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Sample records for mamoeiro carica papaya

  1. Papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun J; Fitch, Maureen M M; Moore, Paul H

    2006-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were initially obtained using particle bombardment, a method having poor efficiency in producing intact, single-copy insertion of transgenes. Single-copy gene insertion was improved using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. With progress being made in genome sequencing and gene discovery, there is a need for more efficient methods of transformation in order to study the function of these genes. We describe a protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using carborundum-wounded papaya embryogenic calli. This method should lead to high-throughput transformation, which on average produced at least one plant that was positive in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histochemical staining, or by Southern blot hybridization from 10 to 20% of the callus clusters that had been co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. Plants regenerated from the callus clusters in 9 to 13 mo.

  2. Anther culture of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Tsay, H S; Su, C Y

    1985-02-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) anther containing microspores in tetrad to early-binucleate stages were successfully cultured on 1/2 strength MS salts and vitamins with full strength Na-Fe-EDTA supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l BA and 6% sucrose for callus initiation and formation. Highest frequencies of callus induction were obtained when anthers at the uninucleate stage were cultured in the dark. Haploid plantlets and pollen-derived embryoids were obtained from anthers cultured at the uninucleate stage on solidified MS medium containing 3% sucrose without any growth regulators under a low light intensity (1,500 lux). Large quantities of embryoids were obtained when the original embryoids were transferred to MS medium with 3% sucrose and no growth regulators. Cytology of root tips of embryoid-derived plants confirmed the haploid chromosome number of 9 indicating that the embryoids originated from pollen.

  3. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  4. Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

  5. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  7. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

  8. Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2011-11-01

    Chromoplast morphology and ultrastructure of red- and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.) were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Carotenoid analyses by LC-MS revealed striking similarity of nutritionally relevant carotenoid profiles in both the red and yellow varieties. However, while yellow fruits contained only trace amounts of lycopene, the latter was found to be predominant in red papaya (51% of total carotenoids). Comparison of the pigment-loaded chromoplast ultrastructures disclosed tubular plastids to be abundant in yellow papaya, whereas larger crystalloid substructures characterized most frequent red papaya chromoplasts. Exclusively existent in red papaya, such crystalloid structures were associated with lycopene accumulation. Non-globular carotenoid deposition was derived from simple solubility calculations based on carotenoid and lipid contents of the differently colored fruit pulps. Since the physical state of carotenoid deposition may be decisive regarding their bioavailability, chromoplasts from lycopene-rich tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were also assessed and compared to red papaya. Besides interesting analogies, various distinctions were ascertained resulting in the prediction of enhanced lycopene bioavailability from red papaya. In addition, the developmental pathway of red papaya chromoplasts was investigated during fruit ripening and carotenogenesis. In the early maturation stage of white-fleshed papaya, undifferentiated proplastids and globular plastids were predominant, corresponding to incipient carotenoid biosynthesis. Since intermediate plastids, e.g., amyloplasts or chloroplasts, were absent, chromoplasts are likely to emerge directly from proplastids.

  9. Spiders associated with papaya, Carica papaya L., in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main objective of this work was to study the species composition and population dynamics of spiders associated with papaya plantings in three papaya production areas: Corozal, Isabela, and Lajas, Puerto Rico. Nineteen species representing seven families and 15 genera were identified. Members of ...

  10. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a new pathogen of papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S

    2010-12-24

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch's postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya.

  11. Erwinia mallotivora sp., a New Pathogen of Papaya (Carica papaya) in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noriha Mat; Bunawan, Hamidun; Redzuan, Rohaiza Ahmad; Jaganath, Indu Bala S.

    2011-01-01

    Erwinia mallotivora was isolated from papaya infected with dieback disease showing the typical symptoms of greasy, water-soaked lesions and spots on leaves. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belonged to the genus Erwinia and was united in a monophyletic group with E. mallotivora DSM 4565 (AJ233414). Earlier studies had indicated that the causal agent for this disease was E. papayae. However, our current studies, through Koch’s postulate, have confirmed that papaya dieback disease is caused by E. mallotivora. To our knowledge, this is the first new discovery of E. mallotivora as a causal agent of papaya dieback disease in Peninsular Malaysia. Previous reports have suggested that E. mallotivora causes leaf spot in Mallotus japonicus. However, this research confirms it also to be pathogenic to Carica papaya. PMID:21339975

  12. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  13. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  14. Physical-chemical analyses of irradiated papayas ( Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, R. J.; Tadini, C. C.; Sabato, S. F.

    2007-11-01

    Papaya is cultivated in Espírito Santo State/Brazil and as it stands up to irradiation, it is important to validate this technology, since it is already being applied in some countries. Penetration energy, ratio (relation between soluble solids and titrable acidity) and skin color were evaluated to verify the influence of four different doses of irradiation (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy) on papayas, during 21 days. As a result for the skin color and the penetration energy, it was found that in the first days after irradiation, these variables increased with increase in radiation dose; however, after a time lapse, the tendency inverted and the irradiated fruits had a slower ripening process. For the ratio, a very important variable that it is responsible for the fruit taste, no difference was found between irradiated and the control fruit. Color and texture measurements are dependent on the storage temperature.

  15. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  16. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  17. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A polymorphic pseudoautosomal boundary in the Carica papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Fiona M; Medert, Charles M; Hawkins, Kevin K; Mardonovich, Sandra; Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes are defined by a non-recombining sex-determining region (SDR) flanked by one or two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs). The genetic composition and evolutionary dynamics of the PAR is also influenced by its linkage to the differentiated non-recombining SDR; however, understanding the effects of this linkage requires a precise definition of the PAR boundary. Here, we took a molecular population genetic approach to further refine the location of the PAR boundary of the evolutionary young sex chromosomes of the tropical plant, Carica papaya. We were able to map the position of the papaya PAR boundary A to a 100-kb region between two genetic loci approximately 2 Mb upstream of the previously genetically identified PAR boundary. Furthermore, this boundary is polymorphic within natural populations of papaya, with an approximately 100-130 kb expansion of the non-recombining SDR found in 16 % of individuals surveyed. The expansion of the PAR boundary in one Y haplotype includes at least one additional gene. Homologs of this gene are involved in male gametophyte and pollen development in other plant species.

  19. Digital transcriptome analysis of putative sex-determination genes in papaya (Carica papaya).

    PubMed

    Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Y(h)) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Y(h) chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Y(h) chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Y(h) chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya.

  20. Proteomic analysis of papaya (Carica papaya L.) displaying typical sticky disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Fernandes, Patricia M B; Zingali, Russolina B

    2011-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) hosts the only described laticifer-infecting virus (Papaya meleira virus, PMeV), which is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. To understand the systemic effects of PMeV in papaya, we conducted a comprehensive proteomic analysis of leaf samples from healthy and diseased plants grown under field conditions. First, a reference 2-DE map was established for proteins from healthy samples. A total of 486 reproducible spots were identified, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS data identified 275 proteins accounting for 159 distinct proteins from 231 spots that were annotated. Second, the differential expression of proteins from healthy and diseased leaves was determined through parallel experiments, using 2-DE and DIGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS and LC-IonTrap-MS/MS, respectively. Conventional 2-DE analysis revealed 75 differentially expressed proteins. Of those, 48 proteins were identified, with 26 being upregulated (U) and 22 downregulated (D). In general, metabolism-related proteins were downregulated, and stress-responsive proteins were upregulated. This expression pattern was corroborated by the results of the DIGE analysis, which identified 79 differentially expressed proteins, with 23 identified (17 U and 6 D). Calreticulin and the proteasome subunits 20S and RPT5a were shown to be upregulated during infection by both 2-DE and DIGE analyses. These data may help shed light on plant responses against stresses and viral infections. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Digital Transcriptome Analysis of Putative Sex-Determination Genes in Papaya (Carica papaya)

    PubMed Central

    Urasaki, Naoya; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Ueno, Hiroki; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Miyagi, Norimichi; Adaniya, Shinichi; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a trioecious plant species that has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants. The primitive sex chromosomes genetically determine the sex of the papaya. Although draft sequences of the papaya genome are already available, the genes for sex determination have not been identified, likely due to the complicated structure of its sex-chromosome sequences. To identify the candidate genes for sex determination, we conducted a transcriptome analysis of flower samples from male, female and hermaphrodite plants using high-throughput SuperSAGE for digital gene expression analysis. Among the short sequence tags obtained from the transcripts, 312 unique tags were specifically mapped to the primitive sex chromosome (X or Yh) sequences. An annotation analysis revealed that retroelements are the most abundant sequences observed in the genes corresponding to these tags. The majority of tags on the sex chromosomes were located on the X chromosome, and only 30 tags were commonly mapped to both the X and Yh chromosome, implying a loss of many genes on the Yh chromosome. Nevertheless, candidate Yh chromosome-specific female determination genes, including a MADS-box gene, were identified. Information on these sex chromosome-specific expressed genes will help elucidating sex determination in the papaya. PMID:22815863

  2. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

  3. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  4. Quantification of the antiplasmodial alkaloid carpaine in papaya (Carica papaya) leaves.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Tasqiah; Oufir, Mouhssin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    Daily consumption of papaya (Carica papaya) leaves as greens and an herbal infusion is common in some parts of Indonesia as a means for preventing malaria. Antiplasmodial activity of the leaf extracts and of the main alkaloid carpaine were recently confirmed. A quantitative assay for determination of carpaine in papaya leaves was developed and validated. The assay involved pressurized liquid extraction and quantification with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Extraction conditions were optimized with respect to solvent, temperature, and number of extraction cycles. The ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy assay was validated over a range of 20-5000 ng/mL (R(2) of 0.9908). A total of 29 papaya leaf samples were analyzed, and carpaine concentration in dry leaves was found to range from 0.02 to 0.31%. No obvious dependence on geographic origin and leaf maturity was observed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We purified a single stable pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation, which is isolated from Carica papaya (L.) fruit latex. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-ex...

  6. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  7. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity.

  8. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    He, X; Ma, Y; Yi, G; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Guo, H

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn. The papaya seed EO was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (99·36%). The filter paper disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were employed. The EO showed inhibitory effect against all the tested Candida strains including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropical with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 14·2-33·2 mm, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4·0-16·0 μg ml(-1) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) in the range of 16·0-64·0 μg ml(-1) . Here, we found that the papaya seed EO has promising anticandida activity and identify C. papaya L. as a potential natural source of antifungal agents. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Carica papaya seeds were studied. The oil of papaya seeds could inhibit the growth of Candida spp. for the first report. Carica Papaya may be recognized as a possible new source of natural antifungal agents. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Rapid sex identification of papaya (Carica papaya) using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Te-Hua; Gwo, Jin-Chywan; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is established as a cash crop throughout the tropical and subtropical regions due to its easy adaptation to diverse agricultural conditions, high yields, and prompt returns. The sex types of papaya plants are hermaphrodite, male, and female. Among them, hermaphroditic plants are the major type in papaya production, because the fruit has commercial advantages over that of the other sexes. Sex inheritance in papaya is determined by the M and M(h) dominant alleles in males and hermaphrodites, respectively, and a recessive m allele in females. Currently, all hermaphrodite seeds are not available due to the lethality of dominant homozygosity. Therefore, in this study, six male-hermaphrodite-specific markers were developed for a rapid sex identification using multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) to efficiently and precisely select hermaphroditic individuals in the seedling or early growth stage. The LM1-LAMP assay consisted of two sex-LAMP reactions for amplifying two male-specific markers (T12 and Cpsm90) in one reaction, and showed several advantages in terms of a rapid reaction time (<1 h), isothermal conditions (less equipment required), a high efficiency (0.5 ng of DNA required in the reaction mixture), and an economical reaction system (5 μl in volume). The established method can be easily performed in the field by visual inspection and facilitates the selection of all hermaphroditic individuals in papaya production.

  10. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.

    PubMed

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of a monopartite Begomovirus and associated satellites infecting Carica papaya in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M S; Yoshida, S; Khatri-Chhetri, G B; Briddon, R W; Natsuaki, K T

    2013-06-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is a fruit crop that is cultivated mostly in kitchen gardens throughout Nepal. Leaf samples of C. papaya plants with leaf curling, vein darkening, vein thickening, and a reduction in leaf size were collected from a garden in Darai village, Rampur, Nepal in 2010. Full-length clones of a monopartite Begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were isolated. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Begomovirus showed the arrangement of genes typical of Old World begomoviruses with the highest nucleotide sequence identity (>99 %) to an isolate of Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), confirming it as an isolate of AYVV. The complete nucleotide sequence of betasatellite showed greater than 89 % nucleotide sequence identity to an isolate of Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite originating from Indonesian. The sequence of the alphasatellite displayed 92 % nucleotide sequence identity to Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite. This is the first identification of these components in Nepal and the first time they have been identified in papaya.

  12. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis

    PubMed Central

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding. PMID:28163589

  13. Development of plants resistant to Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by intergeneric hybridization between Carica papaya and Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis.

    PubMed

    Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Kawano, Shinji; Yasuda, Keiji; Ueno, Hiroki; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we confirmed that Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis resists Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and used it to produce intergeneric hybrids with Carica papaya. From the cross between C. papaya and V. cundinamarcensis, we obtained 147 seeds with embryos. Though C. papaya is a monoembryonic plant, multiple embryos were observed in all 147 seeds. We produced 218 plants from 28 seeds by means of embryo-rescue culture. All plants had pubescence on their petioles and stems characteristic of V. cundinamarcensis. Flow cytometry and PCR of 28 plants confirmed they were intergeneric hybrids. To evaluate virus resistance, mechanical inoculation of PLDMV was carried out. The test showed that 41 of 134 intergeneric hybrid plants showed no symptoms and were resistant. The remaining 93 hybrids showed necrotic lesions on the younger leaves than the inoculated leaves. In most of the 93 hybrids, the necrotic lesions enclosed the virus and prevented further spread. These results suggest that the intergeneric hybrids will be valuable material for PLDMV-resistant papaya breeding.

  14. Contrasting patterns of X/Y polymorphism distinguish Carica papaya from other sex chromosome systems.

    PubMed

    Weingartner, Laura A; Moore, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    The sex chromosomes of the tropical crop papaya (Carica papaya) are evolutionarily young and consequently allow for the examination of evolutionary mechanisms that drive early sex chromosome divergence. We conducted a molecular population genetic analysis of four X/Y gene pairs from a collection of 45 wild papaya accessions. These population genetic analyses reveal striking differences in the patterns of polymorphism between the X and Y chromosomes that distinguish them from other sex chromosome systems. In most sex chromosome systems, the Y chromosome displays significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the X chromosome maintains a level of polymorphism that is comparable to autosomal loci. However, the four papaya sex-linked loci that we examined display diversity patterns that are opposite this trend: the papaya X alleles exhibit significantly reduced polymorphism levels, whereas the papaya Y alleles maintain greater than expected levels of diversity. Our analyses suggest that selective sweeps in the regions of the X have contributed to this pattern while also revealing geographically restricted haplogroups on the Y. We discuss the possible role sexual selection and/or genomic conflict have played in shaping the contrasting patterns of polymorphism found for the papaya X and Y chromosomes.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, Bamidele V; Adebukola, Olubori M; Funmilayo, Adeoye A; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2008-08-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves was investigated in rats using carrageenan induced paw oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formaldehyde induced arthritis models. Experimental animals received 25-200 mg/Kg (orally) of the extracts or saline (control group) and the reference group received 5 mg/ Kg of indomethacin. The ulcerogenic activity of the extract was also investigated. The results show that the extracts significantly (p <0.05) reduced paw oedema in the carrageenan test. Likewise the extract produced significant reduction in the amount of granuloma formed from 0.58 +/-0.07 to 0.22 +/-0.03 g. In the formaldehyde arthritis model, the extracts significantly reduced the persistent oedema from the 4th day to the 10th day of the investigation. The extracts also produced slight mucosal irritation at high doses. The study establishes the anti-inflammatory activity of Carica papaya leaves.

  16. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from immature embryo explant of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. washington and honey dew).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, J; Khuspe, S S; Renukdas, N N; Rawal, S K

    2002-05-01

    Immature zygotic embryo explants of Carica papaya were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2.0 mg/l) and formed globular embryos on explants without callus formation in 4-6 weeks. Maturation and conversion of somatic embryos was also achieved on the same medium. Cotyledonary stage embryos germinated to 63.66 and 68.33% in cv. honey dew and washington respectively in MS basal medium supplemented ABA (0.5 microm/l). Robust development and proliferation of plantlet roots in vitro was obtained on MS basal medium. Hardened plantlets have 60% survival rate.

  17. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica papaya Leaf Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-12-24

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer.

  18. Chemical Characterization and in Vitro Cytotoxicity on Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells of Carica Papaya Leaf Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao T.; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hodson, Mark P.; Pan, Jenny; Shaw, Paul N.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.

    2015-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Carica papaya leaf has been used for a wide range of therapeutic applications including skin diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Carica papaya leaves on the human oral squamous cell carcinoma SCC25 cell line in parallel with non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Two out of four extracts showed a significantly selective effect towards the cancer cells and were found to contain high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The chromatographic and mass spectrometric profiles of the extracts obtained with Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry were used to tentatively identify the bioactive compounds using comparative analysis. The principal compounds identified were flavonoids or flavonoid glycosides, particularly compounds from the kaempferol and quercetin families, of which several have previously been reported to possess anticancer activities. These results confirm that papaya leaf is a potential source of anticancer compounds and warrant further scientific investigation to validate the traditional use of papaya leaf to treat cancer. PMID:26712788

  19. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in paracetamol induced nephrotoxicity in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naggayi, Madinah; Mukiibi, Nozmo; Iliya, Ezekiel

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of drug induced nephrotoxicity. The study aimed to determine the nephroprotective and ameliorative effects of Carica papaya seed extract in paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. To carry out phytochemical screening of Carica papaya, measure serum urea, creatinine and uric acid and describe the histopathological status of the kidneys in the treated and untreated groups. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done. Thirty two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n= 8 in each group). Group A (control) animals received normal saline for seven days, group B (paracetamol group) received normal saline, and paracetamol single dose on the 8th day. Group C received Carica papaya extract (CPE) 500 mg/kg, and paracetamol on the 8th day, while group D, rats were pretreated with CPE 750 mg/kg/day,and paracetamol administration on the 8th day. Samples of kidney tissue were removed for histopathological examination. Screening of Carica papaya showed presence of nephroprotective pytochemicals. Paracetamol administration resulted in significant elevation of renal function markers. CPE ameliorated the effect of paracetamol by reducing the markers as well as reversing the paracetamol-induced changes in kidney architecture. Carica papaya contains nephroprotective phytochemicals and may be useful in preventing kidney damage induced by paracetamol.

  20. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Kebebew, Zerihun; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2013-11-25

    Carica papaya has been used in the Ethiopian traditional medicine to relieve stress and other disease conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice. Carica papaya pulp extract was screened for anxiolytic effect by using elevated plus maze, staircase and open field tests, and ketamine-induced sleeping time test for sedation at doses of 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg. Distilled water and Diazepam were employed as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Carica papaya pulp extract 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of open arm time and entry, and reduced the percentage of entry and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test; reduced the number of rearing in the staircase test; and increased the time spent and entries in the central squares while the total number of entries into the open field were not significantly affected, suggesting anxiolytic activity without altering locomotor and sedative effects. A synergistic reduction in the number of rearing and an inverted U-shaped dose response curves were obtained with important parameters of anxiety The results of this study established a support for the traditional usage of Carica papaya as anxiolytic medicinal plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carica papaya induces in vitro thrombopoietic cytokines secretion by mesenchymal stem cells and haematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Jazli; Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Haque, Nazmul; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2015-07-08

    Use of Carica papaya leaf extracts, reported to improve thrombocyte counts in dengue patients, demands further analysis on the underlying mechanism of its thrombopoietic cytokines induction In vitro cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) were treated with unripe papaya pulp juice (UPJ) to evaluate its potential to induce thrombopoietic cytokines (IL-6 and SCF) RESULTS: In vitro scratch gap closure was significantly faster (p < .05) in SHED culture treated with UPJ. IL-6 concentration was significantly increased (p < .05) in SHED and PBL culture supernatant when treated with UPJ. SCF synthesis in SHED culture was also significantly increased (p < .05) when treated with UPJ CONCLUSION: In vitro upregulated synthesis of IL -6 and SCF both in PBL and SHED reveals the potential mechanism of unripe papaya to induce thrombopoietic cytokines synthesis in cells of hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin.

  2. Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Shu, Bo; Liu, Liqin; Wang, Yicheng; Jia, Zhiwei; Zou, Yu; Shi, Shengyou

    2017-01-01

    Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya.

  3. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed.

    PubMed

    Webster, Rachel E; Waterworth, Wanda M; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-12-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Rachel E.; Waterworth, Wanda M.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E.; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M.; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. PMID:27811004

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Rojop, Isela Esther; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; Ramón-Frías, Teresa; Bermúdez-Ocaña, Deysi Y

    2012-11-28

    Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas.

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional plant treatment for diabetes has shown a surging interest in the last few decades. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves in diabetic rats. Several studies have reported that some parts of the C. papaya plant exert hypoglycemic effects in both animals and humans. Methods Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of 60 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). The aqueous extract of C. papaya was administered in three different doses (0.75, 1.5 and 3 g/100 mL) as drinking water to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals during 4 weeks. Results The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (0.75 g and 1.5 g/100 mL) significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05) in diabetic rats. It also decreased cholesterol, triacylglycerol and amino-transferases blood levels. Low plasma insulin levels did not change after treatment in diabetic rats, but they significantly increased in non-diabetic animals. Pancreatic islet cells were normal in non-diabetic treated animals, whereas in diabetic treated rats, C. papaya could help islet regeneration manifested as preservation of cell size. In the liver of diabetic treated rats, C. papaya prevented hepatocyte disruption, as well as accumulation of glycogen and lipids. Finally, an antioxidant effect of C. papaya extract was also detected in diabetic rats. Conclusions This study showed that the aqueous extract of C. papaya exerted a hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect; it also improved the lipid profile in diabetic rats. In addition, the leaf extract positively affected integrity and function of both liver and pancreas. PMID:23190471

  7. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

  8. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths.

    PubMed

    Porter, Brad W; Zhu, Yun J; Webb, David T; Christopher, David A

    2009-04-01

    Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch

  9. Cloning and expression analysis of phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Yan, P; Gao, X Z; Shen, W T; Zhou, P

    2011-02-01

    The fruit flesh color of papaya is an important nutritional quality trait and is due to the accumulation of carotenoid. To elucidate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in Carica papaya, the phytoene desaturase (PDS) and the ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS) genes were isolated from papaya (named CpPDS and CpZDS) using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach, and their expression levels were investigated in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties. CpPDS contains a 1749 bp open reading frame coding for 583 amino acids, while CpZDS contains a 1716 bp open reading frame coding for 572 amino acids. The deduced CpPDS and CpZDS proteins contain a conserved dinucleotide-binding site at the N-terminus and a carotenoid-binding domain at the C-terminus. Papaya genome sequence analysis revealed that CpPDS and CpZDS are single copy; the CpPDS was mapped to papaya chromosome LG6, and the CpZDS was mapped to chromosome LG3. Quantitative PCR showed that both CpPDS and CpZDS were expressed in all tissues examined with the highest expression in maturing fruits, and that the expression of CpPDS and CpZDS were higher in red-fleshed fruits than in yellow-fleshed fruits. These results indicated that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in red- and yellow-fleshed papaya varieties might be partly explained by the transcriptional level of CpPDS and CpZDS.

  10. Antihypertensive effect of Carica papaya via a reduction in ACE activity and improved baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Romão, Wanderson; da Costa, Helber Barcellos; Scherer, Rodrigo; Ventura, José Aires; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats that were treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), the methanolic extract of C. papaya (100 mg/kg; twice a day), or vehicle for 30 days. The baroreflex was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity was measured by ELISA, and cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The methanolic extract of C. papaya was standardised in ferulic acid (203.41 ± 0.02 µg/g), caffeic acid (172.60 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (145.70 ± 0.02 µg/g), and quercetin (47.11 ± 0.03 µg/g). The flavonoids quercetin, rutin, nicotiflorin, clitorin, and manghaslin were identified in a fraction of the extract. The methanolic extract of C. papaya elicited angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The antihypertensive effects elicited by the methanolic extract of C. papaya were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalised in treated spontaneously hypertensive rats. Plasma angiotensin converting enzyme activity and cardiac hypertrophy were also reduced to levels comparable to the enalapril-treated group. These results may be associated with the chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya, and are the first step into the development of a new phytotherapic product which could be used in the treatment of hypertension. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  11. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch

  12. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. © 2012 The Authors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  13. Genome sequence comparison reveals a candidate gene involved in male-hermaphrodite differentiation in papaya (Carica papaya) trees.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Urasaki, Naoya; Natsume, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Shudo, Ayano; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    The sex type of papaya (Carica papaya) is determined by the pair of sex chromosomes (XX, female; XY, male; and XY(h), hermaphrodite), in which there is a non-recombining genomic region in the Y and Y(h) chromosomes. This region is presumed to be involved in determination of males and hermaphrodites; it is designated as the male-specific region in the Y chromosome (MSY) and the hermaphrodite-specific region in the Y(h) chromosome (HSY). Here, we identified the genes determining male and hermaphrodite sex types by comparing MSY and HSY genomic sequences. In the MSY and HSY genomic regions, we identified 14,528 nucleotide substitutions and 965 short indels with a large gap and two highly diverged regions. In the predicted genes expressed in flower buds, we found no nucleotide differences leading to amino acid changes between the MSY and HSY. However, we found an HSY-specific transposon insertion in a gene (SVP like) showing a similarity to the Short Vegetative Phase (SVP) gene. Study of SVP-like transcripts revealed that the MSY allele encoded an intact protein, while the HSY allele encoded a truncated protein. Our findings demonstrated that the SVP-like gene is a candidate gene for male-hermaphrodite determination in papaya.

  14. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract

    PubMed Central

    THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

    2013-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  15. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

  16. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-01-01

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  17. Imaging of Bacterial and Fungal Cells Using Fluorescent Carbon Dots Prepared from Carica papaya Juice.

    PubMed

    Kasibabu, Betha Saineelima B; D'souza, Stephanie L; Jha, Sanjay; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we have described a simple hydrothermal method for preparation of fluorescent carbon dots (C-dots) using Carica papaya juice as a precursor. The synthesized C-dots show emission peak at 461 nm with a quantum yield of 7.0 %. The biocompatible nature of C-dots was confirmed by a cytotoxicity assay on E. coli. The C-dots were used as fluorescent probes for imaging of bacterial (Bacillus subtilis) and fungal (Aspergillus aculeatus) cells and emitted green and red colors under different excitation wavelengths, which indicates that the C-dots can be used as a promising material for cell imaging.

  18. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  19. Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Shu, Bo; Liu, Liqin; Wang, Yicheng; Jia, Zhiwei; Zou, Yu; Shi, Shengyou

    2017-01-01

    Background Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). Methodology/Principal findings In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya. PMID:28231288

  20. Habitat fragmentation threatens wild populations of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) in a lowland rainforest.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Suárez-Montes, Pilar; Castillo, Guillermo; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2014-07-01

    • Premise of the study: Wild populations of domesticated species constitute a genetic reservoir and are fundamental to the evolutionary potential of species. Wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a rare, short-lived, gap-colonizing, dioecious tree that persists in the forest by continuous dispersal. Theoretically, these life-history characteristics render wild papaya highly susceptible to habitat fragmentation, with anticipated negative effects on its gene pool. Further, species dioecy may cause founder effects to generate local biases in sex ratio, decreasing effective population size.• Methods: We contrasted the genetic diversity and structure of C. papaya between wild populations from rainforest fragments and continuous forest at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We evaluated recent migration rates among populations as well as landscape resistance to gene flow. Finally, we calculated the sex ratio of the populations in both habitats.• Key results: Populations of wild papaya in rainforest fragments showed lower genetic diversity and higher population differentiation than populations in continuous rainforest. Estimates of recent migration rates showed a higher percentage of migrants moving from the continuous forest to the forest fragments than in the opposite direction. Agricultural land and cattle pasture were found to be the most resistant matrices to gene flow. Finally, biased sex ratios were seen to affect the effective population size in both habitats.• Conclusions: The mating system, rarity, and short life cycle of C. papaya are exacerbating the effects of rainforest fragmentation on its genetic diversity, threatening the persistence of its natural populations in the proposed place of origin as well as its genetic reservoir. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2013-10-11

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage).

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the glutaminyl cyclase from Carica papaya latex

    SciTech Connect

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Clantin, Bernard; Bompard, Coralie; Belrhali, Hassan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René

    2005-01-01

    The glutaminyl cyclase isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to 1.7 Å resolution. In living systems, the intramolecular cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues is accomplished by glutaminyl cyclase enzymes (EC 2.3.2.5). While in mammals these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of hormonal and neurotransmitter peptides, the physiological role played by the corresponding plant enzymes still remains to be unravelled. Papaya glutaminyl cyclase (PQC), a 33 kDa enzyme found in the latex of the tropical tree Carica papaya, displays an exceptional resistance to chemical and thermal denaturation as well as to proteolysis. In order to elucidate its enzymatic mechanism and to gain insights into the structural determinants underlying its remarkable stability, PQC was isolated from papaya latex, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.82, b = 81.23, c = 108.17 Å and two molecules per asymmetric unit. Diffraction data have been collected at ESRF beamline BM14 and processed to a resolution of 1.7 Å.

  3. The Evolutionary Tempo of Sex Chromosome Degradation in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    Genes on non-recombining heterogametic sex chromosomes may degrade over time through the irreversible accumulation of deleterious mutations. In papaya, the non-recombining male-specific region of the Y (MSY) consists of two evolutionary strata corresponding to chromosomal inversions occurring approximately 7.0 and 1.9 MYA. The step-wise recombination suppression between the papaya X and Y allows for a temporal examination of the degeneration progress of the young Y chromosome. Comparative evolutionary analyses of 55 X/Y gene pairs showed that Y-linked genes have more unfavorable substitutions than X-linked genes. However, this asymmetric evolutionary pattern is confined to the oldest stratum, and is only observed when recently evolved pseudogenes are included in the analysis, indicating a slow degeneration tempo of the papaya Y chromosome. Population genetic analyses of coding sequence variation of six Y-linked focal loci in the oldest evolutionary stratum detected an excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism and reduced codon bias relative to autosomal loci. However, this pattern was also observed for corresponding X-linked loci. Both the MSY and its corresponding X-specific region are pericentromeric where recombination has been shown to be greatly reduced. Like the MSY region, overall selective efficacy on the X-specific region may be reduced due to the interference of selective forces between highly linked loci, or the Hill-Robertson effect, that is accentuated in regions of low or suppressed recombination. Thus, a pattern of gene decay on the X-specific region may be explained by relaxed purifying selection and widespread genetic hitchhiking due to its pericentromeric location.

  4. Purification and characterization of a papaya (Carica papaya L.) pectin methylesterase isolated from a commercial papain preparation.

    PubMed

    Vasu, Prasanna; Savary, Brett J; Cameron, Randall G

    2012-07-15

    We purified a Carica papaya pectin methylesterase (CpL-PME; EC 3.1.1.11) from a commercial papain preparation. This CpL-PME was separated from the abundant cysteine endopeptidases activities using sequential hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies and then purified by affinity chromatography using Sepharose-immobilized kiwi PME inhibitor protein to obtain a single electrophoretically homogeneous protein. The enzyme was purified 92-fold with 38% yield, providing a specific activity of 1200 U/mg. The molecular weight was determined to be 35,135 by MALDI-TOF-MS in linear mode. MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion indicated CpL-PME represents a novel Carica PME isoform. The CpL-PME required salt for activity, and it showed a broad activity range (pH 6-9) and moderate thermostability (optimum ca. 70°C). A calcium-insensitive methylated lime pectin treated with CpL-PME to reduce degree of methylesterification by 6% converted the substrate to high calcium sensitivity, indicating a processive mode of action. These properties support further research to apply CpL-PME to tailor pectin nanostructure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytochemical screening and in-vitro evaluation of pharmacological activities of peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Sarmad; Nawaz, Shamsa; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Bushra; Aslam, Bilal

    2017-06-18

    Aqueous, absolute and 80% ethanolic extract of fruit peels of Musa sapientum and Carica papaya were investigated for their antibacterial activity, measured by disc diffusion method and antioxidant activity, measured by four different methods. Papaya and banana peels were found to contain terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins steroid, phenols, fixed oils and fats. 80% ethanolic extract of banana peel was found to contain highest total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity but in papaya peel, highest TPC and reducing activity was shown by water extract while, TFC and radical scavenging activity was given by 80% ethanolic extract. In banana, water extract showed highest antibacterial activity against tested bacteria while in case of papaya, absolute ethanolic extract showed highest antibacterial activity. The present study revealed that peels of banana and papaya fruits are potentially good source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  6. Carica papaya lipase: a naturally immobilized enzyme with interesting biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Fendri, Imen; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) lipases have been thoroughly characterized in mammals and microorganisms, whereas very little is known about plant TAG lipases. The lipolytic activity occurring in all the laticies is known to be associated with sedimentable particles, and all attempts to solubilize the lipolytic activity of Carica papaya latex have been unsuccessful so far. However, some of the biochemical properties of the lipase from Carica papaya latex (CPL) were determined from the insoluble fraction of the latex. The activity was optimum at a temperature of 37°C and a pH of 9.0, and the specific activities of CPL were found to be 2,000 ± 185 and 256 ± 8 U/g when tributyrin and olive oil were used as substrates, respectively. CPL was found to be active in the absence of any detergent, whereas many lipases require detergent to prevent the occurrence of interfacial denaturation. CPL was inactive in the presence of micellar concentrations of Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and tetradecyl trimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), and still showed high levels of activity in the presence of sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and the zwitterionic Chaps detergent. The effects of various proteases on the lipolytic activity of CPL were studied, and CPL was found to be resistant to treatment with various enzymes, except in the presence of trypsin. All these properties suggest that CPL may be a good candidate for various biotechnological applications.

  7. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production.

  8. Development of a gene-centered ssr atlas as a resource for papaya (Carica papaya) marker-assisted selection and population genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community.

  9. Development of a Gene-Centered SSR Atlas as a Resource for Papaya (Carica papaya) Marker-Assisted Selection and Population Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Newton Medeiros; Grazziotin, Ana Laura; Ramos, Helaine Christine Cancela; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Venancio, Thiago Motta

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) is an economically important tropical fruit. Molecular marker-assisted selection is an inexpensive and reliable tool that has been widely used to improve fruit quality traits and resistance against diseases. In the present study we report the development and validation of an atlas of papaya simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We integrated gene predictions and functional annotations to provide a gene-centered perspective for marker-assisted selection studies. Our atlas comprises 160,318 SSRs, from which 21,231 were located in genic regions (i.e. inside exons, exon-intron junctions or introns). A total of 116,453 (72.6%) of all identified repeats were successfully mapped to one of the nine papaya linkage groups. Primer pairs were designed for markers from 9,594 genes (34.5% of the papaya gene complement). Using papaya-tomato orthology assessments, we assembled a list of 300 genes (comprising 785 SSRs) potentially involved in fruit ripening. We validated our atlas by screening 73 SSR markers (including 25 fruit ripening genes), achieving 100% amplification rate and uncovering 26% polymorphism rate between the parental genotypes (Sekati and JS12). The SSR atlas presented here is the first comprehensive gene-centered collection of annotated and genome positioned papaya SSRs. These features combined with thousands of high-quality primer pairs make the atlas an important resource for the papaya research community. PMID:25393538

  10. Carica papaya microRNAs are responsive to Papaya meleira virus infection.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Gaspar, Clicia G; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Ferreira, Paulo C G; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya.

  11. Carica papaya MicroRNAs Are Responsive to Papaya meleira virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Gaspar, Clicia G.; Buss, David S.; Ventura, José A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are implicated in the response to biotic stresses. Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of sticky disease, a commercially important pathology in papaya for which there are currently no resistant varieties. PMeV has a number of unusual features, such as residence in the laticifers of infected plants, and the response of the papaya to PMeV infection is not well understood. The protein levels of 20S proteasome subunits increase during PMeV infection, suggesting that proteolysis could be an important aspect of the plant defense response mechanism. To date, 10,598 plant microRNAs have been identified in the Plant miRNAs Database, but only two, miR162 and miR403, are from papaya. In this study, known plant microRNA sequences were used to search for potential microRNAs in the papaya genome. A total of 462 microRNAs, representing 72 microRNA families, were identified. The expression of 11 microRNAs, whose targets are involved in 20S and 26S proteasomal degradation and in other stress response pathways, was compared by real-time PCR in healthy and infected papaya leaf tissue. We found that the expression of miRNAs involved in proteasomal degradation increased in response to very low levels of PMeV titre and decreased as the viral titre increased. In contrast, miRNAs implicated in the plant response to biotic stress decreased their expression at very low level of PMeV and increased at high PMeV levels. Corroborating with this results, analysed target genes for this miRNAs had their expression modulated in a dependent manner. This study represents a comprehensive identification of conserved miRNAs inpapaya. The data presented here might help to complement the available molecular and genomic tools for the study of papaya. The differential expression of some miRNAs and identifying their target genes will be helpful for understanding the regulation and interaction of PMeV and papaya. PMID:25072834

  12. Bioseparation of papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complexes.

    PubMed

    Braia, Mauricio; Ferrero, Maximiliano; Rocha, María Victoria; Loureiro, Dana; Tubio, Gisela; Romanini, Diana

    2013-09-01

    The formation of insoluble complexes between enzymes and polyelectrolytes is a suitable technique for isolating these biomolecules from natural sources, because it is a simple and rapid technique that allows the concentration of the protein. This technique can be used in most purification protocols at the beginning of the downstream process. The aim of this investigation is to isolate papain from Carica papaya latex by precipitation of insoluble complexes between this enzyme and poly (vinyl sulfonate). The papain-poly (vinyl sulfonate) complex was insoluble at pH lower than 6, with a PVS/PAP stoichiometric ratio of 1:279. Ionic strength affected the complex formation. The presence of the polymer increased the enzymatic activity and protected the enzyme from autodegradation. The optimal conditions for the formation of insoluble papain-polyelectrolyte complex formation were applied to C. papaya latex and a high recovery was obtained (around 86%) and a purification factor around 2. This method can be applied as an isolation method of papain from C. papaya latex or as a first step in a larger purification strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  14. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  15. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel–stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Methods Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. Key Results In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. Conclusions We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis. PMID:21504912

  16. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel-stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis.

  17. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. Methods First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 μmol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] μmol) against high intensity infections. Results CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. Conclusions A single dose of 450 μmol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs

  18. Cysteine proteinases from papaya (Carica papaya) in the treatment of experimental Trichuris suis infection in pigs: two randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Levecke, Bruno; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M; Duce, Ian R; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2014-05-30

    Cysteine proteinases (CPs) from papaya (Carica papaya) possess anthelmintic properties against human soil-transmitted helminths (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm), but there is a lack of supportive and up-to-date efficacy data. We therefore conducted two randomized controlled trials in pigs to assess the efficacy of papaya CPs against experimental infections with T. suis. First, we assessed efficacy by means of egg (ERR) and adult worm reduction rate (WRR) of a single-oral dose of 450 μmol active CPs (CP450) against low (inoculum of 300 eggs) and high (inoculum of 3,000 eggs) intensity T. suis infections and compared the efficacy with those obtained after a single-oral dose of 400 mg albendazole (ALB). In the second trial, we determined and compared the efficacy of a series of CP doses (45 [CP45], 115 [CP115], 225 [CP225], and 450 [CP450] μmol) against high intensity infections. CP450 was highly efficacious against both levels of infection intensity, resulting in ERR and WRR of more than 97%. For both levels of infection intensity, CP450 was significantly more efficacious compared to ALB by means of WRR (low infection intensity: 99.0% vs. 39.0%; high infection intensity; 97.4% vs. 23.2%). When the efficacy was assessed by ERR, a significant difference was only observed for high intensity infections, CP450 being more efficacious than ALB (98.9% vs. 59.0%). For low infection intensities, there was no significant difference in ERR between CP450 (98.3%) and ALB (64.4%). The efficacy of CPs increased as a function of increasing dose. When determined by ERR, the efficacy ranged from 2.1% for CP45 to 99.2% for CP450. For WRR the results varied from -14.0% to 99.0%, respectively. Pairwise comparison revealed a significant difference in ERR and WRR only between CP45 and CP450, the latter being more efficacious. A single dose of 450 μmol CPs provided greater efficacy against T. suis infections in pigs than a single-oral dose of 400 mg ALB

  19. Antithrombocytopenic activity of carpaine and alkaloidal extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zunjar, Vishwanath; Dash, Ranjeet Prasad; Jivrajani, Mehul; Trivedi, Bhavna; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2016-04-02

    The decoction of Carica papaya Linn. leaves is used in folklore medicine in certain parts of Malaysia and Indonesia for the treatment of different types of thrombocytopenia associated with diseases and drugs. There are several scientific studies carried out on humans and animal models to confirm the efficacy of decoction of papaya leave for the treatment of disease induced and drug induced thrombocytopenia, however very little is known about the bio-active compounds responsible for the observed activity. The aim of present study was to identify the active phytochemical component of Carica papaya Linn. leaves decoction responsible for anti-thrombocytopenic activity in busulfan-induced thrombocytopenic rats. Antithrombocytopenic activity was assessed on busulfan induced thrombocytopenic Wistar rats. The antithrombocytopenic activity of different bio-guided fractions was evaluated by monitoring blood platelet count. Bioactive compound carpaine was isolated and purified by chromatographic methods and confirmed by spectroscopic methods (LC-MS and 1D/2D-1H/13C NMR) and the structure was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Quantification of carpaine was carried out by LC-MS/MS equipped with XTerra(®) MS C18 column and ESI-MS detector using 90:10 CH3CN:CH3COONH4 (6mM) under isocratic conditions and detected with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Two different phytochemical groups were isolated from decoction of Carica papaya leaves: phenolics, and alkaloids. Out of these, only alkaloid fraction showed good biological activity. Carpaine was isolated from the alkaloid fraction and exhibited potent activity in sustaining platelet counts upto 555.50±85.17×10(9)/L with no acute toxicity. This study scientifically validates the popular usage of decoction of Carica papaya leaves and it also proves that alkaloids particularly carpaine present in the leaves to be responsible for the antithrombocytopenic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of somatic embryo maturation in Carica papaya L.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis is a complex process regulated by numerous factors. The identification of proteins that are differentially expressed during plant development could result in the development of molecular markers of plant metabolism and provide information contributing to the monitoring and understanding of different biological responses. In addition, the identification of molecular markers could lead to the optimization of protocols allowing the use of biotechnology for papaya propagation and reproduction. This work aimed to investigate the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on somatic embryo development and the protein expression profile during somatic embryo maturation in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Results The maturation treatment supplemented with 6% PEG (PEG6) resulted in the greatest number of somatic embryos and induced differential protein expression compared with cultures grown under the control treatment. Among 135 spots selected for MS/MS analysis, 76 spots were successfully identified, 38 of which were common to both treatments, while 14 spots were unique to the control treatment, and 24 spots were unique to the PEG6 treatment. The identified proteins were assigned to seven categories or were unclassified. The most representative class of proteins observed in the control treatment was associated with the stress response (25.8%), while those under PEG6 treatment were carbohydrate and energy metabolism (18.4%) and the stress response (18.4%). Conclusions The differential expression of three proteins (enolase, esterase and ADH3) induced by PEG6 treatment could play an important role in maturation, and these proteins could be characterized as candidate biomarkers of somatic embryogenesis in papaya. PMID:25076862

  1. Genetic-molecular characterization of backcross generations for sexual conversion in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Pereira, T N S; Barros, G B A; Ferreguetti, G A

    2014-12-04

    The low number of improved cultivars limits the expansion of the papaya crop, particularly because of the time required for the development of new varieties using classical procedures. Molecular techniques associated with conventional procedures accelerate this process and allow targeted improvements. Thus, we used microsatellite markers to perform genetic-molecular characterization of papaya genotypes obtained from 3 backcross generations to monitor the inbreeding level and parental genome proportion in the evaluated genotypes. Based on the analysis of 20 microsatellite loci, 77 genotypes were evaluated, 25 of each generation of the backcross program as well as the parental genotypes. The markers analyzed were identified in 11 of the 12 linkage groups established for papaya, ranging from 1 to 4 per linkage group. The average values for the inbreeding coefficient were 0.88 (BC1S4), 0.47 (BC2S3), and 0.63 (BC3S2). Genomic analysis revealed average values of the recurrent parent genome of 82.7% in BC3S2, 64.4% in BC1S4, and 63.9% in BC2S3. Neither the inbreeding level nor the genomic proportions completely followed the expected average values. This demonstrates the significance of molecular analysis when examining different genotype values, given the importance of such information for selection processes in breeding programs.

  2. Multivariate analysis to determine the genetic distance among backcross papaya (Carica papaya) progenies.

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C C; Pereira, M G; Gonçalves, L S A; Berilli, A P C G; Pinto, F O; Ribeiro, E H

    2012-05-14

    Morpho-agronomic and molecular (RAPD and ISSR markers) data were used to evaluate genetic distances between papaya backcross progenies in order to help identify agronomically superior genotypes. Thirty-two papaya progenies were evaluated based on 15 morpho-agronomic characteristics, 20 ISSR and 19 RAPD primers. Manhattan, Jaccard and Gower distances were used to estimate differences based on continuous and binary data and combined analyses, respectively. Except for production, there were significant differences in the continuous variables among the genotypes. The molecular analysis revealed 193 dominant markers (ISSR and RAPD), being 53 polymorphic loci. Among the various clusters that were generated, the one based on a combined analysis of morpho-agronomic and molecular data gave the highest cophenetic correlation (0.72) compared to individual analysis, consistently allocating the progenies into six groups. We found that the Gower algorithm was more coherent in the discrimination of the genotypes, demonstrating that a combination of molecular and agronomic data is valuable for studies of genetic dissimilarity in papaya.

  3. Molecular detection of Papaya meleira virus in the latex of Carica papaya by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marília Mendes Melo de; Tavares, Eder Torres; Silva, Felipe Rodrigues da; Marinho, Vera Lúcia de Almeida; Júnior, Manoel Teixeira Souza

    2007-12-01

    A RT-PCR assay was developed for early and accurate detection of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) in the latex from infected papayas. The meleira disease is characterized by an excessive exudation of more fluidic latex from fruits, leaves and stems. This latex oxidises and gives the fruit a "sticky" texture. In the field, disease symptoms are seen almost exclusively on fruit. However, infected plants can be a source of virus for dissemination by insects. Primers specific for PMeV were designed based on nucleotide sequences of the viral dsRNA obtained using a RT-RAPD approach. When tested for RT-PCR amplification, one of these primers (C05-3') amplified a 669-nucleotide fragment using dsRNA obtained from purified virus particles as a template. The translated sequence of this DNA fragment showed a certain degree of similarity to the amino acid sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from other dsRNA viruses. When used as the single primer in two RT-PCR kits available commercially, primer C05-3' also amplified the DNA fragment from papaya latex of infected, but not from healthy plants. The RT-PCR-based method developed in this study could simplify early plant disease diagnosis, assist in monitoring the dissemination of the pathogen within and between fields, and assist in guiding plant disease management.

  4. Evaluation of the composition of Carica papaya L. seed oil extracted with supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Pedro T W; de Carvalho, Pedro P; Rocha, Thiago B; Pessoa, Fernando L P; Azevedo, Debora A; Mendes, Marisa F

    2016-09-01

    Among the most important tropical fruit grown in the world today and in Brazil, papaya occupies a prominent place. Native to tropical America, papaya has spread to several regions of the world, and Brazil accounts for 12.74% of the world production, followed by Mexico, Nigeria and India. The culture reached a harvested area of 441,042 ha and production of 12,420,585 t worldwide. The largest interest in this fruit relies on its main constituent compounds, like vitamins A, B and C, alkaloids (carpaine and pseudocarpaine), proteolytic enzymes (papain and quimiopapain) and benzyl isothiocyanate, more known as BITC, which has anthelmintic activity. Because of that, the present work has as objective the evaluation of the efficiency and composition of the oil extracted from Carica papaya L. seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed in a unit containing mainly a high-pressure pump and a stainless steel extractor with 42 mL of volume. The sampling was performed at each 20 min until the saturation of the process. About 6.5 g of sample were fed for each experiment done at 40, 60 and 80 °C under the pressures of 100, 150 and 200 bar. Samples of the Carica papaya L. fruit were acquired in a popular market and free for personal use intended for the study. After collection, the seeds were crushed with the help of a pestle, and dried at 60 °C for 60 min. For each operational condition, the extraction curves were constructed relating cumulative mass of oil extracted in function of the operational time. The better efficiencies were found at 40 °C and 200 bar (1.33%) followed by 80 °C and 200 bar (2.56%). Gas chromatography and NMR analysis could identify an insecticide component (BITC) that enables new applications of this residue in pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  5. Sexual Dimorphic Responses in Lymphocytes of Healthy Individuals after Carica papaya Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Jumat, Nur Ramziahrazanah; Chong, Mun Yee; Seman, Zainina; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Wong, Nyet Kui; Abdullah, Maha

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in immune response is widely recognized, but few human studies have observed this distinction. Food with endo-immunomodulatory potential may reveal novel sex-biased in vivo interactions. Immunomodulatory effects of Carica papaya were compared between healthy male and female individuals. Volunteers were given fixed meals supplemented with papaya for 2 days. Changes in blood immune profiles and hormone levels were determined. In females, total natural killer (NK) cell percentages decreased (12.7 ± 4.4 vs 14.6 ± 5.8%, p = 0.018, n = 18) while B cells increased (15.2 ± 5.5 vs 14.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.037, n = 18) after papaya consumption. Increased 17β-estradiol (511.1 ± 579.7 vs 282.7 ± 165.0 pmol/l, p = 0.036, n = 9) observed in females may be crucial to this change. Differentiation markers (CD45RA, CD69, CD25) analyzed on lymphocytes showed naïve (CD45RA+) non-CD4+ lymphocytes were reduced in females (40.7 ± 8.1 vs 46.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.012, n = 8) but not males. A general suppressive effect of papaya on CD69+ cells, and higher percentage of CD69+ populations in females and non-CD4 lymphocytes, may be relevant. CD107a+ NK cells were significantly increased in males (16.8 ± 7.0 vs 14.7 ± 4.8, p = 0.038, n = 9) but not females. Effect in females may be disrupted by the action of progesterone, which was significantly correlated with this population (R = 0.771, p = 0.025, n = 8) after papaya consumption. In males, total T helper cells were increased (33.4 ± 6.4 vs 32.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.040, n = 15). Strong significant negative correlation between testosterone and CD25+CD4+ lymphocytes, may play a role in the lower total CD4+ T cells reported in males. Thus, dissimilar immune profiles were elicited in the sexes after papaya consumption and may have sex hormone influence. PMID:28649252

  6. Herb-drug pharmacokinetic interaction between carica papaya extract and amiodarone in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcio; Alves, Gilberto; Francisco, Joana; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya has been traditionally used worldwide in folk medicine to treat a wide range of ailments in humans, including the management of obesity and digestive disorders. However, scientific information about its potential to interact with conventional drugs is lacking. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the interference of a standardized C. papaya extract (GMP certificate) on the systemic exposure to amiodarone (a narrow therapeutic index drug) in rats. In the first pharmacokinetic study, rats were simultaneously co-administered with a single-dose of C. papaya (1230 mg/kg, p.o.) and amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.); in the second study, rats were pre-treated for 14 days with C. papaya (1230 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and received amiodarone (50 mg/kg, p.o.) on the 15th day. Rats of the control groups received the herbal extract vehicle. Blood samples were collected before dosing and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h following amiodarone administration; in addition, at 24 h post-dose, blood and tissues (heart, liver, kidneys and lungs) were also harvested. Thereafter, the concentrations of amiodarone and its major metabolite (mono-N-desethylamiodarone) were determined in plasma and tissue samples employing a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method previously developed and validated. In both studies was observed a delay in attaining the maximum plasma concentrations of amiodarone (tmax) in the rats treated with the extract. Nevertheless, it must be highlighted the marked increase (60-70%) of the extent of amiodarone systemic exposure (as assessed by AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) in the rats pre-treated with C. papaya comparatively with the control (vehicle) group. The results herein found suggest an herb-drug interaction between C. papaya extract and amiodarone, which clearly increase the drug bioavailability. To reliably assess the clinical impact of these findings appropriate human studies should be conducted.

  7. Sexual Dimorphic Responses in Lymphocytes of Healthy Individuals after Carica papaya Consumption.

    PubMed

    Jumat, Nur Ramziahrazanah; Chong, Mun Yee; Seman, Zainina; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Wong, Nyet Kui; Abdullah, Maha

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in immune response is widely recognized, but few human studies have observed this distinction. Food with endo-immunomodulatory potential may reveal novel sex-biased in vivo interactions. Immunomodulatory effects of Carica papaya were compared between healthy male and female individuals. Volunteers were given fixed meals supplemented with papaya for 2 days. Changes in blood immune profiles and hormone levels were determined. In females, total natural killer (NK) cell percentages decreased (12.7 ± 4.4 vs 14.6 ± 5.8%, p = 0.018, n = 18) while B cells increased (15.2 ± 5.5 vs 14.5 ± 5.0, p = 0.037, n = 18) after papaya consumption. Increased 17β-estradiol (511.1 ± 579.7 vs 282.7 ± 165.0 pmol/l, p = 0.036, n = 9) observed in females may be crucial to this change. Differentiation markers (CD45RA, CD69, CD25) analyzed on lymphocytes showed naïve (CD45RA(+)) non-CD4(+) lymphocytes were reduced in females (40.7 ± 8.1 vs 46.8 ± 5.4%, p = 0.012, n = 8) but not males. A general suppressive effect of papaya on CD69(+) cells, and higher percentage of CD69(+) populations in females and non-CD4 lymphocytes, may be relevant. CD107a(+) NK cells were significantly increased in males (16.8 ± 7.0 vs 14.7 ± 4.8, p = 0.038, n = 9) but not females. Effect in females may be disrupted by the action of progesterone, which was significantly correlated with this population (R = 0.771, p = 0.025, n = 8) after papaya consumption. In males, total T helper cells were increased (33.4 ± 6.4 vs 32.4 ± 6.1%, p = 0.040, n = 15). Strong significant negative correlation between testosterone and CD25(+)CD4(+) lymphocytes, may play a role in the lower total CD4(+) T cells reported in males. Thus, dissimilar immune profiles were elicited in the sexes after papaya consumption and may have sex hormone influence.

  8. Antioxidant activities and phenolics profiling of different parts of Carica papaya by LCMS-MS.

    PubMed

    Zunjar, V; Mammen, D; Trivedi, B M

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of various parts of Carica papaya L. The evaluation of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content revealed high antioxidant potential of the seeds and fruits. The free radical-scavenging potential of the aqueous extracts indicated the seeds to have better DPPH-scavenging activity than fruits. The results were augmented by the FRAP activity as well. The phenolics present in the extracts were separated and identified as 5-hydroxy feruloyl quinic acid, acetyl p-coumaryl quinic acid, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, syringic acid hexoside, 5-hydroxy caffeic quinic acid, peonidin-3-O-glucoside, sinapic acid-O-hexoside, cyaniding-3-O-glucose and methyl feruloyl glycoside by LCMS-MS technique.

  9. Sodium tetrathionate effect on papain purification from different Carica papaya latex crude extracts.

    PubMed

    Llerena-Suster, Carlos R; Priolo, Nora S; Morcelle, Susana R

    2011-01-01

    Papain from latex of Carica papaya was purified up to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry homogeneity by salt precipitation from two different crude extract sources: a refined preparation obtained in our laboratory and a commercial one. Sodium tetrathionate was tested in the purification process to preserve the enzymatic activity of the peptidase. Purification was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and cation exchange chromatography, using commercial pure papain as standard for a rapid comparison. The best purification yields (3.4%) were obtained in presence of 30 mM sodium tetrathionate for the crude extract prepared in our laboratory. The described purification method proved to be robust and reliable to obtain pure papain on a preparative scale.

  10. Enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with Carica papaya lipase in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Sheng; Ho, Ssu-Ching

    2011-11-01

    Isooctane was the best reaction medium for the enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylalkanoic acid with n-butanol using Carica papaya lipase as catalyst. Increasing linear alkyl-chain length of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids from ethyl to hexyl increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 2.1 to 98.2 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylalkanoic acids with n-butanol at 35°C. Decreasing reaction temperature from 40 to 20°C increased the enantioselectivity (E) from 14 to 33 for the esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol. We obtained a maximum enantioselectivity, of E = 24.3, for the enantioselective esterification of racemic 2-methylhexanoic acids with n-butanol in isooctane at water activity 0.33, and at 35°C.

  11. In situ earthworm breeding in orchards significantly improves the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Huimin; Guo, Lei; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four fertilizer applications—control (C), chemical fertilizer (F), compost (O), and in situ earthworm breeding (E)—on the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.). In this study, 5 g plant−1 urea (CH4N2O, %N = 46.3%) and 100 g plant−1 microelement fertilizer was applied to each treatment. The fertilizer applications of these four treatments are different from each other. The results showed that the E treatment had the highest growth parameters over the whole growth period. At 127 days after transplantation, the order of plant heights from greatest to smallest was E > F > O > C, and the stem diameters were E > F > O > C, with significant differences between all treatments. Soluble-solid, sugar, vitamin C, and protein content significantly increased in the E treatment. In addition, the total acid and the electrical conductivity of the fruit significantly decreased in the E treatment. Fruit firmness clearly increased in the O treatment, and decreased in the F treatment. The fresh individual fruit weights, fruit numbers, and total yields were greatly improved in the F and E treatments, and the total yield of the E treatment was higher than that in the F treatment. In conclusion, the in situ earthworm breeding treatment performed better than conventional compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Furthermore, in situ earthworm breeding may be a potential organic fertilizer application in orchards because it not only improves the fruit quality and yield but also reduces the amount of organic wastes from agriculture as a result of the activities of earthworms. PMID:27994969

  12. Genome-wide analysis and characterization of Aux/IAA family genes related to fruit ripening in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaidong; Yuan, Changchun; Feng, Shaoxian; Zhong, Shuting; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Shen, Chenjia; Liu, Jinxiang

    2017-05-05

    Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) family genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that mediate the responses of auxin-related genes and are involved in several plant developmental and growth processes. However, how Aux/IAA genes function in the fruit development and ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification and a distinctive expression analysis of 18 C. papaya Aux/IAA (CpIAA) genes were performed using newly updated papaya reference genome data. The Aux/IAA gene family in papaya is slightly smaller than that in Arabidopsis, but all of the phylogenetic subfamilies are represented. Most of the CpIAA genes are responsive to various phytohormones and expressed in a tissues-specific manner. To understand the putative biological functions of the CpIAA genes involved in fruit development and ripening, quantitative real-time PCR was used to test the expression profiling of CpIAA genes at different stages. Furthermore, an IAA treatment significantly delayed the ripening process in papaya fruit at the early stages. The expression changes of CpIAA genes in ACC and 1-MCP treatments suggested a crosstalk between auxin and ethylene during the fruit ripening process of papaya. Our study provided comprehensive information on the Aux/IAA family in papaya, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The involvement of CpIAA gene expression changes in fruit development and ripening gives us an opportunity to understand the roles of auxin signaling in the maturation of papaya reproductive organs.

  13. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Ventura, José A.; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Nohara, Lilian L.; Wermelinger, Luciana S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Zingali, Russolina B.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2012-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers’ regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. PMID:22465191

  14. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in the latex of sticky diseased Carica papaya L. plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Ventura, José A; Aguilar, Clemente; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Choi, HyungWon; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Nohara, Lilian L; Wermelinger, Luciana S; Almeida, Igor C; Zingali, Russolina B; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-06-18

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is so far the only described laticifer-infecting virus, the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease. The effects of PMeV on the laticifers' regulatory network were addressed here through the proteomic analysis of papaya latex. Using both 1-DE- and 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 160 unique papaya latex proteins were identified, representing 122 new proteins in the latex of this plant. Quantitative analysis by normalized spectral counting revealed 10 down-regulated proteins in the latex of diseased plants, 9 cysteine proteases (chymopapain) and 1 latex serine proteinase inhibitor. A repression of papaya latex proteolytic activity during PMeV infection was hypothesized. This was further confirmed by enzymatic assays that showed a reduction of cysteine-protease-associated proteolytic activity in the diseased papaya latex. These findings are discussed in the context of plant responses against pathogens and may greatly contribute to understand the roles of laticifers in plant stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

    2013-04-24

    Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development.

  16. Identification of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gang; Li, Yang; He, Hua; Wang, Fang; Yu, Diqiu

    2013-10-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate target gene expression to modulate growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing small RNA deep sequencing data in combination with the genome sequence, we identified 75 conserved miRNAs and 11 novel miRNAs. Their target genes were also predicted. For most conserved miRNAs, the miRNA-target pairs were conserved across plant species. In addition to these conserved miRNA-target pairs, we also identified some papaya-specific miRNA-target regulatory pathways. Both miR168 and miR530 target the Argonaute 1 gene, indicating a second autoregulatory mechanism for miRNA regulation. A non-conserved miRNA was mapped within an intron of Dicer-like 1 (DCL1), suggesting a conserved homeostatic autoregulatory mechanism for DCL1 expression. A 21-nt miRNA triggers secondary siRNA production from its target genes, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat protein genes. Certain phased-miRNAs were processed from their conserved miRNA precursors, indicating a putative miRNA evolution mechanism. In addition, we identified a Carica papaya-specific miRNA that targets an ethylene receptor gene, implying its function in the ethylene signaling pathway. This work will also advance our understanding of miRNA functions and evolution in plants.

  17. Preparation and physicochemical evaluation of emulsified virgin coconut oil (VCO)-carica papaya extract concoction using Tween80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Hazreen; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Fadhilah, Mohd Faizulhelmi; Omar, Dzolkhifli; Asib, Norhayu

    2016-11-01

    Carica papaya is a member of the Caricaceae. Its leaves have been used in folk medicine for centuries. Recent studies have shown its beneficial effects as an anti-inflammatory agent (Owoyele et al 2008) and anti-tumour15 as well as antioxidant and wound healing properties7. The study has shown that the effect of carica papaya leaves juice intake also can accelerate the rate of increase in platelet count among the patients infected with dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever18. With all the goodness of carica papaya leaves, a formulation with addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is produced to give an enhanced supplement beverage to market nowadays. Virgin coconut oil is well known as anti-oxidant4. The combination of these two substances gives a balance combination in healthy supplement. In recent years the application of emulsion is rapidly increasing in many fields such as cosmetics and paints. Emulsions are dispersions of droplets of one liquid in another, immiscible, liquid in which the droplets are of colloidal or near-colloidal sizes. The combination of water and oil (VCO) with addition of non-ionic surfactant Tween80 was constructed using ternary phase diagram. By considering the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value of each substance will help in producing a stable emulsion.

  18. Fractionation and purification of the enzymes stored in the latex of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Azarkan, Mohamed; El Moussaoui, Anouar; van Wuytswinkel, Delphine; Dehon, Géraldine; Looze, Yvan

    2003-06-25

    The latex of the tropical species Carica papaya is well known for being a rich source of the four cysteine endopeptidases papain, chymopapain, glycyl endopeptidase and caricain. Altogether, these enzymes are present in the laticifers at a concentration higher than 1 mM. The proteinases are synthesized as inactive precursors that convert into mature enzymes within 2 min after wounding the plant when the latex is abruptly expelled. Papaya latex also contains other enzymes as minor constituents. Several of these enzymes namely a class-II and a class-III chitinase, an inhibitor of serine proteinases and a glutaminyl cyclotransferase have already been purified up to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The presence of a beta-1,3-glucanase and of a cystatin is also suspected but they have not yet been isolated. Purification of these papaya enzymes calls on the use of ion-exchange supports (such as SP-Sepharose Fast Flow) and hydrophobic supports [such as Fractogel TSK Butyl 650(M), Fractogel EMD Propyl 650(S) or Thiophilic gels]. The use of covalent or affinity gels is recommended to provide preparations of cysteine endopeptidases with a high free thiol content (ideally 1 mol of essential free thiol function per mol of enzyme). The selective grafting of activated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) chains (with M(r) of 5000) on the free thiol functions of the proteinases provides an interesting alternative to the use of covalent and affinity chromatographies especially in the case of enzymes such as chymopapain that contains, in its native state, two thiol functions.

  19. Purification of a thermostable alkaline laccase from papaya (Carica papaya) using affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Nivedita; Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-01

    A laccase from papaya leaves was purified to homogeneity by a two step procedure namely, heat treatment (at 70 °C) and Con-A affinity chromatography. The procedure resulted in 1386.7-fold purification of laccase with a specific activity of 41.3 units mg(-1) and an overall yield of 61.5%. The native purified laccase was found to be a hexameric protein of ∼ 260 kDa. The purified enzyme exhibited acidic and alkaline pH optima of 6.0 and 8.0 with the non-phenolic substrate (ABTS) and phenolic substrate (catechol), respectively. The purified laccase was found to be thermostable up to 70 °C such that it retained ∼ 80% activity upon 30 min incubation at 70 °C. The Arrhenius energy of activation for purified laccase was found to be 7.7 kJ mol(-1). The enzyme oxidized various phenolic and non-phenolic substrates having catalytic efficiency (K(cat)/K(m)) in the order of 7.25>0.67>0.27 mM(-1) min(-1) for ABTS, catechol and hydroquinone, respectively. The purified laccase was found to be activated by Mn(2+), Cd(2+), Ca(2+), Na(+), Fe(2+), Co(2+) and Cu(2+) while weakly inhibited by Hg(2+). The properties such as thermostability, alkaline pH optima and metal tolerance exhibited by the papaya laccase make it a promising candidate enzyme for industrial exploitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of pre-flowering PMeV-infected Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Soares, Eduardo de A; Werth, Emily G; Madroñero, Leidy J; Ventura, José A; Rodrigues, Silas P; Hicks, Leslie M; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2017-01-16

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) infects papaya (Carica papaya L.) and leads to Papaya Sticky Disease (PSD) or "Meleira", characterized by a spontaneous exudation of latex from fruits and leaves only in the post-flowering developmental stage. The latex oxidizes in contact with air and accumulates as a sticky substance on the plant organs, impairing papaya fruit's marketing and exportation. To understand pre-flowering C. papaya resistance to PMeV, an LC-MS/MS-based label-free proteomics approach was used to assess the differential proteome of PMeV-infected pre-flowering C. papaya vs. uninfected (control) plants. In this study, 1333 proteins were identified, of which 111 proteins showed a significant abundance change (57 increased and 54 decreased) and supports the hypothesis of increased photosynthesis and reduction of 26S-proteassoma activity and cell-wall remodeling. All of these results suggest that increased photosynthetic activity has a positive effect on the induction of plant immunity, whereas the reduction of caspase-like activity and the observed changes in the cell-wall associated proteins impairs the full activation of defense response based on hypersensitive response and viral movement obstruction in pre-flowering C. papaya plants. The papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit's production is severely limited by the occurrence of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) infection, which causes Papaya Sticky Disease (PSD). Despite the efforts to understand key features involved with the plant×virus interaction, PSD management is still largely based on the observation of the first disease symptoms in the field, followed by the elimination of the diseased plants. However, C. papaya develops PSD only after flowering, i.e. about six-months after planting, and the virus inoculum sources are kept in field. The development of PMeV resistant genotypes is impaired by the limited knowledge about C. papaya resistance against viruses. The occurrence of a resistance/tolerance mechanism to PSD

  1. PCR-based detection and characterization of the fungal pathogens Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum capsici causing anthracnose in papaya (Carica papaya l.) in the Yucatan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Tussell, Raul; Quijano-Ramayo, Andres; Cortes-Velazquez, Alberto; Lappe, Patricia; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Perez-Brito, Daisy

    2008-11-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the common causal agent of anthracnose in papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits, and infection by this fungal pathogen results in severe post-harvest losses. In the Yucatán peninsula (Mexico) a different Colletotrichum species was isolated from papaya fruits with atypical anthracnose lesions. The DNAs from a variety of Colletotrichum isolates producing typical and atypical lesions, respectively, were amplified by PCR with C.gloeosporioides-specific primers. All isolates from typical anthracnose lesions yielded a 450 bp PCR product, but DNAs from isolates with atypical lesions failed to produce an amplification product. For further characterization, the rDNA 5.8S-ITS region was amplified by PCR and processed for sequencing and RFLP analysis, respectively, to verify the identity of the papaya anthracnose pathogens. The results revealed unequivocally the existence of two Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose lesions on papaya fruits: C. gloeosporioides and C. capsici. PCR-RFLP using the restriction endonuclease MspI reliably reproduced restriction patterns specific for C. capsici or C. gloeosporioides. The generation of RFLP patterns by MspI (or AluI or RsaI) is a rapid, accurate, and unequivocal method for the detection and differentiation of these two Colletotrichum species.

  2. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly

  3. Papaya (Carica papaya) leaf methanolic extract modulates in vitro rumen methanogenesis and rumen biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Saeid; Goh, Yong M; Rajion, Mohamed A; Jahromi, Mohammad F; Ahmad, Yusof H; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    Papaya leaf methanolic extract (PLE) at concentrations of 0 (CON), 5 (LLE), 10 (MLE) and 15 (HLE) mg/250 mg dry matter (DM) with 30 mL buffered rumen fluid were incubated for 24 h to identify its effect on in vitro ruminal methanogenesis and ruminal biohydrogenation (BH). Total gas production was not affected (P > 0.05) by addition of PLE compared to the CON at 24 h of incubation. Methane (CH4 ) production (mL/250 mg DM) decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of PLE. Acetate to propionate ratio was lower (P <0.05) in MLE (2.02) and HLE (1.93) compared to the CON (2.28). Supplementation of the diet with PLE significantly (P <0.05) decreased the rate of BH of C18:1n-9 (oleic acid; OA), C18:2n-6 (linoleic acid; LA), C18:3n-3 (linolenic acid; LNA) and C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) compared to CON after 24 h incubation, which resulted in higher concentrations of BH intermediates such as C18:1 t11 (vaccenic acid; VA), c9t11 conjugated LA (CLA) (rumenic acid; RA) and t10c12 CLA. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that the total bacteria, total protozoa, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and methanogen population in HLE decreased (P <0.05) compared to CON, but the total bacteria and B. fibrisolvens population were higher (P < 0.05) in CON compared to the PLE treatment groups. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  5. Valorization of agroindustrial wastes: Identification by LC-MS and NMR of benzylglucosinolate from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds, a protective agent against lipid oxidation in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vargas, Henry I; Baumann, Wolfram; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we report the characterization of benzylglucosinolate (BG) isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds. A methanolic extract was fractionated and further purified by solid phase extraction (SPE). It was analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H and (13) C-NMR) as well, and the target compound BG was identified by these two techniques. The effect of BG on lipid oxidation in edible vegetable oil (EO) was shown by observing some lipid oxidation products (linoleic acid hydroperoxides, LHP; hexanal, HEX; nonanal, NON; thiobarbituric acid reactives species, TBARS). BG reduced lipid oxidation production in EO by over 80%, as compared to a control sample and in this way has proved to be a useful antioxidant, even more effective than some antioxidants used by food industry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Rashid, Badrul Amini; Semail, Raja Hazlini Raja; Abdullah, Noordini; Jantan, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Hussin; Ismail, Zakiah

    2012-04-10

    Carica papaya L. leaves have been used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of fevers and cancers. Despite its benefits, very few studies on their potential toxicity have been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition of the leaf extract from 'Sekaki' C. papaya cultivar by UPLC-TripleTOF-ESI-MS and to investigate the sub-acute oral toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0.01, 0.14 and 2 g/kg by examining the general behavior, clinical signs, hematological parameters, serum biochemistry and histopathology changes. A total of twelve compounds consisting of one piperidine alkaloid, two organic acids, six malic acid derivatives, and four flavonol glycosides were characterized or tentatively identified in the C. papaya leaf extract. In the sub-acute study, the C. papaya extract did not cause mortality nor were treatment-related changes in body weight, food intake, water level, and hematological parameters observed between treatment and control groups. Some biochemical parameters such as the total protein, HDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT and ALP were elevated in a non-dose dependent manner. Histopathological examination of all organs including liver did not reveal morphological alteration. Other parameters showed non-significant differences between treatment and control groups. The present results suggest that C. papaya leaf extract at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in practical use in traditional medicine in Malaysia could be considered safe as a medicinal agent.

  7. Purification and characterization of a wound-inducible thaumatin-like protein from the latex of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Looze, Yvan; Boussard, Paule; Huet, Joëlle; Vandenbusche, Guy; Vandenbussche, Guy; Azarkan, Mohamed; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René

    2009-05-01

    A 22.137 kDa protein constituent of fresh latex was isolated both from the latex of regularly damaged papaya trees and from a commercially available papain preparation. The protein was purified up to apparent homogeneity and was shown to be absent in the latex of papaya trees that had never been previously mechanically injured. This suggests that the protein belongs to pathogenesis-related protein family, as expected for several other protein constituents of papaya latex. The protein was identified as a thaumatin-like protein (class 5 of the pathogenesis-related proteins) on the basis of its partial amino acid sequence. By sequence analysis of the Carica genome, three different forms of thaumatin-like protein were identified, where the latex constituent belongs to a well-known form, allowing the molecular modeling of its spatial structure. The papaya latex thaumatin-like protein was further characterized. The protein appears to be stable in the pH interval from 2 to 10 and resistant to chemical denaturation by guanidium chloride, with a DeltaG(water)(0) of 15.2 kcal/mol and to proteolysis by the four papaya cysteine proteinases. The physiological role of this protein is discussed.

  8. Genome-wide identification and characterization of auxin response factor (ARF) family genes related to flower and fruit development in papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaidong; Yuan, Changchun; Li, Haili; Lin, Wanhuang; Yang, Yanjun; Shen, Chenjia; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2015-11-05

    Auxin and auxin signaling are involved in a series of developmental processes in plants. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs) is reported to modulate the expression of target genes by binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) and influence the transcriptional activation of down-stream target genes. However, how ARF genes function in flower development and fruit ripening of papaya (Carica papaya L.) is largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive characterization and expression profiling analysis of 11 C. papaya ARF (CpARF) genes was performed using the newly updated papaya reference genome data. We analyzed CpARF expression patterns at different developmental stages. CpARF1, CpARF2, CpARF4, CpARF5, and CpARF10 showed the highest expression at the initial stage of flower development, but decreased during the following developmental stages. CpARF6 expression increased during the developmental process and reached its peak level at the final stage of flower development. The expression of CpARF1 increased significantly during the fruit ripening stages. Many AuxREs were included in the promoters of two ethylene signaling genes (CpETR1 and CpETR2) and three ethylene-synthesis-related genes (CpACS1, CpACS2, and CpACO1), suggesting that CpARFs might be involved in fruit ripening via the regulation of ethylene signaling. Our study provided comprehensive information on ARF family in papaya, including gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. The involvement of CpARF gene expression changes in flower and fruit development allowed us to understand the role of ARF-mediated auxin signaling in the maturation of reproductive organs in papaya.

  9. Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Antimalarial Potential of Carica papaya and Vernonia amygdalina in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei

    PubMed Central

    Habila, Nathan; Ikwebe, Joseph; Upev, Vincent A.; Isaac, Omiagocho T.

    2016-01-01

    The study determined if administration of Vernonia amygdalina and Carica papaya plants provides synergistic effects in ameliorating plasmodium infection in mice. Thirty mice (17.88–25.3 g) were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each. Group 1 was normal control, while groups 2–6 were intraperitoneally inoculated 2.5 × 107 Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cell, followed by daily administration of 350 mg/kg aqueous leaf extracts after establishment of infection. Group 2 was disease control, while group 6 was treated with standard drug for four consecutive days. The results showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in percentage of parasite load between the infected treatment groups and disease control group at day 3 after infection, which remained consistent until the end of the experiment. All infected treated groups showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in RBC and PCV recovery compared to the disease control, with the exception of WBC. There was insignificant (P > 0.05) change in mean body weight of all treated groups except in disease control group. Histological studies of the infected mice indicate recovery of hepatic cells from congested black pigmentation. The reduction in parasite load and recovery of hepatic cell damage/hematological parameters were induced by these plant extracts. This highlighted the important usage of the plant in traditional remedy of malaria infection. PMID:28042299

  11. Antimalarial Potential of Carica papaya and Vernonia amygdalina in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Okpe, Oche; Habila, Nathan; Ikwebe, Joseph; Upev, Vincent A; Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Isaac, Omiagocho T

    2016-01-01

    The study determined if administration of Vernonia amygdalina and Carica papaya plants provides synergistic effects in ameliorating plasmodium infection in mice. Thirty mice (17.88-25.3 g) were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each. Group 1 was normal control, while groups 2-6 were intraperitoneally inoculated 2.5 × 10(7)Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cell, followed by daily administration of 350 mg/kg aqueous leaf extracts after establishment of infection. Group 2 was disease control, while group 6 was treated with standard drug for four consecutive days. The results showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in percentage of parasite load between the infected treatment groups and disease control group at day 3 after infection, which remained consistent until the end of the experiment. All infected treated groups showed significant (P < 0.05) increases in RBC and PCV recovery compared to the disease control, with the exception of WBC. There was insignificant (P > 0.05) change in mean body weight of all treated groups except in disease control group. Histological studies of the infected mice indicate recovery of hepatic cells from congested black pigmentation. The reduction in parasite load and recovery of hepatic cell damage/hematological parameters were induced by these plant extracts. This highlighted the important usage of the plant in traditional remedy of malaria infection.

  12. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Hodson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  13. Traditional Aboriginal Preparation Alters the Chemical Profile of Carica papaya Leaves and Impacts on Cytotoxicity towards Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thao T.; Parat, Marie-Odile; Shaw, Paul N.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Hodson, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya leaf decoction, an Australian Aboriginal remedy, has been used widely for its healing capabilities against cancer, with numerous anecdotal reports. In this study we investigated its in vitro cytotoxicity on human squamous cell carcinoma cells followed by metabolomic profiling of Carica papaya leaf decoction and leaf juice/brewed leaf juice to determine the effects imparted by the long heating process typical of the Aboriginal remedy preparation. MTT assay results showed that in comparison with the decoction, the leaf juice not only exhibited a stronger cytotoxic effect on SCC25 cancer cells, but also produced a significant cancer-selective effect as shown by tests on non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Furthermore, evidence from testing brewed leaf juice on these two cell lines suggested that the brewing process markedly reduced the selective effect of Carica papaya leaf on SCC25 cancer cells. To tentatively identify the compounds that contribute to the distinct selective anticancer activity of leaf juice, an untargeted metabolomic approach employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry followed by multivariate data analysis was applied. Some 90 and 104 peaks in positive and negative mode respectively were selected as discriminatory features from the chemical profile of leaf juice and >1500 putative compound IDs were obtained via database searching. Direct comparison of chromatographic and tandem mass spectral data to available reference compounds confirmed one feature as a match with its proposed authentic standard, namely pheophorbide A. However, despite pheophorbide A exhibiting cytotoxic activity on SCC25 cancer cells, it did not prove to be the compound contributing principally to the selective activity of leaf juice. With promising results suggesting stronger and more selective anticancer effects when compared to the Aboriginal remedy, Carica papaya leaf juice warrants further study

  14. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase). PMID:24575245

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dibiani, Rachid; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P31 or P32. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co2+, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å. PMID:17142906

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica Papaya fruit extract under sunlight irradiation and their colorimetric detection of mercury ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdaus, M.; Andriana, S.; Elvinawati; Alwi, W.; Swistoro, E.; Ruyani, A.; Sundaryono, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have successfully synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using aqueous extract of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit as bioreductant under sunlight irradiation without additional capping agent. Characterizations were done using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The synthesized AgNPs have yellowish-brown color with surface plasmon resonance peak at 410 nm. Good selectivity of the AgNPs towards hazardous heavy metal of mercury ions in aqueous solution has been developed as a green environmental sensor. The presence of Hg(II) ions in the mixture changed the yellowish-brown color of AgNPs to colorless due to oxidation of Ag(O) in AgNPs to Ag(I) ions. Effect of samples matrix such as alkali metal, alkaline earth metal and transition metal ions were evaluated.

  17. Binary Combination of Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans with Piperonyl Butoxide / MGK-264 against Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhat; Singh, Dinesh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Piperonyl butoxide (PB) and MGK-264 were used to enhance the toxicity of the active components papain, arecoline and myristicin from the plants Carica papaya, Areca catechu and Myristica fragrans, respectively, against the vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. A time- and dose-dependent relationship was observed for the toxicity of these combinations. The toxic effects of these plant-derived molluscicides in combination with the synergists PB and MGK-264 were several times higher than the effect of the individual treatments. The highest degree of synergism was observed when MGK-264 was used in combination with C. papaya latex (10.47-fold increase) and PB was used with papain (8.35-fold increase).

  18. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, Hussein O B; Adaja, Matthew C; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Musa O

    2015-03-01

    Carica papaya is an important fruit with its seeds used in the treatment of ulcer in Nigeria. This study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male rats. Thirty male rats were separated into 6 groups (A-F) of five rats each. For 14 d before ulcer induction with indomethacin, groups received once daily oral doses of vehicle (distilled water), cimetidine 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), or aqueous extract of C. papaya seed at doses of 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg BW (groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, groups B, C, D, E and F were treated with 100 mg/kg BW of indomethacin to induce ulcer formation. Carica papaya seed extract significantly (P< 0.05) increased gastric pH and percentage of ulcer inhibition relative to indomethacin-induced ulcer rats. The extract significantly (P< 0.05) decreased gastric acidity, gastric acid output, gastric pepsin secretion, ulcer index and gastric secretion volume relative to group B. These results were similar to that achieved by pretreatment with cimetidine. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the extract-treated groups (D, E and F) were increased significantly over the group B (P< 0.05). Pretreatment with the seed extract protected rats from the indomethacin-mediated decrease in enzyme function experienced by the group B. Similarly, indomethacin-mediated decrease in reduced glutathione level and indomethacin-mediated increase in malondialdehyde were reversed by Carica papaya extract. In this study, pretreatment with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed exhibited anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects, which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant enzymes.

  19. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  20. How to become a tree without wood--biomechanical analysis of the stem of Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Kempe, A; Lautenschläger, T; Lange, A; Neinhuis, C

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya L. does not contain wood, according to the botanical definition of wood as lignified secondary xylem. Despite its parenchymatous secondary xylem, these plants are able to grow up to 10-m high. This is surprising, as wooden structural elements are the ubiquitous strategy for supporting height growth in plants. Proposed possible alternative principles to explain the compensation for lack of wood in C. papaya are turgor pressure of the parenchyma, lignified phloem fibres in the bark, or a combination of the two. Interestingly, lignified tissue comprises only 5-8% of the entire stem mass. Furthermore, the phloem fibres do not form a compact tube enclosing the xylem, but instead form a mesh tubular structure. To investigate the mechanism of papaya's unusually high mechanical strength, a set of mechanical measurements were undertaken on whole stems and tissue sections of secondary phloem and xylem. The structural Young's modulus of mature stems reached 2.5 GPa. Since this is low compared to woody plants, the flexural rigidity of papaya stem construction may mainly be based on a higher second moment of inertia. Additionally, stem turgor pressure was determined indirectly by immersing specimens in sucrose solutions of different osmolalities, followed by mechanical tests; turgor pressure was between 0.82 and 1.25 MPa, indicating that turgor is essential for flexural rigidity of the entire stem. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Content determination of benzyl glucosinolate and anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Li, Ze-You; Wang, Yong; Shen, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Peng

    2012-03-01

    To determine the content of benzyl glucosinolate (BG) in the pulp and the seed and investigate the anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L. Determination of BG was performed on an Hypersil BDS C(18) column at the wavelength of 214 nm with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) aqueous solution (A) and 0.1%TFA acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase. In vitro activity test was adopted with cultured human lung cancer H69 cell in vitro to investigate the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) against H69 cell. The pulp has more BG before the maturation of papaya and it nearly disappeared after papaya matured, while the seed contains BG at every stage. Activity test demonstrated that the a higher concentration of BITC would have better inhibition rate of cell proliferation on H69 cell, and the IC(50) was 6.5 μmol/L. BG also can be produced in the pulp of papaya and it will be stored in the seed after the fruit has been matured. The hydrolysis product of BG has certain cancer-prevention anti-cancer activities for human. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Low-dose gamma irradiation following hot water immersion of papaya (Carica papaya linn.) fruits provides additional control of postharvest fungal infection to extend shelf life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, M. H. A.; Grout, B. W. W.; Continella, A.; Mahmud, T. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    Low-dose gamma irradiation (0.08 kGy over 10 min), a level significantly below that required to satisfy the majority of international quarantine regulations, has been employed to provide a significant reduction in visible fungal infection on papaya fruit surfaces. This is appropriate for local and national markets in producer countries where levels of commercial acceptability can be retained despite surface lesions due to fungal infection. Irradiation alone and in combination with hot-water immersion (50 °C for 10 min) has been applied to papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits at both the mature green and 1/3 yellow stages of maturity. The incidence and severity of surface fungal infections, including anthracnose, were significantly reduced by the combined treatment compared to irradiation or hot water treatment alone, extending storage at 11 °C by 13 days and retaining commercial acceptability. The combined treatment had no significant, negative impact on ripening, with quality characteristics such as surface and internal colour change, firmness, soluble solids, acidity and vitamin C maintained at acceptable levels.

  3. Chemical and morphological characterization of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) hybrids and lines with particular focus on their genuine carotenoid profiles.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold

    2012-03-14

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) F1 hybrids and inbred lines grown in Costa Rica were screened for morphological and nutritionally relevant fruit traits. The qualitative composition of carotenoids showed great similarity, being mostly composed of free and esterified β-cryptoxanthins accompanied by β-carotene, lycopene, and biosynthetic precursors. High levels of (all-E)-lycopene and its isomers were distinctive for red-fleshed hybrids, whereas yellow-fleshed fruits were virtually devoid of lycopenes. Because carotenoid levels among the investigated hybrids and lines differed significantly, this study supports the hypothesis of an exploitable genetic variability, and a potential heterotic effect regarding carotenoid expression may be instrumental in papaya-breeding programs. Due to significantly higher levels of provitamin A carotenoids and coinciding high levels of total lycopene, particularly red-fleshed hybrids might represent prospective sources of these compounds. Furthermore, the nutritional value of some genotypes was boosted by substantial amounts of ascorbic acid (up to 73 mg/100 g of fresh weight), which correlated to total soluble solids (R(2) = 0.86).

  4. Assessment study on the use of Pawpaw; Carica papaya seeds to control Oreochromis niloticus breeding.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hossam H; Abbas, Wafaa T

    2011-12-15

    This study was carried out to assess the ability of using pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds as a natural reproduction inhibitor for tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) culture to control its breeding. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects ofpawpaw seeds on male tilapia fish were also determined. Mature male tilapia were stocked for 4 weeks and treated with low dose (3 g/kg/day) and high dose (6 g/kg/day) of ground dried pawpaw seeds mixed with their feed. The obtained results showed that the pawpaw seeds induced permanent sterility in the high dose treated fish while the low dose treatment showed reversible results. The results also demonstrated that fish treated with high dose of pawpaw exhibited higher biochemical and physiological effects as: low meat quality, a progressive fall in erythrocyte (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content and haematocrit values. Also the high dose revealed a significant increase in the leukocytes (WBCs) count, serum glucose, total protein, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine and uric acid levels. Moreover, serum total lipids revealed a significant decrease compared to control group. On the other hand, the low dose treatment revealed lower biochemical and physiological changes. Histological sections of testis showed disintegration of sperm cells and focal necrosis of seminefrous tubules in the high dose treated fish, hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney tissues also showed severe changes in high dose treated fish. Milder degenerative changes in some necrotic foci and slight changes in hepato-pancreas and posterior kidney were observed in the low dose treated fish. The study concluded that pawpaw seeds which are cheap and easy to obtain, can be incorporated into fish feeds with adjusted amount and be used to control breeding of tilapia fish in growing ponds instead of unfavorable and expensive hormonal use.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    SciTech Connect

    Huet, Joëlle; Azarkan, Mohamed; Looze, Yvan; Villeret, Vincent; Wintjens, René

    2008-05-01

    A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been crystallized. The addition of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to the crystallization solution has improved the diffraction quality resolution of the crystal to 1.8 Å resolution. A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the monomer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 Å, β = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

  6. Effect of Carica papaya Leaf Extract Capsule on Platelet Count in Patients of Dengue Fever with Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Gadhwal, Ajeet Kumar; Ankit, B S; Chahar, Chitresh; Tantia, Pankaj; Sirohi, P; Agrawal, R P

    2016-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia in dengue fever is a common and serious complication. However, no specific treatment is available for dengue fever induced thrombocytopenia. In few countries (Pakistan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and other Asian countries) the leaf extract of Carica papaya has been effectively used for thrombocytopenia. So, the study is planned to access effect of Carica papaya leaf extract on platelet count in dengue fever patients. All participants were randomised into two groups, study group and control group; the study group was given papaya leaf extract capsule of 500 mg once daily and routine supportive treatment for consecutive five days. The controls were given only routine supportive treatment. Daily complete blood counts, platelet counts and haematocrit level, liver function test, renal function test of both groups were observed. On the first day platelet count of study group and control group was (59.82±18.63, 61.06±20.03 thousands, p value 0.36). On the 2nd day platelet count of both study and control groups was not significantly different (61.67±19.46 and 59.93±19.52 thousands, p value 0.20) but on 3rd day platelet count of study group was significantly higher than control group (82.96±16.72, 66.45±17.36 thousands, p value < 0.01). On 4th and 5th day platelet count of study group (122.43±19.36 and 112.47±17.49 thousands respectively) was also significantly higher than the control group (88.75±21.65 and 102.59±19.35 thousands) (p value < 0.01). On 7th day platelet count of study group and control group were not significantly different (124.47±12.35 and 122.46±19.76 thousands respectively, p value 0.08). Average hospitalization period of study group v/s control group was 3.65±0.97 v/s 5.42±0.98 days (p value < 0.01). Average platelet transfusion requirement in study group was significantly less than control group (0.685 units per patient v/s 1.19 units per patient) (p value <0.01). It is concluded that Carica papaya leaf extract increases the

  7. Genetic diversity and structure of wild populations of Carica papaya in Northern Mesoamerica inferred by nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast markers.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Pesqueira, Mariana; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated the genetic structure and evolutionary history of wild varieties of important crop species. The wild papaya (Carica papaya) is a key element of early successional tropical and sub-tropical forests in Mexico, and constitutes the genetic reservoir for evolutionary potential of the species. In this study we aimed to determine how diverse and structured is the genetic variability of wild populations of C. papaya in Northern Mesoamerica. Moreover, we assessed if genetic structure and evolutionary history coincide with hypothetized (1) pre-Pleistocene events (Isthmus of Tehuantepec sinking), (2) Pleistocene refugia or (3) recent patterns. We used six nuclear and two chloroplast (cp) DNA markers to assess the genetic diversity and phylogeographical structure of 19 wild populations of C. papaya in its natural distribution in Northern Mesoamerica. We found high genetic diversity (Ho = 0·681 for nuclear markers, and h = 0·701 for cpDNA markers) and gene flow between populations of C. papaya (migration r up to 420 km). A lack of phylogeographical structure was found with the cpDNA markers (NST < GST), whereas a recent population structure was inferred with the nuclear markers. Evidence indicates that pre-Pleistocene events or refugia did not play an important role in the genetic structuring of wild papaya. Because of its life history characteristics and lack of an ancient phylogeographical structure found with the cpDNA markers, we suggest that C. papaya was dispersed throughout the lowland rain forests of Mexico (along the coastal plains and foothills of Sierras). This scenario supports the hypothesis that tropical forests in Northern Mesoamerica did not experience important climate fluctuations during the Pleistocene, and that the life history of C. papaya could have promoted long-distance dispersal and rapid colonization of lowland rainforests. Moreover, the results obtained with the nuclear markers suggest recent human disturbances. The

  8. Isolation and functional characterization of a lycopene beta-cyclase gene that controls fruit colour of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Devitt, Luke C; Fanning, Kent; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Holton, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    The colour of papaya fruit flesh is determined largely by the presence of carotenoid pigments. Red-fleshed papaya fruit contain lycopene, whilst this pigment is absent from yellow-fleshed fruit. The conversion of lycopene (red) to beta-carotene (yellow) is catalysed by lycopene beta-cyclase. This present study describes the cloning and functional characterization of two different genes encoding lycopene beta-cyclases (lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2) from red (Tainung) and yellow (Hybrid 1B) papaya cultivars. A mutation in the lcy-beta2 gene, which inactivates enzyme activity, controls lycopene production in fruit and is responsible for the difference in carotenoid production between red and yellow-fleshed papaya fruit. The expression level of both lcy-beta1 and lcy-beta2 genes is similar and low in leaves, but lcy-beta2 expression increases markedly in ripe fruit. Isolation of the lcy-beta2 gene from papaya, that is preferentially expressed in fruit and is correlated with fruit colour, will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for fruit colour in papaya and should create possibilities for metabolic engineering of carotenoid production in papaya fruit to alter both colour and nutritional properties.

  9. The component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Natalia N dos S; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Lemos, Francisco J A; Oliva, Maria Luiza

    2013-07-01

    As Aedes aegypti transmits the etiologic agents of both yellow and dengue fever; vector control is considered essential to minimise their incidence. The aim of this work was to identify the component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti, and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it. Aqueous extracts (1%, w/v) of the seed tegument and cotyledon of C. papaya are not larvicidal isolately. However, a mixture of 17μgmL(-1) tegument extract and 27μgmL(-1) cotyledon extract caused 100% larval mortality in a bioassay. The mixture was no longer larvicidal after the tegument extract was pre-treated at 100°C for 10min. The enzyme tegupain efficiently hydrolysed the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-pNan (Km 58.8μM, Kcat 28020s(-1), Kcat/Km 5×10(8)M(-1) s(-1)), and its activity increased with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT), at 37°C, pH 5.0. The chelating agent EDTA did not modify the enzyme activity. Inhibition of tegupain by cystatin (Kiapp 2.43nM), E64 (3.64nM, 83% inhibition), and the propeptide N-terminal sequence indicate that the toxic activity is due to a novel cysteine proteinase-like enzyme, rendered active upon the hydrolysis of a cotyledon component of C. papaya seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a protease inhibitor from the latex of Carica papaya

    SciTech Connect

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Dibiani, Rachid; Wyns, Lode; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-12-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor isolated from C. papaya latex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Two different crystal forms are observed, diffracting to 2.6 and 1.7 Å. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor purified from the latex of green papaya (Carica papaya) fruits was crystallized in the presence and absence of divalent metal ions. Crystal form I, which is devoid of divalent cations, diffracts to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belongs to space group P3{sub 1} or P3{sub 2}. This crystal form is a merohedral twin with two molecules in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.70, c = 78.97 Å. Crystal form II, which was grown in the presence of Co{sup 2+}, diffracts to a resolution of 1.7 Å and belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.26, b = 81.99, c = 140.89 Å.

  11. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

    2004-03-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

  12. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Sumathi, Vello; Jegathambigai, Naidu Rameshwar; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared to diabetic control. Whereas, there was significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the blood glucose level of the plant-treated groups compared to the diabetic control. Histologically the pancreas of the treated groups indicated significant regeneration of the β-cells when compared to the diabetic control. The liver tissues of the treated group indicated a reduction in fatty changes and pyknotic nucleus. The kidney tissues of the treated groups indicated significant recovery in the cuboidal tissue. The results from the phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin and tannin in C. papaya and P. amaryfollius. The antidiabetic effect of C. papaya and P. amaryfollius observed in the present study may be due to the presence of these phytochemicals.

  13. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; da Costa, Antônio Paulino; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis. PMID:28380118

  14. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Antônio Paulino da; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-04-03

    Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.

  15. Efficacy and safety of Carica papaya leaf extract in the dengue: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Jaykaran; Saxena, Deepak; Goyal, Jagdish Prasad; Yasobant, Sandul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dengue is an infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Being a viral disease, there is no specific drug available for treatment. There are some reports that Carica papaya leaf extract may improve the clinical condition of dengue patients; however, to support this, at present, there is no systematically searched and synthesized evidence available. Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to search the available evidence related to the efficacy and safety of C. papaya leaf extract in dengue and to synthesize the evidence in meaningful form through meta-analysis so that inference can be drawn. Materials and Methods: Randomized controlled trials related to the efficacy and safety of C. papaya leaf extract in dengue were searched from PubMed, Cochrane Clinical Trial Registry and Google Scholar. The primary endpoint was mortality, and secondary endpoints were increase in platelet count, hospitalization days, and Grade 3 and 4 adverse events. Data related to primary and secondary endpoints were pooled together and analyzed by review manager (Review Manager (RevMan) Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Denmark) software. The random effect model was used. The bias was analyzed by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Total four trials enrolling 439 subjects were included in the analysis. Of 439 subjects, data of 377 subjects were available for analysis. C. papaya leaf extract was found to be associated with increase in platelet count in the overall analysis (mean difference [MD] =20.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.21–34.73; P = 0.005]) and analysis after 4th day (MD = 28.25 [95% CI 14.14–42.37; P < 0.0001]). After 48 h, there was no significant difference between C. papaya and control group (MD = 13.38 [95% CI − 7.71–34.51; P = 0.21]). There was significant decrease in hospitalization days in the C. papaya group (MD = 1.90 [95% CI 1.62–2.18; P < 0.00001]). Because of

  16. Papaya

    MedlinePlus

    Papaya is a plant. The leaves are used to make medicine. Papaya is used for preventing and treating gastrointestinal tract ... of the lymphatic system caused by parasitic worms. Papaya contains a chemical called papain, which is commonly ...

  17. Mature leaf concentrate of Sri Lankan wild type Carica papaya Linn. modulates nonfunctional and functional immune responses of rats.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Chanika Dilumi; Gunasekera, Dinara S; De Silva, Nuwan; Jayawardena, Kithmini Kawya Mandakini; Udagama, Preethi Vidya

    2017-04-26

    The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0.18, 0.36 and 0.72 ml/100g body weight) of the MLCC once daily for 3 consecutive days. Selected nonfunctional (enumeration of immune cells and cytokine levels) and functional (cell proliferation and phagocytic activity) immunological parameters, and acute toxic effects were determined using standard methods. Effect of the MLCC (31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) on ex vivo proliferation of bone marrow cells (BMC) and splenocytes (SC), and in vitro phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages (PMs), and their corresponding cytokine responses were evaluated. The phytochemical profile of the MLCC was established using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LS-MS) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Counts of rat platelets, total leukocytes, lymphocyte and monocyte sub populations, and BMCs were significantly augmented by oral gavage of the MLCC (p < 0.05). The highest MLCC dose tested herein significantly reduced pro inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF α) levels of rats (p < 0.05). The in vivo phagocytic index of rat PMs significantly increased by oral gavage of all three doses of the MLCC (p < 0.05). In vitro phagocytic activity of rat PMs were enhanced by the MLCC and triggered a Th1 biased cytokine response. The MLCC at low concentrations elicited ex vivo proliferation of BMC (31.25 μg/ml) and SC (31.25 and 62.5 μg/ml) respectively. Conversely, high concentrations (500 and 1000 μg/ml) exhibited cytotoxicity of both BMC and SC

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of the bark of Carica papaya on testicular histology in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kusemiju, T O; Osinubi, A A; Noronha, C C; Okanlawon, A O

    2010-01-01

    Males generally have few options for controlling their fertility and these options are far from being satisfactory. There is a great need for research to develop more contraceptive modalities for males. The overall aim of this research was to determine the histological responses of the testes of Sprague-Dawley rats to aqueous extract of bark of Carica papaya using a single daily dose of 100 mg/kg and also to investigate if these responses are reversible or not. Sixty mature (6-8 weeks old) male Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into 2 equal groups, were used for this experiment. Group 1 rats were fed with 100 mg/kg/day of the extract for 4 and 8 weeks, while group 2 rats served as the control subjects. Each cauda epididymis of the rats was exteriorized, incised and sperm motility and count conducted on expressed fluid. The testes were harvested and processed for histological examination under light microscope. Phytochemical analysis was done to ascertain the main constituents in the extract, while the LD50 was conducted to guide in the dose of administration of the extract. A subgroup of the animals was allowed a recovery period of 8 weeks before sacrifice. The results showed that 500 mg/kg (LD50) of the extract of bark of Carica papaya produced signs of toxicity with mortality of 50% of the rats. The extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg caused histological changes ranging from seminiferous tubular distortion to outright destruction/ degeneration of the seminiferous tubules. In addition, the testicular interstitia of extract-treated rats showed disorganization and hypocellularity. The extract also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in both sperm count and motility. There was no significant reversal of these antispermatogenic effects following a recovery period of 8 weeks. Aqueous extract of the bark of Carica papaya has deleterious effects on both the seminiferous tubules and testicular interstitium and deserves to be further investigated as a potential male

  19. Identification and expression of the WRKY transcription factors of Carica papaya in response to abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lin-Jie; Jiang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factor (TF) plays a very important role in the response of plants to various abiotic and biotic stresses. A local papaya database was built according to the GenBank expressed sequence tag database using the BioEdit software. Fifty-two coding sequences of Carica papaya WRKY TFs were predicted using the tBLASTn tool. The phylogenetic tree of the WRKY proteins was classified. The expression profiles of 13 selected C. papaya WRKY TF genes under stress induction were constructed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of these WRKY genes in response to 3 abiotic and 2 biotic stresses were evaluated. TF807.3 and TF72.14 are upregulated by low temperature; TF807.3, TF43.76, TF12.199 and TF12.62 are involved in the response to drought stress; TF9.35, TF18.51, TF72.14 and TF12.199 is involved in response to wound; TF12.199, TF807.3, TF21.156 and TF18.51 was induced by PRSV pathogen; TF72.14 and TF43.76 are upregulated by SA. The regulated expression levels of above eight genes normalized against housekeeping gene actin were significant at probability of 0.01 levels. These WRKY TFs could be related to corresponding stress resistance and selected as the candidate genes, especially, the two genes TF807.3 and TF12.199, which were regulated notably by four stresses respectively. This study may provide useful information and candidate genes for the development of transgenic stress tolerant papaya varieties.

  20. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

    2014-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana.

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed oil of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety.

    PubMed

    Yanty, Noorzianna Abdul Manaf; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Nusantoro, Bangun Prajanto; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the oil derived from papaya seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety. Proximate analysis showed that seeds of the Hong Kong/Sekaki variety contained considerable amount of oil (27.0%). The iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter and free fatty acid contents of freshly extracted papaya seed oil were 76.9 g I2/100g oil, 193.5 mg KOH/g oil, 1.52% and 0.91%, respectively. The oil had a Lovibond color index of 15.2Y + 5.2B. Papaya seed oil contained ten detectable fatty acids, of which 78.33% were unsaturated. Oleic (73.5%) acid was the dominant fatty acids followed by palmitic acid (15.8%). Based on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, seven species of triacylglycerols (TAGs) were detected. The predominant TAGs of papaya seed oil were OOO (40.4%), POO (29.1%) and SOO (9.9%) where O, P, and S denote oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, respectively. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that papaya seed oil had its major melting and crystallization transitions at 12.4°C and -48.2°C, respectively. Analysis of the sample by Z-nose (electronic nose) instrument showed that the sample had a high level of volatile compounds.

  2. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-03-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight.

  3. Papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya is a tropical crop that is widely grown in household gardens and also commercially in plantations. However, papaya production has been severely limited by papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the most widespread and damaging virus that affects papaya. In Hawaii, PRSV had been present since the 194...

  4. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Kokila, T; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2016-12-01

    Waste fruit peel mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a green chemistry approach that links nanotechnology and biotechnology. Using biological medium such as peel extract for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an ecofriendly and emerging scientific trend. With this back drop the present study focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract (CPPE) and evaluation of its antimicrobial potentials of the nanoparticles against different human pathogens and to investigate the free radical scavenging activity. Water soluble antioxidant constituents present in Carica Papaya peel extract were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nanosized Ag particles. UV-vis spectral analysis shows surface plasmon resonance band at 430nm. The presence of active proteins and phenolic groups present in the biomass before and after reduction was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction study shows the average size of the silver nanoparticles is in the range of 28nm, as well as revealed their face centered cubic structure. Atomic force microscope image gives the 3D topological characteristic of silver nanoparticles and the particle size ranges from 10 to 30nm. The average particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles is 161nm (Dynamic light scattering) and the corresponding average zeta potential value is -20.5mV, suggesting higher stability of silver nanoparticles. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles efficiently inhibited pathogenic organisms both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biosynthesized nanoparticles might serve as a potent antioxidant as revealed by DPPH and ABT(S+)assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and functional characterization of bacterial endophytes from Carica papaya fruits.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P; Bhat, R; Kush, A; Ravikumar, P

    2012-08-01

    To isolate and characterize the endophytes from papaya fruits and to determine the fermentative potential of the strains. Endophytes provide potential sources for novel natural products for the use in agriculture and nutrition. There is very limited information on isolation and characterization of bacterial endophytes from papaya. We describe isolation and characterization of eighteen endophytes of papaya fruit from four economically important papaya varieties viz 'Red lady', 'Solo', 'Coorg Honey' and 'Bangalore'. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence revealed that isolated endophytes are genetically distinct and cluster as discrete clades in the dendrogram. The Bacillus species is a predominant bacterial endophyte across papaya varieties. The seeds and the endocarp of papaya fruits harbour Kocuria, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter species. The Staphylococcus species were detected in the fruit mesocarp of two papaya varieties used in the study. The endophytes isolated from papaya fruits were capable of producing extracellular enzymes like amylase, cellulase, pectinase and xylanase. Three isolates, Bacillus (PE-LR-1 and PE-LR-3) and Kocuria (PE-LR-2), were selected for fruit fermentation, and antioxidant potential of the fermented product was evaluated. PE-LR-3 fermented product has the free radical scavenging activity of 61·2% and a microbial cocktail of PE-LR-3 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 2918 enhances the antioxidant potential to 75·7%. These findings suggest that different parts of papaya fruits harbour an array of bacterial endophytes that could be important agents in attributing the high nutritive status to the fruit and can serve as potent microbial cocktails for developing value-added fermented products of this important fruit. This study describes isolation of a bacterial endophyte from papaya fruit that is capable of improving the antioxidant potential of raw papaya after fermentation. No claim to Indian Government works Journal

  6. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  7. Varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) fruits.

    PubMed

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, K

    2007-09-19

    Mango and papaya, which are rich sources of beta-carotene, are widely consumed in India. In this study, beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility were determined in six locally available varieties of mango, namely, Badami, Raspuri, Mallika, Malgoa, Totapuri, and Neelam, and two varieties of papaya, namely, Honey Dew and Surya. Varietal differences were evident in both beta-carotene content and its bioaccessibility in the case of mango. beta-Carotene content in ripe mango ranged from 0.55 +/- 0.03 mg/100 g in the Malgoa variety to 3.21 +/- 0.25 mg/100 g in the Badami variety. Similarly, in the Honey Dew and Surya varieties of papaya, beta-carotene contents were 0.70 +/- 0.10 and 0.74 +/- 0.12 mg/100 g, respectively. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene ranged from 24.5% in Badami to 39.1% in Raspuri varieties of mango. Considering both the percent bioaccessibility and the inherent beta-carotene content, the amount of bioaccessible beta-carotene was highest in the Mallika variety (0.89 mg/100 g), followed by Badami (0.79 mg/100 g). Because mango and papaya are also consumed as a blend with milk, the influence of the presence of milk on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these fruits was also examined. Addition of milk generally brought about a significant increase in the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from mango, the increase ranging from 12 to 56%. Bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from the two varieties of papaya examined was similar (31.4-34.3%). Addition of milk increased this bioaccessibility by 19 and 38% in these two varieties. Considering the beta-carotene content of mango and papaya, the latter has to be consumed in amounts roughly 3 times that of mango to derive the same amount of beta-carotene. Thus, this study has indicated that varietal differences exist in the content and bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in mango and that the addition of milk is advantageous in deriving this provitamin A from the fruit pulp of mango and papaya.

  8. The effectiveness of laser diode induction to Carica Papaya L. chlorophyll extract to be ROS generating in the photodynamic inactivation mechanisms for C.albicans biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi Astuty, S.; Baktir, A.

    2017-05-01

    Research on the effectiveness of photo inactivation of C.albicans biofilms led by a-PDT system mediated by chlorophyll-diode-laser-induced was done. This research was done using in vitro technique in order to effectively determine chlorophyll extract of ROS-generated Carica Papaya L. using in situ technique. This technique induced laser diode on different dose and C. albicans with reduced degree. This research is a preliminary study in efforts to find anew sensitizer agent candidate made of chlorophyll extract and antifungal of Carica Papaya L. The effectiveness of eradication has been tested with MDA’s content and OD of biomass biofilms as well as analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey Test (α=0.05). The characteristic of chlorophyll extract of Carica Papaya L. has maximum absorptions on blue areas (λmax = 420 nm) and red areas (λmax = 670 nm). The MIC value of Carica Papaya L.’schlorophyll extract against C. albicans planktonic and biofilms cell is 63.8 μM and 31.9 μM respectively. The result shows that treatment using laser which was combined with chlorophyll extract is more effective than that with laser only or chlorophyll extract only. The treatment using laser combined with chlorophyll extract obtained more than 65% (α=0.05) (more than that of negative control) for P2L1 group with OD595 0.915. The MDA’s content showed that group of laser which was mediated with chlorophyll extract had larger values than group of laser or chlorophyll extract only.

  9. Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.

    PubMed

    Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

    2009-12-30

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells.

  10. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect.

  11. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×10⁵/µL (P=0.00004) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×10⁶/µL (P=0.00003) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×10⁵/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×10⁵/µL), while it was 3.8×10⁵/µL and 5.5×10⁵/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×10⁶/µL to 9×10⁶/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×10⁶/µL). Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very important to identify

  12. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Does Carica papaya leaf-extract increase the platelet count? An experimental study in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarathna, Sinhalagoda Lekamlage Chandi Asoka; Wickramasinghe, Susiji; Waduge, Roshitha Nilmini; Rajapakse, Rajapakse Peramune Veddikkarage Jayanthe; Kularatne, Senanayake Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential role of fresh Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract on haematological and biochemical parameters and toxicological changes in a murine model. Methods In total 36 mice were used for the trial. Fresh C. papaya leaf extract [0.2 mL (2 g)/mouse] was given only to the test group (18 mice). General behavior, clinical signs and feeding patterns were recorded. Blood and tissue samples were collected at intervals. Haematological parameters including platelet, red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), packed cell volume (PCV), serum biochemistry including serum creatinine, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were determined. Organs for possible histopathological changes were examined. Results Neither group exhibited alteration of behavior or reduction in food and water intake. Similarly, no significant changes in SGOT, SGPT and serum creatinine levels were detected in the test group. Histopathological organ changes were not observed in either group of mice except in three liver samples of the test group which had a mild focal necrosis. The platelet count (11.33±0.35)×105/µL (P=0.000 04) and the RBC count (7.97±0.61)×106/µL (P=0.000 03) were significantly increased in the test group compared to that of the controls. However, WBC count and PCV (%) values were not changed significantly in the test group. The platelet count in the test group started to increase significantly from Day 3 (3.4±0.18×105/µL), reaching almost a fourfold higher at Day 21 (11.3×105/µL), while it was 3.8×105/µL and 5.5×105/µL at Day 3 and Day 21 respectively in the control. Likewise, the RBC count in the test group increased from 6×106/µL to 9×106/ µL at Day 21 while it remained near constant in the control group (6×106/µL). Conclusions Fresh C. papaya leaf extract significantly increased the platelet and RBC counts in the test group as compared to controls. Therefore, it is very

  14. Identification and expression of C2H2 transcription factor genes in Carica papaya under abiotic and biotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Pan, Lin-jie

    2012-06-01

    C2H2 proteins belong to a group of transcription factors (TFs) existing as a superfamily that plays important roles in defense responses and various other physiological processes in plants. The present study aimed to screen for and identify C2H2 proteins associated with defense responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in Carica papaya L. Data were collected for 47,483 papaya-expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The full-length cDNA nucleotide sequences of 87 C2H2 proteins were predicated by BioEdit. All 91 C2H2 proteins were aligned, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using DNAman. The expression levels of 42 C2H2 were analyzed under conditions of salt stress by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Methyl jasmonate treatment rapidly upregulated ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) by 18.6- and 21.7-fold, respectively. ZF(1.3), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were found to be downregulated after low temperature treatment at very significant levels (p < 0.01). ZF(23.4), ZF(161.1), and ZF(30,912.1) were upregulated while ZF1.3, ZF(158.1), ZF(249.5), ZF(138.44), ZF(94.49), ZF(29.160), and ZF(20.206) were significantly downregulated by Spermine treatment. ZF(23.4) was upregulated while ZF(1.3), ZF(249.5), ZF(94.94), ZF(29.160), ZF(138.44), and ZF(20.206) were significantly repressed after SA treatment. ZF(23.4) and ZF(30,912.1) were significantly upregulated after sap inoculation with papaya ringspot virus pathogen. ZF(30,912.1) was subcellularly localized in the nucleus by a transgenic fusion of pBS-ZF(30,912.1)-GFP into the protoplast of papaya. The results of the present study showed that ZF(30,912.1) could be an important TF that mediates responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in papaya.

  15. HPLC-based activity profiling for antiplasmodial compounds in the traditional Indonesian medicinal plant Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Tasqiah; De Mieri, Maria; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Ebrahimi, Samad N; Kaiser, Marcel; Neuburger, Markus; Raith, Melanie; Brun, Reto; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-08-08

    Leaf decoctions of Carica papaya have been traditionally used in some parts of Indonesia to treat and prevent malaria. Leaf extracts and fraction have been previously shown to possess antiplasmodial activity in vitro and in vivo. Antiplasmodial activity of extracts was confirmed and the active fractions in the extract were identified by HPLC-based activity profiling, a gradient HPLC fractionation of a single injection of the extract, followed by offline bioassay of the obtained microfractions. For preparative isolation of compounds, an alkaloidal fraction was obtained via adsorption on cationic ion exchange resin. Active compounds were purified by HPLC-MS and MPLC-ELSD. Structures were established by HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For compounds 5 and 7 absolute configuration was confirmed by comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy data, and by X-ray crystallography. Compounds were tested for bioactivity in vitro against four parasites (Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani, and Plasmodium falciparum), and in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model. Profiling indicated flavonoids and alkaloids in the active time windows. A total of nine compounds were isolated. Four were known flavonols--manghaslin, clitorin, rutin, and nicotiflorin. Five compounds isolated from the alkaloidal fraction were piperidine alkaloids. Compounds 5 and 6 were inactive carpamic acid and methyl carpamate, while three alkaloids 7-9 showed high antiplasmodial activity and low cytotoxicity. When tested in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, carpaine (7) did not increase the survival time of animals. The antiplasmodial activity of papaya leaves could be linked to alkaloids. Among these, carpaine was highly active and selective in vitro. The high in vitro activity could not be substantiated with the in vivo murine model. Further investigations are needed to clarify the divergence between our negative in vivo results

  16. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  17. Extracts of Mauritian Carica papaya (var. solo) protect SW872 and HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2017-06-01

    In line with literature documenting the pluripotent activities of tropical fruits, this study evaluated the antioxidant effects of Carica papaya fruit extracts at cellular level. Investigations using cellular models of oxidative stress provided complementary evidence of the antioxidant activities of papaya fruit. At 2 mg dry weight ml(-1), extracts of seed from ripe and unripe fruit significantly reduced oxidative stress levels within human pre-adipocytes (SW872) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Maintenance of mitochondrial viability, reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and mediation of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretory levels (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) were all indicative of its cytoprotective effects against oxidative-inflammation. This work demonstrates that the Mauritian Solo papaya is an important source of natural antioxidants that could be used for the dietary modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  18. In vitro effects of fermented papaya (Carica papaya, L.) on platelets obtained from patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, F; Nanetti, L; Montecchiani, G; Borroni, F; Salvolini, E; Faloia, E; Ferretti, G; Mazzanti, L; Vignini, A

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance pathogenesis, insulin secretion deficiency, and complication onset. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP), a dietary supplement obtained by fermentation of the papaya fruit, may be used as an antioxidant in the prevention of diabetic complications. Platelets from 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) and 15 healthy subjects were analyzed to evaluate the in vitro effects of FPP incubation. Na(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, membrane fluidity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and conjugated diene levels were determined. In vitro FPP incubation improved platelet function, by enhancing Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and membrane fluidity, and ameliorated the antioxidant system functionality, through an increase in TAC and SOD activity and a parallel decrease in conjugated diene levels in patients with DM 2. Our data suggest that the incubation with FPP may have a protective effect on platelets from patients with DM 2, by preventing the progression of oxidative damage associated with diabetes and its complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of microsatellite markers in molecular analysis of segregating populations of papaya (Carica papaya L.) derived from backcrossing.

    PubMed

    Pinto, F O; Pereira, M G; Luz, L N; Cardozo, D L; Ramos, H C C; Macedo, C M P

    2013-07-08

    Brazil is the world leader in papaya production. However, only a small number of cultivars are registered for commercial planting, mainly owing to delays in obtaining cultivars and the high costs of the field phase of breeding programs. These costs can be reduced when molecular tools are combined with conventional breeding methods. In the present study, we conducted a molecular analysis of a self-fertilized population of a first backcrossing generation of BC1S1 papaya plants via microsatellite markers both to monitor the level of homozygosity and the gene/allele transfer that confers the Golden trait (fruit color) and to assess the parental genomic proportion in the genotypes studied. Based on the analysis of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci, 19 genotypes with the Golden trait belonging to BC1S1 were evaluated in addition to the parental genotypes. Genetic distance was estimated through weighted index. The genotypes were then grouped using the hierarchical nearest neighbor method, and the analysis of principal coordinates was used to measure the proportion of parental genomes in the segregating genotypes. The mean value of the inbreeding coefficient was 0.36. The analysis of the principal coordinates revealed that on average, 64% of the recurrent parent genome was present in the population. Together, the analyses allowed the selection of 3 individuals for the next backcross cycle (33BC1S1-18, 34BC1S1-16, and 37BC1S1-10). These individuals had a higher proportion of the recurrent parent and were grouped close to the recurrent parent in the cluster analysis.

  20. Metabolomic profiling of the phytomedicinal constituents of Carica papaya L. leaves and seeds by 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Gogna, Navdeep; Hamid, Neda; Dorai, Kavita

    2015-11-10

    Extracts from the Carica papaya L. plant are widely reported to contain metabolites with antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. This study aims to analyze the metabolic profiles of papaya leaves and seeds in order to gain insights into their phytomedicinal constituents. We performed metabolite fingerprinting using 1D and 2D 1H NMR experiments and used multivariate statistical analysis to identify those plant parts that contain the most concentrations of metabolites of phytomedicinal value. Secondary metabolites such as phenyl propanoids, including flavonoids, were found in greater concentrations in the leaves as compared to the seeds. UPLC-ESI-MS verified the presence of significant metabolites in the papaya extracts suggested by the NMR analysis. Interestingly, the concentration of eleven secondary metabolites namely caffeic, cinnamic, chlorogenic, quinic, coumaric, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, and kaempferol, were higher in young as compared to old papaya leaves. The results of the NMR analysis were corroborated by estimating the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts. Estimation of antioxidant activity in leaves and seed extracts by DPPH and ABTS in-vitro assays and antioxidant capacity in C2C12 cell line also showed that papaya extracts exhibit high antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and Carica papaya peels: Modelling and process parameter optimization study.

    PubMed

    Dahunsi, S O; Oranusi, S; Owolabi, J B; Efeovbokhan, V E

    2016-09-01

    The study evaluated anaerobic co-digestion of poultry dropping and pawpaw peels and the optimization of important process parameters. The physic-chemical analyses of the substrates were done using standard methods after application of mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatments methods. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the gas composition to be within the range of 66-68% methane and 18-23% carbon dioxide. The study equally revealed that combination of the different pre-treatment methods enhanced enormous biogas yield from the digestion. Optimization of the generated biogas data were carried out using the Response Surface Methodology and the Artificial Neural Networks. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for RSM (0.9181) was lower compare to that of ANN (0.9828). This shows that ANN model gives higher accuracy than RSM model for the current. Further usage of Carica papaya peels for biogas generation is advocated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A purely green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia: synthesis and antibacterial evaluations.

    PubMed

    Syafiuddin, Achmad; Salmiati; Hadibarata, Tony; Salim, Mohd Razman; Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-06-08

    Green procedure for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered due to its economy and toxic-free effects. Several existing works on synthesizing AgNPs using leaves extract still involve the use of physical or mechanical treatment such as heating or stirring, which consume a lot of energy. To extend and explore the green extraction philosophy, we report here the synthesis and antibacterial evaluations of a purely green procedure to synthesize AgNPs using Carica papaya, Manihot esculenta, and Morinda citrifolia leaves extract without the aforementioned additional treatment. The produced AgNPs were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and antibacterial investigations. For antibacterial tests, two bacteria namely Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were selected. The presently employed method has successfully produced spherical AgNPs having sizes ranging from 9 to 69 nm, with plasmonic characteristics ranging from 356 to 485 nm, and energy-dispersive X-ray peak at approximately 3 keV. In addition, the smallest particles can be produced when Manihot esculenta leaves extract was applied. Moreover, this study also confirmed that both the leaves and synthesized AgNPs exhibit the antibacterial capability, depending on their concentration and the bacteria type.

  4. Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha oil catalyzed by non-commercial immobilized heterologous Rhizopus oryzae and Carica papaya lipases.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J; Canet, A; Rivera, I; Osório, N M; Sandoval, G; Valero, F; Ferreira-Dias, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of biodiesel production by transesterification of Jatropha oil with methanol, catalyzed by non-commercial sn-1,3-regioselective lipases. Using these lipases, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and monoacylglycerols are produced, avoiding the formation of glycerol as byproduct. Heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase (rROL) immobilized on different synthetic resins and Carica papaya lipase (rCPL) immobilized on Lewatit VP OC 1600 were tested. Reactions were performed at 30°C, with seven stepwise methanol additions. For all biocatalysts, 51-65% FAME (theoretical maximum=67%, w/w) was obtained after 4h transesterification. Stability tests were performed in 8 or 10 successive 4h-batches, either with or without rehydration of the biocatalyst between each two consecutive batches. Activity loss was much faster when biocatalysts were rehydrated. For rROL, half-life times varied from 16 to 579h. rROL on Lewatit VPOC 1600 was more stable than for rCPL on the same support.

  5. Carica papaya (Caricaceae): a case study into the effects of domestication on plant vegetative growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Marler, Thomas E

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have quantitatively evaluated the gender specific effects of cultivation on plant growth and reproduction. The availability of cultivated and wild populations of different genders of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) on Guam provided an opportunity to study these effects quantitatively. We compared the gender specific allometry of height vs. basal stem diameter (H vs. D), stem slenderness ratio (H/D), and the height at first flowering (H(fl)) of carpellate and staminate plants growing under natural conditions (N = 150 each) with those of carpellate and hermaphroditic plants (N = 250 each) from two cultivars (Sunrise and Tainung 2). These comparisons indicated that (1) wild carpellate and staminate plants are significantly taller than either gender of the two cultivars with equivalent D; (2) the scaling exponent governing the H vs. D relationship of both genders of wild plants is significantly higher than that of either cultivated gender; (3) cultivar type does not affect the H vs. D exponent, but gender expression does; (4) gender expression (but not cultivar-type) also affects H(fl) (cultivation substantially reduces carpellate plant H(fl)); and (5) the onset of sexual maturity is associated with a dramatic reversal in H/D ontogeny. Cultivation therefore has "condensed" patterns of vegetative growth in a gender specific manner, whereas gender expression alters both vegetative and reproductive growth significantly more so than does cultivar-type.

  6. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration.

  8. Chromosome number reduction in the sister clade of Carica papaya with concomitant genome size doubling.

    PubMed

    Rockinger, Alexander; Sousa, Aretuza; Carvalho, Fernanda A; Renner, Susanne S

    2016-06-01

    Caricaceae include six genera and 34 species, among them papaya, a model species in plant sex chromosome research. The family was held to have a conserved karyotype with 2n = 18 chromosomes, an assumption based on few counts. We examined the karyotypes and genome size of species from all genera to test for possible cytogenetic variation. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization using standard telomere, 5S, and 45S rDNA probes. New and published data were combined with a phylogeny, molecular clock dating, and C values (available for ∼50% of the species) to reconstruct genome evolution. The African genus Cylicomorpha, which is sister to the remaining Caricaceae (all neotropical), has 2n = 18, as do the species in two other genera. A Mexican clade of five species that includes papaya, however, has 2n = 18 (papaya), 2n = 16 (Horovitzia cnidoscoloides), and 2n = 14 (Jarilla caudata and J. heterophylla; third Jarilla not counted), with the phylogeny indicating that the dysploidy events occurred ∼16.6 and ∼5.5 million years ago and that Jarilla underwent genome size doubling (∼450 to 830-920 Mbp/haploid genome). Pericentromeric interstitial telomere repeats occur in both Jarilla adjacent to 5S rDNA sites, and the variability of 5S rDNA sites across all genera is high. On the basis of outgroup comparison, 2n = 18 is the ancestral number, and repeated chromosomal fusions with simultaneous genome size increase as a result of repetitive elements accumulating near centromeres characterize the papaya clade. These results have implications for ongoing genome assemblies in Caricaceae. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of Jarilla heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave) Rusby and Jarilla caudata (Brandegee) Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jarilla (McVaugh 2001). We designate epitypes for both, provide weblinks to type specimens, a key to the species of Jarilla and Horovitzia, and notes on their habitats and distribution. PMID:24399895

  10. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of plant extracts from Spathodea campanulata, Ficus bubu, and Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Mbosso Teinkela, Jean Emmanuel; Assob Nguedia, Jules Clément; Meyer, Franck; Vouffo Donfack, Erik; Lenta Ndjakou, Bruno; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Guy Blaise Azebaze, Anatole; Wintjens, René

    2016-01-01

    African medicinal plants represent a prominent source of new active substances. In this context, three plants were selected for biological investigations based on their traditional uses. The antimicrobial and anti-proliferative features of three plants used for medicinal purpose were evaluated. The antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of Ficus bubu Warb. (Moraceae) stem bark and leaves, of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) flowers, as well as those of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) latex, were determined using the microbroth dilution method against a set of bacteria and fungi pathogens including: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermididis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton rubrum. The tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 2500.0 to 2.4 μg/mL and MIC values were evaluated after 24 h incubation at 37 °C. Subsequently, MTT assay was used to estimate anti-proliferative activity of these methanol extracts and of F. bubu latex on three human cancer cell lines (U373 glioblastoma, A549 NSCLC, and SKMEL-28 melanoma). The methanol extract of F. bubu stem bark exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with a MIC value of 9.8 μg/mL, while the F. bubu latex and the methanol extract of F. bubu leaves induced significant anti-proliferative activity against lung (IC50 values of 10 and 14 μg/mL, respectively) and glioma (IC50 values of 13 and 16 μg/mL, respectively) cancer cells. These results indicate that effective drugs could be derived from the three studied plants.

  11. Genetic differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum associated with Anthracnose disease of papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsium annuum L.) based on ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Ariana; Rampersad, Sephra N

    2012-03-01

    Members of the genus Colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. Accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. Two species, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (Carica papaya L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Trinidad. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of 48 Colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the ITS PCR products were analyzed by PCR-RFLP analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms generated from 11 restriction enzymes enabled the identification of specific enzymes that were successful in distinguishing between C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by the enzymes AluI, HaeIII, PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were used to consistently resolve C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates from papaya. AluI, ApaI, PvuII, RsaI, and SmaI reliably separated isolates of C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum from bell pepper. PvuII, RsaI, and Sau3A were also capable of distinguishing among the C. gloeosporioides isolates from papaya based on the different restriction patterns that were obtained as a result of intra-specific variation in restriction enzyme recognition sites in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Of all the isolates tested, C. gloeosporioides from papaya also had the highest number of PCR-RFLP haplotypes. Cluster analysis of sequence and PCR-RFLP data demonstrated that all C. gloeosporioides and C. truncatum isolates clustered separately into species-specific clades regardless of host species. Phylograms also revealed consistent topologies which suggested that the genetic distances for PCR-RFLP-generated data were comparable to that of ITS sequence data. ITS PCR-RFLP fingerprinting is a rapid and reliable method to identify and differentiate between Colletotrichum species.

  12. Short term effects of Glomus claroideum and Azospirillum brasilense on growth and root acid phosphatase activity of Carica papaya L. under phosphorus stress.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Alejandro; Davies, Frederick T; Egilla, Johnatan N; Fox, Theodore C; Estrada-Luna, Arturo A; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are able to increase root enzymatic activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases. However, the role of AMF on phosphatase activity has not been reported in papaya (Carica papaya L.), which is frequently established at places with soil phosphorus (P) deficiencies. The goals of this research were to determine the effect of Glomus claroideum (Gc), and plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense strain VS7 [Ab]) on root phosphatase activity and seedling growth of Carica papaya L. cv. Red Maradol under low P conditions. There were four treatments-colonization with: 1) Gc, 2) Ab, 3) Gc+Ab, and 4) non-inoculated seedlings. Plants were established in a coarse sand:sandy loam substrate under P-limitation (11 microg P ml(-1)), supplied with a modified Long Ashton Nutrient Solution. Seedling growth was severely reduced by low P. Gc+Ab inoculated plants had greater total dry matter and leaf area than non-colonized plants. Gc-inoculated plants had greater leaf area than non-colonized plants. Treatments did not differ in leaf area ratio, specific leaf area and, total chlorophyll content. There was a non-significant effect on stem relative growth rate with Gc and Gc+Ab plants. Mycorrhizal colonization enhanced the bacterial population 3.4-fold in the Gc+Ab treatment compared with the population quantified in Ab treatment. Soluble and extractable root acid phosphatase activity (RAPA) was higher in Gc inoculated plants. We discussed on the possible relation among both inoculated microorganisms and also with the P-limitation which plants were established.

  13. Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

  14. Protective Action of Carica papaya on β-Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E; Vargas-Mancilla, Juan; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora E; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2016-04-27

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C. papaya L. leaf extract (CPLE) on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, as well as on cultured normal pancreatic cells with STZ in the medium. CPLE (3-125 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 20 days, while a group of diabetic rats received 5 IU/Kg/day of insulin. At the end of the treatment the rats were sacrificed. Blood was obtained to assess glucose and insulin levels. The pancreas was dissected to evaluate β cells by immunohistochemistry. In addition, normal pancreatic cells were cultured in a medium that included CPLE (3-12 mg). One half of the cultured cells received simultaneously CPLE and STZ (6 mg), while the other half received CPLE and five days later the STZ. After three days of incubation, insulin was assayed in the incubation medium. The CPLE administered to diabetic rats improved the fasting glycemia and preserved the number and structure of pancreatic islets. However, when CPLE was added to pancreatic cells in culture along with STZ, the insulin concentration was higher in comparison with the cells that only received STZ. In conclusion, the CPLE preserves the integrity of pancreatic islets, improves the basal insulin secretion and protects cultured cells from the adverse effects of STZ.

  15. Protective Action of Carica papaya on β-Cells in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Osorio, Pedro H.; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés E.; Vargas-Mancilla, Juan; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A.; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L.; Aguilar-Domínguez, Dora E.; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of C. papaya L. leaf extract (CPLE) on pancreatic islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, as well as on cultured normal pancreatic cells with STZ in the medium. CPLE (3–125 mg/Kg) was administered orally for 20 days, while a group of diabetic rats received 5 IU/Kg/day of insulin. At the end of the treatment the rats were sacrificed. Blood was obtained to assess glucose and insulin levels. The pancreas was dissected to evaluate β cells by immunohistochemistry. In addition, normal pancreatic cells were cultured in a medium that included CPLE (3–12 mg). One half of the cultured cells received simultaneously CPLE and STZ (6 mg), while the other half received CPLE and five days later the STZ. After three days of incubation, insulin was assayed in the incubation medium. The CPLE administered to diabetic rats improved the fasting glycemia and preserved the number and structure of pancreatic islets. However, when CPLE was added to pancreatic cells in culture along with STZ, the insulin concentration was higher in comparison with the cells that only received STZ. In conclusion, the CPLE preserves the integrity of pancreatic islets, improves the basal insulin secretion and protects cultured cells from the adverse effects of STZ. PMID:27128930

  16. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn.) upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children.

    PubMed

    Vieira, R H; Rodrigues, D P; Gonçalves, F A; Menezes, F G; Aragão, J S; Sousa, O V

    2001-01-01

    Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil) and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil) and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn) showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn) displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC), while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.

  17. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  18. Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Kwit, Charles; Agarwal, Sujata; Patton, Mariah T; Skeen, Jordan A; Yuan, Joshua S; Manshardt, Richard M; Stewart, C Neal

    2013-09-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papaya cultivars 'Rainbow' and 'SunUp' have been grown in Hawai'i for over 10 years. In Hawai'i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/μl of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai'i for the presence of transgenic seed at typical regulatory threshold levels

  19. Sensitivity of a real-time PCR method for the detection of transgenes in a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetically engineered (GE) ringspot virus-resistant papaya cultivars ‘Rainbow’ and ‘SunUp’ have been grown in Hawai’i for over 10 years. In Hawai’i, the introduction of GE papayas into regions where non-GE cultivars are grown and where feral non-GE papayas exist have been accompanied with concerns associated with transgene flow. Of particular concern is the possibility of transgenic seeds being found in non-GE papaya fruits via cross-pollination. Development of high-throughput methods to reliably detect the adventitious presence of such transgenic material would benefit both the scientific and regulatory communities. Results We assessed the accuracy of using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as real-time PCR-based assays to quantify the presence of transgenic DNA from bulk samples of non-GE papaya seeds. In this study, an optimized method of extracting high quality DNA from dry seeds of papaya was standardized. A reliable, sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting and quantifying viral coat protein (cp) transgenes in bulk seed samples utilizing the endogenous papain gene is presented. Quantification range was from 0.01 to 100 ng/μl of GE-papaya DNA template with a detection limit as low as 0.01% (10 pg). To test this system, we simulated transgene flow using known quantities of GE and non-GE DNA and determined that 0.038% (38 pg) GE papaya DNA could be detected using real-time PCR. We also validated this system by extracting DNA from known ratios of GE seeds to non-GE seeds of papaya followed by real-time PCR detection and observed a reliable detection limit of 0.4%. Conclusions This method for the quick and sensitive detection of transgenes in bulked papaya seed lots using conventional as well as real-time PCR-based methods will benefit numerous stakeholders. In particular, this method could be utilized to screen selected fruits from maternal non-GE papaya trees in Hawai’i for the presence of transgenic

  20. Long-chain ethers as solvents can amplify the enantioselectivity of the Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed transesterification of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Toshifumi; Iguchi, Wakana

    2013-10-01

    The enantioselectivity of the transesterification of the 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl esters of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acids, as catalyzed by the lipase from Carica papaya, was greatly improved by using long-chain ethers, such as di-n-hexyl ether, as solvents instead of the conventional diisopropyl ether. Thus, for example, the E value was enhanced from 21 [in diisopropyl ether (0.8 ml)] to 57 [in di-n-hexyl ether (0.8 ml)] in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-phenoxypropanoate (0.1 mmol) with methanol (0.4 mmol) in the presence of the plant lipase preparation (10 mg); it was also improved from 13 (in diisopropyl ether) to 44 (in di-n-hexyl ether) in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)propanoate with methanol under the same reaction conditions.

  1. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  2. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  3. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Coello, Matilde; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection.

  4. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutierrez, Salud; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection. PMID:25276216

  5. Report: In vivo anticoccidial effects of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya L. with salinomycin drug as a dietary feed supplement in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Hema, Srinivasan; Arun, Thangavel; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Sureshkumar, Muthusamy

    2015-07-01

    A total of thirty suspected broiler chicks were screened for coccidiosis, of them 25 chicks were found to be infected with coccidiosis viz. Eimeria tenella (15) Eimeria maxima (5) Eimeria necatrix (6) and Eimeria mitis (4). The anticoccidial efficacy of Azadirachta indica and Carica papaya with Salinomycin as a dietary feed supplement on the representative E. tenella (25 x 10³ oocyst) infection challenged in broiler chicks was studied in six groups for the period of six weeks. A. indica and C. papaya leaves were administered in powder form at the concentration of 0.1% and 0.2% respectively. The Oocysts per gram (OPG) count were observed on 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th day of post inoculation (DPI). The challenged experimental chicks revealed haemorrhage, thickening of mucosa, cores of blood and ballooning of caecum. The experimental group T5 chicks treated with A. indica were analyzed to possess the maximum weight gain (2.003), better feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.32), OPG count (5.87), livability percentage (88) and the lesion score (3.33). Chi-square test analysis revealed no significant differences among the treated groups and the performance parameters. Therefore, this study concludes that plant sources used as a remedial curate for coccidiosis is a perforated growth in the commercial broiler industries.

  6. A wild origin of the loss-of-function lycopene beta cyclase (CYC-b) allele in cultivated, red-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya).

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Lewis, Jamicia; Moore, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    The red flesh of some papaya cultivars is caused by a recessive loss-of-function mutation in the coding region of the chromoplast-specific lycopene beta cyclase gene (CYC-b). We performed an evolutionary genetic analysis of the CYC-b locus in wild and cultivated papaya to uncover the origin of this loss-of-function allele in cultivated papaya. We analyzed the levels and patterns of genetic diversity at the CYC-b locus and six loci in a 100-kb region flanking CYC-b and compared these to genetic diversity levels at neutral autosomal loci. The evolutionary relationships of CYC-b haplotypes were assessed using haplotype network analysis of the CYC-b locus and the 100-kb CYC-b region. Genetic diversity at the recessive CYC-b allele (y) was much lower relative to the dominant Y allele found in yellow-fleshed wild and cultivated papaya due to a strong selective sweep. Haplotype network analyses suggest the y allele most likely arose in the wild and was introduced into domesticated varieties after the first papaya domestication event. The shared haplotype structure between some wild, feral, and cultivated haplotypes around the y allele supports subsequent escape of this allele from red cultivars back into wild populations through feral intermediates. Our study supports a protracted domestication process of papaya through the introgression of wild-derived traits and gene flow from cultivars to wild populations. Evidence of gene flow from cultivars to wild populations through feral intermediates has implications for the introduction of transgenic papaya into Central American countries. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Papaya: environment and crop physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis for the development of management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotyp...

  8. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  9. Identification, Expression and IAA-Amide Synthetase Activity Analysis of Gretchen Hagen 3 in Papaya Fruit (Carica papaya L.) during Postharvest Process

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kaidong; Wang, Jinxiang; Li, Haili; Zhong, Jundi; Feng, Shaoxian; Pan, Yaoliang; Yuan, Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Auxin plays essential roles in plant development. Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) genes belong to a major auxin response gene family and GH3 proteins conjugate a range of acylsubstrates to alter the levels of hormones. Currently, the role of GH3 genes in postharvest physiological regulation of ripening and softening processes in papaya fruit is unclear. In this study, we identified seven CpGH3 genes in a papaya genome database. The CpGH3.1a, CpGH3.1b, CpGH3.5, CpGH3.6, and CpGH3.9 proteins were identified as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-specific amido synthetases. We analyzed the changes in IAA-amido synthetase activity using aspartate as a substrate for conjugation and found a large increase (over 5-fold) during the postharvest stages. Ascorbic acid (AsA) application can extend the shelf life of papaya fruit. Our data showed that AsA treatment regulates postharvest fruit maturation processes by promoting endogenous IAA levels. Our findings demonstrate the important role of GH3 genes in the regulation of auxin-associated postharvest physiology in papaya. PMID:27812360

  10. Relationships between SAP-flow measurements, whole-canopy transpiration and reference evapotranspiration in field-grown papaya (Carica papaya L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole-canopy gas exchange measurement in papaya can provide a scientific basis to optimize irrigation, and fruit yield and quality. The objectives of this study were to: 1) verify the relationship between xylem sap flow measured by the heat coefficient method and whole canopy transpiration in ‘Gra...

  11. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    PubMed

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense.

  12. Molecular diagnosis of Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) from leaf samples of Carica papaya L. using conventional and real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Piccin, João G; Rodrigues, Silas P; Buss, David S; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2012-03-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease. This study describes two methods for molecular diagnosis of PMeV using conventional and real-time PCR. These methods were shown to be more efficient than current methods of viral detection using extraction of PMeV dsRNA and observation of symptoms in the field. The methods described here were used to evaluate the effect of inoculation of papaya plants with purified PMeV dsRNA on the progress of PMeV infection. A single inoculation with PMeV dsRNA was observed to delay the progress of the virus infection by several weeks. The possibility of vertical transmission of PMeV was also investigated. No evidence was found for PMeV transmission through seeds collected from diseased fruit. The implications of these results for the epidemiology of PMeV and the management of papaya sticky disease are discussed.

  13. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Naresh Kumar, Arjunan; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2012-02-01

    The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50) = I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunya vector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs.

  14. Relationship between pulp structure breakdown and nutritional value of papaya (Carica papaya) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) nectars using alternative thermal and non-thermal processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Swada, Jeffrey G; Keeley, Christopher J; Ghane, Mohammad A; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2016-05-01

    Papaya and strawberry contain a wide array of nutrients that contribute to human health; however, availability of these fruits is limited due to their short shelf lives and seasonal nature. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques including ultra high temperature (UHT, 20-135 °C, 1-3 s) and irradiation (0-10 kGy) on carotenoid concentration, antioxidant capacity and changes to pulp structure using transmission electron microscopy were determined for papaya and strawberry nectars. UHT had moderate effects on antioxidant capacity, but the greatest overall release of carotenoids from the pulp matrix (34.2%, 6.26%, 8.31%; β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene, respectively). Irradiation resulted in the greatest increase in antioxidant capacity [19.22 to 24.32 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) (papaya), 190.51 to 287.68 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) (strawberry)], with moderate effects on carotenoid concentration. This research demonstrates that decreases in nutrient value and antioxidant capacity can result from processing, but that regeneration of these losses can be seen corresponding to the apparent breakdown of pulp structure. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Sperm characteristics and ultrastructure of testes of rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction of Carica papaya seeds

    PubMed Central

    Manivannan, Boomi; Mittal, Ruchi; Goyal, Shipra; Ansari, Abdul S.; Lohiya, Nirmal K.

    2009-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Carica papaya seeds after short-term evaluation has been well established. We have examined the safety and mechanism of contraception in rats after long-term treatment with the methanol subfraction (MSF) of C. papaya seeds. The test substance was administered orally to the male albino rats (n = 40) at 50 mg per kg body weight each day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 40) received olive oil as a vehicle. Recovery was assessed up to 120 days after treatment withdrawal. Sperm parameters, serum testosterone levels, fertility, histology and ultrastructure of the testis, haematology and serum clinical chemistry were evaluated to establish the safety and efficacy of the test substance. Safety of long-term treatment was evidenced by unaltered health status, organ weight, haematology and clinical chemistry, and by an increase in body weight. The mechanism of contraception was shown by reduction in nuclear and cytoplasmic volume, normal nuclear characteristics and vacuolization in the cytoplasmic organelles of the Sertoli cells, as well as nuclear degeneration in spermatocytes and spermatids indicating disturbed spermatogenesis. Leydig cells were normal. Initial effects were observed in Sertoli cells at 60 days of treatment. Spermatocytes and spermatids were affected after 120–240 days of treatment. A significant decline in sperm count and viability, total inhibition of sperm motility, increased numbers of sperm abnormalities, normal serum testosterone levels and 100% sterility were evident after 60 days of treatment. All the altered parameters, including percent fertility, were restored to control level 120 days after treatment withdrawal. It is concluded that the MSF is safe for long-term treatment and the mechanism of contraception is shown by its effect on spermatid differentiation in the testis, possibly mediated by the Sertoli cell factors. PMID:19648937

  16. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol): Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Yañez, Luis; Pereira-Santana, Alejandro; Arroyo-Herrera, Ana; Rodriguez-Corona, Ulises; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Espadas-Alcocer, Jorge; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Barredo-Pool, Felipe; Castaño, Enrique; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell.

  17. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol): Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Herrera, Ana; Rodriguez-Corona, Ulises; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Espadas-Alcocer, Jorge; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Barredo-Pool, Felipe; Castaño, Enrique; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell. PMID:27764197

  18. Selenium added unripe carica papaya pulp extracts enhance wound repair through TGF-β1 and VEGF-a signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Nafiu, Abdulrazaq Bidemi; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2015-10-15

    Increased wound healing efficiency by Se(2+) added Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) fruit extract was linked to increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses during healing. We investigated the impact of Se(2+) or Zn(2+) added papaya water (WE) and phosphate-buffered saline (PE) extracts on cells recruitment and bio-molecular alterations on days 4 and 10 post wounding in an in vivo excision wound. Excision wounds were created on the dorsum of Sprague Dawley rats and treated topically twice/day with 20 μL of PE and WE (5 mg extract/mL), 0.5 μgSe(2+) added PE and WE (PES and WES), or 100 μMZn(2+) added PE and WE (PEZ and WEZ). Deionised water (negative) and Solcoseryl (positive) were applied on the control groups. Histochemical and biochemical assays were used to evaluate cellular and bio-molecular changes in the wound. PES (PE + 0.5 μg Se(2+)) only increased significantly (p < 0.05) wound total protein content (95.14 ± 1.15 mg/g tissue vs positive control; 80.42 ± 0.86 mg/g tissue) on day 10 post wounding. PES increased significantly (p < 0.05) the number of fibroblasts/high power field (HPF) (75.60 ± 9.66) but decreased significantly (p < 0.05) the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes/HPF (59.20 ± 12.64) in the wound compared to positive control (50.60 ± 12.58 fibroblasts/HPF, 101.00 ± 27.99 polymorphonuclear leukocytes/HPF) on day 4. Similar results were recorded for WES. PES demonstrated increased neovascularization, TGF-β1 and VEGFA expressions at day 4 and increased collagen at day 10. Papaya extract improved wound repair by increasing fibroblasts recruitment and reducing polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltration through early transient expressions of TGF-β1 and VEGFA at the wound area. The processes were amplified with Se(2+) addition.

  19. Carica papaya Leaves Juice Significantly Accelerates the Rate of Increase in Platelet Count among Patients with Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Subenthiran, Soobitha; Choon, Tan Chwee; Cheong, Kee Chee; Thayan, Ravindran; Teck, Mok Boon; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Afzan, Adlin; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Ismail, Zakiah

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the platelet increasing property of Carica papaya leaves juice (CPLJ) in patients with dengue fever (DF). An open labeled randomized controlled trial was carried out on 228 patients with DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Approximately half the patients received the juice, for 3 consecutive days while the others remained as controls and received the standard management. Their full blood count was monitored 8 hours for 48 hours. Gene expression studies were conducted on the ALOX 12 and PTAFR genes. The mean increase in platelet counts were compared in both groups using repeated measure ANCOVA. There was a significant increase in mean platelet count observed in the intervention group (P < 0.001) but not in the control group 40 hours since the first dose of CPLJ. Comparison of mean platelet count between intervention and control group showed that mean platelet count in intervention group was significantly higher than control group after 40 and 48 hours of admission (P < 0.01). The ALOX 12 (FC  =  15.00) and PTAFR (FC  =  13.42) genes were highly expressed among those on the juice. It was concluded that CPLJ does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with DF and DHF.

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of Carica papaya leaf extract coated silver nanoparticles through X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and evaluation of bactericidal properties.

    PubMed

    Banala, Rajkiran Reddy; Nagati, Veera Babu; Karnati, Pratap Reddy

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of nanotechnology and the production of nanomedicine from various sources had proven to be of intense value in the field of biomedicine. The smaller size of nanoparticles is gaining importance in research for the treatment of various diseases. Moreover the production of nanoparticles is eco-friendly and cost effective. In the present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized from Carica papaya leaf extract (CPL) and characterized for their size and shape using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS/EDX) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) were conducted to determine the concentration of metal ions, the shape of molecules. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using Luria Bertani broth cultures and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were estimated using turbidimetry. The data analysis showed size of 50-250 nm spherical shaped nanoparticles. The turbidimetry analysis showed MIC and MBC was >25 μg/mL against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in Luria Bertani broth cultures. In summary the synthesized silver nanoparticles from CPL showed acceptable size and shape of nanoparticles and effective bactericidal activity.

  1. Carotenoids and Vitamin C during Handling and Distribution of Guava (Psidium guajava L.), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), and Papaya (Carica papaya L.) at Commercial Restaurants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniela Da Silva; Lobato, Alvanice Lemos; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Santana, Angela Maria Campos; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2010-05-26

    The content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA, and dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) and carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were analyzed in papaya, mango, and guava after the reception, preparation (cleaning, peeling, and slicing), and distribution stages for consumption in a commercial restaurant. The analysis of carotenoids and vitamin C was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fruits analyzed were considered excellent sources of vitamin C and carotenoids. There were no significant differences in the vitamin C and carotenoids content during the different fruit handling stages at the commercial restaurant, which demonstrates the excellent stability of the components under the usual handling conditions employed. The results show that customers of the commercial restaurant are directly benefitted since the nutritional quality of the fruits was preserved during all of the handling and distribution periods.

  2. Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: Methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many long, thin, crescent-shaped erythrocytes. It is a disease prevalent throughout many populations. The use of medicinal plants and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention. Methods The antisickling effects of Solenostemon monostachyus (SolMon), Carica papaya seed oil (Cari-oil) and Ipomoea involucrata (Ipocrata) in male (HbSSM) and female (HbSSF) human sickle cell blood was examined in vitro and compared with controls, or cells treated with glutathione or an antisickling plant (Vernonia amygdalina; VerMyg). Results Levels of sickle blood cells were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the plant-extract treated SCD patients’ blood compared with that of untreated SCD patients. RBCs in SolMon, Ipocrata, and Cari-oil treated samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg-treated samples. The Fe2+/Fe3+ ratio was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-treated HbSSM samples compared with controls. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by SolMon treatment in HbSSF compared with VerMyg. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition exhibited by SolMon was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that of VerMyg in HbSSF blood. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition in SolMon and Ipocrata were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg in HbSSM blood. All plant extracts significantly reduced (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity in both HbSSM and HbSSF-treated blood. Catalase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HbSSF blood treated with Ipocrata compared with glutathione. Cari-oil treated HbSSM and HbSSF blood had significantly increased (P < 0.05) peroxidase activity compared with controls. Conclusions Methanolic extracts from S

  3. Solenostemon monostachyus, Ipomoea involucrata and Carica papaya seed oil versus Glutathione, or Vernonia amygdalina: methanolic extracts of novel plants for the management of sickle cell anemia disease.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Israel Sunmola; Osikoya, Iyanuoluwa Olubukola; Fajimi, Oluwabukunmi Dorcas; Usoro, Priscilla Ibanga; Ogunleye, Damilola Olufunlayo; Bisi-Adeniyi, Tolulope; Adeyemi, Alaba O; Adekeye, Bosede Temitope

    2012-12-22

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease caused by an individual inheriting an allele for sickle cell hemoglobin from both parents and is associated with unusually large numbers of immature blood cells, containing many long, thin, crescent-shaped erythrocytes. It is a disease prevalent throughout many populations. The use of medicinal plants and nutrition in managing SCD is gaining increasing attention. The antisickling effects of Solenostemon monostachyus (SolMon), Carica papaya seed oil (Cari-oil) and Ipomoea involucrata (Ipocrata) in male (HbSSM) and female (HbSSF) human sickle cell blood was examined in vitro and compared with controls, or cells treated with glutathione or an antisickling plant (Vernonia amygdalina; VerMyg). Levels of sickle blood cells were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all the plant-extract treated SCD patients' blood compared with that of untreated SCD patients. RBCs in SolMon, Ipocrata, and Cari-oil treated samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg-treated samples. The Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ratio was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in all plant extract-treated HbSSM samples compared with controls. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) by SolMon treatment in HbSSF compared with VerMyg. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition exhibited by SolMon was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with that of VerMyg in HbSSF blood. Sickle cell polymerization inhibition in SolMon and Ipocrata were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with VerMyg in HbSSM blood. All plant extracts significantly reduced (P < 0.05) lactate dehydrogenase activity in both HbSSM and HbSSF-treated blood. Catalase activity was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in HbSSF blood treated with Ipocrata compared with glutathione. Cari-oil treated HbSSM and HbSSF blood had significantly increased (P < 0.05) peroxidase activity compared with controls. Methanolic extracts from S. monostachyus, C. papaya seed oil and I

  4. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-06-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  5. [Effect of the addition of tropical fruits--pineapple (Ananas comosus) and papaya (Carica papaya)--on the production of biological silage from fish].

    PubMed

    Bello, R; Cardillo, E; Martínez, R

    1993-09-01

    Microbial Fish Silage was produced from under-utilized fish mixed with juice and waste fruits (pineapple and papaya) at 35 degrees C. Six different products were elaborated as following: A: fish muscle with pineapple juice; B: fish muscle with fruit wastes; C: gutted fish with pineapple juice; D: gutted fish with fruit wastes; E: whole fish with pineapple juice; F: whole fish with fruit wastes. Process development was evaluated by measuring: pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen, consistency and exudate liquid. Results indicated a slow decrease in pH value and production of acidity during 20 storage days. The addition of fruits to silage did not have any effect on these values. Silage liquefaction or hydrolysis was related to the following parameters: consistency, non-protein nitrogen and exudate liquid. The addition of fruits was related to silage liquefaction or hydrolysis, and it was measured by the consistency. Exudate liquid and non-protein nitrogen increased during storage time. However silage made from whole fish showed highest values in those parameters than other processing conditions. This results suggested that hydrolysis involve first enzymes from guts and second enzymes from muscle and head. Pineapple juice did not contribute to hydrolysis process. Mainly sensory changes in the silage occurs during first 24 hours and they were related to chemical changes. Proximal analysis did not change during silage process and microbial counts indicated the freshness of raw material used i this study.

  6. Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Rajasekar, Rathanasamy

    Management of burn injury is an onerous clinical task since it requires continuous monitoring and extensive usage of specialized facilities. Despite rapid improvizations and investments in burn management, >30% of victims hospitalized each year face severe morbidity and mortality. Excessive loss of body fluids, accumulation of exudate, and the development of septic shock are reported to be the main reasons for morbidity in burn victims. To assist burn wound management, a novel polyurethane (PU)-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey (HN) and Carica papaya (PA) fruit extract was fabricated using a one-step electrospinning technique. The developed dressing material had a mean fiber diameter of 190±19.93 nm with pore sizes of 4-50 µm to support effective infiltration of nutrients and gas exchange. The successful blending of HN- and PA-based active biomolecules in PU was inferred through changes in surface chemistry. The blend subsequently increased the wettability (14%) and surface energy (24%) of the novel dressing. Ultimately, the presence of hydrophilic biomolecules and high porosity enhanced the water absorption ability of the PU-HN-PA nanofiber samples to 761.67% from 285.13% in PU. Furthermore, the ability of the bio-nanofibrous dressing to support specific protein adsorption (45%), delay thrombus formation, and reduce hemolysis demonstrated its nontoxic and compatible nature with the host tissues. In summary, the excellent physicochemical and hemocompatible properties of the developed PU-HN-PA dressing exhibit its potential in reducing the clinical complications associated with the treatment of burn injuries.

  7. Inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of different parts of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya) fruit on Fe²⁺-induced oxidative stress in rat pancreas in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olabiyi, Ayodeji A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J

    2013-09-01

    Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) is widespread throughout tropical Africa; it is cultivated for its fruits and it is eaten in various ways. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of the aqueous extract of different parts of unripe pawpaw fruit on Fe²⁺-induced lipid peroxidation in rat's pancreas in vitro. The aqueous extract of the unripe pawpaw fruit parts; peel (PG), seed (SG), flesh (FG), flesh with peel (FPG) and a combination of equal amount of all parts (CG) were prepared, the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of the extracts were then evaluated using various spectrophotometric methods. PG had the highest total phenol content (1.24 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (0.63 mg QUE/g), reducing power (7.07 mg AAE/g) and Fe²⁺ chelating ability while the SG had the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability. Furthermore, all the extracts caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the malondialdehyde contents in the pancreas with SG (IC₅₀ = 4.25 mg/mL) having the highest inhibitory effect on Fe²⁺-induced lipid peroxidation. This protective effect of the extracts on Fe²⁺-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas could be attributed to their phenolic compounds and, the possible mechanism may be through their antioxidant activities. However, the effect of combination of different parts of unripe pawpaw fruit in equal amount (w/w) on the inhibition of Fe²⁺-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas exhibited additive properties.

  8. Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Rajasekar, Rathanasamy

    2016-01-01

    Management of burn injury is an onerous clinical task since it requires continuous monitoring and extensive usage of specialized facilities. Despite rapid improvizations and investments in burn management, >30% of victims hospitalized each year face severe morbidity and mortality. Excessive loss of body fluids, accumulation of exudate, and the development of septic shock are reported to be the main reasons for morbidity in burn victims. To assist burn wound management, a novel polyurethane (PU)-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey (HN) and Carica papaya (PA) fruit extract was fabricated using a one-step electrospinning technique. The developed dressing material had a mean fiber diameter of 190±19.93 nm with pore sizes of 4–50 µm to support effective infiltration of nutrients and gas exchange. The successful blending of HN- and PA-based active biomolecules in PU was inferred through changes in surface chemistry. The blend subsequently increased the wettability (14%) and surface energy (24%) of the novel dressing. Ultimately, the presence of hydrophilic biomolecules and high porosity enhanced the water absorption ability of the PU-HN-PA nanofiber samples to 761.67% from 285.13% in PU. Furthermore, the ability of the bio-nanofibrous dressing to support specific protein adsorption (45%), delay thrombus formation, and reduce hemolysis demonstrated its nontoxic and compatible nature with the host tissues. In summary, the excellent physicochemical and hemocompatible properties of the developed PU-HN-PA dressing exhibit its potential in reducing the clinical complications associated with the treatment of burn injuries. PMID:27621626

  9. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  10. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of three plants used in Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine: Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) leaves, Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) seeds or leaves, and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) leaves in Kabir chicks.

    PubMed

    Nghonjuyi, Ndaleh Wozerou; Tiambo, Christian Keambou; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Toukala, Jean Paul; Lisita, Frederico; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Kimbi, Helen Kuokuo

    2016-02-03

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and Mimosa pudica L. (Fabaceae) are widely used in the Cameroonian ethnoveterinary medicine as a panacea, and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders as well as an anthelmintic and antibacterial. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds, and Mimosa pudica leaves after acute and sub-chronic administration in chicks. For the acute toxicity test a single administration of each of the four hydroalcoholic extracts was given orally at doses ranging from 40 to 5120 mg/kg (n=5/group/sex). In the sub-chronic study, these extracts were given orally as a single administration to chicks at doses of 80, 160, 320 and 640 mg/kg/day for 42 days. The anti-angiogenic properties of these extracts (5-320 µg/mg) were investigated in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. In the acute toxicity test, none of the four studied hydroalcoholic extracts induced mortality or significant behavioural changes. The sub-acute treatment with the four plant extracts did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. However, the results indicated that Aloe vera leaf extract acute treatment by oral route at doses up to 2560 mg/kg did not produce death in 50% (5/10) of chicks during 24h or 14 days of observation, but 20% (2/10) chicks died. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups, with the exception of a transient rise in white blood cell counts at high doses (640 mg/kg). Additionally, these extracts did not have the potential for anti-angiogenic effects through the inhibition of neo-angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane in vivo. The results showed that the therapeutic use of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Aloe vera leaves, Carica papaya leaves or seeds and Mimosa pudica leaves had very low

  11. The role of hydrolases in the loss of firmness and of the changes in sugar content during the post-harvest maturation of Carica papaya L. var solo 8.

    PubMed

    Yao, Benjamin N; Tano, Kablan; Konan, Hubert K; Bédié, Gerard K; Oulé, Mathias K; Koffi-Nevry, Rose; Arul, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Fruit ripening is associated with many hydrolase activities involved in the softening of the fruit during the maturation. This study investigates the relationship between the loss of firmness along with the changes of sugar content and the enzymatic activities in Carica papaya L.var solo 8 during post-harvest storage. Three maturation stages (green immature: the fruit is entirely green, green mature: the fruit shows 1/32 yellow skin and fully mature: the fruit shows 1/8 yellow skin) have been selected and stored at 15, 22 and 28 °C. The reduction of fruit firmness, total sugar contents, refractive index (% Brix) and enzymatic activities were measured. Low enzymatic activities (0.035 μmol/min/mg) were recorded in fruit harvested at the green immature stage with no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on the softening while fruit harvested at the green mature and fully mature stages showed enzymatic activities 7 times as high as those of the green immature stage. These high enzymatic activities were responsible for the loss of firmness of the fruit. Accordingly, papayas at the green mature and fully mature stages displayed higher maxima of sugar content (4.8 g/100 g at 28 °C at day 12, and 10.2 g/100 g at 22 °C at day 8, respectively) at higher temperatures. Meanwhile in green immature papayas, the maximum was only 4.3 g/100 g at 22 °C and day 12 of storage. The results show that the loss of firmness of the papaya was highly related to the hydrolytic enzyme activities and the sweet taste to the presence of simple sugars such as galactose liberated from the polysaccharide complexes.

  12. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  13. Whole-photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown papaya plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of papaya response to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. In papaya, the photosynthetic capacity also influ...

  14. The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. After the section Vasconcellea with 21 species was reinstated as a separate genus based on molecular marker data, papaya became the sole species in Carica. S...

  15. Photoacoustic study of the influence of the cooling temperature on the CO2 emission rate by Carica papaya L. in modified atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, D. U.; Sthel, M. S.; da Silva, M. G.; Carneiro, L. O.; Silva, H. R. F.; Martins, M. L. L.; Resende, E. D.; Vitorazi, L.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The monitoring of trace gas emitted by papaya fruits and assessments of its mass loss can contribute to improve the conditions for their storage and transport. The C02 emission rate by the papaya fruits, monitored by a commercial infrared-based gas analyzer, was influenced by the temperature and storage time. The fruits stored at temperature of 13 °C accumulated more CO2 inside the PEBD bags than those fruits stored at 6 °C. The loss of mass of the fruits progressively increased with storage time for both temperatures until the saturation of the moisture inside the PEBD bag, been more pronounced at 13 ºC.

  16. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water-extractable phytochemicals from unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya).

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olabiyi, Ayodeji A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2014-02-01

    Various parts of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya Linn) fruit have been reportedly used for the management or treatment of diabetes mellitus in folklore medicine. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the aqueous extract of different parts of unripe pawpaw fruit on key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. The aqueous extracts of the unripe pawpaw (C. papaya) fruit parts were prepared (1:20 w/v) and the ability of the extracts to inhibit α-amylase, α-glucosidase and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro was investigated. The results revealed that all the extracts inhibited α-amylase (IC50=0.87-1.11 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (IC50=1.76-2.64 mg/mL) and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50=1.99-2.42 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. However, combination of the flesh, seed and peel in equal amounts had the highest inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Strong inhibitory activities of the unripe pawpaw fruit against key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas could be part of the mechanism by which unripe pawpaw is used in the management/prevention of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. However, combining the unripe pawpaw fruit parts in equal amounts exhibited synergistic properties on α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

  17. Characterization of a novel β-thioglucosidase CpTGG1 in Carica papaya and its substrate-dependent and ascorbic acid-independent O-β-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Nong, Han; Zhang, Jia-Ming; Li, Ding-Qin; Wang, Meng; Sun, Xue-Piao; Zhu, Yun Judy; Meijer, Johan; Wang, Qin-Huang

    2010-10-01

    Plant thioglucosidases are the only known S-glycosidases in the large superfamily of glycosidases. These enzymes evolved more recently and are distributed mainly in Brassicales. Thioglucosidase research has focused mainly on the cruciferous crops due to their economic importance and cancer preventive benefits. In this study, we cloned a novel myrosinase gene, CpTGG1, from Carica papaya Linnaeus. and showed that it was expressed in the aboveground tissues in planta. The recombinant CpTGG1 expressed in Pichia pastoris catalyzed the hydrolysis of both sinigrin and glucotropaeolin (the only thioglucoside present in papaya), showing that CpTGG1 was indeed a functional myrosinase gene. Sequence alignment analysis indicated that CpTGG1 contained all the motifs conserved in functional myrosinases from crucifers, except for two aglycon-binding motifs, suggesting substrate priority variation of the non-cruciferous myrosinases. Using sinigrin as substrate, the apparent K(m) and V(max) values of recombinant CpTGG1 were 2.82 mM and 59.9 μmol min⁻¹ mg protein⁻¹ , respectively. The K(cat) /K(m) value was 23 s⁻¹ mM⁻¹ . O-β-glucosidase activity towards a variety of substrates were tested, CpTGG1 displayed substrate-dependent and ascorbic acid-independent O-β-glucosidase activity towards 2-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, but was inactive towards glucovanillin and n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. Phylogenetic analysis indicated CpTGG1 belongs to the MYR II subfamily of myrosinases.

  18. Barriers in a tropical orchard landscape: how the presence or absence of hedges influences insect dispersal in mixed orchards of Carica papaya and Manilkara zapota.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of plants in the form of a hedge may hinder or alter movement of certain insects into and within an orchard. We investigated the impact that the presence of a hedge of tall grass had on infestation by various pests into mixed orchards of papaya and sapodilla. For most insects there was ...

  19. Epidemiological studies on guinea-worm in some newly discovered villages of Jhabua District (M.P.) and test of carica papaya leaves of guinea worm infection.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, P K

    1989-05-01

    Epidemiological survey was carried out for prevalence of guinea worm infection in 12 villages having a total population of 10281 persons in Jhabua district of M.P. The prevalence of 2.85 percent. Infection was more common in males. A paste of leaves of carica papya with opium and common salt applied for 3 days was helpful in relief of symptoms and easy extraction of worm from the body.

  20. Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from chloroform extract of Carica papaya seed and it's in vivo antibacterial potentiality in Channa punctatus against Klebsiella PKBSG14.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subarna; Saha, Mandira; Bandyopadhyay, Probir Kumar; Jana, Monoranjan

    2017-09-01

    The relative efficacy of the isolated pure compound, extracted from Carica papaya seed has been tested against live fish, Channa punctatus infected with pathogenic strains of KlebsiellaPKBSG14 (gene bank accession no.KJ162158) at a dose of 0.75 CFU/ml in vivo. The isolated compound has been characterized by chromatography and mass spectroscopy studies using FTIR, (1)HNMR and (13c) NMR to identify as well as to determine the nature of the pure compound. This study revealed the extracted biological molecule is oleic acid, a long chained saturated fatty acid (LFAs) with a molecular formula C18H34O2. Later this compound was analyzed for its efficacy as an antibacterial agent in vivo through cytotoxicological and genotoxicological assays. A dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg b.w of isolated pure oleic acid has been tested and it showed effective result in regard to DNA fragmentation, comet tail length and toxicity biomarkers like ROS generation. The results of in vivo studies showed similar effects on spleen cells with regard to cell viability by PI staining, cell cycle analysis and also Annexin-FITC assay. Thus, the overall results suggest that oleic acid increases drug bioavailability and thereby has a better chemo-preventive action against bacterial infection in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ex vivo and in vivo investigations of the effects of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Carica papaya and Tapinanthus sessilifolius on digoxin transport and pharmacokinetics: assessing the significance on rat intestinal P-glycoprotein efflux.

    PubMed

    Oga, Enoche Florence; Sekine, Shuichi; Horie, Toshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina (VA), Carica papaya (CP), and Tapinanthus sessilifolius (ML) are widely used in some countries as medicinal herbs to treat ailments including malaria, cancer, and diabetes. We previously reported the inhibitory effects of these herbs on permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cell monolayers. This study used ex vivo and in vivo models to investigate the likelihood of P-gp-mediated herb-drug interactions occurring. The study utilized excised rat intestinal tissues mounted in Ussing chambers to predict changes in drug absorption and an in vivo study in rats using digoxin as the P-gp substrate. Apparent permeability values and pharmacokinetic parameters of digoxin were compared to determine if co-administration of digoxin with ML, CP, or VA modulated the activity of P-gp. When VA was co-administered, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve was significantly higher (2.1-fold) than when digoxin was administered alone. Co-administration of ML, VA, and CP significantly increased the mean digoxin apparent permeability in the mucosal-to-serosal direction by 7.8, 43.3, and 54.5%, respectively, in comparison to when digoxin was administered alone. These findings suggest that VA increases intestinal absorption of digoxin in vivo by inhibiting P-gp and may also modulate the pharmacokinetic disposition of other p-gp substrate drugs.

  2. A ¹H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Luis M; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic.

  3. A 1H NMR Investigation of the Interaction between Phenolic Acids Found in Mango (Manguifera indica cv Ataulfo) and Papaya (Carica papaya cv Maradol) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Luis M.; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Navarro, Rosa-Elena; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of phenolic acids on human health are very often ascribed to their potential to counteract free radicals to provide antioxidant protection. This potential has been attributed to their acidic chemical structure, which possesses hydroxyl groups in different positions. Phenolic acids can interact between themselves and exhibit an additive, antagonistic or synergistic effect. In this paper, we used 1H NMR to analyze the interactions and mechanisms that are present in major phenolic acids found in mango (gallic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and papaya (caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), and the DPPH radical was used to evaluate the effect of the antioxidant mixtures. The interactions were found to occur via hydrogen bonds between the -OH and -COOH groups. Moreover, the phenolic acids exhibit two types of mechanisms for the neutralization of the DPPH radical. According to the results, these two mechanisms are Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) and Single Electron Transfer (SET). The ability of the phenolic acid to neutralize the DPPH radical decreases in the following order in mango: gallic > chlorogenic > protocatechuic > vanillic. Moreover, within the acids found in papaya, the order was as follows: caffeic > p-coumaric > ferulic. PMID:26559189

  4. 76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... of fresh papaya (Carica papaya) fruit from Malaysia into the continental United States. Based on our... regulations in ``Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56-1 through 319.56-50, referred to below as the...

  5. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) effects on stomal conductance, growth, photosynthetic capacity, and water-use efficiency of papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya (Carica papaya, L.) is an important economic crop in tropical and subtropical countries in addition to its human health benefits. Papaya is a giant herbaceous species and maintaining adequate tissue turgidity and water availability is necessary to maintain the rigidity of the stem as well as...

  6. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya

    PubMed Central

    Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

    2012-01-01

    X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X. PMID:22869742

  8. Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya.

    PubMed

    Gschwend, Andrea R; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2012-08-21

    X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X.

  9. Papaya is not a host for Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The economic value of tomato production is threatened by tomato yellow leaf-curl virus TYLCV and its vector, the silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Use of papaya Carica papaya L. as a banker plant for a whitefly parasitoid shows promise as a whitefly m...

  10. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  11. Evaluating Hawaii-Grown Papaya for Resistance to Internal Yellowing Disease Caused by Enterobacter cloacae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards, the bacterial causal agent of internal yellowing disease (IY), using a range of concentrations of the bacterium. Linear regression analysis was performed and IY ...

  12. Atypical internal yellowing of papaya fruit in Hawaii caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internal yellowing (IY), characterized by yellow discolored tissue around the papaya (Carica papaya) seed cavity, diffuse margins and the presence of a distinctly rotten odor, was first reported in 1987. These symptoms were associated with the causal agent Enterobacter cloacae. Here we report the fo...

  13. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  14. Papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Yoshimoto, Motoko; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Shimoishi, Yasuaki; Asai, Yumi; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2007-05-30

    In the present study, papaya (Carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. The papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. This content is equivalent to that of Karami daikon (the hottest Japanese white radish) or that of cress. The papaya seed extract also showed a very high activity of myrosinase and, without myrosinase inactivation, produced 460 micromol of benzyl isothiocyanate in 100 g of seed. In contrast, papaya pulp contained an undetectable amount of benzyl glucosinolate and showed no significant myrosinase activity. The n-hexane extract of the papaya seed homogenate was highly effective in inhibiting superoxide generation and apoptosis induction in HL-60 cells, the activities of which are comparable to those of authentic benzyl isothiocyanate.

  15. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  16. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  17. Genetic diversity of papaya ring spot virus in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 20-40% of crop yield is lost due to pests and diseases. Viruses are agents that cause diseases which contribute greatly to the global yield loss. Because of this, food production is negatively affected, especially in the tropics. Carica papaya, co...

  18. Development of Transgenic Papaya through Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime + 50 mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi. PMID:24066284

  19. Generation of transgenic papaya with double resistance to Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yi-Jung; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Wu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Chen, Tsui-Miao; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2009-11-01

    During the field tests of coat protein (CP)-transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), another Potyvirus sp., Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), appeared as an emerging threat to the transgenic papaya. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing the truncated CP coding region of the PLDMV P-TW-WF isolate and the truncated CP coding region with the complete 3' untranslated region of PRSV YK isolate was transferred into papaya (Carica papaya cv. Thailand) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to generate transgenic plants with resistance to PLDMV and PRSV. Seventy-five transgenic lines were obtained and challenged with PRSV YK or PLDMV P-TW-WF by mechanical inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Thirty-eight transgenic lines showing no symptoms 1 month after inoculation were regarded as highly resistant lines. Southern and Northern analyses revealed that four weakly resistant lines have one or two inserts of the construct and accumulate detectable amounts of transgene transcript, whereas nine resistant lines contain two or three inserts without significant accumulation of transgene transcript. The results indicated that double virus resistance in transgenic lines resulted from double or more copies of the insert through the mechanism of RNA-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing. Furthermore, three of nine resistant lines showed high levels of resistance to heterologous PRSV strains originating from Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Our transgenic lines have great potential for controlling a number of PRSV strains and PLDMV in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  20. New approach for papaya latex storage without virus degradation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silas P.; Andrade, Josemar S.; Ventura, José A.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya (Carica papaya L.) sticky disease, which has been detected through analysis of its double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome from plant latex. In this work we demonstrate that PMeV dsRNA is protected during 25 days when latex is diluted in citrate buffer pH 5.0 (1:1 v/v) and maintained at -20ºC. At the same temperature, some protection was observed for pure latex or latex diluted in ultra-pure water. Conversely, the dsRNA was almost completely degraded after 25 days when maintained at 25ºC, indicating the need for freezing. The proper procedures to collect and store papaya latex described here will contribute to efficient and large scale use of molecular diagnosis of PMeV. PMID:24031329

  1. [Human chromosome banding with raw extract of fruits or leaves of papaya].

    PubMed

    Solís, M V

    2001-01-01

    One week old human chromosome preparations were treated with filtrate from one liquefied leaf (53 g) of papaya (Carica papaya) in 100 ml of distilled water, and stained with 1.5% Giemsa (pH 6.8). Good chromosome banding was obtained after 2 min of treatment. Solutions that have been frozen even for years are effective and the method is cheaper and easier than others.

  2. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies) microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs) of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process. PMID:23256600

  3. Application of a qualitative and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method for detecting genetically modified papaya line 55-1 in papaya products.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noguchi, Akio; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-01-15

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line 55-1 (55-1), which is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, has been marketed internationally. Many countries have mandatory labeling regulations for GM foods, and there is a need for specific methods for detecting 55-1. Here, an event- and construct-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for detecting 55-1 in papaya products. Quantitative detection was possible for fresh papaya fruit up to dilutions of 0.001% and 0.01% (weight per weight [w/w]) for homozygous SunUp and heterozygous Rainbow cultivars, respectively, in non-GM papaya. The limit of detection and quantification was as low as 250 copies of the haploid genome according to a standard reference plasmid. The method was applicable to qualitative detection of 55-1 in eight types of processed products (canned papaya, pickled papaya, dried fruit, papaya-leaf tea, jam, puree, juice, and frozen dessert) containing papaya as a main ingredient.

  4. The high content of β-carotene present in orange-pulp fruits of Carica papaya L. is not correlated with a high expression of the CpLCY-β2 gene.

    PubMed

    Chan-León, Arianna C; Estrella-Maldonado, Humberto; Dubé, Pascal; Fuentes Ortiz, Gabriela; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera May, Carlos; Ramírez Prado, Jorge; Desjardins, Yves; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the transcriptional regulation of six genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, together with the carotenoid accumulation during postharvest ripening of three different papaya genotypes of contrasting pulp color. Red-pulp genotype (RPG) showed the lowest content of yellow pigments (YP), such as β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and violaxanthin, together with the lowest relative expression levels (REL) of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. On the contrary, the yellow-pulp genotype (YPG) showed the highest content of YP and the highest REL of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. Interestingly, the orange-pulp genotype (OPG) showed intermediate content of YP and intermediate REL of CpLCY-β2 and CpCHX-β genes. The highest content of β-carotene shown by OPG despite having an intermediate REL of the CpLCY-β2 genes, suggests a post-transcriptional regulation. Thus, the transcriptional level of the genes, directing the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, can partially explain the accumulation of carotenoids during the postharvest ripening in C. papaya genotypes of contrasting pulp color. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Applicability of the chymopapain gene used as endogenous reference gene for transgenic huanong no. 1 papaya detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Qian, Bingjun; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-12

    The virus-resistant papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong no. 1, was the genetically modified (GM) fruit approved for growing in China in 2006. To implement the labeling regulation of GM papaya and its derivates, the development of papaya endogenous reference gene is very necessary for GM papaya detection. Herein, we reported one papaya specific gene, Chymopapain (CHY), as one suitable endogenous reference gene, used for GM papaya identification. Thereafter, we established the conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays of the CHY gene. In the CHY conventional PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 copies of haploid papaya genome. In the CHY real-time quantitative PCR assay, both the LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were as low as 12.5 copies of haploid papaya genome. Furthermore, we revealed the construct-specific sequence of Chinese GM papaya Huanong no. 1 and developed its conventional and quantitative PCR systems employing the CHY gene as endogenous reference gene. This work is useful for papaya specific identification and GM papaya detection.

  6. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  7. Analysis of papaya cell wall-related genes during fruit ripening indicates a central role of polygalacturonases during pulp softening.

    PubMed

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening.

  8. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    PubMed Central

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  9. Analysis of papaya BAC end sequences reveals first insights into the organization of a fruit tree genome.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chun Wan J; Yu, Qingyi; Hou, Shaobin; Skelton, Rachel L; Jones, Meghan R; Lewis, Kanako L T; Murray, Jan; Eustice, Moriah; Guan, Peizhu; Agbayani, Ricelle; Moore, Paul H; Ming, Ray; Presting, Gernot G

    2006-07-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a major tree fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions with an estimated genome size of 372 Mbp. We present the analysis of 4.7% of the papaya genome based on BAC end sequences (BESs) representing 17 million high-quality bases. Microsatellites discovered in 5,452 BESs and flanking primer sequences are available to papaya breeding programs at http://www.genomics.hawaii.edu/papaya/BES . Sixteen percent of BESs contain plant repeat elements, the vast majority (83.3%) of which are class I retrotransposons. Several novel papaya-specific repeats were identified. Approximately 19.1% of the BESs have homology to Arabidopsis cDNA. Increasing numbers of completely sequenced plant genomes and BES projects enable novel approaches to comparative plant genomics. Paired BESs of Carica, Arabidopsis, Populus, Brassica and Lycopersicon were mapped onto the completed genomes of Arabidopsis and Populus. In general the level of microsynteny was highest between closely related organisms. However, papaya revealed a higher degree of apparent synteny with the more distantly related poplar than with the more closely related Arabidopsis. This, as well as significant colinearity observed between peach and poplar genome sequences, support recent observations of frequent genome rearrangements in the Arabidopsis lineage and suggest that the poplar genome sequence may be more useful for elucidating the papaya and other rosid genomes. These insights will play a critical role in selecting species and sequencing strategies that will optimally represent crop genomes in sequence databases.

  10. Removal of hazardous pharmaceutical dyes by adsorption onto papaya seeds.

    PubMed

    Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Foletto, Edson Luiz; Dotto, Guilherme Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) seeds were used as adsorbent to remove toxic pharmaceutical dyes (tartrazine and amaranth) from aqueous solutions, in order to extend application range. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated. The kinetic data were evaluated by the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and Elovich models. The equilibrium was evaluated by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. It was found that adsorption favored a pH of 2.5, temperature of 298 K and equilibrium was attained at 180-200 min. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order model, and the equilibrium was well represented by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were 51.0 and 37.4 mg g(-1) for tartrazine and amaranth, respectively. These results revealed that papaya seeds can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove pharmaceutical dyes from aqueous solutions.

  11. Sex determination in flowering plants: papaya as a model system.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rishi; Ming, Ray

    2014-03-01

    Unisexuality in flowering plants evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor. Transition from hermaphrodite to unisexual flowers has occurred multiple times across the different lineages of the angiosperms. Sexuality in plants is regulated by genetic, epigenetic and physiological mechanisms. The most specialized mechanism of sex determination is sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes ensure the stable segregation of sexual phenotypes by preventing the recombination of sex determining genes. Despite continuous efforts, sex determining genes of dioecious plants have not yet been cloned. Concerted efforts with various model systems are necessary to understand the complex mechanism of sex determination in plants. Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a tropical fruit tree with three sex forms, male, hermaphrodite, and female. Sexuality in papaya is determined by an XY chromosome system that is in an early evolutionary stage. The male and hermaphrodite of papaya are controlled by two different types of Y chromosomes: Y and Y(h). Large amounts of information in the area of genetics, genomics, and epigenetics of papaya have been accumulated over the last few decades. Relatively short lifecycle, small genome size, and readily available genetic and genomic resources render papaya an excellent model system to study sex determination and sex chromosomes in flowering plants.

  12. Interlaboratory validation data on real-time polymerase chain reaction detection for unauthorized genetically modified papaya line PRSV-YK.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    This article is referred to research article entitled "Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method" (Nakamura et al., 2016) [1]. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for unauthorized genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) line PRSV-YK (PRSV-YK detection method) was developed using whole genome sequence data (DDBJ Sequenced Read Archive under accession No. PRJDB3976). Interlaboratory validation datasets for PRSV-YK detection method were provided. Data indicating homogeneity of samples prepared for interlaboratory validation were included. Specificity and sensitivity test data for PRSV-YK detection method were also provided.

  13. Papaya nutritional analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  14. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chi-Chu; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Ko, Ya-Zhu; Wang, Ren-Huang; Li, Shu-Ju; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2016-09-24

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique-based on DNA analysis-was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya's sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya's sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source.

  15. Transgenic papaya: a useful platform for oral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Cervantes-Torres, Jacquelynne; Ramírez-Aquino, Rubén; Chapula, Héctor; Villalobos, Nelly; Segura-Velázquez, René; Figueroa, Alfredo; Flores, Iván; Jiménez, Herminio; Adalid, Laura; Rosas, Gabriela; Galvez, Luis; Pezzat, Elias; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Vazquez, Luis G; Sciutto, Edda

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic papaya callus lines expressing the components of the S3Pvac vaccine constitute a stable platform to produce an oral vaccine against cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium or T. crassiceps. The development of effective delivery systems to cope with the reduced immunogenicity of new subunit vaccines is a priority in vaccinology. Herein, experimental evidence supporting a papaya-based platform to produce needle-free, recombinant, highly immunogenic vaccines is shown. Papaya (Carica papaya) callus lines were previously engineered by particle bombardment to express the three protective peptides of the S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine (KETc7, KETc12, KETc1). Calli were propagated in vitro, and a stable integration and expression of the target genes has been maintained, as confirmed by PCR, qRT-PCR, and HPLC. These results point papaya calli as a suitable platform for long-term transgenic expression of the vaccine peptides. The previously demonstrated protective immunogenic efficacy of S3Pvac-papaya orally administered to mice is herein confirmed in a wider dose-range and formulated with different delivery vehicles, adequate for oral vaccination. This protection is accompanied by an increase in anti-S3Pvac antibody titers and a delayed hypersensitivity response against the vaccine. A significant increase in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte proliferation was induced in vitro by each vaccine peptide in mice immunized with the lowest dose of S3Pvac papaya (0.56 ng of the three peptides in 0.1 µg of papaya callus total protein per mouse). In pigs, the obliged intermediate host for Taenia solium, S3Pvac papaya was also immunogenic when orally administered in a two-log dose range. Vaccinated pigs significantly increased anti-vaccine antibodies and mononuclear cell proliferation. Overall, the oral immunogenicity of this stable S3Pvac-papaya vaccine in mice and pigs, not requiring additional adjuvants, supports the interest in papaya callus as a useful platform for plant

  16. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    PubMed Central

    Razean Haireen, M. R.; Drew, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes. PMID:25184131

  17. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea.

    PubMed

    Razean Haireen, M R; Drew, R A

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes.

  18. The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Richard C; Zee, Francis; Huber, Steven C; Ming, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. Sex chromosomes have been found in papaya and originated approximately 2-3 million years ago. The objectives of this study were to determine whether sex chromosomes have evolved in Vasconcellea. Six X/Y gene pairs were cloned, sequenced and analyzed from three dioecious, one trioecious and one monoecious species of Vasconcellea. The isolation of distinctive X and Y alleles in dioecious and trioecious species of Vasconcellea demonstrated that sex chromosomes have evolved in this genus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a monophyletic relationship between the X/Y alleles of Carica and those of Vasconcellea. Distinctive clusters of X/Y alleles were documented in V. parviflora and V. pulchra for all available gene sequences, and in V. goudatinana and V. cardinamarcensis for some X/Y alleles. The X and Y alleles within each species shared most single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes that differed from other species. Limited evidence of gene conversion was documented among the X/Y alleles of some species, but was not sufficient to cause the evolutionary patterns reported herein. The Carica and Vasconcellea sex chromosomes may have originated from the same autosomes bearing the X allelic form that still exist in the monoecious species V. monoica, and have evolved independently after the speciation event that separated Carica from Vasconcellea. Within Vasconcellea, sex chromosomes have evolved at the species level, at least for some species.

  19. Effects of chemical treatments on fresh-cut papaya.

    PubMed

    Albertini, Silvana; Lai Reyes, Andrés Enrique; Trigo, Juliana Moreno; Sarriés, Gabriel Adrián; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-01-01

    Four treatments (control, 0.1% cinnamaldehyde, 0.75% calcium chloride and combination of 0.1% cinnamaldehyde and 0.75% calcium chloride) were used to evaluate chemical effects on shelf life, quality and sensory acceptability of fresh-cut papaya (Carica papaya L.). Papaya slices were packed and covered with polypropylene film, stored at 5 °C; and evaluated after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days for microbiological and physicochemical changes. A sensory evaluation was performed at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days. There was no occurrence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli or psychotropic bacteria. The cinnamaldehyde alone and a combination of cinnamaldehyde and calcium chloride treatments yielded better control of the total coliforms. The combination treatment decreased the CO2 concentration and increased the maintenance of papaya firmness. All the treatments had acceptability. The combination treatment was the most effective treatment for flavor, taste, and preservation until day 12. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes].

    PubMed

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F; Dantas, Jorge L L; Morales, Cinara F G; Caldas, Ranulfo C

    2008-01-01

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of Embrapa Cassava & Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lenghtwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil on V. cauliflora.

  1. Thrombocyte counts in mice after the administration of papaya leaf suspension.

    PubMed

    Sathasivam, Kathiresan; Ramanathan, Surash; Mansor, Sharif M; Haris, Mas Rosemal M H; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

    2009-10-01

    Following up a popular use of crude leaf preparations from Carica papaya for the treatment of dengue infections, a suspension of powdered Carica papaya leaves in palm oil has been investigated for its effect on thrombocyte counts in mice, administering by gavage 15 mg of powdered leaves per kg body weight to 5 mice. Equal numbers of animals received corresponding volumes of either palm oil alone or physiological saline solution. Thrombocyte counts before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after dosing revealed significantly higher mean counts at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10 and 12 after dosing with the C. papaya leaf formulation as compared to the mean count at hour 0. There was only a non-significant rise of thrombocyte counts in the group having received saline solution, possibly the expression of a normal circadian rhythm in mice. The group having received palm oil only showed a protracted increase of platelet counts that was significant at hours 8 and 48 and obviously the result of a hitherto unknown stimulation of thrombocyte release. The results call for a dose-response investigation and for extending the studies to the isolation and identification of the C. papaya substances responsible for the release and/or production of thrombocytes.

  2. A dated phylogeny of the papaya family (Caricaceae) reveals the crop's closest relatives and the family's biogeographic history.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S

    2012-10-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is a crop of great economic importance, and the species was among the first plants to have its genome sequenced. However, there has never been a complete species-level phylogeny for the Caricaceae, and the crop's closest relatives are therefore unknown. We investigated the evolution of the Caricaceae based on sequences from all species and genera, the monospecific Carica, African Cylicomorpha with two species, South American Jacaratia and Vasconcellea with together c. 28 species, and Mexican/Guatemalan Jarilla and Horovitzia with four species. Most Caricaceae are trees or shrubs; the species of Jarilla, however, are herbaceous. We generated a matrix of 4711 nuclear and plastid DNA characters and used maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analysis to infer species relationships, rooting trees on the Moringaceae. Divergence times were estimated under relaxed and strict molecular clocks, using different subsets of the data. Ancestral area reconstruction relied on a ML approach. The deepest split in the Caricaceae occurred during the Late Eocene, when the ancestor of the Neotropical clade arrived from Africa. In South America, major diversification events coincide with the Miocene northern Andean uplift and the initial phase of the tectonic collision between South America and Panama resulting in the Panamanian land bridge. Carica papaya is sister to Jarilla/Horovitzia, and all three diverged from South American Caricaceae in the Oligocene, 27 (22-33) Ma ago, coincident with the early stages of the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus. The discovery that C. papaya is closest to a clade of herbaceous or thin-stemmed species has implications for plant breeders who have so far tried to cross papaya only with woody highland papayas (Vasconcellea).

  3. Papain protects papaya trees from herbivorous insects: role of cysteine proteases in latex.

    PubMed

    Konno, Kotaro; Hirayama, Chikara; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Tateishi, Ken; Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Kohno, Katsuyuki

    2004-02-01

    Many plants contain latex that exudes when leaves are damaged, and a number of proteins and enzymes have been found in it. The roles of those latex proteins and enzymes are as yet poorly understood. We found that papain, a cysteine protease in latex of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), is a crucial factor in the defense of the papaya tree against lepidopteran larvae such as oligophagous Samia ricini (Saturniidae) and two notorious polyphagous pests, Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) and Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae). Leaves of a number of laticiferous plants, including papaya and a wild fig, Ficus virgata (Moraceae), showed strong toxicity and growth inhibition against lepidopteran larvae, though no apparent toxic factors from these species have been reported. When the latex was washed off, the leaves of these lactiferous plants lost toxicity. Latexes of both papaya and the wild fig were rich in cysteine-protease activity. E-64, a cysteine protease-specific inhibitor, completely deprived the leaves of toxicity when painted on the surface of papaya and fig leaves. Cysteine proteases, such as papain, ficin, and bromelain, all showed toxicity. The results suggest that plant latex and the proteins in it, cysteine proteases in particular, provide plants with a general defense mechanism against herbivorous insects.

  4. Direct LAMP Assay without Prior DNA Purification for Sex Determination of Papaya

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chi-Chu; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Ko, Ya-Zhu; Wang, Ren-Huang; Li, Shu-Ju; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is an economically important tropical fruit tree with hermaphrodite, male and female sex types. Hermaphroditic plants are the major type used for papaya production because their fruits have more commercial advantages than those of female plants. Sex determination of the seedlings, or during the early growth stages, is very important for the papaya seedling industry. Thus far, the only method for determining the sex type of a papaya at the seedling stage has been DNA analysis. In this study, a molecular technique—based on DNA analysis—was developed for detecting male-hermaphrodite-specific markers to examine the papaya’s sex type. This method is based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and does not require prior DNA purification. The results show that the method is an easy, efficient, and inexpensive way to determine a papaya’s sex. This is the first report on the LAMP assay, using intact plant materials-without DNA purification-as samples for the analysis of sex determination of papaya. We found that using high-efficiency DNA polymerase was essential for successful DNA amplification, using trace intact plant material as a template DNA source. PMID:27669237

  5. Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-11-27

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ∼25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya.

  6. Characterization of the exogenous insert and development of event-specific PCR detection methods for genetically modified Huanong No. 1 papaya.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lingxi; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-26

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong No. 1, was approved for commercialization in Guangdong province, China in 2006, and the development of the Huanong No. 1 papaya detection method is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations. In this study, we reported the characterization of the exogenous integration of GM Huanong No. 1 papaya by means of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR strategies. The results suggested that one intact copy of the initial construction was integrated in the papaya genome and which probably resulted in one deletion (38 bp in size) of the host genomic DNA. Also, one unintended insertion of a 92 bp truncated NptII fragment was observed at the 5' end of the exogenous insert. Furthermore, we revealed its 5' and 3' flanking sequences between the insert DNA and the papaya genomic DNA, and developed the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for GM Huanong No. 1 papaya based on the 5' integration flanking sequence. The relative limit of detection (LOD) of the qualitative PCR assay was about 0.01% in 100 ng of total papaya genomic DNA, corresponding to about 25 copies of papaya haploid genome. In the quantitative PCR, the limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) were as low as 12.5 and 25 copies of papaya haploid genome, respectively. In practical sample quantification, the quantified biases between the test and true values of three samples ranged from 0.44% to 4.41%. Collectively, we proposed that all of these results are useful for the identification and quantification of Huanong No. 1 papaya and its derivates.

  7. Population dynamics and within-plant distribution of the mite Calacarus flagelliseta (Acari: Eriophyidae) on papaya in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Valerie; Rosenheim, Jay A; Brodeur, Jacques; Johnson, Marshall W

    2004-10-01

    An important element in developing a management strategy for a new pest is the study of its seasonal dynamics and within-plant distribution. Here, we studied the mite Calacarus flagelliseta Fletchmann, De Moraes & Barbosa on papaya, Papaya carica L. (Caricaceae), in Hawaii to quantify 1) patterns of seasonal abundance, 2) its distribution across different vertical strata of the papaya canopy, and 3) shifts in its use of the upper versus the lower surfaces of papaya leaves. Nondestructive sampling conducted in two papaya plantings revealed that 1) populations of C. flagelliseta peak during the summer; 2) mites are most abundant in the middle and lower strata of the plant canopy, and least abundant on the youngest leaves found in the upper canopy; and 3) mites are found more predominantly on the upper leaf surfaces when overall population density peaks, suggesting that individuals move from the lower to the upper leaf surfaces when food resources on the lower leaf surface have been exploited by conspecifics. These results have significant implications for the development of sampling plans for C. flagelliseta in papaya.

  8. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  9. Plant Regeneration and Somatic Embryogenesis from Immature Embryos Derived through Interspecific Hybridization among Different Carica Species

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Rabbani, Md. Golam; Amin, Latifah

    2012-01-01

    Plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis through interspecific hybridization among different Carica species were studied for the development of a papaya ringspot virus-resistant variety. The maximum fruit sets were recorded from the cross of the native variety C. papaya cv. Shahi with the wild species C. cauliflora. The highest hybrid embryos were recorded at 90 days after pollination and the embryos were aborted at 150 days after pollination. The immature hybrid embryos were used for plant regeneration and somatic embryogenesis. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora showed the highest percentage of germination, as well as plant regeneration on growth regulators free culture medium after 7 days pre-incubation on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L BAP, 0.5 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose. The 90-day-old hybrid embryos from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora produced maximum callus, as well as somatic embryos when cultured on half-strength MS medium containing 5 mg/L 2,4-D, 100 mg/L glutamine, 100 mg/L casein hydrolysate and 60 g/L sucrose. The somatic embryos were transferred into half-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L NAA and 60 g/L sucrose for maturation. The highest number of regenerated plants per hybrid embryo (10.33) was recorded from the cross of C. papaya cv. Shahi × C. cauliflora. Isoenzyme and dendrogram cluster analysis using UPGMA of the regenerated F1 plantlets confirmed the presence of the hybrid plantlets. PMID:23235330

  10. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  11. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.

    PubMed

    Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs.

  12. Use of morpho-agronomic traits and DNA profiling for classification of genetic diversity in papaya.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, O N; de Freitas, J P X; Dantas, J L L; de Oliveira, E J

    2013-03-11

    We examined the genetic diversity of papaya (Carica papaya) based on morpho-agronomic and molecular data. Twenty-seven genotypes grown in Brazil were analyzed with 11 AFLP primer combinations, 23 ISSR markers, 22 qualitative, and 30 quantitative descriptors. For the joint analyses, we used the Gower algorithm (Joint Gower) and the average value of the individual dissimilarity matrix for each type of data (Average-Joint Gower); 359 AFLP and 52 ISSR polymorphic bands were found. Approximately 29.2 and 7.7% of the AFLP and ISSR bands, respectively, were genotype-specific and may therefore be used for papaya variety protection. Although there was a significant correlation between the qualitative and quantitative descriptor dissimilarity matrices (r = 0.43), the morpho-agronomic data were not highly correlated with the molecular data. Moreover, correlation between AFLP and ISSR dissimilarity matrices was nearly null (r = -0.01). Joint Gower analysis of all data showed high correlations, especially for AFLP markers, most likely due to the larger number of bands, generating a strong bias in the diversity estimates. The Average-Joint Gower analysis allowed a better balance between the correlations for the continuous and the discrete variables. The results generated by clustering analysis distinguished 5 genetically distinct groups. While we found that papaya genotypes are significantly variable for many traits, we observed that Average-Joint Gower analysis allowed for genotype clustering based on the most widely used criterion for classifying papaya genotypes, which is fruit type ('Formosa' or 'Solo'). This information helps provide an accurate estimate of the genetic diversity and structure of papaya germplasm, which will be used for further breeding strategies.

  13. Effective selection of transgenic papaya plants with the PMI/Man selection system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; McCafferty, Heather; Albert, Henrik H; Moore, Paul H

    2005-09-01

    The selectable marker gene phospho-mannose isomerase (pmi), which encodes the enzyme phospho-mannose isomerase (PMI) to enable selection of transformed cell lines on media containing mannose (Man), was evaluated for genetic transformation of papaya (Carica papaya L.). We found that papaya embryogenic calli have little or no PMI activity and cannot utilize Man as a carbon source; however, when calli were transformed with a pmi gene, the PMI activity was greatly increased and they could utilize Man as efficiently as sucrose. Plants regenerated from selected callus lines also exhibited PMI activity but at a lower specific activity level. Our transformation efficiency with Man selection was higher than that reported using antibiotic selection or with a visual marker. For papaya, the PMI/Man selection system for producing transgenic plants is a highly efficient addition to previously published methods for selection and may facilitate the stacking of multiple transgenes of interest. Additionally, since the PMI/Man selection system does not involve antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes, its use might reduce environmental concerns about the potential flow of those genes into related plant populations.

  14. High-density linkage mapping revealed suppression of recombination at the sex determination locus in papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hao; Moore, Paul H; Liu, Zhiyong; Kim, Minna S; Yu, Qingyi; Fitch, Maureen M M; Sekioka, Terry; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2004-01-01

    A high-density genetic map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using 54 F(2) plants derived from cultivars Kapoho and SunUp with 1501 markers, including 1498 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, the papaya ringspot virus coat protein marker, morphological sex type, and fruit flesh color. These markers were mapped into 12 linkage groups at a LOD score of 5.0 and recombination frequency of 0.25. The 12 major linkage groups covered a total length of 3294.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.2 cM between adjacent markers. This map revealed severe suppression of recombination around the sex determination locus with a total of 225 markers cosegregating with sex types. The cytosine bases were highly methylated in this region on the basis of the distribution of methylation-sensitive and -insensitive markers. This high-density genetic map is essential for cloning of specific genes of interest such as the sex determination gene and for the integration of genetic and physical maps of papaya. PMID:15020433

  15. Ectopic expression of Dahlia merckii defensin DmAMP1 improves papaya resistance to Phytophthora palmivora by reducing pathogen vigor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun J; Agbayani, Ricelle; Moore, Paul H

    2007-06-01

    Phytophthora spp., some of the more important casual agents of plant diseases, are responsible for heavy economic losses worldwide. Plant defensins have been introduced as transgenes into a range of species to increase host resistance to pathogens to which they were originally susceptible. However, the effectiveness and mechanism of interaction of the defensins with Phytophthora spp. have not been clearly characterized in planta. In this study, we expressed the Dahlia merckii defensin, DmAMP1, in papaya (Carica papaya L.), a plant highly susceptible to a root, stem, and fruit rot disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Extracts of total leaf proteins from transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in vitro and discs cut from the leaves of transformed plants inhibited growth of Phytophthora in a bioassay. Results from our greenhouse inoculation experiments demonstrate that expressing the DmAMP1 gene in papaya plants increased resistance against P. palmivora and that this increased resistance was associated with reduced hyphae growth of P. palmivora at the infection sites. The inhibitory effects of DmAMP1 expression in papaya suggest this approach has good potential to impart transgenic resistance against Phytophthora in papaya.

  16. Biogasification of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Weitzenhoff, M.H.; Moy, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Biogasification of papaya processing wastes for pollution control and energy utilization is feasible. The biogasification process with sludge recycling permits smaller reactor volume without any deterioration of CH4 production rate and CH4 content. Appropriate design and operational criteria for biogasification processing of papaya wastes were developed.

  17. Fermented Papaya Preparation Restores Age-Related Reductions in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cytolytic Activity in Tube-Fed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yuhzo; Tsuno, Haruo; Nakayama, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a fermented Carica papaya Linn. preparation, as well as its effects on immunity and the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. Different doses of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation were administered to three groups of tube-fed patients for 30 days. Its effects on fecal microbiota composition and immunity were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immune-marker analysis, respectively. The chemical composition of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography- time of flight mass spectrometry. The fermented C. papaya L. preparation restored peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytolytic activity; however, no other biomarkers of immunity were observed. Treatment with the preparation (9 g/day) significantly reduced the abundance of Firmicutes in the fecal microbiota. In particular, treatment reduced Clostridium scindens and Eggerthella lenta in most patients receiving 9 g/day. Chemical analysis identified low-molecular-weight phenolic acids as polyphenol metabolites; however, no polymerized, large-molecular-weight molecules were detected. Our study indicates that elderly patients who are tube-fed over the long-term have decreased PBMC cytolytic activity. In addition, low-molecular-weight polyphenol metabolites fermented from polymerized polyphenols restore PBMC cytolytic activity and modulate the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. PMID:28060858

  18. Development of a codominant CAPS marker linked to PRSV-P resistance in highland papaya.

    PubMed

    Dillon, S; Ramage, C; Ashmore, S; Drew, R A

    2006-10-01

    Development of resistant papaya varieties is widely considered the best strategy for long-term control of the papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Several species of "highland papaya" from the related genus Vasconcellea exhibit complete resistance to PRSV-P, and present a valuable source of resistance genes with potential for application in Carica papaya. The objectives of this study were two fold; to identify molecular markers linked to a previously characterised PRSV-P resistance gene in V. cundinamarcensis (psrv-1), and to develop codominant marker based strategies for reliable selection of PRSV-P resistant genotypes. Using a bulked segregant analysis approach, dominant randomly amplified DNA fingerprint (RAF) markers linked to prsv-1 were revealed in the resistant DNA bulk, which comprised F2 progeny from a V. parviflora (susceptible) x V. cundinamarcensis (resistant) interspecific cross. One marker, Opk4_1r, mapped adjacent to the prsv-1 locus at 5.4 cM, while a second, Opa11_5r, collocated with it. Sequence characterisation of the Opk4_1r marker permitted its conversion into a codominant CAPS marker (PsiIk4), diagnostic for the resistant genotype based on digestion with the restriction endonuclease PsiI. This marker mapped within 2 cM of the prsv-1 locus. Psilk4 was shown to correctly identify resistant genotypes 99% of the time when applied to interspecific F2 progeny segregating for the resistant character, and has potential for application in breeding programs aimed to deliver the PRSV-P resistance gene from V. cundinamarcensis into C. papaya.

  19. Molecular cloning of a mitogenic proteinase from Carica candamarcensis: its potential use in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Natássia C R; Mendes, Isabela C; Gomes, Marco Túlio R; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chagas, Brisa C A; Lopes, Miriam T P; Salas, Carlos E

    2011-11-01

    Cysteine proteinases from the Caricaceae belong to the C1 family of the CA clan and display papain-like structured, the archetype enzyme for this group of proteins. Carica candamarcensis, also named Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, a member of Caricaceae family common to many areas in South America, contains cysteine proteinases with proteolytic activity five to eight-fold higher than those from latex of Carica papaya. The cysteine protease CMS2MS2 from C. candamarcensis latex has been shown to enhance proliferation of L929 fibroblast and to activate the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). In this study, the cDNA cloning, expression and evaluation of biological activity of a CMS2MS2-like protein from C. candamarcensis is reported. The 650 bp fragment was cloned in bacteria and the DNA sequence confirmed a cysteine-proteinase similar to CMS2MS2. The recombinant protein is 30 kDa, induces a mitogenic response, and enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation, like the non-recombinant enzyme, but lacks either amidase or caseinolytic activity. The mitogenic activity of this protein and its lack of proteolytic activity underscore a potential for use in wound healing treatment.

  20. Purification and characterization of papaya glutamine cyclotransferase, a plant enzyme highly resistant to chemical, acid and thermal denaturation.

    PubMed

    Zerhouni, S; Amrani, A; Nijs, M; Smolders, N; Azarkan, M; Vincentelli, J; Looze, Y

    1998-09-08

    Papaya glutamine cyclotransferase (PQC), present in the laticiferous cells of the tropical species Carica papaya, was purified near to homogeneity. Starting from the soluble fraction of the collected plant latex, a combination of ion-exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose Fast Flow, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Fractogel TSK Butyl-650 and affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin provided a purification factor of 279 with an overall yield of 80%. In the course of the purification procedure, the two solvent accessible thiol functions located on the hydrophobic surface of the enzyme were converted into their S-methylthioderivatives. Papaya QC, a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 33000 Da, contains a unique and highly basic polypeptide chain devoid of disulfide bridges as well as of covalently attached phosphate groups. Its absorption spectrum is dominated by the chromophores tyrosine which, nonetheless, do not contribute to the fluorescence emission of the plant enzyme. With a lambdamax of emission at 338 nm and a moderate susceptibility to be quenched by acrylamide, most of the tryptophyl residues of papaya QC appear to be sterically shielded by surrounding protein atoms. Fluorescence can thus be used to monitor unfolding of this enzyme. Preliminary experiments show that papaya QC is exceptionally resistant to chemical (guanidinium hydrochloride), acid and thermal denaturation. At first sight also, this enzyme exhibits high resistance to proteolysis by the papaya cysteine proteinases, yet present in great excess (around 100 mol of proteinases per mol of PQC) in the plant latex. Altogether, these results awaken much curiosity and interest to further investigate how the structure of this plant enzyme is specified.

  1. Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

    2014-06-01

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with < 5% yellow surface at the blossom end were fumigated with 60 microL/L of nitric oxide for 3 h and then stored at 20 degrees C with 85% relative humility for 20 days. The effects of nitric oxide treatment on ethylene production rate, the activities of cell wall softening related enzymes including polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase and the levels of hormones including indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, gibberellin and zeatin riboside were examined. The results showed that papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones.

  2. Papaya shoot tip associated endophytic bacteria isolated from in vitro cultures and host-endophyte interaction in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious; Kumari, Sima; Swarna, Ganiga K; Gowda, T K S

    2007-03-01

    Fourteen distinct bacterial clones were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot tips (approximately 1 cm) of papaya (Carica papaya L. 'Surya') planted on Murashige and Skoog (MS)-based papaya culture medium (23/50 nos.) during the 2-4 week period following in vitro culturing. These isolates were ascribed to six Gram-negative genera, namely Pantoea (P. ananatis), Enterobacter (E. cloacae), Brevundimonas (B. aurantiaca), Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium (M. rhodesianum), and Agrobacterium (A. tumefaciens) or two Gram-positive genera, Microbacterium (M. esteraromaticum) and Bacillus (B. benzoevorans) based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Pantoea ananatis was the most frequently isolated organism (70% of the cultures) followed by B. benzoevorans (13%), while others were isolated from single stocks. Bacteria-harboring in vitro cultures often showed a single organism. Pantoea, Enterobacter, and Agrobacterium spp. grew actively on MS-based normal papaya medium, while Microbacterium, Brevundimonas, Bacillus, Sphingomonas, and Methylobacterium spp. failed to grow in the absence of host tissue. Supplying MS medium with tissue extract enhanced the growth of all the organisms in a dose-dependent manner, indicating reliance of the endophyte on its host. Inoculation of papaya seeds with the endophytes (20 h at OD550=0.5) led to delayed germination or slow seedling growth initially. However, the inhibition was overcome by 3 months and the seedlings inoculated with Pantoea, Microbacterium, or Sphingomonas spp. displayed significantly better root and shoot growths.

  3. The Effect of Fermented Papaya Preparation on Radioactive Exposure.

    PubMed

    Fibach, Eitan; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes cellular damage, which can lead to premature cell death or accumulation of somatic mutations, resulting in malignancy. The damage is mediated in part by free radicals, particularly reactive oxygen species. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP), a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn, has been shown to act as an antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the potential of FPP to prevent radiation-induced damage. FPP (0-100 μg/ml) was added to cultured human foreskin fibroblasts and myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cells either before or after irradiation (0-18 Gy). After 1-3 days, the cells were assayed for: intracellular labile iron, measured by staining with calcein; reactive oxygen species generation, measured with dichlorofluorescein diacetate; apoptosis, determined by phosphatidylserine exposure; membrane damage, determined by propidium iodide uptake; and cell survival, determined by a cell proliferation assay. DNA damage was estimated by measuring 8-oxoguanine, a parameter of DNA oxidation, using a fluorescent-specific probe and by the comet assay. These parameters were also assayed in bone marrow cells of mice treated with FPP (by adding it to the drinking water) either before or after irradiation. Somatic mutation accumulation was determined in their peripheral red blood cells, and their survival was monitored. FPP significantly reduced the measured radiation-induced cytotoxic parameters. These findings suggest that FPP might serve as a radioprotector, and its effect on DNA damage and mutagenicity might reduce the long-term effects of radiation, such as primary and secondary malignancy.

  4. Physiological Degradation of Pectin in Papaya Cell Walls: Release of Long Chains Galacturonans Derived from Insoluble Fractions during Postharvest Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    do Prado, Samira B R; Melfi, Paulo R; Castro-Alves, Victor C; Broetto, Sabrina G; Araújo, Elias S; do Nascimento, João R O; Fabi, João P

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a fleshy fruit that presents a rapid pulp softening during ripening. However, the timeline on how papaya pectinases act in polysaccharide solubilization and the consequent modification of the cell wall fractions during ripening is still not clear. In this work, the gene expression correlations between, on one hand, 16 enzymes potentially acting during papaya cell wall disassembling and, on the other hand, the monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions during papaya ripening were evaluated. In order to explain differences in the ripening of papaya samplings, the molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides from water-soluble and oxalate-soluble fractions (WSF and OSF, respectively), as well as the oligosaccharide profiling from the WSF fraction, were evaluated by high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled to a refractive index detector and high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled to pulse amperometric detection analyses, respectively. Results showed that up-regulated polygalacturonase and β-galactosidase genes were positively correlated with some monosaccharide profiles. In addition, an overall increase in the retention time of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) polysaccharides in WSF and OSF was shown. The apparent disappearance of one HMW peak of the OSF may result from the conversion of pectin that were crosslinked with calcium into more soluble forms through the action of PGs, which would increase the solubilization of polysaccharides by lowering their molecular weight. Thus, the results allowed us to propose a detailed process of papaya cell wall disassembling that would affect sensorial properties and post-harvesting losses of this commercially important fruit.

  5. Comparison of safety and efficacy of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution on wound bed preparation in patients with wound gape.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Mangala B; Murthy, Bhasker K; Bhave, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Indian papaya or Carica papaya is known to have de-sloughing and wound-healing properties due to the presence of protease enzymes. The present study was done to compare the efficacy and safety of papaya dressing with hydrogen peroxide solution for preparation of wound bed in patients of postoperative wound gape. A randomized, open-labeled interventional study was carried out over a period of 8 months at a tertiary care hospital on post-caesarean section patients with wound gape. The efficacy parameters studied were duration of time required to induce development of healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospitalization. Safety parameters studied were adverse effects reported by patients and development of hypersensitivity reaction. A total of 64 patients were enrolled, of which 32 patients received hydrogen peroxide dressing and 31 patients received papaya dressing (one patient withdrew after randomization). Time required to induce the development of healthy granulation tissue and total duration of hospitalization were 6.2±1.6 days vs 2.5±0.5 days and 19.2±5.8 days vs 12.92±4.6 days in papaya and hydrogen peroxide dressing groups, respectively. Both primary efficacy parameters were significantly shorter in papaya dressing group. The incidence of adverse effects like local irritation and itching were comparable in both groups and the difference was not statistically significant. Papaya dressing is more efficacious and equally safe as compared to hydrogen peroxide dressing when used for wound bed preparation in patients with postoperative wound gape.

  6. Physiological Degradation of Pectin in Papaya Cell Walls: Release of Long Chains Galacturonans Derived from Insoluble Fractions during Postharvest Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    do Prado, Samira B. R.; Melfi, Paulo R.; Castro-Alves, Victor C.; Broetto, Sabrina G.; Araújo, Elias S.; do Nascimento, João R. O.; Fabi, João P.

    2016-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a fleshy fruit that presents a rapid pulp softening during ripening. However, the timeline on how papaya pectinases act in polysaccharide solubilization and the consequent modification of the cell wall fractions during ripening is still not clear. In this work, the gene expression correlations between, on one hand, 16 enzymes potentially acting during papaya cell wall disassembling and, on the other hand, the monosaccharide composition of cell wall fractions during papaya ripening were evaluated. In order to explain differences in the ripening of papaya samplings, the molecular mass distribution of polysaccharides from water-soluble and oxalate-soluble fractions (WSF and OSF, respectively), as well as the oligosaccharide profiling from the WSF fraction, were evaluated by high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled to a refractive index detector and high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled to pulse amperometric detection analyses, respectively. Results showed that up-regulated polygalacturonase and β-galactosidase genes were positively correlated with some monosaccharide profiles. In addition, an overall increase in the retention time of high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) polysaccharides in WSF and OSF was shown. The apparent disappearance of one HMW peak of the OSF may result from the conversion of pectin that were crosslinked with calcium into more soluble forms through the action of PGs, which would increase the solubilization of polysaccharides by lowering their molecular weight. Thus, the results allowed us to propose a detailed process of papaya cell wall disassembling that would affect sensorial properties and post-harvesting losses of this commercially important fruit. PMID:27512402

  7. Selecting black-spot resistant papaya genotypes derived from backcrossing and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Poltronieri, T P S; Silveira, S F; Vivas, M; Santa Catarina, R; Cortes, D F M; Azevedo, A O N; Pereira, M G

    2017-02-23

    Papaya crop is important to Brazilian agribusiness. However, the expansion of papaya cultivation in the country is affected by the absence of commercial cultivars presenting good disease resistance. The black-spot caused by the fungus Asperisporium caricae is the most damaging foliar disease affecting Brazilian papaya crops. The use of genetically resistant cultivars is a promising strategy to reduce the dependence of papaya crops on fungicides. A field split-plot experiment was carried out in the municipality of Linhares, Espírito Santo State, and included 20 hybrids derived from the cross between 14 superior lines and four elite genotypes ('SS72/12', 'SEKATI', 'JS/12' and '41/7'), two commercial cultivars ('Golden' and 'Tainung 01'), and the superior line '36/7', which were evaluated for resistance to black-spot in the fruits and leaves. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with six repetitions of three plants per plot. The incidence and severity of black spot in the fruits and leaves were evaluated at three different times in the 2015-2016 crop season. Lines 4, 9, 21, and the parent SEKATI were notable for their capacity to reduce disease severity in the leaves and fruits. Lines 1, 2, 9, 16, and 19, and the parents 'SEKATI' and 'SS-72/12' had reduced disease incidence in their fruits. The most resistant hybrids 'SS-72/12 X 4', 'SS-72/12 X 6', 'SEKATI X 1', 'SEKATI X 2', 'SEKATI X 6', 'SEKATI X 9', and 'SEKATI X 20' presented negative heterosis values for improved black-spot resistance. The current study allowed the selection of black-spot resistant genotypes and hybrids, which presented a significantly reduced disease index in the field.

  8. Papaya extract to treat dengue: a novel therapeutic option?

    PubMed

    Sarala, N; Paknikar, Ss

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a viral disease that today affects a vast number of people in over 125 countries and is responsible for a sizable number of deaths. In the absence of an effective antiviral drug to treat the disease, various treatments are being investigated. Studies have indicated that the juice of the leaves of the Carica papaya plant from the family Caricaceae could help to increase the platelet levels in these patients. This review describes some of the published studies on this topic. The search was done independently by the two authors using PubMed, Google and the library database and included relevant articles of the last 10 years. A total of 7 studies were included in this review, which were one animal study, one case report, three case series and two randomized controlled trials. Although many of the studies and case reports published in literature lack adequate information, some of the studies do raise the possibility that this treatment could be an important option in the future. Further large-scale studies could establish the usefulness or ineffectiveness of this natural product in the treatment of dengue.

  9. Effects of papaya leaves on thrombocyte counts in dengue--a case report.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Osama; Sundus, Ayesha; Ibrahim, Mohammad Faisal

    2014-03-01

    Dengue fever is on the rise in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. There is no antiviral chemotherapy or vaccine for dengue virus and management of the disease is done on supportive measures. The decline in the thrombocyte count leads to dengue haemorrhagic fever accounting for complications and mortality. Oral administration of Carica papaya leaves extract is said to have a positive impact on thrombocyte count. A 23-year-old man was administered a calculated dose for five days. Blood samples were tested for complete blood count before and after the administration of the juice. Thrombocyte count had increased from 28000/micro liter to 138000/micro liter at the end of five days. We present our experience here.

  10. Protection and coexistence of conventional papaya productions with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. Transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny ‘SunUp’ and ‘Rainbow’ are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. In small...

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. PMID:26358610

  12. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  13. Cloning of the Papaya Chromoplast-Specific Lycopene β-Cyclase, CpCYC-b, Controlling Fruit Flesh Color Reveals Conserved Microsynteny and a Recombination Hot Spot1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Andrea L.; Ming, Ray; Liu, Zhiyong; Veatch, Olivia J.; Paull, Robert E.; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments in fruits are indicative of the ripening process and potential nutritional value. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruit flesh color is caused by the accumulation of lycopene or β-carotenoids in chromoplasts. It is a distinct feature affecting nutritional composition, fruit quality, shelf life, and consumer preference. To uncover the molecular basis of papaya flesh color, we took map-based cloning and candidate gene approaches using integrated genetic and physical maps. A DNA marker tightly linked to flesh color colocalized on a contig of the physical map with a cDNA probe of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) chromoplast-specific lycopene β-cyclase, CYC-b. Candidate gene sequences were obtained from amplified fragments and verified by sequencing two bacterial artificial chromosomes containing the two alleles. Sequence comparison revealed a 2-bp insertion in the coding region of the recessive red flesh allele resulting in a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. A color complementation test in bacteria confirmed that the papaya CpCYC-b is the gene controlling fruit flesh color. Sequence analysis of wild and cultivated papaya accessions showed the presence of this frame-shift mutation in all red flesh accessions examined. Evaluation of DNA markers near CpCYC-b revealed a recombination hot spot, showing that CpCYC-b is located in a gene-rich region with a recombination rate at 3.7 kb per centimorgan, more than 100-fold higher than the genome average at 400 kb per centimorgan. Conserved microsynteny of the CpCYC-b region is indicated by colinearity of two to four genes between papaya, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grape (Vitis vinifera), and tomato. Our results enhanced our understanding of papaya flesh color inheritance and generated new tools for papaya improvement. PMID:20181753

  14. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  15. Properties of soluble dietary fiber-polysaccharide from papaya peel obtained through alkaline or ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Zeng, Guanglin; Pan, Yonggui; Chen, Wenxue; Huang, Wuyang; Chen, Haiming; Li, Yuansong

    2017-09-15

    Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from the peel of papaya (Carica papaya Linn.) was recovered through alkaline extraction (alkaline-extracted SDF, a-SDF) and ultrasound-assisted alkaline extraction (ultrasound-treated SDF, u-SDF) processes, and the composition, structure and properties of the extracts were compared. The optimal parameters for obtaining the maximum extraction yield of u-SDF were evaluated through response surface methodology. Under optimal conditions, the maximum yield of u-SDF was 36.99%, and u-SDF had a lower total amino acid content but a higher essential amino acid (16.18%) than a-SDF. A monosaccharide analysis indicated that the primary sugars in a-SDF and u-SDF were neutral sugars and pectic saccharides, respectively. An X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that u-SDF was less crystalline than a-SDF. Moreover, a thermal analysis indicated that u-SDF exhibited higher thermal stability. In addition, u-SDF exhibited higher water-holding, oil-holding and swelling capacities than a-SDF. These results indicate that papaya peel is a potential inexpensive source of natural dietary fiber and a potential functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papaya

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Xiue; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming

    2008-01-01

    Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. However, how the recombination suppressed domain expands from the sex-determining locus to the entire Y chromosome remains elusive. The Y chromosome of papaya (Carica papaya) diverged from the X chromosome approximately 2–3 million years ago and represents one of the most recently emerged Y chromosomes. Here, we report that the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) spans ∼13% of the papaya Y chromosome. Interestingly, the centromere of the Y chromosome is embedded in the MSY. The centromeric domain within the MSY has accumulated significantly more DNA than the corresponding X chromosomal domain, which leads to abnormal chromosome pairing. We observed four knob-like heterochromatin structures specific to the MSY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the DNA sequences associated with the heterochromatic knobs are highly divergent and heavily methylated compared with the sequences in the corresponding X chromosomal domains. These results suggest that DNA methylation and heterochromatinization play an important role in the early stage of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:18593814

  17. A set of host proteins interacting with papaya ringspot virus NIa-Pro protein identified in a yeast two-hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Gao, L; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2012-01-01

    The protein-protein interactions between viral and host proteins play an essential role in plant virus infection and host defense. The potyviral nuclear inclusion protein a protease (NIa-Pro) is involved in various steps of viral infection. In this study, the host proteins interacting with papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro were screened in a Carica papaya L. plant cDNA library using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). We confirmed that the full-length EIF3G, FBPA1, FK506BP, GTPBP, MSRB1, and MTL from papaya can interact specifically with PRSV NIa-Pro in yeast, respectively. These proteins fufill important functions in plant protein translation, biotic and abiotic stress, energy metabolism and signal transduction. In this paper, we discuss possible functions of interactions between these host proteins and NIa-Pro in PRSV infection and their role in host defense. Sos recruitment two-hybrid system; papaya ringspot virus; NIa-Pro; protein-protein interaction.

  18. Potential threat of a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Bau, H-J; Kung, Y-J; Raja, J A J; Chan, S-J; Chen, K-C; Chen, Y-K; Wu, H-W; Yeh, S-D

    2008-07-01

    A virus identified as a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, P-TW-WF) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central Taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were evaluated. The infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. This virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the PRSV coat protein, infected only papaya, but not the other 18 plant species tested. Virions studied under electron microscope exhibited morphology and dimensions of potyvirus particles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conducted using potyvirus-specific primers generated a 1,927-nucleotide product corresponding to the 3' region of a potyvirus, showing high sequence identity to the CP gene and 3' noncoding region of PLDMV. Search for similar isolates with the antiserum against CP of P-TW-WF revealed scattered occurrence of PLDMV in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis of PLDMV isolates of Taiwan and Japan indicated that the Taiwan isolates belong to a separate genetic cluster. Since all the Taiwan isolates infected only papaya, unlike the cucurbit-infecting Japanese P type isolates, the Taiwan isolates are considered a new pathotype of PLDMV. Susceptibility of all our PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya lines to PLDMV indicates that the virus is an emerging threat for the application of PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  19. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Effect of Extracts of Fermented Papaya Powder

    PubMed Central

    Barbagallo, Mario; Marotta, Francesco; Dominguez, Ligia J.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tissue is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress (OS). Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant systems, and decreased efficiency in repairing mechanisms have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem studies in AD patients' brains have shown oxidative damage markers (i.e., lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and glycoxidation). Fermented papaya (FPP, a product of Carica papaya Linn fermentation with yeast) is a nutraceutical supplement with favorable effects on immunological, hematological, inflammatory, and OS parameters in chronic/degenerative diseases. We studied 40 patients (age 78.2 ± 1.1 years), 28 AD patients, and 12 controls. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured to assess OS. Twenty AD patients were supplemented with FPP (Immunage, 4.5 grams/day) for 6 months, while controls did not receive any treatment. At baseline, 8-OHdG was significantly higher in patients with AD versus controls (13.7 ± 1.61 ng/mL versus 1.6 ± 0.12 ng/mL, P < 0.01). In AD patients FPP significantly decreased 8-OHdG (14.1 ± 1.7 ng/mL to 8.45 ± 1.1 ng/mL, P < 0.01), with no significant changes in controls. AD is associated with increased OS, and FPP may be helpful to counteract excessive ROS in AD patients. PMID:25944987

  1. Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation.

    PubMed

    Aruoma, Okezie I; Hayashi, Yuki; Marotta, Francesco; Mantello, Pierre; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Montagnier, Luc

    2010-11-28

    Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) (a product of yeast fermentation of Carica papaya Linn) is a food supplement. Studies in chronic and degenerative disease conditions (such as thalassemia, cirrhosis, diabetes and aging) and performance sports show that FPP favorably modulates immunological, hematological, inflammatory, vascular and oxidative stress damage parameters. Neuroprotective potential evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease cell model showed that the toxicity of the β-amyloid can be significantly modulated by FPP. Oxidative stress trigger apoptotic pathways such as the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) are preferentially activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress resulting in cell differentiation and apoptosis. FPP modulated the H₂O₂-induced ERK, Akt and p38 activation with the reduction of p38 phosphorylation induced by H₂O₂. FPP reduces the extent of the H₂O₂-induced DNA damage, an outcome corroborated by similar effects obtained in the benzo[a]pyrene treated cells. No genotoxic effect was observed in experiments with FPP exposed to HepG2 cells nor was FPP toxic to the PC12 cells. Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and inflammation are implicated in a variety of cancers, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular dysfunctions, neurodegenerative disorders (such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease), exercise physiology (including performance sports) and aging. These conditions could potentially benefit from functional nutraceutical/food supplements (as illustrated here with fermented papaya preparation) exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunostimulatory (at the level of the mucus membrane) and induction of antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of a putative triacylglycerol lipase from papaya latex by functional proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dhouib, R; Laroche-Traineau, J; Shaha, R; Lapaillerie, D; Solier, E; Rualès, J; Pina, M; Villeneuve, P; Carrière, F; Bonneu, M; Arondel, V

    2011-01-01

    Latex from Caricaceae has been known since 1925 to contain strong lipase activity. However, attempts to purify and identify the enzyme were not successful, mainly because of the lack of solubility of the enzyme. Here, we describe the characterization of lipase activity of the latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii and the identification of a putative homologous lipase from Carica papaya. Triacylglycerol lipase activity was enriched 74-fold from crude latex of Vasconcellea heilbornii to a specific activity (SA) of 57 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) on long-chain triacylglycerol (olive oil). The extract was also active on trioctanoin (SA = 655 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ), tributyrin (SA = 1107 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ) and phosphatidylcholine (SA = 923 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) ). The optimum pH ranged from 8.0 to 9.0. The protein content of the insoluble fraction of latex was analyzed by electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry, and 28 different proteins were identified. The protein fraction was incubated with the lipase inhibitor [(14) C]tetrahydrolipstatin, and a 45 kDa protein radiolabeled by the inhibitor was identified as being a putative lipase. A C. papaya cDNA encoding a 55 kDa protein was further cloned, and its deduced sequence had 83.7% similarity with peptides from the 45 kDa protein, with a coverage of 25.6%. The protein encoded by this cDNA had 35% sequence identity and 51% similarity to castor bean acid lipase, suggesting that it is the lipase responsible for the important lipolytic activities detected in papaya latex.

  3. Ficus carica L.: Metabolic and biological screening.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Silva, Branca M; Tavares, Fernando; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-11-01

    Ficus carica L. is one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on the leaves, pulps and peels of two Portuguese white varieties of F. carica (Pingo de Mel and Branca Tradicional). Phenolics and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. All samples presented a similar phenolic profile composed by 3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, psoralen and bergapten. 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are described for the first time in this species. Leaves' organic acids profile presented oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids, while in pulps and peels quinic acid was absent. The antioxidant potential of the different plant parts was checked. All materials exhibited activity against DPPH and nitric oxide radicals in a concentration-dependent way. However, only the leaves presented capacity to scavenge superoxide radical. Leaves were always the most effective part, which seems to be related with phenolics compounds. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but no effect was observed. Antimicrobial potential was also assessed against several bacterial species, although no activity was noticed. This is the first study comparing the chemical composition and biological potential of F. carica pulps, peels and leaves.

  4. Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Claudia R.; Oliveira, Marcia B. N.; Motta, Ellen S.; de Almeida, Gabriella S.; Varanda, Leandro L.; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Alvaro C.; Caldeira-de-Araújo, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Papain, a phytotherapeutic agent, has been used in the treatment of eschars and as a debriding chemical agent to remove damaged or necrotic tissue of pressure ulcers and gangrene. Its benefits in these treatments are deemed effective, since more than 5000 patients, at the public university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have undergone papain treatment and presented satisfactory results. Despite its extensive use, there is little information about toxic and mutagenic properties of papain. This work evaluated the toxic and mutagenic potential of papain and its potential antioxidant activity against induced-H2O2 oxidative stress in Escherichia coli strains. Cytotoxicity assay, Growth inhibition test, WP2-Mutoxitest and Plasmid-DNA treatment, and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to investigate if papain would present any toxic or mutagenic potential as well as if papain would display antioxidant properties. Papain exhibited negative results for all tests. This agent presented an activity protecting cells against H2O2-induced mutagenesis. PMID:20508844

  5. Rapid Construction of Stable Infectious Full-Length cDNA Clone of Papaya Leaf Distortion Mosaic Virus Using In-Fusion Cloning.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) is becoming a threat to papaya and transgenic papaya resistant to the related pathogen, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The generation of infectious viral clones is an essential step for reverse-genetics studies of viral gene function and cross-protection. In this study, a sequence- and ligation-independent cloning system, the In-Fusion(®) Cloning Kit (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA), was used to construct intron-less or intron-containing full-length cDNA clones of the isolate PLDMV-DF, with the simultaneous scarless assembly of multiple viral and intron fragments into a plasmid vector in a single reaction. The intron-containing full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV-DF was stably propagated in Escherichia coli. In vitro intron-containing transcripts were processed and spliced into biologically active intron-less transcripts following mechanical inoculation and then initiated systemic infections in Carica papaya L. seedlings, which developed similar symptoms to those caused by the wild-type virus. However, no infectivity was detected when the plants were inoculated with RNA transcripts from the intron-less construct because the instability of the viral cDNA clone in bacterial cells caused a non-sense or deletion mutation of the genomic sequence of PLDMV-DF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV and the splicing of intron-containing transcripts following mechanical inoculation. In-Fusion cloning shortens the construction time from months to days. Therefore, it is a faster, more flexible, and more efficient method than the traditional multistep restriction enzyme-mediated subcloning procedure.

  6. Rapid Construction of Stable Infectious Full-Length cDNA Clone of Papaya Leaf Distortion Mosaic Virus Using In-Fusion Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) is becoming a threat to papaya and transgenic papaya resistant to the related pathogen, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The generation of infectious viral clones is an essential step for reverse-genetics studies of viral gene function and cross-protection. In this study, a sequence- and ligation-independent cloning system, the In-Fusion® Cloning Kit (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA), was used to construct intron-less or intron-containing full-length cDNA clones of the isolate PLDMV-DF, with the simultaneous scarless assembly of multiple viral and intron fragments into a plasmid vector in a single reaction. The intron-containing full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV-DF was stably propagated in Escherichia coli. In vitro intron-containing transcripts were processed and spliced into biologically active intron-less transcripts following mechanical inoculation and then initiated systemic infections in Carica papaya L. seedlings, which developed similar symptoms to those caused by the wild-type virus. However, no infectivity was detected when the plants were inoculated with RNA transcripts from the intron-less construct because the instability of the viral cDNA clone in bacterial cells caused a non-sense or deletion mutation of the genomic sequence of PLDMV-DF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV and the splicing of intron-containing transcripts following mechanical inoculation. In-Fusion cloning shortens the construction time from months to days. Therefore, it is a faster, more flexible, and more efficient method than the traditional multistep restriction enzyme-mediated subcloning procedure. PMID:26633465

  7. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Basavaraj; Tena, Fatima; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome), but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome), associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54), which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of the highland papayas ( Vasconcellea) and allied genera (Caricaceae) using PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Van Droogenbroeck, B; Kyndt, T; Maertens, I; Romeijn-Peeters, E; Scheldeman, X; Romero-Motochi, J P; Van Damme, P; Goetghebeur, P; Gheysen, G

    2004-05-01

    The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA diversity of 61 genotypes belonging to 18 Vasconcellea species, the so-called highland papayas, was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis of two non-coding cpDNA regions ( trnM- rbcL and trnK1- trnK2) and one non-coding mtDNA region ( nad4/1- nad4/2). This sample set was supplemented with six genotypes belonging to three other Caricaceae genera: the monotypic genus Carica, including only the cultivated papaya, and the genera Jacaratia and Cylicomorpha. Moringa ovalifolia was added as an outgroup species. The PCR-amplified cpDNA regions were digested with 18 restriction endonucleases, the mtDNA region with 11. A total of 22 point mutations and four insertion/deletions were scored in the sample. A higher level of interspecific variation was detected in the two cpDNA regions in comparison to the analysis of the mtDNA. Wagner parsimony and Neighbor-Joining analysis resulted in dendrograms with similar topologies. PCR-RFLP analysis supported the monophyly of Caricaceae, but among the 26 mutations scored, an insufficient number of markers discriminated between the different Caricaceae genera included in this study. Hence the inference of the intergeneric relationships within Caricaceae was impossible. However, some conclusions can be noted at a lower taxonomic level. The Caricaceae species were divided into two lineages. One group included only Vasconcellea spp., whereas the second included the remaining Vasconcellea spp., together with the papaya genotypes and those from the other Caricaceae genera. This may indicate a higher level of inter-fertility for the Vasconcellea species from the latter clade in interspecific crossings with papaya. The putative progenitors of the natural sterile hybrid V. x heilbornii, i.e. V. stipulata and V. cundinamarcensis, were only distantly related to V. x heilbornii. This indicates that probably none of these species was involved as the maternal progenitor in the origin of V. x heilbornii. Surprisingly, V. x

  9. Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2013-02-20

    The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety.

  10. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  11. Fermented papaya preparation modulates the progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Somanah, Jhoti; Ramsaha, Srishti; Verma, Shalini; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Ranjan Kumar; Aruoma, Okezie I; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2016-04-15

    The medicinal properties of fermented papaya preparation (FPP) derived from Carica papaya fruit was investigated in order to determine its ability to modulate the progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Balb/c mice. As well as reducing the physical symptoms associated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma, supplementation of Balb/c mice with 500mg FPP/kg BW for 92days normalized the blood cell count, led to an increased activity of several key antioxidant enzymes (SOD: +20%, CAT: +81%, GPx: +66.1%, GR: +54.4%; P<0.001 vs. MNU control), increased the ferrous reducing antioxidant potential (+36.7%, P<0.001 vs. MNU control) and reduced the extent of lipid peroxidation in the liver by 44.3% (P<0.001 vs. MNU control). Results demonstrated the ability of FPP to preserve the integrity of liver against oxidative damage and protect hepatocytes against irreversible DNA structural modifications induced by MNU, highlighting its potential role as an immune-defense modulator during hepatocarcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biotic stress induced demolition of thylakoid structure and loss in photoelectron transport of chloroplasts in papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Rashmi Madhumita; Biswal, Basanti

    2008-04-01

    Papaya mosaic virus (PMV) causes severe mosaic symptoms in the papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaves. The PMV-induced alterations in photosystem II (PS II) structure and photochemical functions were probed. An increase in chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence polarization suggests pathogen-induced transformation of thylakoid membrane to a gel phase. This transformation in physical state of thylakoid membrane may result in alteration in topology of pigments on pigment-binding proteins as reflected in pathogen-induced loss in the efficiency of energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophylls. The fast Chl a fluorescence induction kinetics of healthy and PMV-infected plants by F(O)-F(J)-F(I)-F(P) transients revealed pathogen-induced perturbation on PS II acceptor side electron transfer equilibrium between Q(A) and Q(B) and in the pool size of electron transport acceptors. Pathogen-induced loss in photosynthetic pigments, changes in thylakoid structure and decrease in the ratio of F(V)/F(M) (photochemical potential of PS II) further correlate with the loss in photoelectron transport of PS II as probed by 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP)-Hill reaction. Restoration of the loss by 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC), an exogenous electron donor, that donates electron directly to reaction centre II bypassing the oxygen evolving system (OES), leads towards the conclusion that OES is one of the major targets of biotic stress. Further, the data suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence could be used as a non-invasive handy tool to assess the loss in photosynthetic efficiency and symptom severity in infected green tissues vis-a-vis the healthy ones.

  13. Strategies of leaf expansion in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A M; Peters, J

    2010-05-01

    Leaf area expansion, thickness and inclination, gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content were analysed in field-grown fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves over time, from emergence until after full leaf expansion (FLE). Ficus carica leaves showed a subtle change in shape during the early stages of development, and FLE was reached within ca. 30 days after emergence. Changes in leaf thickness and inclination after FLE demonstrated good adaptation to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Changes in gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content showed that F. carica is a delayed-greening species, reaching maximum values 20 days after FLE. Correlation analysis of datasets collected during leaf expansion, confirmed dependence among structural and functional traits in F. carica. Pn was directly correlated with stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (E), leaf area (LA) and relative chlorophyll content up to FLE. The effect of pruning on leaf expansion, a cultural technique commonly applied in this fruit tree, was also evaluated. Although leaf development in pruned branches gave a significantly higher relative leaf area growth rate (RGR(l)) and higher LA than non-pruned branches, no significant differences were found in other morphological and physiological traits, indicating no pruning effect on leaf development. All studied morphological and physiological characteristics indicate that F. carica is well adapted to semiarid conditions. The delayed greening strategy of this species is discussed.

  14. Effects of the Papaya meleira virus on papaya latex structure and composition.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Silas P; Da Cunha, Maura; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2009-05-01

    Spontaneous latex exudation is the main symptom of papaya sticky (meleira) disease caused by the Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus. This paper describes different effects of PMeV on papaya latex. Latex samples were subjected to different histochemical tests to evaluate their chemical composition. Additionally, the integrity of the latex particles was assessed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Biochemical and micro- and macro-element measurements were performed. PMeV dsRNA extraction was performed to evaluate the interaction of the virus with the latex particles. Sticky diseased latex was positive for alkaloid biosynthesis and showed an accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals. PMeV also increased H(2)O(2) synthesis within sticky diseased laticifers. The protein, sugar and water levels were altered, probably due to chemical changes. The morphology of the latex particles was further altered; PMeV particles seemed to be bound to the latex particles. The alkaloid and H(2)O(2) biosynthesis in the papaya laticifers indicate a papaya defense response against PMeV. However, such efforts failed, as the virus affected the plant latex. The effects described here suggest some advantages of the infection process, including facilitating the movement of the virus within the papaya plant.

  15. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  16. Host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, R H; Herath, H M

    1981-01-01

    75 plant species from 11 families were tested in Sri Lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. After inoculation with this virus, six species, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. Thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

  17. The Relationship between the Expression of Ethylene-Related Genes and Papaya Fruit Ripening Disorder Caused by Chilling Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya. PMID:25542021

  18. The relationship between the expression of ethylene-related genes and papaya fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya.

  19. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus

    PubMed Central

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease. PMID:27092495

  20. Physical Characteristics of the Leaves and Latex of Papaya Plants Infected with the Papaya meleira Virus.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Vencioneck Dutra, Jean Carlos; Carneiro, Tarcio; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, Jose Aires; Higuera-Ciapara, Inocencio; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2016-04-15

    Sticky disease, which is caused by Papaya meleira virus (PMeV), is a significant papaya disease in Brazil and Mexico, where it has caused severe economic losses, and it seems to have spread to Central and South America. Studies assessing the pathogen-host interaction at the nano-histological level are needed to better understand the mechanisms that underlie natural resistance. In this study, the topography and mechanical properties of the leaf midribs and latex of healthy and PMeV-infected papaya plants were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Healthy plants displayed a smooth surface with practically no roughness of the leaf midribs and the latex and a higher adhesion force than infected plants. PMeV promotes changes in the leaf midribs and latex, making them more fragile and susceptible to breakage. These changes, which are associated with increased water uptake and internal pressure in laticifers, causes cell disruption that leads to spontaneous exudation of the latex and facilitates the spread of PMeV to other laticifers. These results provide new insights into the papaya-PMeV interaction that could be helpful for controlling papaya sticky disease.

  1. Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya: Commercial Development and Regulatory and Environmental Issues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Hawaii, transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed starting in the 1980s and released commercially in 1998 to combat the wide spread destruction of Hawaii’s papaya industry. This review describes the proactive development of the transgenic papaya and its impact on ...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-25 - Papayas from Central America and Brazil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Papayas from Central America and Brazil. 319.56-25... § 319.56-25 Papayas from Central America and Brazil. The Solo type of papaya may be imported into the... section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. (a) The papayas were grown and packed...

  3. Diffraction studies of papaya mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Tollin, P; Bancroft, J B; Richardson, J F; Payne, N C; Beveridge, T J

    1979-10-15

    X-ray and optical diffraction studies of the flexuous papaya mosaic virus are described. The virus is constructed so that there are 35 coat protein subunits in 4 turns of the helix. The virus contains about 1410 protein subunits and 6800 nucleotides and has a molecular weight of about 33 x 10(6). The structure of tubes assembled in vitro from coat protein both in the presence and absence of nucleic acid resembles that of the native virus.

  4. Improved function of diabetic wound-site macrophages and accelerated wound closure in response to oral supplementation of a fermented papaya preparation.

    PubMed

    Collard, Eric; Roy, Sashwati

    2010-09-01

    Carica papaya Linn is widely known as a medicinal fruit. We sought to study a standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) for its effects on wound healing in adult obese diabetic (db/db) mice. FPP blunted the gain in blood glucose and improved the lipid profile after 8 weeks of oral supplementation. However, FPP did not influence weight gain during the supplementation period. FPP (0.2 g/kg body weight) supplementation for 8 weeks before wounding was effective in correcting wound closure. Studies on viable macrophages isolated from the wound site demonstrated that FPP supplementation improved respiratory-burst function as well as inducible NO production. Reactive oxygen species support numerous aspects of wound healing; NO availability in diabetic wounds is known to be compromised. Diabetic mice supplemented with FPP showed a higher abundance of CD68 as well as CD31 at the wound site, suggesting effective recruitment of monocytes and an improved proangiogenic response. This work provides the first evidence that diabetic-wound outcomes may benefit from FPP supplementation by specifically influencing the response of wound-site macrophages and the subsequent angiogenic response. Given that FPP has a long track record of safe human consumption, testing of the beneficial effects of FPP on diabetic wound-related outcomes in a clinical setting is warranted.

  5. Improved Function of Diabetic Wound-Site Macrophages and Accelerated Wound Closure in Response to Oral Supplementation of a Fermented Papaya Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Carica papaya Linn is widely known as a medicinal fruit. We sought to study a standardized fermented papaya preparation (FPP) for its effects on wound healing in adult obese diabetic (db/db) mice. FPP blunted the gain in blood glucose and improved the lipid profile after 8 weeks of oral supplementation. However, FPP did not influence weight gain during the supplementation period. FPP (0.2 g/kg body weight) supplementation for 8 weeks before wounding was effective in correcting wound closure. Studies on viable macrophages isolated from the wound site demonstrated that FPP supplementation improved respiratory-burst function as well as inducible NO production. Reactive oxygen species support numerous aspects of wound healing; NO availability in diabetic wounds is known to be compromised. Diabetic mice supplemented with FPP showed a higher abundance of CD68 as well as CD31 at the wound site, suggesting effective recruitment of monocytes and an improved proangiogenic response. This work provides the first evidence that diabetic-wound outcomes may benefit from FPP supplementation by specifically influencing the response of wound-site macrophages and the subsequent angiogenic response. Given that FPP has a long track record of safe human consumption, testing of the beneficial effects of FPP on diabetic wound–related outcomes in a clinical setting is warranted. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 599–606. PMID:20095880

  6. Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

  7. High-resolution structure of a papaya plant-defense barwin-like protein solved by in-house sulfur-SAD phasing.

    PubMed

    Huet, Joëlle; Teinkela Mbosso, Emmanuel Jean; Soror, Sameh; Meyer, Franck; Looze, Yvan; Wintjens, René; Wohlkönig, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    The first crystal structure of a barwin-like protein, named carwin, has been determined at high resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) phasing using the six intrinsic S atoms present in the protein. The barwin-like protein was purified from Carica papaya latex and crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P212121. Using in-house Cu Kα X-ray radiation, 16 cumulative diffraction data sets were acquired to increase the signal-to-noise level and thereby the anomalous scattering signal. A sequence-database search on the papaya genome identified two carwin isoforms of 122 residues in length, both containing six S atoms that yield an estimated Bijvoet ratio of 0.93% at 1.54 Å wavelength. A systematic analysis of data quality and redundancy was performed to assess the capacity to locate the S atoms and to phase the data. It was observed that the crystal decay was low during data collection and that successful S-SAD phasing could be obtained with a relatively low data multiplicity of about 7. Using a synchrotron source, high-resolution data (1 Å) were collected from two different crystal forms of the papaya latex carwin. The refined structures showed a central β-barrel of six strands surrounded by several α-helices and loops. The β-barrel of carwin appears to be a common structural module that is shared within several other unrelated proteins. Finally, the possible biological function of the protein is discussed.

  8. A single amino acid of niapro of papaya ringspot virus determines host specificity for infection of papaya.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Raja, Joseph A J; Liu, Fang-Lin; Tai, Chun-Hsi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2008-08-01

    Most strains of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) belong to type W, causing severe loss on cucurbits worldwide, or type P, devastating papaya in tropical areas. While the host range of PRSV W is limited to plants of the families Chenopodiaceae and Cucuribitaceae, PRSV P, in addition, infects plants of the family Caricaceae (papaya family). To investigate one or more viral genetic determinants for papaya infection, recombinant viruses were constructed between PRSV P-YK and PRSV W-CI. Host reactions to recombinant viruses indicated that the viral genomic region covering the C-terminal region (142 residues) of NIaVPg, full NIaPro, and N-terminal region (18 residues) of NIb, is critical for papaya infection. Sequence analysis of this region revealed residue variations at position 176 of NIaVPg and positions 27 and 205 of NIaPro between type P and W viruses. Host reactions to the constructed mutants indicated that the amino acid Lys27 of NIaPro determines the host-specificity of PRSV for papaya infection. Predicted three-dimensional structures of NIaPros of parental viruses suggested that Lys27 does not affect the protease activity of NIaPro. Recovery of the infected plants from certain papaya-infecting mutants implied involvement of other viral factors for enhancing virulence and adaptation of PRSV on papaya.

  9. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  10. Subassembly aggregates of papaya mosaic virus protein.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J W; Hallett, F R; Bancroft, J B

    1983-08-01

    An examination of the number of subunits in small aggregates of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein is presented based on a model system which gives results consistent with the experimental observation that the 14 S subassembly species is a double disc, composed of two rows of nine subunits each. The estimated hydration of the disc, about 0.85 g 1H20/9 protein, is unusually large and indicates a cavitated structure for the disc. Comparison with other rod-shaped viruses suggests that the flexuous nature of PMV is a consequence of sparse axial inter-subunit contacts at high radius.

  11. ESR detection procedure of irradiated papaya containing high water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2011-05-01

    ESR signals were recorded from irradiated papaya at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and freeze-dried irradiated papaya at room temperature (295 K). Two side peaks from the flesh at the liquid nitrogen temperature indicated a linear dose response for 3-14 days after the γ-irradiation. The line shapes recorded from the freeze-dried specimens were sharper than those at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  12. NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2012-12-05

    A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense.

  13. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus from commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, D; Shen, W; Yan, P; Li, Ch; Gao, L; Li, X; Li, H; Zhou, P

    2013-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus is highly destructive to commercial papaya production. Here, the complete genome sequence was determined for an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, designated PLDMV-DF, infecting the commercialized papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant transgenic papaya from China. Excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, the sequence shares high sequence identity to several PLDMV isolates from Taiwan and Japan and is phylogenetically most closely related to the isolate from Japan. Infection of PLDMV-DF in transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya may indicate emergence of this disease in genetically engineered plants. The reported sequence for this isolate may help generate bi-transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV and PLDMV.

  14. Further insight into the latex metabolite profile of Ficus carica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Silva, Luís R; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Branca M; Gonçalves, Rui F; Pereira, José A; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2010-10-27

    Latex is a sticky emulsion that exudes upon damage from specialized canals from several plants. It contains several biologically active compounds, such as phytosterols, fatty acids, and amino acids. In plants, these compounds are involved in the interaction between plants, insects, and the environment. Despite its chemical, biological, and ecological importance, Ficus carica latex is still poorly studied. To improve the knowledge on the metabolite profile of this matrix, a targeted metabolite analysis was performed in a representative sample from F. carica latex. Seven phytosterols were determined by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), with β-sitosterol and lupeol being the compounds present in higher concentrations (ca. 54 and 14%, respectively). A total of 18 fatty acids were characterized by GC-ITMS, being essentially represented by saturated fatty acids (ca. 86.4% of total fatty acids). A total of 13 free amino acids were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (HPLC/UV-vis), and cysteine and tyrosine were the major ones (ca. 38.7 and 31.4%, respectively). In humans, phytosterols and some polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, are known for their anticarcinogenic properties. With regard to amino acids, some of them, such as glycine, are neurotransmitters. Our results reveal the presence of a wide diversity of compounds, from distinct classes, in F. carica latex, possessing various potential pharmacological activities; thus, its biological potential appears to be worth further exploring.

  15. Nucleotide sequence of papaya mosaic virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Sit, T L; Abouhaidar, M G; Holy, S

    1989-09-01

    The RNA genome of papaya mosaic virus is 6656 nucleotides long [excluding the poly(A) tail] with six open reading frames (ORFs) more than 200 nucleotides long. The four nearest the 5' end each overlap with adjacent ORFs and could code for proteins with Mr 176307, 26248, 11949 and 7224 (ORFs 1 to 4). The fifth ORF produces the capsid protein of Mr 23043 and the sixth ORF, located completely within ORF1, could code for a protein with Mr 14113. The translation products of ORFs 1 to 3 show strong similarity with those of other potexviruses but the ORF 4 protein has only limited similarity with the other potexvirus ORF 4 proteins of 7K to 11K.

  16. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C.; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Yh regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations’ geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Yh sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Yh divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Yh arose only ∼4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Yh chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Yh chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

  17. Protection and conservation of Caricaceae germplasm with PRSV resistant transgenic papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. Here we ...

  18. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    PubMed

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2.

  19. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J. Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G.; Souza, Flávia O.; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or “meleira”, is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  20. Subchronic Immunotoxicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Virus-Resistant Papaya in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yen, Gow-Chin; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2016-07-27

    Papaya is an important fruit that provides a variety of vitamins with nutritional value and also holds some pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. Genetically modified (GM) papaya plants resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection have been generated by cloning the coat protein gene of the PRSV which can be used as a valuable strategy to fight PRSV infection and to increase papaya production. In order to assess the safety of GM papaya as a food, this subchronic study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory responses of the GM papaya line 823-2210, when compared with its parent plant of non-GM papaya, Tainung-2 (TN-2), in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Both non-GM and GM 823-2210 papaya fruits at low (1 g/kg bw) and high (2 g/kg bw) dosages were administered via daily oral gavage to male and female rats consecutively for 90 days. Immunophenotyping, mitogen-induced splenic cell proliferation, antigen-specific antibody response, and histopathology of the spleen and thymus were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Results of immunotoxicity assays revealed no consistent difference between rats fed for 90 days with GM 823-2210 papaya fruits, as opposed to those fed non-GM TN-2 papaya fruits, suggesting that with regard to immunomodulatory responses, GM 823-2210 papaya fruits maintain substantial equivalence to fruits of their non-GM TN-2 parent.

  1. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya.

  2. Sequence and genome organization of papaya meleira virus infecting papaya in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Emanuel F M; Daltro, Cleidiane B; Nogueira, Elsa O P L; Andrade, Eduardo C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-01

    Papaya sticky disease ('meleira') was first observed in Brazil at the beginning of the 1980s. The disease is characterized by intense latex exudation from the fruit surface that becomes dark as it oxidizes, which makes it difficult to sell. The causal agent, which has been called papaya meleira virus (PMeV), has been identified as an isometric virus particle, approximately 50 nm in diameter, with a double-stranded RNA genome. Here, we report the first complete sequence and organization of the 8.7-kb viral dsRNA genome. Two ORFs coding for a putative coat protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) were predicted. In silico analysis revealed that the translated ORF2 contains the conserved domains characteristic of an RdRp protein (pfam02123:RdRP 4), which is a family that includes RdRps from members of the genera Luteovirus, Totivirus and Rotavirus. Evolutionary analysis with amino acid sequences with the RdRps from members of the family Totiviridae and some dsRNA viruses showed that PMeV RdRp did not root itself in any genus.

  3. Consumer in-store response to irradiated papayas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruhn, C.M.; Noell, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present. Informational material was available.

  4. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  5. Organization and evolution of mating-type genes in three Stagonosporopsis species causing gummy stem blight of cucurbits and leaf spot and dry rot of papaya.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao-Xi; Gottilla, Thomas M; Brewer, Marin Talbot

    2017-10-01

    Population divergence and speciation of closely related lineages can result from reproductive differences leading to genetic isolation. An increasing number of fungal diseases of plants and animals have been determined to be caused by morphologically indistinguishable species that are genetically distinct, thereby representing cryptic species. We were interested in identifying if mating systems among three Stagonosporopsis species (S. citrulli, S. cucurbitacearum, and S. caricae) causing gummy stem blight (GSB) of cucurbits or leaf spot and dry rot of papaya differed, possibly underlying species divergence. Additionally, we were interested in identifying evolutionary pressures acting on the genes controlling mating in these fungi. The mating-type loci (MAT1) of three isolates from each of the three species were identified in draft genome sequences. For the three species, MAT1 was structurally identical and contained both mating-type genes necessary for sexual reproduction, which suggests that all three species are homothallic. However, both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 were divergent among species showing rapid evolution with a much greater number of amino acid-changing substitutions detected for the reproductive genes compared with genes flanking MAT1. Positive selection was detected in MAT1-2-1, especially in the highly conserved high mobility group (MATA_HMG-box) domain. Thus, the mating-type genes are rapidly evolving in GSB fungi, but a difference in mating systems among the three species does not underlie their divergence. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  7. Papaya fruit quality management during the postharvest supply chain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papayas are popular in tropical and subtropical regions and are being exported in large volumes to Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The fruit has excellent taste, exotic flavor and nutritional properties, being rich in vitamins A, C, and antioxidants. However, due to its highly perishable nature it has n...

  8. 75 FR 22207 - Importation of Papayas From Colombia and Ecuador

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... experience, along with our PRAs, our RMD, and our knowledge of the conditions in Colombia and Ecuador... must be halted until the rate of capture drops to an average of 7 or fewer Medflies per trap per week... papayas from that production area must be halted until the rate of capture drops to an average of 7 or...

  9. Papaya Varietal Resistance to Internal Yellowing: Reducing Food Safety Risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya fruit that is caused by the enteric bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. The disease is characterized by yellow discoloration of flesh, tissue softening and a foul or rotten odor that reduces the quality of fresh fruit and value-added pr...

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya.

  12. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): an ancient source of food and health.

    PubMed

    Barolo, Melisa I; Ruiz Mostacero, Nathalie; López, Silvia N

    2014-12-01

    Since early in the man history, common fig was appreciated as food and for its medicinal properties. This review explores some aspects about the importance of Ficus carica L., an amazing and ancient source of medicines and food. Topics regarding chemistry, biological activity, ethno-pharmacological uses, and its nutritional value are discussed, as well as the potential of the species as a source of new and different chemical scaffolds. Very important in the past, appreciated in our time and extremely promising in the future, F. carica represents an interesting example of healthy foods and bioproducts.

  13. Phenylpropanoid composition in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Kohno, Masahiro

    2017-06-06

    The leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) have been used for traditional and Chinese medicine. We determined the composition of phenylpropanoids (polyphenols and furanocoumarins) as a functional agent in the leaves of 37 cultivars of fig. The most abundant polyphenol was caffeoylmalic acid (12.0-26.6 mg/g dry weight), followed by rutin (4.7-14.6 mg/g dry weight) and isoschaftoside (2.5-6.4 mg/g dry weight). Psoralen (3.8-23.0 mg/g dry weight) was dominant in the furanocoumarins. In molar amounts, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG), a precursor of psoralen, was equivalent to psoralen. Furanocoumarins and PAG were not detected in the leaves of only one cultivar, Grise de Tarascon. Fig leaves are potentially an excellent source of polyphenols such as caffeoylmalic acid and rutin. From the result of cluster analysis, some cultivars that contained large amount of polyphenols, and a small amount (e.g., Grise de Saint Jean) or no (Grise de Tarascon) furanocoumarins, were found. These cultivars are considered suitable for functional foods or medicinal products.

  14. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-01-12

    In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK. Copyright © 2017 Ali.

  15. 76 FR 49725 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From Malaysia into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... authorize the importation into the continental United States of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. Based on... weeds via the importation of fresh papaya fruit from Malaysia. DATES: Effective Date: August 11, 2011...

  16. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK. PMID:28082489

  17. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt...

  18. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt...

  19. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt...

  20. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt...

  1. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are exempt...

  2. Assaying for pollen drift from transgenic Rainbow to nontransgenic Kapoho papaya under commercial and experimental field conditions in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1992 papaya ringpsot virus (PRSV) was discovered in Puna district of Hawaii Island where 95% of the state of Hawaii’s papaya was being grown. By 1998 production in Puna had decreased 50% from 1998 levels. A PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya ‘Rainbow’ expressing the coat protein gene of PRSV was ...

  3. A bio-hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.Y.; Chou, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Hybrid anaerobic treatment of papaya processing wastes is technically feasible. At 30/sup 0/C, the optimal organic loading rates for maximizing organic removal efficiency and methane production are 1.3 and 4.8 g TCOD/1/day, respectively. Elimination of post-handling and treatment of digested effluent can also be achieved. The system is more suitable for those processing plants with a waste amount of more than 3,000 metric tons per year.

  4. In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Ficus carica latex fractions against resistant human pathogens (antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica latex).

    PubMed

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) for bacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungi-inhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis). For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500 microg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 750 microg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results.

  5. The potential of papaya leaf extract in controlling Ganoderma boninense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Z. H.; Chong, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease causes significant losses to the oil palm industry. Numerous controls have been applied in managing the disease but no conclusive result was reported. This study investigated the antifungal potential of papaya leaf extracts against Ganoderma boninense, the causal pathogen of BSR. Among the five different solvents tested in extraction of compounds from papaya leaf, methanol and acetone gave the highest yield. In vitro antifungal activity of the methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated against G. boninense using agar dilution at four concentrations: 5 mg mL-1, 15 mg mL-1, 30 mg mL-1and 45 mg mL-1. The results indicated a positive correlation between the concentration of leaf extracts and the inhibition of G. boninense. ED50 of methanol and acetone crude extracts were determined to be 32.016 mg mL-1and 65.268 mg mL-1, respectively. The extracts were later semi-purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the nine bioactive compounds were identified: decanoic acid, 2-methyl-, Z,Z-10-12-Hexadecadien-1-ol acetate, dinonanoin monocaprylin, 2-chloroethyl oleate, phenol,4-(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol,2,4-bis(1-phenylethyl)-, phenol-2-(1-phenylethyl)-, ethyl iso-allocholate and 1- monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether. The findings suggest that papaya leaf extracts have the ability to inhibit the growth of G. boninense, where a higher concentration of the extract exhibits better inhibition effects.

  6. Organelle DNA accumulation in the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Ming, Ray

    2013-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are a pair of specialized chromosomes containing a sex determination region that is suppressed for recombination. Without recombination, Y chromosomes are thought to accumulate repetitive DNA sequences which contribute to their degeneration. A pair of primitive sex chromosomes controls sex type in papaya with male and hermaphrodite determined by the slightly different male-specific region of the Y (MSY) and hermaphrodite-specific region of Y(h) (HSY) chromosomes, respectively. Here, we show that the papaya HSY and MSY in the absence of recombination have accumulated nearly 12 times the amount of chloroplast-derived DNA than the corresponding region of the X chromosome and 4 times the papaya genome-wide average. Furthermore, a chloroplast genome fragment containing the rsp15 gene has been amplified 23 times in the HSY, evidence of retrotransposon-mediated duplication. Surprisingly, mitochondria-derived sequences are less abundant in the X and HSY compared to the whole genome. Shared organelle integrations are sparse between X and HSY, with only 11 % of chloroplast and 12 % of mitochondria fragments conserved, respectively, suggesting that the accelerated accumulation of organelle DNA occurred after the HSY was suppressed for recombination. Most of the organelle-derived sequences have divergence times of <7 MYA, reinforcing this notion. The accumulated chloroplast DNA is evidence of the slow degeneration of the HSY.

  7. Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV.

  8. A Current Overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an Unusual Plant Virus

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Paolla M. V.; Antunes, Tathiana F. S.; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A.; Fernandes, Antonio A. R.; Fernandes, Patricia M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection. PMID:25856636

  9. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  10. A current overview of the Papaya meleira virus, an unusual plant virus.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Paolla M V; Antunes, Tathiana F S; Magaña-Álvarez, Anuar; Pérez-Brito, Daisy; Tapia-Tussell, Raúl; Ventura, José A; Fernandes, Antonio A R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2015-04-08

    Papaya meleira virus (PMeV) is the causal agent of papaya sticky disease, which is characterized by a spontaneous exudation of fluid and aqueous latex from the papaya fruit and leaves. The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. PMeV is an isometric virus particle with a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome of approximately 12 Kb. Unusual for a plant virus, PMeV particles are localized on and linked to the polymers present in the latex. The ability of the PMeV to inhabit such a hostile environment demonstrates an intriguing interaction of the virus with the papaya. A hypersensitivity response is triggered against PMeV infection, and there is a reduction in the proteolytic activity of papaya latex during sticky disease. In papaya leaf tissues, stress responsive proteins, mostly calreticulin and proteasome-related proteins, are up regulated and proteins related to metabolism are down-regulated. Additionally, PMeV modifies the transcription of several miRNAs involved in the modulation of genes related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Until now, no PMeV resistant papaya genotype has been identified and roguing is the only viral control strategy available. However, a single inoculation of papaya plants with PMeV dsRNA delayed the progress of viral infection.

  11. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhanushali, Mittal M.; Makhija, Dinesh T.; Joshi, Yadunath M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain. PMID:24948859

  12. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  13. The micromorphology and protein characterization of rubber particles in Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis and Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Adya P; Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Gap Chae; Kim, Yoon Soo; Kang, Hunseung

    2003-03-01

    Rubber biosynthesis takes place on the surface of rubber particles. These particles are surrounded by a monolayer membrane in which the rubber transferase is anchored. In order to gain better insight into whether rubber particles from different plant species share common structural characteristics, the micromorphology of rubber particles from Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis, and Hevea brasiliensis was examined by electron microscopy. Rubber particles of all three species were spherical in shape, and the size of rubber particles of H. brasiliensis was much smaller than those of F. carica and F. benghalensis. In addition, investigations were undertaken to compare the cross-reactivity of the antibody raised against either the H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (SRPP) which is suggested to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, or the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) which has an activity similar to rubber transferase. Both western analysis and TEM-immunogold labelling studies showed that rubber particles of F. carica and F. benghalensis do not contain the SRPP. None of the rubber particles in F. carica, F. benghalensis and H. brasiliensis contained the CPT, suggesting that the CPT itself could not catalyse the formation of high molecular weight rubber. These results indicate that rubber particles in the three different plant species investigated share some degree of similarity in architecture, and that the SRPP and CPT themselves are not the core proteins necessary for rubber biosynthesis.

  14. Application of lemongrass oil in vapour phase for the effective control of anthracnose of 'Sekaki' papaya.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Wee Pheng, T; Mustafa, M A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the potential use of lemongrass essential oil vapour as an alternative for synthetic fungicides in controlling anthracnose of papaya. Lemongrass oil used in the study was characterized using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) before it was tested against anthracnose of papaya in vitro and in vivo. The GC-FID analysis showed that geranial (45·6%) and neral (34·3%) were the major components in lemongrass oil. In vitro study revealed that lemongrass oil vapour at all concentrations tested (33, 66, 132, 264 and 528 μl l(-1) ) suppressed the mycelial growth and conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. For the in vivo study, 'Sekaki' papaya were exposed to lemongrass oil fumigation (0, 7, 14, 28 μl l(-1) ) for 18 h and at room temperature for 9 days. Lemongrass oil vapour at the concentration of 28 μl l(-1) was most effective against anthracnose of artificially inoculated papaya fruit while quality parameters of papaya were not significantly altered. This suggests that lemongrass oil vapour can control anthracnose disease development on papaya without affecting its natural ripening process. The potential practical application of this technology can reduce reliance on synthetic fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases in papaya. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. The Effect of Fig Tree Latex (Ficus carica) on Stomach Cancer Line.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, S A; Abediankenari, S; Ghasemi, M; Azadbakht, M; Yousefzadeh, Y; Dehpour, A A

    2011-04-01

    The therapeutic effect of herbal materials in inhibition of cancer cell growth was shown. This study investigates the effect of fig tree latex (Ficus carica) on stomach cancer line. The in vitro effect of different doses of fig tree latex on stomach cancer cell line and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated after 72 hours. Fig tree latex could inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell line without any cytotoxic effect on human normal cells. Five mg/ml was the optimum concentration in inhibition of cell line growth. Cancer cell line was more sensitive to Ficus carica latex than normal cells. This anticancer activity might be due to presence of its proteolytic enzymes.

  16. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days), the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum. PMID:21406090

  17. Effects of freezing and canning of papaya slices on their carotenoid composition.

    PubMed

    Cano, M P; de Ancos, B; Lobo, G; Monreal, M

    1996-04-01

    An HPLC study of the carotenoid composition of fresh, frozen and canned papaya fruit slices was done. There were no qualitative differences between the carotenoid patterns of fresh and frozen papaya fruit slices (cultivar Sunrise). The major carotenoids found in papaya extracts were lycopene and carotenol fatty acid esters of beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin-5, 6-epoxide. Other xanthophylls detected were beta-cryptoxanthin, trans-zeaxanthin and cryptoflavin. It was possible to determine the quantitative losses of carotenoids in papaya slices as a result of the freezing process and frozen storage, since samples of these fruits were available before processing. The pigment pattern of the canned product showed lycopene as being a major pigment. Thermal treatment induced the degradation of carotenol fatty acid esters of xanthophylls. The freezing and canning processing of papaya slices led to significant decreases in the total carotenoids quantified by HPLC, with frozen female slices and canned samples showing lower amounts of pigments. Hunter colour values of frozen slices were similar to those of fresh papaya fruit slices.

  18. Identification of gamma-irradiated papaya, melon and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Huachaca, Nélida S.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Ionizing radiation can be used to control spoilage microorganisms and to increase the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables in replacement for the treatment with chemical fumigants. In order to enforce labelling regulations, methods for detecting the irradiation treatment directly in the produce are required. Recently, a number of detection methods for irradiated food have been adopted by the Codex Comission. A rapid screening method for qualitative detection of irradiation is the DNA Comet Assay. The applicability of the DNA Comet Assay for distinguishing irradiated papaya, melon, and watermelon was evaluated. The samples were treated in a 60Co facility at dose levels of 0.0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0kGy. The irradiated samples showed typical DNA fragmentation whereas cells from non-irradiated ones appeared intact. In addition to the DNA Comet Assay also the half-embryo test was applied in melon and watermelon to detect the irradiation treatment.

  19. The assembly of papaya mosaic virus coat protein with DNA.

    PubMed

    Erickson, J W; Bancroft, J B

    1980-01-01

    Products of specific (pH 8.0-8.5) and nonspecific (pH 6.0) assembly reactions of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein with DNA are described. The strandedness, topology, and sugar moiety of the nucleic acid are important parameters for assembly in nonspecific conditions. The linear, single-stranded form of lambda DNA, but not the double-stranded form, reacted with PMV protein to form multiply initiated particles whose helical segments apparently annealed to produce continuous tubular particles. With the circular, single-stranded DNA of phi X174, partially tubular, partially extended particles were made. Poly(dA), unlike poly(A) [Erickson JW, AbouHaidar M, Bancroft JB: Virology 90:60, 1978], was not encapsidated by PMV protein under specific assembly conditions. With all DNAs tested, extended particles were the only products formed in specific conditions at pH 8.5.

  20. Production of Internal Yellowing Symptoms on Resistant and Susceptible Papaya Cultivars by Enterobacter cloacae at Varying Inoculum Concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internal yellowing (IY) is a bacterial disease of ripening papaya flesh caused by Enterobacter cloacae and characterized by yellow softening tissue. IY restricts food safety of value-added products like fresh or frozen papaya cubes. The incidence of E. cloacae presumably differs in resistant (R) a...

  1. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense’-related strains associated with papaya bunchy top disease in northern Peru represent a distinct geographic lineage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the 2015-2016 fruit production season, a papaya bunchy top (BPT) disease was observed in a papaya production farm located at Region de Piura, northern Peru. Affected plants exhibited symptoms of excessive proliferation of auxiliary shoots at the top or near top of the main stem, shortening o...

  2. Development of molecular tools for characterization and genetic diversity analysis in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chatti, Khaled; Baraket, Ghada; Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Saddoud, Olfa; Mars, Messaoud; Trifi, Mokhtar; Salhi Hannachi, Amel

    2010-10-01

    Fig, Ficus carica L., is a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation. In this study, RAPD (60), ISSR (48), RAMPO (63), and SSR (34) markers were compared to detect polymorphism and to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian fig tree cultivars. The statistical procedures conducted on the combined data show considerable genetic diversity, and the tested markers discriminated all fig genotypes studied. The identification key established on the basis of SSR permitted the unambiguous discrimination of cultivars and confirmed the reliability of SSR for fingerprinting fig genotypes. The study findings are discussed in relation to the establishment of a national reference collection that will aid in the conservation of Tunisian fig resources.

  3. Data on screening and identification of genetically modified papaya in food supplements.

    PubMed

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to the research article entitled "A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4" (Prins et al., 2016) [1]. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) with targets that are putatively present in genetically modified (GM) papaya was used as a first screening to narrow down the vast array of candidates. The combination of elements P-nos and nptII was further confirmed by amplification and subsequent sequencing of the P-nos/nptII construct. Next, presence of the candidate GM papayas 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were investigated by amplification and sequencing of event-spanning regions on the left and right border. This data article reports the Cq values for GM elements, the nucleotide sequence of the P-nos/nptII construct and the presence of GM papaya events 18-2-4 and/or 16-0-1 in five samples that were randomly sampled to be analysed in the framework of the official Dutch GMO monitoring program for food.

  4. Comparative activity of antioxidants from wheat sprouts, Morinda citrifolia, fermented papaya and white tea.

    PubMed

    Calzuola, Isabella; Gianfranceschi, Gian Luigi; Marsili, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    Hydroalcoholic extracts from wheat sprouts, white tea, Morinda citrifolia and fermented papaya were analysed to determine their reducing power and antioxidant activity. The results show that the micromoles of potassium ferricyanide reduced by a quantity of extract corresponding to 1 g of the various dehydrated starting tissues are: 12.91+/-0.83 (wheat sprouts), 10.66+/-1.22 (M. citrifolia), 17.06+/-1.24 (white tea), and 1.05+/-0.09 (fermented papaya). In addition the results show a strong oxygen superoxide scavenging activity in the extracts from white tea, M. citrifolia and wheat sprouts. The activity of the fermented papaya extract is the lowest. The thin-layer chromatography and UV spectrophotometry of the extracts show in each source a mixture of antioxidant compounds probably belonging to the families of reducing glycosides and polyphenols. The chromatographic pattern of the antioxidant compounds and the UV spectrum are quite different in the various sources.

  5. Characterization of fig achenes' oil of Ficus carica grown in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltana, Hala; Tekaya, Meriem; Amri, Zahra; El-Gharbi, Sinda; Nakbi, Amel; Harzallah, Arij; Mechri, Beligh; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the composition of the oil extract from achenes of "Kholi" variety of Ficus carica, grown in Tunisia. Fatty acid and sterol compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity in fig achenes' oil was assessed by employing two different in vitro assays such as DPPH, ABTS(+) radical scavenging capacities. Our results indicated that the fig achenes' oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules. The soxhlet n-hexane extraction of these achenes produced a total oil yield of 16.24%. The predominant fatty acid was linolenic acid. Concerning phytosterols, the total amount reached 1061.45 mg/100 g with a predominance of Δ(5,23)-stigmastadienol (73.78%). Regarding antioxidant activities, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 215.86 μg/ml and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was 95.25 mM. These data indicate that fig achenes oil of F. carica could be potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. In vitro antiviral activity of Ficus carica latex against caprine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Lovero, Angela; Elia, Gabriella; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to possess antiviral properties against some human viruses. To determine the ability of F. carica latex (F-latex) to interfere with the infection of caprine herpesvirus-1 (CpHV-1) in vitro, F-latex was resuspended in culture media containing 1% ethanol and was tested for potential antiviral effects against CpHV-1. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The study suggests that the F-latex is able to interfere with the replication of CpHV-1 in vitro on MDBK cells and future studies will determine the mechanisms responsible for the observed antiviral activity.

  7. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage.

    PubMed

    Basu, Shyamoshree; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare mucoadhesive in situ nasal gels with mucilage isolated from fig fruits (Ficus carica, family: Moraceae) containing midazolam hydrochloride. Nasal gels of midazolam were prepared using three different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% w/v) of F. carica mucilage (FCM) and synthetic polymers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and Carbopol 934). Evaluation of FCM showed that it was as safe as the synthetic polymers for nasal administration. In situ gels were prepared with mixture Pluronic F127 and mucoadhesive agents. Evaluation of the prepared gels was carried out, including determination of viscosity, texture profile analysis and mucoadhesive strength. In vitro drug permeation study was conducted with the gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (0.5% w/v sodium taurocholate) using excised goat nasal mucosa. In vitro permeation profiles were evaluated, and histological study of nasal mucosae before and after permeation study was also conducted to determine histological change, if any. In vivo experiments conducted in rabbits further confirmed that in situ nasal gels provided better bioavailability of midazolam than the gels prepared from synthetic mucoadhesive polymers. It was observed that the nasal gel containing 0.5% FCM and 0.5% sodium taurocholate exhibited appropriate rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties and showed better drug release profiles. Moreover, this formulation produced no damage to the nasal mucosa that was used for the permeation study, and absolute bioavailability was also higher compared to gels prepared from synthetic polymers.

  8. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-05

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  9. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  10. Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

    2002-06-21

    To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient.

  11. An integrated cytogenetic and physical map reveals unevenly distributed recombination spots along the papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wai, Ching Man; Moore, Paul H; Paull, Robert E; Ming, Ray; Yu, Qingyi

    2012-08-01

    Papaya is a model system for the study of sex chromosome evolution in plants. However, the cytological structures of the papaya chromosomes remain largely unknown and chromosomal features have not been linked with any genetic or genomic data. We constructed a cytogenetic map of the papaya sex chromosome (chromosome 1) by hybridizing 16 microsatellite markers and 2 cytological feature-associated markers on pachytene chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Except for three markers, the order of the markers was concordant to that of marker loci along the linkage map. This discrepancy was likely caused by skewed segregation in the highly heterochromatic or centromeric regions. The papaya sex chromosome is largely euchromatic, its heterochromatin spans about 15 % of the Y chromosome and is mostly restricted to the centromeric and pericentromeric regions. Analysis of the recombination frequency along the papaya sex chromosome revealed a complete suppression of recombination in the centromere and pericentromere region and 60 % higher recombination rate in the long arm than in the short arm. The uneven distribution of recombination events might be caused by differences in sequence composition. Sequence analysis of 18 scaffolds in total length of 15 Mb revealed higher gene density towards the telomeres and lower gene density towards the centromere, and a relatively higher gene density in the long arm than in the short arm. In an opposite trend, the centromeric and pericentromeric region contained the highest repetitive sequences and the long arm showed the lowest repetitive sequences. This cytogenetic map provides essential information for evolutionary study of sex chromosomes in Caricaceae and will facilitate the analysis of papaya sex chromosomes.

  12. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  13. Potentiating Cancer Immunotherapy Using Papaya Mosaic Virus-Derived Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Marie-Ève; Chartrand, Karine; Tarrab, Esther; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis; Lamarre, Alain

    2016-03-09

    The recent development of novel immunotherapies is revolutionizing cancer treatment. These include, for example, immune checkpoint blockade, immunomodulation, or therapeutic vaccination. Although effective on their own, combining multiple approaches will most likely be required in order to achieve the maximal therapeutic benefit. In this regard, the papaya mosaic virus nanoparticle (PapMV) has shown tremendous potential as (i) an immunostimulatory molecule, (ii) an adjuvant, and (iii) a vaccine platform through its intrinsic capacity to activate the innate immune response in an IFN-α-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate that intratumor administration of PapMV significantly slows down melanoma progression and prolongs survival. This correlates with enhanced chemokine and pro-inflammatory-cytokine production in the tumor and increased immune-cell infiltration. Proportions of total and tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells dramatically increase following PapMV treatment whereas those of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) concomitantly decrease. Moreover, systemic PapMV administration prevents metastatic tumor-implantation in the lungs. Importantly, PapMV also synergistically improves the therapeutic benefit of dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination and PD-1 blockade by potentiating antitumor immune responses. This study illustrates the immunostimulatory potential of a plant virus-derived nanoparticle for cancer therapy either alone or in conjunction with other promising immunotherapies in clinical development.

  14. Quality of Golden papaya stored under controlled atmosphere conditions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Derliane Ribeiro; de Resende, Eder Dutra

    2013-10-01

    This work evaluated physicochemical parameters of Golden papaya stored under refrigeration in controlled atmospheres. The fruits were kept at 13  in chambers containing either 3 or 6% O2 combined with 6%, 10% or 15% CO2. Moreover, a normal atmosphere was produced with 20.8% O2 and 0.03% CO2 with ethylene scrubbing, and a control treatment was used with ambient conditions. Evaluations were performed at the following times: before storage, after 30 days of storage in controlled atmosphere, and after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage for 7 days in the cold room. At the lower O2 levels and higher CO2 levels, the ripening rate was decreased. The drop in pulp acidity was avoided after 30 days of storage at 3% O2, but the fruits reached normal acidity after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage for 7 days in the cold room. The reducing sugars remained at a higher concentration after 30 days under 3% O2 and 15% CO2 even 7 days after removal from controlled atmosphere and storage in the cold room. This atmosphere also preserved the content of ascorbic acid at a higher level.

  15. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of β-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of β-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of β-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of β-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids β-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of β-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

  16. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya. PMID:27379138

  17. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Schweiggert, Ralf M; Kopec, Rachel E; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of β-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of β-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9·5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of β-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of β-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2·6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2·9 and 2·3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids β-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of β-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries.

  18. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya.

  19. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  20. Factors affecting the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in vivo: host sex and intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-07-01

    The development of plant-derived cysteine proteinases, such as those in papaya latex, as novel anthelmintics requires that the variables affecting efficacy be fully evaluated. Here, we conducted two experiments, the first to test for any effect of host sex and the second to determine whether the intensity of the worm burden carried by mice would influence efficacy. In both experiments, we used the standard C3H mouse reference strain in which papaya latex supernatant (PLS) consistently shows >80 % reduction in Heligmosomoides bakeri worm burdens, but to broaden the perspective, we also included for comparison mice of other strains that are known to respond more poorly to treatment with papaya latex. Our results confirmed that there is a strong genetic influence affecting efficacy of PLS in removing adult worm burdens. However, there was no effect of host sex on efficacy (C3H and NIH) and no effect of infection intensity (C3H and BALB/c). These results offer optimism that plant-derived cysteine proteinases (CPs), such as these from papaya latex, can function as effective anthelmintics, with neither host sex nor infection intensity presenting further hurdles to impede their development for future medicinal and veterinary usage.

  1. Extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, M J; Glaze, L E

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study to extend AOAC method 44.A06-44.A08 to extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya, and spearmint. A 5 g (spearmint) or 10 g (alfalfa, lemon balm, papaya) test portion is defatted with isopropanol in a simple reflux apparatus. Rat hairs, insect fragments, and whole insects are isolated by wet sieving on a No. 230 sieve, a deaerating boil in 40% isopropanol, and flotation with mineral oil-heptane (85 + 15) from Tween 80-Na4EDTA (1 + 1) and 40% isopropanol in a Wildman trap flask. Each product was spiked at a different level. For rat hairs, recoveries averaged 82.2% from alfalfa, 88.9% from lemon balm, 80.6% from papaya, and 79.6% from spearmint. Recoveries of whole or equivalent insects from these products averaged 66.1, 218.8, 69.4, and 85.4%, respectively; recoveries of insect fragments from these products averaged 89.6, 94.4, 94.1, and 88.1%, respectively. The method has been adopted official first action for extraction of light filth from whole leaves of alfalfa, papaya, and spearmint. The extension of the method to lemon balm was not recommended because of interferences by intrinsic whole insects, which were the same species as the spike material.

  2. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  3. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  4. Characterization of insertion sites in Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic tree-fruit crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, commercial papaya line 55-1 derivatives Rainbow and SunUp were characterized as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA t...

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of four cysteine proteases from Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Haesaerts, Sarah; Rodriguez Buitrago, John Alexander; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The latex of the common fig (Ficus carica) contains a mixture of at least five cysteine proteases commonly known as ficins (EC 3.4.22.3). Four of these proteases were purified to homogeneity and crystals were obtained in a variety of conditions. The four ficin (iso)forms appear in ten different crystal forms. All diffracted to better than 2.10 Å resolution and for each form at least one crystal form diffracted to 1.60 Å resolution or higher. Ficin (iso)forms B and C share a common crystal form, suggesting close sequence and structural similarity. The latter diffracted to a resolution of 1.20 Å and belonged to space group P3₁21 or P3₂21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 55.9 Å.

  6. Chemical assessment and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Silva, Luís R; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Branca M; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-24

    Ficus species possess latex-like material within their vasculatures, affording protection and self-healing from physical attacks. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on Ficus carica latex. Volatiles profile was determined by HS-SPME/GC-IT-MS, with 34 compounds being identified, distributed by distinct chemical classes: 5 aldehydes, 7 alcohols, 1 ketone, 9 monoterpenes, 9 sesquiterpenes and 3 other compounds. Sesquiterpenes constituted the most abundant class in latex (ca. 91% of total identified compounds). Organic acids composition was also characterized, by HPLC-UV, and oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids were determined. Malic and shikimic acids were present in higher amounts (ca. 26%, each). The antioxidant potential of this material was checked by distinct in vitro chemical assays. A concentration-dependent activity was noticed against DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but a weak effect was found.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of four cysteine proteases from Ficus carica latex

    PubMed Central

    Haesaerts, Sarah; Rodriguez Buitrago, John Alexander; Loris, Remy; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle; Azarkan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The latex of the common fig (Ficus carica) contains a mixture of at least five cysteine proteases commonly known as ficins (EC 3.4.22.3). Four of these proteases were purified to homogeneity and crystals were obtained in a variety of conditions. The four ficin (iso)forms appear in ten different crystal forms. All diffracted to better than 2.10 Å resolution and for each form at least one crystal form diffracted to 1.60 Å resolution or higher. Ficin (iso)forms B and C share a common crystal form, suggesting close sequence and structural similarity. The latter diffracted to a resolution of 1.20 Å and belonged to space group P3121 or P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 55.9 Å. PMID:25849510

  8. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Biotype Variability of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Maoka, Tetsuo; Hataya, Tatsuji

    2005-02-01

    ABSTRACT The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) was determined. The viral RNA genome of strain LDM (leaf distortion mosaic) comprised 10,153 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contained one long open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3,269 amino acids (molecular weight 373,347). The polyprotein contained nine putative proteolytic cleavage sites and some motifs conserved in other potyviral polyproteins with 44 to 50% identities, indicating that PLDMV is a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. Like the W biotype of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), the non-papaya-infecting biotype of PLDMV (PLDMV-C) was found in plants of the family Cucurbitaceae. The coat protein (CP) sequence of PLDMV-C in naturally infected-Trichosanthes bracteata was compared with those of three strains of the P biotype (PLDMV-P), LDM and two additional strains M (mosaic) and YM (yellow mosaic), which are biologically different from each other. The CP sequences of three strains of PLDMV-P share high identities of 95 to 97%, while they share lower identities of 88 to 89% with that of PLDMV-C. Significant changes in hydrophobicity and a deletion of two amino acids at the N-terminal region of the CP of PLDMV-C were observed. The finding of two biotypes of PLDMV implies the possibility that the papaya-infecting biotype evolved from the cucurbitaceae-infecting potyvirus, as has been previously suggested for PRSV. In addition, a similar evolutionary event acquiring infectivity to papaya may arise frequently in viruses in the family Cucurbitaceae.

  9. 77 FR 31294 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Papaya...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... importation of commercial shipments of fresh papaya from Colombia and Ecuador, contact Ms. Dorothy Wayson... public record. ] Done in Washington, DC, this 21st day of May 2012. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator...

  10. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  11. Two newly introduced tropical bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) damaging figs (Ficus carica) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Campo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Giancarlo; Rassati, Davide

    2016-07-14

    In summer 2014, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus scabricollis (Eichhoff) and the ambrosia beetle Xyleborus bispinatus Eichhoff, species new to Italy and Europe, respectively, were found for the first time in south-eastern Sicily (Italy). Large infestations of the two species were recorded in many plantations of common fig (Ficus carica L.) both in 2014 and 2015. Data concerning insect characteristics, taxonomy, and distribution are briefly reported.

  12. [Antimutagenic activity of plant extracts from Armoracia rusticana, Ficus carica and Zea mays and peroxidase in eukaryotic cells].

    PubMed

    Agabeĭli, R A; Kasimova, T E; Alekperov, U K

    2004-01-01

    Antimutagene activity and high efficiency of antimutagene action of plant extracts from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana), fig brunches (Ficus carica) and mays seedlings (Zea mays) and their ability to decrease the frequency of spontaneous and induced by gamma-rays chromosome aberrations in meristematic cells of Vicia faba and marrow cells of mice have been shown. Comparative assessment of genoprotective properties of peroxidase and the studied extracts has revealed higher efficiency of antimutagene action of peroxidase.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  14. Interlaboratory validation study of an event-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction detection method for genetically modified 55-1 papaya.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sakata, Kozue; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Ohmori, Kiyomi; Kasahara, Masaki; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya line 55-1 (55-1) is resistant to papaya ringspot virus infection, and is commercially available in several countries. A specific detection method for 55-1 is required for mandatory labeling regulations. An event-specific real-time PCR method was developed by our laboratory. To validate the method, interlaboratory validation of event-specific qualitative real-time PCR analysis for 55-1 was performed in collaboration with 12 laboratories. DNA extraction and real-time PCR reaction methods were evaluated using 12 blind samples: six non-GM papayas and six GM papayas in each laboratory. Genomic DNA was highly purified from all papayas using an ion-exchange column, and the resulting DNA sample was analyzed using real-time PCR. Papaya endogenous reference gene chymopapain (CHY) and the event-specific 55-1 targeted sequence were detected in GM papayas whereas CHYalone was detected in non-GM papayas in all laboratories. The cycle threshold values of CHYand the 55-1 targeted sequence showed high repeatability (RSD, 0.6-0.8%) and reproducibility (RSDR 2.2-3.6%). This study demonstrates that the 55-1 real-time PCR detection method is a useful and reliable method to monitor 55-1 papaya in foods.

  15. Asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular small RNA population of papaya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The small RNAs (sRNA) are a regulatory class of RNA mainly represented by the 21 and 24-nucleotide size classes. The cellular sRNAs are processed by RNase III family enzyme dicer (Dicer like in plant) from a self-complementary hairpin loop or other type of RNA duplexes. The papaya genome has been sequenced, but its microRNAs and other regulatory RNAs are yet to be analyzed. Results We analyzed the genomic features of the papaya sRNA population from three sRNA deep sequencing libraries made from leaves, flowers, and leaves infected with Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV). We also used the deep sequencing data to annotate the micro RNA (miRNA) in papaya. We identified 60 miRNAs, 24 of which were conserved in other species, and 36 of which were novel miRNAs specific to papaya. In contrast to the Chargaff’s purine-pyrimidine equilibrium, cellular sRNA was significantly biased towards a purine rich population. Of the two purine bases, higher frequency of adenine was present in 23nt or longer sRNAs, while 22nt or shorter sRNAs were over represented by guanine bases. However, this bias was not observed in the annotated miRNAs in plants. The 21nt species were expressed from fewer loci but expressed at higher levels relative to the 24nt species. The highly expressed 21nt species were clustered in a few isolated locations of the genome. The PRSV infected leaves showed higher accumulation of 21 and 22nt sRNA compared to uninfected leaves. We observed higher accumulation of miRNA* of seven annotated miRNAs in virus-infected tissue, indicating the potential function of miRNA* under stressed conditions. Conclusions We have identified 60 miRNAs in papaya. Our study revealed the asymmetric purine-pyrimidine distribution in cellular sRNA population. The 21nt species of sRNAs have higher expression levels than 24nt sRNA. The miRNA* of some miRNAs shows higher accumulation in PRSV infected tissues, suggesting that these strands are not totally functionally redundant. The

  16. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of papaya leaf-distortion mosaic potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Maoka, T; Kashiwazaki, S; Tsuda, S; Usugi, T; Hibino, H

    1996-01-01

    The DNA complementary to the 3'-terminal 1 404 nucleotides [excluding the poly(A) tail] of papaya leaf-distortion mosaic potyvirus (PLDMV) RNA was cloned and sequenced. The sequence starts within a long open reading frame (ORF) of 1 195 nucleotides and is followed by a 3' non-coding region of 209 nucleotides. Capsid protein (CP) is encoded at the 3' terminus of the ORF. The CP contains 293 residues and has a Mr of 33 277. The CP of PLDMV exhibits 49 to 59% sequence similarity at the amino acid level to the CPs of papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV) and other potyviruses. This result is consistent with the absence of a serological relationship between PLDMV and PRSV or other potyviruses. The results support the assignment of PLDMV as a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus.

  18. Development and Validation of a Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Three Papaya Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay’s specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya. PMID:25337891

  19. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of three papaya viruses.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yang, Yong; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-10-21

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), and Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce similar symptoms in papaya. Each threatens commercial production of papaya on Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay was developed to detect simultaneously these three viruses by screening combinations of mixed primer pairs and optimizing the multiplex RT-PCR reaction conditions. A mixture of three specific primer pairs was used to amplify three distinct fragments of 613 bp from the P3 gene of PRSV, 355 bp from the CP gene of PLDMV, and 205 bp from the CP gene of PapMV, demonstrating the assay's specificity. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR was evaluated by showing plasmids containing each of the viral target genes with 1.44 × 103, 1.79 × 103, and 1.91 × 102 copies for the three viruses could be detected successfully. The multiplex RT-PCR was applied successfully for detection of three viruses from 341 field samples collected from 18 counties of Hainan Island, China. Rates of single infections were 186/341 (54.5%), 93/341 (27.3%), and 3/341 (0.9%), for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively; 59/341 (17.3%) of the samples were co-infected with PRSV and PLDMV, which is the first time being reported in Hainan Island. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting multiple viruses in papaya and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies in papaya.

  20. Phenol induced by irradiation does not impair sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2013-11-01

    The effect of radiation processing on the sensory quality of fenugreek and papaya exposed to doses in the range of 2.5-10 kGy and 100 Gy-2.5 kGy respectively was investigated. Despite an increase in the content of phenol in the volatile oil of these food products overall sensory quality of the irradiated and control samples was not significantly affected by radiation processing.

  1. Fatty acids, coumarins and polyphenolic compounds of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato: variation of bioactive compounds and biological activity of aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    Leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato collected in different months were examined to assess their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phototoxicity on C32 human melanoma cells after UVA irradiation. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid content. The second harvest of leaves and the first harvest of the bark possessed the highest antiradical activity with IC50 values of 64.00 ± 0.59 and 67.00 ± 1.09 μg/mL, respectively. Harvest III of leaves showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.48 ± 0.04 μg/mL). Leaf samples of F. carica showed also the best antiproliferative activity in comparison with bark and woody part of F. carica.

  2. Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J; Chen, Cuixia; Wai, Ching Man; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2012-08-21

    Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Y(h)). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Y(h) chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution.

  3. Spatial and temporal diversity of begomoviral complexes in papayas with leaf curl disease.

    PubMed

    Singh-Pant, P; Pant, P; Mukherjee, S K; Mazumdar-Leighton, S

    2012-07-01

    Old World, monopartite begomoviruses associated with satellite DNA β were observed in papaya showing symptoms of leaf curl disease sampled randomly over five years from within a radius of 250 km in north-central India. Three groups of DNA A sequences were evident. One group resembled chili leaf curl virus infecting tomatoes (ChiLCuV). Another group resembled tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCuNDV). The third group was novel (tentatively named papaya leaf crumple virus, PaLCrV), with less than 89% identity to known begomovirus sequences in the GenBank database. At least seven DNA A sequences were putative recombinants. The AC4-encoding regions exhibited highest numbers of non-synonymous substitutions. Most DNA β sequences resembled tomato leaf curl virus-associated DNA βs. A few DNA β sequences were similar to that of croton yellow vein mosaic virus-associated DNA β (CroYVMVβ). One DNA β sequence was novel and showed <65% similarity to its counterparts. Mixed infections and sequence diversity among 25 cloned av1 genes indicated that papayas grown in plantations, kitchen gardens and feral patches in the region are vulnerable to disease outbreak. No geographic or temporal patterns were discernable in the distribution of these viruses.

  4. Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E.; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F. Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J.; Chen, Cuixia; Man Wai, Ching; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Yh). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Yh chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution. PMID:22869747

  5. Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

    2014-06-01

    Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants.

  6. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life.

  7. Host genetic influences on the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya-derived cysteine proteinases in mice.

    PubMed

    Luoga, Wenceslaus; Mansur, Fadlul; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R; Buttle, David J; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2015-06-01

    Eight strains of mice, of contrasting genotypes, infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri were studied to determine whether the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex varied between inbred mouse strains and therefore whether there is an underlying genetic influence on the effectiveness of removing the intestinal nematode. Infected mice were treated with 330 nmol of crude papaya latex or with 240 nmol of papaya latex supernatant (PLS). Wide variation of response between different mouse strains was detected. Treatment was most effective in C3H (90·5-99·3% reduction in worm counts) and least effective in CD1 and BALB/c strains (36·0 and 40·5%, respectively). Cimetidine treatment did not improve anthelmintic efficacy of PLS in a poor drug responder mouse strain. Trypsin activity, pH and PLS activity did not differ significantly along the length of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract between poor (BALB/c) and high (C3H) drug responder mouse strains. Our data indicate that there is a genetic component explaining between-mouse variation in the efficacy of a standard dose of PLS in removing worms, and therefore warrant some caution in developing this therapy for wider scale use in the livestock industry, and even in human medicine.

  8. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  9. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

  10. Physicochemical, nutritional, and microbial quality of fresh-cut and frozen papaya prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease (Enterobacter cloacae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quality, nutritional, and microbial analyses were completed for fresh-cut and frozen papaya cubes prepared from cultivars with varying resistance to internal yellowing disease, caused by the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. In general, fresh-cut and frozen papaya retained nutritional and microbial qu...

  11. A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a BAC-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting approach to assist whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. Results The physical map consists of 963 contigs, representing 9.4× genome equivalents, and was integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence using BAC end sequences and a sequence-tagged high-density genetic map. The estimated genome coverage of the physical map is about 95.8%, while 72.4% of the genome was aligned to the genetic map. A total of 1,181 high quality overgo (overlapping oligonucleotide) probes representing conserved sequences in Arabidopsis and genetically mapped loci in Brassica were anchored on the physical map, which provides a foundation for comparative genomics in the Brassicales. The integrated genetic and physical map aligned with the genome sequence revealed recombination hotspots as well as regions suppressed for recombination across the genome, particularly on the recently evolved sex chromosomes. Suppression of recombination spread to the adjacent region of the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY), and recombination rates were recovered gradually and then exceeded the genome average. Recombination hotspots were observed at about 10 Mb away on both sides of the MSY, showing 7-fold increase compared with the genome wide average, demonstrating the dynamics of recombination of the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A BAC-based physical map of papaya was constructed and integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence. The integrated map facilitated the draft genome assembly

  12. DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

    2008-04-01

    Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya.

  13. Effect of cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil on the quality of papaya MJ9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.; Evirananda, I. P.; Kawiji

    2017-02-01

    Edible films and coatings have emerged as an alternative packaging in food applications and have received much attention due to their advantages. The incorporation of essential oils in film matrices to give antimicrobial properties had been observed recently, and could be used as promising preservation technology. In this study, cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) was applied by spraying and dipping methods to preserve papaya MJ9 during storage at room temperature. The quality of papaya MJ9 was analyzed based on its physicochemical and microbiological properties. The addition of lemongrass essential oil (1%) significantly inhibited the microbial growth on papaya MJ9 by reducing the value of total yeast and mold as compared to the control. This study also showed that for parameters of weight loss, total soluble solid, vitamin C, and total titratable acid, papaya MJ9 with cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) had the lower values than control, however, they had the higher value than control on firmness parameter. These results indicate that cassava starch-based edible coating incorporated with lemongrass essential oil (1%) can be used as an alternative preservation for papaya MJ9.

  14. Isolation and characterization of ethylene response factor family genes during development, ethylene regulation and stress treatments in papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueping; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Mao, Jia; Zou, Yuan; Fu, Danwen; Chen, Weixin; Lu, Wangjin

    2013-09-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) play important roles in fruit development, ripening, defense responses and stress signaling pathways. After harvest, climacteric fruit such as papaya are subject to a range of problems associated with postharvest handling and storage treatments. There have been few attempts to evaluate the role of ERFs in fruit's responses to environmental stimuli. To investigate the transcriptional mechanisms underlying fruit developmental, ripening and stresses, we cloned four ERFs from papaya. The deduced amino acid sequence of CpERFs contained the conserved apetalous (AP2)/ERF domain, which shared high similarity with other reported AP2/ERF domains. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putatively conserved motifs in papaya ERF proteins were analyzed, and compared with those of Arabidopsis. Expression patterns of CpERFs were examined during fruit development, under 1-MCP treatment, ethephon treatment, biotic stress (temperature stress) and pathogen stress. CpERFs displayed differential expression patterns and expression levels under different experimental conditions. CpERF2 and CpERF3 showed a close association with fruit ripening and CpERFs had a high expression level in the earlier stages during the fruit development period. The expression of CpERFs strongly associated with stress response. These results support the role for papaya ERFs in transcriptional regulation of ripening-related or stress-respond genes and thus, in the regulation of papaya fruit-ripening processes and stress responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Age and growth of the knobbed whelk Busycon carica (Gmelin 1791) in South Carolina subtidal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eversole, A.G.; Anderson, W.D.; Isely, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Knobbed whelk, Busycon carica (Gmelin, 1791), age and growth were estimated using tagged and recaptured individuals (n = 396) from areas off South Carolina coastal islands. Recaptured whelks were at large an average of 298 d (4-2,640 d). Growth, an increase in shell length (SL), was evident in 24% of the recaptured whelks, whereas 29% of recaptured individuals were the same size as when released and 47% were smaller than the released size. Mean growth rate was <0.001 mm SL/d and 0.022 mm SL/d if decreases in SL were assumed to be zero. Smaller whelks (???90 mm SL) at large for over one year grew seven times faster than larger whelks. The von Bertalanffy growth model: SL1 = 159.5(1 - e-0.0765(t+0.4162)), was developed from the mark - recapture whelks exhibiting growth. Based on a South Carolina minimum legal size of 102 mm SL, whelks recruit into the fishery at 13 y of age. The longevity, large size at maturity and slow growth suggest the potential for over harvest of knobbed whelk. Future whelk management plans may wish to consider whether economically viable commercial harvest can be sustainable.

  16. Purification, characterization, and solvent-induced thermal stabilization of ficin from Ficus carica.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Kamsagara Basavarajappa; Kumar, Parigi Ramesh; Prakash, Vishweshwaraiah

    2008-12-10

    Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine proteinase isolated from the latex of a Ficus tree, is known to occur in multiple forms. Although crude ficin is of considerable commercial importance, ficin as such has not been fully characterized. A major ficin from the commercial crude proteinase mixture preparation of Ficus carica was purified and characterized. The purified enzyme was homogeneous in both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel-filtration chromatography and is a single polypeptide chain protein with a molecular mass of 23 100 +/- 300 Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). The enzyme was active in the pH range of 6.5-8.5, and maximum activity was observed at pH 7.0. The N-terminal core sequence of ficin has homology with N-terminal sequences of plant cysteine proteinases. The enzyme contains three disulfide bonds and a single free cysteine residue at the active site. The effect of co-solvents, such as sorbitol, trehalose, sucrose, and xylitol, on the thermal stability of ficin was determined by activity measurements, fluorescence, and thermal denaturation studies. The apparent thermal denaturation temperature (T(m)) of ficin was significantly increased from the control value of 72 +/- 1 degrees C in the presence of all co-solvents. However, the maximum stabilization effect was observed in terms of thermal stabilization by the co-solvent trehalose.

  17. In vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Ficus carica latex extracts.

    PubMed

    Lazreg Aref, Houda; Gaaliche, Badii; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Mars, Massoud; Aouni, Mahjoub; Pierre Chaumon, Jean; Said, Khaled

    2011-02-01

    The latex of fig fruit (Ficus carica) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin infections such as warts and also diseases of possible viral origin. Five extracts (methanolic, hexanic, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) and chloroformic) of this species were investigated in vitro for their antiviral potential activity against herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), echovirus type 11 (ECV-11) and adenovirus (ADV). To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the replication of viruses, the following assays were performed: adsorption and penetration, intracellular inhibition and virucidal activity. Observation of cytopathic effects was used to determine the antiviral action. The hexanic and hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) extracts inhibited multiplication of viruses by tested techniques at concentrations of 78 µg mL(-1). These two extracts were possible candidates as herbal medicines for herpes virus, echovirus and adenovirus infectious diseases. All extracts had no cytotoxic effect on Vero cells at all tested concentrations.

  18. Multiscale hierarchical assembly strategy and mechanical prowess in conch shells (Busycon carica).

    PubMed

    Li, Haoze; Xu, Zhi-Hui; Li, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Seashells are natural body armors with superior mechanical strength and ultra-high toughness compared with their major constituent counterparts. What building blocks and architecture render seashells such mechanical prowess? In this study, micro/nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of conch shells (Busycon carica) has been carried out. Here we show direct evidence that the previously claimed single-crystal third-order lamellae--the basic building blocks in conch shells are essentially assembled with aragonite nanoparticles of the size ranging from 20 to 45 nm. The nanoparticle-constructed third-order lamellae are not brittle, but ductile. The three-order crossed-lamellar architecture interlocks cracks via crack deflection along the interfaces in a three-dimensional manner, thus confining the damage in a small region. The findings advance the understanding of the mystery of conch shell's mechanical robustness, provide additional design guidelines for developing bioinspired nanomaterials, and lay a constitutive foundation for modeling the deformation behavior of seashells.

  19. Ficus carica latex-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application as a chemophotoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Satish V

    2013-10-01

    The present work provides scientific support on the use of latex of Ficus carica to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs synthesized immediately after the addition of latex to silver nitrate solution at room temperature. Synthesized nanoparticles were of spherical shape with average size of 163.7 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed capping of proteins and phenolic compound on AgNPs, while X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the fcc nature of AgNPs. Particles formed were stable for a long time (6 months). It was found that incorporation of AgNPs with 2 and 4% concentration exhibits synergistic increase in sun protection factor of commercial sunscreen and natural extracts ranging from 01 to 12,175% than control. Further characterization of latex and AgNPs revealed total phenolic content of 98.75 and 94.88 μg/ml. The ferric ion reduction potentials of latex and AgNPs were 79.69 and 18.79%. Reduction potential of ascorbic acid was synergistically increased after cumulative preparation of ascorbic acid with latex and AgNPs and found to be 106.76 and 101.50% for ascorbic acid + latex and ascorbic acid + AgNPs, respectively.

  20. Comparison between sample disruption methods and solid-liquid extraction (SLE) to extract phenolic compounds from Ficus carica leaves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, D Martins; Patão, R Ferreira; Coelho, A Varela; da Costa, C Teixeira

    2006-01-20

    Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) and matrix solid phase disruption (MSPD) were compared to solid-liquid extraction (SLE) for extraction of phenolic compounds from the Ficus carica leaves. Statistical treatment, ANOVA-single factor, was used to compare the extraction yields obtained by these methods, and for the majority of the extracted compounds, significantly higher yields were obtained by the solid disruption methods. Both solid disruption methods are faster and ecologically friendly, but the sea sand method was more reproducible (RSD < 5% for most compounds), and was also the least expensive method. Recoveries above 85% were obtained for chlorogenic acid, rutin, and psoralen using the sea sand extraction method.

  1. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity.

  2. Is the old world fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), an alternate host for the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Homoptera: Psyllidae)?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The only non-rutaceous plant on which D. citri has been found breeding in Texas is the edible fig, Ficus carica (Moraceae). In the summer of 2010, we discovered D. citri nymphs on a dooryard fig tree. Fig has its own species of psyllid, Homatoma ficus, but both adults and nymphs of that species ar...

  3. Partial characterization of a novel amylase activity isolated from Tunisian Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Mosbah, Habib; Louati, Hanen; Said, Khaled; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2011-11-01

    A large number of plants still need to be investigated through screening of amylases suitable for industry. In the present study, and for the first time, we describe the amylolytic activity of Saint Pedro Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) crude latex of Kahli and Bidhi varieties. Effects of temperature, pH, metal ions, and inhibitors and compatibility with some commercial detergents were investigated for amylase activity. Amylase activity was screened in crude latex using the DNS method and potato starch as a substrate. Analyses of amylolytic reaction products by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed. Bidhi and Kahli amylases were active in optimal pH of 6.5 and 7 at 45°C, respectively, displaying a half life of 85 and 60 min, respectively, at 80°C, and they were very stable in a wide range of pH (4-12). Bidhi amylase activity increased to 260% by addition of 10(-3) mM Fe(2+) or 10(-2) mM Cu(2+), and was strongly inhibited by Mg(2+) and EDTA. In the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), Kahli amylase activity was dramatically enhanced by 220 and 260%, respectively. The compatibility of both amylases with certain commercial detergents was also shown to be good as enzymes retained up to 98% of their activities after 30 min of incubation at 80°C. Analysis of amylolytic reaction products by TLC and HPLC suggested that Kahli amylase was an amyloglucosidase and Bidhi amylase was β-fructose, α(1-4) glucose. Bidhi amylase is a good choice for application in starch, food, detergents and medical industries.

  4. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Bayoudh, Chokri; Elair, Manel; Labidi, Rahma; Majdoub, Afifa; Mahfoudhi, Naima; Mars, Messaoud

    2017-06-01

    Fig mosaic disease (FMD) is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A) of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29) and 80.0% (12/15) of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus) and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more). Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV) (20.7%), Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV) (17.25%), Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV) (3.45%), and Fig cryptic virus (FCV) (55.17%). A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI), Soltani (SNI), Bither Abiadh (BA), and Assafri (ASF) via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%.

  5. Efficacy of Tissue Culture in Virus Elimination from Caprifig and Female Fig Varieties (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bayoudh, Chokri; Elair, Manel; Labidi, Rahma; Majdoub, Afifa; Mahfoudhi, Naima; Mars, Messaoud

    2017-01-01

    Fig mosaic disease (FMD) is a viral disease that spreads in all Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) orchards. RT-PCR technique was applied to leaf samples of 29 fig accessions of 15 fig varieties from the fig germplasm collection of High Agronomic Institute (I.S.A) of Chatt-Mariem, to detect viruses associated to FMD. Analysis results show that 65.5% of the accessions (19/29) and 80.0% (12/15) of the fig varieties are infected by FMD-associated viruses. From all fig accessions, 41.4% of them are with single infection (one virus) and 24.1% are with multi-infections (2 virus and more). Viruses infecting fig leaf samples are Fig mosaic virus (FMV) (20.7%), Fig milde-mottle-associated virus (FMMaV) (17.25%), Fig fleck associated virus (FFkaV) (3.45%), and Fig cryptic virus (FCV) (55.17%). A reliable protocol for FCV and FMMaV elimination from 4 local fig varieties Zidi (ZDI), Soltani (SNI), Bither Abiadh (BA), and Assafri (ASF) via in vitro culture of 3 meristem sizes was established and optimized. With this protocol, global sanitation rates of 79.46%, 65.55%, 68.75%, and 70.83% respectively for ZDI, SNI, BA, and ASF are achieved. For all sanitized varieties, the effectiveness of meristem culture for the elimination of FCV and FMMaV viruses was related to meristem size. Meristem size 0.5 mm provides the highest sanitation rates ranging from 70% to 90%. PMID:28592947

  6. Ficus carica latex prevents invasion through induction of let-7d expression in GBM cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Yalcin, Murat; Sahin, Saliha; Budak, Ferah; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Demir, Cevdet; Guvenc, Gokcen; Yilmaz, Gozde; Erkan, Leman Gizem; Malyer, Hulusi; Taskapilioglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Evrensel, Turkkan; Bilir, Ayhan

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest human malignancies. A cure for GBM remains elusive, and the overall survival time is less than 1 year. Thus, the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these patients is required. Induction of tumor cell death by certain phytochemicals derived from medicinal herbs and dietary plants has become a new frontier for cancer therapy research. Although the cancer suppressive effect of Ficus carica (fig) latex (FCL) has been determined in a few cancer types, the effect of this latex on GBM tumors has not been investigated. Therefore, in the current study, the anti-proliferative activity of FCL and the effect of the FCL-temozolomide (TMZ) combination were tested in the T98G, U-138 MG, and U-87 MG GBM cell lines using the WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed using Annexin-V/FITC and TUNEL assays, and the effect of FCL on invasion was tested using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. To determine the effect of FCL on GBM progression, the expression levels of 40 GBM associated miRNAs were analyzed in T98G cells using RT-qPCR. According to the obtained data, FCL causes cell death in GBM cells with different responses to TMZ, and this effect is synergistically increased in combination with TMZ. In addition, the current study is the first to demonstrate the effect of FCL on modulation of let-7d expression, which may be an important underlying mechanism of the anti-invasive effect of this extract.

  7. Protective Role of Ficus carica Stem Extract against Hepatic Oxidative Damage Induced by Methanol in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Saoudi, Mongi; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ficus carica stem extract (FE) in methanol-induced hepatotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into two batches: 16 control rats (C) drinking tap water and 16 treated rats drinking Ficus carica stem extract for six weeks. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups, and one of them was intraperitoneally injected (i.p.) daily methanol at a dose of 2.37 g/kg body weight i.p. for 30 days, for four weeks. The results showed that FE was found to contain large amounts of polyphenols and carotenoids. The treatment with methanol exhibited a significant increase of serum hepatic biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH) and hepatic lipid peroxidation. Hepatic antioxidant enzymes, namely, SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px, were significantly decreased in methanol-treated animals. FE treatment prior to methanol intoxication has significant role in protecting animals from methanol-induced hepatic oxidative damage. PMID:22203864

  8. High-performance thin layer chromatographic quantification of bioactive psoralen and daidzein in leaves of Ficus carica L.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Ahmad, S; Siddique, N A; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2011-10-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify psoralen and daidzein by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The methanolic extract of 10 mg mL(-1) concentration solution was prepared for HPTLC quantification of psoralen and daidzein. HPTLC aluminium-backed plates coated with 0.2 mm layers of silica gel 60 F(254) were used as the stationary phase. The working standard solution of psoralen and daidzein was applied along with the test sample solution by means of Camag Linomat IV sample applicator. R (f) values of psoralen and daidzein were found to be 0.60 and 0.88, whilst as their percentage values in methanolic extract were found to be 3.02% and 5.64% (w/w), respectively. A simple quantitative estimation method of psoralen and daidzein by HPTLC is reported that can be used for the quality control of marketed preparations containing Ficus carica. However, further study is warranted to isolate and quantify active constituents present in the leaves of F. carica by sophisticated techniques.

  9. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50 mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70 mg GAE/100 g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of papaya mosaic virus coat protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Todderud, E; Stubbs, G

    1993-12-05

    Papaya mosaic virus coat protein has been treated with trypsin and a large fragment of the intact protein has been crystallized in space group P3(1)21 or P3(2)21 (unit cell dimensions: a = b = 110 A, c = 237 A). The crystals diffract to 3.5 A resolution. Crystals of the untreated protein have also been grown. The untreated protein crystals diffract to 4 A resolution, but have a large mosaic spread. They have the same space group as the trypsin-treated protein crystals, but a much smaller unit cell (a = b = 72 A, c = 240 A).

  11. The primary structure of papaya mosaic virus coat protein: a revision.

    PubMed

    Verde, C; Malorni, A; Parente, A

    1989-12-01

    The presence of an acetyl blocking group at the N-terminus of the coat protein of papaya mosaic virus has been identified by FAB mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we have found that the N-terminal sequence of the protein is four amino-acid residues (AC-Ser-Lys-Ser-Ser-) longer than that previously reported, while Glu instead of Gln is the C-terminal residue. The present paper shows that PMV-protein is made up of 215 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 22,960 Da.

  12. Characterization of typo-, regio-, and stereo-selectivities of babaco latex lipase in aqueous and organic media.

    PubMed

    Cambon, E; Rodriguez, J A; Pina, M; Arondel, V; Carriere, F; Turon, F; Ruales, J; Villeneuve, P

    2008-04-01

    The unripe fruit of babaco (Vasconcellea x heilbornii; syn. Carica pentagona) contains a latex, similar to that in Carica papaya, which exhibits lipolytic activity. Herein, the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and typoselectivity in both hydrolysis and acyltransfer reactions of babaco latex lipases were studied and compared to those of Carica papaya latex. In hydrolysis, both biocatalysts are 1,3-regioselective with ratios for 1,2-2,3-diacylglycerols/1,3-diacylglycerol of 6.5 and 21 for babaco and papaya, respectively. In contrast, papaya latex had a slight sn-3 stereopreference. Babaco latex displayed a higher activity on triacylglycerols with short chain and unsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Effect of Temperature on the Development and Survival of Immature Stages of the Carambola Fruit Fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian Papaya Fruit Fly, Bactrocera papayae, Reared On Guava Diet

    PubMed Central

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute wellrecognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world. PMID:25368070

  14. Effect of temperature on the development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae, reared on guava diet.

    PubMed

    Danjuma, Solomon; Thaochan, Narit; Permkam, Surakrai; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex constitute well-recognized destructive pests of fruits in peninsular Thailand. The development and survival of immature stages of the carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and the Asian papaya fruit fly, Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, were compared at six constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). The objectives were to determine the effect of temperature on the developmental stages for optimizing rearing and to understand the geographical pattern of occurrence of these fruit fly species. A strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of immature stages of B. carambolae. Similarly, a strong and positive linear relationship was observed between temperature and developmental rate of B. papayae. A temperature summation model was used to estimate the lower threshold temperature and the thermal constant. Bactrocera papayae was significantly faster in development and higher in survival and appeared to be better adapted to low temperatures than B. carambolae, as it exhibited the lowest threshold temperatures at all immature stages. The observed differences in response to various temperatures revealed to some extent the impact of temperature on these species' distribution in peninsular Thailand and other parts of the world.

  15. A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4.

    PubMed

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-15

    During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan. The GM events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 could be identified by amplifying and sequencing events-specific sequences. Further analyses showed that both papaya event 16-0-1 and event 18-2-4 were transformed with the same construct. For use in routine analysis, derived TaqMan qPCR methods for events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were developed. Event 16-0-1 was detected in all samples tested whereas event 18-2-4 was detected in one sample. This study presents a strategy for combining information from different sources (literature, patent databases) and novel sequence data to identify unknown GM papaya events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  17. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  18. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-07-01

    The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W.saturnus, followed by S. cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W. saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S. cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S. cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W.saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S. cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W.saturnus and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  20. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Summary The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W. saturnus, followed by S. cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W. saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S. cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S. cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W. saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S. cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W. saturnus and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. PMID:23171032

  1. New strains of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus discovered on diseased papaya and tomato plants in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Claverie, Sohini; Traoré, Edgar Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Varsani, Arvind; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-22

    This is the first description of full genome sequences of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV; genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae) identified in papaya and tomato plants sampled in Burkina Faso. The CpCDV full genome sequences from papaya and tomato share the highest pairwise sequence identity (84% and 93.5%) with Sudanese isolates of the CpCDV-K and CpCDV-M strains, respectively. Based on the strain demarcation threshold (>94% identity) for mastreviruses, we propose two new strains, CpCDV-Q and CpCDV-R, identified in papaya and tomato, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences belong to a distinct clade of the highly diverse population of CpCDVs. Evidence of inter-strain recombination provided more support for the important role of recombination in CpCDV evolution. The discovery of CpCDV on papaya, a previously unsuspected host, raises many questions about the natural and potential host range of this dicot-infecting mastrevirus species that is reported to be emerging worldwide.

  2. Low X/Y divergence in four pairs of papaya sex-linked genes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qingyi; Hou, Shaobin; Feltus, F Alex; Jones, Meghan R; Murray, Jan E; Veatch, Olivia; Lemke, Cornelia; Saw, Jimmy H; Moore, Richard C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Liu, Lei; Moore, Paul H; Alam, Maqsudul; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants, in contrast to those in animals, evolved relatively recently and only a few are heteromorphic. The homomorphic sex chromosomes of papaya show features of incipient sex chromosome evolution. We investigated the features of paired X- and Y-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), and estimated the time of divergence in four pairs of sex-linked genes. We report the results of a comparative analysis of long contiguous genomic DNA sequences between the X and hermaphrodite Y (Y(h)) chromosomes. Numerous chromosomal rearrangements were detected in the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY), including inversions, deletions, insertions, duplications and translocations, showing the dynamic evolutionary process on the MSY after recombination ceased. DNA sequence expansion was documented in the two regions of the MSY, demonstrating that the cytologically homomorphic sex chromosomes are heteromorphic at the molecular level. Analysis of sequence divergence between four X and Y(h) gene pairs resulted in a estimated age of divergence of between 0.5 and 2.2 million years, supporting a recent origin of the papaya sex chromosomes. Our findings indicate that sex chromosomes did not evolve at the family level in Caricaceae, and reinforce the theory that sex chromosomes evolve at the species level in some lineages.

  3. On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Marion F; Lines, Rosemarie E; Revill, Peter; Chaleeprom, Worawan; Ha, Cuong V; Gibbs, Adrian J; Dale, James L

    2002-10-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we have determined the coat protein sequences of isolates of both biotypes of PRSV from Vietnam (50), Thailand (13), India (1) and the Philippines (1), and analysed them together with 28 PRSV sequences already published, so that we can better understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PRSV. In Thailand, variation was greater among PRSV-W isolates (mean nucleotide divergence 7.6%) than PRSV-P isolates (mean 2.6%), but in Vietnamese populations the P and W biotypes were more but similarly diverse. Phylogenetic analyses of PRSV also involving its closest known relative, Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, indicate that PRSV may have originated in Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent, as PRSV populations there are most diverse and hence have probably been present longest. Our analyses show that mutation, together with local and long-distance movement, contributes to population variation, and also confirms an earlier conclusion that populations of the PRSV-P biotype have evolved on several occasions from PRSV-W populations.

  4. Molecular characterization and infectivity of Papaya leaf curl China virus infecting tomato in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Ma, Xin-ying; Qian, Ya-juan; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2010-02-01

    Papaya leaf curl China virus (PaLCuCNV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting papaya in southern China. Based on molecular diagnostic survey, 13 PaLCuCNV isolates were obtained from tomato plants showing leaf curl symptoms in Henan and Guangxi Provinces of China. Complete nucleotide sequences of 5 representative isolates (AJ558116, AJ558117, AJ704604, FN256260, and FN297834) were determined to be 2738-2751 nucleotides, which share 91.7%-97.9% sequence identities with PaLCuCNV isolate G2 (AJ558123). DNA-beta was not found to be associated with PaLCuCNV isolates. To investigate the infectivity of PaLCuCNV, an infectious clone of PaLCuCNV-[CN:HeNZM1] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum Samsun, N. glutinosa, Solanum lycopersicum and Petunia hybrida plants, which induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plants. Southern blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated a systemic infection of test plants by the agro-infectious clone.

  5. Role of genetic recombination in the molecular architecture of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Parameswari, B; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

    2008-12-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) has a single-stranded RNA genome and causes severe economic losses both in cucurbits and papaya worldwide. The extent to which the genome of PRSV is shaped by recombination provides an understanding of the molecular evolution of PRSV and helps in studying features such as host specificity, geographic distribution, and its emergence as new epidemics. The PRSV-P-Indian isolate was completely sequenced and compared with 14 other isolates reported from the rest of the world for their phylogenetic survey of recombination events. Cistron-by-cistron sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on full-genome polyprotein showed two distinct groupings of Asian and American isolates, although PRSV-P and W-India clustered along with the American isolates. Recombination sites were found throughout the genomes, except in the small 6K1 protein gene. A significant proportion of recombination hotspots was found in the P1 gene, followed by P3, cylindrical inclusion (CI), and helper component proteinase (HcPro). Correlations between the presence of recombination sites, geographic distribution, and phylogenetic relationship provide an opportunity to establish the molecular evolution and geographic route of PRSV.

  6. Extremely low nucleotide diversity in the X-linked region of papaya caused by a strong selective sweep.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Zhang, Jisen; Han, Jennifer; Arro, Jie; Lin, Zhicong; Liao, Zhenyang; Yu, Qingyi; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Moore, Richard C; Charlesworth, Deborah; Ming, Ray

    2016-11-28

    The papaya Y-linked region showed clear population structure, resulting in the detection of the ancestral male population that domesticated hermaphrodite papayas were selected from. The same populations were used to study nucleotide diversity and population structure in the X-linked region. Diversity is very low for all genes in the X-linked region in the wild dioecious population, with nucleotide diversity π syn = 0.00017, tenfold lower than the autosomal region (π syn = 0.0017) and 12-fold lower than the Y-linked region (π syn = 0.0021). Analysis of the X-linked sequences shows an undivided population, suggesting a geographically wide diversity-reducing event, whereas two subpopulations were observed in the autosomes separating gynodioecy and dioecy and three subpopulations in the Y-linked region separating three male populations. The extremely low diversity in the papaya X-linked region was probably caused by a recent, strong selective sweep before domestication, involving either the spread of a recessive mutation in an X-linked gene that is beneficial to males or a partially dominant mutation that benefitted females or both sexes. Nucleotide diversity in the domesticated X samples is about half that in the wild Xs, probably due to the bottleneck when hermaphrodites were selected during domestication. The extreme low nucleotide diversity in the papaya X-linked region is much greater than observed in humans, great apes, and the neo-X chromosome of Drosophila miranda, which show the expected pattern of Y-linked genes < X-linked genes < autosomal genes; papaya shows an unprecedented pattern of X-linked genes < autosomal genes < Y-linked genes.

  7. Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hemaid Ibrahim; Gabr, Mahdia; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2010-01-01

    Fig is one of the most important fruit trees in Egypt. It used to constitute the major source of income for the inhabitants of the western north coast of Egypt. Since 1993 fig cultivations were threatened by a number of factors including virus, insect and mite infections. An efficient system for regeneration and transformation of the common fig Ficus carica L. cultivar Sultani (fresh consumption) was required to conserve fig cultivation in the area. The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied. Results showed that the best medium for callus formation was MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. The best plantlet differentiation was obtained at concentrations of 30 mg/l 2iP and 7 mg/l TDZ with 0.25 mg/l NAA (with a regeneration efficiency of 83 and 79%, respectively). On the other hand, the obtained callus failed to induce organogenesis on media containing a combination of BA and kinetin. The highest shoot formation percentage (89%) was obtained when using 2 mg/l TDZ and 4 mg/l 2iP. The highest percentage of shoots forming roots (95%) was obtained when using MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment using the plasmid pISV2678 which harbors the gus-intron and bar genes. Results showed that the highest transformation efficiency using the Agrobacterium (17.5%) was obtained when explants were co-cultivated with the bacteria for 30 min. The highest transformation efficiency recorded using the microprojectile bombardment (12%) was obtained with 2.0 μg DNA per shot at 1,100 psi and a distance of 6 cm repeated twice. The transgenic nature of regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR analysis, histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting assay.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of CMS1MS2: a cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Teixeira, Raphael Dias; Ribeiro, Henrique de Assis Lopes; Turchetti, Andréia Pereira; Junqueira, Caroline Furtado; Lopes, Míriam Tereza Paz; Salas, Carlos Edmundo; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases from the latex of plants of the family Caricaceae are widely used industrially as well as in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a 23 kDa cysteine proteinase from Carica candamarcensis latex (designated CMS1MS2) was purified for crystallization using three chromatography steps. The enzyme shows about fourfold higher activity than papain with BAPNA as substrate. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction experiments were obtained by the hanging-drop method in the presence of PEG and ammonium sulfate as precipitants. The crystals are monoclinic (space group P21), with unit-cell parameters a = 53.26, b = 75.71, c = 53.23 Å, β = 96.81°, and diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution. PMID:18540057

  9. Role of irradiation in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ulug, Bulent; Haluk Turkdemir, M; Cicek, Ahmet; Mete, Ahmet

    2015-01-25

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous mixture of fig (Ficus carica) leaf extract and AgNO3 solution exposed to a set of irradiances at different wavelengths are studied. Nanoparticle formation for irradiances between 6.5 mW/cm(2) and 13.3 mW/cm(2) in the 330-550 nm wavelength range is investigated and the results are compared to those of the nanoparticles synthesized in the dark and under direct sunlight. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, along with particle size analysis and transmission electron microscopy are employed for the characterization of samples and extracts. Irradiance is found to have profound influence on the reduction rates. However, size and spherical shape of the nanoparticles are persistent, irrespective of irradiance and wavelength. Irradiance is discussed to influence the particle formation and aggregation rates through the formation of free radicals in the fig extract.

  10. Flavonoid content in leaf extracts of the fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    PubMed

    Vaya, Jacob; Mahmood, Saeed

    2006-01-01

    The total flavonoid content of leaf extracts (70% ethanol) from fig (Ficus carica L.), carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and pistachio (Pistacia lentiscus L.) plants were determined by using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-and analyzed by UV/VIS array and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) detectors. As a base for comparison, flavonoid type and level were also determined in extracts from soybeans and grape seeds. It was found that the major flavonoids in Ficus are quercetin and luteolin, with a total of 631 and 681 mg/kg extract, respectively. In Ceratonia leaves, nine different flavonoids were detected. The major one was myricetin (1486 mg/kg extract), with a similar level in Pistacia (1331 mg/kg extract, myricetin). The present study is the first to report the presence of the isoflavone genistein in the Pistacia leaf, which was discovered to consist of about a third of the genistein level detected in soybean.

  11. Involvement of AOX and UCP pathways in the post-harvest ripening of papaya fruits.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M G; Mazorra, L M; Souza, A F; Silva, G M C; Correa, S F; Santos, W C; Saraiva, K D C; Teixeira, A J; Melo, D F; Silva, M G; Silva, M A P; Arrabaça, J D C; Costa, J H; Oliveira, J G

    2015-09-15

    Enhanced respiration during ripening in climacteric fruits is sometimes associated with an uncoupling between the ATP synthesis and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. While the participation of two energy-dissipating systems, one of which is mediated by the alternative oxidase (AOX) and the other mediated by the uncoupling protein (UCP), has been linked to fruit ripening, the relation between the activation of both mitochondrial uncoupling systems with the transient increase of ethylene synthesis (ethylene peak) remains unclear. To elucidate this question, ethylene emission and the two uncoupling (AOX and UCP) pathways were monitored in harvested papaya fruit during the ripening, from green to fully yellow skin. The results confirmed the typical climacteric behavior for papaya fruit: an initial increase in endogenous ethylene emission which reaches a maximum (peak) in the intermediate ripening stage, before finally declining to a basal level in ripe fruit. Respiration of intact fruit also increased and achieved higher levels at the end of ripening. On the other hand, in purified mitochondria extracted from fruit pulp the total respiration and respiratory control decrease while an increase in the participation of AOX and UCP pathways was markedly evident during papaya ripening. There was an increase in the AOX capacity during the transition from green fruit to the intermediate stage that accompanied the transient ethylene peak, while the O2 consumption triggered by UCP activation increased by 80% from the beginning to end stage of fruit ripening. Expression analyses of AOX (AOX1 and 2) and UCP (UCP1-5) genes revealed that the increases in the AOX and UCP capacities were linked to a higher expression of AOX1 and UCP (mainly UCP1) genes, respectively. In silico promoter analyses of both genes showed the presence of ethylene-responsive cis-elements in UCP1 and UCP2 genes. Overall, the data suggest a differential activation of AOX and UCP pathways in regulation

  12. Fig latex (Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato) in combination with UV irradiation decreases the viability of A375 melanoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Giulio; Alfano, Carmine; Provenzano, Eugenio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Somma, Francesco; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2012-10-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 μg/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development.

  13. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references.

  14. The minimal 5' sequence for in vitro initiation of papaya mosaic potexvirus assembly.

    PubMed

    Sit, T L; Leclerc, D; AbouHaidar, M G

    1994-02-15

    The minimal 5' initiation of assembly sequence for papaya mosaic virus (PMV) has been determined by the generation of successive 3' deletion clones from a full-length cDNA copy of the PMV genome followed by in vitro assembly of RNA transcripts. Sequences closest to the 5' terminus were cloned into plasmid vectors with synthetic complementary oligonucleotides representing viral sequences. The in vitro initiation sequence has been narrowed down to 38-47 nucleotides at the 5' terminus which are capable of initiation alone or in conjunction with homologous or heterologous sequences. The minimum initiation sequence is rich in adenosine and cytidine and very poor in uridine nucleotides and lacks any discernible secondary structure.

  15. AntiTumor and Immunoregulatory Effects of Fermented Papaya Preparation (FPP: SAIDOPS501).

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinki; Eikawa, Shingo; Kaya, Savas; Imao, Mitsuko; Aji, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Various beneficial effects have been described for fermented papaya preparation (FPP: SAIDOPS501) based on its antioxidative and antiinflammatory functions. The present study was designed to determine the effects of FPP on carcinogenesis in vivo, and immunomodulatory function in vitro. Mice were injected with RL male 1 cells subcutaneously or 3methylcholantherene (MCA) intravenously to induce cancer and orally or intraperitoneally treated with FPP solution. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from healthy volunteers and patients with atopic dermatitis, treated with FPP, and subjected to measurement of cytokine production and changes in Foxp3expressing regulatory T cell (Treg) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Administration of FPP suppressed tumor size and the incidence of malignancy. In vitro, treatment of PBMC with FPP induced IL1?, TNFα and IFNγ production. Moreover, FPP suppressed proliferation of PHAstimulated Foxp3expressing Treg. These results suggest that FPP has chemotherapeutic properties.

  16. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    PubMed

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex in a rodent-nematode model is not dependent on fasting before treatment.

    PubMed

    Luoga, W; Mansur, F; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Garnett, M C; Behnke, J M

    2012-09-01

    In earlier studies of the anthelmintic activity of plant cysteine proteinases (CPs), a period of food deprivation was routinely employed before administration of CPs, but there has been no systematic evaluation as to whether this does actually benefit the anthelmintic efficacy. Therefore, we assessed the effect of fasting on the efficacy of CPs from papaya latex (PL) against Heligmosomoides bakeri in C3H mice. We used a refined, supernatant extract of papaya latex (PLS) with known active enzyme content. The animals were divided into three groups (fasted prior to treatment with PLS, not fasted but treated with PLS and fasted but given only water). The study demonstrated clearly that although food deprivation had been routinely employed in much of the earlier work on CPs in mice infected with nematodes, fasting has no beneficial effect on the efficacy of PLS against H. bakeri infections. Administration of CPs to fed animals will also reduce the stress associated with fasting.

  18. Industrial-hygiene report, walk-through survey, papaya packing/shipping facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983. [Ethylene dibromide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, D.

    1983-07-01

    Worker exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing-zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as a control on time and temperature effects. Blank samples were also prepared. Spike results reflected the effects of time and temperature in shipment from Hawaii to Massachusetts. All spikes were roughly comparable and showed a recovery of about 68%. Overnight laboratory results were adjusted upward by 72% and NIOSH laboratory results by 68%. Six out of 38 samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended amount of 130 ppb. The author concludes that there is a chronic, low-concentration exposure to EDB for all workers in the papaya industry in Hilo. An epidemiological study of reproductive and cytogenetic effects of EDB exposure on these workers is recommended.

  19. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Monique; Bernard, Linda; Jobin, Michele; Milot, Sylvain; Gagnon, Marcel

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) the level of respiration and significantly (p ⪕ 0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed.

  20. Nucleotide sequence and intergeminiviral homologies of the DNA-A of papaya leaf curl geminivirus from India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Hallan, V; Singh, B P; Sane, P V

    1998-06-01

    Coat protein gene, rep protein gene and intergenic region of the genome of a whitefly transmitted geminivirus (WTG) causing severe leaf curl in papaya plants were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the putative coat protein product of papaya leaf curl virus (PLCV) with some other mono and bipartite WTGs revealed a maximum of 89.8% homology with Indian cassava mosaic virus. The genomic organization of PLCV-India is similar to other WTGs with bipartite genomes. Comparison of the coat protein N-terminal 70 amino acid sequence (and other biological features) of PLCV with other geminiviruses shows that PLCV is a distinct geminivirus from India and is related to WTGs from the old world.

  1. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Collaborative trial for the validation of event-specific PCR detection methods of genetically modified papaya Huanong No.1.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Le, Huangying; Pan, Aihu; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Feiwu; Li, Xiang; Quan, Sheng; Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao

    2016-03-01

    For transferring the event-specific PCR methods of genetically modified papaya Huanong No.1 to other laboratories, we validated the previous developed PCR assays of Huanong No.1 according to the international standard organization (ISO) guidelines. A total of 11 laboratories participated and returned their test results in this trial. In qualitative PCR assay, the high specificity and limit of detection as low as 0.1% was confirmed. For the quantitative PCR assay, the limit of quantification was as low as 25 copies. The quantitative biases among ten blind samples were within the range between 0.21% and 10.04%. Furthermore, the measurement uncertainty of the quantitative PCR results was calculated within the range between 0.28% and 2.92% for these ten samples. All results demonstrated that the Huanong No.1 qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were creditable and applicable for identification and quantification of GM papaya Huanong No.1 in further routine lab analysis.

  3. The amino acid sequences of eleven tryptic peptides of papaya mosaic virus protein by electron ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parente, A; Short, M N; Self, R; Parsley, K R

    1982-04-01

    Eleven of the fourteen tryptic peptides of papaya mosaic virus protein have been sequenced by electron ionization mass spectrometry using chemical and enzymic hydrolyses and mixture analysis as required. Mid-chain cleavages of N-C bonds produced secondary ion series which allowed up to 16 residues to be sequenced without further hydrolysis. Mixture analysis on hydrolysis products enabled a 24 residue tryptic peptide to be sequenced from the data recorded in a single mass spectrum.

  4. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified.

  5. Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.

    PubMed

    Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Ali, Asgar; Hei, Goh Kar; Keat, Yeoh Wei

    2016-03-01

    Effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (GO) and 1.5 % ginger extract (GE) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (GA) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of Eksotika II papaya fruit during storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 80-85 % RH. Antifungal compounds present in GO and GE were analyzed using gas chromatography and GO was found to contain α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole and borneol, while only borneol was present in GE due to different extraction methods applied. The highest antifungal activity was shown in 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA, which significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited spore germination by 93 %. Based on the physicochemical properties tested, 2.0 % GO combined with 10 % GA significantly delayed the ripening of papaya. These results show that 10.0 % GA combined with 2.0 % GO is an effective postharvest biofungicide for papaya.

  7. Profile of volatile compounds during papaya juice fermentation by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Williopsis saturnus.

    PubMed

    Lee, P-R; Ong, Y-L; Yu, B; Curran, P; Liu, S-Q

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the formation and utilization of volatile compounds during papaya juice fermentation by a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Williopsis saturnus. Time-course papaya juice fermentations were carried out using pure cultures of S. cerevisiae var. bayanus R2 and W. saturnus var. mrakii NCYC2251 and a mixed culture of the two yeasts at a ratio of 1:1000 (R2:NCYC2251). Changes in S. cerevisiae cell population, Brix, sugar consumption and pH were similar in the mixed culture and in the S. cerevisiae monoculture. There was an early growth arrest of W. saturnus in the mixed culture fermentation. A range of volatile compounds were produced during fermentation including fatty acids, alcohols, aldehydes and esters and some volatile compounds including those initially present in the juice were utilized. The mixed culture fermentation of S. cerevisiae and W. saturnus benefited from the presence of both yeasts, with more esters being produced than the S. cerevisiae monoculture and more alcohols being formed than the W. saturnus monoculture. The study suggests that papaya juice fermentation with a mixed culture of S. cerevisiae and W. saturnus may be able to result in the formation of more complex aroma compounds and higher ethanol level than those using single yeasts. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the Host Status of Mature Green Papayas 'Maradol' for the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    The suitability of mature green 'Maradol' papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in "commercial ripeness", while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in "spot ripeness." The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial- or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called "spot ripeness." These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory.

  9. The Papaya Transcription Factor CpNAC1 Modulates Carotenoid Biosynthesis through Activating Phytoene Desaturase Genes CpPDS2/4 during Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chang-Chun; Han, Yan-Chao; Fan, Zhong-Qi; Chen, Jian-Ye; Chen, Wei-Xin; Lu, Wang-Jin; Kuang, Jian-Fei

    2016-07-13

    Papaya fruits accumulate carotenoids during fruit ripening. Although many papaya carotenoid biosynthesis pathway genes have been identified, the transcriptional regulators of these genes have not been characterized. In this study, a NAC transcription factor, designated as CpNAC1, was characterized from papaya fruit. CpNAC1 was localized exclusively in nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. Expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes phytoene desaturases (CpPDSs) and CpNAC1 was increased during fruit ripening and by propylene treatment, which correlates well with the elevated carotenoid content in papaya. The gel mobility shift assays and transient expression analyses demonstrated that CpNAC1 directly binds to the NAC binding site (NACBS) motifs in CpPDS2/4 promoters and activates them. Collectively, these data suggest that CpNAC1 may act as a positive regulator of carotenoid biosynthesis during papaya fruit ripening possibly via transcriptional activation of CpPDSs such as CpPDS2/4.

  10. Propagation of Some Local Fig (Ficus carica L.) Cultivars by Hardwood Cuttings under the Field Conditions in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Aljane, Fateh; Nahdi, Sabrine

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out in Southeast of Tunisia in 2009 and 2010, in order to study the propagation of six (Ficus carica L.) cultivars by using hardwood cuttings under the field conditions. The effect of the cultivars and the type of buds, shoots age, shoots length, and shoots diameter were recorded. Ten cuttings per cultivar and/or cutting types with three replications were planted in rooting unit. Percentage of root emergence and six morphological parameters of young fig plants were measured. Results showed that the responses of cuttings as fig nursery plants presented a high variability among the five cultivars. The most widely varied characters were % root emergence (RE) and cumulative growth of young plant (CG). The first one ranged from 10% to 90%, the second varied within 32 and 112 cm. Concerning the ''BITHER" cultivar, 6 cutting types with different age, length, and diameter were evaluated. Results showed a great variation in % of root emergence (0-90%), length of nursery plant (3-77 cm), and number of roots/nursery plant (0-29 roots). The present research showed that the hardwood cutting of local fig cultivars can be propagated under field conditions in Southeast of Tunisia.

  11. Identification, purification and characterization of a novel collagenolytic serine protease from fig (Ficus carica var. Brown Turkey) latex.

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Brankica; Bozovic, Olga; Prodanovic, Radivoje; Niketic, Vesna; Polovic, Natalija

    2014-12-01

    A novel collagenolytic serine protease was identified and then purified (along with ficin) to apparent homogeneity from the latex of fig (Ficus carica, var. Brown Turkey) by two step chromatographic procedure using gel and covalent chromatography. The enzyme is a monomeric protein of molecular mass of 41 ± 9 kDa as estimated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. It is an acidic protein with a pI value of approximately 5 and optimal activity at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 60°C. The enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF and Pefabloc SC, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The enzyme showed specificity towards gelatin and collagen (215 GDU/mg and 24.8 CDU/mg, respectively) and non-specific protease activity (0.18 U/mg against casein). The enzyme was stable and retained full activity over a broad range of pH and temperature. The fig latex collagenolytic protease is potentially useful as a non-microbial enzyme with collagenolytic activity for various applications in the fields of biochemistry, biotechnology and medicine.

  12. Effects of Common Fig (Ficus carica) Leaf Extracts on Sperm Parameters and Testis of Mice Intoxicated with Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Naghdi, Majid; Maghbool, Maryam; Seifalah-Zade, Morteza; Mahaldashtian, Maryam; Makoolati, Zohreh; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Fereydouni, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is the leading cause of cellular injury and oxidative damage in testis that is one of the main infertility causes. There has been an increasing evidence of herbal remedies use in male infertility treatment. This assay examines the role of Ficus carica (Fc) leaf extracts in sperm parameters and testis of mice intoxicated with FA. Twenty-five adult male mice were randomly divided into control; sham; FA-treated (10 mg/kg twice per day); Fc-treated (200 mg/kg); and FA + Fc-treated groups. Cauda epididymal spermatozoa were analyzed for viability, count, and motility. Testes were weighed and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Also, histoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules was assessed in the Haematoxylin and Eosin stained paraffin sections. The findings showed that FA significantly decreased GSI and increased percentage of immotile sperm compared with control group. Disorganized and vacuolated seminiferous epithelium, spermatogenic arrest, and lumen filled with immature germ cells were also observed in the testes. However, Fc leaf extracts improved sperm count, nonprogressive motility of spermatozoa, and GSI in FA-treated testes. Moreover, seminiferous tubule with spermatogenic arrest was rarely seen, indicating that Fc has the positive effects on testis and epididymal sperm parameters exposed with FA. PMID:26904140

  13. Traditional agroecosystems as conservatories and incubators of cultivated plant varietal diversity: the case of fig (Ficus carica L.) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Achtak, Hafid; Ater, Mohammed; Oukabli, Ahmed; Santoni, Sylvain; Kjellberg, Finn; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2010-02-18

    Traditional agroecosystems are known to host both large crop species diversity and high within crop genetic diversity. In a context of global change, this diversity may be needed to feed the world. Are these agroecosystems museums (i.e. large core collections) or cradles of diversity? We investigated this question for a clonally propagated plant, fig (Ficus carica), within its native range, in Morocco, but as far away as possible from supposed centers of domestication. Fig varieties were locally numerous. They were found to be mainly highly local and corresponded to clones propagated vegetatively. Nevertheless these clones were often sufficiently old to have accumulated somatic mutations for selected traits (fig skin color) and at neutral loci (microsatellite markers). Further the pattern of spatial genetic structure was similar to the pattern expected in natural population for a mutation/drift/migration model at equilibrium, with homogeneous levels of local genetic diversity throughout Moroccan traditional agroecosystems. We conclude that traditional agroecosystems constitue active incubators of varietal diversity even for clonally propagated crop species, and even when varieties correspond to clones that are often old. As only female fig is cultivated, wild fig and cultivated fig probably constitute a single evolutionary un