 16). Results of this study suggest the incidental dose to the internal mammary nodes does not achieve clinically significant therapeutic levels in post-mastectomy breast cancer patients treated with standard 3D conformal radiation therapy chest wall irradiation. If risk factors for microscopic involvement are present, internal mammary nodes must be specifically included in target volumes in order to be adequately treated.

  8. Mammary Fat of Breast Cancer: Gene Expression Profiling and Functional Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Fu, Ziyi; Yin, Hong; Lu, Xun; Yu, Jing; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion) was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies. PMID:25291184

  9. Mammary fat of breast cancer: gene expression profiling and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengliang; Gao, Sheng; Chen, Fei; Fu, Ziyi; Yin, Hong; Lu, Xun; Yu, Jing; Lu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Mammary fat is the main composition of breast, and is the most probable candidate to affect tumor behavior because the fat produces hormones, growth factors and adipokines, a heterogeneous group of signaling molecules. Gene expression profiling and functional characterization of mammary fat in Chinese women has not been reported. Thus, we collected the mammary fat tissues adjacent to breast tumors from 60 subjects, among which 30 subjects had breast cancer and 30 had benign lesions. We isolated and cultured the stromal vascular cell fraction from mammary fat. The expression of genes related to adipose function (including adipogenesis and secretion) was detected at both the tissue and the cellular level. We also studied mammary fat browning. The results indicated that fat tissue close to malignant and benign lesions exhibited distinctive gene expression profiles and functional characteristics. Although the mammary fat of breast tumors atrophied, it secreted tumor growth stimulatory factors. Browning of mammary fat was observed and browning activity of fat close to malignant breast tumors was greater than that close to benign lesions. Understanding the diversity between these two fat depots may possibly help us improve our understanding of breast cancer pathogenesis and find the key to unlock new anticancer therapies.

  10. Mammary epithelial morphogenesis and early breast cancer. Evidence of involvement of basal components of the RNA Polymerase I transcription machinery.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Stefano; Wierzbicki, Andrzej J; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2016-09-16

    Upregulation of RNA Polymerase (Pol I)-mediated transcription of rRNA and increased ribogenesis are hallmarks of breast cancer. According to several datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), amplification/upregulation of genes encoding for basal components of the Pol I transcriptional machinery is frequent at different breast cancer stages. Here we show that knock down of the RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3 (TIF-IA) in breast cancer cells is sufficient to reduce rRNA synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation, and second that stable ectopic expression of RRN3 in human mammary epithelial (HME1) cells, by increasing rRNA transcription, confers increased sensitivity to the anti-proliferative effects of a selective Pol I inhibitor. Further, RRN3-overexpressing HME1 cells, when grown in in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) culture, develop into morphologically aberrant acinar structures lacking a lumen and filled with proliferative cells, thus acquiring a morphology resembling in situ ductal breast cancer lesions (DCIS). Consequently, interference with RRN3 control of Pol I transcription seems capable of both compromising mammary epithelial morphogenetic processes at early breast cancer stages, and driving breast cancer progression by fostering proliferation.

  11. Mammary Development and Breast Cancer: A Wnt Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing Cissy; Verheyen, Esther M.; Zeng, Yi Arial

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt pathway has emerged as a key signaling cascade participating in mammary organogenesis and breast oncogenesis. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of how the pathway regulates stem cells and normal development of the mammary gland, and discuss how its various components contribute to breast carcinoma pathology. PMID:27420097

  12. Identification and characterization of cancer stem cells in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, Agata; Król, Magdalena

    2016-12-19

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a small subpopulation of cells in malignant tumors that possess the unique ability to self-renew, differentiate and resist chemo- and radiotherapy. These cells have been postulated to be the basis for some of the difficulties in treating cancer, and therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to specifically target and eliminate CSC in diverse types of cancer, including breast cancer. Spontaneously occurring mammary tumors in canines share clinical and molecular similarities with the human counterpart, making the dog a potentially powerful model for the study of human breast cancer and clinical trials. Studies focused on canine mammary CSC might therefore enhance our understanding of the biology and possible treatment of the disease in both dogs and humans. In this review, we discuss various approaches currently in use to isolate and characterize canine mammary CSC.

  13. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond.

  14. Key signaling nodes in mammary gland development and cancer: β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    β-Catenin plays important roles in mammary development and tumorigenesis through its functions in cell adhesion, signal transduction and regulation of cell-context-specific gene expression. Studies in mice have highlighted the critical role of β-catenin signaling for stem cell biology at multiple stages of mammary development. Deregulated β-catenin signaling disturbs stem and progenitor cell dynamics and induces mammary tumors in mice. Recent data showing deregulated β-catenin signaling in metaplastic and basal-type tumors suggest a similar link to reactivated developmental pathways and human breast cancer. The present review will discuss β-catenin as a central transducer of numerous signaling pathways and its role in mammary development and breast cancer. PMID:21067528

  15. Mammary Gland Involution Provides a Unique Model to Study the TGF-β Cancer Paradox.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiuchen; Betts, Courtney; Pennock, Nathan; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Schedin, Pepper

    2017-01-13

    Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer has been termed the "TGF-β paradox", acting as both a tumor suppresser and promoter. The complexity of TGF-β signaling within the tumor is context dependent, and greatly impacted by cellular crosstalk between TGF-β responsive cells in the microenvironment including adjacent epithelial, endothelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cells. Here we utilize normal, weaning-induced mammary gland involution as a tissue microenvironment model to study the complexity of TGF-β function. This article reviews facets of mammary gland involution that are TGF-β regulated, namely mammary epithelial cell death, immune activation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. We outline how distinct cellular responses and crosstalk between cell types during physiologically normal mammary gland involution contribute to simultaneous tumor suppressive and promotional microenvironments. We also highlight alternatives to direct TGF-β blocking anti-cancer therapies with an emphasis on eliciting concerted microenvironmental-mediated tumor suppression.

  16. Histological, immunohistological, and ultrastructural description of vasculogenic mimicry in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Clemente, M; Pérez-Alenza, M D; Illera, J C; Peña, L

    2010-03-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) and human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) are the most aggressive and lethal type of mammary cancer in female dogs and in women. The generation of microvascular channels by malignant tumor cells (endothelial-like cells [ELCs]) without endothelial cell participation (vasculogenic mimicry) has been reported in human breast cancer, including IBC, and is considered a new type of tumor angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of ELCs in highly malignant canine mammary tumors (IMC and non-IMC) by histology, inmunohistochemistry (pancytokeratin, cytokeratin 14, vimentin, actin, desmin, vWF, CD31, and CD34), and electron microscopy. This retrospective study included 21 female dogs with diagnoses of IMC and 20 animals with metastatic grade III noninflammatory malignant mammary tumors (MMT). IMC tumors (33.33%) and MMT (5%) showed ELCs forming structures similar to small capillaries. The histological, immunohistochemical (positive to AE1/AE3 and cytokeratin 14, mostly negative to endothelial markers), and ultrastructural characteristics of these cells indicated vasculogenic mimicry. The higher frequency of this phenomenon in inflammatory versus noninflammatory canine mammary cancer is in agreement with previous studies in experimental and spontaneous human IBC, and it could be in relation with the extremely high lymphangiogenic capacity and metastatic lymphangiotropism characteristics of inflammatory breast cancer.

  17. Tamoxifen induces regression of estradiol-induced mammary cancer in the ACI.COP-Ept2 rat model.

    PubMed

    Ruhlen, Rachel L; Willbrand, Dana M; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Ma, Lixin; Shull, James D; Sauter, Edward R

    2009-10-01

    The ACI rat is a unique model of human breast cancer in that mammary cancers are induced by estrogen without carcinogens, irradiation, xenografts or transgenic manipulations. We sought to characterize mammary cancers in a congenic variant of the ACI rat, the ACI.COP-Ept2. All rats with estradiol implants developed mammary cancers in 5-7 months. Rats bearing estradiol-induced mammary cancers were treated with tamoxifen for three weeks. Tamoxifen reduced tumor mass, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, by 89%. Tumors expressed estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Erbb2. ERalpha and PR were overexpressed in tumor compared to adjacent non-tumor mammary gland. Thus, this model is highly relevant to hormone responsive human breast cancers.

  18. Gestational high-fat diet and bisphenol A exposure heightens mammary cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Cheong, Ana; Veevers, Jennifer; Song, Dan; Gear, Robin; Zhu, Xuegong; Ying, Jun; Kendler, Ady; Medvedovic, Mario; Belcher, Scott; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-07-01

    In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High-fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further influences carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose-response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group. In utero HBF and BPA exposure elicited differential effects at the gene level in PND21 mammary glands through DNA methylation, compared with HBF intake in the absence of BPA. Top HBF + BPA-dysregulated genes (ALDH1B1, ASTL, CA7, CPLX4, KCNV2, MAGEE2 and TUBA3E) are associated with poor overall survival in The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) human breast cancer cohort (n = 1082). Furthermore, the prognostic power of the identified genes was further enhanced in the survival analysis of Caucasian patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. In conclusion, concurrent HBF dietary and a low-dose BPA exposure during pregnancy increases mammary tumor incidence in offspring, accompanied by alterations in mammary gland development and gene expression, and possibly through epigenetic reprogramming. © 2017 The authors.

  19. Gestational high-fat diet and bisphenol A exposure heightens mammary cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Yuet-Kin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Cheong, Ana; Veevers, Jennifer; Song, Dan; Gear, Robin; Zhu, Xuegong; Ying, Jun; Kendler, Ady; Medvedovic, Mario; Belcher, Scott

    2017-01-01

    In utero exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) increases mammary cancer susceptibility in offspring. High-fat diet is widely believed to be a risk factor of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to BPA in addition to high-butterfat (HBF) intake during pregnancy further influences carcinogen-induced mammary cancer risk in offspring, and its dose–response curve. In this study, we found that gestational HBF intake in addition to a low-dose BPA (25 µg/kg BW/day) exposure increased mammary tumor incidence in a 50-day-of-age chemical carcinogen administration model and altered mammary gland morphology in offspring in a non-monotonic manner, while shortening tumor-free survival time compared with the HBF-alone group. In utero HBF and BPA exposure elicited differential effects at the gene level in PND21 mammary glands through DNA methylation, compared with HBF intake in the absence of BPA. Top HBF + BPA-dysregulated genes (ALDH1B1, ASTL, CA7, CPLX4, KCNV2, MAGEE2 and TUBA3E) are associated with poor overall survival in The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) human breast cancer cohort (n = 1082). Furthermore, the prognostic power of the identified genes was further enhanced in the survival analysis of Caucasian patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors. In conclusion, concurrent HBF dietary and a low-dose BPA exposure during pregnancy increases mammary tumor incidence in offspring, accompanied by alterations in mammary gland development and gene expression, and possibly through epigenetic reprogramming. PMID:28487351

  20. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients: case series and review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Chunjian; Liu, Yanbing; Qiu, Pengfei; Cong, Binbin; Wang, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is considered as a rare disease that accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancers, and its treatment has been based on the evidence available from female breast cancer. Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is now regarded as the standard of care for both female and male patients without clinical and imaging evidence of axillary lymph node metastases, while internal mammary SLNB has rarely been performed. Internal mammary chain metastasis is an independent prognostic predictor. Internal mammary SLNB should be performed to complete nodal staging and guide adjuvant therapy in MBC patients with preoperative lymphoscintigraphic internal mammary chain drainage. We report both axillary and internal mammary SLNB in two cases with MBC. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node did contain metastasis in one case.

  1. New methods in mammary gland development and cancer: proteomics, epigenetics, symmetric division and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The European Network for Breast Development and Cancer (ENBDC) meeting on 'Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer' has become an annual international rendezvous for scientists with interests in the normal and neoplastic breast. The fourth meeting in this series, held in April in Weggis, Switzerland, focused on proteomics, epigenetics, symmetric division, and metastasis. PMID:22809213

  2. An improved syngeneic orthotopic murine model of human breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Omar M; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Ramachandran, Suburamaniam; Dumur, Catherine; Schaum, Julia; Yamada, Akimitsu; Terracina, Krista P; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer drug development costs nearly $610 million and 37 months in preclinical mouse model trials with minimal success rates. Despite these inefficiencies, there are still no consensus breast cancer preclinical models. Murine mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1-luc2 cells were implanted subcutaneous (SQ) or orthotopically percutaneous (OP) injection in the area of the nipple, or surgically into the chest 2nd mammary fat pad under direct vision (ODV) in Balb/c immunocompetent mice. Tumor progression was followed by in vivo bioluminescence and direct measurements, pathology and survival determined, and tumor gene expression analyzed by genome-wide microarrays. ODV produced less variable-sized tumors and was a reliable method of implantation. ODV implantation into the chest 2nd mammary pad rather than into the abdominal 4th mammary pad, the most common implantation site, better mimicked human breast cancer progression pattern, which correlated with bioluminescent tumor burden and survival. Compared to SQ, ODV produced tumors that differentially expressed genes whose interaction networks are of importance in cancer research. qPCR validation of 10 specific target genes of interest in ongoing clinical trials demonstrated significant differences in expression. ODV implantation into the chest 2nd mammary pad provides the most reliable model that mimics human breast cancer compared from subcutaneous implantation that produces tumors with different genome expression profiles of clinical significance. Increased understanding of the limitations of the different preclinical models in use will help guide new investigations and may improve the efficiency of breast cancer drug development .

  3. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Prevention | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Home | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  7. Acknowledgements | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Sunburn | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Survival | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Incidence | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Cadmium | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Diagnosis | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Benzene | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Radon | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Mortality | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Weight | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Introduction | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Mortality | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Acknowledgements | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Survival | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Benzene | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Clinically apparent internal mammary nodal metastasis in patients with advanced breast cancer: incidence and local control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Oh, Julia L; Whitman, Gary J; Iyengar, Puneeth; Yu, Tse-Kuan; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy A; Perkins, George; Buchholz, Thomas A; Strom, Eric A

    2010-07-15

    To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yujing; Oh, Julia L.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.

  6. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Breast Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Life After Cancer | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Breast Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Lung Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Lung Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  1. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  2. MTA family of transcriptional metaregulators in mammary gland morphogenesis and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajesh R; Kumar, Rakesh

    2007-09-01

    Since breast cancer and its associated metastasis are a global health problem and a major cause of mortality among women, research efforts to understand the development, morphogenesis, and functioning of the mammary gland are a high priority. Myriad signaling pathways, transcription factors, and associated transcriptional coregulators have been identified in both normal functioning and neoplastic transformation of the mammary gland. The discovery of the metastasis tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) gene, its overexpression in cancer and metastasis and its subsequent identification as an integral part of the chromatin remodeling complex heralded extensive research on its physiological role. Subsequent identification of additional gene family members, namely MTA1s, MTA2, and MTA3, and their functions in the cell has resulted in the establishment of the significance of the MTA family. The role of these proteins in modulating hormonal responses in normal mammary glands and in breast cancer has resulted in their identification as important molecular markers and potential therapeutic targets.

  3. The effect of neighboring cells on the stiffness of cancerous and non-cancerous human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Bonin, Keith; Scarpinato, Karin; Guthold, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) with a 5.3 μm diameter spherical probe, we determined mechanical properties of individual human mammary epithelial cells. The cells were derived from a pair of cell lines that mimic cell progression through four phases of neoplastic transformation: normal (non-transformed), immortal, tumorigenic, and metastatic. Measurements on cells in all four phases were taken over both the cytoplasmic and nuclear regions. Moreover, the measurements were made for cells in different microenvironments as related to cell-cell contacts: isolated cells; cells residing on the periphery of a contiguous cell monolayer; and cells on the inside of a contiguous cell monolayer. By fitting the AFM force versus indentation curves to a Hertz model, we determined the pseudo-elastic Young’s modulus, E. Combining all data for the cellular subregions (over nucleus and cytoplasm) and the different cell microenvironments, we obtained stiffness values for normal, immortal, tumorigenic, and metastatic cells of 870 Pa, 870 Pa, 490 Pa, and 580 Pa, respectively. That is, cells become softer as they advance to the tumorigenic phase and then stiffen somewhat in the final step to metastatic cells. We also found a distinct contrast in the influence of a cell’s microenvironment on cell stiffness. Normal mammary epithelial cells inside a monolayer are stiffer than peripheral cells, which are stiffer than isolated cells. However, the microenvironment had a slight, opposite effect on tumorigenic and little effect on immortal and metastatic cell stiffness. Thus, the stiffness of cancer cells is less sensitive to the microenvironment than normal cells. Our results show that the mechanical properties of a cell can depend on cancer progression and microenvironment (cell-cell interactions).

  4. Function of the vitamin D endocrine system in mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Welsh, JoEllen

    2017-09-15

    The nuclear receptor for 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D), the active form of vitamin D, has anti-tumor actions in many tissues. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in normal mammary gland and in many human breast cancers suggesting it may represent an important tumor suppressor gene in this tissue. When activated by 1,25D, VDR modulates multiple cellular pathways including those related to energy metabolism, terminal differentiation and inflammation. There is compelling pre-clinical evidence that alterations in vitamin D status affect breast cancer development and progression, while clinical and epidemiological data are suggestive but not entirely consistent. The demonstration that breast cells express CYP27B1 (which converts the precursor vitamin D metabolite 25D to the active metabolite 1,25D) and CYP24A1 (which degrades both 25D and 1,25D) provides insight into the difficulties inherent in using dietary vitamin D, sun exposure and/or serum biomarkers of vitamin D status to predict disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that the normally tight balance between CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 becomes deregulated during cancer development, leading to abrogation of the tumor suppressive effects triggered by VDR. Research aimed at understanding the mechanisms that govern uptake, storage, metabolism and actions of vitamin D steroids in normal and neoplastic breast tissue remain an urgent priority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [FACTORS OF PROGNOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY CANCER OF MAMMARY GLAND].

    PubMed

    Shchurov, M F; Voloshyna, N M; Pogorila, T Yu

    2015-12-01

    A survival indices in patients with early mammary gland cancer of a ductal infiltrating histology stage T1-2N0M0, who were treated in accordance to actual standards, differ significantly, what witnesses the necessity for searching of additional prognostic criteria. The investigation objective was to study the impact of independent and interrelated clinical, morphological and biochemical factors of prognosis on the survival indices in patients with mammary gland cancer stage T1-2N0M0 in conditions of local and systemic treatment.

  6. Therapeutic attitude towards internal mammary chain drainage in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferreres García, Karla; Siegrist Ridruejo, Jaime; Rincón Olbés, Patricia; Luque Molina, María Sol; Almoguera Arias, María Isabel

    2016-12-01

    Internal mammary chain (IMC) is one of the main local lymph drainages in breast cancer. However, internal mammary chain sentinel lymph node biopsy (IMC-SLNB) is not always performed. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the outcomes of IMC-SLNB in our institution from 2008 to 2014. We analyzed 1346 women with breast cancer. Six-hundred twenty-two sentinel node biopsies were carried out, one out of ten in IMC territory. Adjuvant radiotherapy in this area was added when positive. IMC-SLNB is feasible, it may change tumour stage, modify adjuvant therapy and change prognosis in selected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adiponectin differentially affects gene expression in human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Treeck, O; Lattrich, C; Juhasz-Boess, I; Buchholz, S; Pfeiler, G; Ortmann, O

    2008-10-21

    Serum levels of adiponectin are inversely associated with breast cancer risk. In this study, its effect on growth and gene expression of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells was compared. The antiproliferative effect of adiponectin on MCF-10A cells was more pronounced and was accompanied by elevated transcript levels of caspase 1, ERbeta2, ERbeta5, TR2 and USP2. Our data suggest that upregulation of genes with known growth inhibitory or apoptotic functions in mammary epithelial cells might contribute to the protective action of this adipocytokine.

  8. Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A Increases Dimethylbenzanthracene-Induced Mammary Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Sarah; Raghuraman, Nandini; Eltoum, Isam; Carpenter, Mark; Russo, Jose; Lamartiniere, Coral A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, including infant formula bottles. Objectives Based on the reported endocrine disruptor activity of this polyphenol, we hypothesized that exposure to BPA early in life would elicit developmental changes in the mammary tissue and cause a predisposition for mammary cancer. Methods We exposed neonatal/prepubertal rats to BPA via lactation from nursing dams treated orally with 0, 25, and 250 μg BPA/kg body weight/day. For tumorigenesis studies, female offspring were exposed to 30 mg dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/kg body weight at 50 days of age. Results The combination of DMBA treatment with lactational exposure to BPA demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in mammary tumor multiplicity and reduced tumor latency compared with controls. In the absence of DMBA treatment, lactational BPA exposure resulted in increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis at 50 but not 21 days postpartum (shortly after last BPA treatment). Using Western blot analysis, we determined that steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) 1–3, Akt, phosphorylated Akt, progesterone receptor A (PR-A), and erbB3 proteins were significantly up-regulated at 50 days of age. Conclusions The data presented here provide the first evidence that maternal exposure to BPA during lactation increases mammary carcinogenesis in a DMBA-induced model of rodent mammary cancer. Changes in PR-A, SRC 1–3, erbB3, and Akt activity are consistent with increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis playing a role in mammary cancer susceptibility. These alterations provide an explanation of enhanced mammary carcinogenesis after lactational BPA exposure. PMID:19590682

  9. The mammary stem cell hierarchy: a looking glass into heterogeneous breast cancer landscapes.

    PubMed

    Sreekumar, Amulya; Roarty, Kevin; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2015-12-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes extensive morphogenesis during the different stages of embryonic development, puberty, estrus, pregnancy, lactation and involution. Systemic and local cues underlie this constant tissue remodeling and act by eliciting an intricate pattern of responses in the mammary epithelial and stromal cells. Decades of studies utilizing methods such as transplantation and lineage-tracing have identified a complex hierarchy of mammary stem cells, progenitors and differentiated epithelial cells that fuel mammary epithelial development. Importantly, these studies have extended our understanding of the molecular crosstalk between cell types and the signaling pathways maintaining normal homeostasis that often are deregulated during tumorigenesis. While several questions remain, this research has many implications for breast cancer. Fundamental among these are the identification of the cells of origin for the multiple subtypes of breast cancer and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. A deeper understanding of these critical questions will unveil novel breast cancer drug targets and treatment paradigms. In this review, we provide a current overview of normal mammary development and tumorigenesis from a stem cell perspective. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Characterization of mammary cancer stem cells in the MMTV-PyMT mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Lanza, Denise Grant; Guest, Ian; Uk-Lim, Chang; Glinskii, Anna; Glinsky, Gennadi; Sell, Stewart

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer stem cells, the root of tumor growth, present challenges to investigate: Primary human breast cancer cells are difficult to establish in culture and inconsistently yield tumors after transplantation into immune-deficient recipient mice. Furthermore, there is limited characterization of mammary cancer stem cells in mice, the ideal model for the study of breast cancer. We herein describe a pre-clinical breast cancer stem cell model, based on the properties of cancer stem cells, derived from transgenic MMTV-PyMT mice. Using a defined set of cell surface markers to identify cancer stem cells by flow cytometry, at least four cell populations were recovered from primary mammary cancers. Only two of the four populations, one epithelial and one mesenchymal, were able to survive and proliferate in vitro. The epithelial population exhibited tumor initiation potential with as few as 10 cells injected into syngeneic immune-competent recipients. Tumors initiated from injected cell lines recapitulated the morphological and physiological components of the primary tumor. To highlight the stemness potential of the putative cancer stem cells, B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) expression was knocked down via shRNA targeting Bmi-1. Without Bmi-1 expression, putative cancer stem cells could no longer initiate tumors, but tumor initiation was rescued with the introduction of a Bmi-1 overexpression vector in the Bmi-1 knockdown cells. In conclusion, our data show that primary mammary cancers from MMTV-PyMT mice contain putative cancer stem cells that survive in culture and can be used to create a model for study of mammary cancer stem cells.

  11. Does Lactation Mitigate Triple Negative/Basal Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    1E). Cell Culture DCIS.com cells and GFP-labeled DCIS.com cells (a generous gift from Kornelia Polyak ) were cultured as previously described [8...transition. Cancer Cell 2008, 13(5):394-406. 9. Polyak K, Hu M: Do myoepithelial cells hold the key for breast tumor progression? J Mammary Gland...and p73: evidence for broader tumor suppressor functions for the p53 family. Cancer Cell 2005, 7(4):363-373. 57. Hu M, Polyak K: Molecular

  12. Lectin histochemistry of murine WAP-T mammary cancer reveals similar glycoconjugate changes to those in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Steffen; Gocht, Andreas; Wegwitz, Florian; Deppert, Wolfgang; Schumacher, Udo

    2014-12-01

    The WAP-T mouse model is an established clinically relevant model of breast cancer. Lectins have been used to study malignant progression in clinical studies. We investigated lectin binding sites to test for the clinical relevance of this model. Samples of the WAP-T mouse mammary tissues, from normal tissues to undifferentiated higher tumor grades were stained using an indirect technique with nine different lectins for intensity of lectin binding. HPA bound to the luminal epithelium in higher tumor grades in a similar pattern to that in human breast cancer. BSA-IB4 bound to luminal epithelium in hyperplasia and increased towards higher grades, comparable to previous clinical studies. PHA-L-binding to myoepithelium and luminal epithelium increased from hyperplasia to higher grades, comparable to findings in human breast cancer. The results of our study support the hypothesis that lectin binding sites change similarly in WAP-T and human breast cancer, stressing the similarity of this model with the clinical setting. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Tracking the Mammary Architectural Features and Detecting Breast Cancer with Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nissan, Noam; Furman-Haran, Edna; Feinberg-Shapiro, Myra; Grobgeld, Dov; Eyal, Erez; Zehavi, Tania; Degani, Hadassa

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer has a critical role in improving the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. In this paper a new approach for the detection of breast cancer is described, based on tracking the mammary architectural elements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The paper focuses on the scanning protocols and image processing algorithms and software that were designed to fit the diffusion properties of the mammary fibroglandular tissue and its changes during malignant transformation. The final output yields pixel by pixel vector maps that track the architecture of the entire mammary ductal glandular trees and parametric maps of the diffusion tensor coefficients and anisotropy indices. The efficiency of the method to detect breast cancer was tested by scanning women volunteers including 68 patients with breast cancer confirmed by histopathology findings. Regions with cancer cells exhibited a marked reduction in the diffusion coefficients and in the maximal anisotropy index as compared to the normal breast tissue, providing an intrinsic contrast for delineating the boundaries of malignant growth. Overall, the sensitivity of the DTI parameters to detect breast cancer was found to be high, particularly in dense breasts, and comparable to the current standard breast MRI method that requires injection of a contrast agent. Thus, this method offers a completely non-invasive, safe and sensitive tool for breast cancer detection. PMID:25549209

  14. Tracking the mammary architectural features and detecting breast cancer with magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Noam; Furman-Haran, Edna; Feinberg-Shapiro, Myra; Grobgeld, Dov; Eyal, Erez; Zehavi, Tania; Degani, Hadassa

    2014-12-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer has a critical role in improving the quality of life and survival of breast cancer patients. In this paper a new approach for the detection of breast cancer is described, based on tracking the mammary architectural elements using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The paper focuses on the scanning protocols and image processing algorithms and software that were designed to fit the diffusion properties of the mammary fibroglandular tissue and its changes during malignant transformation. The final output yields pixel by pixel vector maps that track the architecture of the entire mammary ductal glandular trees and parametric maps of the diffusion tensor coefficients and anisotropy indices. The efficiency of the method to detect breast cancer was tested by scanning women volunteers including 68 patients with breast cancer confirmed by histopathology findings. Regions with cancer cells exhibited a marked reduction in the diffusion coefficients and in the maximal anisotropy index as compared to the normal breast tissue, providing an intrinsic contrast for delineating the boundaries of malignant growth. Overall, the sensitivity of the DTI parameters to detect breast cancer was found to be high, particularly in dense breasts, and comparable to the current standard breast MRI method that requires injection of a contrast agent. Thus, this method offers a completely non-invasive, safe and sensitive tool for breast cancer detection.

  15. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression delays mammary tumorigenesis and reduces localized inflammation in the C3(1)/SV40Tag triple negative breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Cranford, Taryn L; Velázquez, Kandy T; Enos, Reilly T; Bader, Jackie E; Carson, Meredith S; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Murphy, E Angela

    2017-02-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been implicated as a major modulator in the progression of mammary tumorigenesis, largely due to its ability to recruit macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. Macrophages are key mediators in the connection between inflammation and cancer progression and have been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Thus, MCP-1 may be a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory and difficult-to-treat cancers such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We examined the effect of MCP-1 depletion on mammary tumorigenesis in a model of TNBC. Tumor measurements were conducted weekly (until 22 weeks of age) and at sacrifice (23 weeks of age) in female C3(1)/SV40Tag and C3(1)/SV40Tag MCP-1 deficient mice to determine tumor numbers and tumorvolumes. Histopathological scoring was performed at 12 weeks of age and 23 weeks of age. Gene expression of macrophage markers and inflammatory mediators were measured in the mammary gland and tumor microenvironment at sacrifice. As expected, MCP-1 depletion resulted in decreased tumorigenesis, indicated by reduced primary tumor volume and multiplicity, and a delay in tumor progression represented by histopathological scoring (12 weeks of age). Deficiency in MCP-1 significantly downregulated expression of macrophage markers in the mammary gland (Mertk and CD64) and the tumor microenvironment (CD64), and also reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland (TNFα and IL-1β) and the tumor microenvironment (IL-6). These data support the hypothesis that MCP-1 expression contributes to increased tumorigenesis in a model of TNBC via recruitment of macrophages and subsequent increase in inflammatory mediators.

  16. Iodine and doxorubicin, a good combination for mammary cancer treatment: antineoplastic adjuvancy, chemoresistance inhibition, and cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although mammary cancer (MC) is the most common malignant neoplasia in women, the mortality for this cancer has decreased principally because of early detection and the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Of several preparations that cause MC regression, doxorubicin (DOX) is the most active, first-line monotherapeutic. Nevertheless, its use is limited due to the rapid development of chemoresistance and to the cardiotoxicity caused by free radicals. In previous studies we have shown that supplementation with molecular iodine (I2) has a powerful antineoplastic effect in methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced experimental models of MC. These studies also showed a consistent antioxidant effect of I2 in normal and tumoral tissues. Methods Here, we analyzed the effect of I2 in combination with DOX treatment in female Sprague Dawley rats with MNU-induced MC. In the first experiment (short) animals were treated with the therapeutic DOX dose (16 mg/kg) or with lower doses (8 and 4 mg/Kg), in each case with and without 0.05% I2 in drinking water. Iodine treatment began on day 0, a single dose of DOX was injected (ip) on day 2, and the analysis was carried out on day 7. In the second experiment (long) animals with and without iodine supplement were treated with one or two injections of 4 mg/kg DOX (on days 0 and 14) and were analyzed on day 56. Results At all DOX doses, the short I2 treatment induced adjuvant antineoplastic effects (decreased tumor size and proliferating cell nuclear antigen level) with significant protection against body weight loss and cardiotoxicity (creatine kinase MB, cardiac lipoperoxidation, and heart damage). With long-term I2, mammary tumor tissue became more sensitive to DOX, since a single injection of the lowest dose of DOX (4 mg/Kg) was enough to stop tumor progression and a second DOX4 injection on day 14 caused a significant and rapid decrease in tumor size, decreased the expression of chemoresistance markers (Bcl2 and survivin), and increased

  17. The Gain-of-Function of p53 Cancer Mutant in Promoting Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xuefeng; Liu, Dongping; Xu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is critical to suppress all types of human cancers, including breast cancers. The p53 gene is somatically mutated in over half of all human cancers. The majority of the p53 mutations are missense mutations, leading to the expression of the full-length p53 mutants. Several hotspot mutations, including R175H, are frequently detected in human breast cancers. P53 cancer mutants not only lose tumor suppression activity, but more problematically, gain new oncogenic activities. Despite correlation of the expression of p53 cancer mutants and the poor prognosis of human breast cancer patients, the roles of p53 cancer mutants in promoting breast cancer remain unclear. We employed the humanized p53 cancer mutant knock-in (R175H) mice and MMTV-Wnt-1 transgenic (mWnt-1) mice to specifically address the gain of function of R175H in promoting breast cancer. While both R175H/R175HmWnt-1(R175HmWnt-1) and p53−/−mWnt-1 mice died from mammary cancers at the same kinetics, which was much earlier than mWnt-1 mice, most of the R175HmWnt-1 mice developed multiple mammary tumors per mouse, whereas p53−/−mWnt-1 and mWnt-1 mice mostly developed one tumor per mouse. The multiple mammary tumors arose in the same R175HmWnt-1 mouse exhibited different histological characters. Moreover, R175H gain-of-function mutant expands the mammary epithelial stem cells (MESCs) that give rise to the mammary tumors. Since ATM suppresses the expansion of MESCs, the inactivation of ATM by R175H in mammary epithelial cells could contribute to the expansion of MESCs in R175HmWnt-1 mice. These findings provide the basis for R175H to promote the initiation of breast cancer by expanding MESCs. PMID:22824795

  18. At last: classification of human mammary cells elucidates breast cancer origins.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Borowsky, Alexander D

    2014-02-01

    Current breast cancer classification systems are based on molecular evaluation of tumor receptor status and do not account for distinct morphological phenotypes. In other types of cancer, taxonomy based on normal cell phenotypes has been extremely useful for diagnosis and treatment strategies. In this issue of the JCI, Santagata and colleagues developed a breast cancer classification scheme based on characterization of healthy mammary cells. Reclassification of breast cancer cells and breast cancer tissue microarrays with this system correlated with prognosis better than the standard receptor status designation. This scheme provides a major advance toward our understanding of the origin of the cells in the breast and breast cancers.

  19. Extracellular vesicles from women with breast cancer promote an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like process in mammary epithelial cells MCF10A.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Hernandez, Octavio; Gonzales-Vazquez, Cristina; Cortes-Reynosa, Pedro; Reyes-Uribe, Emmanuel; Chavez-Ocaña, Sonia; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio; Sierra-Martinez, Mónica; Salazar, Eduardo Perez

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate many stages of tumor progression including angiogenesis, escape from immune surveillance, and extracellular matrix degradation. We studied whether EVs from plasma of women with breast cancer are able to induce an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Our findings demonstrate that EVs from plasma of breast cancer patients induce a downregulation of E-cadherin expression and an increase of vimentin and N-cadherin expression. Moreover, EVs induce migration and invasion, as well as an increase of NFκB-DNA binding activity and MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretions. In summary, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that EVs from breast cancer patients induce an EMT-like process in human mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells MCF10A.

  20. Undergraduate Training in Mammary Gland Biology and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Proiect (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY 2. REPORT DATE 3 . REPORT TYPE AND... 3 Introduction .................................................................................... 5 Body...receptors that mediate cell-cell interactions ( 3 ). Studies have shown that when unirradiated non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial COMMA-D cells were

  1. miR-135b coordinates progression of ErbB2-driven mammary carcinomas through suppression of MID1 and MTCH2.

    PubMed

    Arigoni, Maddalena; Barutello, Giuseppina; Riccardo, Federica; Ercole, Elisabetta; Cantarella, Daniela; Orso, Francesca; Conti, Laura; Lanzardo, Stefania; Taverna, Daniela; Merighi, Irene; Calogero, Raffaele A; Cavallo, Federica; Quaglino, Elena

    2013-06-01

    In an attempt to reveal deregulated miRNAs associated with the progression of carcinomas developed in BALB-neuT transgenic mice, we found increased expression of miR-135b during malignancy. Relevantly, we observed that miR-135b is up-regulated in basal or normal-like human breast cancers, and it correlates with patient survival and early metastatization. Therefore, we investigated its biological functions by modulating its expression (up- or down-regulation) in mammary tumor cells. Although no effect was observed on proliferation in cell culture and in orthotopically injected mice, miR-135b was able to control cancer cell stemness in a mammosphere assay, anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and lung cancer cell dissemination in mice after tail vein injections. Focusing on the miR-135b molecular mechanism, we observed that miR-135b controls malignancy via its direct targets, midline 1 (MID1) and mitochondrial carrier homolog 2 (MTCH2), as proved by biochemical and functional rescuing/phenocopying experiments. Consistently, an anti-correlation between miR-135b and MID1 or MTCH2 was found in human primary tumor samples. In conclusion, our research led us to the identification of miR-135b and its targets, MID1 and MTCH2, as relevant coordinators of mammary gland tumor progression.

  2. Raman spectra of normal and cancerous mouse mammary gland tissue using near infrared excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Vaman; Serhatkulu, G. K.; Dai, H.; Shukla, N.; Weber, R.; Thakur, J. S.; Freeman, D. C.; Pandya, A. K.; Auner, G. W.; Naik, R.; Miller, R. F.; Cao, A.; Klein, M. D.; Rabah, R.

    2006-03-01

    Raman spectra of normal mammary gland tissues, malignant mammary gland tumors, and lymph nodes have been recorded using fresh tissue from mice. Tumors were induced in mice by subcutaneously injecting 4T1 BALB/c mammary tumor (a highly malignant) cell line. The Raman spectra were collected using the same tissues that were examined by histopathology for determining the cancerous/normal state of the tissue. Differences in various peak intensities, peak shifts and peak ratios were analyzed to determine the Raman spectral features that differentiate mammary gland tumors from non-tumorous tissue. Tissues that were confirmed by pathology as cancerous (tumors) show several distinctive features in the Raman spectra compared to the spectra of the normal tissues. For example, the cancerous tissues show Raman peaks at 621, 642, 1004, 1032, 1175 and 1208 cm-1 that are assignable to amino acids containing aromatic side-chains such as phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine. Further, the cancerous tissues show a greatly reduced level of phospholipids compared to the normal tissues. The Raman spectral regions that are sensitive to pathologic alteration in the tissue will be discussed.

  3. Accelerating Progress Against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Investment in cancer research is making a difference, but we still must overcome disparities in cancer incidence and mortality, and expand research to detect cancers earlier and develop more effective, less-toxic treatments. NCI supports research studies and programs across the country that are working to further advance cancer, research, and clinical care.

  4. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, in the diet suppresses DMBA-induced mammary cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Timothy; Carpenter, Mark; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2006-05-15

    Despite the advent of new and aggressive therapeutics, breast cancer remains a leading killer among women; hence there is a need for the prevention of this disease. Several naturally occurring polyphenols have received much attention for their health benefits, including anti-carcinogenic properties. Two of these are resveratrol, a component of red grapes, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin found in green tea. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that these two polyphenols protect against chemically-induced mammary cancer by modulating mammary gland architecture, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were exposed to either resveratrol (1 g/kg AIN-76A diet), EGCG (0.065% in the drinking water), or control diet (AIN-76A) for the entirety of their life starting at birth. At 50 days postpartum, rats were treated with 60 mg dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/kg body weight to induce mammary cancer. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, suppressed mammary carcinogenesis (fewer tumors per rat and longer tumor latency). Analysis of mammary whole mounts from 50-day-old rats revealed that resveratrol, but not EGCG, treatment resulted in more differentiated lobular structures. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation studies showed that resveratrol treatment caused a significant reduction in proliferative cells in mammary terminal ductal structures at 50 days postpartum, making them less susceptible to carcinogen insult. The epithelial cells of terminal end buds in the mammary glands of resveratrol-treated rats also showed an increase in apoptotic cells compared to the control or EGCG-treated rats as measured by a DNA fragmentation assay. At the given doses, resveratrol treatment resulted in a serum resveratrol concentration of 2.00 microM, while treatment with EGCG resulted in a serum EGCG concentration of 31.06 nM. 17beta-Estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin concentrations in the serum were not significantly affected by resveratrol or

  5. Increased levels of interleukins 8 and 10 as findings of canine inflammatory mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    de Andrés, Paloma Jimena; Illera, Juan Carlos; Cáceres, Sara; Díez, Lucía; Pérez-Alenza, Maria Dolores; Peña, Laura

    2013-04-15

    Inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) is a distinct form of mammary cancer that affects dogs and women [in humans, IMC is known as inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)], and is characterized by a sudden onset and an aggressive clinical course. Spontaneous canine IMC shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as the best spontaneous animal model for studying IBC, although several aspects remain unstudied. Interleukins (ILs) play an important role in cancer as potential modulators of angiogenesis, leukocyte infiltration and tumor growth. The aims of the present study were to assess serum and tumor levels of several ILs (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) by enzyme-immunoassay in dogs bearing benign and malignant mammary tumors, including dogs with IMC, for a better understanding of this disease. Forty-eight dogs were prospectively included. Animals consisted of 7 healthy Beagles used as donors for normal mammary glands (NMG) and serum controls (SCs), 10 dogs with hyperplasias and benign mammary tumors (HBMT), 24 with non-inflammatory malignant mammary tumors (non-IMC MMT) and 7 dogs with clinical and pathological IMC. IL-8 (serum) and IL-10 (serum and tissue homogenate) levels were higher in the dogs with IMC compared with the non-IMC MMT group. ILs were increased with tumor malignancy as follows: in tumor homogenates IL-6 levels were higher in malignant tumors (IMC and non-IMC MMT) versus HBMT and versus NMG and tumor IL-8 was increased in malignant tumors versus NMG; in serum, IL-1α and IL-8 levels were higher in the malignant groups respect to HBMT and SCs; interestingly, IL-10 was elevated only in the serum of IMC animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that analyzes ILs in IMC and IL-10 in canine mammary tumors. Our results indicate a role for IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in canine mammary malignancy and specific differences in ILs content in IMC versus non-IMC MMT that could

  6. Genistein-mediated inhibition of mammary stromal adipocyte differentiation limits expansion of mammary stem/progenitor cells by paracrine signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mammary adiposity may contribute to breast cancer development and progression by releasing cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that promote mammary epithelial proliferation. We evaluated the effects of soy isoflavone genistein (GEN) on the adipogenic differentiation of a SV40-immortalized mou...

  7. Vitamin D and the mammary gland: a review on its role in normal development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Nair; Paredes, Joana; Costa, José Luis; Ylstra, Bauke; Schmitt, Fernando

    2012-05-31

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease associated with diverse biological behaviours and clinical outcome. Although some molecular subgroups of breast cancer have a targeted therapy, the most aggressive tumours still lack a molecular target. Despite vitamin D being classically associated with the physiological role of calcium regulation and phosphate transport in bone metabolism, several studies have demonstrated a wide range of functions for this hormone, which are particularly important in the field of cancer. The mechanisms underlying the protective actions of vitamin D in cancer development are only sparsely understood, but evidence shows that vitamin D participates in cell growth regulation, apoptosis and cell differentiation. In addition, it has been implicated in the suppression of cancer cell invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Most of vitamin D biological actions are mediated by the vitamin D receptor and the synthesis and catabolism of this hormone are regulated by the enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24A1. In the present review we highlight research data concerning the function of this hormone in the mammary gland, with a special focus on breast carcinogenesis. Hence, and although the available data are controversial, we consider not only updated information on the epidemiology of vitamin D in breast cancer and its potential value as a therapeutic agent or prophylactic (with an emphasis on molecular mechanisms and effectors of vitamin D action), but include data on its role in other stages of breast cancer progression as well. Accordingly, we review data on the influence of vitamin D in the development of normal breast and the expression of vitamin D-related proteins (VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A21) in benign mammary lesions and ductal carcinomas in situ.

  8. [Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: accurate staging and individualized treatment].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Pengfe; Zhao, Rongrong; Cong, Binbin; Yang, Guoren; Liu, Yanbing; Chen, Peng; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Chunjian; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of routinely performed internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) on the staging and treatment, and to analyze the success rate, complications and learning curve. All patients with biopsy-proven breast cancer who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy between 2012 and 2014 were included in a prospective analysis. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) was performed in all patients with IM-SLN visualized on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and/or detected by intraoperative gamma probe detection. The adjuvant treatment plan was adjusted according to the current guidelines. In a total of 349 patients, 249 patients (71.1%) showed internal mammary drainage. IM-SLNB was performed in 153 patients with internal mammary drainage, with a success rate of IM-SLNB of 97.4% (149/153). Pleural lesion and internal mammary artery bleeding were found in 7.2% and 5.2% patients, respectively. In 8.1% of patients (12/149) the IM-SLN was tumor positive. In the group of patients who underwent IM-SLNB, lymph node staging was changed in 8.1% of patients, and IMLNs radiotherapy was guided by these results, however, systemic treatment was changed in only 0.7% of the patients. IM-SLNB has a high successful rate and good safety. Identification of internal mammary metastases through IM-SLNB may provide more accurate staging and guide the tailored internal mammary radiotherapy. ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT01642511.

  9. Male breast cancer originating in an accessory mammary gland in the axilla: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85 mm × 51 mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55 mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla.

  10. Attenuation of TGF-β signaling supports tumor progression of a mesenchymal-like mammary tumor cell line in a syngeneic murine model

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tanuka; Gu, Xiang; Yang, Junhua; Ellies, Lesley G; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that TGF-β functions as a tumor promoter in metastatic, mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells and that TGF-β inhibitors can effectively abrogate tumor progression in several of these models. Here we report a novel observation with the use of genetic and pharmacological approaches, and murine mammary cell injection models in both syngeneic and immune compromised mice. We found that TGF-β receptor II (TβRII) knockdown in the MMTV-PyMT derived Py8119, a mesenchymal-like murine mammary tumor cell line, resulted in increased orthotopic tumor growth potential in a syngeneic background and a similar trend in an immune compromised background. Systemic treatment with a small-molecule TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor induced a trend towards increased metastatic colonization of distant organs following intra cardiac inoculation of Py8119 cells, with little effect on the colonization of luminal-like Py230 cells, also derived from MMTV-PyMT tumors. Taken together, our data suggest that the attenuation of TGF-β signaling in mesenchymal-like mammary tumors does not necessarily inhibit their malignant potential, and anti-TGF-β therapeutic intervention requires greater precision in identifying molecular markers in tumors with an indication of functional TGF-β signaling. PMID:24368187

  11. High-Mannose Glycans are Elevated during Breast Cancer Progression*

    PubMed Central

    de Leoz, Maria Lorna A.; Young, Lawrence J. T.; An, Hyun Joo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Kim, Jaehan; Miyamoto, Suzanne; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Chew, Helen K.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.

    2011-01-01

    Alteration in glycosylation has been observed in cancer. However, monitoring glycosylation changes during breast cancer progression is difficult in humans. In this study, we used a well-characterized transplantable breast tumor mouse model, the mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T antigen, to observe early changes in glycosylation. We have previously used the said mouse model to look at O-linked glycosylation changes with breast cancer. In this glycan biomarker discovery study, we examined N-linked glycan variations during breast cancer progression of the mouse model but this time doubling the number of mice and blood draw points. N-glycans from total mouse serum glycoproteins were profiled using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry at the onset, progression, and removal of mammary tumors. We observed four N-linked glycans, m/z 1339.480 (Hex3HexNAc), 1485.530 (Hex3HexNAc4Fuc), 1809.639 (Hex5HexNAc4Fuc), and 1905.630 (Man9), change in intensity in the cancer group but not in the control group. In a separate study, N-glycans from total human serum glycoproteins of breast cancer patients and controls were also profiled. Analysis of human sera using an internal standard showed the alteration of the low-abundant high-mannose glycans, m/z 1419.475, 1581.528, 1743.581, 1905.634 (Man6–9), in breast cancer patients. A key observation was the elevation of a high-mannose type glycan containing nine mannoses, Man9, m/z 1905.630 in both mouse and human sera in the presence of breast cancer, suggesting an incompletion of the glycosylation process that normally trims back Man9 to produce complex and hybrid type oligosaccharides. PMID:21097542

  12. Comparison of the Adipose and Luminal Mammary Gland Compartment as Orthotopic Inoculation Sites in a 4T1-Based Immunocompetent Preclinical Model for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Steenbrugge, Jonas; Breyne, Koen; Denies, Sofie; Dekimpe, Melissa; Demeyere, Kristel; De Wever, Olivier; Vermeulen, Peter; Van Laere, Steven; Sanders, Niek N; Meyer, Evelyne

    2016-12-01

    Breast tumorigenesis is classically studied in mice by inoculating tumor cells in the fat pad, the adipose compartment of the mammary gland. Alternatively, the mammary ducts, which constitute the luminal mammary gland compartment, also provide a suitable inoculation site to induce breast cancer in murine models. The microenvironments in these compartments influence tumor cell progression, yet this effect has not been investigated in an immunocompetent context. Here, we compared both mammary gland compartments as distinct inoculation sites, taking into account the immunological aspect by inoculating 4T1 tumor cells in immunocompetent mice. Following tumor cell inoculation in the adipose compartment of non-pretreated/naive, hormonally pretreated/naive and non-pretreated/lactating mice, the primary tumors developed similarly. However, a slower onset of primary tumor growth was found after inoculations in the luminal compartment of non-pretreated/lactating mice. Despite this difference in tumor development rate, metastasis to the liver and lungs was equally observed and was accompanied by lymphatic spreading of tumor cells and progressive splenomegaly with both inoculation types. Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and lipocalin 2 (LCN2) served as innovative biomarkers for disease progression showing increased levels in primary tumors and sera of the non-pretreated/lactating inoculation groups. A slower increase in circulating CHI3L1 but not LCN2 levels, was observed after inoculations in the luminal compartment which corroborated the slower tumor development at this inoculation site. Our results highlight the critical impact of different mammary gland compartments on tumor development in syngeneic murine models and support the use of novel tumor progression biomarkers in an immune-competent environment.

  13. GPR56 Plays Varying Roles in Endogenous Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Begum, Shahinoor; Barry, Marc; Crowley, Denise; Yang, Liquan; Bronson, Roderick T.; Hynes, Richard O.

    2011-01-01

    GPR56, a non-classical adhesion receptor, was previously reported to suppress tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models using human melanoma cell lines. To understand whether GPR56 plays similar roles in the development of endogenous tumors, we analyzed cancer progression in Gpr56−/− mice using a variety of transgenic cancer models. Our results showed that GPR56 suppressed prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model on a mixed genetic background, similar to its roles in progression of melanoma xenografts. However, its roles in other cancer types appeared to be complex. It had marginal effects on tumor onset of mammary tumors in the MMTV-PyMT model, but had no effects on subsequent tumor progression in either the MMTV-PyMT mice or the melanoma model, Ink4a/Arf−/− tyr-Hras. These results indicate diverse roles of GPR56 in cancer progression and provide the first genetic evidence for the involvement of an adhesion GPCR in endogenous cancer development. PMID:20333450

  14. [Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Auberdiac, P; Cartier, L; Chargari, C; Hau Desbat, N-H; Zioueche, A; Mélis, A; Kirova, Y-M; de Laroche, G; Magné, N

    2011-04-01

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mammary renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in rats with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    del Pilar Carrera, Maria; Ramírez-Expósito, Maria Jesus; Mayas, Maria Dolores; García, Maria Jesus; Martínez-Martos, Jose Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Angiotensin II in particular and/or the local renin-angiotensin system in general could have an important role in epithelial tissue growth and modelling; therefore, it is possible that it may be involved in breast cancer. In this sense, previous works of our group showed a predominating role of angiotensin II in tumoral tissue obtained from women with breast cancer. However, although classically angiotensin II has been considered the main effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system cascade, several of its catabolism products such as angiotensin III and angiotensin IV also possess biological functions. These peptides are formed through the activity of several proteolytic regulatory enzymes of the aminopeptidase type, also called angiotensinases. The aim of this work was to analyse several specific angiotensinase activities involved in the renin-angiotensin system cascade in mammary tissue from control rats and from rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU), which may reflect the functional status of their target peptides under the specific conditions brought about by the tumoural process. The results show that soluble and membrane-bound specific aspartyl aminopeptidase activities and membrane-bound glutamyl aminopeptidase activity increased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated animals and soluble aminopeptidase N and aminopeptidase B activities significantly decreased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated rats. These changes support the existence of a local mammary renin-angiotensin system and that this system and its putative functions in breast tissue could be altered by the tumour process, in which we suggest a predominant role of angiotensin III. All described data about the renin-angiotensin system in mammary tissue support the idea that it must be involved in normal breast tissue functions, and its disruption could be involved in one or more steps of the carcinogenesis process.

  16. Mammary gland morphological and gene expression changes underlying pregnancy protection of breast cancer tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Yogi; Bentley, Pamela A.; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Tighe, Scott; Hunter, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    A full-term pregnancy early in life reduces lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and the effect can be mimicked in rodents by full-term pregnancy or short-term treatment with exogenous estrogen and progesterone. To gain insight into the protective mechanism, 15 3-mo-old postpubertal virgin Lewis rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control (C), pregnancy (P), or hormone (H). The P group animals underwent a full-term pregnancy, and H group animals were implanted subcutaneously with silastic capsules filled with ethynyl estradiol and megesterol acetate for 21 days. C and P animals were implanted with sham capsules. On day 21 capsules were removed, which was followed by a 49-day involution period, euthanasia, and mammary tissue collection. Global gene expression was measured using Rat Genome 230.2 Arrays. Histological analysis revealed that P and H treatments induced sustained morphological changes in the mammary gland with significantly increased percentages of mammary parenchyma and stromal tissues and higher ratio of stroma to parenchyma. Transcriptome analysis showed that P and H treatments induced sustained global changes in gene expression in the mammary gland. Analysis of commonly up- and downregulated genes in P and H relative to C treatment showed increased expression of three matrix metallopeptidases (Mmp3, 8, and 12), more differentiated mammary phenotype, enhanced innate and adaptive immunity, and reduced cell proliferation and angiogenic signatures. The sustained morphological and global gene expression changes in mammary tissue after pregnancy and hormone treatment may function together to provide the protective effect against breast cancer. PMID:22085904

  17. Mammary Stem Cell Based Somatic Mouse Models Reveal Breast Cancer Drivers Causing Cell Fate Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng; Christin, John R.; Wang, Chunhui; Ge, Kai; Oktay, Maja H.; Guo, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Cancer genomics have provided an unprecedented opportunity for understanding genetic causes of human cancer. However, distinguishing which mutations are functionally relevant to cancer pathogenesis remains a major challenge. We describe here a mammary stem cell (MaSC) organoid-based approach for rapid generation of somatic GEMMs (genetically engineered mouse models). By using RNAi and CRISPR-mediated genome engineering in MaSC-GEMMs, we have discovered that inactivation of Ptpn22 or Mll3, two genes mutated in human breast cancer, greatly accelerated PI3K-driven mammary tumorigenesis. Using these tumor models, we have also identified genetic alterations promoting tumor metastasis and causing resistance to PI3K-targeted therapy. Both Ptpn22 and Mll3 inactivation resulted in disruption of mammary gland differentiation and an increase in stem cell activity. Mechanistically, Mll3 deletion enhanced stem cell activity through activation of the HIF pathway. Thus, our study established a robust in vivo platform for functional cancer genomics and discovered functional breast cancer mutations. PMID:27653681

  18. Volatile Organic Metabolites Identify Patients with Breast Cancer, Cyclomastopathy, and Mammary Gland Fibroma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changsong; Sun, Bo; Guo, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Luo, Suqi; Guo, Zhigang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

    2014-01-01

    The association between cancer and volatile organic metabolites in exhaled breaths has attracted increasing attention from researchers. The present study reports on a systematic study of gas profiles of metabolites in human exhaled breath by pattern recognition methods. Exhaled breath was collected from 85 patients with histologically confirmed breast disease (including 39 individuals with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 25 individuals with cyclomastopathy and from 21 individuals with mammary gland fibroma) and 45 healthy volunteers. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to process the final data. The volatile organic metabolites exhibited significant differences between breast cancer and normal controls, breast cancer and cyclomastopathy, and breast cancer and mammary gland fibroma; 21, 6, and 8 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively (P < 0.05). Three volatile organic metabolites in the exhaled air, 2,5,6-trimethyloctane, 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-butanediol, and cyclohexanone, distinguished breast cancer patients from healthy individuals, mammary gland fibroma patients, and patients with cyclomastopathy (P < 0.05). The identified three volatile organic metabolites associated with breast cancer may serve as novel diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:24947160

  19. MicroRNA-regulated gene networks during mammary cell differentiation are associated with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aydoğdu, Eylem; Katchy, Anne; Tsouko, Efrosini; Lin, Chin-Yo; Haldosén, Lars-Arne; Helguero, Luisa; Williams, Cecilia

    2012-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in stem cell biology, differentiation and oncogenesis and are of high interest as potential breast cancer therapeutics. However, their expression and function during normal mammary differentiation and in breast cancer remain to be elucidated. In order to identify which miRNAs are involved in mammary differentiation, we thoroughly investigated miRNA expression during functional differentiation of undifferentiated, stem cell-like, murine mammary cells using two different large-scale approaches followed by qPCR. Significant changes in expression of 21 miRNAs were observed in repeated rounds of mammary cell differentiation. The majority, including the miR-200 family and known tumor suppressor miRNAs, was upregulated during differentiation. Only four miRNAs, including oncomiR miR-17, were downregulated. Pathway analysis indicated complex interactions between regulated miRNA clusters and major pathways involved in differentiation, proliferation and stem cell maintenance. Comparisons with human breast cancer tumors showed the gene profile from the undifferentiated, stem-like stage clustered with that of poor-prognosis breast cancer. A common nominator in these groups was the E2F pathway, which was overrepresented among genes targeted by the differentiation-induced miRNAs. A subset of miRNAs could further discriminate between human non-cancer and breast cancer cell lines, and miR-200a/miR-200b, miR-146b and miR-148a were specifically downregulated in triple-negative breast cancer cells. We show that miR-200a/miR-200b can inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-characteristic morphological changes in undifferentiated, non-tumorigenic mammary cells. Our studies propose EphA2 as a novel and important target gene for miR-200a. In conclusion, we present evidentiary data on how miRNAs are involved in mammary cell differentiation and indicate their related roles in breast cancer.

  20. Sesamin synergistically potentiates the anticancer effects of γ-tocotrienol in mammary cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Akl, Mohamed R; Ayoub, Nehad M; Abuasal, Bilal S; Kaddoumi, Amal; Sylvester, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    γ-Tocotrienol and sesamin are phytochemicals that display potent anticancer activity. Since sesamin inhibits the metabolic degradation of tocotrienols, studies were conducted to determine if combined treatment with sesamin potentiates the antiproliferative effects of γ-tocotrienol on neoplastic mouse (+SA) and human (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) mammary cancer cells. Results showed that treatment with γ-tocotrienol or sesamin alone induced a significant dose-responsive growth inhibition, whereas combination treatment with these agents synergistically inhibited the growth of +SA, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 mammary cancer cells, while similar treatment doses were found to have little or no effect on normal (mouse CL-S1 and human MCF-10A) mammary epithelial cell growth or viability. However, sesamin synergistic enhancement of γ-tocotrienol-induced anticancer effects was not found to be mediated from a reduction in γ-tocotrienol metabolism. Rather, combined treatment with subeffective doses of γ-tocotrienol and sesamin was found to induce G1 cell cycle arrest, and a corresponding decrease in cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, phospho-Rb, and E2F1 levels, and increase in p27 and p16 levels. Additional studies showed that the antiproliferative effect of combination treatment did not initiate apoptosis or result in a decrease in mammary cancer cell viability. Taken together, these findings indicate that the synergistic antiproliferative action of combined γ-tocotrienol and sesamin treatment in mouse and human mammary cancer cells is cytostatic, not cytotoxic, and results from G1 cell cycle arrest.

  1. CCL2-driven inflammation increases mammary gland stromal density and cancer susceptibility in a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Glynn, Danielle J; Hodson, Leigh J; Huo, Cecilia; Britt, Kara; Thompson, Erik W; Woolford, Lucy; Evdokiou, Andreas; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Robertson, Sarah A; Ingman, Wendy V

    2017-01-11

    Macrophages play diverse roles in mammary gland development and breast cancer. CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) is an inflammatory cytokine that recruits macrophages to sites of injury. Although CCL2 has been detected in human and mouse mammary epithelium, its role in regulating mammary gland development and cancer risk has not been explored. Transgenic mice were generated wherein CCL2 is driven by the mammary epithelial cell-specific mouse mammary tumour virus 206 (MMTV) promoter. Estrous cycles were tracked in adult transgenic and non-transgenic FVB mice, and mammary glands collected at the four different stages of the cycle. Dissected mammary glands were assessed for cyclical morphological changes, proliferation and apoptosis of epithelium, macrophage abundance and collagen deposition, and mRNA encoding matrix remodelling enzymes. Another cohort of control and transgenic mice received carcinogen 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and tumour development was monitored weekly. CCL2 protein was also quantified in paired samples of human breast tissue with high and low mammographic density. Overexpression of CCL2 in the mammary epithelium resulted in an increased number of macrophages, increased density of stroma and collagen and elevated mRNA encoding matrix remodelling enzymes lysyl oxidase (LOX) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)3 compared to non-transgenic controls. Transgenic mice also exhibited increased susceptibility to development of DMBA-induced mammary tumours. In a paired sample cohort of human breast tissue, abundance of epithelial-cell-associated CCL2 was higher in breast tissue of high mammographic density compared to tissue of low mammographic density. Constitutive expression of CCL2 by the mouse mammary epithelium induces a state of low level chronic inflammation that increases stromal density and elevates cancer risk. We propose that CCL2-driven inflammation contributes to the increased risk of breast cancer observed in women

  2. Human breast cancer cells are redirected to mammary epithelial cells upon interaction with the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Bussard, Karen M; Smith, Gilbert H

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display 'normal' behavior when placed into 'normal' ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for 'normal' gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts) confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini) were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic) respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo.

  3. Human Breast Cancer Cells Are Redirected to Mammary Epithelial Cells upon Interaction with the Regenerating Mammary Gland Microenvironment In-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bussard, Karen M.; Smith, Gilbert H.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. At present, the etiology of breast cancer is unknown; however the possibility of a distinct cell of origin, i.e. a cancer stem cell, is a heavily investigated area of research. Influencing signals from the tissue niche are known to affect stem cells. Literature has shown that cancer cells lose their tumorigenic potential and display ‘normal’ behavior when placed into ‘normal’ ontogenic environments. Therefore, it may be the case that the tissue microenvironment is able to generate signals to redirect cancer cell fate. Previously, we showed that pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells could be redirected by the regenerating mammary gland microenvironment to contribute epithelial progeny for ‘normal’ gland development in-vivo. Here, we show that that human metastatic, non-metastatic, and metastasis-suppressed breast cancer cells proliferate and contribute to normal mammary gland development in-vivo without tumor formation. Immunochemistry for human-specific mitochondria, keratin 8 and 14, as well as human-specific milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, impregnated transplant hosts) confirmed the presence of human cell progeny. Features consistent with normal mammary gland development as seen in intact hosts (duct, lumen formation, development of secretory acini) were recapitulated in both primary and secondary outgrowths from chimeric implants. These results suggest the dominance of the tissue microenvironment over cancer cell fate. This work demonstrates that cultured human breast cancer cells (metastatic and non-metastatic) respond developmentally to signals generated by the mouse mammary gland microenvironment during gland regeneration in-vivo. PMID:23155468

  4. microRNAs and EMT in mammary cells and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wright, Josephine A; Richer, Jennifer K; Goodall, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs are master regulators of gene expression in many biological and pathological processes, including mammary gland development and breast cancer. The differentiation program termed the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) involves changes in a number of microRNAs. Some of these microRNAs have been shown to control cellular plasticity through the suppression of EMT-inducers or to influence cellular phenotype through the suppression of genes involved in defining the epithelial and mesenchymal cell states. This has led to the suggestion that microRNAs maybe a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss microRNAs that are involved in EMT in mammary cells and breast cancer.

  5. Mammary Gland Involution Provides a Unique Model to Study the TGF-β Cancer Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiuchen; Betts, Courtney; Pennock, Nathan; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Schedin, Pepper

    2017-01-01

    Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer has been termed the “TGF-β paradox”, acting as both a tumor suppresser and promoter. The complexity of TGF-β signaling within the tumor is context dependent, and greatly impacted by cellular crosstalk between TGF-β responsive cells in the microenvironment including adjacent epithelial, endothelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cells. Here we utilize normal, weaning-induced mammary gland involution as a tissue microenvironment model to study the complexity of TGF-β function. This article reviews facets of mammary gland involution that are TGF-β regulated, namely mammary epithelial cell death, immune activation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. We outline how distinct cellular responses and crosstalk between cell types during physiologically normal mammary gland involution contribute to simultaneous tumor suppressive and promotional microenvironments. We also highlight alternatives to direct TGF-β blocking anti-cancer therapies with an emphasis on eliciting concerted microenvironmental-mediated tumor suppression. PMID:28098775

  6. Adipocyte-derived collagen VI affects early mammary tumor progression in vivo, demonstrating a critical interaction in the tumor/stroma microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Puneeth; Espina, Virginia; Williams, Terence W.; Lin, Ying; Berry, David; Jelicks, Linda A.; Lee, Hyangkyu; Temple, Karla; Graves, Reed; Pollard, Jeffrey; Chopra, Neeru; Russell, Robert G.; Sasisekharan, Ram; Trock, Bruce J.; Lippman, Marc; Calvert, Valerie S.; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Bonaldo, Paolo; Scherer, Philipp E.

    2005-01-01

    The interactions of transformed cells with the surrounding stromal cells are of importance for tumor progression and metastasis. The relevance of adipocyte-derived factors to breast cancer cell survival and growth is well established. However, it remains unknown which specific adipocyte-derived factors are most critical in this process. Collagen VI is abundantly expressed in adipocytes. Collagen–/– mice in the background of the mouse mammary tumor virus/polyoma virus middle T oncogene (MMTV-PyMT) mammary cancer model demonstrate dramatically reduced rates of early hyperplasia and primary tumor growth. Collagen VI promotes its growth-stimulatory and pro-survival effects in part by signaling through the NG2/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan receptor expressed on the surface of malignant ductal epithelial cells to sequentially activate Akt and β-catenin and stabilize cyclin D1. Levels of the carboxyterminal domain of collagen VIα3, a proteolytic product of the full-length molecule, are dramatically upregulated in murine and human breast cancer lesions. The same fragment exerts potent growth-stimulatory effects on MCF-7 cells in vitro. Therefore, adipocytes play a vital role in defining the ECM environment for normal and tumor-derived ductal epithelial cells and contribute significantly to tumor growth at early stages through secretion and processing of collagen VI. PMID:15841211

  7. Predictive parameters for internal mammary node drainage in patients with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lukesova, Lucie; Vrana, David; Gatek, Jiri; Koranda, Pavel; Cwiertka, Karel; Radova, Lenka; Melichar, Bohuslav; Prouzova, Zuzana; Sramek, Vlastislav; Svach, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer treatment currently represents one of the biggest challenges in clinical oncology. The gold standard for axillary lymph node management is to perform sentinel node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection and its sequelae. The detection of radiocolloid flow outside the axillary nodes is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A database search at the Department of Oncology of Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, identified 127 patients who underwent breast cancer resection with a sentinel node procedure and had radiocolloid flow into the internal mammary nodes. Sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy was performed after intraparenchymal injection. Clinical and pathological data were collected to identify possible risk factors. Ten clinical and pathological parameters including age, tumor histology, axillary lymph node status, estrogen receptor expression, progesterone receptor expression, tumor grade, Ki-67 expression, Her-2 status, tumor size and tumor location were analyzed with regard to internal mammary node drainage. A cohort of 127 patients with detected drainage into the internal mammary nodes was compared with 135 patients without such drainage. Six significant risk factors, including age <50 years ( P <0.0313), tumor location in central and inner quadrants (P <0.012), larger tumor size (P <0.017), positive Her-2 status (P <0.025), progesterone receptor expression (P <10-4) and axillary lymph node involvement (P <0.01) were found to predict radiocolloid flow into the internal mammary nodes. Six parameters (patient age, tumor location, hormone receptor status, tumor size, Her-2 status and axillary lymph node status) should be considered in the management of breast cancer patients and help in the selection of patients for locoregional procedures encompassing the internal mammary nodes.

  8. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    satellites ” resulted in reversion of the cells to an epithelial state, re-entry into the cell cycle, and restoration of their ability to generate both...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0107 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer...W81XWH-12-1-0107 Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

  9. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cowen, Sarah; McLaughlin, Sarah L.; Hobbs, Gerald; Coad, James; Martin, Karen H.; Olfert, I. Mark; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer. PMID:26132316

  10. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Sarah; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Hobbs, Gerald; Coad, James; Martin, Karen H; Olfert, I Mark; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-06-26

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer.

  11. ErbB/EGF signaling and EMT in mammary development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Katharine M; Booth, Brian W; Hendrix, Mary J C; Salomon, David S; Strizzi, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    Activation of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases via cognate Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-like peptide ligands constitutes a major group of related signaling pathways that control proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. In this respect, clinical trials with various ErbB receptor blocking antibodies and specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have proven to be partially efficacious in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease. Induction of an embryonic program of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer, whereupon epithelial tumor cells convert to a more mesenchymal-like phenotype, facilitates the migration, intravasation, and extravasation of tumor cells during metastasis. Breast cancers which exhibit properties of EMT are highly aggressive and resistant to therapy. Activation of ErbB signaling can regulate EMT-associated invasion and migration in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells, as well as modulating discrete stages of mammary gland development. The purpose of this review is to summarize current information regarding the role of ErbB signaling in aspects of EMT that influence epithelial cell plasticity during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. How this information may contribute to the improvement of therapeutic approaches in breast cancer will also be addressed.

  12. ErbB/EGF Signaling and EMT in Mammary Development and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Katharine M.; Booth, Brian W.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Salomon, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases via cognate Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-like peptide ligands constitutes a major group of related signaling pathways that control proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. In this respect, clinical trials with various ErbB receptor blocking antibodies and specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have proven to be partially efficacious in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease. Induction of an embryonic program of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer, whereupon epithelial tumor cells convert to a more mesenchymal-like phenotype, facilitates the migration, intravasation, and extravasation of tumor cells during metastasis. Breast cancers which exhibit properties of EMT are highly aggressive and resistant to therapy. Activation of ErbB signaling can regulate EMT-associated invasion and migration in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells, as well as modulating discrete stages of mammary gland development. The purpose of this review is to summarize current information regarding the role of ErbB signaling in aspects of EMT that influence epithelial cell plasticity during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. How this information may contribute to the improvement of therapeutic approaches in breast cancer will also be addressed. PMID:20369376

  13. A hypoxic signature marks tumors formed by disseminated tumor cells in the BALB-neuT mammary cancer model.

    PubMed

    Msaki, Aichi; Pastò, Anna; Curtarello, Matteo; Arigoni, Maddalena; Barutello, Giuseppina; Calogero, Raffaele Adolfo; Macagno, Marco; Cavallo, Federica; Amadori, Alberto; Indraccolo, Stefano

    2016-05-31

    Metastasis is the final stage of cancer progression. Some evidence indicates that tumor cell dissemination occurs early in the natural history of cancer progression. Disseminated tumor cells (DTC) have been described in the bone marrow (BM) of cancer patients as well as in experimental models, where they correlate with later development of metastasis. However, little is known about the tumorigenic features of DTC obtained at different time points along tumor progression. Here, we found that early DTC isolated from BM of 15-17 week-old Her2/neu transgenic (BALB-neuT) mice were not tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. In contrast, DTC-derived tumors were easily detectable when late DTC obtained from 19-22 week-old BALB-neuT mice were injected. Angiogenesis, which contributes to regulate tumor dormancy, appeared dispensable to reactivate late DTC, although it accelerated growth of secondary DTC tumors. Compared with parental mammary tumors, gene expression profiling disclosed a distinctive transcriptional signature of late DTC tumors which was enriched for hypoxia-related transcripts and was maintained in ex-vivo cell culture. Altogether, these findings highlight a different tumorigenic potential of early and late DTC in the BALB-neuT model and describe a HIF-1α-related transcriptional signature in DTC tumors, which may render DTC angiogenesis-competent, when placed in a favourable environment.

  14. A hypoxic signature marks tumors formed by disseminated tumor cells in the BALB-neuT mammary cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Msaki, Aichi; Pastò, Anna; Curtarello, Matteo; Arigoni, Maddalena; Barutello, Giuseppina; Calogero, Raffaele Adolfo; Macagno, Marco; Cavallo, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the final stage of cancer progression. Some evidence indicates that tumor cell dissemination occurs early in the natural history of cancer progression. Disseminated tumor cells (DTC) have been described in the bone marrow (BM) of cancer patients as well as in experimental models, where they correlate with later development of metastasis. However, little is known about the tumorigenic features of DTC obtained at different time points along tumor progression. Here, we found that early DTC isolated from BM of 15-17 week-old Her2/neu transgenic (BALB-neuT) mice were not tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. In contrast, DTC-derived tumors were easily detectable when late DTC obtained from 19-22 week-old BALB-neuT mice were injected. Angiogenesis, which contributes to regulate tumor dormancy, appeared dispensable to reactivate late DTC, although it accelerated growth of secondary DTC tumors. Compared with parental mammary tumors, gene expression profiling disclosed a distinctive transcriptional signature of late DTC tumors which was enriched for hypoxia-related transcripts and was maintained in ex-vivo cell culture. Altogether, these findings highlight a different tumorigenic potential of early and late DTC in the BALB-neuT model and describe a HIF-1α-related transcriptional signature in DTC tumors, which may render DTC angiogenesis-competent, when placed in a favourable environment. PMID:27105499

  15. Developmental signaling pathways regulating mammary stem cells and contributing to the etiology of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Maria Cristina; Bertolette, Daniel; Castro, Nadia P; Klauzinska, Malgorzata; Cuttitta, Frank; Salomon, David S

    2016-04-01

    Cancer has been considered as temporal and spatial aberrations of normal development in tissues. Similarities between mammary embryonic development and cell transformation suggest that the underlying processes required for mammary gland development are also those perturbed during various stages of mammary tumorigenesis and breast cancer (BC) development. The master regulators of embryonic development Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin play key roles in modulating mammary gland morphogenesis and cell fate specification in the embryo through fetal mammary stem cells (fMaSC) and in the adult organism particularly within the adult mammary stem cells (aMaSC), which determine mammary progenitor cell lineages that generate the basal/myoepithelial and luminal compartments of the adult mammary gland. Together with recognized transcription factors and embryonic stem cell markers, these embryonic regulatory molecules can be inappropriately augmented during tumorigenesis to support the tumor-initiating cell (TIC)/cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment, and the effects of their deregulation may contribute for the etiology of BC, in particular the most aggressive subtype of BC, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This in depth review will present evidence of the involvement of Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin in the normal mammary gland morphogenesis and tumorigenesis, from fMaSC/aMaSC regulation to TIC generation and maintenance in TNBC. Specific therapies for treating TNBC by targeting these embryonic pathways in TICs will be further discussed, providing new opportunities to destroy not only the bulk tumor, but also TICs that initiate and promote the metastatic spread and recurrence of this aggressive subtype of BC.

  16. PKCδ Inhibition Impairs Mammary Cancer Proliferative Capacity But Selects Cancer Stem Cells, Involving Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Damián E; Flumian, Carolina; Rodriguez, Cristina E; Bessone, María I Díaz; Cirigliano, Stefano M; Joffé, Elisa D Bal de Kier; Fiszman, Gabriel L; Urtreger, Alejandro J; Todaro, Laura B

    2016-03-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate diverse cellular functions including cell death, proliferation, and survival. Recent studies have reported that PKCδ, are involved in apoptosis or autophagy induction. In the present study we focused on how PKCδ regulates proliferation and cancer stem cell (CSC) properties of the hormone-independent mammary cancer cell line LM38-LP, using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We found that pharmacological inhibition of PKCδ, by Rottlerin treatment, impairs in vitro LM38-LP proliferation through cell cycle arrest, inducing the formation of cytoplasmic-vacuoles. Using immunofluorescence we confirmed that Rottlerin treatment induced the apparition of LC3 dots in cell cytoplasm, and increased autophagy flux. On the other side, the same treatment increased CSC growth rate and self-renewal. Furthermore, Rottlerin pre-treatment induced in CSC the development of a "grape-like" morphology when they are growing in 3D cultures (Matrigel), usually associated with a malignant phenotype, as well as an increase in the number of experimental lung metastasis when these cells were inoculated in vivo. The PKCδ knockdown, by RNA interference, induced autophagy and increased CSC number, indicating that these effects are indeed exerted through a PKCδ dependent pathway. Finally, the increase in the number of mammospheres could be reversed by a 3MA treatment, suggesting that autophagy mechanism is necessary for the increased of CSC self-renewal induced by PKCδ inhibition. Here we demonstrated that PKCδ activity exerts a dual role through the autophagy mechanism, decreasing proliferative capacity of mammary tumor cells but also regulating tumor stem cell self-renewal. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiming; Modiano, Jaime F; Ito, Daisuke

    2017-03-30

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1(-) and SSEA-1(+) cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines.

  18. Transcriptional Regulation of p21/CIP1 Cell Cycle Inhibitor by PDEF Controls Cell Proliferation and Mammary Tumor Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Jeremy S.; Sabherwal, Yamini; Shi, Heidi Y.; Sriraman, Venkataraman; Richards, JoAnne; Minella, Alex; Turner, David P.; Watson, Dennis K.; Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Ets family of transcription factors control a myriad of cellular processes and contribute to the underlying genetic loss of cellular homeostasis resulting in cancer. PDEF (prostate-derived Ets factor) has been under investigation for its role in tumor development and progression. However, the role of PDEF in cancer development has been controversial. Some reports link PDEF to tumor promoter, and others show tumor-suppressing functions in various systems under different conditions. So far, there has been no conclusive evidence from in vivo experiments to prove the role of PDEF. We have used both in vitro and in vivo systems to provide a conclusive role of PDEF in the progression process. PDEF-expressing cells block the cell growth rate, and this retardation was reversible when PDEF expression was silenced with PDEF-specific small interfering RNA. When these PDEF-expressing cells were orthotopically implanted into the mouse mammary gland, tumor incidence and growth rate were significantly retarded. Cell cycle analysis revealed that PDEF expression partially blocked cell cycle progression at G1/S without an effect on apoptosis. PDEF overexpression resulted in an increase in p21/CIP1 at both the mRNA and protein levels, resulting in decreased Cdk2 activity. Promoter deletion analysis, electrophoresis mobility shift assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies identified the functional Ets DNA binding site at −2118 bp of the p21/CIP1 gene promoter. This site is capable of binding and responding to PDEF. Furthermore, we silenced p21/CIP1 expression in PDEF-overexpressing cells by small interfering RNA. p21-silenced PDEF cells exhibited significantly increased cell growth in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating the p21 regulation by PDEF as a key player. These experiments identified PDEF as a new transcription factor that directly regulates p21/CIP1 expression under non-stressed conditions. This study conclusively proves that PDEF is a breast tumor suppressor for

  19. Roles of the transcription factors snail and slug during mammary morphogenesis and breast carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Côme, Christophe; Arnoux, Valérie; Bibeau, Frédéric; Savagner, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The zinc-finger transcription factors snail and slug are involved in different processes controlling cell differentiation and apoptosis. They appear to be involved in tumor progression. Their putative involvement in mammary gland development has not been specifically examined so far. Slug is expressed at a significant level in normal breast and indirect evidence suggests it could be implicated in tubulogenesis. As an anti-apoptotic agent, it could also protect epithelial cells from death during ductal lumen formation and during breast involution. In breast carcinomas, Snail transcription factors have been linked to tumor progression and invasiveness. Possible mechanisms include repression of E-cadherin gene by snail or slug. However, it is not clear how this transcriptional activity is implicated in vivo. Other possible mechanisms involve maintenance of plastic phenotype by slug that could participate in local invasion of ductal carcinomas and interference with apoptotic pathways that could contribute to global tumor growth and radioresistance. These processes probably also involve interactions with estrogen, EGF or c-kit pathways. PMID:15300012

  20. Proteins from the Wnt pathway are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of mammary phyllodes tumours.

    PubMed

    Karim, R Z; Gerega, S K; Yang, Y H; Horvath, L; Spillane, A; Carmalt, H; Scolyer, R A; Lee, C S

    2009-11-01

    The Wnt pathway is important in cell signalling transduction and is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple tumour types. A comprehensive analysis of the expression of Wnt signalling pathway proteins in mammary phyllodes tumours (PTs) has not been previously performed. To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Wnt pathway proteins in a cohort of PTs, to determine their role in tumour pathogenesis and to identify any associations with patient outcome. 65 PTs (34 benign, 23 borderline and 8 malignant) diagnosed at a single institution between 1990 and 2006 were analysed. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on tissue microarrays for beta-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt5a, SFRP4 and E-cadherin. Stroma and epithelium were scored separately. Stromal cytoplasmic Wnt5a and SFRP4 expression showed significant progressive increases in expression with increasing grade (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02 respectively). Epithelial membranous and stromal nuclear beta-catenin, epithelial cytoplasmic Wnt1 and epithelial E-cadherin all also showed increasing expression with increasing tumour grade, however, the differences were not significant. Disease-free survival was significantly decreased (p = 0.0017) with positive epithelial E-cadherin staining. Results suggest that alterations in the Wnt pathway are important in the progression and in the epithelial and stromal interactions in PTs. They have important implications for understanding the pathogenesis of these uncommon but clinically important tumours.

  1. STAT5A Regulates the Survival of Mammary Epithelial Cells and the Development of Mammary Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    1997; Ciardiello signal from EGFR to its intracellular signaling et al., 1996; Ciardiello and Tortora , 1998), anti- molecules is critical in...Endocrinology, 126, 596-607. 1817. Bianco C, Tortora G, Baldassarre G, Caputo R, Fontanini Gillett C, Smith P, Gregory W, Richards M, Millis R, Peters...10582. De Placido S, Fan Z, Mendelsohn J, Bianco AR and Halter SA, Dempsey P, Matsui Y, Stokes MK, Graves-Deal Tortora G. (1999). Clin. Cancer Res

  2. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Barros, Rita; Gomes, Catarina; de Matos, Augusto J; Reis, Celso A; Rutteman, Gerard R; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness.

  3. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Rita; Gomes, Catarina; de Matos, Augusto J.; Reis, Celso A.; Rutteman, Gerard R.; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness. PMID:26222311

  4. Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Ryan R; La Merrill, Michele; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter; Threadgill, David W; Pomp, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showed that mice fed a high-fat diet have shorter mammary cancer latency, increased tumor growth and more pulmonary metastases than mice fed a standard diet. Subsequent genetic analysis identified several modifiers of metastatic mammary cancer along with widespread interactions between cancer modifiers and dietary fat. To elucidate diet-dependent genetic modifiers of mammary cancer and metastasis risk, global gene expression profiles and copy number alterations from mammary cancers were measured and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) identified. Functional candidate genes that colocalized with previously detected metastasis modifiers were identified. Additional analyses, such as eQTL by dietary fat interaction analysis, causality and database evaluations, helped to further refine the candidate loci to produce an enriched list of genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of metastatic mammary cancer. PMID:20354763

  5. The ADAM17-amphiregulin-EGFR axis in mammary development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sternlicht, Mark D; Sunnarborg, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    In order to fulfill its function of producing and delivering sufficient milk to newborn mammalian offspring, the mammary gland first has to form an extensive ductal network. As in all phases of mammary development, hormonal cues elicit local intra- and inter-cellular signaling cascades that regulate ductal growth and differentiation. Among other things, ductal development requires the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), its ligand amphiregulin (AREG), and the transmembrane metalloproteinase ADAM17, which can cleave and release AREG from the cell surface so that it may interact with its receptor. Tissue recombination and transplantation studies demonstrate that EGFR phosphorylation and ductal development proceed only when ADAM17 and AREG are expressed on mammary epithelial cells and EGFR is present on stromal cells, and that local administration of soluble AREG can rescue the development of ADAM17-deficient transplants. Thus proper mammary morphogenesis requires the ADAM17-mediated release of AREG from ductal epithelial cells, the subsequent activation of EGFR on stromal cells, and EGFR-dependent stromal responses that in return elicit a new set of epithelial responses, all culminating in the formation of a fully functional ductal tree. This, however, raises new issues concerning what may act upstream, downstream or in parallel with the ADAM17-AREG-EGFR axis, how it may become hijacked or corrupted during the onset and evolution of cancer, and how such ill effects may be confronted.

  6. The myoepithelial cell: its role in normal mammary glands and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sopel, M

    2010-02-01

    Mammary gland epithelium is composed of an inner layer of secretory cells (luminal) and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells (MEC) bordering the basal lamina which separates the epithelial layer from the extracellular matrix. Mature MECs morphologically resemble smooth muscle cells; however, they exhibit features typical for epithelial cells, such as the presence of specific cytokeratin filaments. During lactation, secretory cells synthesize milk components, which are collected in alveoli and duct lumen, and transported to the nipple as a result of MEC contraction. Although the induction of MEC contraction results from oxytocin action, also other, still unknown auto/paracrine mechanisms participate in the regulation of this process. As well as milk ejection, MECs are involved in mammary gland morphogenesis in all developmental stages, modulating proliferation and differentiation of luminal cells. They take part in the formation of extracellular matrix, synthesizing its components and secreting proteinases and their inhibitors. In addition, MECs are regarded as natural cancer suppressors, stabilizing the normal structure of the mammary gland, they secrete suppressor proteins (e.g. maspin) limiting cancer growth, invasiveness, and neoangiogenesis. The majority of malignant breast cancers are derived from luminal cells, whereas neoplasms of MEC origin are the most seldom and usually benign form of breast tumours. MECs are markedly resistant to malignant transformation and they are able to suppress the transformation of neighboring luminal cells. Therefore, a deeper insight into the role of MECs in the physiology and pathology of mammary glands would allow a better understanding of cancerogenesis mechanisms and possible application of specific MEC markers in the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer.

  7. Antiproliferative effect of berberine on canine mammary gland cancer cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sefidabi, Reyhaneh; Mortazavi, Pejman; Hosseini, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Canine mammary gland tumors are the most frequent cause of cancer in female dogs. Numerous studies using cancer cell lines and clinical trials have indicated that various natural products and antioxidants reduce or possibly prevent the development of cancer. Berberine (BBR), the most important alkaloid in the Berberidaceae, which exerts a wide range of pharmacological and biochemical effects, has drawn much attention due to its particularly high antitumor activity in vitro and in animal studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antiproliferative effect of BBR against a canine mammary gland carcinoma cell line (CF41.Mg) in vitro. CF41.Mg cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% heat inactived fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 100 mg/ml peniciline-streptomycin. Subsequently the cells were treated with different concentrations of BBR chloride (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) at a density of 12,000 cells/well in 96-well plates. Following treatment, the MTT assay was used to detect cell viability after 24-, 48- and 72-h incubations at 37°C with 5% CO2. The results indicated that BBR inhibited proliferation of canine mammary gland carcinoma cells, as treatment with 100 µM BBR for 24 h resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability (P<0.005). As the present study demonstrated that BBR (10-200 µM) induced cancer cell death, it is proposed that BBR may serve as a candidate agent against canine mammary tumor cells via its antiproliferative activity.

  8. Met Receptor Acts Uniquely for Survival and Morphogenesis of EGFR-Dependent Normal Mammary Epithelial and Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, Francesca; Quaglino, Elena; Martignani, Eugenio; Baratta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Mammary gland development and breast cancer growth require multiple factors both of endocrine and paracrine origin. We analyzed the roles of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (Met) in mammary epithelial cells and mammary tumor cells derived from a mutated-ErbB2 transgenic mice. By using highly specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors we found that MCF-10A and NMuMG mammary epithelial cell lines are totally dependent on EGFR activation for their growth and survival. Proliferation and 3D-morphogenesis assays showed that HGF had no role in maintaining mammary cell viability, but was the only cytokine able to rescue EGFR-inhibited mammary cells. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), basic-Fibroblast Growth Factor (b-FGF) and Neuregulin, which are well known mammary morphogenic factors, did not rescue proliferation or morphogenesis in these cell lines, following EGFR inhibition. Similarly, ErbB2-driven tumor cells are EGFR-dependent and also display HGF-mediated rescue. Western-blot analysis of the signaling pathways involved in rescue after EGFR inhibition indicated that concomitant ERK1/2 and AKT activation was exclusively driven by Met, but not by IGF-I or b-FGF. These results describe a unique role for EGFR and Met in mammary epithelial cells by showing that similar pathways can be used by tumorigenic cells to sustain growth and resist to EGFR-directed anti-tumorigenic drugs. PMID:23028720

  9. Connected Health and Progress against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog post about a new report from President’s Cancer Panel outlining how connective technologies can promote cancer prevention, enhance patients’ treatment experience, and accelerate progress in cancer research.

  10. A temporal requirement for Hippo signaling in mammary gland differentiation, growth, and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Zhang, Nailing; Gray, Ryan S.; Li, Huili; Ewald, Andrew J.; Zahnow, Cynthia A.; Pan, Duojia

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the physiological role of Hippo signaling in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. Here we show that the Hippo pathway is functionally dispensable in virgin mammary glands but specifically required during pregnancy. In contrast to many other tissues, hyperactivation of YAP in mammary epithelia does not induce hyperplasia but leads to defects in terminal differentiation. Interestingly, loss of YAP causes no obvious defects in virgin mammary glands but potently suppresses oncogene-induced mammary tumors. The selective requirement for YAP in oncogenic growth highlights the potential of YAP inhibitors as molecular targeted therapies against breast cancers. PMID:24589775

  11. Significant overlap between human genome-wide association-study nominated breast cancer risk alleles and rat mammary cancer susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jennifer; Samuelson, David J

    2014-01-27

    Human population-based genome-wide association (GWA) studies identify low penetrance breast cancer risk alleles; however, GWA studies alone do not definitively determine causative genes or mechanisms. Stringent genome- wide statistical significance level requirements, set to avoid false-positive associations, yield many false-negative associations. Laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) are useful to study many aspects of breast cancer, including genetic susceptibility. Several rat mammary cancer associated loci have been identified using genetic linkage and congenic strain based-approaches. Here, we sought to determine the amount of overlap between GWA study nominated human breast and rat mammary cancer susceptibility loci. We queried published GWA studies to identify two groups of SNPs, one that reached genome-wide significance and one comprised of SNPs failing a validation step and not reaching genome- wide significance. Human genome locations of these SNPs were compared to known rat mammary carcinoma susceptibility loci to determine if risk alleles existed in both species. Rat genome regions not known to associate with mammary cancer risk were randomly selected as control regions. Significantly more human breast cancer risk GWA study nominated SNPs mapped at orthologs of rat mammary cancer loci than to regions not known to contain rat mammary cancer loci. The rat genome was useful to predict associations that had met human genome-wide significance criteria and weaker associations that had not. Integration of human and rat comparative genomics may be useful to parse out false-negative associations in GWA studies of breast cancer risk.

  12. Mammary gland involution as an immunotherapeutic target for postpartum breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fornetti, Jaime; Martinson, Holly A; Betts, Courtney B; Lyons, Traci R; Jindal, Sonali; Guo, Qiuchen; Coussens, Lisa M; Borges, Virginia F; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-07-01

    Postpartum mammary gland involution has been identified as tumor-promotional and is proposed to contribute to the increased rates of metastasis and poor survival observed in postpartum breast cancer patients. In rodent models, the involuting mammary gland microenvironment is sufficient to induce enhanced tumor cell growth, local invasion, and metastasis. Postpartum involution shares many attributes with wound healing, including upregulation of genes involved in immune responsiveness and infiltration of tissue by immune cells. In rodent models, treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ameliorates the tumor-promotional effects of involution, consistent with the immune milieu of the involuting gland contributing to tumor promotion. Currently, immunotherapy is being investigated as a means of breast cancer treatment with the purpose of identifying ways to enhance anti-tumor immune responses. Here we review evidence for postpartum mammary gland involution being a uniquely defined 'hot-spot' of pro-tumorigenic immune cell infiltration, and propose that immunotherapy should be explored for prevention and treatment of breast cancers that arise in this environment.

  13. Role of melatonin and luzindole in rat mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Umit, Ugurlu M; Berna, Terzioglu; Handan, Kaya; Ipek, Erbarut; Berrak, Yegen; Can, Erzik; Bahadir, Gulluoglu M

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have analyzed the efficacy of various agents in experimental chemoprevention trials. In our study, the effects of melatonin (Mel) and its antagonist Luzindole (Luz) on Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a NMU (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea)-induced rat mammary carcinoma model are investigated. We aim to demonstrate the relationship between Mel and HO-1. Spraque-Dawley rats were treated with NMU at age 55 days to induce mammary carcinoma. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups consisting of: (a) physiological saline group (PSG); (b) control group, NMU is given; (c) Mel group (500 μg daily); (d) Mel antagonist Luz group (0.25 mg/kg/day i.p.). The animals were sacrificed; their serum and tissues were sampled for histopathologic evaluation, markers of endocrine derangement (serum prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone levels), apoptotic changes, DNA fragmentation, markers of oxidative stress and HO-1 immune expression were measured. Most tumors developed in the Luz group (42%), followed by the control group (33%), and the Mel group (17%). The tumor latency was longer in Mel-treated group (control and Luz at week 17, Mel at week 21). The maximum tumor volume was also smaller in Mel group when compared to control and Luz groups (p < .05). In Mel group estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin levels were decreased compared to control group (p < .001; p < .01; and p < .01) and levels of apoptotic activity and DNA fragmentation ratio increased. The increment of HO-1 expression with Mel is described; possible underlying mechanisms of these effects await further investigations.

  14. In-silico QTL mapping of postpubertal mammary ductal development in the mouse uncovers potential human breast cancer risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Hadsell, Darryl L.; Hadsell, Louise A.; Olea, Walter; Rijnkels, Monique; Creighton, Chad J.; Smyth, Ian; Short, Kieran M.; Cox, Liza L.; Cox, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic background plays a dominant role in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BrCa). Despite this, the role of genetic diversity in mammary gland development is only partially understood. This study used strain-dependent variation in an inbred mouse mapping panel, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying structural variation in mammary ductal development, and determined if these QTL correlated with genomic intervals conferring breast cancer susceptibility in humans. For about half of the traits, the observed variation among the complete set of strains in this study was greater (P<0.05) than that observed with previously studied strains or with strains that are in current common use for mammary gland biology. Correlations were also detected with previously reported variation in mammary tumor latency and metastasis. In silico genome-wide association (GWAS) identified 20 mammary development QTL (Mdq). Of these, 5 were syntenic with previously reported human BrCa loci. The most highly significant (P=1×10−11) association of the study was on MMU6 and contained the genes Plxna4, Plxna4os1, and Chchd3. On MMU5, a QTL was detected (p=8×10−7) that was syntenic to a human BrCa locus on h12q24.5 containing the genes Tbx3 and Tbx5. Intersection of high-association SNP (r2 >0.8) with genomic and epigenomic features, and intersection of candidate genes with gene expression and survival data from human BrCa highlighted several for further study. These results support the conclusion that genetic variation in mammary ductal development is greater than previously appreciated. They also suggest that mammary tumor latency and metastatic index may be influenced by variations in the same factors that control normal mammary ductal development and that further studies of genetically diverse mice can improve our understanding of the connection between breast development and breast cancer in humans by identifying novel susceptibility genes. PMID:25552398

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: role of isoform gamma in the antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Anita, R E; Cajero-Juarez, M; Aceves, C

    2011-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors. Three subtypes--PPAR alpha, PPAR beta, and PPAR gamma--have been identified and are differentially expressed in tissues. Originally, they were described as molecular regulators of lipid metabolism; recently, it has been shown that they are also involved in regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis in both normal and tumoral cells. In fact, some synthetic PPAR ligands are used to treat dyslipidemia, metabolic diseases, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we review the role of PPAR gamma (PPARγ) in tumor initiation and progression, emphasizing the relationship between this isoform and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effect of iodine on mammary cancer.

  16. The impact of adhesion peptides within hydrogels on the phenotype and signaling of normal and cancerous mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Michael S.; Bernabé, Beatriz Peñalver; Shikanov, Ariella; Bluver, Dennis A.; Mui, Michael D.; Shin, Seungjin; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2012-01-01

    The microenviroment contributes to directing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) development and the progression of breast cancer. Three-dimensional culture models have been used to support formation of structures that display varying degrees of disorganization that parallel the degree of cancer. Synthetic hydrogels were employed to investigate the mechanisms by which specific adhesion signals in the microenvironment directed development. Polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels supported 3D growth of MECs and directed formation of a range of phenotypes that were functions of genotype, and identity and concentration of adhesion peptides RGD and YIGSR. Non-cancerous and cancerous MECs responded differentially to the same adhesion cues and produced variable structural organizations. An analysis of dynamic signaling pathways revealed differential activities of transcription factors within the MAPK and JAK/STAT pathways in response to genotype and adhesion. These results directly implicate adhesion in cancer development and demonstrate that AP1, CREB, STAT1, and STAT3 all contribute to the genotype dependence of cellular response to adhesion peptides. The tools presented in this work could be applied to other systems and connect extracellular cues with intracellular signaling to molecularly dissect tissue development and further biomaterials development. PMID:22341213

  17. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed. ©2013 AACR.

  18. An Improved Syngeneic Orthotopic Murine Model of Human Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Omar M.; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Ramachandran, Suburamaniam; Dumur, Catherine; Schaum, Julia; Yamada, Akimitsu; Terracina, Krista P.; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer drug development costs nearly $610 million and 37 months in preclinical mouse model trials with minimal success rates. Despite these inefficiencies, there are still no consensus breast cancer preclinical models. Methods Murine mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1-luc2 cells were implanted subcutaneous (SQ) or orthotopically percutaneous injection in the area of the nipple (OP), or surgically into the chest 2nd mammary fat pad under direct vision (ODV) in Balb/c immunocompetent mice. Tumor progression was followed by in vivo bioluminescence and direct measurements, pathology and survival determined, and tumor gene expression analyzed by genome-wide microarrays. Results ODV produced less variable sized tumors and was a reliable method of implantation. ODV implantation into the chest 2nd mammary pad rather than into the abdominal 4th mammary pad, the most common implantation site, better mimicked human breast cancer progression pattern, which correlated with bioluminescent tumor burden and survival. Compared to SQ, ODV produced tumors that differentially expressed genes whose interaction networks are of importance in cancer research. qPCR validation of 10 specific target genes of interest in ongoing clinical trials demonstrated significant differences in expression. Conclusions ODV implantation into the chest 2nd mammary pad provides the most reliable model that mimics human breast cancer compared from subcutaneous implantation that produces tumors with different genome expression profiles of clinical significance. Increased understanding of the limitations of the different preclinical models in use will help guide new investigations and may improve the efficiency of breast cancer drug development. PMID:25200444

  19. Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens. Final progress report, 1 January 1987--31 December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, K.H.

    1998-07-10

    The induction of cancer by ionizing radiation is a matter of great practical importance to the nuclear industry, to national defense, to radiological medicine and to the general public. It is increasingly apparent that carcinogenesis is a leading dose-limiting effect of radiation exposure. The thyroid and mammary glands are among the most sensitive human tissues to radiogenic initiation of cancer, and there is a profoundly higher risk of neoplastic initiation in these glands among individuals irradiated before or during puberty than among those exposed in later life. The authors developed unique quantitative experimental models to investigate and characterize the cells of origin of thyroid and mammary cancers and the effects of radiation on them (C185). To study these progenitor cells in vivo it is necessary to have a system by which their concentrations, total numbers and responses to radiation and other factors can be measured. It is a truism that not all cells in a tissue are equally sensitive to neoplastic initiation. They reasoned that the progenitor cells are most likely members of that subpopulation that is necessary to maintenance of normal tissue cell numbers and to repair and replacement after tissue damage. They further reasoned that such cells would likely be responsive to specific mitogenic stimulation by hormones. On the basis of these considerations, they developed quantitative rat thyroid and mammary epithelial cell transplantation systems.

  20. Exogenous normal mammary epithelial mitochondria suppress glycolytic metabolism and glucose uptake of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xian-Peng; Elliott, Robert L; Head, Jonathan F

    2015-10-01

    We hypothesized that normal mitochondria inhibited cancer cell proliferation and increased drug sensitivity by the mechanism of suppression of cancer aerobic glycolysis. To demonstrate the mechanism, we used real-time PCR and glycolysis cell-based assay to measure gene expression of glycolytic enzymes and glucose transporters, and extracellular lactate production of human breast cancer cells. We found that isolated fluorescent probe-stained mitochondria of MCF-12A (human mammary epithelia) could enter into human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231, confirmed by fluorescent and confocal microscopy. Mitochondria from the untransformed human mammary epithelia increased drug sensitivity of MCF-7 cells to paclitaxel. Real-time PCR showed that exogenous normal mitochondria of MCF-12A suppressed gene expression of glycolytic enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase A, and glucose transporter 1 and 3 of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Glycolysis cell-based assay revealed that normal mitochondria significantly suppressed lactate production in culture media of MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, normal mitochondria suppress cancer proliferation and increase drug sensitivity by the mechanism of inhibition of cancer cell glycolysis and glucose uptake.

  1. A new immunization and treatment strategy for mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) associated cancers

    PubMed Central

    Braitbard, Ori; Roniger, Maayan; Bar-Sinai, Allan; Rajchman, Dana; Gross, Tamar; Abramovitch, Hillel; Ferla, Marco La; Franceschi, Sara; Lessi, Francesca; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Mazzanti, Chiara M.; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Hochman, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) causes mammary carcinoma or lymphoma in mice. An increasing body of evidence in recent years supports its involvement also in human sporadic breast cancer. It is thus of importance to develop new strategies to impair the development, growth and metastasis of MMTV-associated cancers. The signal peptide of the envelope precursor protein of this virus: MMTV-p14 (p14) is an excellent target for such strategies, due to unique characteristics distinct from its regular endoplasmic reticulum targeting function. These include cell surface expression in: murine cancer cells that harbor the virus, human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells that ectopically express p14, as well as cultured human cells derived from an invasive ductal breast carcinoma positive for MMTV sequences. These findings support its use in signal peptide-based immune targeting. Indeed, priming and boosting mice with p14 elicits a specific anti-signal peptide immune response sufficient for protective vaccination against MMTV-associated tumors. Furthermore, passive immunization using a combination of anti-p14 monoclonal antibodies or the transfer of T-cells from immunized mice (Adoptive Cell Transfer) is also therapeutically effective. With reports demonstrating involvement of MMTV in human breast cancer, we propose the immune-mediated targeting of p14 as a strategy for prevention, treatment and diagnosis of MMTV-associated cancers. PMID:26934560

  2. Chemopreventive Activity of Honokiol against 7, 12 - Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-Induced Mammary Cancer in Female Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xingyi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a predominant cause of death in women across the globe. Chemoprevention by using natural, dietary or synthetic products has been appearing to be a fascinating approach to combat the growing burden of breast cancer. In the current study, we intended to explore the mechanisms of chemopreventive action of honokiol against 7, 12 - dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague Dawlely (SD) rats. We induced mammary cancer in SD rats by administering single dose of DMBA (80 mg/kg) through intra gastric route. Chemopreventive effects of honokiol (80 mg/kg, i.p.) were confirmed from its ameliorating effect on the DMBA-induced anomalies such as liver marker enzymes, Phases I and II metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress markers. Further, honokiol reversed the DMBA-induced abnormalities in inflammatory cytokines levels and serum tumor markers. Additionally, histopathological examination of mammary tissue and protein expression analysis of NF-κB revealed that honokiol is effective against DMBA-induced mammary cancer. In summary, the results of our study support the chemopreventive feature of honokiol in mammary cancer.

  3. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Adam D.; Perou, Charles M.; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis. PMID:25970777

  4. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Michael A; Ebelt, Nancy D; Pfefferle, Adam D; Perou, Charles M; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-05-20

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis.

  5. Perinatal Environmental Exposures Affect Mammary Development, Function, and Cancer Risk in Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Suzanne E.; Reed, Casey; Newbold, Retha R.

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is an important transition that enables reproduction of mammalian species. Precocious puberty, specifically early thelarche (the appearance of breast “buds”), in girls of multiple ethnic backgrounds is a major health problem in the United States and other countries. The cause for a continued decrease in the age of breast development in girls is unknown, but environmental factors likely play a major role. Laboratory and epidemiological studies have identified several individual environmental factors that affect breast development, but further progress is needed. Current research needs include increased attention to and recording of prenatal and neonatal environmental exposures, testing of marketed chemicals for effects on the mammary gland, and understanding of the mammary gland–specific mechanisms that are altered by chemicals. Such research is required to halt the increasing trend toward puberty at earlier ages. PMID:22017681

  6. Fluorodeoxyglucose--positive internal mammary lymph node in breast cancer patients with silicone implants: is it always metastatic cancer?

    PubMed

    Soudack, Michalle; Yelin, Alon; Simansky, David; Ben-Nun, Alon

    2013-07-01

    Patients with breast cancer following mastectomy and silicone implant reconstruction may have enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes with pathological uptake on positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose. This lymphadenopathy is usually considered as metastatic in nature, but has also been reported to be related to other conditions, including silicon migration. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of metastatic disease in this unique group of patients. A retrospective comparative study of 12 female patients with breast cancer with silicone implants referred for biopsy due to isolated internal mammary lymph node fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography. Five patients (41.6%) had histological findings related to silicone (n = 4) or non-specific inflammation (n = 1). The remaining 7 (58.3%) had histological evidence of cancer recurrence. There was no significant difference in the fluorodeoxyglucose-standardized uptake value between the two groups. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positive mammary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer following silicone implant reconstruction may be due to metastatic deposits, non-specific inflammation or silicone migration. Clinical and imaging characteristics are insufficient in differentiating between these conditions. Biopsy is recommended prior to initiation of further treatment.

  7. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer - Effects on Disease Prognosis and Therapeutic Protocols - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Stojanoski, Sinisa; Ristevska, Nevena; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Antevski, Borce; Petrushevska, Gordana

    2015-03-15

    The main prognostic factor in early staged breast cancer is the axillary lymph node metastatic affection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, as a staging modality, significantly decreases surgical morbidity. The status of internal mammary lymph nodes gains an increased predictive role in grading breast carcinomas and modulation of postoperative therapeutic protocols. If positive, almost always are associated with worse disease outcome. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of internal mammary lymph node micrometastases has not been up to date precisely defined. To present a case of female patient clinically diagnosed as T1, N0, M0 (clinical TNM) ductal breast carcinoma with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Dual method of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node detection using 99mTc-SENTI-SCINT and blue dye injection, intraoperative gamma probe detection, radioguided surgery and intraoperative ex tempore biopsy were used. We present a case of clinically T1, N0, M0 ductal breast cancer with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative ex tempore biopsy revealed micrometastases in the internal mammary node and no metastatic involvement of the axillary sentinel lymph node. Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastases improves N (nodal) grading of breast cancer by selecting a high risk subgroup of patients that require adjuvant hormone therapy, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  8. Fingerprinting Breast Cancer vs. Normal Mammary Cells by Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingjing; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Hollmén, Maija; Li, Xue; Detmar, Michael; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for early cancer detection, to improve the survival rate and quality of life of cancer patients. Identification of volatile metabolic compounds may provide an approach for noninvasive early diagnosis of malignant diseases. Here we analyzed the volatile metabolic signature of human breast cancer cell lines versus normal human mammary cells. Volatile compounds in the headspace of conditioned culture medium were directly fingerprinted by secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The mass spectra were subsequently treated statistically to identify discriminating features between normal vs. cancerous cell types. We were able to classify different samples by using feature selection followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to propose their chemical structures for some of the most discriminating molecules. We conclude that cancerous cells can release a characteristic odor whose constituents may be used as disease markers. PMID:24903350

  9. Fingerprinting Breast Cancer vs. Normal Mammary Cells by Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jingjing; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Hollmén, Maija; Li, Xue; Detmar, Michael; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of noninvasive diagnostic methods for early cancer detection, to improve the survival rate and quality of life of cancer patients. Identification of volatile metabolic compounds may provide an approach for noninvasive early diagnosis of malignant diseases. Here we analyzed the volatile metabolic signature of human breast cancer cell lines versus normal human mammary cells. Volatile compounds in the headspace of conditioned culture medium were directly fingerprinted by secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The mass spectra were subsequently treated statistically to identify discriminating features between normal vs. cancerous cell types. We were able to classify different samples by using feature selection followed by principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, high-resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to propose their chemical structures for some of the most discriminating molecules. We conclude that cancerous cells can release a characteristic odor whose constituents may be used as disease markers.

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL DIAGNOSTIC IN THE MAMMARY GLAND CANCER.

    PubMed

    Anton, E; Botnariuc, Natalia; Ancuta, E; Doroftei, B; Ciobica, A; Anton, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncology disease in women and is one of the major public health issues. Worldwide, is the second leading cause of cancer death in women and cancer research is a priority in all the laboratories of the world, in terms of uncovering the appearance causes of the malignant process, understanding the mechanisms of development, but most of all, the discovery of early diagnostic methods and effective treatment. Ignorance, fear of diagnosis, lack of health education and of efficient programmes for prevention and screening could cause diagnosis of the disease to be detected in the majority of cases in advanced stages, when treatment remains only palliative and very costly, in this cases the patient's suffering being immense. In this way, regarding the clinical diagnosis in stage I mammary gland cancer, in the 496 stage I MGC patients, during the primary clinical investigation the diagnosis of stage I MGC was established only in 165 (33.3%) patients, and in 232 (46,8%) patients the diagnosis of suspicion MGC was obtained. Also, in terms of instrumental diagnosis, such as mammography, ultrasonography in mammary gland cancer stage I, it seems that in accordance with literature data the pathological process features assessment in the mammary gland is problematic especially in young age. Thus, it seems that MGC represents a polymorphic and pathogenic disease and it cannot be admitted that all subgroups of patients will obtain identical results from one tactic of treatment determined for all the patients with MGC. In this way, the concept of MGC both clinical and patho morphological, combines different cell clones depending on its microstructure and biology. As a result, the evolution of the disease, the prognosis and the effectiveness of the treatment may vary in different patients at the same stage, depending on the degree of malignancy of the tumor, its histopathological structure, the degree of expression of molecular markers identification

  11. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo- Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lisa Y; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W; Argyle, David J

    2011-03-30

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  12. Dietary effects of mead acid on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary cancers in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Hamazaki, Kei; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Yuki, Michiko; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of mead acid (MA; 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid) on the suppression of the development and growth of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. The MA diet (2.4% MA) or control (CTR) diet (0% MA) was started at 6 weeks of age, MNU was injected intraperitoneally at 7 weeks of age, and the rats were maintained on the respective diets for the whole experimental period (until 19 weeks of age). All induced mammary tumors were luminal A subtype carcinomas (estrogen and progesterone receptor positive and HER2/neu negative). The MA diet significantly suppressed the initiation and promotion phases of mammary carcinogenesis; MA suppressed the development (incidence, 61.5 vs. 100%; multiplicity, 2.1 vs. 4.5) and the growth (final tumor weight, 427.1 vs. 1,796.3 mg) of mammary cancers by suppressing cell proliferation, but not by accelerating cell death. There were evident changes in the major fatty acid composition of n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids in the serum of the MA diet group; there was a significant increase in MA and significant decreases in oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In non-tumorous mammary tissue, there was a significant increase in MA and a significant decrease in OA in the MA diet group. The n-6/n-3 ratios in serum and mammary tissue of the MA diet group were significantly decreased. The MA diet suppressed MNU-induced luminal A mammary cancer by lowering cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, MA may be a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent. In addition to hormone therapy, MA supplementation may be a beneficial chemotherapeutic agent for the luminal A subtype of breast cancer.

  13. Genetic Mapping in Mice Identifies DMBT1 as a Candidate Modifier of Mammary Tumors and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Anneke C.; Hill, Linda Z.; Roberts, Amy L.; Wang, Jun; Aud, Dee; Jung, Jimmy; Nikolcheva, Tania; Allard, John; Peltz, Gary; Otis, Christopher N.; Cao, Qing J.; Ricketts, Reva St. J.; Naber, Stephen P.; Mollenhauer, Jan; Poustka, Annemarie; Malamud, Daniel; Jerry, D. Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53+/− strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an ∼25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk twofold (P = 0.002). Dmbt1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) was identified as a candidate modifier gene within the SuprMam1 interval because it was differentially expressed in mammary tissues from BALB/c-Trp53+/− and C57BL/6-Trp53+/− mice. Dmbt1 mRNA and protein was reduced in mammary glands of the susceptible BALB/c mice. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that DMBT1 protein expression was also significantly reduced in normal breast tissue from women with breast cancer (staining score, 1.8; n = 46) compared with cancer-free controls (staining score, 3.9; n = 53; P < 0.0001). These experiments demonstrate the use of Trp53+/− mice as a sensitized background to screen for low-penetrance modifiers of cancer. The results identify a novel mammary tumor susceptibility locus in mice and support a role for DMBT1 in suppression of mammary tumors in both mice and women. PMID:17525270

  14. Cytokine networks that mediate epithelial cell-macrophage crosstalk in the mammary gland: implications for development and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Ingman, Wendy V

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic interactions between the hormone responsive mammary gland epithelium and surrounding stromal macrophage populations are critical for normal development and function of the mammary gland. Macrophages are versatile cells capable of diverse roles in mammary gland development and maintenance of homeostasis, and their function is highly dependent on signals within the local cytokine microenvironment. The mammary epithelium secretes a number of cytokines, including colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1), and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) that affect the abundance, phenotype and function of macrophages. However, aberrations in these interactions have been found to increase the risk of tumour formation, and utilisation of stromal macrophage support by tumours can increase the invasive and metastatic potential of the cancer. Studies utilising genetically modified mouse models have shed light on the significance of epithelial cell-macrophage crosstalk, and the cytokines that mediate this communication, in mammary gland development and tumourigenesis. This article reviews the current status of our understanding of the roles of epithelial cell-derived cytokines in mammary gland development and cancer, with a focus on the crosstalk between epithelial cells and the local macrophage population.

  15. The T-box transcription factors TBX2 and TBX3 in mammary gland development and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Nataki C; Papaioannou, Virginia E

    2013-06-01

    TBX2 and TBX3, closely related members of the T-box family of transcription factor genes, are expressed in mammary tissue in both humans and mice. Ulnar mammary syndrome (UMS), an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in TBX3, underscores the importance of TBX3 in human breast development, while abnormal mammary gland development in Tbx2 or Tbx3 mutant mice provides models for experimental investigation. In addition to their roles in mammary development, aberrant expression of TBX2 and TBX3 is associated with breast cancer. TBX2 is preferentially amplified in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and TBX3 overexpression has been associated with advanced stage disease and estrogen-receptor-positive breast tumors. The regulation of Tbx2 and Tbx3 and the downstream targets of these genes in development and disease are not as yet fully elucidated. However, it is clear that the two genes play unique, context-dependent roles both in mammary gland development and in mammary tumorigenesis.

  16. Trans-Resveratrol Alters Mammary Promoter Hypermethylation in Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Weizhu; Qin, Wenyi; Zhang, Ke; Rottinghaus, George E.; Chen, Yin-Chieh; Kliethermes, Beth; Sauter, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol, present in high concentration in the skin of red grapes and red wine, has a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect in vitro, prevents the formation of mammary tumors, and has been touted as a chemopreventive agent. Based upon in vitro studies demonstrating that trans-resveratrol downregulates the expression of 1) DNA methyltransferases and 2) the cancer promoting prostaglandin (PG)E2, we determined if trans-resveratrol had a dose-related effect on DNA methylation and prostaglandin expression in humans. Thirty-nine adult women at increased breast cancer risk were randomized in double-blind fashion to placebo, 5 or 50 mg trans-resveratrol twice daily for 12 wk. Methylation assessment of 4 cancer-related genes (p16, RASSF-1α, APC, CCND2) was performed on mammary ductoscopy specimens. The predominant resveratrol species in serum was the glucuronide metabolite. Total trans-resveratrol and glucuronide metabolite serum levels increased after consuming both trans-resveratrol doses (P < .001 for both). RASSF-1α methylation decreased with increasing levels of serum trans-resveratrol (P = .047). The change in RASSF-1α methylation was directly related to the change in PGE2 (P = .045). This work provides novel insights into the effects of trans-resveratrol on the breast of women at increased breast cancer risk, including a decrease in methylation of the tumor suppressor gene RASSF-1α. Because of the limited sample size, our findings should be validated in a larger study. PMID:22332908

  17. Establishment of primary mixed cell cultures from spontaneous canine mammary tumors: Characterization of classic and new cancer-associated molecules

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Luciana B.; Nagamine, Marcia K.; Biondi, Luiz R.; Sanches, Daniel S.; Toyota, Fábio; Giovani, Tatiane M.; de Jesus, Isis P.; da Fonseca, Ivone I. M.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Diaz, Bruno L.; Salles Gomes, Cristina de O. Massoco

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors which make canine cancer like cancer in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous mammary tumors in pet dogs, tumor genetics, molecular targets and exposure to the same environmental risk factors are among these factors. Therefore, the study of canine cancer can provide useful information to the oncology field. This study aimed to establish and characterize a panel of primary mixed cell cultures obtained from spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Eight established cell cultures obtained from one normal mammary gland, one complex adenoma, one mixed adenoma, two complex carcinomas and two mixed carcinomas were analyzed. The gene expression levels of classic molecular cancer players such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, breast cancer (BRCA) 1, BRCA2 and estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 were evaluated. For the first time, three orphan nuclear receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α, β and γ were studied in canine mammary cancer. The highest expression level of ERRα was observed in complex carcinoma-derived cell culture, while the highest levels of ERRβ and γ were observed in cells derived from a mixed carcinoma. Meanwhile, complex carcinomas presented the highest levels of expression of ESR1, BRCA1 and FGFR2 among all samples. BRCA2 was found exclusively in complex adenoma. The transcription factor GATA3 had its highest levels in mixed carcinoma samples and its lowest levels in complex adenoma. Proliferation assays were also performed to evaluate the mixed cell cultures response to ER ligands, genistein and DES, both in normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional studies of primary mixed cell cultures derived from spontaneous canine mammary tumors are possible and provide valuable tool for the study of various stages of mammary cancer development. PMID:28945747

  18. Establishment of primary mixed cell cultures from spontaneous canine mammary tumors: Characterization of classic and new cancer-associated molecules.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luciana B; Nagamine, Marcia K; Biondi, Luiz R; Sanches, Daniel S; Toyota, Fábio; Giovani, Tatiane M; de Jesus, Isis P; da Fonseca, Ivone I M; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Diaz, Bruno L; Salles Gomes, Cristina de O Massoco; Dagli, Maria Lucia Z

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors which make canine cancer like cancer in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous mammary tumors in pet dogs, tumor genetics, molecular targets and exposure to the same environmental risk factors are among these factors. Therefore, the study of canine cancer can provide useful information to the oncology field. This study aimed to establish and characterize a panel of primary mixed cell cultures obtained from spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Eight established cell cultures obtained from one normal mammary gland, one complex adenoma, one mixed adenoma, two complex carcinomas and two mixed carcinomas were analyzed. The gene expression levels of classic molecular cancer players such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, breast cancer (BRCA) 1, BRCA2 and estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 were evaluated. For the first time, three orphan nuclear receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α, β and γ were studied in canine mammary cancer. The highest expression level of ERRα was observed in complex carcinoma-derived cell culture, while the highest levels of ERRβ and γ were observed in cells derived from a mixed carcinoma. Meanwhile, complex carcinomas presented the highest levels of expression of ESR1, BRCA1 and FGFR2 among all samples. BRCA2 was found exclusively in complex adenoma. The transcription factor GATA3 had its highest levels in mixed carcinoma samples and its lowest levels in complex adenoma. Proliferation assays were also performed to evaluate the mixed cell cultures response to ER ligands, genistein and DES, both in normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional studies of primary mixed cell cultures derived from spontaneous canine mammary tumors are possible and provide valuable tool for the study of various stages of mammary cancer development.

  19. Mislocalization of the cell polarity protein Scribble promotes mammary tumorigenesis and is associated with basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Michael E.; Akshinthala, S. Dipikaa; Araki, Kiyomi; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Martin, Bernard; Lehmann, Brian D.; Berman, Hal K.; Pietenpol, Jennifer A.; Cardiff, Robert D.; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.

    2014-01-01

    Scribble (SCRIB) localizes to cell-cell junctions and regulates establishment of epithelial cell polarity. Loss of expression of SCRIB functions as a tumor suppressor in Drosophila and mammals, conversely, overexpression of SCRIB promotes epithelial differentiation in mammals. Here, we report that SCRIB is frequently amplified, mRNA over-expressed and protein is mislocalized from cell-cell junctions in human breast cancers. High levels of SCRIB mRNA are associated with poor clinical prognosis identifying an unexpected role for SCRIB in breast cancer. We find that, transgenic mice expressing a SCRIB mutant (Pro 305 to Leu (P305L)) that fails to localize to cell-cell junctions, under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat promoter, develop multifocal hyperplasia that progresses to highly pleomorphic and poorly differentiated tumors with basal characteristics. SCRIB interacts with PTEN and the expression of P305L, but not wild-type SCRIB, promotes an increase in PTEN levels in the cytosol. Overexpression of P305L, but not wild type SCRIB, activates the Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling pathway. Human breast tumors overexpressing SCRIB have high levels of S6K but do not harbor mutations in PTEN or PIK3CA, identifying SCRIB amplification as a mechanism of activating PI3K signaling in tumors without mutations in PIK3CA or PTEN. Thus, we demonstrate that high levels of mislocalized SCRIB functions as a neomorph to promote mammary tumorigenesis by affecting subcellular localization of PTEN and activating an Akt/mTOR/S6kinase signaling pathway. PMID:24662921

  20. Inflammatory peroxidases promote breast cancer progression in mice via regulation of the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Leach, Damien A; Zinonos, Irene; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Licari, Giovanni; Liapis, Vasilios; Ingman, Wendy V; Anderson, Peter; DeNichilo, Mark O; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) are heme-containing enzymes, well known for their antimicrobial activity, are released in high quantities by infiltrating immune cells in breast cancer. However, the functional importance of their presence within the tumour microenvironment is unclear. We have recently described a new role for peroxidases as key regulators of fibroblast and endothelial cell functionality. In the present study, we investigate for the first time, the ability of peroxidases to promote breast cancer development and progression. Using the 4T1 syngeneic murine orthotopic breast cancer model, we examined whether increased levels of peroxidases in developing mammary tumours influences primary tumour growth and metastasis. We showed that MPO and EPO stimulation increased mammary tumour growth and enhanced lung metastases, effects that were associated with reduced tumour necrosis, increased collagen deposition and neo-vascularisation within the primary tumour. In vitro, peroxidase treatment, robustly stimulated human mammary fibroblast migration and collagen type I and type VI secretion. Mechanistically, peroxidases induced the transcription of pro-tumorigenic and metastatic MMP1, MMP3 and COX-2 genes. Taken together, these findings identify peroxidases as key contributors to cancer progression by augmenting pro-tumorigenic collagen production and angiogenesis. Importantly, this identifies inflammatory peroxidases as therapeutic targets in breast cancer therapy.

  1. Genetic bases of estrogen-induced tumorigenesis in the rat: mapping of loci controlling susceptibility to mammary cancer in a Brown Norway x ACI intercross.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Beverly S; Lachel, Cynthia M; Pennington, Karen L; Murrin, Clare R; Strecker, Tracy E; Tochacek, Martin; Gould, Karen A; Meza, Jane L; McComb, Rodney D; Shull, James D

    2006-08-01

    Exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Our laboratory has shown that the ACI rat is uniquely susceptible to 17beta-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer. We previously mapped two loci, Emca1 and Emca2 (estrogen-induced mammary cancer), that act independently to determine susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer in crosses between the susceptible ACI rat strain and the genetically related, but resistant, Copenhagen (COP) rat strain. In this study, we evaluate susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer in a cross between the ACI strain and the unrelated Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. Whereas nearly 100% of the ACI rats developed mammary cancer when treated continuously with E2, BN rats did not develop palpable mammary cancer during the 196-day course of E2 treatment. Susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer segregated as a dominant or incompletely dominant trait in a cross between BN females and ACI males. In a population of 251 female (BN x ACI)F(2) rats, we observed evidence for a total of five genetic determinants of susceptibility. Two loci, Emca4 and Emca5, were identified when mammary cancer status at sacrifice was evaluated as the phenotype, and three additional loci, Emca6, Emca7, and Emca8, were identified when mammary cancer number was evaluated as the phenotype. A total of three genetic interactions were identified. These data indicate that susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer in the BN x ACI cross behaves as a complex trait controlled by at least five loci and multiple gene-gene interactions.

  2. JS-K, a nitric oxide-releasing prodrug, induces breast cancer cell death while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Vanity; Saavedra, Joseph E; Nieves-Alicea, René; Simeone, Ann-Marie; Keefer, Larry K; Tari, Ana M

    2011-04-01

    Targeted therapy with reduced side effects is a major goal in cancer research. We investigated the effects of JS-K, a nitric oxide (NO) prodrug designed to release high levels of NO when suitably activated, on human breast cancer cell lines, on non-transformed human MCF-10A mammary cells, and on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Cell viability assay, flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis were used to study the effects of JS-K on breast cancer and on mammary epithelial cells. After a 3-day incubation, the IC50s of JS-K against the breast cancer cells ranged from 0.8 to 3 µM. However, JS-K decreased the viability of the MCF-10A cells by only 20% at 10-µM concentration, and HMECs were unaffected by 10 µM JS-K. Flow cytometry indicated that JS-K increased the percentages of breast cancer cells under-going apoptosis. Interestingly, flow cytometry indicated that JS-K increased acidic vesicle organelle formation in breast cancer cells, suggesting that JS-K induced autophagy in breast cancer cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that JS-K-treated breast cancer cells underwent autophagic cell death. Western blot analysis showed that JS-K induced the expression of microtubule light chain 3-II, another autophagy marker, in breast cancer cells. However, JS-K did not induce apoptosis or autophagy in normal human mammary epithelial cells. These data indicate that JS-K selectively induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells under the same conditions. The selective anti-tumor activity of JS-K warrants its further investigation in breast tumors.

  3. Repression of mammary adipogenesis by genistein limits mammosphere formation of human MCF-7 cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mammary adipose tissue may contribute to breast cancer development and progression by altering neighboring epithelial cell behavior and phenotype through paracrine signaling. Dietary exposure to soy foods is associated with lower mammary tumor risk and reduced body weight and adiposity in humans and...

  4. MRI ductography of contrast agent distribution and leakage in normal mouse mammary ducts and ducts with in situ cancer.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2017-07-01

    High resolution 3D MRI was used to study contrast agent distribution and leakage in normal mouse mammary glands and glands containing in situ cancer after intra-ductal injection. Five female FVB/N mice (~19weeks old) with no detectable mammary cancer and eight C3(1) SV40 Tag virgin female mice (~15weeks old) with extensive in situ cancer were studied. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple and approximately 15μL of a Gadodiamide was injected slowly over 1min into the nipple and throughout the duct on one side of the inguinal gland. Following injection, the mouse was placed in a 9.4T MRI scanner, and a series of high resolution 3D T1-weighted images was acquired with a temporal resolution of 9.1min to follow contrast agent leakage from the ducts. The first image was acquired at about 12min after injection. Ductal enhancement regions detected in images acquired between 12 and 21min after contrast agent injection was five times smaller in SV40 mouse mammary ducts (p<0.001) than in non-cancerous FVB/N mouse mammary ducts, perhaps due to rapid washout of contrast agent from the SV40 ducts. The contrast agent washout rate measured between 12min and 90min after injection was ~20% faster (p<0.004) in SV40 mammary ducts than in FVB/N mammary ducts. These results may be due to higher permeability of the SV40 ducts, likely due to the presence of in situ cancers. Therefore, increased permeability of ducts may indicate early stage breast cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sentinel nodes scintigraphy of the internal mammary chain in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Giovanni; Viale, Giuseppe; Veronesi, Umberto

    2003-01-01

    Internal mammary chain lymphnodes (IMNs) were studied by lymphoscintigraphy and biopsy in 100 breast cancer patients to assess: (i) if a deep injection can visualize the IMNs in a high percentage of cases (ii) to determine how often IMNs are metastatic. More than 60% of patients showed IMNs uptake. Surgical sampling proved simple and risks insignificant. Five positive IMN cases migrated from NO/N1 to N3, prompting treatment modification. It is unclear whether this additional information can lead to better survival.

  6. Is internal mammary nodes irradiation as a part of breast cancer postoperative radiotherapy necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Yang, Zhao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative radiotherapy plays an important role in the multidisciplinary treatment of breast cancer. However, it remains a controversy whether it is necessary to carry out prophylactic internal mammary nodes irradiation (IMNI). This review will focus on this topic. In our opinion, the total risk of relapse should be considered during the decision-making on IMNI; in particular, IMNI is recommended for high-risk patients whose tumor is located at the central/medial area or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. PMID:28066623

  7. Mammary stem cells and parity-induced breast cancer protection- new insights.

    PubMed

    Dall, Genevieve; Risbridger, Gail; Britt, Kara

    2016-02-22

    Parity (childbearing) significantly decreases a woman's risk of breast cancer and the protective effect is greater if the woman is younger and has more children. The mechanism/s of parity-induced protection are not known. Although several factors are postulated to play a role, we discuss how a reduction in the number of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) may lead to a reduction in breast cancer risk in parous women. Firstly we review the epidemiology linking childbearing to reduced breast cancer risk and discuss how additional births, a young age at first full term birth, and breastfeeding impact the protection. We then detail the mouse and human studies implicating MaSC in parity induced protection and the in-vivo work being performed in mice to directly investigate the effect of parity on MaSC. Finally we discuss the transplant and lineage tracing experiments assessing MaSC activity according to parity and the need to define if MaSC are indeed more carcinogen sensitive than mature mammary epithelial cells. Continuing and future studies attempting to define the parity induced mechanisms will aid in the development of preventative therapies.

  8. Mammary Stem/Progenitor Cells and Cancer Susceptibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person...compartment as evidenced by co-staining with antibodies to cytokeratin 8 and BrdU, a thymidine analog that was injected 4 hours prior to euthanasia to...Degrees supported: one doctoral student support, training in progress Cell lines, tissue repositories, animal models, etc.: none Funding applied for

  9. From milk to malignancy: the role of mammary stem cells in development, pregnancy and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tiede, Benjamin; Kang, Yibin

    2011-02-01

    Adult stem cells of the mammary gland (MaSCs) are a highly dynamic population of cells that are responsible for the generation of the gland during puberty and its expansion during pregnancy. In recent years significant advances have been made in understanding how these cells are regulated during these developmentally important processes both in humans and in mice. Understanding how MaSCs are regulated is becoming a particularly important area of research, given that they may be particularly susceptible targets for transformation in breast cancer. Here, we summarize the identification of MaSCs, how they are regulated and the evidence for their serving as the origins of breast cancer. In particular, we focus on how changes in MaSC populations may explain both the increased risk of developing aggressive ER/PR(-) breast cancer shortly after pregnancy and the long-term decreased risk of developing ER/PR(+) tumors.

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in cancer stem cells from canine mammary carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Michishita, M; Akiyoshi, R; Suemizu, H; Nakagawa, T; Sasaki, N; Takemitsu, H; Arai, T; Takahashi, K

    2012-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that diverse solid tumours arise from a small population of cells known as cancer stem cells or tumour-initiating cells. Cancer stem cells in several solid tumours are enriched for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. High levels of ALDH activity (ALDH(high)) were detected in four cell lines derived from canine mammary carcinomas. ALDH(high) cells were enriched in a CD44(+)CD24(-) population having self-renewal capacity. Xenotransplantation into immunodeficient mice demonstrated that 1×10(4) ALDH(high) cells were sufficient for tumour formation in all injected mice, whereas 1×10(4) ALDH(low) cells failed to initiate any tumours. ALDH(high)-derived tumours contained both ALDH(+) and ALDH(-) cells, indicating that these cells had cancer stem cell-like properties.

  11. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1− and SSEA-1+ cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines. PMID:27456773

  12. Obesity and cancer--mechanisms underlying tumour progression and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Morley, Thomas S; Kim, Min; Clegg, Deborah J; Scherer, Philipp E

    2014-08-01

    Over the past several years, the field of cancer research has directed increased interest towards subsets of obesity-associated tumours, which include mammary, renal, oesophageal, gastrointestinal and reproductive cancers in both men and women. The increased risk of breast cancer that is associated with obesity has been widely reported; this has drawn much attention and as such, warrants investigation of the key mechanisms that link the obese state with cancer aetiology. For instance, the obese setting provides a unique adipose tissue microenvironment with concomitant systemic endocrine alterations that favour both tumour initiation and progression. Major metabolic differences exist within tumours that distinguish them from non-transformed healthy tissues. Importantly, considerable metabolic differences are induced by tumour cells in the stromal vascular fraction that surrounds them. The precise mechanisms that underlie the association of obesity with cancer and the accompanying metabolic changes that occur in the surrounding microenvironment remain elusive. Nonetheless, specific therapeutic agents designed for patients with obesity who develop tumours are clearly needed. This Review discusses recent advances in understanding the contributions of obesity to cancer and their implications for tumour treatment.

  13. Alcohol drinking and mammary cancer: Pathogenesis and potential dietary preventive alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Gerardo Daniel; Castro, José A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, increasing linearly even with a moderate consumption and irrespectively of the type of alcoholic beverage. It shows no dependency from other risk factors like menopausal status, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, or genetic history of breast cancer. The precise mechanism for the effect of drinking alcohol in mammary cancer promotion is still far from being established. Studies by our laboratory suggest that acetaldehyde produced in situ and accumulated in mammary tissue because of poor detoxicating mechanisms might play a role in mutational and promotional events. Additional studies indicated the production of reactive oxygen species accompanied of decreases in vitamin E and GSH contents and of glutathione transferase activity. The resulting oxidative stress might also play a relevant role in several stages of the carcinogenic process. There are reported in literature studies showing that plasmatic levels of estrogens significantly increased after alcohol drinking and that the breast cancer risk is higher in receptor ER-positive individuals. Estrogens are known that they may produce breast cancer by actions on ER and also as chemical carcinogens, as a consequence of their oxidation leading to reactive metabolites. In this review we introduce our working hypothesis integrating the acetaldehyde and the oxidative stress effects with those involving increased estrogen levels. We also analyze potential preventive actions that might be accessible. There remains the fact that alcohol drinking is just one of the avoidable causes of breast cancer and that, at present, the suggested acceptable dose for prevention of this risk is of one drink per day. PMID:25300769

  14. Alcohol drinking and mammary cancer: Pathogenesis and potential dietary preventive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Castro, Gerardo Daniel; Castro, José A

    2014-10-10

    Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, increasing linearly even with a moderate consumption and irrespectively of the type of alcoholic beverage. It shows no dependency from other risk factors like menopausal status, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, or genetic history of breast cancer. The precise mechanism for the effect of drinking alcohol in mammary cancer promotion is still far from being established. Studies by our laboratory suggest that acetaldehyde produced in situ and accumulated in mammary tissue because of poor detoxicating mechanisms might play a role in mutational and promotional events. Additional studies indicated the production of reactive oxygen species accompanied of decreases in vitamin E and GSH contents and of glutathione transferase activity. The resulting oxidative stress might also play a relevant role in several stages of the carcinogenic process. There are reported in literature studies showing that plasmatic levels of estrogens significantly increased after alcohol drinking and that the breast cancer risk is higher in receptor ER-positive individuals. Estrogens are known that they may produce breast cancer by actions on ER and also as chemical carcinogens, as a consequence of their oxidation leading to reactive metabolites. In this review we introduce our working hypothesis integrating the acetaldehyde and the oxidative stress effects with those involving increased estrogen levels. We also analyze potential preventive actions that might be accessible. There remains the fact that alcohol drinking is just one of the avoidable causes of breast cancer and that, at present, the suggested acceptable dose for prevention of this risk is of one drink per day.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi extracts elicit protective immune response against chemically induced colon and mammary cancers.

    PubMed

    Ubillos, Luis; Freire, Teresa; Berriel, Edgardo; Chiribao, María Laura; Chiale, Carolina; Festari, María Florencia; Medeiros, Andrea; Mazal, Daniel; Rondán, Mariella; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Robello, Carlos; Osinaga, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' disease, has anticancer effects mediated, at least in part, by parasite-derived products which inhibit growth of tumor cells. We investigated whether immunity to T. cruzi antigens could induce antitumor activity, using two rat models which reproduce human carcinogenesis: colon cancer induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), and mammary cancer induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). We found that vaccination with T. cruzi epimastigote lysates strongly inhibits tumor development in both animal models. Rats immunized with T. cruzi antigens induce activation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and splenocytes from these animals showed higher cytotoxic responses against tumors as compared to rats receiving adjuvant alone. Tumor-associated immune responses included increasing number of CD11b/c(+) His48(-) MHC II(+) cells corresponding to macrophages and/or dendritic cells, which exhibited augmented NADPH-oxidase activity. We also found that T. cruzi lysate vaccination developed antibodies specific for colon and mammary rat cancer cells, which were capable of mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vitro. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies cross-reacted with human colon and breast cancer cell lines and recognized 41/60 (68%) colon cancer and 38/63 (60%) breast cancer samples in a series of 123 human tumors. Our results suggest that T. cruzi antigens can evoke an integrated antitumor response involving both the cellular and humoral components of the immune response and provide novel insights into the understanding of the intricate relationship between parasite infection and tumor growth. © 2015 UICC.

  16. Anticancer Potential of Nutraceutical Formulations in MNU-induced Mammary Cancer in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pitchaiah, Gummalla; Akula, Annapurna; Chandi, Vishala

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nutraceuticals help in combating some of the major health problems of the century including cancer, and ‘nutraceutical formulations’ have led to the new era of medicine and health. Objective: To develop different nutraceutical formulations and to assess the anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Different nutraceutical formulations were prepared using fine powders of amla, apple, garlic, onion, papaya, turmeric, and wheat grass with and without cow urine distillate. Total phenolic content, acute oral toxicity, and microbial load of nutraceutical formulations were assessed. The anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations was evaluated against MNU-induced mammary cancer in female Sprague Dawley rats. Results: Improvement in total phenolic content was significant (P < 0.001) after self-fortification process. Toxicity studies showed that the nutraceutical formulations were safe to use in animals. Microbial load was within the limits. Significant longer tumor-free days (P < 0.01), lower tumor incidence (P < 0.01), lower tumor multiplicity (P < 0.05) and tumor burden (P < 0.01) were observed for nutraceutical formulation-treated groups. Conclusion: Combination of whole food-based nutraceuticals acted synergistically in the prevention of mammary cancer. Further, the process of fortification is novel and enhanced the anticancer potential of nutraceutical formulations. SUMMARY Nutraceuticals help in combating some of the major health problems of the century including cancer, and ‘nutraceutical formulations’ have led to the new era of medicine and health. In this study, different nutraceutical formulations using fine powders of amla, apple, garlic, onion, papaya, turmeric, and wheat grass with and without cow urine distillate. Total phenolic content, acute oral toxicity, and microbial load of nutraceutical formulations were assessed

  17. Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast cancer samples of Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Benavides, P; Saavedra-Alonso, S; Zamora-Avila, D; Vargas-Rodarte, C; Barrera-Rodríguez, R; Salinas-Silva, J; Rodríguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, R; Trejo-Avila, L

    2007-01-01

    Previous reports related the presence of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like gene sequences to human breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether MMTV-like env gene sequences are present in breast cancer samples of Mexican women and in breast and lung cancer cell lines. Using specific primers for MMTV, we tested 3 breast cancer cell lines, 4 non-small lung cancer cell lines and 119 breast cancer samples from Mexican women. MMTV-like gene sequences were amplified in the lung cancer cell INER-51, but not in the MCF-7 cell line that has been used as a positive control in other reports and in 5 of 119 (4.2%) breast cancer biopsy tissues. Furthermore, the identity of sequences of PCR products from INER-51 and a breast cancer-positive sample are 98 and 99% when compared with the env region of MMTV (GenBank accession No. AY161347). These results indicate that MMTV-like gene sequences are present in the Mexican population. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Protein kinase Cδ is required for ErbB2-driven mammary gland tumorigenesis and negatively correlates with prognosis in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Allen-Petersen, B L; Carter, C J; Ohm, A M; Reyland, M E

    2014-03-06

    Protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) regulates apoptosis in the mammary gland, however, the functional contribution of PKCδ to the development or progression of breast cancer has yet to be determined. Meta-analysis of ErbB2-positive breast cancers shows increased PKCδ expression, and a negative correlation between PKCδ expression and prognosis. Here, we present in-vivo evidence that PKCδ is essential for the development of mammary gland tumors in a ErbB2-overexpressing transgenic mouse model, and in-vitro evidence that PKCδ is required for proliferative signaling downstream of the ErbB2 receptor. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-ErbB2 mice lacking PKCδ (δKO) have increased tumor latency compared with MMTV-ErbB2 wild-type (δWT) mice, and the tumors show a dramatic decrease in Ki-67 staining. To explore the relationship between PKCδ and ErbB2-driven proliferation more directly, we used MCF-10A cells engineered to express a synthetic ligand-inducible form of the ErbB2 receptor. Depletion of PKCδ with short hairpin RNA inhibited ligand-induced growth in both two-dimensional (2D) (plastic) and three-dimensional (3D) (Matrigel) culture, and correlated with decreased phosphorylation of the ErbB2 receptor and reduced activation of Src and MAPK/ERK pathways. Similarly, in human breast cancer cell lines in which ErbB2 is overexpressed, depletion of PKCδ suppresses proliferation, Src and ERK activation. PKCδ appears to drive proliferation through the formation of an active ErbB2/PKCδ/Src signaling complex, as depletion of PKCδ disrupts association of Src with the ErbB2 receptor. Taken together, our studies present the first evidence that PKCδ is a critical regulator of ErbB2-mediated tumorigenesis, and suggest further investigation of PKCδ as a target in ErbB2-positive breast cancer.

  19. Benzyl isothiocyanate suppresses high-fat diet-stimulated mammary tumor progression via the alteration of tumor microenvironments in obesity-resistant BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Cho, Han Jin; Kwon, Gyoo Taik; Kang, Young-Hee; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Her, Song; Park, Taesung; Kim, Yongkang; Kee, Yun; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that a high-fat diet (HFD) and M2-macrophages induce changes in tumor microenvironments and stimulate tumor growth and metastasis of 4T1 mammary cancer cells in BALB/c mice. In this study, we attempted to determine whether benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) inhibits HFD-induced changes in tumor progression and in tumor microenvironments. Four groups of female BALB/c mice (4-week-old) were fed on a control diet (CD, 10 kcal% fat) and HFD (60 kcal% fat) containing BITC (0, 25, or 100 mg/kg diet) for 20 weeks. Following 16 weeks of feeding, 4T1 cells (5×10(4) cells) were injected into the mammary fat pads, and animals were killed 30 d after the injection. HFD feeding increased solid tumor growth and the number of tumor nodules in the lung and liver, as compared to the CD group, and these increases were inhibited by BITC supplementation. The number of lipid vacuoles, CD45+ leukocytes and CD206+ M2-macrophages, expression of Ki67, levels of cytokines/chemokines, including macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and mRNA levels of F4/80, CD86, Ym1, CD163, CCR2, and M-CSF receptor were increased in the tumor tissues of HFD-fed mice, and these increases were inhibited by BITC supplementation. In vitro culture results demonstrated that BITC inhibited macrophage migration as well as lipid droplet accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest that suppression of lipid accumulation and macrophage infiltration in tumor tissues may be one of the mechanisms by which BITC suppresses tumor progression in HFD-fed mice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Diagnostic PET Imaging of Mammary Microcalcifications Using (64)Cu-DOTA-Alendronate in a Rat Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Bradley J; Li, Lin; Ciminera, Alexandra K; Chea, Junie; Poku, Erasmus; Bading, James R; Weist, Michael R; Miller, Marcia M; Colcher, David M; Shively, John E

    2017-09-01

    The development of improved breast cancer screening methods is hindered by a lack of cancer-specific imaging agents and effective small-animal models to test them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate as a mammary microcalcification-targeting PET imaging agent, using an ideal rat model. Our long-term goal is to develop (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate for the detection and noninvasive differentiation of malignant versus benign breast tumors with PET. Methods: DOTA-alendronate was synthesized, radiolabeled with (64)Cu, and administered to normal or tumor-bearing aged, female, retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats for PET imaging. Mammary tissues were subsequently labeled and imaged with light, confocal, and electron microscopy to verify microcalcification targeting specificity of DOTA-alendronate and elucidate the histologic and ultrastructural characteristics of the microcalcifications in different mammary tumor types. Tumor uptake, biodistribution, and dosimetry studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate. Results:(64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate was radiolabeled with a 98% yield. PET imaging using aged, female, retired breeder rats showed specific binding of (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate in mammary glands and mammary tumors. The highest uptake of (64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate was in malignant tumors and the lowest uptake in benign tumors and normal mammary tissue. Confocal analysis with carboxyfluorescein-alendronate confirmed the microcalcification binding specificity of alendronate derivatives. Biodistribution studies revealed tissue alendronate concentrations peaking within the first hour, then decreasing over the next 48 h. Our dosimetric analysis demonstrated a (64)Cu effective dose within the acceptable range for clinical PET imaging agents and the potential for translation into human patients. Conclusion:(64)Cu-DOTA-alendronate is a promising PET imaging agent for the sensitive and specific detection of mammary tumors

  1. Withania somnifera root extract inhibits mammary cancer metastasis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Garcia, Anapatricia; Xu, Songli; Powell, Doris R; Vertino, Paula M; Singh, Shivendra; Marcus, Adam I

    2013-01-01

    Though clinicians can predict which patients are at risk for developing metastases, traditional therapies often prove ineffective and metastatic disease is the primary cause of cancer patient death; therefore, there is a need to develop anti-metastatic therapies that can be administered over long durations to specifically inhibit the motility of cancer cells. Withaniasomnifera root extracts (WRE) have anti-proliferative activity and the active component, Withaferin A, inhibits the pro-metastatic protein, vimentin. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein and is part of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program to promote metastasis. Here, we determined whether WRE standardized to Withaferin A (sWRE) possesses anti-metastatic activity and whether it inhibits cancer motility via inhibition of vimentin and the EMT program. Several formulations of sWRE were created to enrich for Withaferin A and a stock solution of sWRE in EtOH could recover over 90% of the Withaferin A found in the original extract powder. This sWRE formulation inhibited breast cancer cell motility and invasion at concentrations less than 1µM while having negligible cytotoxicity at this dose. sWRE treatment disrupted vimentin morphology in cell lines, confirming its vimentin inhibitory activity. To determine if sWRE inhibited EMT, TGF-β was used to induce EMT in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells. In this case, sWRE prevented EMT induction and inhibited 3-D spheroid invasion. These studies were taken into a human xenograft and mouse mammary carcinoma model. In both models, sWRE and Withaferin A showed dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth and metastatic lung nodule formation with minimal systemic toxicity. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that low concentrations of sWRE inhibit cancer metastasis potentially through EMT inhibition. Moreover, these doses of sWRE have nearly no toxicity in normal mouse organs, suggesting the potential for clinical use of orally

  2. Wnt5a as an Effector of TGFβ in Mammary Development and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Stephanie L.; Jiang, Wen; Baxley, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Wnt5a is a member of the Wingless-related/MMTV-integration family of secreted growth factors, which are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Wnt signaling can be broadly divided into two categories the canonical, β-catenin-dependent pathway and the non-canonical β-catenin-independent pathway. Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling member of the Wnt family. Loss of Wnt5a is associated with early relapse of invasive breast cancer, increased metastasis, and poor survival in humans. It has been shown that TGF-β directly regulates expression of Wnt5a in mammary gland and that Wnt5a mediates the effects of TGF-β on branching during mammary gland development. Here we review the evidence suggesting Wnt5a acts as an effector of TGF-β actions in breast cancer. It is suggested that the tumor suppressive functions of TGF-β involve Wnt5a-mediated antagonism of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and limiting the stem cell population. Interactions between TGF-β and Wnt5a in metastasis appear to be more complex, and may depend on specific cues from the microenvironment as well as activation of specific intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:21416313

  3. A mammary adenocarcinoma murine model suitable for the study of cancer immunoediting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer immunoediting is a dynamic process composed of three phases: elimination (EL), equilibrium (EQ) and escape (ES) that encompasses the potential host-protective and tumor-sculpting functions of the immune system throughout tumor development. Animal models are useful tools for studying diseases such as cancer. The present study was designed to characterize the interaction between mammary adenocarcinoma M-406 and CBi, CBi− and CBi/L inbred mice lines. Results The mammary adenocarcinoma M-406 developed spontaneously in a CBi mouse. CBi/L and CBi− mice were artificially selected for body conformation from CBi. When CBi mice are s.c. challenged with M-406, tumor growths exponentially in 100% of animals, while in CBi− the tumor growths briefly and then begins a rejection process in 100% of the animals. In CBi/L the growth of the tumor shows the three phases: 51.6% in ES, 18.5% in EQ and 29.8% in EL. Conclusions The results obtained support the conclusion that the system M-406 plus the inbred mouse lines CBi, CBi− and CBi/L, is a good murine model to study the process of tumor immunoediting. PMID:24885995

  4. Collagen induced arthritis increases secondary metastasis in MMTV-PyV MT mouse model of mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated that sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA). Although AA and cancer are different diseases, many of the underlying processes that contribute to the disorders of the joints and connective tissue that characterize AA also affect cancer progression and metastasis. Systemically, AA can lead to cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge being available, there has been minimal research linking breast cancer, arthritis, and metastasis associated with breast cancer. Notably both diseases are extremely prevalent in older post-menopausal women. Methods To establish the novel link between arthritis induced inflammation and secondary metastasis associated with breast cancer, PyV MT mice that spontaneously develop mammary gland carcinoma were injected with Type II collagen (CII) to induce arthritis at 9 and 18 weeks of age for pre-metastatic and metastatic condition. The sites of secondary metastasis and the associated inflammatory microenvironment were evaluated. Results A significant increase in breast cancer-associated secondary metastasis to the lungs and bones was observed in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic PyV MT mice along with an increase in primary tumor burden. We report significant increases in the levels of interstitial cellular infiltrates and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Pro- Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Pro-MMP9), insulin like growth factor-II (GF-II) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the arthritic lung and bone milieu as well as in the circulation. These pro-inflammatory cytokines along with the inflammatory microenvironment may be the underlying factors facilitating tumor

  5. Collagen induced arthritis increases secondary metastasis in MMTV-PyV MT mouse model of mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Roy, Lopamudra Das; Ghosh, Sriparna; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2011-08-22

    Several studies have demonstrated that sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA). Although AA and cancer are different diseases, many of the underlying processes that contribute to the disorders of the joints and connective tissue that characterize AA also affect cancer progression and metastasis. Systemically, AA can lead to cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge being available, there has been minimal research linking breast cancer, arthritis, and metastasis associated with breast cancer. Notably both diseases are extremely prevalent in older post-menopausal women. To establish the novel link between arthritis induced inflammation and secondary metastasis associated with breast cancer, PyV MT mice that spontaneously develop mammary gland carcinoma were injected with Type II collagen (CII) to induce arthritis at 9 and 18 weeks of age for pre-metastatic and metastatic condition. The sites of secondary metastasis and the associated inflammatory microenvironment were evaluated. A significant increase in breast cancer-associated secondary metastasis to the lungs and bones was observed in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic PyV MT mice along with an increase in primary tumor burden. We report significant increases in the levels of interstitial cellular infiltrates and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Pro- Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Pro-MMP9), insulin like growth factor-II (GF-II) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) in the arthritic lung and bone milieu as well as in the circulation. These pro-inflammatory cytokines along with the inflammatory microenvironment may be the underlying factors facilitating tumor progression and metastasis in

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce obesity-induced tumor progression independent of GPR120 in a mouse model of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, H; Lee, Y S; Mayoral, R; Oh, D Y; Siu, J T; Webster, N J; Sears, D D; Olefsky, J M; Ellies, L G

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and inflammation are both risk factors for a variety of cancers, including breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) decreases the risk of breast cancer, and also reduces obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, but whether the two effects are related is currently unknown. We tested this hypothesis in a postmenopausal breast cancer model using ovariectomized, immune-competent female mice orthotopically injected with Py230 mammary tumor cells. Obesity, whether triggered genetically or by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, increased inflammation in the mammary fat pad and promoted mammary tumorigenesis. The presence of tumor cells in the mammary fat pad further enhanced the local inflammatory milieu. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was the most highly upregulated cytokine in the obese mammary fat pad, and we observed that TNF-α dose-dependently stimulated Py230 cell growth in vitro. An ω-3 PUFA-enriched HFD (referred to as fish oil diet, FOD) reduced inflammation in the obese mammary fat pad in the absence of tumor cells and inhibited Py230 tumor growth in vivo. Although some anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3 PUFAs were previously shown to be mediated by the G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), the FOD reduced Py230 tumor burden in GPR120-deficient mice to a similar degree as observed in wild-type mice, indicating that the effect of FOD to reduce tumor growth does not require GPR120 in the host mouse. Instead, in vitro studies demonstrated that ω-3 PUFAs act directly on tumor cells to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase, inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. Our results show that obesity promotes mammary tumor progression in this model of postmenopausal breast cancer and that ω-3 PUFAs, independent of GPR120, inhibit mammary tumor progression in obese mice.

  7. Increased presence of stromal myofibroblasts and tenascin-C with malignant progression in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Michishita, M; Ohkusu-Tsukada, K; Takahashi, K

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether the appearance of stromal myofibroblasts and the expression of tenascin-C (Tn-C) correlate with the grade of malignancy in canine mammary tumors and to determine the main cellular source of Tn-C in these tumors. Single or double immunostaining using antibodies against α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Tn-C was performed on serial sections of normal canine mammary glands as well as those with lobular hyperplasia, simple adenoma, and simple carcinoma. Thirty-nine of 42 simple carcinomas (93%) exhibited stromal α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts and Tn-C expression. Only 6 of 11 cases of simple adenoma (55%) showed these changes, whereas no changes were observed in normal mammary gland tissue or cases of lobular hyperplasia. The distribution of stromal Tn-C correlated with the presence of myofibroblasts. However, Tn-C immunoreactivity was also occasionally observed in the basement membrane zone surrounding the myoepithelial layer in normal tissue, benign lesions, and tubulopapillary carcinomas. This pattern of staining was not related to the presence of myofibroblasts. The appearance of stromal myofibroblasts and expression of Tn-C were significantly correlated with higher histological grades of malignancy and vascular/lymphatic invasion in simple carcinomas. Stromal myofibroblasts appear to be a major cellular source of Tn-C and play an important role in the development of canine mammary tumors. The Tn-C expressed in the basement membrane zone of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic mammary tissue, which is likely produced by neighboring myoepithelial cells, may differ functionally from the Tn-C produced by myofibroblasts.

  8. Antiproliferative Effects of Oxytocin and Desmopressin on Canine Mammary Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benavente, Micaela Andrea; Bianchi, Carolina Paula; Imperiale, Fernanda; Aba, Marcelo Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasms of the mammary gland represent the most frequent tumor type in the female dog, and according to the histologic criteria, approximately 50% of them are malignant. In the most aggressive cases of mammary cancer, surgery is not enough to warrant a favorable outcome, and adjuvant therapies are needed to improve the patient’s overall survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two peptides on proliferation of a canine mammary cancer cell line derived from a simple carcinoma. The cell line CMT-U27 was grown in 96-well plates, at two cell densities (4 × 103 and 8 × 103 cells/well). Cultures were treated with oxytocin (OT) or desmopressin at five concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 nM). After 72 h of incubation, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Results showed that with 4 × 103 cells/well, OT at 50, 500, and 1000 nM was growth inhibitory for the cells, being statistically significant at 1000 nM. On the contrary, no antiproliferative effect was observed with 10 or 100 nM. At 8 × 103 cells/well, OT showed a significant antiproliferative effect only with the highest concentration (1000 nM). Desmopressin at 4 × 103 cells/well decreased cell viability at concentrations of 50, 100, 500, and 1000 nM (statistically significant with the highest concentration), while no effect was observed with 10 nM. With 8 × 103 cells/well, this peptide reduced cell growth at 100, 500, and 1000 nM. In conclusion, we suggest that these peptides may be potential and promising compounds for the treatment of dogs with simple carcinomas of the mammary gland. In vivo studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:28083539

  9. Antiproliferative Effects of Oxytocin and Desmopressin on Canine Mammary Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Benavente, Micaela Andrea; Bianchi, Carolina Paula; Imperiale, Fernanda; Aba, Marcelo Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasms of the mammary gland represent the most frequent tumor type in the female dog, and according to the histologic criteria, approximately 50% of them are malignant. In the most aggressive cases of mammary cancer, surgery is not enough to warrant a favorable outcome, and adjuvant therapies are needed to improve the patient's overall survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of two peptides on proliferation of a canine mammary cancer cell line derived from a simple carcinoma. The cell line CMT-U27 was grown in 96-well plates, at two cell densities (4 × 10(3) and 8 × 10(3) cells/well). Cultures were treated with oxytocin (OT) or desmopressin at five concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 nM). After 72 h of incubation, cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Results showed that with 4 × 10(3) cells/well, OT at 50, 500, and 1000 nM was growth inhibitory for the cells, being statistically significant at 1000 nM. On the contrary, no antiproliferative effect was observed with 10 or 100 nM. At 8 × 10(3) cells/well, OT showed a significant antiproliferative effect only with the highest concentration (1000 nM). Desmopressin at 4 × 10(3) cells/well decreased cell viability at concentrations of 50, 100, 500, and 1000 nM (statistically significant with the highest concentration), while no effect was observed with 10 nM. With 8 × 10(3) cells/well, this peptide reduced cell growth at 100, 500, and 1000 nM. In conclusion, we suggest that these peptides may be potential and promising compounds for the treatment of dogs with simple carcinomas of the mammary gland. In vivo studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  11. Luminal Progenitors Restrict Their Lineage Potential during Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes. PMID:25688859

  12. NCI Dictionary | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Secondhand Smoke | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Fat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Custom Report | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. About the Report | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Stage at Diagnosis | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Chemical Exposures | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Early Detection | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Youth Tobacco Use | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Tobacco Use Initiation | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Director's Message | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Data Sources | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Basic Research and Progress against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against cancer. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of crizotinib (Xalkori®) to treat certain non-small cell lung cancers.

  6. Indoor Tanning | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Physical Activity | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Tobacco Use | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. End of Life | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Report Highlights | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Summary Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Contact Us | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Adult Tobacco Use | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Frequently Asked Questions | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Quitting Smoking | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. HPV Immunization | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Smoking Cessation | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Prevention Summary Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Treatment Summary Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Data Resources | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Secondhand Smoke Exposure | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Contact Us | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Red Meat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Indoor Tanning | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Secondhand Smoke | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. Shows the milestones that led to development and approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin®) to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  7. In-silico QTL mapping of postpubertal mammary ductal development in the mouse uncovers potential human breast cancer risk loci

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic background plays a dominant role in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BrCa). Despite this, the role of genetics is only partially understood. This study used strain-dependent variation in an inbred mouse mapping panel, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying structura...

  8. Associated expressions of FGFR-2 and FGFR-3: from mouse mammary gland physiology to human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cerliani, Juan P; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Piñero, Cecilia Pérez; Bottino, María C; Sahores, Ana; Nuñez, Myriam; Varchetta, Romina; Martins, Rubén; Zeitlin, Eduardo; Hewitt, Stephen M; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Lanari, Claudia; Lamb, Caroline A

    2012-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are tyrosine kinase receptors which have been implicated in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate FGFR-1, -2, -3, and -4 protein expressions in normal murine mammary gland development, and in murine and human breast carcinomas. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot, we report a hormonal regulation of FGFR during postnatal mammary gland development. Progestin treatment of adult virgin mammary glands resulted in changes in localization of FGFR-3 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, while treatment with 17-β-estradiol induced changes in the expressions and/or localizations of FGFR-2 and -3. In murine mammary carcinomas showing different degrees of hormone dependence, we found progestin-induced increased expressions, mainly of FGFR-2 and -3. These receptors were constitutively activated in hormone-independent variants. We studied three luminal human breast cancer cell lines growing as xenografts, which particularly expressed FGFR-2 and -3, suggesting a correlation between hormonal status and FGFR expression. Most importantly, in breast cancer samples from 58 patients, we found a strong association (P < 0.01; Spearman correlation) between FGFR-2 and -3 expressions and a weaker correlation of each receptor with estrogen receptor expression. FGFR-4 correlated with c-erbB2 over expression. We conclude that FGFR-2 and -3 may be mechanistically linked and can be potential targets for treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients.

  9. Overexpression of LMO4 induces mammary hyperplasia, promotes cell invasion, and is a predictor of poor outcome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sum, Eleanor Y. M.; Segara, Davendra; Duscio, Belinda; Bath, Mary L.; Field, Andrew S.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Visvader, Jane E.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc finger protein LMO4 is overexpressed in a high proportion of breast carcinomas. Here, we report that overexpression of a mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Lmo4 transgene in the mouse mammary gland elicits hyperplasia and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia or adenosquamous carcinoma in two transgenic strains with a tumor latency of 13–18 months. To investigate cellular processes controlled by LMO4 and those that may be deregulated during oncogenesis, we used RNA interference. Down-regulation of LMO4 expression reduced proliferation of human breast cancer cells and increased differentiation of mouse mammary epithelial cells. Furthermore, small-interfering-RNA-transfected breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) had a reduced capacity to migrate and invade an extracellular matrix. Conversely, overexpression of LMO4 in noninvasive, immortalized human MCF10A cells promoted cell motility and invasion. Significantly, in a cohort of 159 primary breast cancers, high nuclear levels of LMO4 were an independent predictor of death from breast cancer. Together, these findings suggest that deregulation of LMO4 in breast epithelium contributes directly to breast neoplasia by altering the rate of cellular proliferation and promoting cell invasion. PMID:15897450

  10. Exercise-induced muscle-derived cytokines inhibit mammary cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Pernille; Dethlefsen, Christine; Brandt, Claus; Hansen, Jakob; Pedersen, Line; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2011-09-01

    Regular physical activity protects against the development of breast and colon cancer, since it reduces the risk of developing these by 25-30%. During exercise, humoral factors are released from the working muscles for endocrinal signaling to other organs. We hypothesized that these myokines mediate some of the inhibitory effects of exercise on mammary cancer cell proliferation. Serum and muscles were collected from mice after an exercise bout. Incubation with exercise-conditioned serum inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by 52% and increased caspase activity by 54%. A similar increase in caspase activity was found after incubation of MCF-7 cells with conditioned media from electrically stimulated myotubes. PCR array analysis (CAPM-0838E; SABiosciences) revealed that seven genes were upregulated in the muscles after exercise, and of these oncostatin M (OSM) proved to inhibit MCF-7 proliferation by 42%, increase caspase activity by 46%, and induce apoptosis. Blocking OSM signaling with anti-OSM antibodies reduced the induction of caspase activity by 51%. To verify that OSM was a myokine, we showed that it was significantly upregulated in serum and in three muscles, tibialis cranialis, gastronemius, and soleus, after an exercise bout. In contrast, OSM expression remained unchanged in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, liver, and spleen (mononuclear cells). We conclude that postexercise serum inhibits mammary cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of these cells. We suggest that one or more myokines secreted from working muscles may be mediating this effect and that OSM is a possible candidate. These findings emphasize that role of physical activity in cancer treatment, showing a direct link between exercise-induced humoral factors and decreased tumor cell growth.

  11. Epistatic Control of Mammary Cancer Susceptibility in Mice may Depend on the Dietary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Leamy, Larry J.; Gordon, Ryan R.; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked a high fat diet to the development of breast cancer, but any genetic basis for this association is poorly understood. We investigated this association with an epistatic analysis of seven cancer traits in a segregating population of mice with metastatic mammary cancer that were fed either a control or a high-fat diet. We used an interval mapping approach with single nucleotide polymorphisms to scan all 19 autosomes, and discovered a number of diet-independent epistatic interactions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting these traits. More importantly, we also discovered significant epistatic by diet interactions affecting some of the traits that suggested these epistatic effects varied depending on the dietary environment. An analysis of these interactions showed some were due to epistasis that occurred in mice fed only the control diet or only the high-fat diet whereas other interactions were generated by differential effects of epistasis in the two dietary environments. Some of the epistatic QTLs appeared to colocalize with cancer QTLs mapped in other mouse populations and with candidate genes identified from eQTLs previously mapped in this population, but others represented novel modifying loci affecting these cancer traits. It was concluded that these diet-dependent epistatic QTLs contribute to a genetic susceptibility of dietary effects on breast cancer, and their identification may eventually lead to a better understanding that will be needed for the design of more effective treatments for this disease. PMID:24558641

  12. Evaluation of the circulating glycoprotein CA549 in mammary cancer and other malignancies.

    PubMed

    Clocchiatti, L; De Biasi, F; Cartei, G; Sibau, A; Vigevani, E; Signor, M; Giovannoni, M; Ceschia, V; Di Chiara, F; Grandis, S

    1991-10-31

    A prospective study was carried out on a recent marker for breast cancer, CA549, a mucine-like acid glycoprotein present in the fat membranes of human milk. Fifty healthy control subjects and 91 with benign conditions, 103 mammary cancer patients and 256 patients with other types of malignancy were studied. For comparison, CEA and CA15-3 were also investigated. The CA549 cutoff was 11 U/ml. In breast cancer the marker was below the cutoff in 9 cases (92.8%); in malignancies other than breast cancer it was above the cutoff in 5 to 50% of patients. In breast cancer it was raised in 83.3% of cases (CA15-3 showed 82.9% and CEA 50%). In breast cancer after radical surgery, CA549 was normal in patients who were in TNM stage I but above the cutoff in 57.1% of those at more advanced stages. The follow-up study is ongoing among these patients. In all the study conditions, CA549 favorably compared to CA15-3 values, with sensitivity and specificity greater than CEA.

  13. Histone Demethylase JMJD2B Functions as a Co-Factor of Estrogen Receptor in Breast Cancer Proliferation and Mammary Gland Development

    PubMed Central

    Kawazu, Masahito; McQuire, Tracy; Goto, Kouichiro; Son, Dong-Ok; Wakeham, Andrew; Miyagishi, Makoto; Mak, Tak W.; Okada, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen is a key regulator of normal function of female reproductive system and plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that JMJD2B (also known as KDM4B) constitutes a key component of the estrogen signaling pathway. JMJD2B is expressed in a high proportion of human breast tumors, and that expression levels significantly correlate with estrogen receptor (ER) positivity. In addition, 17-beta-estradiol (E2) induces JMJD2B expression in an ERα dependent manner. JMJD2B interacts with ERα and components of the SWI/SNF-B chromatin remodeling complex. JMJD2B is recruited to ERα target sites, demethylates H3K9me3 and facilitates transcription of ER responsive genes including MYB, MYC and CCND1. As a consequence, knockdown of JMJD2B severely impairs estrogen-induced cell proliferation and the tumor formation capacity of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Jmjd2b-deletion in mammary epithelial cells exhibits delayed mammary gland development in female mice. Taken together, these findings suggest an essential role for JMJD2B in the estrogen signaling, and identify JMJD2B as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:21445275

  14. The caM kinase, Pnck, is spatially and temporally regulated during murine mammary gland development and may identify an epithelial cell subtype involved in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gardner, H P; Ha, S I; Reynolds, C; Chodosh, L A

    2000-10-01

    While screening for protein kinases expressed in the murine mammary gland, we identified previously a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase, Pnck, that is most closely related to CaMKI. In this report, we show that Pnck is temporally regulated during murine mammary development with highest levels of expression observed late in pregnancy, concomitant with the decreased cellular proliferation and terminal differentiation of the mammary epithelium. Consistent with this finding, Pnck is up-regulated in confluent mammary epithelial cells and is down-regulated as serum-starved cells are stimulated to reenter the cell cycle. In the mammary gland, Pnck is expressed in an epithelial-specific and markedly heterogeneous manner, suggesting that the expression of this kinase may be restricted to a particular mammary epithelial cell type. Potentially related to its heterogeneous in vivo expression pattern, Pnck expression is oncogene-associated in murine epithelial cell lines derived from mammary tumors arising in different transgenic mouse models of breast cancer; cell lines derived from mammary tumors initiated by c-myc or int-2/Fgf3 express Pnck, whereas cell lines initiated by neu or H-ras do not. In an analogous manner, expression of the human homologue of Pnck is restricted to a subset of human breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, PNCK was found to be highly overexpressed in a subset of human primary human breast cancers compared with benign mammary tissue. Together, our data suggest that Pnck may play a role in mammary development, and that expression of this kinase may be restricted to a mammary epithelial cell type that is transformed in a subset of human breast cancers.

  15. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Shan; Li, Hui-Juan; Cong, Bin-Bin; Sun, Xiao; Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Chun-Jian; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-11-08

    With the improvement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the proportion of pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast and axillary lymph node (ALN) is increasing. The evaluation of pCR does not include the status of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN). This study is to evaluate the roles of both axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (ASLNB) and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) in breast cancer patients after NAC. There were 74 patients enrolled into this study. IM-SLNB was performed on patients with radioactive internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN). Patients (n = 8) with cN0 and ycN0 received ASLNB, and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in cases of positive axillary sentinel lymph node (ASLN). Patients (n = 48) with cN+ but ycN0 received ASLNB and ALND. Patients (n = 18) with ycN+ received ALND without ASLNB. The visualization rate of IM-SLN was 56.8% (42/74). The success rate of IM-SLNB was 97.6% (41/42) and the metastasis rate of IM-SLN was 7.3% (3/41). The success rate of ASLNB was 100% (56/56). The false negative rate (FNR) of ASLNB was 17.2% (5/29). The FNR in patients with 1, 2 and ≥ 3ASLNs examined was 27.3% (3/11), 20.0% (2/10) and 0% (0/8) respectively. ASLNB could be performed on ycN0 after NAC, and ALND should be performed on initially ALN-positive patients. IM-SLNB should be considered after NAC, especially for patients with clinically positive axillary nodes before NAC, which might help make clear of the pathological nodal staging of both ALN and IMLN, improve the definition of nodal pCR, and guide the individual adjuvant regional and systemic therapy.

  16. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-Shan; Li, Hui-Juan; Cong, Bin-Bin; Sun, Xiao; Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Chun-Jian; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the proportion of pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast and axillary lymph node (ALN) is increasing. The evaluation of pCR does not include the status of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN). This study is to evaluate the roles of both axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (ASLNB) and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) in breast cancer patients after NAC. There were 74 patients enrolled into this study. IM-SLNB was performed on patients with radioactive internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN). Patients (n = 8) with cN0 and ycN0 received ASLNB, and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in cases of positive axillary sentinel lymph node (ASLN). Patients (n = 48) with cN+ but ycN0 received ASLNB and ALND. Patients (n = 18) with ycN+ received ALND without ASLNB. The visualization rate of IM-SLN was 56.8% (42/74). The success rate of IM-SLNB was 97.6% (41/42) and the metastasis rate of IM-SLN was 7.3% (3/41). The success rate of ASLNB was 100% (56/56). The false negative rate (FNR) of ASLNB was 17.2% (5/29). The FNR in patients with 1, 2 and ≥ 3ASLNs examined was 27.3% (3/11), 20.0% (2/10) and 0% (0/8) respectively. ASLNB could be performed on ycN0 after NAC, and ALND should be performed on initially ALN-positive patients. IM-SLNB should be considered after NAC, especially for patients with clinically positive axillary nodes before NAC, which might help make clear of the pathological nodal staging of both ALN and IMLN, improve the definition of nodal pCR, and guide the individual adjuvant regional and systemic therapy. PMID:27738336

  17. Radiation therapy for operable breast cancer: sixty years of progress as seen through the articles published in the journal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Freedman, G M

    2008-10-01

    This review examined the 60 years of progress made in treating breast cancer from the unique perspective of the reader of Cancer, with a specific emphasis on the evolution of radiation therapy, constituting a survey of the published articles in each decade, and the standards of treatment and controversies of their times that they portray, in 3 major areas: radiation as an adjuvant therapy to mastectomy, radiation for internal mammary lymph node treatment, and radiation with breast-conserving surgery as an alternative to mastectomy.

  18. [Incidental internal mammary lymph node biopsy in 113 cases of breast cancer undergoingfree abdominal flap breast reconstruction and its influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Quan, C L; Huang, N S; Yang, B L; Wang, Y; Cao, A Y; Zhang, Y Y; Huang, X Y; Chen, J J; Shen, Z Z; Shao, Z M; Wu, J

    2016-10-23

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to determine the clinical value of incidental internal mammary lymph node biopsy in free abdominal flap breast reconstruction using internal mammary vessels as recipient vessels and to investigate the risk factors of internal mammary lymph nodes metastasis. Methods: The clinical data of all patients who underwent free abdominal flap breast reconstruction using internal mammary vessels as recipient vessels from November 2006 to December 2015 in the Department of Breast Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center were reviewed in the study. The incidence of internal mammary lymph node biopsy and the rate of metastasis were analyzed. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the risk factors of internal mammary lymph node metastasis. Results: A total of 113 patients met the inclusion criteria, 53 (46.9%) of whom had internal mammary lymph nodes harvested. Four of these were positive for metastatic disease, all in immediate breast reconstructions. The incidence of metastasis was 7.5% in patients who had successful internal mammary lymph node biopsies.The multi-variate Logistic regression analysis showed that invasive tumor size, tumor location and axillary lymph node metastasis were not risk factors for internal mammary lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). Conclusions: Internal mammary lymph nodes found incidentally during recipient vessel exposure may provide important information about internal mammary lymph node metastasis in free flap breast reconstruction. This approach for internal mammary lymph node biopsy reveals an appreciable success rate and is convenient in clinical practice. The size of invasive tumor and the axillary lymph node metastasis are probably associated with internal mammary lymph node positivity.

  19. Differential Subcellular Localization Renders HAI-2 a Matriptase Inhibitor in Breast Cancer Cells but Not in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiang-Hua D.; Xu, Yuan; Lai, Hongyu; Yang, Xiaoyu; Tseng, Chun-Che; Lai, Ying-Jung J.; Pan, Yu; Zhou, Emily; Johnson, Michael D.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 transmembrane serine protease matriptase is under tight control primarily by the actions of the integral membrane Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor HAI-1. Growing evidence indicates that HAI-2 might also be involved in matriptase inhibition in some contexts. Here we showed that matriptase inhibition by HAI-2 depends on the subcellular localizations of HAI-2, and is observed in breast cancer cells but not in mammary epithelial cells. HAI-2 is co-expressed with matriptase in 21 out of 26 human epithelial and carcinoma cells examined. HAI-2 is also a potent matriptase inhibitor in solution, but in spite of this, HAI-2 inhibition of matriptase is not observed in all contexts where HAI-2 is expressed, unlike what is seen for HAI-1. Induction of matriptase zymogen activation in mammary epithelial cells results in the formation of matriptase-HAI-1 complexes, but matriptase-HAI-2 complexes are not observed. In breast cancer cells, however, in addition to the appearance of matriptase-HAI-1 complex, three different matriptase-HAI-2 complexes, are formed following the induction of matriptase activation. Immunofluorescent staining reveals that activated matriptase is focused at the cell-cell junctions upon the induction of matriptase zymogen activation in both mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. HAI-2, in contrast, remains localized in vesicle/granule-like structures during matriptase zymogen activation in human mammary epithelial cells. In breast cancer cells, however, a proportion of the HAI-2 reaches the cell surface where it can gain access to and inhibit active matriptase. Collectively, these data suggest that matriptase inhibition by HAI-2 requires the translocation of HAI-2 to the cell surface, a process which is observed in some breast cancer cells but not in mammary epithelial cells. PMID:25786220

  20. A model of spontaneous mouse mammary tumor for human estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, LIXIANG; ZHOU, BUGAO; MENG, XIANMING; ZHU, WEIFENG; ZUO, AIREN; WANG, XIAOMIN; JIANG, RUNDE; YU, SHIPING

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently malignancy in women. Therefore, establishment of an animal model for the development of preventative measures and effective treatment for tumors is required. A novel heterogeneous spontaneous mammary tumor animal model of Kunming mice was generated. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spontaneous mammary tumor model. Histopathologically, invasive nodular masses of pleomorphic tubular neoplastic epithelial cells invaded fibro-vascular stroma, adjacent dermis and muscle tissue. Metastatic spread through blood vessel into liver and lungs was observed by hematoxylin eosin staining. No estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) immunoreactivity was detected in their associated malignant tumors, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) protein weak expression was found by immunohistochemistry. High expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), moderate or high expression of c-Myc and cyclin D1 were observed in tumor sections at different stages (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after cancer being found) when compared with that of the normal mammary glands. The result showed that the model is of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Remarkably in the mouse model, ER and PR-negative and HER2 weak positivity are observed. The high or moderate expressions of breast cancer markers (VEGF, c-Myc and cyclin D1) in mammary cancer tissue change at different stages. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous mammary model displaying colony-strain, outbred mice. This model will be an attractive tool to understand the biology of anti-hormonal breast cancer in women. PMID:25230850

  1. Annexin A8 is up-regulated during mouse mammary gland involution and predicts poor survival in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stein, Torsten; Price, Karen N; Morris, Joanna S; Heath, Victoria J; Ferrier, Roderick K; Bell, Alexandra K; Pringle, Marie-Anne; Villadsen, René; Petersen, Ole W; Sauter, Guido; Bryson, Gareth; Mallon, Elizabeth A; Gusterson, Barry A

    2005-10-01

    Microarray studies have linked Annexin A8 RNA expression to a "basal cell-like" subset of breast cancers, including BRCA1-related cancers, that are characterized by cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and CK17 expression and show poor prognosis. We assessed Annexin A8's contribution to the overall prognosis and its expression in normal, benign, and cancerous tissue and addressed Annexin A8's physiologic role in the mammary gland. Using microarrays and reverse transcription-PCR, the Annexin A8 expression was studied during mouse mammary gland development and in isolated mammary structures. Reverse transcription-PCR on cultured human luminal and basal cells, along with immunocytochemistry on normal and benign breast tissues, was used for cellular localization. Annexin A8's prognostic relevance and its coexpression with CK5 were assessed on tissue arrays of 1,631 cases of invasive breast cancer. Coexpression was further evaluated on a small cohort of 14 BRCA1-related breast cancers. Annexin A8 was up-regulated during mouse mammary gland involution and in pubertal ductal epithelium. Annexin A8 showed preferred expression in cultured basal cells but predominant luminal expression in normal human breast tissue in vivo. Hyperplasias and in situ carcinomas showed a strong staining of basal cells. Annexin A8 expression was significantly associated with grade (P < 0.0001), CK5 (P < 0.0001), and estrogen receptor status (P < 0.0001); 85.7% BRCA1-related breast tumors coexpressed Annexin A8 and CK5. Annexin A8 is involved in mouse mammary gland involution. In humans, it is a luminally expressed protein with basal expression in cell culture and in hyperplasia/ductal carcinoma in situ. Expression in invasive breast carcinomas has a significant effect on survival (P = 0.03) but is not independent of grade or CK5.

  2. Differential subcellular localization renders HAI-2 a matriptase inhibitor in breast cancer cells but not in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsiang-Hua D; Xu, Yuan; Lai, Hongyu; Yang, Xiaoyu; Tseng, Chun-Che; Lai, Ying-Jung J; Pan, Yu; Zhou, Emily; Johnson, Michael D; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 transmembrane serine protease matriptase is under tight control primarily by the actions of the integral membrane Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor HAI-1. Growing evidence indicates that HAI-2 might also be involved in matriptase inhibition in some contexts. Here we showed that matriptase inhibition by HAI-2 depends on the subcellular localizations of HAI-2, and is observed in breast cancer cells but not in mammary epithelial cells. HAI-2 is co-expressed with matriptase in 21 out of 26 human epithelial and carcinoma cells examined. HAI-2 is also a potent matriptase inhibitor in solution, but in spite of this, HAI-2 inhibition of matriptase is not observed in all contexts where HAI-2 is expressed, unlike what is seen for HAI-1. Induction of matriptase zymogen activation in mammary epithelial cells results in the formation of matriptase-HAI-1 complexes, but matriptase-HAI-2 complexes are not observed. In breast cancer cells, however, in addition to the appearance of matriptase-HAI-1 complex, three different matriptase-HAI-2 complexes, are formed following the induction of matriptase activation. Immunofluorescent staining reveals that activated matriptase is focused at the cell-cell junctions upon the induction of matriptase zymogen activation in both mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. HAI-2, in contrast, remains localized in vesicle/granule-like structures during matriptase zymogen activation in human mammary epithelial cells. In breast cancer cells, however, a proportion of the HAI-2 reaches the cell surface where it can gain access to and inhibit active matriptase. Collectively, these data suggest that matriptase inhibition by HAI-2 requires the translocation of HAI-2 to the cell surface, a process which is observed in some breast cancer cells but not in mammary epithelial cells.

  3. Mammary stem cells and breast cancer--role of Notch signalling.

    PubMed

    Farnie, Gillian; Clarke, Robert B

    2007-06-01

    Adult stem cells are found in numerous tissues of the body and play a role in tissue development, replacement and repair. Evidence shows that breast stem cells are multipotent and can self renew, which are key characteristics of stem cells, and a single cell enriched with cell surface markers has the ability to grow a fully functional mammary gland in vivo. Many groups have extrapolated the cancer stem cell hypothesis from the haematopoietic system to solid cancers, where using in vitro culture techniques and in vivo transplant models have established evidence of cancer stem cells in colon, pancreas, prostate, brain and breast cancers. In the report we describe the evidence for breast cancer stem cells; studies consistently show that stem cell like and breast cancer initiating populations can be enriched using cell surface makers CD44+/CD24- and have upregulated genes which include Notch. Notch signalling has been highlighted as a pathway involved in the development of the breast and is frequently dysregulated in invasive breast cancer. We have investigated the role of Notch in a pre-invasive breast lesion, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and have found that aberrant activation of Notch signalling is an early event in breast cancer. High expression of Notch 1 intracellular domain (NICD) in DCIS also predicted a reduced time to recurrence 5 years after surgery. Using a non-adherent sphere culture technique we have grown DCIS mammospheres from primary DCIS tissue, where self-renewal capacity, measured by the number of mammosphere initiating cells, were increased from normal breast tissue. A gamma-secretase inhibitor, DAPT, which inhibits all four Notch receptors and a Notch 4 neutralising antibody were shown to reduce DCIS mammosphere formation, indicating that Notch signalling and other stem cell self-renewal pathways may represent novel therapeutic targets to prevent recurrence of pre-invasive and invasive breast cancer.

  4. Internal Mammary Sentinel Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer. Is it Indicated?

    PubMed

    Maráz, R; Boross, G; Pap-Szekeres, J; Rajtár, M; Ambrózay, E; Cserni, G

    2014-01-01

    Axillary sentinel node (A-SN) biopsy is a standard procedure in breast cancer surgery. Sampling of intenal mammary sentinel nodes (IM-SN) is not performed routinly, although it is also considered an important prognostic factor of breast cancer. The role of this latter procedure was investigated in cases of IM-SN visualized on lymphoscintigraphy. Between January 2001 and June 2012 1542 patients with clinically node negative operable primary breast cancer had sentinel node biopsy (SNB). Both axillary and IM-SN were sampled (whenever detected), based on lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative gamma probe detection and blu dye mapping. Lymphoscintigraphy showed IM-SN in 83 cases. IM-SN biopsy (IM-SNB) was succesfull in 77 patients (93%). A total of 86 IM-SNs were removed. IM-SN involvement was identified in 14 cases, representing 18% of patients who underwent IM-SNB. This included macrometastases (MAC) in 5 cases, micrometastases (MIC) in 2 cases, isolated tumor cells (ITC) in 7 cases. No significant differences were found between patients with and without IM-SN involvement in terms of age, tumor location, tumor size, axillary involvement, tumor grade or estrogen receptor status. The IM-SN involvement has lead to new therapeutic indications in 2 cases (2.6%), both of them due to MAC in the IM-SN: in 1 case change in chemotherapy and in 1 case change in radiotherapy, with the addition of iradiation of the internal mammary chain. Based on this series and information from the literature, we conclude that the indication for an IM-SNB procedure is very limited and its routine use should not be recommended.

  5. Time-lapse imaging of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakles, Rebecca E; Millman, Sarah L; Cabrera, M Carla; Johnson, Peter; Mueller, Susette; Hoppe, Philipp S; Schroeder, Timm; Furth, Priscilla A

    2013-02-08

    Time-lapse imaging can be used to compare behavior of cultured primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from different genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer. For example, time between cell divisions (cell lifetimes), apoptotic cell numbers, evolution of morphological changes, and mechanism of colony formation can be quantified and compared in cells carrying specific genetic lesions. Primary mammary epithelial cell cultures are generated from mammary glands without palpable tumor. Glands are carefully resected with clear separation from adjacent muscle, lymph nodes are removed, and single-cell suspensions of enriched mammary epithelial cells are generated by mincing mammary tissue followed by enzymatic dissociation and filtration. Single-cell suspensions are plated and placed directly under a microscope within an incubator chamber for live-cell imaging. Sixteen 650 μm x 700 μm fields in a 4x4 configuration from each well of a 6-well plate are imaged every 15 min for 5 days. Time-lapse images are examined directly to measure cellular behaviors that can include mechanism and frequency of cell colony formation within the first 24 hr of plating the cells (aggregation versus cell proliferation), incidence of apoptosis, and phasing of morphological changes. Single-cell tracking is used to generate cell fate maps for measurement of individual cell lifetimes and investigation of cell division patterns. Quantitative data are statistically analyzed to assess for significant differences in behavior correlated with specific genetic lesions.

  6. In vitro delivery of anti-breast cancer agents directly via the mammary papilla (nipple).

    PubMed

    Lee, Lay Ming; Davison, Zoë; Heard, Charles M

    2010-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate, in vitro, the plausibility of a novel method for delivering a combination of anti-breast cancer agents to the breast via the mammary papilla (nipple). Mammary papillae were prepared from freshly excised strips of porcine sow breasts by blunt dissection. Permeation studies were performed using all glass Franz diffusion cells in both upright and lateral position, with drugs examined individually and in combination. Donor phase was comprised of equimolar PD98059, LY294002 and tamoxifen; 2.54x10(-4) mol dissolved in 950 microL fish oil (containing approximately 23% (w/v) eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), 25 microL DMSO and 25 microL 1,8-cineole. Also, 4 or 10% Cabosil M5P (w/v) was added to thicken the formulation. After 6 h, the papillae were recovered, cleaned, centrifuged and extracted thrice with methanol. Pooled extracts were analysed by reversed-phase HPLC. The significance of the papilla orientation was also investigated. When applied singly and laterally, the amount extracted from the porcine breast tissue for PD98059, LY294002 and tamoxifen were 1.83+/-0.30, 10.67+/-1.78 and 0.74+/-0.19x10(-2) micromol g(-1) respectively; applied simultaneously and laterally, 2.03+/-0.14, 4.86+/-0.47 and 0.22+/-0.04x10(-2) micromol g(-1) respectively. With 4% Cabosil formulation, amount extracted for PD98059 and LY294002 were 5.71+/-0.95 and 9.91+/-0.92x10(-2) micromol g(-1) respectively; with 10% formulation, 2.64+/-0.5 and 3.90+/-0.78x10(-2) micromol g(-1) respectively. Tamoxifen was below its limit of detection in both Cabosil M5P formulations. To conclude, localized passive delivery via the mammary papilla is a plausible non-invasive means of delivering anti-breast cancer drugs directly to the breast, in levels that have previously been shown to markedly inhibit the growth of breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. The amounts deliverable may be influenced by differential interactions with the thickening agent and patient orientation.

  7. Amplification of tumor inducing putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) by vitamin A/retinol from mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Rohit B.; Wang, Qingde; Khillan, Jaspal S.

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Vitamin A supports self renewal of putative CSCs from mammary tumors. •These cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism into retinoic acid. •CSCs from mammary tumors differentiate into mammary specific cell lineages. •The cells express mammary stem cell specific CD29 and CD49f markers. •Putative CSCs form highly metastatic tumors in NOD SCID mouse. -- Abstract: Solid tumors contain a rare population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that are responsible for relapse and metastasis. The existence of CSC however, remains highly controversial issue. Here we present the evidence for putative CSCs from mammary tumors amplified by vitamin A/retinol signaling. The cells exhibit mammary stem cell specific CD29{sup hi}/CD49f{sup hi}/CD24{sup hi} markers, resistance to radiation and chemo therapeutic agents and form highly metastatic tumors in NOD/SCID mice. The cells exhibit indefinite self renewal as cell lines. Furthermore, the cells exhibit impaired retinol metabolism and do not express enzymes that metabolize retinol into retinoic acid. Vitamin A/retinol also amplified putative CSCs from breast cancer cell lines that form highly aggressive tumors in NOD SCID mice. The studies suggest that high purity putative CSCs can be isolated from solid tumors to establish patient specific cell lines for personalized therapeutics for pre-clinical translational applications. Characterization of CSCs will allow understanding of basic cellular and molecular pathways that are deregulated, mechanisms of tumor metastasis and evasion of therapies that has direct clinical relevance.

  8. The contribution of growth hormone to mammary neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jo K; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Emerald, B Starling; Mertani, Hichem C; Lobie, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    While the effects of growth hormone (GH) on longitudinal growth are well established, the observation that GH contributes to neoplastic progression is more recent. Accumulating literature implicates GH-mediated signal transduction in the development and progression of a wide range malignancies including breast cancer. Recently autocrine human GH been demonstrated to be an orthotopically expressed oncogene for the human mammary gland. This review will highlight recent evidence linking GH and mammary carcinoma and discuss GH-antagonism as a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:18253708

  9. Dermcidin expression is associated with disease progression and survival among breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Heather Ann; D’Arcy, Monica; Libby, Tanya E.; Thompson, Henry J.; Yasui, Yutaka Y.; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Li, Christopher I.; Troester, Melissa A.; Lampe, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Improved diagnostic screening has led to earlier detection of many tumors, but screening may still miss many aggressive tumor types. Proteomic and genomic profiling studies of breast cancer samples have identified tumor markers that may help improve screening for more aggressive, rapidly growing breast cancers. To identify potential blood-based biomarkers for the early detection of breast cancer, we assayed serum samples via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry from a rat model of mammary carcinogenesis. We found elevated levels of a fragment of the protein dermcidin (DCD) to be associated with early progression of N-methylnitrosourea-induced breast cancer, demonstrating significance at weeks 4 (p = 0.045) and 5 (p = 0.004), a time period during which mammary pathologies rapidly progress from ductal hyperplasia to adenocarcinoma. The highest serum concentrations were observed in rats bearing palpable mammary carcinomas. Increased DCD was also detected with immunoblotting methods in 102 serum samples taken from women just prior to breast cancer diagnosis. To validate these findings in a larger population, we applied a 32-gene in vitro DCD response signature to a dataset of 295 breast tumors and assessed correlation with intrinsic breast cancer subtypes and overall survival. The DCD-derived gene signature was significantly associated with subtype (p < 0.001) and poorer overall survival [HR (95 % CI) = 1.60 (1.01–2.51), p = 0.044]. In conclusion, these results present novel evidence that DCD levels may increase in early carcinogenesis, particularly among more aggressive forms of breast cancer. PMID:24562771

  10. Contribution of xanthine oxidoreductase to mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell differentiation in part modulates inhibitor of differentiation-1.

    PubMed

    Fini, Mehdi A; Monks, Jenifer; Farabaugh, Susan M; Wright, Richard M

    2011-09-01

    Loss of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been linked to aggressive breast cancer in vivo and to breast cancer cell aggressiveness in vitro. In the present study, we hypothesized that the contribution of XOR to the development of the normal mammary gland may underlie its capacity to modulate breast cancer. We contrasted in vitro and in vivo developmental systems by differentiation marker and microarray analyses. Human breast cancer microarray was used for clinical outcome studies. The role of XOR in differentiation and proliferation was examined in human breast cancer cells and in a mouse xenograft model. Our data show that XOR was required for functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Poor XOR expression was observed in a mouse ErbB2 breast cancer model, and pharmacologic inhibition of XOR increased breast cancer tumor burden in mouse xenograft. mRNA microarray analysis of human breast cancer revealed that low XOR expression was significantly associated with time to tumor relapse. The opposing expression of XOR and inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1) during HC11 differentiation and mammary gland development suggested a potential functional relationship. While overexpression of Id1 inhibited HC11 differentiation and XOR expression, XOR itself modulated expression of Id1 in differentiating HC11 cells. Overexpression of XOR both inhibited Id1-induced proliferation and -stimulated differentiation of Heregulin-β1-treated human breast cancer cells. These results show that XOR is an important functional component of differentiation whose diminished expression contributes to breast cancer aggressiveness, and they support XOR as both a breast cancer biomarker and a target for pharmacologic activation in therapeutic management of aggressive breast cancer.

  11. Results of tailored treatment for breast cancer patients with internal mammary lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Heuts, E M; van der Ent, F W C; Hulsewé, K W E; von Meyenfeldt, M F; Voogd, A C

    2009-08-01

    Although the internal mammary (IM) lymph node status is a major prognostic factor in breast cancer, IM nodal staging is not common practice. In order to improve nodal staging, we have routinely performed IM sentinel node (SN) biopsy and have adjusted adjuvant treatment accordingly. We reviewed the outcome of these patients. Data from 764 patients were available for follow-up. A total of 406 patients had no lymph node metastases (group 1), 330 patients had axillary metastases (group 2), 7 patients had IM metastases only (group 3) and 21 patients had both axillary and IM metastases (group 4). Mean follow-up was 46 months. Prognosis did not appear to be worse for patients with IM metastases compared to those with axillary metastases only, which might indicate that they benefit from improved staging and tailored adjuvant treatment algorithms. However, long-term follow-up data, preferably in larger series, are needed to support our findings.

  12. CD44+/CD24- Cancer Stem Cells Are Associated With Higher Grade of Canine Mammary Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Im, K S; Jang, Y G; Shin, J I; Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Lee, S M; Kim, J H; Sur, J H

    2015-11-01

    The CD44+/CD24- phenotype identifies cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in canine mammary carcinoma (MC); however, the histopathological features associated with this phenotype remain to be elucidated. Here, we determined whether the CD44+/CD24- phenotype was associated with hormonal receptor (HR; estrogen receptor [ER] and/or progesterone receptor [PR]) status and/or triple (ER, PR, and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2)-negative (TN) subtype; conventional histological evaluation was also performed. We found that, as single markers, both CD44+ and CD24+ were associated with less aggressive histological types, low grade, and a non-TN subtype; both markers were associated with HR positivity. On the other hand, a CD44+/CD24- phenotype was associated with higher grade of carcinoma. Therefore, our results suggest that immunohistochemical phenotyping for CD44/CD24 is useful for the evaluation of tumor behavior as well as CSC-like properties in canine MCs.

  13. Tyrosine phosphorylation of maspin in normal mammary epithelia and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Odero-Marah, Valerie A; Khalkhali-Ellis, Zhila; Schneider, Galen B; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Seftor, Richard E B; Koland, John G; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2002-07-26

    Maspin is a 42kDa tumor suppressor protein that belongs to the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family. It inhibits cell motility and invasion in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice; however, maspin's molecular mechanism of action has remained elusive. Maspin contains several tyrosine residues and we hypothesized that phosphorylation of maspin could play a role in its biological function. Our study reveals that maspin is phosphorylated on tyrosine moiety(ies) in normal mammary epithelial cells endogenously expressing maspin. In addition, transfection of the maspin gene, using either a stable or inducible system into maspin-deficient breast cancer cell lines, yields a protein product that is phosphorylated on tyrosine residue(s). Furthermore, recombinant maspin protein can be tyrosine-phosphorylated by the kinase domain from the epidermal growth factor receptor in vitro. These novel observations suggest that maspin, which deviates from the classical serpin, may be an important signal transduction molecule in its phosphorylated form.

  14. COX-2 over-expression correlates with VEGF and tumour angiogenesis in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Felisbina L; Pires, Isabel; Parente, Margarida; Gregório, Hugo; Lopes, Carlos S

    2011-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible roles of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in canine mammary cancer angiogenesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 70 tumours (28 benign and 42 malignant) in order to detect COX-2 and VEGF expression. Microvessel density (MVD) was determined by CD31 immunolabelling to assess tumour angiogenesis. There was a significantly higher expression of COX-2 (P<0.001), VEGF (P<0.001) and MVD (P<0.001) in malignant compared to benign tumours. In the malignant group, the MVD of COX-2 positive tumours was significantly higher than that of COX-2 negative tumours (P=0.026). A similar association was observed for VEGF (P<0.001) positive tumours. The results from this study suggested that over-expression of COX-2 and VEGF may contribute to increased angiogenesis and aggression in malignant tumours.

  15. Internal mammary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer: predictive models to assist with prognostic influence.

    PubMed

    Noushi, F; Spillane, A J; Uren, R F; Gebski, V

    2011-06-01

    Metastatic breast cancer in the internal mammary nodes (IMN) indicates a poor prognosis. Several recent epidemiological surveys have determined a reduction in survival for patients with medial compared to lateral sector tumors attributing this to a higher rate of unrecognized IMN metastasis and hence these patients are undertreated with adjuvant therapy.(1-6) Through mathematical modeling based on large datasets we aim to quantify the impact on survival of IMN metastases at different tumor and axillary stages. Mathematical models were created to estimate the survival of patients with and without IMN metastasis. It was assumed that the different rate of survival between medial and lateral sector breast cancers was a result of the differential rate of unrecognized IMN metastases with resultant under-staging and under treatment. We applied these models on a retrospective database analysis from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) registries from 1994 to 2003. The 10-year odds of death (OOD) from breast cancer for patients with medial compared with lateral sector tumors ranged from 1.2 to 1.5 depending on stage. The predicted odds of breast cancer death for patients with unrecognized IMN metastases ranged from 2.4 to 20, with the highest OOD in the groups with small tumors and no axillary node metastasis. Through modeling we have been able to predict and quantify the significantly worse survival outcomes for patients with undiagnosed IMN metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0428 TITLE: MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 JUL 2005 - 14 JUL 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression 5b...We hypothesized that certain miRNA species are differentially expressed in the normal breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. Our concept was that

  17. Delineation of Internal Mammary Nodal Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Krishan R; Kahila, Mohamed M; Hunt, Katie N; Brown, Lindsay C; Corbin, Kimberly S; Park, Sean S; Yan, Elizabeth S; Boughey, Judy C; Mutter, Robert W

    2017-03-15

    The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. The IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishment and Characterization of a New Cell Line of Canine Inflammatory Mammary Cancer: IPC-366

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J.; Illera, Maria J.; Lopez, Mirtha S.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Reuben, James M.; Illera, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as a natural model for human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The aim of this study was to characterize a new cell line from IMC (IPC-366) for the comparative study of both IMC and IBC. Tumors cells from a female dog with clinical IMC were collected. The cells were grown under adherent conditions. The growth, cytological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of IPC-366 were evaluated. Ten female Balb/SCID mice were inoculated with IPC-366 cells to assess their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Chromosome aberration test and Karyotype revealed the presence of structural aberration, numerical and neutral rearrangements, demonstrating a chromosomal instability. Microscopic examination of tumor revealed an epithelial morphology with marked anysocytosis. Cytological and histological examination of smears and ultrathin sections by electron microscopy revealed that IPC-366 is formed by highly malignant large round or polygonal cells characterized by marked atypia and prominent nucleoli and frequent multinucleated cells. Some cells had cytoplasmic empty spaces covered by cytoplasmic membrane resembling capillary endothelial cells, a phenomenon that has been related to s vasculogenic mimicry. IHC characterization of IPC-366 was basal-like: epithelial cells (AE1/AE3+, CK14+, vimentin+, actin-, p63-, ER-, PR-, HER-2, E-cadherin, overexpressed COX-2 and high Ki-67 proliferation index (87.15 %). At 2 weeks after inoculating the IPC-366 cells, a tumor mass was found in 100 % of mice. At 4 weeks metastases in lung and lymph nodes were found. Xenograph tumors maintained the original IHC characteristics of the female dog tumor. In summary, the cell line IPC-366 is a fast growing malignant triple negative cell line model of inflammatory mammary carcinoma that can be used for the comparative

  19. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line of canine inflammatory mammary cancer: IPC-366.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J; Illera, Maria J; Lopez, Mirtha S; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Illera, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC) shares epidemiologic, histopathological and clinical characteristics with the disease in humans and has been proposed as a natural model for human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The aim of this study was to characterize a new cell line from IMC (IPC-366) for the comparative study of both IMC and IBC. Tumors cells from a female dog with clinical IMC were collected. The cells were grown under adherent conditions. The growth, cytological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of IPC-366 were evaluated. Ten female Balb/SCID mice were inoculated with IPC-366 cells to assess their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Chromosome aberration test and Karyotype revealed the presence of structural aberration, numerical and neutral rearrangements, demonstrating a chromosomal instability. Microscopic examination of tumor revealed an epithelial morphology with marked anysocytosis. Cytological and histological examination of smears and ultrathin sections by electron microscopy revealed that IPC-366 is formed by highly malignant large round or polygonal cells characterized by marked atypia and prominent nucleoli and frequent multinucleated cells. Some cells had cytoplasmic empty spaces covered by cytoplasmic membrane resembling capillary endothelial cells, a phenomenon that has been related to s vasculogenic mimicry. IHC characterization of IPC-366 was basal-like: epithelial cells (AE1/AE3+, CK14+, vimentin+, actin-, p63-, ER-, PR-, HER-2, E-cadherin, overexpressed COX-2 and high Ki-67 proliferation index (87.15 %). At 2 weeks after inoculating the IPC-366 cells, a tumor mass was found in 100 % of mice. At 4 weeks metastases in lung and lymph nodes were found. Xenograph tumors maintained the original IHC characteristics of the female dog tumor. In summary, the cell line IPC-366 is a fast growing malignant triple negative cell line model of inflammatory mammary carcinoma that can be used for the comparative

  20. Targeting the PyMT Oncogene to Diverse Mammary Cell Populations Enhances Tumor Heterogeneity and Generates Rare Breast Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brittni A.; Shelton, Dawne N.; Kieffer, Collin; Milash, Brett; Usary, Jerry; Perou, Charles M.; Bernard, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Human breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of different histologies and molecular subtypes, many of which are not replicated in animal models. Here, we report a mouse model of breast cancer that generates unique tumor histologies including tubular, adenosquamous, and lipid-rich carcinomas. Utilizing a nononcogenic variant of polyoma middle T oncogene (PyMT) that requires a spontaneous base-pair deletion to transform cells, in conjunction with lentiviral transduction and orthotopic transplantation of primary mammary epithelial cells, this model sporadically induces oncogene expression in both the luminal and myoepithelial cell lineages of the normal mouse mammary epithelium. Microarray and hierarchical analyses using an intrinsic subtype gene set revealed that lentiviral PyMT generates both luminal and basal-like tumors. Cumulatively, these results show that low-level expression of PyMT in a broad range of cell types significantly increases tumor heterogeneity and establishes a mouse model of several rare human breast cancer subtypes. PMID:23486760

  1. Life After Cancer Summary Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Cancer Survivors and Obesity | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Cancer Survivors and Physical Activity | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Financial Burden of Cancer Care | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Cancer Survivors and Smoking | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Ling-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated cellular energetics was one of the cancer hallmarks. Several underlying mechanisms of deregulated cellular energetics are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations, mitochondrial enzyme defects, or altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. Point mutations and copy number changes are the two most common mitochondrial DNA alterations in cancers, and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chemical depletion of mitochondrial DNA or impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain in cancer cells promotes cancer progression to a chemoresistance or invasive phenotype. Moreover, defects in mitochondrial enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, are associated with both familial and sporadic forms of cancer. Deregulated mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 might modulate cancer progression by regulating cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. These mitochondrial defects during oncogenesis and tumor progression activate cytosolic signaling pathways that ultimately alter nuclear gene expression, a process called retrograde signaling. Changes in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, or oncometabolites are important in the mitochondrial retrograde signaling for neoplastic transformation and cancer progression. In addition, altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors including hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and tumor suppressor p53 regulate mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism by modulating the expression of their target genes. We thus suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in cancer progression and that targeting mitochondrial alterations and mitochondrial retrograde signaling might be a promising strategy for the development of selective anticancer therapy. PMID:27022139

  7. Involvement of Different networks in mammary gland involution after the pregnancy/lactation cycle: Implications in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaragozá, Rosa; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Lluch, Ana; Ribas, Gloria; Viña, Juan R

    2015-04-01

    Early pregnancy is associated with a reduction in a woman's lifetime risk for breast cancer. However, different studies have demonstrated an increase in breast cancer risk in the years immediately following pregnancy. Early and long-term risk is even higher if the mother age is above 35 years at the time of first parity. The proinflammatory microenvironment within the mammary gland after pregnancy renders an "ideal niche" for oncogenic events. Signaling pathways involved in programmed cell death and tissue remodeling during involution are also activated in breast cancer. Herein, the major signaling pathways involved in mammary gland involution, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), and retinoid acid receptors (RARs)/retinoid X receptors (RXRs), are reviewed as part of the complex network of signaling pathways that crosstalk in a contextual-dependent manner. These factors, also involved in breast cancer development, are important regulatory nodes for signaling amplification after weaning. Indeed, during involution, p65/p300 target genes such as MMP9, Capn1, and Capn2 are upregulated. Elevated expression and activities of these proteases in breast cancer have been extensively documented. The role of these proteases during mammary gland involution is further discussed. MMPs, calpains, and cathepsins exert their effect by modification of the extracellular matrix and intracellular proteins. Calpains, activated in the mammary gland during involution, cleave several proteins located in cell membrane, lysosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei favoring cell death. Besides, during this period, Capn1 is most probably involved in the modulation of preadipocyte differentiation through chromatin remodeling. Calpains can be implicated in cell anchoring loss, providing a proper microenvironment for tumor growth. A better understanding of the role of any of these proteases in tumorigenesis may

  8. Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated kinase: A novel target for breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Joelle N; Neely, Benjamin A; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2017-05-01

    Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated Kinase (Hunk) is a protein kinase that was originally identified in the murine mammary gland and has been shown to be highly expressed in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2(+)/ErbB2(+)) breast cancer cell lines as well as MMTV-neu derived mammary tumor cell lines. However, the physiological role of Hunk has been largely elusive since its identification. Though Hunk is predicted to be a Serine/Threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase with homology to the SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases, there are no known Hunk substrates that have been identified to date. Recent work demonstrates a role for Hunk in HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer progression, including drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, with Hunk potentially acting downstream of HER2/ErbB2 and the PI3K/Akt pathway. These studies have collectively shown that Hunk plays a vital role in promoting mammary tumorigenesis, as Hunk knockdown via shRNA in xenograft tumor models or crossing MMTV-neu or Pten-deficient genetically engineered mouse models into a Hunk knockout (Hunk-/-) background impairs mammary tumor growth in vivo. Because the majority of HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer patients acquire drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, the characterization of novel drug targets like Hunk that have the potential to simultaneously suppress tumorigenesis and potentially enhance efficacy of current therapeutics is an important facet of drug development. Therefore, work aimed at uncovering specific regulatory functions for Hunk that could contribute to this protein kinase's role in both tumorigenesis and drug resistance will be informative. This review focuses on what is currently known about this under-studied protein kinase, and how targeting Hunk may prove to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lesion complexity drives age related cancer susceptibility in human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Deepa M.; Enerio, Shiena; LaBarge, Mark A.; Stampfer, Martha M.; Pluth, Janice M.

    2017-01-01

    Exposures to various DNA damaging agents can deregulate a wide array of critical mechanisms that maintain genome integrity. It is unclear how these processes are impacted by one's age at the time of exposure and the complexity of the DNA lesion. To clarify this, we employed radiation as a tool to generate simple and complex lesions in normal primary human mammary epithelial cells derived from women of various ages. We hypothesized that genomic instability in the progeny of older cells exposed to complex damages will be exacerbated by age-associated deterioration in function and accentuate age-related cancer predisposition. Centrosome aberrations and changes in stem cell numbers were examined to assess cancer susceptibility. Our data show that the frequency of centrosome aberrations proportionately increases with age following complex damage causing exposures. However, a dose-dependent increase in stem cell numbers was independent of both age and the nature of the insult. Phospho-protein signatures provide mechanistic clues to signaling networks implicated in these effects. Together these studies suggest that complex damage can threaten the genome stability of the stem cell population in older people. Propagation of this instability is subject to influence by the microenvironment and will ultimately define cancer risk in the older population. PMID:28245431

  10. Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation Contributes to Heart Dose in Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chargari, Cyrus; Castadot, Pierre; MacDermed, Dhara; Vandekerkhove, Christophe; Bourgois, Nicolas; Van Houtte, Paul; Magne, Nicolas

    2010-10-01

    We assessed the impact of internal mammary chain radiotherapy (IMC RT) to the radiation dose received by the heart in terms of heart dose-volume histogram (DVH). Thirty-six consecutive breast cancer patients presenting with indications for IMC RT were enrolled in a prospective study. The IMC was treated by a standard conformal RT technique (50 Gy). For each patient, a cardiac DVH was generated by taking into account the sole contribution of IMC RT. Cardiac HDV were compared according to breast cancer laterality and the type of previous surgical procedure, simple mastectomy or breast conservative therapy (BCT). The contribution of IMC RT to the heart dose was significantly greater for patients with left-sided versus right-sided tumors (13.8% and 12.8% for left-sided tumors versus 3.9% and 4.2% for right-sided tumors in the BCT group and the mastectomy group, respectively; p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in IMC contribution depending on the initial surgical procedure. IMC RT contributes to cardiac dose for both left-sided and right-sided breast cancers, although the relative contribution is greater in patients with left-sided tumors.

  11. STEAP1 is over-expressed in breast cancer and down-regulated by 17beta-estradiol in MCF-7 cells and in the rat mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Maia, Cláudio J B; Socorro, Sílvia; Schmitt, Fernando; Santos, Cecília R A

    2008-01-01

    Six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1) was identified as a prostate-specific cell-surface antigen over-expressed in prostate cancer, and in human cancer cell lines obtained from several other tissues. Its cell surface location in all tumor types analyzed so far, and its absence in most vital organs in humans, turned STEAP1 into a potential target for anti-tumor immunotherapy. This study provides experimental evidence that STEAP1 is also over-expressed in human breast cancer cases, and in normal breast tissue adjacent to breast tumors, where it is localized in the cell membrane of epithelial cells. It is also demonstrated that STEAP1 transcription correlates negatively with estrogen receptor (ER) immunoreactivity, and positively with tumor grading in breast cancer cases. As estrogens are involved in breast cancer onset and progression, the response of STEAP1 to 17beta-estradiol (E2) was investigated in the mammary gland of rats, and in the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. These experiments demonstrated that STEAP1 is down-regulated by E2 in both models. The mechanisms underlying the STEAP1 response to E2 in vitro were further investigated in MCF-7 cells, and the results obtained suggest an effect mediated by the membrane-bound ERalpha (mbERalpha).

  12. The potential role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell-mediated canine mammary tumor initiation: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Di; Xie, Fuqiang; Lin, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Additionally, it is becoming apparent that cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling is associated with canine mammary tumor development. The goals of the present study were to investigate COX-2 expression patterns and their effect on CSC-mediated tumor initiation in primary canine mammary tissues and tumorsphere models using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of COX-2, CD44, octamer-binding transcription factor (Oct)-3/4, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression were examined in malignant mammary tumor (MMT) samples and analyzed in terms of clinicopathological characteristics. COX-2 and Oct-3/4 expression was higher in MMTs compared to other histological samples with heterogeneous patterns. In MMTs, COX-2 expression correlated with tumor malignancy features. Significant associations between COX-2, CD44, and EGFR were observed in low-differentiated MMTs. Comparative analysis showed that the levels of COX-2, CD44, and Oct-3/4 expression varied significantly among TSs of three histological grades. Enhanced COX-2 staining was consistently observed in TSs. Similar levels of staining intensity were found for CD44 and Oct-3/4, but EGFR expression was weak. Our findings indicate the potential role of COX-2 in CSC-mediated tumor initiation, and suggest that COX-2 inhibition may help treat canine mammary tumors by targeting CSCs.

  13. The Effects of Folate on the Development of Breast Cancer in a Chemical Rodent Model of Mammary Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-01- 1 -0428 TITLE: The Effects of Folate on the Development of Breast Cancer in a Chemical Rodent Model of Mammary...DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB No. 074-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including...Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503 1 . AGENCY USE

  14. Increased expression and copy number amplification of LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposable elements in murine mammary carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Gualtieri, Alberto; Andreola, Federica; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Serafino, Annalucia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses represent large families of repeated elements encoding reverse transcriptase (RT) proteins. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element B1 (SINE B1) retrotrasposons do not encode RT, but use LINE-1-derived RT for their retrotransposition. We previously showed that many cancer types have an abundant endogenous RT activity. Inhibition of that activity, by either RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements or by RT inhibitory drugs, reduced proliferation and promoted differentiation in cancer cells, indicating that LINE-1-encoded RT is required for tumor progression. Using MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice as a well-defined model of breast cancer progression, we now report that both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposons are up-regulated at a very early stage of tumorigenesis; LINE-1-encoded RT product and enzymatic activity were detected in tumor tissues as early as stage 1, preceding the widespread appearance of histological alterations and specific cancer markers, and further increased in later progression stages, while neither was present in non-pathological breast tissues. Importantly, both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposon families undergo copy number amplification during tumor progression. These findings therefore indicate that RT activity is distinctive of breast cancer cells and that, furthermore, LINE-1 and SINE B1 undergo copy number amplification during cancer progression. PMID:24231191

  15. Increased expression and copy number amplification of LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposable elements in murine mammary carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Alberto; Andreola, Federica; Sciamanna, Ilaria; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Serafino, Annalucia; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-11-01

    In higher eukaryotic genomes, Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses represent large families of repeated elements encoding reverse transcriptase (RT) proteins. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element B1 (SINE B1) retrotrasposons do not encode RT, but use LINE-1-derived RT for their retrotransposition. We previously showed that many cancer types have an abundant endogenous RT activity. Inhibition of that activity, by either RNA interference-dependent silencing of active LINE-1 elements or by RT inhibitory drugs, reduced proliferation and promoted differentiation in cancer cells, indicating that LINE-1-encoded RT is required for tumor progression. Using MMTV-PyVT transgenic mice as a well-defined model of breast cancer progression, we now report that both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposons are up-regulated at a very early stage of tumorigenesis; LINE-1-encoded RT product and enzymatic activity were detected in tumor tissues as early as stage 1, preceding the widespread appearance of histological alterations and specific cancer markers, and further increased in later progression stages, while neither was present in non-pathological breast tissues. Importantly, both LINE-1 and SINE B1 retrotransposon families undergo copy number amplification during tumor progression. These findings therefore indicate that RT activity is distinctive of breast cancer cells and that, furthermore, LINE-1 and SINE B1 undergo copy number amplification during cancer progression.

  16. Radiation to supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer increases the risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, G; Holmberg, L; Garmo, H; Terent, A; Blomqvist, C

    2009-03-10

    The aim of this study was to assess whether adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (BC) affects the risk of stroke, and to explore radiation targets and fraction doses regarding risk and location of stroke. In a Swedish BC cohort diagnosed during 1970-2003, we carried out a nested case-control study of stroke after BC, with relevant details extracted from medical records. The odds ratio (OR) for radiotherapy (RT) vs that of no RT did not differ between cases and controls (OR=0.85; confidence interval, CI=0.6-1.3). Radiotherapy to internal mammary chain (IMC) and supraclavicular (SCL) lymph nodes vs that of no RT was associated with a higher, although not statistically significant, risk of stroke (OR=1.3; CI=0.8-2.2). In a pooled analysis, RT to IMC and SCL vs the pooled group of no RT and RT to breast/chest wall/axilla (but not IMC and SCL), showed a significant increase of stroke (OR=1.8; CI=1.1-2.8). There were no associations between cancer laterality, targets of RT, and location of stroke. The radiation targets, IMC and SCL, showed a statistically significant trend for an increased risk of stroke with daily fraction dose. Our finding of a target-specific increased risk of stroke and a dose-response relationship for daily fraction dose, indicate that there may be a causal link between RT to the IMC and SCL and risk of stroke.

  17. Prognostic Influence of Internal Mammary Node Drainage in Patients with Early-stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lukesova, Lucie; Vrana, David; Svach, Ivan; Zlamalova, Nora; Gatek, Jiri; Vlachová, Zuzana; Matzenauer, Marcel; Koranda, Pavel; Hruzova, Klara; Tichy, Tomas; Melichar, Bohuslav

    2016-12-01

    The management of internal mammary nodes (IMNs) during multidisciplinary treatment of breast cancer has been debated for the last four decades without unequivocal conclusion. We retrospectively reviewed patients with breast cancer who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy at our center from 2008 until 2012. IMN drainage was assessed as a potential risk factor for local and distant disease recurrence. We identified 712 patients, with incidence of drainage to IMNs of 18.4%. No detrimental effect of the pattern of drainage to IMNs was found after a median follow-up of 58 months. A similar outcome was observed when drainage to IMNs was evaluated as a risk factor for patient survival. The potential risk factors for drainage to IMNs during sentinel lymph node biopsy were younger age (p=0.002) and tumor location in lower-outer, lower-inner, and upper-inner versus upper-outer quadrant (p<0.0001). The drainage to IMNs is unlikely to have a detrimental effect on patient outcome. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy of the internal mammary chain in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Postma, E L; van Wieringen, S; Hobbelink, M G; Verkooijen, H M; van den Bongard, H J G D; Borel Rinkes, I H M; Witkamp, A J

    2012-07-01

    Routine removal of the internal mammary chain (IMC) sentinel node in breast cancer patients remains a subject of discussion. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of routinely performed IMC sentinel node biopsy on the systemic and locoregional treatments plan. All patients with biopsy proven breast cancer who underwent a sentinel node procedure between 2002 and 2011 were included in a prospective database. In cases of IMC drainage, successful exploration of the IMC (i.e., sentinel node removed) and surgical complications were registered. If the removed sentinel node contained malignant cells we determined if this altered the treatment plan when practising the current guidelines. In total, 119 of the 493 included patients showed IMC drainage on lymphoscintigraphy. Exploration of the IMC was performed in 107 (89 %) patients; in 86/107 (80 %) exploration was successful. In 14/107 patients (13 %) the IMC sentinel node was tumor positive. Macro and micro metastases were found in eight and six patients, respectively. In the group of patients who underwent surgical exploration of the IMC, systemic treatment was changed in none, radiotherapy treatment in 13/107 patients (11 %). Routine sentinel node biopsy of the IMC does not alter the systemic treatment. Radiotherapy treatment is altered in a small proportion of the patients; however, solid scientific evidence for this adjustment is lacking.

  19. Stage migration and therapy modification after thoracoscopic internal mammary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Hao; Lin, Zhichao; Situ, Dongrong; Ma, Guowei; Zheng, Yan; Rong, Tiehua

    2011-04-01

    Although internal mammary lymph node (IMN) status is a major prognostic factor in breast cancer, it is not routinely assessed. To evaluate the impact of IMN status on staging and treatment of breast cancer, we enrolled 50 consecutive patients with inner or central tumors who received IMN dissection by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) after breast surgery. Of the 50 patients, 20 (40%) had IMN metastases. Of the 20 patients, 6 (12%) were upstaged from N0 to N2b and 5 (10%), 3 (6%) and 6 patients (12%) were upstaged from N1a, N2a, and N3a, respectively, to N3b. Because of the upstaging, 6 patients (12%) with only IMN metastases received more aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy. Because the whole IMN chain was removed in all patients, radiotherapy on IMN field was not required in our cohort independent of IMN status. In conclusion, VATS IMN dissection might lead to stage migration and therapy modification. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HIN-1, a putative cytokine highly expressed in normal but not cancerous mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Krop, Ian E.; Sgroi, Dennis; Porter, Dale A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; LeVangie, Rebbecca; Seth, Pankaj; Kaelin, Carolyn M.; Rhei, Esther; Bosenberg, Marcus; Schnitt, Stuart; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Pagon, Zrinka; Belina, Drazen; Razumovic, Jasminka; Polyak, Kornelia

    2001-01-01

    To identify molecular alterations implicated in the initiating steps of breast tumorogenesis, we compared the gene expression profiles of normal and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) mammary epithelial cells by using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Through the pair-wise comparison of normal and DCIS SAGE libraries, we identified several differentially expressed genes. Here, we report the characterization of one of these genes, HIN-1 (high in normal-1). HIN-1 expression is significantly down regulated in 94% of human breast carcinomas and in 95% of preinvasive lesions, such as ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ. This decrease in HIN-1 expression is accompanied by hypermethylation of its promoter in the majority of breast cancer cell lines (>90%) and primary tumors (74%). HIN-1 is a putative cytokine with no significant homology to known proteins. Reintroduction of HIN-1 into breast cancer cells inhibits cell growth. These results indicate that HIN-1 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated at high frequency in the earliest stages of breast tumorogenesis. PMID:11481438

  1. Shp2 signaling suppresses senescence in PyMT-induced mammary gland cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Linxiang; Holland, Jane D; Qi, Jingjing; Grosskopf, Stefanie; Vogel, Regina; Györffy, Balázs; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Birchmeier, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have used techniques from cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics to investigate the role of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in tumor cells of MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary glands. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of Shp2 induces senescence, as determined by the activation of senescence-associated β-gal (SA-β-gal), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27), p53, and histone 3 trimethylated lysine 9 (H3K9me3). Senescence induction leads to the inhibition of self-renewal of tumor cells and blockage of tumor formation and growth. A signaling cascade was identified that acts downstream of Shp2 to counter senescence: Src, focal adhesion kinase, and Map kinase inhibit senescence by activating the expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), Aurora kinase A (Aurka), and the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1), which block p27 and p53. Remarkably, the expression of Shp2 and of selected target genes predicts human breast cancer outcome. We conclude that therapies, which rely on senescence induction by inhibiting Shp2 or controlling its target gene products, may be useful in blocking breast cancer. PMID:25736378

  2. Shp2 signaling suppresses senescence in PyMT-induced mammary gland cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Lan, Linxiang; Holland, Jane D; Qi, Jingjing; Grosskopf, Stefanie; Rademann, Jörg; Vogel, Regina; Györffy, Balázs; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Birchmeier, Walter

    2015-06-03

    In this study, we have used techniques from cell biology, biochemistry, and genetics to investigate the role of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in tumor cells of MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary glands. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of Shp2 induces senescence, as determined by the activation of senescence-associated β-gal (SA-β-gal), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27), p53, and histone 3 trimethylated lysine 9 (H3K9me3). Senescence induction leads to the inhibition of self-renewal of tumor cells and blockage of tumor formation and growth. A signaling cascade was identified that acts downstream of Shp2 to counter senescence: Src, focal adhesion kinase, and Map kinase inhibit senescence by activating the expression of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), Aurora kinase A (Aurka), and the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1), which block p27 and p53. Remarkably, the expression of Shp2 and of selected target genes predicts human breast cancer outcome. We conclude that therapies, which rely on senescence induction by inhibiting Shp2 or controlling its target gene products, may be useful in blocking breast cancer. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. Induction of interleukin-1β by mouse mammary tumor irradiation promotes triple negative breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis development.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Gina; Therriault, Hélène; Bujold, Rachel; Saucier, Caroline; Paquette, Benoit

    2017-05-01

    Radiotherapy increases the level of inflammatory cytokines, some of which are known to promote metastasis. In a mouse model of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), we determined whether irradiation of the mammary tumor increases the level of key cytokines and favors the development of lung metastases. D2A1 TNBC cells were implanted in the mammary glands of a Balb/c mouse and then 7 days old tumors were irradiated (4 × 6 Gy). The cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and MIP-2 were quantified in plasma before, midway and after irradiation. The effect of tumor irradiation on the invasion of cancer cells, the number of circulating tumor cells (CTC) and lung metastases were also measured. TNBC tumor irradiation significantly increased the plasma level of IL-1β, which was associated with a greater number of CTC (3.5-fold) and lung metastases (2.3-fold), compared to sham-irradiated animals. Enhancement of D2A1 cell invasion in mammary gland was associated with an increase of the matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 activity (MMP-2, -9). The ability of IL-1β to stimulate the invasiveness of irradiated D2A1 cells was confirmed by in vitro invasion chamber assays. Irradiation targeting a D2A1 tumor and its microenvironment increased the level of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and was associated with the promotion of cancer cell invasion and lung metastasis development.

  4. Screening and analysis of breast cancer genes regulated by the human mammary microenvironment in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mingjie; Wang, Jue; Ling, Lijun; Xue, Dandan; Wang, Shui; Zhao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironments play critical regulatory roles in tumor growth. Although mouse cancer models have contributed to the understanding of human tumor biology, the effectiveness of mouse cancer models is limited by the inability of the models to accurately present humanized tumor microenvironments. Previously, a humanized breast cancer model in severe combined immunodeficiency mice was established, in which human breast cancer tissue was implanted subcutaneously, followed by injection of human breast cancer cells. It was demonstrated that breast cancer cells showed improved growth in the human mammary microenvironment compared with a conventional subcutaneous mouse model. In the present study, the novel mouse model and microarray technology was used to analyze changes in the expression of genes in breast cancer cells that are regulated by the human mammary microenvironment. Humanized breast and conventional subcutaneous mouse models were established, and orthotopic tumor cells were obtained from orthotopic tumor masses by primary culture. An expression microarray using Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip and database analyses were performed to investigate changes in gene expression between tumors from each microenvironment. A total of 94 genes were differentially expressed between the primary cells cultured from the humanized and conventional mouse models. Significant upregulation of genes that promote cell proliferation and metastasis or inhibit apoptosis, such as SH3-domain binding protein 5 (BTK-associated), sodium/chloride cotransporter 3 and periostin, osteoblast specific factor, and genes that promote angiogenesis, such as KIAA1618, was also noted. Other genes that restrain cell proliferation and accelerate cell apoptosis, including tripartite motif containing TRIM36 and NES1, were downregulated. The present results revealed differences in various aspects of tumor growth and metabolism between the two model groups and indicated the functional

  5. Connexin's Connection in Breast Cancer Growth and Progression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are cell-to-cell junctions that are located in the basolateral surface of two adjoining cells. A gap junction channel is composed of a family of proteins called connexins. Gap junction channels maintain intercellular communication between two cells through the exchange of ions, small metabolites, and electrical signals. Gap junction channels or connexins are widespread in terms of their expression and function in maintaining the development, differentiation, and homeostasis of vertebrate tissues. Gap junction connexins play a major role in maintaining intercellular communication among different cell types of normal mammary gland for proper development and homeostasis. Connexins have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Differential expression pattern of connexins and their gap junction dependent or independent functions provide pivotal cross talk of breast tumor cells with the surrounding stromal cell in the microenvironment. Substantial research from the last 20 years has accumulated ample evidences that allow us a better understanding of the roles that connexins play in the tumorigenesis of primary breast tumor and its metastatic progression. This review will summarize the knowledge about the connexins and gap junction activities in breast cancer highlighting the differential expression and functional dynamics of connexins in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27642298

  6. EB1089, a vitamin D receptor agonist, reduces proliferation and decreases tumor growth rate in a mouse model of hormone-induced mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Milliken, Erin L.; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; MacDonald, Paul N.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2006-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and several of its analogs, such as EB1089, induce growth arrest and apoptosis of breast cancer cells in culture. EB1089 has also been shown to limit growth of xenografts in nude mice and carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rats. Coupled with the fact that the vitamin D receptor is highly expressed in a large proportion of breast tumors, these data suggest that it may be a broad spectrum therapeutic target. We utilized a transgenic model of hormone-induced mammary cancer, the LH-overexpressing mouse, to assess, for the first time, the efficacy of EB1089 in a spontaneous tumor model. Similar to human breast cancers, the pre-neoplastic mammary glands and mammary tumors in these mice express high levels of vitamin D receptor. Treatment with EB1089 decreased proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in pre-neoplastic glands by 35%. Moreover, half of hormone-induced mammary tumors treated with EB1089 demonstrated a decreased rate of growth, with a subset of these tumors even regressing, suggesting that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogs may be effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer. PMID:16115727

  7. EB1089, a vitamin D receptor agonist, reduces proliferation and decreases tumor growth rate in a mouse model of hormone-induced mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Erin L; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L; MacDonald, Paul N; Keri, Ruth A

    2005-11-18

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and several of its analogs, such as EB1089, induce growth arrest and apoptosis of breast cancer cells in culture. EB1089 has also been shown to limit growth of xenografts in nude mice and carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rats. Coupled with the fact that the vitamin D receptor is highly expressed in a large proportion of breast tumors, these data suggest that it may be a broad spectrum therapeutic target. We utilized a transgenic model of hormone-induced mammary cancer, the LH-overexpressing mouse, to assess, for the first time, the efficacy of EB1089 in a spontaneous tumor model. Similar to human breast cancers, the pre-neoplastic mammary glands and mammary tumors in these mice express high levels of vitamin D receptor. Treatment with EB1089 decreased proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in pre-neoplastic glands by 35%. Moreover, half of hormone-induced mammary tumors treated with EB1089 demonstrated a decreased rate of growth, with a subset of these tumors even regressing, suggesting that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogs may be effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer.

  8. Runx1 is associated with breast cancer progression in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice and its depletion in vitro inhibits migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Gillian; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Bishop, Nicole M.; Madasu, Sharath C.; Shaw, Leslie M.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Lian, Jane B.

    2015-01-01

    Runx1 is a transcription factor essential for definitive hematopoiesis, and genetic abnormalities in Runx1 cause leukemia. Runx1 is functionally promiscuous and acts as either an oncogene or tumor suppressor gene in certain epithelial cancers. Recent evidence suggests that Runx1 is an important factor in breast cancer, however its role remains ambiguous. Here, we addressed whether Runx1 has a specific pathological role during breast cancer progression and show that Runx1 has an oncogenic function. We observed elevated Runx1 expression in a subset of human breast cancers. Furthermore, throughout the course of disease progression in a classical mouse model of breast cancer (i.e., the MMTV-PyMT transgenic model), Runx1 expression increases in the primary site (mammary gland) and is further upregulated in tumors and distal lung metastatic lesions. Ex vivo studies using tumor epithelial cells derived from these mice express significantly higher levels of Runx1 than normal mammary epithelial cells. The tumor cells exhibit increased rates of migration and invasion, indicative of an aggressive cancer phenotype. Inhibition of Runx1 expression using RNA interference significantly abrogates these cancer-relevant phenotypic characteristics. Importantly, our data establish that Runx1 contributes to murine mammary tumor development and malignancy and potentially represents a key disease-promoting and prognostic factor in human breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:25802202

  9. Characterization of cell lines derived from breast cancers and normal mammary tissues for the study of the intrinsic molecular subtypes.

    PubMed

    Prat, Aleix; Karginova, Olga; Parker, Joel S; Fan, Cheng; He, Xiaping; Bixby, Lisa; Harrell, J Chuck; Roman, Erick; Adamo, Barbara; Troester, Melissa; Perou, Charles M

    2013-11-01

    Five molecular subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like, and claudin-low) with clinical implications exist in breast cancer. Here, we evaluated the molecular and phenotypic relationships of (1) a large in vitro panel of human breast cancer cell lines (BCCLs), human mammary fibroblasts (HMFs), and human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs); (2) in vivo breast tumors; (3) normal breast cell subpopulations; (4) human embryonic stem cells (hESCs); and (5) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). First, by integrating genomic data of 337 breast tumor samples with 93 cell lines we were able to identify all the intrinsic tumor subtypes in the cell lines, except for luminal A. Secondly, we observed that the cell lines recapitulate the differentiation hierarchy detected in the normal mammary gland, with claudin-low BCCLs and HMFs cells showing a stromal phenotype, HMECs showing a mammary stem cell/bipotent progenitor phenotype, basal-like cells showing a luminal progenitor phenotype, and luminal B cell lines showing a mature luminal phenotype. Thirdly, we identified basal-like and highly migratory claudin-low subpopulations of cells within a subset of triple-negative BCCLs (SUM149PT, HCC1143, and HCC38). Interestingly, both subpopulations within SUM149PT were enriched for tumor-initiating cells, but the basal-like subpopulation grew tumors faster than the claudin-low subpopulation. Finally, claudin-low BCCLs resembled the phenotype of hMSCs, whereas hESCs cells showed an epithelial phenotype without basal or luminal differentiation. The results presented here help to improve our understanding of the wide range of breast cancer cell line models through the appropriate pairing of cell lines with relevant in vivo tumor and normal cell counterparts.

  10. Comparative effect of inorganic and organic selenocyanate derivatives in mammary cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Ip, C; el-Bayoumy, K; Upadhyaya, P; Ganther, H; Vadhanavikit, S; Thompson, H

    1994-02-01

    Recently El-Bayoumy and coworkers have reported that 1,4-phenylene-bis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) was very effective in inhibiting 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis and adduct formation during the initiation phase (Cancer Res., 52, 2402-2407, 1992). Furthermore, this compound was found to be well tolerated by rats at high doses. The present study was designed to extend these earlier observations by investigating the response to lower levels of p-XSC given either before or after DMBA administration. At a level of 15 p.p.m. Se, p-XSC suppressed total mammary tumor yield by 80% and 52% in the initiation phase and post-initiation phase, respectively. A dose-response effect was evident in the range 5-15 p.p.m. Se. When p-XSC was given at a level of 5 p.p.m. Se during the entire course of the experimental period, total tumor yield was reduced by half. This dose is about 4 x less than the maximum tolerable dose (MTD). Other selenocyanate analogs were also examined in an attempt to obtain information on their respective chemopreventive index, which is calculated as the ratio of MTD to the effective dose which produces approximately a 50% inhibition in total tumor yield (ED50). The reagents studied included potassium selenocyanate, methyl selenocyanate and benzyl selenocyanate, as well as sodium selenite (reference compound). Compared to p-XSC, which has a chemopreventive index of 4.0, the other four compounds have a lower index ranging from 1.3 for sodium selenite and potassium selenocyanate to 2.0 for methyl selenocyanate and 2.5 for benzyl selenocyanate. A high chemopreventive index signifies that a compound is well tolerated at doses required for cancer suppression. The last component of the present study involved the repletion assay of liver glutathione peroxidase in selenium-deficient rats as a biomarker to estimate the metabolizability of the above selenium compounds. The bioavailability data suggest that the selenium from p

  11. SNORD-host RNA Zfas1 is a regulator of mammary development and a potential marker for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E.; Crawford, Joanna; French, Juliet D.; Smart, Chanel E.; Smith, Martin A.; Clark, Michael B.; Ru, Kelin; Mercer, Tim R.; Thompson, Ella R.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Vargas, Ana C.; Campbell, Ian G.; Brown, Melissa A.; Dinger, Marcel E.; Mattick, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized to play major regulatory roles in development and disease. To identify novel regulators in breast biology, we identified differentially regulated lncRNAs during mouse mammary development. Among the highest and most differentially expressed was a transcript (Zfas1) antisense to the 5′ end of the protein-coding gene Znfx1. In vivo, Zfas1 RNA is localized within the ducts and alveoli of the mammary gland. Zfas1 intronically hosts three previously undescribed C/D box snoRNAs (SNORDs): Snord12, Snord12b, and Snord12c. In contrast to the general assumption that noncoding SNORD-host transcripts function only as vehicles to generate snoRNAs, knockdown of Zfas1 in a mammary epithelial cell line resulted in increased cellular proliferation and differentiation, while not substantially altering the levels of the SNORDs. In support of an independent function, we also found that Zfas1 is extremely stable, with a half-life >16 h. Expression analysis of the SNORDs revealed these were expressed at different levels, likely a result of distinct structures conferring differential stability. While there is relatively low primary sequence conservation between Zfas1 and its syntenic human ortholog ZFAS1, their predicted secondary structures have similar features. Like Zfas1, ZFAS1 is highly expressed in the mammary gland and is down-regulated in breast tumors compared to normal tissue. We propose a functional role for Zfas1/ ZFAS1 in the regulation of alveolar development and epithelial cell differentiation in the mammary gland, which, together with its dysregulation in human breast cancer, suggests ZFAS1 as a putative tumor suppressor gene. PMID:21460236

  12. p63 sustains self-renewal of mammary cancer stem cells through regulation of Sonic Hedgehog signaling

    PubMed Central

    Memmi, Elisa Maria; Sanarico, Anna Giulia; Giacobbe, Arianna; Peschiaroli, Angelo; Frezza, Valentina; Cicalese, Angelo; Pisati, Federica; Tosoni, Daniela; Zhou, Huiqing; Tonon, Giovanni; Antonov, Alexey; Melino, Gerry; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Bernassola, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The predominant p63 isoform, ΔNp63, is a master regulator of normal epithelial stem cell (SC) maintenance. However, in vivo evidence of the regulation of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties by p63 is still limited. Here, we exploit the transgenic MMTV-ErbB2 (v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) mouse model of carcinogenesis to dissect the role of p63 in the regulation of mammary CSC self-renewal and breast tumorigenesis. ErbB2 tumor cells enriched for SC-like properties display increased levels of ΔNp63 expression compared with normal mammary progenitors. Down-regulation of p63 in ErbB2 mammospheres markedly restricts self-renewal and expansion of CSCs, and this action is fully independent of p53. Furthermore, transplantation of ErbB2 progenitors expressing shRNAs against p63 into the mammary fat pads of syngeneic mice delays tumor growth in vivo. p63 knockdown in ErbB2 progenitors diminishes the expression of genes encoding components of the Sonic Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, a driver of mammary SC self-renewal. Remarkably, p63 regulates the expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), GLI family zinc finger 2 (Gli2), and Patched1 (Ptch1) genes by directly binding to their gene regulatory regions, and eventually contributes to pathway activation. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of p63 in maintaining the self-renewal potential of mammary CSCs via a positive modulation of the Hh signaling pathway. PMID:25739959

  13. SNORD-host RNA Zfas1 is a regulator of mammary development and a potential marker for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Askarian-Amiri, Marjan E; Crawford, Joanna; French, Juliet D; Smart, Chanel E; Smith, Martin A; Clark, Michael B; Ru, Kelin; Mercer, Tim R; Thompson, Ella R; Lakhani, Sunil R; Vargas, Ana C; Campbell, Ian G; Brown, Melissa A; Dinger, Marcel E; Mattick, John S

    2011-05-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized to play major regulatory roles in development and disease. To identify novel regulators in breast biology, we identified differentially regulated lncRNAs during mouse mammary development. Among the highest and most differentially expressed was a transcript (Zfas1) antisense to the 5' end of the protein-coding gene Znfx1. In vivo, Zfas1 RNA is localized within the ducts and alveoli of the mammary gland. Zfas1 intronically hosts three previously undescribed C/D box snoRNAs (SNORDs): Snord12, Snord12b, and Snord12c. In contrast to the general assumption that noncoding SNORD-host transcripts function only as vehicles to generate snoRNAs, knockdown of Zfas1 in a mammary epithelial cell line resulted in increased cellular proliferation and differentiation, while not substantially altering the levels of the SNORDs. In support of an independent function, we also found that Zfas1 is extremely stable, with a half-life >16 h. Expression analysis of the SNORDs revealed these were expressed at different levels, likely a result of distinct structures conferring differential stability. While there is relatively low primary sequence conservation between Zfas1 and its syntenic human ortholog ZFAS1, their predicted secondary structures have similar features. Like Zfas1, ZFAS1 is highly expressed in the mammary gland and is down-regulated in breast tumors compared to normal tissue. We propose a functional role for Zfas1/ ZFAS1 in the regulation of alveolar development and epithelial cell differentiation in the mammary gland, which, together with its dysregulation in human breast cancer, suggests ZFAS1 as a putative tumor suppressor gene.

  14. Inhibitory effect of an oxygenated cholesterol on the induction and progression of DMBA-induced mammary carcinomas in the rat.

    PubMed

    Iversen, O H; Kolberg, A; Smith-Kielland, I; Stabursvik, A

    1986-01-01

    In vivo studies on the effect of two stereoisomeric 7,22-dihydroxycholesterols on tumor development were conducted in the Charles Huggins animal cancer model (DMBA-induced mammary cancer in the Sprague-Dawley female rat). Three groups of DMBA-treated animals were fed a 9:1 mixture of (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,7 beta,22-triol and (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,7 alpha,22-triol in the drinking water in a calculated dose of 250 micrograms per animal per day. One group (A) received the sterols throughout the experimental period of 35 weeks, another group (B) during the first 12 weeks only, and a third group (C) only during weeks 13 through 35 after DMBA injection. Tumor rates and tumor yields were calculated, and statistical assessment by accepted methods demonstrated a very significant inhibitory effect on tumor development in Groups A and B, as compared with Group C. The results indicate a growth-inhibitory effect during the induction period of carcinoma development. The influence on neoplastic growth of (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,7 alpha,22-triol, (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,7 beta,22-triol, and (22R)-cholest-5-ene-3 beta,22-diol-7-one was examined in suspension cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The 7 alpha-hydroxy compound proved to be ineffective, whereas the latter two substances displayed a strong cytotoxic effect.

  15. Linking obesogenic dysregulation to prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Renea A; Lo, Jennifer; Ascui, Natasha; Watt, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity is closely linked to the development of serious co-morbidities, including many forms of cancer. Epidemiological evidence consistently shows that obesity is associated with a similar or mildly increased incidence of prostate cancer but, more prominently, an increased risk for aggressive prostate cancer and prostate cancer-specific mortality. Studies in mice demonstrate that obesity induced by high-fat feeding increases prostate cancer progression; however, the mechanisms underpinning this relationship remain incompletely understood. Adipose tissue expansion in obesity leads to local tissue dysfunction and is associated with low-grade inflammation, alterations in endocrine function and changes in lipolysis that result in increased delivery of fatty acids to tissues of the body. The human prostate gland is covered anteriorly by the prominent peri-prostatic adipose tissue and laterally by smaller adipose tissue depots that lie directly adjacent to the prostatic surface. We discuss how the close association between dysfunctional adipose tissue and prostate epithelial cells might result in bi-directional communication to cause increased prostate cancer aggressiveness and progression. However, the literature indicates that several ‘mainstream’ hypotheses regarding obesity-related drivers of prostate cancer progression are not yet supported by a solid evidence base and, in particular, are not supported by experiments using human tissue. Understanding the links between obesity and prostate cancer will have major implications for the health policy for men with prostate cancer and the development of new therapeutic or preventative strategies. PMID:26581226

  16. Mammary gland cancer in a colony of beagle dogs: Inheritance, and p53 & erbB-2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, G.; Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, Tierney, L.A.; Lechner, J.F.; Hahn, F.F.

    1994-11-01

    One American woman in nine will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. This somber statistic translates into 182,000 new diagnoses and 46,000 deaths per year. Efforts to decrease breast cancer mortality have focused on early detection and improved treatment. Such efforts would be facilitated by the identification of individuals predisposed to the disease. A family history of the disease can increase a woman`s risk for developing breast cancer by two- to six-fold. Inheritance of this disease is consistent with at least one susceptibility locus on chromosome 17 (17q12-21) with incomplete penetrance. However, other mechanisms of inherited susceptibility also contribute to the high incidence of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to characterize familial pattern of mammary cancer development in the dog colony. In addition, the expression of the p53 tumor supressor gene and c-erbB2 (p185{sup erbB2}) oncogene proteins, which are frequently altered in human breast cancer, were examined in dogs susceptible and resistant to mammary cancer.

  17. Genome-Wide Small RNA Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis Reveals a microRNA Profile of Cancer Susceptibility in ATM-Deficient Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Jill E.; Liu, Liwen; Innes, Cynthia L.; Cui, Yuxia; Palii, Stela S.; Paules, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiencies in the ATM gene are the underlying cause for ataxia telangiectasia, a syndrome characterized by neurological, motor and immunological defects, and a predisposition to cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are useful tools for cancer profiling and prediction of therapeutic responses to clinical regimens. We investigated the consequences of ATM deficiency on miRNA expression and associated gene expression in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HME-CCs). We identified 81 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs in ATM-deficient HME-CCs using small RNA sequencing. Many of these have been implicated in tumorigenesis and proliferation and include down-regulated tumor suppressor miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-29c and hsa-miR-16, as well as over-expressed pro-oncogenic miRNAs, such as hsa-miR-93 and hsa-miR-221. MicroRNA changes were integrated with genome wide gene expression profiles to investigate possible miRNA targets. Predicted mRNA targets of the miRNAs significantly regulated after ATM depletion included many genes associated with cancer formation and progression, such as SOCS1 and the proto-oncogene MAF. While a number of miRNAs have been reported as altered in cancerous cells, there is little understanding as to how these small RNAs might be driving cancer formation or how they might be used as biomarkers for cancer susceptibility. This study provides preliminary data for defining miRNA profiles that may be used as prognostic or predictive biomarkers for breast cancer. Our integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression allows us to gain a better understanding of the signaling involved in breast cancer predisposition and suggests a mechanism for the breast cancer-prone phenotype seen in ATM-deficient patients. PMID:23741392

  18. Genetic determination of susceptibility to estrogen-induced mammary cancer in the ACI rat: mapping of Emca1 and Emca2 to chromosomes 5 and 18.

    PubMed

    Gould, Karen A; Tochacek, Martin; Schaffer, Beverly S; Reindl, Tanya M; Murrin, Clare R; Lachel, Cynthia M; VanderWoude, Eric A; Pennington, Karen L; Flood, Lisa A; Bynote, Kimberly K; Meza, Jane L; Newton, Michael A; Shull, James D

    2004-12-01

    Hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors play major roles in the complex etiology of breast cancer. When treated continuously with 17beta-estradiol (E2), the ACI rat exhibits a genetically conferred propensity to develop mammary cancer. The susceptibility of the ACI rat to E2-induced mammary cancer appears to segregate as an incompletely dominant trait in crosses to the resistant Copenhagen (COP) strain. In both (ACI x COP)F(2) and (COP x ACI)F(2) populations, we find strong evidence for a major genetic determinant of susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer on distal rat chromosome 5. Our data are most consistent with a model in which the ACI allele of this locus, termed Emca1 (estrogen-induced mammary cancer 1), acts in an incompletely dominant manner to increase both tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as well as to reduce tumor latency in these populations. We also find evidence suggestive of a second locus, Emca2, on chromosome 18 in the (ACI x COP)F(2) population. The ACI allele of Emca2 acts in a dominant manner to increase incidence and decrease latency. Together, Emca1 and Emca2 act independently to modify susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancer.

  19. Prolyl-4-hydroxylase α subunit 2 promotes breast cancer progression and metastasis by regulating collagen deposition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gaofeng; Deng, Lei; Zhu, Jieqing; Rychahou, Piotr G; Xu, Ren

    2014-01-02

    Increased collagen deposition provides physical and biochemical signals to support tumor growth and invasion during breast cancer development. Therefore, inhibition of collagen synthesis and deposition has been considered a strategy to suppress breast cancer progression. Collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase α subunit 2 (P4HA2), an enzyme hydroxylating proline residues in -X-Pro-Gly- sequences, is a potential therapeutic target for the disorders associated with increased collagen deposition. However, expression and function of P4HA2 in breast cancer progression are not well investigated. Gene co-expression analysis was performed in the published microarray datasets to identify potential regulators of collagen I, III, and IV in human breast cancer tissue. Expression of P4HA2 was silenced by shRNAs, and its activity was inhibited by 1, 4-DPCA, a prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor. Three-dimensional culture assay was used to analyze roles of P4HA2 in regulating malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells. Reduced deposition of collagen I and IV was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Control and P4HA2-silenced breast cancer cells were injected into fat pad and tail vein of SCID mice to examine effect of P4HA2 on tumor growth and lung metastasis. Using gene co-expression analysis, we showed that P4HA2 was associated with expression of Col1A1, Col3A1, and Col4A1 during breast cancer development and progression. P4HA2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in breast cancer compared to normal mammary tissue. Increased mRNA levels of P4HA2 correlated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, which is independent of estrogen receptor status. Silencing P4HA2 expression or treatment with the P4HA inhibitor significantly inhibited cell proliferation and suppressed aggressive phenotypes of breast cancer cells in 3D culture, accompanied by reduced deposition of collagen I and IV. We also found that knockdown of P4HA2 inhibited mammary tumor growth and

  20. Overexpression of an N-terminally truncated isoform of the nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 leads to altered proliferation of mammary epithelial cells in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Tilli, Maddalena T; Reiter, Ronald; Oh, Annabell S; Henke, Ralf T; McDonnell, Kevin; Gallicano, G Ian; Furth, Priscilla A; Riegel, Anna Tate

    2005-03-01

    Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1, also known as ACTR, SRC-3, RAC-3, TRAM-1, p/CIP) is a member of the p160 nuclear receptor coactivator family involved in transcriptional regulation of genes activated through steroid receptors, such as estrogen receptor alpha (ER(alpha)). The AIB1 gene and a more active N-terminally deleted isoform (AIB1-Delta3) are overexpressed in breast cancer. To determine the role of AIB1-Delta3 in breast cancer pathogenesis, we generated transgenic mice with human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene 1 (hCMVIE1) promoter-driven over-expression of human AIB1/ACTR-Delta3 (CMVAIB1/ACTR-Delta3 mice). AIB1/ACTR-Delta3 transgene mRNA expression was confirmed in CMV-AIB1/ACTR-Delta3 mammary glands by in situ hybridization. These mice demonstrated significantly increased mammary epithelial cell proliferation (P < 0.003), cyclin D1 expression (P = 0.002), IGF-I receptor protein expression (P = 0.026), mammary gland mass (P < 0.05), and altered expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein isoforms (P = 0.029). At 13 months of age, mammary ductal ectasia was found in CMV-AIB1/ACTR-Delta3 mice, but secondary and tertiary branching patterns were normal. There were no changes in the expression patterns of either ER(alpha) or Stat5a, a downstream mediator of prolactin signaling. Serum IGF-I levels were not altered in the transgenic mice. These data indicate that overexpression of the AIB1/ACTR-Delta3 isoform resulted in altered mammary epithelial cell growth. The observed changes in cell proliferation and gene expression are consistent with alterations in growth factor signaling that are thought to contribute to either initiation or progression of breast cancer. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the N-terminally deleted isoform of AIB1 can play a role in breast cancer development and/or progression.

  1. Does cancer start in the womb? altered mammary gland development and predisposition to breast cancer due to in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ana M; Brisken, Cathrin; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    We are now witnessing a resurgence of theories of development and carcinogenesis in which the environment is again being accepted as a major player in phenotype determination. Perturbations in the fetal environment predispose an individual to disease that only becomes apparent in adulthood. For example, gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol resulted in clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer. In this review the effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) on mammary development and tumorigenesis in rodents is used as a paradigmatic example of how altered prenatal mammary development may lead to breast cancer in humans who are also widely exposed to it through plastic goods, food and drink packaging, and thermal paper receipts. Changes in the stroma and its extracellular matrix led to altered ductal morphogenesis. Additionally, gestational and lactational exposure to BPA increased the sensitivity of rats and mice to mammotropic hormones during puberty and beyond, thus suggesting a plausible explanation for the increased incidence of breast cancer.

  2. Maternal blueberry diet programs Wnt-1-induced mammary tumor progression and gene expression in mouse offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the well-accepted notion of peri-natal origins of adult diseases, the factors and regulatory mechanisms underlying breast cancer development at later adult life remains unclear. Diet is a highly modifiable determinant of breast cancer risk, and the effects of the in utero nutritional environ...

  3. Recent Progress in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Herman, Joseph M.; Laheru, Daniel A.; Klein, Alison P.; Erdek, Michael A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the deadliest of the solid malignancies. However, surgery to resect neoplasms of the pancreas is safer and less invasive than ever, novel drug combinations have been shown to improve survival, advances in radiation therapy have resulted in less toxicity, and enormous strides have been made in our understanding of the fundamental genetics of pancreatic cancer. These advances provide hope but they also increase the complexity of caring for patients. It is clear that multidisciplinary care that provides comprehensive and coordinated evaluation and treatment is the most effective way to manage patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:23856911

  4. Axillary Staging in Breast Cancer Patients with Exclusive Lymphoscintigraphic Drainage to the Internal Mammary Chain

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Eva V. E.; van Dalen, Thijs; Koelemij, Ron; van Rossum, Peter S. N.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Witkamp, Arjen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the need of axillary staging in breast cancer patients showing exclusive lymphatic drainage to the internal mammary chain (IMC). Methods A total of 2203 patients treated for breast carcinoma in three participating hospitals between July 2001 and July 2008 were analyzed. Only patients showing drainage to the IMC on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy were included. The number of harvested IMC sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), axillary SLNs, and metastases were recorded. Finally, the follow-up of this group of patients was analyzed. Results In 25/426 patients, drainage was exclusively to the IMC. Exploration of the axilla resulted in the harvesting of blue SLNs in 9 patients (36%) and the retrieval of an enlarged lymph node in 1 patient. In 4 of the remaining 15 patients, an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was done. Lymph node metastases were found in 3 patients who had blue axillary SLNs and in 1 patient who underwent ALND. In the 11 patients who had no blue SLNs and no ALND, no axillary recurrences were observed during follow-up (median = 26 months). Conclusions Proper staging of the axilla remains crucial in patients showing exclusive drainage to the IMC. When no axillary node can be retrieved, ALND remains subject to discussion. PMID:20936283

  5. Lymphoscintigraphy Can Select Breast Cancer Patients for Internal Mammary Chain Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hindie, Elif; Groheux, David; Hennequin, Christophe; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Vercellino, Laetitia; Berenger, Nathalie; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Maylin, Claude; Vilcoq, Jacques-Robert; Espie, Marc

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Given the risk of undesired toxicity, prophylactic internal mammary (IM) chain irradiation should be offered only to patients at high risk of occult involvement. Lymphoscintigraphy for axillary sentinel node biopsy might help in selecting these patients. Methods and Materials: We reviewed published studies with the following selection criteria: {>=}300 breast cancer patients referred for axilla sentinel node biopsy; scintigraphy performed after peritumoral or intratumoral tracer injection; IM biopsy in the case of IM drainage; and axilla staged routinely independent of IM status. Results: Six prospective studies, for a total of 3,876 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Parasternal drainage was present in 792 patients (20.4%). IM biopsy was performed in 644 patients and was positive in 111 (17.2%). Of the positive IM biopsies, 40% were associated with tumors in the lateral breast quadrants. A major difference in the IM positivity rate was found according to the axilla sentinel node status. In patients with negative axilla, the IM biopsy was positive in 7.8% of cases. In patients with positive axilla, however, the IM biopsy was positive in 41% (p < .00001). Because biopsy of multiple IM hot nodes is difficult, the true risk could be even greater, probably close to 50%. Conclusions: Patients with IM drainage on lymphoscintigraphy and a positive axilla sentinel node have a high risk of occult IM involvement. These women should be considered for IM radiotherapy.

  6. Antitumor effects and immunoregulation mechanisms of IL-23 gene in mouse mammary cancer mediated by retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Shan, Baoen; Feng, Yonglu

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-23, composed of p19 and p40 subunits, has diverse functions in regulating immune systems, enhancing cell-mediated immunity. In the present study, we investigated whether forced expression of the p19-linked p40 gene in murine mammary cancer cells (MA891) produced antitumor effects in vivo. Tumor growth of MA-891 cells expressing IL-23 (IL-23/MA891) in mice was retarded compared with parental and vector DNA-transduced tumors and survival of the mice inoculated with IL-23/MA-891 cells was prolonged. Expressions of the CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells were up-regulated not only in IL-23/MA-891 tumor specimens but also in spleen cells of mice inoculated with IL-23/MA-891 as compared with those of mice inoculated with parental or vector DNA-transduced tumors. Cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocyte (CTL) activity of spleen cells from mice inoculated with IL-23/MA-891 was also significantly higher than the other two groups. Th1-type cytokines such as interferon-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-12p70 secreted from spleen cells of mice bearing IL-23/MA-891 tumors were increased while Th2-type cytokine IL-4 was negative regulated. Moreover, we have identified that the quantity of DC in spleen cells of mice bearing IL-23/MA-891 tumors was increased as compared with those mice bearing parental or vector DNA-transfected tumors.

  7. ETV6-NTRK3 fusion oncogene initiates breast cancer from committed mammary progenitors via activation of AP1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Tognon, Cristina E.; Godinho, Frank J.; Yasaitis, Laura; Hock, Hanno; Herschkowitz, Jason I.; Lannon, Chris L.; Cho, Eunah; Kim, Seong-Jin; Bronson, Roderick T.; Perou, Charles M.; Sorensen, Poul H.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY To better understand the cellular origin of breast cancer, we developed a mouse model that recapitulates expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion oncoprotein, the product of the t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation characteristic of human secretory breast carcinoma. Activation of EN expression in mammary tissues by Wap-Cre leads to fully penetrant, multifocal malignant breast cancer with short latency. We provide genetic evidence that in nulliparous Wap-Cre;EN females, committed alveolar bipotent or CD61+ luminal progenitors, are targets of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, EN transforms these otherwise transient progenitors through activation of the AP1 complex. Given increasing relevance of chromosomal translocations in epithelial cancers, such mice serve as a paradigm for the study of their genetic pathogenesis and cellular origins, and generation of novel preclinical models. SIGNIFICANCE For the largest class of human tumors, those of epithelial origin, little is known about their initiating genetic hits or cells of origin. Whether tissue stem cells or more committed progenitors are targets for transformation is uncertain. We developed a system in which epithelial tumorigenesis can be assessed from the initial event to frank malignancy. In this breast cancer model based on chromosomal translocation, we show through genetic marking that committed mammary progenitors, rather than mammary stem cells, are direct targets of transformation. We show that activation of the AP1 complex represents a critical downstream event of the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. Further focus on this transcriptional complex as a target in human breast cancer is warranted. PMID:18068631

  8. Isoform-specific function of calpains in cell adhesion disruption: studies in postlactational mammary gland and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Lucía; Ferrer-Vicens, Iván; García, Concha; Oltra, Sara S; Zaragozá, Rosa; Viña, Juan R; García-Trevijano, Elena R

    2016-09-15

    Cleavage of adhesion proteins is the first step for physiological clearance of undesired cells during postlactational regression of the mammary gland, but also for cell migration in pathological states such as breast cancer. The intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent proteases, calpains (CAPNs), are known to cleave adhesion proteins. The isoform-specific function of CAPN1 and CAPN2 was explored and compared in two models of cell adhesion disruption: mice mammary gland during weaning-induced involution and breast cancer cell lines according to tumor subtype classification. In both models, E-cadherin, β-catenin, p-120, and talin-1 were cleaved as assessed by western blot analysis. Both CAPNs were able to cleave adhesion proteins from lactating mammary gland in vitro Nevertheless, CAPN2 was the only isoform found to co-localize with E-cadherin in cell junctions at the peak of lactation. CAPN2/E-cadherin in vivo interaction, analyzed by proximity ligation assay, was dramatically increased during involution. Calpain inhibitor administration prevented the cytosolic accumulation of truncated E-cadherin cleaved by CAPN2. Conversely, in breast cancer cells, CAPN2 was restricted to the nuclear compartment. The isoform-specific expression of CAPNs and CAPN activity was dependent on the breast cancer subtype. However, CAPN1 and CAPN2 knockdown cells showed that cleavage of adhesion proteins and cell migration was mediated by CAPN1, independently of the breast cancer cell line used. Data presented here suggest that the subcellular distribution of CAPN1 and CAPN2 is a major issue in target-substrate recognition; therefore, it determines the isoform-specific role of CAPNs during disruption of cell adhesion in either a physiological or a pathological context. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. In situ force mapping of mammary gland transformation.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jose I; Kang, Inkyung; You, Weon-Kyoo; McDonald, Donald M; Weaver, Valerie M

    2011-09-01

    Tumor progression is characterized by an incremental stiffening of the tissue. The importance of tissue rigidity to cancer is appreciated, yet the contribution of specific tissue elements to tumor stiffening and their physiological significance remains unclear. We performed high-resolution atomic force microscopy indentation in live and snap-frozen fluorescently labeled mammary tissues to explore the origin of the tissue stiffening associated with mammary tumor development in PyMT mice. The tumor epithelium, the tumor-associated vasculature and the extracellular matrix all contributed to mammary gland stiffening as it transitioned from normal to invasive carcinoma. Consistent with the concept that extracellular matrix stiffness modifies cell tension, we found that isolated transformed mammary epithelial cells were intrinsically stiffer than their normal counterparts but that the malignant epithelium in situ was far stiffer than isolated breast tumor cells. Moreover, using an in situ vitrification approach, we determined that the extracellular matrix adjacent to the epithelium progressively stiffened as tissue evolved from normal through benign to an invasive state. Importantly, we also noted that there was significant mechanical heterogeneity within the transformed tissue both in the epithelium and the tumor-associated neovasculature. The vascular bed within the tumor core was substantially stiffer than the large patent vessels at the invasive front that are surrounded by the stiffest extracellular matrix. These findings clarify the contribution of individual mammary gland tissue elements to the altered biomechanical landscape of cancerous tissues and emphasize the importance of studying cancer cell evolution under conditions that preserve native interactions.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of embryonic mammary cells reveals insights into mammary lineage establishment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    identification of novel potential regulators of mammary fate and mesenchymal-epithelial cross-talk. Since cancers may represent diseases of mesenchymal-epithelial communications, we anticipate these results will provide foundations for further studies into the fundamental links between developmental, stem cell and breast cancer biology. PMID:21834968

  11. Canine mammary tumors contain cancer stem-like cells and form spheroids with an embryonic stem cell signature.

    PubMed

    Ferletta, Maria; Grawé, Jan; Hellmén, Eva

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the presence of tentative stem-like cells in the canine mammary tumor cell line CMT-U229. This cell line is established from an atypical benign mixed mammary tumor, which has the property of forming duct-like structures in collagen gels. Stem cells in mammary glands are located in the epithelium; therefore we thought that the CMT-U229 cell line would be suitable for detection of tentative cancer stem-like cells. Side population (SP) analyses by flow cytometry were performed with cells that formed spheroids and with cells that did not. Flow cytometric, single sorted cells were expanded and re-cultured as spheroids. The spheroids were paraffin embedded and characterized by immunohistochemistry. SP analyses showed that spheroid forming cells (retenate) as well as single cells (filtrate) contained SP cells. Sca1 positive cells were single cell sorted and thereafter the SP population increased with repeated SP analyses. The SP cells were positively labeled with the cell surface-markers CD44 and CD49f (integrin alpha6); however the expression of CD24 was low or negative. The spheroids expressed the transcription factor and stem cell marker Sox2, as well as Oct4. Interestingly, only peripheral cells of the spheroids and single cells were positive for Oct4 expression. SP cells are suggested to correspond to stem cells and in this study, we have enriched for tentative tumor stem-like cells derived from a canine mammary tumor. All the used markers indicate that the studied CMT-U229 cell line contains SP cells, which in particular have cancer stem-like cell characteristics.

  12. A monograph proposing the use of canine mammary tumours as a model for the study of hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes in humans.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Katie; Merner, Nancy D

    2017-05-01

    Canines are excellent models for cancer studies due to their similar physiology and genomic sequence to humans, companion status and limited intra-breed heterogeneity. Due to their affliction to mammary cancers, canines can serve as powerful genetic models of hereditary breast cancers. Variants within known human breast cancer susceptibility genes only explain a fraction of familial cases. Thus, further discovery is necessary but such efforts have been thwarted by genetic heterogeneity. Reducing heterogeneity is key, and studying isolated human populations have helped in the endeavour. An alternative is to study dog pedigrees, since artificial selection has resulted in extreme homogeneity. Identifying the genetic predisposition to canine mammary tumours can translate to human discoveries - a strategy currently underutilized. To explore this potential, we reviewed published canine mammary tumour genetic studies and proposed benefits of next generation sequencing canine cohorts to facilitate moving beyond incremental advances.

  13. Tumour-associated macrophages influence canine mammary cancer stem-like cells enhancing their pro-angiogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Rybicka, A; Eyileten, C; Taciak, B; Mucha, J; Majchrzak, K; Hellmen, E; Krol, M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer stem-like cells as cells with ability to self-renewal and potential to differentiate into various types of cells are known to be responsible for tumour initiation, recurrence and drug resistance. Hence a comprehensive research is concentrated on discovering cancer stem-like cells biology and interdependence between them and other cells. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of macrophages on cancer stem-like cells in canine mammary carcinomas. As recent studies indicated presence of macrophages in cancer environment stimulates cancer cells into more motile and invasive cells by acquisition of macrophage phenotypes. From two canine mammary tumour cell lines, CMT-U27 and P114 cancer stem-like cells were stained with Sca1, CD44 and EpCAM monoclonal antibodies and isolated. Those cells were next co-cultured with macrophages for 5 days and used for further experiments. Canine Gene Expression Microarray revealed 29 different expressed transcripts in cancer stem-like cells co-cultured with macrophages compared to those in mono-culture. Up-regulation of C-C motif chemokine 2 was considered as the most interesting for further investigation. Additionally, those cells showed overexpression of genes involved in non-canonical Wnt pathway. The results of 3D tubule formation in endothelial cells induced by cancer stem-like cells co-cultured with macrophages compared to cancer stem-like cells from mono-cultures and with addition of Recombinant Canine CCL2/MCP-1 revealed the same stimulating effect. Based on those results we can conclude that macrophages have an impact on cancer stem-like cells increasing secretion of pro-angiogenic factors.

  14. The Androgen Receptor Supports Tumor Progression After the Loss of Ovarian Function in a Preclinical Model of Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wellberg, Elizabeth A; Checkley, L Allyson; Giles, Erin D; Johnson, Stevi J; Oljira, Robera; Wahdan-Alaswad, Reema; Foright, Rebecca M; Dooley, Greg; Edgerton, Susan M; Jindal, Sonali; Johnson, Ginger C; Richer, Jennifer K; Kabos, Peter; Thor, Ann D; Schedin, Pepper; MacLean, Paul S; Anderson, Steven M

    2017-07-24

    The androgen receptor (AR) has context-dependent roles in breast cancer growth and progression. Overall, high tumor AR levels predict a favorable patient outcome, but several studies have established a tumor promotional role for AR, particularly in supporting the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER-positive) breast cancers after endocrine therapy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that obesity promotes mammary tumor progression after ovariectomy (OVX) in a rat model of postmenopausal breast cancer. Here, we investigated a potential role for AR in obesity-associated post-OVX mammary tumor progression following ovarian estrogen loss. In this model, we found that obese but not lean rats had nuclear localized AR in tumors that progressed 3 weeks after OVX, compared to those that regressed. AR nuclear localization is consistent with activation of AR-dependent transcription. Longer-term studies (8 weeks post-OVX) showed that AR nuclear localization and expression were maintained in tumors that had progressed, but AR expression was nearly lost in tumors that were regressing. The anti-androgen enzalutamide effectively blocked tumor progression in obese rats by promoting tumor necrosis and also prevented the formation of new tumors after OVX. Neither circulating nor mammary adipose tissue levels of the AR ligand testosterone were elevated in obese compared to lean rats; however, IL-6, which we previously reported to be higher in plasma from obese versus lean rats, sensitized breast cancer cells to low levels of testosterone. Our study demonstrates that, in the context of obesity, AR plays a role in driving ER-positive mammary tumor progression in an environment of low estrogen availability, and that circulating factors unique to the obese host, including IL-6, may influence how cancer cells respond to steroid hormones.

  15. Silencing Vimentin Expression Decreases Pulmonary Metastases in a Pre-Diabetic Mouse Model of Mammary Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Zelenko, Zara; Gallagher, Emily J.; Tobin-Hess, Aviva; Belardi, Valentina; Rostoker, Ran; Blank, Jeffery; Dina, Yemisi; LeRoith, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Increased breast cancer risk and mortality has been associated with obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hyperinsulinemia, a key factor in obesity, pre-diabetes and T2D, has been associated with decreased breast cancer survival. In the current study, a mouse model of pre-diabetes (MKR mouse) was used to investigate the mechanisms through which endogenous hyperinsulinemia promotes mammary tumor metastases. The MKR mice developed larger primary tumors and greater number of pulmonary metastases compared to wild type (WT) mice after injection with c-Myc/Vegf overexpressing MVT-1 cells. Analysis of the primary tumors showed significant increase in Vimentin protein expression in the MKR mice compared to WT. We hypothesized that Vimentin was an important mediator in the effect of hyperinsulinemia on breast cancer metastasis. Lentiviral shRNA knockdown of Vimentin led to a significant decrease in invasion of the MVT-1 cells and abrogated the increase in cell invasion in response to insulin. In the pre-diabetic MKR mouse, Vimentin knockdown led to a decrease in pulmonary metastases. In vitro, we found that insulin increased pAKT, prevented Caspase 3 activation, and increased Vimentin. Inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway, using NVP-BKM120, increased active Caspase 3 and decreased Vimentin levels. This study is the first to show that Vimentin plays an important role in tumor metastasis in vivo in the setting of pre-diabetes and endogenous hyperinsulinemia. Vimentin targeting may be an important therapeutic strategy to reduce metastases in patients with obesity, pre-diabetes or T2D. PMID:27568979

  16. Co-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (flk-1 and flt-1) in hormone-induced mammary cancer in the Noble rat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, B; Tam, N N C; Tsao, S W; Wong, Y C

    1999-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is recognized to play a predominant role in breast cancer prognosis. The action of VEGF is mediated by two high-affinity receptors with ligand-stimulated tyrosine kinase activity: VEGFR-1/flt-1 and VEGFR-2/flk-1, which are expressed mainly in vascular endothelial cells. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies on the expression of these receptors in breast cancer cells has been made. We have established a new animal model for breast cancer, using a combination of 17β-oestradiol and testosterone as ‘carcinogens’. Taking advantage of the animal model, we have demonstrated that mammary cancer cells expressed not only high levels of VEGF but also, surprisingly, its receptors (flt-1 and flk-1) in mammary cancer cells. Intense reactivities to VEGF, flt-1 and flk-1 were observed in mammary cancer cells, especially in invasive mammary carcinoma. Western blot analysis confirmed the increase in flk-1 and flt-1 proteins in induced mammary cancers. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that in mammary cancer, VEGF regulates, in addition to endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, also growth of cancer cells by an autocrine mechanism mediated through its receptors. To further verify this hypothesis, we investigated the correlation between cellular proliferation and the expression of VEGF, flt-1 and flk-1. Using double-labelling immunocytochemistry, we have shown a correlation between high VEGF activity and Ki-67 expression. The Ki-67 indices in the areas of strong and weak VEGF reactivities were 58.3% and 3.7% respectively. Similarly, there was also a correlation of strong flk-1 and Ki-67 reactivity. The Ki-67 indices for areas of strong and weak flk-1 reactivities were 53.9% and 3.1% respectively. On the other hand, there was a reverse correlation between flt-1 and Ki-67 activities. These results indicate that overexpression of VEGF and flk-1 is correlated with high Ki-67 index. The data, therefore, suggest that

  17. Mammary cancer and epithelial stem cells: a problem or a solution?

    PubMed

    Smith, Gilbert H

    2002-01-01

    The existing paradigms for stem cells in adult tissues include the integument, the alimentary canal, the lung, the liver, skeletal muscle and bone marrow. The mammary gland, by contrast, is the 'new kid on the block'. What little is known about stem cells in the mammary gland indicates that they possess a prodigious capacity for self-renewal. More importantly, in rodents, they persist with undiminished reproductive vigor throughout the organism's lifetime without regard to age or reproductive history. Do these stem cells represent primary targets for mammary neoplasia? If so, what are the implications for prevention/therapy?

  18. Elevated expression of activated forms of Neu/ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 are involved in the induction of mammary tumors in transgenic mice: implications for human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, P M; Ryan, E D; Cardiff, R D; Muller, W J

    1999-01-01

    To assess the importance of Neu activation during mammary tumorigenesis, altered receptors harboring in-frame deletions within the extracellular domain were expressed in transgenic mice. Females from several independent lines develop multiple mammary tumors that frequently metastasize to the lung. Tumor progression in these strains was associated with elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated Neu and ErbB-3. Consistent with these observations, a survey of primary human breast tumors revealed frequent co-expression of both erbB-2 and erbB-3 transcripts. The ability of altered Neu receptors to induce mammary tumorigenesis in transgenic mice prompted us to examine whether similar mutations occurred in ErbB-2 during human breast cancer progression. Interestingly, an alternatively spliced form of erbB-2, closely resembling spontaneous activated forms of neu, was detected in human breast tumors. The ErbB-2 receptor encoded by this novel transcript harbors an in-frame deletion of 16 amino acids in the extracellular domain and can transform Rat-1 fibroblasts. Together, these observations argue that co-expression of ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 may play a critical role in the induction of human breast tumors, and raise the possibility that activating mutations in the ErbB-2 receptor may also contribute to this process. PMID:10205169

  19. Metabolic imbalance and prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Anya J; Tilling, Kate M; Holly, Jeff M; Hamdy, Freddie C; Rowlands, Mari-Anne E; Donovan, Jenny L; Martin, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial evidence implicating environmental factors in the progression of prostate cancer. The metabolic consequences of a western lifestyle, such as obesity, insulin resistance and abnormal hormone production have been linked to prostate carcinogenesis through multiple overlapping pathways. Insulin resistance results in raised levels of the mitogens insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1, both of which may affect prostate cancer directly, or through their effect on other metabolic regulators. Obesity is associated with abnormal levels of adipocyte-derived peptides (adipokines), sex hormones and inflammatory cytokines. Adipokines have been shown to influence prostate cancer in both cell culture studies and observational, population level studies. Testosterone appears to have a complex relationship with prostate carcinogenesis, and it has been suggested that the lower levels associated with obesity may select for more aggressive androgen independent prostate cancer cells. Prostatic inflammation, caused by infection, urinary reflux or dietary toxins, frequently occurs prior to cancer development and may influence progression to advanced disease. High levels of ω-6 fatty acids in the diet may lead to the production of further inflammatory molecules that may influence prostate cancer. Increased fatty acid metabolism occurs within tumour cells, providing a potential target for prostate cancer therapies. Aberrations in amino acid metabolism have also been identified in prostate cancer tissue, particularly in metastatic cancer. This evidence indicates lifestyle interventions may be effective in reducing the incidence of clinical disease. However, much more research is needed before recommendations are made. PMID:21532839

  20. Detection of Internal Mammary Adenopathy in Patients With Breast Cancer by PET/CT and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jochelson, Maxine S.; Lebron, Lizza; Jacobs, Stefanie S.; Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Powell, Simon N.; Sacchini, Virgilio; Ulaner, Gary A.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Dershaw, D. David

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of internal mammary node (IMN) adenopathy in patients with breast cancer and compare breast MRI and PET/CT for detection of IMN adenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This retrospective study included 90 women who underwent MRI and PET/CT before neoadjuvant chemotherapy for clinical stage IIA through IIIA disease. MRI and PET/CT examinations were read independently by two readers trained in breast imaging and nuclear medicine. All patients underwent follow-up MRI at the end of chemotherapy, and 10 with hypermetabolic IMNs underwent follow-up PET/CT. Histology was not obtained. Women were considered to have IMN adenopathy when nodes seen on MRI or having standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than mediastinal blood pool decreased in either size or SUV (or both) after treatment. Features including lymphovascular invasion, tumor quadrant(s), and axillary adenopathy were compared between presence and absence of IMN adenopathy using Fisher’s exact test. Prevalence was determined on the basis of the percentage of patients with IMN adenopathy by either modality. The McNemar test compared the prevalence of IMN adenopathy on MRI to its prevalence on PET/CT. RESULTS Prevalence of IMN adenopathy was 16% (14/90) by MRI and 14% (13/90) by PET/CT (p = 0.317). After chemotherapy, IMN adenopathy resolved in 12 of 14 patients (86%). In two patients with poor responses in primary tumors, IMN adenopathy persisted, and both patients developed metastatic disease within 6 months. At 3 years, survival was significantly worse in patients with IMN adenopathy than in those without (85.7% vs 53.3%, respectively; p = 0.009). CONCLUSION In women with advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, prevalence of IMN adenopathy was 16%, equally detected by breast MRI and PET/CT. Identification of IMN adenopathy may affect treatment and provides prognostic information. PMID:26397342

  1. Detection of Internal Mammary Adenopathy in Patients With Breast Cancer by PET/CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Jochelson, Maxine S; Lebron, Lizza; Jacobs, Stefanie S; Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Powell, Simon N; Sacchini, Virgilio; Ulaner, Gary A; Morris, Elizabeth A; Dershaw, D David

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of internal mammary node (IMN) adenopathy in patients with breast cancer and compare breast MRI and PET/CT for detection of IMN adenopathy. This retrospective study included 90 women who underwent MRI and PET/CT before neoadjuvant chemotherapy for clinical stage IIA through IIIA disease. MRI and PET/CT examinations were read independently by two readers trained in breast imaging and nuclear medicine. All patients underwent follow-up MRI at the end of chemotherapy, and 10 with hypermetabolic IMNs underwent follow-up PET/CT. Histology was not obtained. Women were considered to have IMN adenopathy when nodes seen on MRI or having standardized uptake value (SUV) greater than mediastinal blood pool decreased in either size or SUV (or both) after treatment. Features including lymphovascular invasion, tumor quadrant(s), and axillary adenopathy were compared between presence and absence of IMN adenopathy using Fisher's exact test. Prevalence was determined on the basis of the percentage of patients with IMN adenopathy by either modality. The McNemar test compared the prevalence of IMN adenopathy on MRI to its prevalence on PET/CT. Prevalence of IMN adenopathy was 16% (14/90) by MRI and 14% (13/90) by PET/CT (p = 0.317). After chemotherapy, IMN adenopathy resolved in 12 of 14 patients (86%). In two patients with poor responses in primary tumors, IMN adenopathy persisted, and both patients developed metastatic disease within 6 months. At 3 years, survival was significantly worse in patients with IMN adenopathy than in those without (85.7% vs 53.3%, respectively; p = 0.009). In women with advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemo-therapy, prevalence of IMN adenopathy was 16%, equally detected by breast MRI and PET/CT. Identification of IMN adenopathy may affect treatment and provides prognostic information.

  2. Transgenic Mammary Epithelial Osteopontin (Spp1) Expression Induces Proliferation and Alveologenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Neil E.; Chen, Qian J.; Sickafoose, Laura K.; Wood, Meghan B.; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Abrahamsson, Ninnie M.; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Walls, Judith E.

    2013-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) Spp1 is involved in differentiation of the mammary gland. We engineered mice to overexpress OPN in mammary epithelium and describe an altered mammary phenotype. Three transgenic (Tg) founder lines FVB/N Tg(MMTV-Opn)(1-3BOR) were propagated after FVB/NJ pronuclear injections. Mammary glands from Tg-OPN mice compared to littermate controls showed, at 4 weeks of age, exaggerated terminal end buds; at 8 and 12 weeks, more numerous and complex ducts with increased luminal protein; and at 16 weeks, increased lobulogenesis. Lactational Tg-OPN mammary glands showed more rapid lobulogenesis and lactational changes with slower gland involution and regression following weaning. Ex vivo lobulogenesis was noticeably increased from organoids of Tg-OPN mice. Immunohistochemistry revealed cytoplasmic OPN accumulation and increased Ki-67 positive mammary epithelial cells in Tg-OPN mammary glands. OPN appears to convey a proliferative stimulus for mammary epithelial cells and alters development and differentiation. These OPN mammary overexpressing mice provide a means to study the role of OPN in cancer progression. PMID:24069507

  3. Yin Yang 1 cooperates with activator protein 2 to stimulate ERBB2 gene expression in mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Begon, Dominique Y; Delacroix, Laurence; Vernimmen, Douglas; Jackers, Pascale; Winkler, Rosita

    2005-07-01

    Overexpression of the ERBB2 oncogene is observed in about 30% of breast cancers and is generally correlated with a poor prognosis. Previous results from our and other laboratories indicated that elevated transcriptional activity contributes significantly to the overexpression of ERBB2 mRNA in mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. Activator protein 2 (AP-2) transcription factors account for this overexpression through two recognition sequences located 215 and 500 bp upstream from the transcription start site. Furthermore, AP-2 transcription factors are highly expressed in cancer cell lines overexpressing ERBB2. In this report, we examined the cooperative effect of Yin Yang 1 (YY1) on AP-2-induced activation of ERBB2 promoter activity. We detected high levels of YY1 transcription factor in mammary cancer cell lines. Notably, we showed that YY1 enhances AP-2alpha transcriptional activation of the ERBB2 promoter through an AP-2 site both in HepG2 and in HCT116 cells, whereas a carboxyl-terminal-truncated form of YY1 cannot. Moreover, we demonstrated the interaction between endogenous AP-2 and YY1 factors in the BT-474 mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. In addition, inhibition of endogenous YY1 protein by an antisense decreased the transcription of an AP-2-responsive ERBB2 reporter plasmid in BT-474 breast cancer cells. Finally, we detected in vivo AP-2 and YY1 occupancy of the ERBB2 proximal promoter in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our data thus provide evidence that YY1 cooperates with AP-2 to stimulate ERBB2 promoter activity through the AP-2 binding sites.

  4. Homocysteine Is an Oncometabolite in Breast Cancer, Which Promotes Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    tissues and compare the expression levels in normal mouse mammary gland . For this, we used biological triplicates by preparing RNA from tumor tissues...homocysteine to be increased 4.5-fold in MMTV-HRAS mouse breast tumor tissues compared to age-matched wild type mouse mammary tissues. Similarly, the...levels of homocysteine went up 7.3-fold in MMTV-PyMT mouse breast cancer tissues 3 compared to age-matched wild type mouse mammary tissues

  5. Reprogramming cancer cells: overview & current progress.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kian Lam; Teoh, Hoon Koon; Choong, Pei Feng; Teh, Hui Xin; Cheong, Soon Keng; Kamarul, Tunku

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is a disease with genetic and epigenetic origins, and the possible effects of reprogramming cancer cells using the defined sets of transcription factors remain largely uninvestigated. In the handful of publications available so far, findings have shown that reprogramming cancer cells changed the characteristics of the cells to differ from the parental cancer cells. These findings indicated the possibility of utilizing reprogramming technology to create a disease model in the laboratory to be used in studying the molecular pathogenesis or for drug screening of a particular cancer model. Despite numerous methods employed in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from cancer cells only a few studies have successfully reprogrammed malignant human cells. In this review we will provide an overview on i) methods to reprogram cancer cells, ii) characterization of the reprogrammed cancer cells, and iii) the differential effects of reprogramming on malignancy, epigenetics and response of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Continued technical progress in cancer cell reprogramming technology will be instrumental for more refined in vitro disease models and ultimately for the development of directed and personalized therapy for cancer patients in the future.

  6. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinjun; Kantoff, Philip W; Wooster, Richard; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2017-01-01

    The intrinsic limits of conventional cancer therapies prompted the development and application of various nanotechnologies for more effective and safer cancer treatment, herein referred to as cancer nanomedicine. Considerable technological success has been achieved in this field, but the main obstacles to nanomedicine becoming a new paradigm in cancer therapy stem from the complexities and heterogeneity of tumour biology, an incomplete understanding of nano-bio interactions and the challenges regarding chemistry, manufacturing and controls required for clinical translation and commercialization. This Review highlights the progress, challenges and opportunities in cancer nanomedicine and discusses novel engineering approaches that capitalize on our growing understanding of tumour biology and nano-bio interactions to develop more effective nanotherapeutics for cancer patients.

  7. Multifunctional nanoparticles: recent progress in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Seeta Rama Raju, G; Benton, Leah; Pavitra, E; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-09-04

    Although much progress has been made in treating cancers, cancer death rates in and around the United States are still high. Current treatments are either ineffective against some cancers or detrimental to patients, which decreases their quality of life. The use of nanotechnology in cancer therapy can potentially increase patient survival, reduce side effects, and reduce mortality rates because nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to target only tumors and bypass healthy cells. NPs possess many features, including size, shape, charge, and composition, which allow them to carry chemotherapeutics to cancer cells. NPs can also be used in radiotherapy as radiosensitizers and in imaging as contrast agents. Many studies have performed in vitro and/or in vivo experiments on these particles in human and animal cell lines. This review discusses recent studies on different NPs and their potential use in cancer therapy.

  8. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinjun; Kantoff, Philip W.; Wooster, Richard; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2017-01-01

    The intrinsic limits of conventional cancer therapies prompted the development and application of various nanotechnologies for more effective and safer cancer treatment, herein referred to as cancer nanomedicine. Considerable technological success has been achieved in this field, but the main obstacles to nanomedicine becoming a new paradigm in cancer therapy stem from the complexities and heterogeneity of tumour biology, an incomplete understanding of nano–bio interactions and the challenges regarding chemistry, manufacturing and controls required for clinical translation and commercialization. This Review highlights the progress, challenges and opportunities in cancer nanomedicine and discusses novel engineering approaches that capitalize on our growing understanding of tumour biology and nano–bio interactions to develop more effective nanotherapeutics for cancer patients. PMID:27834398

  9. No association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilú; Martínez-López, Juan L. E.; Hernández-Sancén, Paulina; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. It has been suggested that infection by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus or a similar virus, MMTV-like virus (MMTV-LV), play a role in the etiology of the disease. However, studies looking at the presence of these viruses in breast cancer have produced conflicting results, and this possible association remains controversial. Here, we used polymerase chain reaction assay to screen specific sequences of EBV and MMTV-LV in 86 tumor and 65 adjacent tissues from Mexican women with breast cancer. Neither tumor samples nor adjacent tissue were positive for either virus in a first round PCR and only 4 tumor samples were EBV positive by a more sensitive nested PCR. Considering the study's statistical power, these results do not support the involvement of EBV and MMTV-LV in the etiology of breast cancer.

  10. No association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilú; Martínez-López, Juan L. E.; Hernández-Sancén, Paulina; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. It has been suggested that infection by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus or a similar virus, MMTV-like virus (MMTV-LV), play a role in the etiology of the disease. However, studies looking at the presence of these viruses in breast cancer have produced conflicting results, and this possible association remains controversial. Here, we used polymerase chain reaction assay to screen specific sequences of EBV and MMTV-LV in 86 tumor and 65 adjacent tissues from Mexican women with breast cancer. Neither tumor samples nor adjacent tissue were positive for either virus in a first round PCR and only 4 tumor samples were EBV positive by a more sensitive nested PCR. Considering the study's statistical power, these results do not support the involvement of EBV and MMTV-LV in the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24131889

  11. Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    representation of the retroviral vectors SFG-tdRFP-cmvFLuc, constitutively expressing tdRFP and firefly luciferase; and Cis-TGFD1-Smads- HSV1 - tk/GFP...AD Award Number: DAMD 17-02-1-0484 TITLE: Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William L. Gerald, M.D., Ph.D...CONTRACT NUMBER Gene Expression Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02-1-0484 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 6d

  12. Hyaluronan, Inflammation, and Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; Cowman, Mary K.; Telmer, Patrick G.; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer-induced inflammation in the tumor reactive stroma supports invasion and malignant progression and is contributed to by a variety of host cells including macrophages and fibroblasts. Inflammation appears to be initiated by tumor cells and surrounding host fibroblasts that secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) to create a pro-inflammatory “cancerized” or tumor reactive microenvironment that supports tumor expansion and invasion. The tissue polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is an example of an ECM component within the cancerized microenvironment that promotes breast cancer progression. Like many ECM molecules, the function of native high-molecular weight HA is altered by fragmentation, which is promoted by oxygen/nitrogen free radicals and release of hyaluronidases within the tumor microenvironment. HA fragments are pro-inflammatory and activate signaling pathways that promote survival, migration, and invasion within both tumor and host cells through binding to HA receptors such as CD44 and RHAMM/HMMR. In breast cancer, elevated HA in the peri-tumor stroma and increased HA receptor expression are prognostic for poor outcome and are associated with disease recurrence. This review addresses the critical issues regarding tumor-induced inflammation and its role in breast cancer progression focusing specifically on the changes in HA metabolism within tumor reactive stroma as a key factor in malignant progression. PMID:26106384

  13. Antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer: participation of 6-iodolactone (6-IL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR).

    PubMed

    Aceves, Carmen; García-Solís, Pablo; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; Vega-Riveroll, Laura; Delgado, Guadalupe; Anguiano, Brenda

    2009-06-06

    Studies in mammary cancer demonstrated that moderately high concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) have a antiproliferative and apoptotic effect either in vivo as in vitro, however the cellular intermediated involved in these effects has not been elucidated. Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with methyl-nitrosourea (MNU: single dose ip, 50 mg/Kg bw) and the participation of arachidonic acid (AA) and PPAR receptors in the antineoplasic effect of I2 where analyzed. I2-treated rats for four weeks exhibited a significant reduction in the incidence (62.5 vs. 100%) and size (0.87 +/- 0.98 vs 1.96 +/- 1.5 cm3) of mammary tumors. HPLC analysis showed that tumoral but not normal mammary tissue contained an elevated basal concentration of AA and significantly more AA-iodinated called 6-iodolactone (6-IL) after chronic I2 treatment. Tumors from I2-treated rats showed fewer cells positive to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, lower blood vessel density, as well as decreases in vascular endothelial growth factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and PPAR type alpha (PPARalpha). These same tumors showed increases in the cell death markers, TUNEL-positive cells (p < 0.05) and the enzyme caspase-3 (trend), as well as significant induction of PPAR type gamma (PPARgamma). Together, these data demonstrate that the antineoplasic effect of iodine involves 6-IL formation and PPARgamma induction.

  14. Effect of Withania somnifera Root Extract on Spontaneous Estrogen Receptor-Negative Mammary Cancer in MMTV/Neu Mice

    PubMed Central

    KHAZAL, KAMEL F.; HILL, DONALD L.; GRUBBS, CLINTON J.

    2015-01-01

    The cancer-preventive activity of an extract of Withania somnifera (WS) roots was examined in female transgenic (MMTV/Neu) mice that received a diet containing the extract (750 mg/kg of diet) for 10 months. Mice in the treated group (N=35) had an average of 1.66 mammary carcinomas, and mice in the control group (N=33) had 2.48, a reduction of 33%. The average weights of the carcinomas were 2.36 g for mice in the treated group and 2.63 g for the controls, a difference of 10%. Labeling indices for Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen marker in mammary carcinomas of the treated group were 35% and 30% lower, respectively, than those of the corresponding control group. Expression of the chemokine was reduced by 50%. These results indicate that the root extract reduced the number of mammary carcinomas that developed and reduced the rate of cell division in the carcinomas. PMID:25368231

  15. Antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer: participation of 6-iodolactone (6-IL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)

    PubMed Central

    Aceves, Carmen; García-Solís, Pablo; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar; Vega-Riveroll, Laura; Delgado, Guadalupe; Anguiano, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Studies in mammary cancer demonstrated that moderately high concentrations of molecular iodine (I2) have a antiproliferative and apoptotic effect either in vivo as in vitro, however the cellular intermediated involved in these effects has not been elucidated. Methods Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with methyl-nitrosourea (MNU: single dose ip, 50 mg/Kg bw) and the participation of arachidonic acid (AA) and PPAR receptors in the antineoplasic effect of I2 where analyzed. Results I2-treated rats for four weeks exhibited a significant reduction in the incidence (62.5 vs. 100%) and size (0.87 ± 0.98 vs 1.96 ± 1.5 cm3) of mammary tumors. HPLC analysis showed that tumoral but not normal mammary tissue contained an elevated basal concentration of AA and significantly more AA-iodinated called 6-iodolactone (6-IL) after chronic I2 treatment. Tumors from I2-treated rats showed fewer cells positive to proliferating cell nuclear antigen, lower blood vessel density, as well as decreases in vascular endothelial growth factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and PPAR type alpha (PPARα). These same tumors showed increases in the cell death markers, TUNEL-positive cells (p < 0.05) and the enzyme caspase-3 (trend), as well as significant induction of PPAR type gamma (PPARγ). Conclusion Together, these data demonstrate that the antineoplasic effect of iodine involves 6-IL formation and PPARγ induction. PMID:19500378

  16. Current progress in immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kelly; Kim, Victoria; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Zheng, Lei

    2016-10-10

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal cancers with few treatment options. Immune-based strategies to treat pancreatic cancer, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, therapeutic vaccines, and combination immunotherapies, are showing promise where other approaches have failed. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 antibodies, are effective as single agents in immune sensitive cancers like melanoma, but lack efficacy in immune insensitive cancers including pancreatic cancer. However, these inhibitors are showing clinical activity, even in traditionally non-immunogenic cancers, when combined with other interventions, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and therapeutic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines given together with immune modulating agents are of particular interest because vaccines are the most efficient way to induce effective anti-tumor T cell responses, which is required for immunotherapies to be effective. In pancreatic cancer, early studies suggest that vaccines can induce T cells that have the potential to recognize and kill pancreatic cancer cells, but the tumor microenvironment inhibits effective T cell trafficking and function. While progress has been made in the development of immunotherapies for pancreatic cancer over the last several years, additional trials are needed to better understand the signals within the tumor microenvironment that are formidable barriers to T cell infiltration and function. Additionally, as more pancreatic specific antigens are identified, immunotherapies will continue to be refined to provide the most significant clinical benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pleiotropic functions of fibroblast growth factor signaling in embryonic mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Han-Sung; Lu, Pengfei

    2013-06-01

    The mammary gland is an ectodermal appendage and a defining feature of mammals. Consistent with it being a recent evolutionary novelty, many of the molecules essential for the ontogeny and morphogenesis of various vertebrate organs, including those in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway, are co-opted for induction, maintenance and morphogenesis of the mammary glands. Understanding the mechanism whereby FGF signaling regulates the fundamental cell behavior during normal mammary gland develop may facilitate determination of the consequences of its deregulation during breast cancer progression.

  18. The proliferative activity of mammary epithelial cells in normal tissue predicts breast cancer risk in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Sung Jin; Oh, Hannah; Peterson, Michael A.; Almendro, Vanessa; Hu, Rong; Bowden, Michaela; Lis, Rosina L.; Cotter, Maura B.; Loda, Massimo; Barry, William T.; Polyak, Kornelia; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency and proliferative activity of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells are suggested to correlate with cancer risk. In this study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and the frequency of mammary epithelial cells expressing p27, estrogen receptor (ER), and Ki67 in normal breast tissue. We performed a nested case-control study of 302 women (69 breast cancer cases, 233 controls) who had been initially diagnosed with benign breast disease according to the Nurses’ Health Studies. Immunofluorescence for p27, ER, and Ki67 was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from benign biopsies containing normal mammary epithelium and scored by computational image analysis. We found that the frequency of Ki67+ cells was positively associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women (odds ratio [OR]=10.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.12–48.0). Conversely, the frequency of ER+ or p27+ cells was inversely, but not significantly, associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (ER+: OR=0.70, 95% CI=0.33–1.50; p27+: OR=0.89, 95% CI=0.45–1.75). Notably, high Ki67+/low p27+ and high Ki67+/low ER+ cell frequencies were significantly associated with a 5-fold higher risk of breast cancer compared to low Ki67+/low p27+ and low Ki67+/low ER+ cell frequencies, respectively, among premenopausal women (Ki67hi/p27lo: OR=5.08, 95% CI=1.43–18.1; Ki67hi/ERlo: OR=4.68, 95% CI=1.63–13.5). Taken together, our data suggest that the fraction of actively cycling cells in normal breast tissue may represent a marker for breast cancer risk assessment, which may therefore impact the frequency of screening procedures in at-risk women. PMID:26941287

  19. KISS1R induces invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovic, Donna; Dragan, Magdalena; Leith, Sean J; Mir, Zuhaib M; Leong, Hon S; Pampillo, Macarena; Lewis, John D; Babwah, Andy V; Bhattacharya, Moshmi

    2013-06-01

    Kisspeptins (KPs), peptide products of the KISS1 metastasis-suppressor gene, are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor (KISS1R). KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and KISS1R expression in patient breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. We have shown that KP-10 stimulates invasion of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we report that either KP-10 treatment of ERα-negative nonmalignant mammary epithelial MCF10A cells or expression of KISS1R in MCF10A cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype and stimulated invasiveness. Similarly, exogenous expression of KISS1R in ERα-negative SKBR3 breast cancer cells was sufficient to trigger invasion and induced extravasation in vivo. In contrast, KP-10 failed to transactivate EGFR or stimulate invasiveness in the ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. This suggested that ERα negatively regulates KISS1R-dependent breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and EGFR transactivation. In support of this, we found that these KP-10-induced effects were ablated upon exogenous expression of ERα in the MDA-MB-231 cells, by down-regulating KISS1R expression. Lastly, we have identified IQGAP1, an actin cytoskeletal binding protein as a novel binding partner of KISS1R, and have shown that KISS1R regulates EGFR transactivation in breast cancer cells in an IQGAP1-dependent manner. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the ERα status of mammary cells dictates whether KISS1R may be a novel clinical target for treating breast cancer metastasis.

  20. Noncanonical TGF-β signaling during mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Parvani, Jenny G; Taylor, Molly A; Schiemann, William P

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of at least five major tumor subtypes that coalesce as the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Although metastasis clearly represents the most lethal characteristic of breast cancer, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern this event remains inadequate. Clinically, ~30% of breast cancer patients diagnosed with early-stage disease undergo metastatic progression, an event that (a) severely limits treatment options, (b) typically results in chemoresistance and low response rates, and (c) greatly contributes to aggressive relapses and dismal survival rates. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates all phases of postnatal mammary gland development, including branching morphogenesis, lactation, and involution. TGF-β also plays a prominent role in suppressing mammary tumorigenesis by preventing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, or by inducing MEC apoptosis. Genetic and epigenetic events that transpire during mammary tumorigenesis conspire to circumvent the tumor suppressing activities of TGF-β, thereby permitting late-stage breast cancer cells to acquire invasive and metastatic phenotypes in response to TGF-β. Metastatic progression stimulated by TGF-β also relies on its ability to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the expansion of chemoresistant breast cancer stem cells. Precisely how this metamorphosis in TGF-β function comes about remains incompletely understood; however, recent findings indicate that the initiation of oncogenic TGF-β activity is contingent upon imbalances between its canonical and noncanonical signaling systems. Here we review the molecular and cellular contributions of noncanonical TGF-β effectors to mammary tumorigenesis and metastatic progression.

  1. Noncanonical TGF-β Signaling During Mammary Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Parvani, Jenny G.; Taylor, Molly A.; Schiemann, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease comprised of at least 5 major tumor subtypes that coalesce as the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Although metastasis clearly represents the most lethal characteristic of breast cancer, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern this event remains wholly inadequate. Clinically, ~30% of breast cancer patients diagnosed with early-stage disease undergo metastatic progression, an event that (i) severely limits treatment options, (ii) typically results in chemoresistance and low response rates, and (iii) greatly contributes to aggressive relapses and dismal survival rates. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates all phases of post-natal mammary gland development, including branching morphogenesis, lactation, and involution. TGF-β also plays a prominent role in suppressing mammary tumorigenesis by preventing mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, or by inducing MEC apoptosis. Genetic and epigenetic events that transpire during mammary tumorigenesis conspire to circumvent the tumor suppressing activities of TGF-β, thereby permitting late-stage breast cancer cells to acquire invasive and metastatic phenotypes in response to TGF-β. Metastatic progression stimulated by TGF-β also relies on its ability to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the expansion of chemoresistant breast cancer stem cells. Precisely how this metamorphosis in TGF-β function comes about remains incompletely understood; however, recent findings indicate that the initiation of oncogenic TGF-β activity is contingent upon imbalances between its canonical and noncanonical signaling systems. Here we review molecular and cellular contributions of noncanonical TGF-β effectors to mammary tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. PMID:21448580

  2. Highly specific role of the insulin receptor in breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rostoker, Ran; Abelson, Sagi; Bitton-Worms, Keren; Genkin, Inna; Ben-Shmuel, Sarit; Dakwar, Maria; Orr, Zila Shen; Caspi, Avishay; Tzukerman, Maty; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence from clinical trials indicates that specific targeting of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) is not efficient as an anti-breast cancer treatment. One possible reason is that the mitogenic signals from the insulin receptor (IR) can be processed independently or as compensation to inhibition of the IGF1R. In this study, we highlight the role of the IR in mediating breast tumor progression in both WT mice and a hyperinsulinemic MKR mouse model by induction of Ir (Insr) or Igf1r knockdown (KD) in the mammary carcinoma Mvt-1 cell line. By using the specific IR antagonist-S961, we demonstrated that Igf1r-KD induces elevated responses by the IR to IGF1. On the other hand, Ir-KD cells generated significantly smaller tumors in the mammary fat pads of both WT and MKR mice, as opposed to control cells, whereas the Igf1r-KD cells did not. The tumorigenic effects of insulin on the Mvt-1 cells were also demonstrated using microarray analysis, which indicates alteration of genes and signaling pathways involved in proliferation, the cell cycle, and apoptosis following insulin stimulation. In addition, the correlation between IR and the potential prognostic marker for aggressive breast cancer, CD24, was examined in the Ir-KD cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed more than 60% reduction in CD24 expression in the Ir-KD cells when compared with the control cells. Our results also indicate that CD24-expressing cells can restore, at least in part, the tumorigenic capacity of Ir-KD cells. Taken together, our results highlight the mitogenic role of the IR in mammary tumor progression with a direct link to CD24 expression. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Transdermal Delivery of α-Santalol through Breast Skin and Mammary Papilla (Nipple).

    PubMed

    Dave, Kaushalkumar; Alsharif, Fahd M; Islam, Saiful; Dwivedi, Chandradhar; Perumal, Omathanu

    2017-09-01

    Almost all breast cancers originate from epithelial cells lining the milk ducts in the breast. To this end, the study investigated the feasibility of localized transdermal delivery of α-santalol, a natural chemopreventive agent to the breast. Different α-santalol formulations (cream, solution and microemulsion) were developed and the in vitro permeability was studied using excised animal (porcine and rat) and human breast skin/mammary papilla (nipple). The in vivo biodistribution and efficacy studies were conducted in female rats. A chemical carcinogenesis model of breast cancer was used for the efficacy studies. Phospholipid based α-santalol microemulsion showed the highest penetration through the nipple and breast skin. Delivery of α-santalol through the entire breast (breast skin and nipple) in vivo in rats resulted in significantly higher concentration in the mammary gland compared to transdermal delivery through the breast skin or nipple. There was no measurable α-santalol concentration in the blood. Transdermal delivery of α-santalol reduced the tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Furthermore, the tumor size was significantly reduced with α-santalol treatment. The findings from this study demonstrate the feasibility of localized transdermal delivery of α-santalol for chemoprevention of breast cancer.

  4. Catalog of genetic progression of human cancers: breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Christine; Yates, Lucy; Kulka, Janina

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of next-generation sequencing, deeper insights are being gained into the molecular evolution that underlies the development and clinical progression of breast cancer. It is apparent that during evolution, breast cancers acquire thousands of mutations including single base pair substitutions, insertions, deletions, copy number aberrations, and structural rearrangements. As a consequence, at the whole genome level, no two cancers are identical and few cancers even share the same complement of "driver" mutations. Indeed, two samples from the same cancer may also exhibit extensive differences due to constant remodeling of the genome over time. In this review, we summarize recent studies that extend our understanding of the genomic basis of cancer progression. Key biological insights include the following: subclonal diversification begins early in cancer evolution, being detectable even in in situ lesions; geographical stratification of subclonal structure is frequent in primary tumors and can include therapeutically targetable alterations; multiple distant metastases typically arise from a common metastatic ancestor following a "metastatic cascade" model; systemic therapy can unmask preexisting resistant subclones or influence further treatment sensitivity and disease progression. We conclude the review by describing novel approaches such as the analysis of circulating DNA and patient-derived xenografts that promise to further our understanding of the genomic changes occurring during cancer evolution and guide treatment decision making.

  5. Progress in Rectal Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ceelen, Wim P.

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in local control of rectal cancer observed during the last decades is to be attributed to attention to surgical technique and to the introduction of neoadjuvant therapy regimens. Nevertheless, systemic relapse remains frequent and is currently insufficiently addressed. Intensification of neoadjuvant therapy by incorporating chemotherapy with or without targeted agents before the start of (chemo)radiation or during the waiting period to surgery may present an opportunity to improve overall survival. An increasing number of patients can nowadays undergo sphincter preserving surgery. In selected patients, local excision or even a “wait and see” approach may be feasible following active neoadjuvant therapy. Molecular and genetic biomarkers as well as innovative imaging techniques may in the future allow better selection of patients for this treatment option. Controversy persists concerning the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy after neoadjuvant regimens. The currently available evidence suggests that in complete pathological responders long-term outcome is excellent and adjuvant therapy may be omitted. The results of ongoing trials will help to establish the ideal tailored approach in resectable rectal cancer. PMID:22970381

  6. In Vivo Role of Six1 in Mammary Gland Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    overexpression is documented in a number of tumor types, including ovarian cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Wilms ’ tumor , rhabdomyosarcomas and...Klein, U., and Tycko, B. 2002. Gene expression in Wilms ’ tumor mimics the earliest committed stage in the metanephric mesenchymal-epithelial...progression of breast cancer. Most significantly, we have determined that Six1 is sufficient to induce tumor formation in the mammary glands of mice

  7. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-1 contributes to progression in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Banda, Malathi; Speyer, Cecilia L; Semma, Sara N; Osuala, Kingsley O; Kounalakis, Nicole; Torres Torres, Keila E; Barnard, Nicola J; Kim, Hyunjin J; Sloane, Bonnie F; Miller, Fred R; Goydos, James S; Gorski, David H

    2014-01-01

    TNBC is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that does not express hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptors, ER and PR) or amplified human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), and there currently exist no targeted therapies effective against it. Consequently, finding new molecular targets in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is critical to improving patient outcomes. Previously, we have detected the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor-1 (gene: GRM1; protein: mGluR1) in TNBC and observed that targeting glutamatergic signaling inhibits TNBC growth both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we explored how mGluR1 contributes to TNBC progression, using the isogenic MCF10 progression series, which models breast carcinogenesis from nontransformed epithelium to malignant basal-like breast cancer. We observed that mGluR1 is expressed in human breast cancer and that in MCF10A cells, which model nontransformed mammary epithelium, but not in MCF10AT1 cells, which model atypical ductal hyperplasia, mGluR1 overexpression results in increased proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and invasiveness. In contrast, mGluR1 knockdown results in a decrease in these activities in malignant MCF10CA1d cells. Similarly, pharmacologic inhibition of glutamatergic signaling in MCF10CA1d cells results in a decrease in proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Finally, transduction of MCF10AT1 cells, which express c-Ha-ras, using a lentiviral construct expressing GRM1 results in transformation to carcinoma in 90% of resultant xenografts. We conclude that mGluR1 cooperates with other factors in hyperplastic mammary epithelium to contribute to TNBC progression and therefore propose that glutamatergic signaling represents a promising new molecular target for TNBC therapy.

  8. Biobehavioral Approaches to Cancer Progression and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, there have been groundbreaking strides in our understanding of the multiple biological pathways by which psychosocial and behavioral factors can affect cancer progression. It is now clear that biobehavioral factors not only affect cellular immunity but both directly and indirectly modulate fundamental processes in cancer growth, including inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. There is also an emerging understanding of how psychological and behavioral factors used in interventions can impact these physiological processes. This review outlines our current understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which psychological, social, and behavioral processes can affect cancer progression. The intervention literature is discussed, along with recommendations for future research to move the field of biobehavioral oncology forward. PMID:25730724

  9. Characterization of mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure--Potential for human male breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Elmore, Susan A; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of breast cancer in men is extremely rare, reported to be less than 1% and there is currently no available animal model for male mammary tumors. We compared the characteristics of various immunohistochemical markers in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats including: estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), androgen receptor (AR), receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Female mammary adenocarcinomas were strongly positive in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA and ER (100%) with only 60% and 53% expressing PgR and GATA3, respectively. 100% of male adenocarcinomas also exhibited strongly positive expression in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA, with 25% expressing AR and only 8% showing positivity for ER. Male carcinomas did not express PgR or GATA3 and none of the tumors, male or female, were positive for HER2. Based on the observed ER and PgR positivity and HER2 negativity within these tumors, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in female rats appear to be hormonally dependent, similar to human luminal A type breast cancer. In contrast, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats showed no reactivity for ER, PgR, HER2 or GATA3, suggesting no hormonal dependency. Both male and female adenocarcinomas showed high proliferating activity by PCNA immunohistochemistry. Based on our literature review, human male breast cancers are mainly dependent on ER and/or PgR, therefore the biological pathogenesis of MNU-induced male mammary cancer in rats may differ from that of male breast cancer in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Trastuzumab and docetaxel in a preclinical organotypic breast cancer model using tissue slices from mammary fat pad: Translational relevance

    PubMed Central

    VESCI, LOREDANA; CAROLLO, VALERIA; ROSCILLI, GIUSEPPE; AURISICCHIO, LUIGI; FERRARA, FABIANA FOSCA; SPAGNOLI, LUIGI; DE SANTIS, RITA

    2015-01-01

    With the ever-increasing number of drugs approved to treat cancers, selection of the optimal treatment regimen for an individual patient is challenging. Breast cancer complexity requires novel predictive methods and tools. In the present study, we set up experimental conditions to obtain an 'ex vivo' organotypic culture from xenotransplanted mice aiming at recapitulating the human clinical condition. The effect of trastuzumab (large biological molecule) and docetaxel (small chemical entity) was subsequently investigated on this organotypic model and compared with in vivo and in vitro activity on tumor cells. Tissue slices of 200 µm were obtained from mammary fat pad of SCID mice xenotransplanted with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Viability and proliferation were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry,and apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. In vivo antitumor activity of trastuzumab and docetaxel was determined by caliper measurement of tumor volume and Ki-67 expression on explanted masses by immunohistochemistry. A Teflon support and normoxia were necessary experimental conditions to obtain high viability of excised breast cancer infiltrated mammary fat pad slices upon 48 h cultivation, as shown by MTT proliferation assay, and Ki-67 expression. Breast cancer tissue slices treated for 48 h with trastuzumab or docetaxel showed a significant dose-dependent reduction of viability by MTT assay. Consistently, both drugs down-modulated Ki-67 and increased cleaved caspase-3. Tumor masses collected from docetaxel-or trastuzumab-treated mice showed a similar reduction of proliferation markers. By contrast, MCF-7 cell cultures were significantly inhibited by docetaxel but not by trastuzumab. Tumor tissue slices represent a more predictive experimental cancer model compared to cell cultures for both small and large molecule antitumor efficacy. This observation

  11. Trastuzumab and docetaxel in a preclinical organotypic breast cancer model using tissue slices from mammary fat pad: Translational relevance.

    PubMed

    Vesci, Loredana; Carollo, Valeria; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Aurisicchio, Luigi; Ferrara, Fabiana Fosca; Spagnoli, Luigi; De Santis, Rita

    2015-09-01

    With the ever-increasing number of drugs approved to treat cancers, selection of the optimal treatment regimen for an individual patient is challenging. Breast cancer complexity requires novel predictive methods and tools. In the present study, we set up experimental conditions to obtain an 'ex vivo' organotypic culture from xenotransplanted mice aiming at recapitulating the human clinical condition. The effect of trastuzumab (large biological molecule) and docetaxel (small chemical entity) was subsequently investigated on this organotypic model and compared with in vivo and in vitro activity on tumor cells. Tissue slices of 200 µm were obtained from mammary fat pad of SCID mice xenotransplanted with human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Viability and proliferation were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry,and apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. In vivo antitumor activity of trastuzumab and docetaxel was determined by caliper measurement of tumor volume and Ki-67 expression on explanted masses by immunohistochemistry. A Teflon support and normoxia were necessary experimental conditions to obtain high viability of excised breast cancer infiltrated mammary fat pad slices upon 48 h cultivation, as shown by MTT proliferation assay, and Ki-67 expression. Breast cancer tissue slices treated for 48 h with trastuzumab or docetaxel showed a significant dose‑dependent reduction of viability by MTT assay. Consistently, both drugs down-modulated Ki-67 and increased cleaved caspase-3. Tumor masses collected from docetaxel- or trastuzumab‑treated mice showed a similar reduction of proliferation markers. By contrast, MCF-7 cell cultures were significantly inhibited by docetaxel but not by trastuzumab. Tumor tissue slices represent a more predictive experimental cancer model compared to cell cultures for both small and large molecule antitumor efficacy. This

  12. Effects of Flaxseed Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucosideon Preneoplastic Biomarkers of Cancer Progression in a Model of Simultaneous Breast and Ovarian Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Delman, Devora M; Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Yeh, Henry; Petroff, Brian K

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prevention efforts are focused increasingly on potentially beneficial dietary modifications due to their ease of implementation and wide acceptance. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a lignan found in high concentration in flaxseed that may have selective estrogen receptor modulator-like effects resulting in antiestrogenic activity in a high estrogen environment. In parallel with a human phase II prevention trial, female ACI rats (n = 8-10/group) received 0, 10, or 100 ppm SDG in the feed. The 100 ppm SDG treatment produced similar blood lignan levels as those observed in our human pilot study. Mammary and ovarian cancer progression were induced using local ovarian DMBA treatment and subcutaneous sustained release 17β-estradiol administered starting at 7 weeks of age. Mammary gland and ovarian tissues were collected at 3 mo after initiation of treatment and examined for changes in epithelial cell proliferation (Ki-67, cell counts), histopathology, and dysplasia scores, as well as expression of selected genes involved in proliferation, estrogen signaling, and cell adhesion. Treatment with SDG normalized several biomarkers in mammary gland tissue (dysplasia, cell number, and expression of several genes) that had been altered by carcinogen. There is no indication that SDG promotes preneoplastic progression in the ovarian epithelium.

  13. Experimental mammary carcinogenesis - Rat models.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Antonieta; Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Colaço, Bruno; Oliveira, Paula A

    2017-03-15

    Mammary cancer is one of the most common cancers, victimizing more than half a million of women worldwide every year. Despite all the studies in this field, the current therapeutic approaches are not effective and have several devastating effects for patients. In this way, the need to better understand the mammary cancer biopathology and find effective therapies led to the development of several rodent models over years. With this review, the authors intended to provide the readers with an overview of the rat models used to study mammary carcinogenesis, with a special emphasis on chemically-induced models.

  14. A Novel Effect of β-Adrenergic Receptor on Mammary Branching Morphogenesis and its Possible Implications in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Lucía; May, María; Rivero, Ezequiel M; Copsel, Sabrina; Lamb, Caroline; Lydon, John; Davio, Carlos; Lanari, Claudia; Lüthy, Isabel A; Bruzzone, Ariana

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that govern normal mammary gland development is crucial to the comprehension of breast cancer etiology. β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) are targets of endogenous catecholamines such as epinephrine that have gained importance in the context of cancer biology. Differences in β2-AR expression levels may be responsible for the effects of epinephrine on tumor vs non-tumorigenic breast cell lines, the latter expressing higher levels of β2-AR. To study regulation of the breast cell phenotype by β2-AR, we over-expressed β2-AR in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and knocked-down the receptor in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A breast cells. In MCF-10A cells having knocked-down β2-AR, epinephrine increased cell proliferation and migration, similar to the response by tumor cells. In contrast, in MCF-7 cells overexpressing the β2-AR, epinephrine decreased cell proliferation and migration and increased adhesion, mimicking the response of the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells, thus underscoring that β2-AR expression level is a key player in cell behavior. β-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol induced differentiation of breast cells growing in 3-dimension cell culture, and also the branching of murine mammary epithelium in vivo. Branching induced by isoproterenol was abolished in fulvestrant or tamoxifen-treated mice, demonstrating that the effect of β-adrenergic stimulation on branching is dependent on the estrogen receptor (ER). An ER-independent effect of isoproterenol on lumen architecture was nonetheless found. Isoproterenol significantly increased the expression of ERα, Ephrine-B1 and fibroblast growth factors in the mammary glands of mice, and in MCF-10A cells. In a poorly differentiated murine ductal carcinoma, isoproterenol also decreased tumor growth and induced tumor differentiation. This study highlights that catecholamines, through β-AR activation, seem to be involved in mammary gland development, inducing mature duct formation. Additionally

  15. Caveolin-1 and prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Yang, Wei; Di Vizio, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 was identified in the 1990s as a marker of aggressive prostate cancer. The caveolin-1 protein localizes to vesicular structures called caveolae and has been shown to bind and regulate many signaling proteins involved in oncogenesis. Caveolin-1 also has lipid binding properties and mediates aspects of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism and can elicit biological responses in a paracrine manner when secreted. Caveolin-1 is also present in the serum of prostate cancer patients and circulating levels correlate with extent of disease. Current evidence indicates that increased expression of caveolin-1 in prostate adenocarcinoma cells and commensurate downregulation of the protein in prostate stroma, mediate progression to the castration-resistant phase of prostate cancer through diverse pathways. This chapter summarizes the current state of our understanding of the cellular and physiologic mechanisms in which caveolin-1 participates in the evolution of prostate cancer cell phenotypes.

  16. Developing a Novel Mouse Model for Breast Cancer by Targeting Oncogenes to Mammary Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    obtained and rederived into our facility this line of mice from another investigator Tom O’Brien (1). We are in the process of testing this line for...Breed K6-rtTA transgenic mice with established tetO-c-Myc mice. Transplant the mammary cells from the resulting bi -transgenic mice into 10 inguinal...concentrated RCAS-K-RasG12D-IRES-Cre virus to inguinal mammary glands of 10 pubertal and 10 estrogen-stimulated K6-TVA /p53flox/flox bi -genic females. Monitor

  17. Computerized segmentation algorithm with personalized atlases of murine MRIs in a SV40 large T-antigen mouse mammary cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, Adam R.; Markiewicz, Erica; Mustafi, Devkumar; Fan, Xiaobing; Conzen, Suzanne; Karczmar, Greg; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-03-01

    Quantities of MRI data, much larger than can be objectively and efficiently analyzed manually, are routinely generated in preclinical research. We aim to develop an automated image segmentation and registration pipeline to aid in analysis of image data from our high-throughput 9.4 Tesla small animal MRI imaging center. T2-weighted, fat-suppressed MRIs were acquired over 4 life-cycle time-points [up to 12 to 18 weeks] of twelve C3(1) SV40 Large T-antigen mice for a total of 46 T2-weighted MRI volumes; each with a matrix size of 192 x 256, 62 slices, in plane resolution 0.1 mm, and slice thickness 0.5 mm. These image sets were acquired with the goal of tracking and quantifying progression of mammary intraepithelial neoplasia (MIN) to invasive cancer in mice, believed to be similar to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in humans. Our segmentation algorithm takes 2D seed-points drawn by the user at the center of the 4 co-registered volumes associated with each mouse. The level set then evolves in 3D from these 2D seeds. The contour evolution incorporates texture information, edge information, and a statistical shape model in a two-step process. Volumetric DICE coefficients comparing the automatic with manual segmentations were computed and ranged between 0.75 and 0.58 for averages over the 4 life-cycle time points of the mice. Incorporation of these personalized atlases with intra and inter mouse registration is expected to enable locally and globally tracking of the morphological and textural changes in the mammary tissue and associated lesions of these mice.

  18. A new role of SNAI2 in postlactational involution of the mammary gland links it to luminal breast cancer development

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo-Lluva, Sonia; Hontecillas-Prieto, Lourdes; Blanco-Gómez, Adrian; del Mar Sáez-Freire, María; García-Cenador, Begona; García-Criado, Javier; Pérez-Andrés, Martín; Orfao, Alberto; Cañamero, Marta; Mao, Jian-Hua; Gridley, Thomas; Castellanos-Martín, Andres; Pérez-Losada, Jesus

    2015-06-22

    Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women. The transcription factor SNAI2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of cancer, including breast cancer of basal origin. Here we show that SNAI2 is also important in the development of breast cancer of luminal origin in MMTV-ErbB2 mice. SNAI2 deficiency leads to longer latency and fewer luminal tumors, both of these being characteristics of pretumoral origin. These effects were associated with reduced proliferation and a decreased ability to generate mammospheres in normal mammary glands. However, the capacity to metastasize was not modified. Under conditions of increased ERBB2 oncogenic activity after pregnancy plus SNAI2 deficiency, both pretumoral defects-latency and tumor load-were compensated. However, the incidence of lung metastases was dramatically reduced. Furthermore, SNAI2 was required for proper postlactational involution of the breast. At 3 days post lactational involution, the mammary glands of Snai2-deficient mice exhibited lower levels of pSTAT3 and higher levels of pAKT1, resulting in decreased apoptosis. Abundant noninvoluted ducts were still present at 30 days post lactation, with a greater number of residual ERBB2+ cells. These results suggest that this defect in involution leads to an increase in the number of susceptible target cells for transformation, to the recovery of the capacity to generate mammospheres and to an increase in the number of tumors. In conclusion, our work demonstrates the participation of SNAI2 in the pathogenesis of luminal breast cancer, and reveals an unexpected connection between the processes of postlactational involution and breast tumorigenesis in Snai2-null mutant mice.

  19. A new role of SNAI2 in postlactational involution of the mammary gland links it to luminal breast cancer development

    DOE PAGES

    Castillo-Lluva, Sonia; Hontecillas-Prieto, Lourdes; Blanco-Gómez, Adrian; ...

    2015-06-22

    Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in women. The transcription factor SNAI2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of cancer, including breast cancer of basal origin. Here we show that SNAI2 is also important in the development of breast cancer of luminal origin in MMTV-ErbB2 mice. SNAI2 deficiency leads to longer latency and fewer luminal tumors, both of these being characteristics of pretumoral origin. These effects were associated with reduced proliferation and a decreased ability to generate mammospheres in normal mammary glands. However, the capacity to metastasize was not modified. Under conditions of increased ERBB2more » oncogenic activity after pregnancy plus SNAI2 deficiency, both pretumoral defects-latency and tumor load-were compensated. However, the incidence of lung metastases was dramatically reduced. Furthermore, SNAI2 was required for proper postlactational involution of the breast. At 3 days post lactational involution, the mammary glands of Snai2-deficient mice exhibited lower levels of pSTAT3 and higher levels of pAKT1, resulting in decreased apoptosis. Abundant noninvoluted ducts were still present at 30 days post lactation, with a greater number of residual ERBB2+ cells. These results suggest that this defect in involution leads to an increase in the number of susceptible target cells for transformation, to the recovery of the capacity to generate mammospheres and to an increase in the number of tumors. In conclusion, our work demonstrates the participation of SNAI2 in the pathogenesis of luminal breast cancer, and reveals an unexpected connection between the processes of postlactational involution and breast tumorigenesis in Snai2-null mutant mice.« less

  20. Maspin acts at the cell membrane to inhibit invasion and motility of mammary and prostatic cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, S; Carey, J; Seftor, E A; Dias, L; Hendrix, M J; Sager, R

    1996-01-01

    Maspin, a novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin), inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis of mammary carcinoma. We show here that recombinant maspin protein blocks the motility of these carcinoma cells in culture over 12 h, as demonstrated by time-lapse video microscopy. Lamellopodia are withdrawn but ruffling continues. Both exogenous recombinant maspin and maspin expressed by tumor transfectants exhibit inhibitory effects on cell motility and cell invasion as shown in modified Boyden chamber assays. In addition, three prostatic cancer cell lines treated with recombinant maspin exhibited similar inhibition of both invasion and motility, suggesting a similar mode of maspin action in these two glandular epithelial cancers. When mammary carcinoma cells were treated with recombinant maspin, the protein was shown by immunostaining to bind specifically to the cell surface, suggesting that maspin activity is membrane associated. When pretreated with antimaspin antibody, maspin loses its inhibitory effects on both invasion and motility. However, when maspin is added to these cells preceding antibody treatment, the activity of maspin is no longer inhibited by subsequent addition of the antibody. It is concluded therefore that the inhibition of invasion and motility by maspin is initially localized to the cell surface. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8876194

  1. Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a critical reappraisal of the internal mammary chain issue.

    PubMed

    Manca, G; Volterrani, D; Mazzarri, S; Duce, V; Svirydenka, A; Giuliano, A; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Although, like the axilla, the internal mammary nodes (IMNs) are a first-echelon nodal drainage site in breast cancer, the importance of their treatment has long been debated. Seminal randomized trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit from surgical IMN dissection, and several retrospective studies have shown that IMNs are rarely the first site of recurrence. However, the recent widespread adoption of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has stimulated a critical reappraisal of such early results. Furthermore, the higher proportion of screening-detected cancers, improved imaging and techniques (i.e., lymphoscintigraphy for radioguided SLN biopsy) make it possible to visualize lymphatic drainage to the IMNs. The virtually systematic application of adjuvant systemic and/or loco-regional radiotherapy encourages re-examination of the significance of IMN metastases. Moreover, randomized trials testing the value of postmastectomy irradiation and a meta-analysis of 78 randomized trials have provided high levels of evidence that local-regional tumor control is associated with long-term survival improvements. This benefit was limited to trials that used systemic chemotherapy, which was not routinely administered in the earlier studies. However, the contribution from IMN treatment is unclear. Lymphoscintigraphic studies have shown that a significant proportion of breast cancers have primary drainage to the IMNs, including approximately 30% of medial tumors and 15% of lateral tumors. In the few studies where IMN biopsy was performed, 20% of sentinel IMNs were metastatic. The risk of IMN involvement is higher in patients with medial tumors and positive axillary nodes. IMN metastasis has prognostic significance, as recognized by its inclusion in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria, and seems to have similar prognostic importance as axillary nodal involvement. Although routine IMN evaluation might be indicated, it has not been routinely performed

  2. Mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Mammary neoplasia is one of the more common malignancies affecting domestic species. Despite their importance, they are often over- diagnosed, undertreated and subject to several misconceptions propagated by veterinarians and pet owners alike. Mammary neoplasia is the most frequent tumor type encountered in the female accounting for almost half of all malignancies reported. The canine has the highest incidence of mammary tumors of all domestic species. In the dog, about 65 percent of mammary tumors are benign mixed tumors, and 25 percent are carcinomas. The rest are adenomas, myoepitheliomas, and malignant mixed tumors. The age distribution of mammary tumors closely follows the age distribution of most tumors in the dog. Mammary tumors are rare in dogs 2 years old, but incidence begins to increase sharply at approximately 6 years of age. Median age at diagnosis is about 10 years. No breed predilection has been consistently reported.

  3. In utero exposure of rats to high-fat diets perturbs gene-expression profiles and cancer susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Jun; Gear, Robin; Bornschein, Robert L; Medvedovic, Mario; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Human studies suggest that high-fat diets (HFD) increase the risk of breast cancer. The 7,12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis rat model is commonly used to evaluate the effects of lifestyle factors such as HFD on mammary-tumor risk. Past studies focused primarily on the effects of continuous maternal exposure on the risk of offspring at the end of puberty (PND50). We assessed the effects of prenatal HFD exposure on cancer susceptibility in prepubertal mammary glands and identified key gene networks associated with such disruption. During pregnancy, dams were fed AIN93G-based diets with isocaloric high olive oil, butterfat, or safflower oil. The control group received AIN-93G. Female offspring were treated with DMBA on PND21. However, a significant increase in tumor volume and a trend of shortened tumor latency were observed in rats with HFD exposure against the controls (p=0.048 and p=0.067 respectively). Large-volume tumors harbored carcinoma in situ. Transcriptome profiling identified 43 differentially expressed genes in the mammary glands of the HFBUTTER group as compared with control. Rapid hormone signaling was the most dysregulated pathway. The diet also induced aberrant expression of Dnmt3a, Mbd1, and Mbd3, consistent with potential epigenetic disruption. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence supporting susceptibility of prepubertal mammary glands to DMBA-induced tumorigenesis that can be modulated by dietary fat that involves aberrant gene expression and likely epigenetic dysregulation. PMID:26895667

  4. Impact of pathologic diagnosis of internal mammary lymph node metastasis in clinical N2b and N3b breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Joo, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Su Ssan; Ahn, Seung-Do; Choi, Eun Kyung; Jung, Jin Hong; Jeong, Yuri; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jung; Go, Beom Seok; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young

    2017-08-07

    To analyze the prognostic role of pathologic confirmation of internal mammary lymph nodes (IMNs) for breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy between 2009 and 2013, 114 women had suspicious IMNs and FNAB was attempted. Clinical IMN metastasis was diagnosed by 18F-FDG PET/CT positivity or pathologic confirmation (N = 70). Patients were divided into the FNAB(+) or FNAB(-) IMN group. The pathologic confirmation rate was 57% (40 of 70 patients). Rates were 74% in US-positive, 70% in MRI-positive, and 55% in PET-positive patients. Nodal stage was cN2b (6%) or cN3b (94%). Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly worse in patients with FNAB(+) IMN metastasis than FNAB(-) IMN metastasis (61% vs. 87%, P = 0.03). FNAB(+) IMN patients showed worse distant metastasis and regional recurrence-free survival without statistical significance (69% vs. 86%, P = 0.06, and 81% vs. 96%, P = 0.06). With median follow-up of 50.5 months (13.0-97.0 months), overall survival at 5 years was 77%, and PFS was 72%. Patients with FNAB-proven IMN metastasis had worse treatment outcomes compared to patients with clinically diagnosed IMN metastasis in cN2b/N3b breast cancer.

  5. Mice expressing myrAKT1 in the mammary gland develop carcinogen-induced ER-positive mammary tumors that mimic human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Pérez-Gallego, Lucía; Pequeño, Belén; Leal, Juan F M; Renner, Oliver; Carnero, Amancio

    2007-03-01

    AKT1/PKB is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates biological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and growth in a variety of cell types. To assess the oncogenic capability of an activated form of AKT in vivo we have generated several transgenic mouse lines that overexpress in the mammary epithelium the murine Akt1 gene modified with a myristoylation signal, which renders active this protein by localizing it to the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that expression of myristoylated AKT in the mammary glands increases the susceptibility of these mice to the induction of mammary tumors of epithelial origin by the carcinogen 9,10-dimethyl-1,2 benzanthracene (DMBA). We have found that while carcinogen-treated wild-type mice show mostly mammary tumors of sarcomatous origin, AKT transgenic mice treated with DMBA developed mainly adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous tumors, all of them displaying activated AKT. We analyzed other possible molecular alterations cooperating with AKT and found that neither Ras nor beta-catenin/Wnt pathways seemed altered nor p53 mutated. We have found that 100% of mammary DMBA-induced tumors and benign lesions in myrAKT mice are estrogen receptor (ERalpha)-positive and are more frequent than in wild-type littermates. These data show that AKT activation cooperates with deregulation of the estrogen receptor in the DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis model and recapitulate two characteristics of some human breast tumors. Thus, our model might provide a preclinical relevant model system to study the role of AKT and ERalpha in breast tumorigenesis and the response of mammary gland tumors to chemotherapeutics.

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the progression phase of mammary carcinogenesis by inducing cellular senescence via a p16-dependent but p53-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shilkaitis, Anne; Green, Albert; Punj, Vasu; Steele, Vernon; Lubet, Ronald; Christov, Konstantin

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an adrenal 17-ketosteroid, is a precursor of testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Studies have shown that DHEA inhibits carcinogenesis in mammary gland and prostate as well as other organs, a process that is not hormone dependent. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of DHEA-mediated inhibition of the neoplastic process. Here we examine whether DHEA and its analog DHEA 8354 can suppress the progression