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Sample records for man-made thermal effluents

  1. Types and distribution of obligate thermophilic bacteria in man-made and natural thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Ramaley, R F; Bitzinger, K

    1975-07-01

    The types and distribution of obligate thermophilic bacteria were found to be similar in a thermal gradient resulting from man-made thermal pollution and the thermal gradients of two natural hot springs located in Colorado.

  2. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent using man-made biofilms: effects of some variables.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2014-11-01

    Biofilm samples were established on glass slides by submerging them in oil-free and oil-containing sewage effluent for a month. In batch cultures, such biofilms were effective in removing crude oil, pure n-hexadecane, and pure phenanthrene contaminating sewage effluent. The amounts of the removed hydrocarbons increased with increasing biofilm surface area exposed to the effluent. On the other hand, addition of the reducing agent thioglycollate dramatically inhibited the hydrocarbon bioremediation potential of the biofilms. The same biofilm samples removed contaminating hydrocarbons effectively in three successive batch bioremediation cycles but started to become less effective in the cycles thereafter, apparently due to mechanical biofilm loss during successive transfers. As major hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria, the biofilms harbored species belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Microvirga, Zavarzinia, Mycobacterium, Microbacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Gordonia, Bosea, Sphingobium, Brachybacterium, and others. The nitrogen fixer Azospirillum brasilense and the microalga Ochromonas distigma were also present; they seemed to enrich the biofilms, with nitrogenous compounds and molecular oxygen, respectively, which are known to enhance microbiological hydrocarbon degradation. It was concluded that man-made biofilms based upon sewage microflora are promising tools for bioremediation of hydrocarbons contaminating sewage effluent.

  3. Comparison of thermal (FLIR) and television images. [in natural and man-made target detection and identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.; Staveland, Lowell E.

    1989-01-01

    The human eye is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in the 0.4 to 0.7 micron band (light). Thermal imaging (TI) systems are sensitive to heat radiation in the infrared band (3-5 or 8-14 microns) and are capable of transforming the distribution of relative temperatures in a scene into a visible TV image. The present experiment was designed to investigate the impact of the difference between TIs and regular TV images on the detection and identification of natural and man-made targets. Parallel TV and TI videotapes were recorded during helicopter flights. Fifteen subjects who viewed both the TV and the TI images (separately), were asked to detect predefined targets and to identify features pointed out to them by the experimenter. In general, performance with TVs was superior to performance with TIs in terms of response times and errors. However, subjects required significantly less time to detect man-made objects with TIs than with TVs. The correlation between the performance of the same task with the two kinds of images was very low. The results are discussed in terms of image quality and in terms of humans' internal representations of natural categories.

  4. Comparison of thermal (FLIR) and television images. [in natural and man-made target detection and identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickner, Michael S.; Staveland, Lowell E.

    1989-01-01

    The human eye is sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in the 0.4 to 0.7 micron band (light). Thermal imaging (TI) systems are sensitive to heat radiation in the infrared band (3-5 or 8-14 microns) and are capable of transforming the distribution of relative temperatures in a scene into a visible TV image. The present experiment was designed to investigate the impact of the difference between TIs and regular TV images on the detection and identification of natural and man-made targets. Parallel TV and TI videotapes were recorded during helicopter flights. Fifteen subjects who viewed both the TV and the TI images (separately), were asked to detect predefined targets and to identify features pointed out to them by the experimenter. In general, performance with TVs was superior to performance with TIs in terms of response times and errors. However, subjects required significantly less time to detect man-made objects with TIs than with TVs. The correlation between the performance of the same task with the two kinds of images was very low. The results are discussed in terms of image quality and in terms of humans' internal representations of natural categories.

  5. Man-made vitreous fiber produced from incinerator ash using the thermal plasma technique and application as reinforcement in concrete.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Wang, To-Mai; Lee, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Kin-Seng; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2010-10-15

    This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat municipal solid waste incinerator ashes. A feasible fiberization method was developed and applied to produce man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) from plasma vitrified slag. MMVF were obtained through directly blending the oxide melt stream with high velocity compressed air. The basic technological characteristics of MMVF, including morphology, diameter, shot content, length and chemical resistance, are described in this work. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the fiber-reinforced concrete. The effects of fibrous content on compressive strength and flexural strength are presented. The experimental results showed the proper additive of MMVF in concrete can enhance its mechanical properties. MMVF products produced from incinerator ashes treated with the thermal plasma technique have great potential for reinforcement in concrete. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The thermal transformation of Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) and safe recycling as secondary raw materials (SRM).

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, A F; Foresti, E; Lesci, I G; Roveri, N; Gualtieri, M Lassinantti; Dondi, M; Zapparoli, M

    2009-03-15

    This work describes the high temperature reaction sequence of commercial Man Made Vitreous Fibers (MMVF) Cerafiber, Superwool, Rock wool and Glass wool which may be used as substitute for asbestos in some industrial applications. Knowledge of the reaction path and transformation sequence is very important to assess whether carcinogenic crystalline phases are formed during devitrification, which may occur when used as insulators. In addition, knowledge about the nature of the phases formed at high temperature is mandatory to assess if thermally transformed MMVF can be safely recycled as secondary raw material (SRM). In this scenario, this study provides useful information for the optimization of the industrial annealing process aimed to attain a safe, recyclable product. The results of this work show that one of the high-temperature products of Cerafiber and Superwool is cristobalite which is classified as a carcinogenic. It was possible to define the temperature interval at which Cerafiber and Superwool fibers can be safely used as thermal insulators (e.g. insulators in tunnel and/or roller kilns, etc.). As cristobalite is formed in both synthetic fiber products at temperatures higher than 1200 degrees C, their use should be limited to devices operating at lower temperatures. Rock and Glass wool melt upon thermal treatment. As far as the industrial process of inertization is concerned, a maximum firing temperature of 1100 and 600 degrees C is required to melt Rock wool and Glass wool, respectively, with the high-temperature products that can be safely recycled as SRM. Recycling of these products in stoneware tile mixtures were subsequently attempted. The addition of 1-2 wt.% of the melts of Rock and Glass wool gave promising results in terms of viscous sintering reactions and resistance to staining with the only weak characteristic being the color properties of the fired bodies which tend to worsen.

  7. Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Derek

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of human intervention, the honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) usually constructs its nest in a tree within a tall, narrow, thick-walled cavity high above the ground (the enclosure); however, most research and apiculture is conducted in the thin-walled, squat wooden enclosures we know as hives. This experimental research, using various hives and thermal models of trees, has found that the heat transfer rate is approximately four to seven times greater in the hives in common use, compared to a typical tree enclosure in winter configuration. This gives a ratio of colony mass to lumped enclosure thermal conductance (MCR) of less than 0.8 kgW-1 K for wooden hives and greater than 5 kgW-1 K for tree enclosures. This result for tree enclosures implies higher levels of humidity in the nest, increased survival of smaller colonies and lower Varroa destructor breeding success. Many honeybee behaviours previously thought to be intrinsic may only be a coping mechanism for human intervention; for example, at an MCR of above 2 kgW-1 K, clustering in a tree enclosure may be an optional, rare, heat conservation behaviour for established colonies, rather than the compulsory, frequent, life-saving behaviour that is in the hives in common use. The implied improved survival in hives with thermal properties of tree nests may help to solve some of the problems honeybees are currently facing in apiculture.

  8. Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Derek

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of human intervention, the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) usually constructs its nest in a tree within a tall, narrow, thick-walled cavity high above the ground (the enclosure); however, most research and apiculture is conducted in the thin-walled, squat wooden enclosures we know as hives. This experimental research, using various hives and thermal models of trees, has found that the heat transfer rate is approximately four to seven times greater in the hives in common use, compared to a typical tree enclosure in winter configuration. This gives a ratio of colony mass to lumped enclosure thermal conductance (MCR) of less than 0.8 kgW(-1) K for wooden hives and greater than 5 kgW(-1) K for tree enclosures. This result for tree enclosures implies higher levels of humidity in the nest, increased survival of smaller colonies and lower Varroa destructor breeding success. Many honeybee behaviours previously thought to be intrinsic may only be a coping mechanism for human intervention; for example, at an MCR of above 2 kgW(-1) K, clustering in a tree enclosure may be an optional, rare, heat conservation behaviour for established colonies, rather than the compulsory, frequent, life-saving behaviour that is in the hives in common use. The implied improved survival in hives with thermal properties of tree nests may help to solve some of the problems honeybees are currently facing in apiculture.

  9. Acute thermal tolerance of tropical estuarine fish occupying a man-made tidal lake, and increased exposure risk with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, Nathan J.; Sheaves, Marcus

    2017-09-01

    Understanding acute hyperthermic exposure risk to animals, including fish in tropical estuaries, is increasingly necessary under future climate change. To examine this hypothesis, fish (upper water column species - glassfish, Ambassis vachellii; river mullet, Chelon subviridis; diamond scale mullet, Ellochelon vaigiensis; and ponyfish, Leiognathus equulus; and lower water bottom dwelling species - whiting Sillago analis) were caught in an artificial tidal lake in tropical north Queensland (Australia), and transported to a laboratory tank to acclimate (3wks). After acclimation, fish (between 10 and 17 individuals each time) were transferred to a temperature ramping experimental tank, where a thermoline increased (2.5 °C/hr; which is the average summer water temperature increasing rate measured in the urban lakes) tank water temperature to establish threshold points where each fish species lost equilibrium (defined here as Acute Effect Temperature; AET). The coolest AET among all species was 33.1 °C (S. analis), while the highest was 39.9 °C (A. vachellii). High frequency loggers were deployed (November and March representing Austral summer) in the same urban lake where fish were sourced, to measure continuous (20min) surface (0.15 m) and bottom (0.1 m) temperature to derive thermal frequency curves to examine how often lake temperatures exceed AET thresholds. For most fish species examined, water temperature that could be lethal were exceeded at the surface, but rarely, if ever, at the bottom waters suggesting deep, cooler, water provides thermal refugia for fish. An energy-balance model was used to estimate daily mean lake water temperature with good accuracy (±1 °C; R2 = 0.91, modelled vs lake measured temperature). The model was used to predict climate change effects on lake water temperature, and the exceedance of thermal threshold change. A 2.3 °C climate warming (based on 2100 local climate prediction) raised lake water temperature by 1.3 °C. However

  10. THE MAN MADE WORLD, TEACHER'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THIS TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT'S HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, "THE MAN MADE WORLD," IS THE THIRD DRAFT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL VERSION. THE MATERIAL WRITTEN BY ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND EDUCATORS, EMPHASIZES ENGINEERING--MAN'S APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO THE CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF HIS ENVIRONMENT.…

  11. THE MAN MADE WORLD, LABORATORY MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THIS LABORATORY MANUAL, THE COMPANION VOLUME TO THE STUDENT'S TEXT FOR THE "MAN MADE WORLD" HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, CONTAINS 31 EXPERIMENTS DEALING WITH THE THEORY, CIRCUITRY, AND OPERATION OF COMPUTERS, AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY. THE COURSE WAS WRITTEN BY SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND EDUCATORS, AND IS INTENDED AS A PART OF THE CULTURAL CURRICULUM FOR ALL…

  12. Man-made mineral fibers and the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roser; Orriols, Ramon

    2012-12-01

    Man-made mineral fibers are produced using inorganic materials and are widely used as thermal and acoustic insulation. These basically include continuous fiberglass filaments, glass wool (fiberglass insulation), stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers. Likewise, in the last two decades nanoscale fibers have also been developed, among these being carbon nanotubes with their high electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability. Both man-made mineral fibers and carbon nanotubes have properties that make them inhalable and potentially harmful, which have led to studies to assess their pathogenicity. The aim of this review is to analyze the knowledge that currently exists about the ability of these fibers to produce respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Man-made molecular machines: membrane bound.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew A; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-11-07

    Nature's molecular machines are a constant source of inspiration to the chemist. Many of these molecular machines function within lipid membranes, allowing them to exploit potential gradients between spatially close, but chemically distinct environments to fuel their work cycle. Indeed, the realisation of such principles in synthetic transmembrane systems remains a tantalising goal. This tutorial review opens by highlighting seminal examples of synthetic molecular machines. We illustrate the importance of surfaces for facilitating the extraction of work from molecular switches and motors. We chart the development of man-made transmembrane systems; from passive to machine-like stimuli-responsive channels, to fully autonomous transmembrane molecular machines. Finally, we highlight higher-order compartmentalised systems that exhibit emergent properties. We suggest that such higher-order architectures could serve as platforms for sophisticated devices that co-ordinate the activity of numerous transmembrane molecular machines.

  14. Our Man-Made Environment: Book Seven, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Alan G.

    To help one see his man-made environment in a new way is the main purpose of this student workbook. Three basic questions are presented--what is the man-made environment, why it is, and how can we change it? Then, through a series of related problems and discussion, answers are discovered or choices made depending on the way one sees his world or…

  15. Habitat Value of Man-Made Coastal Marshes in Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    24 Table 8. Common Fish Collected From Man-Made and Natural Marshes on the Gulf Coast .................. 29 Table 9. Common Fish Collected From Man...Site Name Age, yr Size, ha Location Man-Made Marshes (Continued) Bay Shore Parkway 10.0 0.28 Pensacola Gardinier 9.4 2.50 Tampa Natural Marshes Bay Point...inside two 0.25-m 2 quadrats randomly placed along each vegetation tran- sect. The marsh periwinkle (Littorina spp.), which climbs vegetation to stay

  16. Man-made mineral (vitreous) fibres: evaluations of cancer hazards by the IARC Monographs Programme.

    PubMed

    Baan, Robert A; Grosse, Yann

    2004-09-03

    Man-made vitreous (glass-like) fibres are non-crystalline, fibrous inorganic substances (silicates) made primarily from rock, slag, glass or other processed minerals. These materials, also called man-made mineral fibres, include glass fibres (used in glass wool and continuous glass filament), rock or stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibres. They are widely used for thermal and acoustical insulation and to a lesser extent for other purposes. These products are potentially hazardous to human health because they release airborne respirable fibres during their production, use and removal. Man-made mineral fibres and man-made vitreous fibres have been the subject of reviews by IARC Monographs Working Groups in 1987 and 2001, respectively, which resulted in evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans from exposure to these materials. These reviews and evaluations have been published as Volumes 43 and 81 of the IARC Monographs series [IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 43, Man-made Mineral Fibres and Radon (1988); IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 81, Man-made Vitreous Fibres (2002)]. The re-evaluation in 2001 was undertaken because there have been substantial improvements in the quality of the epidemiological information available on the carcinogenicity to humans of glass fibres, continuous glass filament and rock/slag wool. The new evaluations have addressed the limitations of earlier cohort studies, particularly concerning the lack of adjustment with respect to concomitant risk factors such as smoking and other sources of occupational exposure. In addition, the evaluation of the evidence for carcinogenicity of glass fibres to experimental animals has been refined, by making a distinction between insulation glass wool and special-purpose glass fibres. The results of the evaluations in 1987 and 2001 are thus different in several aspects. In this paper, the reviews and evaluations

  17. Ocean Disposal of Man-Made Ice Piers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Science Foundation is permitted to ocean dump man-made ice piers from its base at McMurdo Sound in Antarctica under a MPRSA general permit. Information is provided about ice piers and impacts of ice pier disposal.

  18. Measurements of Man-Made Spectrum Noise Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enge, Per; Akos, Dennis; Do, Juyong; Simoneau, Joel B.; Pearson, L. Wilson; Seetharam, Venkatesh; Oria, A. J. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    This report consolidates research carried out at Clemson University and Stanford University where a series of measurements were undertaken to identify the man-made radiation present in four bands used by rather different services, namely, L1 Band (1563.42 1587.42 MHz), the Unified S-Band (2025 2110 MHz), the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) Band (2400 2482.50 MHz), and the 23.6-24.0 GHz Passive Sensing Band. Results show that there were distinctive differences in the measurement data in the frequency bands, which should be expected based on the function/regulation associated with each. The GPS L1 Band had little to none terrestrial man-made sources, but the ISM 2.4 GHz Band had a large number of man-made sources regardless of the site and the time. The Unified S Band showed mixed results depending on the sites. The Passive Sensing Band does not contain appreciable man-made radiation.

  19. AAFE man-made noise experiment project. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management and operational considerations involved in the project to measure man-made electromagnetic noise at earth orbital altitudes are discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) launch and orbit of the Scout D vehicles, (2) experiment management, (3) receiver scanning considerations, (4) data handling, and (5) threshold measurements. The storage requirements for a high resolution, complete data storage library are defined. Mathematical models of signal detection probability are developed.

  20. Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall

  1. Silica, asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Steenland, K; Stayner, L

    1997-05-01

    Approximately three million workers in the United States are estimated to be exposed to silica, man-made mineral fibers, and asbestos. The lung is the primary target organ of concern. Each of these substances is composed predominantly of silicon and oxygen; asbestos and silica are crystalline, and asbestos and man-made mineral fibers are fibers. Man-made mineral fibers and asbestos are used as insulating agents, with the former having generally replaced the latter in recent years. Silica is used in foundries, pottery, and brick making, and is encountered by miners. A meta-analysis of 16 of the largest studies with well-documented silica exposure and low probability of confounding by other occupational exposures, indicates a relative risk (RR) of 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-1.4). Lung cancer risks are highest and most consistent for silicotics, who have received the highest doses (RR = 2.3, CI = 2.2-2.4, across 19 studies). The data for mineral fibers continue to support the International Association for Research on Cancer's 1988 judgment that mineral fibers are a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). Recent epidemiologic studies provide little evidence for lung carcinogenicity for either glass wool or rock/slag wool. Ceramic fibers, a much less common exposure than glass wool and rock/slag wool, are of concern because of positive animal studies, but there are insufficient human data. Regarding asbestos, its carcinogenicity for the lung and mesothelium is well established. With regard to the controversy over chrysotile and mesothelioma, the data suggest chrysotile does cause mesothelioma, although it may be less potent than amphibole asbestos.

  2. Natural and man-made health hazards in rural Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Gulis, Gabriel; Kollarová, Jana; Dietzová, Zuzana; Labancová, Jana; Behanová, Martina; Ondrusová, Martina

    2009-12-01

    There is little information on health situation of the people of rural Slovak Republic. The rural environment is often a mixture of natural and man-made hazards, which under some conditions, might turn to be a health risk to humans. The aim of this study was to compare two regions of the Slovak Republic, two different hazards (natural and man-made), two different methods of health outcome measurement (routine statistics and individual diary based data). Ecological study design with focus on cancer incidence analysis was employed in case of natural hazard analysis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated and are presented in paper. Observational study design was employed to study rural gardening practices and their impact on health. Statistically significant differences in SIR were found in rural areas of Spis-Gemer Region (SGR) among males for lip, oral cavity and larynx (1.60, CI 95% 1.12-2.34), respiratory (1.25, CI 95% 1.01-1.55) and digestive organ cancers (1.22, CI 95% 1.01-1.47); hematopoetic cancers are significantly elevated among males in rural areas as well (1.58, CI 95% 1.05-2.39). Pesticide use (83.1% of gardeners use pesticides) without any protective equipment is still widespread among gardeners in rural Slovak Republic (16.9%). The produced fruits and vegetables are substantial part of total fruit and vegetable consumption (51% in summer and 42.7% in winter season) increasing the risk of exposure to pesticides. Our study shows that on ecological level, mortality and morbidity statistics could be used to assess human health status in linkage to broad exposure measures (urban-rural); on dose response level (arsenic in soil) this method lacks sensitivity. Health survey and diary method on the other hand are useful tools in analysis of rural health especially with respect to man-made hazards.

  3. The uses of Man-Made diamond in wafering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    The continuing, rapid growth of the semiconductor industry requires the involvement of several specialized industries in the development of special products geared toward the unique requirements of this new industry. A specialized manufactured diamond to meet various material removal needs was discussed. The area of silicon wafer slicing has presented yet anothr challenge and it is met most effectively. The history, operation, and performance of Man-Made diamond and particularly as applied to silicon wafer slicing is discussed. Product development is underway to come up with a diamond specifically for sawing silicon wafers on an electroplated blade.

  4. Wideband model of man-made HF noise and interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmon, John J.

    1997-03-01

    A mathematical model of the waveform generated by man-made high frequency (HF) noise and interference is presented and discussed. The model is based on wideband (800 kHz) recordings of the noise and interference at various frequencies in the HF band. Representative examples of first- and higher-order statistics of the measured waveforms are described, including probability distributions of the envelope and phase of the noise and interference in the time and frequency domains, power spectra, autocorrelation functions, and level crossing distributions. The statistics of waveforms generated by the model closely resemble the statistics of the measured data.

  5. Simulating statistics of lightning-induced and man made fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, R.; Hergarten, S.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency-area distributions of forest fires show power-law behavior with scaling exponents α in a quite narrow range, relating wildfire research to the theoretical framework of self-organized criticality. Examples of self-organized critical behavior can be found in computer simulations of simple cellular automata. The established self-organized critical Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model (DS-FFM) is one of the most widespread models in this context. Despite its qualitative agreement with event-size statistics from nature, its applicability is still questioned. Apart from general concerns that the DS-FFM apparently oversimplifies the complex nature of forest dynamics, it significantly overestimates the frequency of large fires. We present a straightforward modification of the model rules that increases the scaling exponent α by approximately 1•3 and brings the simulated event-size statistics close to those observed in nature. In addition, combined simulations of both the original and the modified model predict a dependence of the overall distribution on the ratio of lightning induced and man made fires as well as a difference between their respective event-size statistics. The increase of the scaling exponent with decreasing lightning probability as well as the splitting of the partial distributions are confirmed by the analysis of the Canadian Large Fire Database. As a consequence, lightning induced and man made forest fires cannot be treated separately in wildfire modeling, hazard assessment and forest management.

  6. Man-made objects cuing in satellite imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Skurikhin, Alexei N

    2009-01-01

    We present a multi-scale framework for man-made structures cuing in satellite image regions. The approach is based on a hierarchical image segmentation followed by structural analysis. A hierarchical segmentation produces an image pyramid that contains a stack of irregular image partitions, represented as polygonized pixel patches, of successively reduced levels of detail (LOOs). We are jumping off from the over-segmented image represented by polygons attributed with spectral and texture information. The image is represented as a proximity graph with vertices corresponding to the polygons and edges reflecting polygon relations. This is followed by the iterative graph contraction based on Boruvka's Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) construction algorithm. The graph contractions merge the patches based on their pairwise spectral and texture differences. Concurrently with the construction of the irregular image pyramid, structural analysis is done on the agglomerated patches. Man-made object cuing is based on the analysis of shape properties of the constructed patches and their spatial relations. The presented framework can be used as pre-scanning tool for wide area monitoring to quickly guide the further analysis to regions of interest.

  7. Waves in man-made materials: superlattice to metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsu, Raphael; Fiddy, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    While artificial or man-made structures date back to Lord Rayleigh, the work started by Lewin in 1947, placing spheres onto cubic lattices, greatly enriched microwave materials and devices. It was very suggestive of both metamaterials and photonics crystals. Effective medium models were used to describe bulk properties with some success. The concept of metamaterials followed photonic crystals, and these both were introduced after the introduction of the man-made superlattices designed to enrich the class of materials for electronic devices. The work on serrated ridged waveguides by Kirschbaum and Tsu for the control of the refractive index of microwave lenses as well as microwave matching devices in 1959 used a combination of theory, such as Floquet's theory, Bloch theory in one dimension, as well as periodic lumped loading. There is much in common between metamaterials and superlattices, but in this paper, we discuss some practical limitations to both. It is pointed out that unlike superlattices where kl > 1 is the most important criterion, metamaterials try to avoid involve such restrictions. However, the natural random fluctuations that limit the properties of naturally occurring materials are shown to take a toll on the theoretical predictions of metamaterials. The question is how great that toll, i.e. how significant those fluctuations will be, in diminishing the unusual properties that metamaterials can exhibit.

  8. Response of topside ionosphere to man-made electromagnetic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slominska, Ewa; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Slominski, Jan

    Investigation of electromagnetic measurements in the VLF range, obtained by DEMETER satellite revealed that terrestrial navigational stations are clearly "visible" in the ionosphere. Statistical studies were performed in the frequency range between 10kHz and 20kHz for one component of electric and magnetic field. We used data collected with ICE and IMSC in-struments placed on-board DEMETER. Global maps of man-made emissions show significant ionospheric response. This first satellite from the CNES MYRIADE micro-satellite series was launched on a polar orbit in June 2004 and provides permanent in-situ observations of ionospheric plasma parameters at the altitude of 700 km. As there are now more than five years of operational data a statistical study on both, the bulk ionospheric parameters and electromagnetic emissions, is possible. Since, statistical analysis have shown how easily are detectable man-made signals in the ionosphere, it has implied further studies on other plasma parameters. Using Langmuir probe experiment ISL ("Instrument Sonde de Langmuir") we develop global maps for electron temperature and density. Data are represented in geographic coordinates and averaged over one-month period. We present comparison analysis, that give the statistical background for further studies of noises occurring in the upper layers of ionosphere.

  9. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-09-09

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  10. Man-made superlattice and quantum wells: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsu, Raphael

    2014-07-01

    The story leading to the successful introduction of the GaAs/GaAlAs man-made superlattice is probably not known to most. Before I joined IBM and started working under Leo Esaki, I was working and teaching in Texas after I left Bell Labs. My boss, the head of Physics Research at Southwest Research Institute, Frank Witmore, showed me a new book: The Dynamics of Conduction Electrons by A.B. Pippard, Blackie & Son Limited, 1964. He discussed what happens to metals if the mean free path is sufficiently long. For example, electrons move toward the Brillouin zone boundary under the application of an electric field, and are reflected resulting in oscillations.

  11. Nonlinear elastic properties of various man-made materials

    SciTech Connect

    Darvennes, C.M.; Hou, X.

    1998-12-31

    Second harmonic generation was measured in several man-made materials for possible application of nonlinear elastic properties to non-destructive testing. Samples included several thicknesses of two types of carbon fiber/polymer matrix composites, three types of concretes, and plywood. Steel and Aluminum specimens were used as references and one of the composite samples was evaluated before and after fatigue cycles. Some interesting observations were made: (1) the two composites were much more nonlinear than the metals, (2) the concretes and the wood were extremely absorptive, (3) one of the concrete samples exhibited a third harmonic but no second harmonic, and (4) fatigue cycles significantly increased the second harmonic, even though no damage was observed by C-scan. The possible applications of these results to NDE will be discussed.

  12. Considerations for policy on man-made debris propagation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, D.

    1985-01-01

    The present rates of man-made, space object propagation are such that there is a real probability of self propagation which, if uncontrolled can lead to a serious limitation to future uses of spacecraft for beneficial purposes. Effective control over the debris issue requires adoption and adherence to policy at a world wide level (any one nation's unknowing, selfish or deliberately adverse action can conceivably jeopardize other useful applications of space satellites for years into the future). The near-term environment may not seriously jeopardize the near-term missions. However, absence of control and/or nonadherence to a control policy in the near-term can result in a debris environment that can severely limit long - term mission opportunities. The data upon which these observations are based continues to be investigated. These investigations tend to validate the preceding observations and emphasize the need for near-term action to establish responsible control policy and implementation actions.

  13. Biomass production and chemical cycling in a man-made geothermal wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Wheeler, L.R.; Ginsburg, J.F.

    1983-06-01

    Biomass production and, to a lesser extent, chemical cycling have been evaluated in a man-made wetland created using geothermal water in southcentral Idaho. The wetland system consisted of a 0.25 ha area divided into two ponds. The upper pond contained submerged species (Egeria, pondweeds and coontail); the lower pond was planted with emergents (cattail, bulrush, and common reed). Biomass production from emergent plants in the two-year-old system was promising and compared favorably with production values reported in the literature for natural wetlands. Chemical cycling of potassium (K) was evaluated through the lower pond system. Uptake of several other constituents (F and Na) of the geothermal water by the emergent plants was observed. However, there was little difference in elemental concentrations of the system's influent and effluent, probably due to evapotranspiration of water which effectively concentrates elements in the remaining water. Twenty-one species of diatoms were identified in the geothermal wetland, and numerous species of insects were observed. The man-made wetland also created substantial habitat for wildlife. This type of system could be used as an alternative to injection of spent geothermal fluids from small-scale projects. Study results indicate that a wetland system can be developed to produce substantial quantities of biomass in a cold desert environment.

  14. Exposure to ceramic man-made mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Friar, J J; Phillips, A M

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic fibres (also known as refractory fibres) are regarded here as man-made mineral fibres (MMMF) capable of withstanding temperatures of 1000-1600 degrees C without appreciable distortion or softening. Ceramic fibres are manufactured largely from the aluminosilicate group of minerals but some contain only alumina, zirconia or silica. Simultaneous personal gravimetric and optical fibre count samples were taken throughout the industry. It has not been possible to correlate gravimetric results with fibre counts in any meaningful way. The general conclusions are as follows: (a) gravimetrically, exposures ranged from less than 1 mg/m3 for light tasks to over 10 mg/m3 for some insulation workers. Exposures above 10 mg/m3 were not necessarily associated with correspondingly high fibre counts; (b) fibre counts rarely exceeded 1 f/ml, and it appears that ceramic fibre materials, in company with other MMMF, do not readily produce high airborne fibre counts; (c) control of dust from mineral wools to 5 mg/m3 achieves control to below 1 f/ml. This relationship does not hold for superfine MMMF and does not always hold for ceramic fibres.

  15. Depolarization of diffusely reflecting man-made objects.

    PubMed

    DeBoo, Brian J; Sasian, Jose M; Chipman, Russell A

    2005-09-10

    The polarization properties of light scattered or diffusely reflected from seven different man-made samples are studied. For each diffusely reflecting sample an in-plane Mueller matrix bidirectional reflectance distribution function is measured at a fixed bistatic angle using a Mueller matrix imaging polarimeter. The measured profile of depolarization index with changing scattering geometry for most samples is well approximated by an inverted Gaussian function. Depolarization is minimum for specular reflection and increases asymptotically in a Gaussian fashion as the angles of incidence and scatter increase. Parameters of the Gaussian profiles fitted to the depolarization data are used to compare samples. The dependence of depolarization on the incident polarization state is compared for each Stokes basis vector: horizontal, vertical, 45 degrees, 135 degrees, and right- and left-circular polarized light. Linear states exhibit similar depolarization profiles that typically differ in value by less than 0.06 (where 1.0 indicates complete depolarization). Circular polarization states are depolarized more than linear states for all samples tested, with the output degree of polarization reduced from that of linear states by as much as 0.15. The depolarization difference between linear and circular states varies significantly between samples.

  16. Response of topside ionosphere to man-made electromagnetic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slominska, Ewa; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Slominski, Jan; Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz

    2010-05-01

    Investigation of electromagnetic measurements in the VLF range, obtained by DEMETER satellite revealed that terrestrial navigational stations are clearly "visible" in the ionosphere. Statistical studies were performed in the frequency range between 10kHz and 20kHz for one component of electric and magnetic field. We used data collected with ICE and IMSC instruments placed on-board DEMETER. This first satellite from the CNES MYRIADE micro-satellite series was launched on a polar orbit in June 2004 and provides permanent in-situ observations of ionospheric plasma parameters at the altitude of ~700 km. As there are now more than five years of operational data a statistical study on both, the bulk ionospheric parameters and electromagnetic emissions, is possible. Since, statistical analysis have shown how easily are detectable man-made signals in the ionosphere, it has implied further studies on other plasma parameters. Using Langmuir probe experiment ISL ("Instrument Sonde de Langmuir") we develop global maps for electron temperature and density. Data are represented in geographic coordinates and averaged over one-month period. We present comparison analysis, that give the statistical background for further studies of noises occurring in the upper layers of ionosphere.

  17. Multispectral transmittance measurements through man-made water fogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Young P.; Sutherland, Robert A.; Cogan, James L.

    1993-11-01

    A fog system capable of producing water droplets with diameters between 5 and 40 micrometers was used for multispectral transmittance measurements. Measurements were conducted at an arid, desert field location on the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The fog system consists of a supply of local tap water, 50 gallon holding barrels, high pressure hoses and connectors, and an array of specially designed spray nozzles. The spray nozzles have precision made .006-inch diameter orifices. Water under 1000 psi of pressure is forced through the small orifice and impacts onto a curved metal pin causing droplet formation and dispersion. Droplet size distribution of the man-made fog were measured by forward scattering particle-measuring instruments. The advantages of using the fog generation system are low energy requirements, high rates of droplet production, environmentally safe dispersion, and commercial availability. Transmittance measurements were taken by a Multi-Path Transmissometer/Radiometer (MPTR). The MPTR is capable of obtaining transmittances at .4-.7 micron, 1.0-1.1 micron, 3.5-4.8 micron, and 7.9-12.3 micron spectral bands. Results will be presented on transmittance comparisons between the different wavelength bands during varying fog density conditions. The transmittance data from the line of sight were tested for optical depth linearity in the various wavelength bands.

  18. Mass distribution of orbiting man-made space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, T. D.

    1975-01-01

    Three ways of producing space debris were considered, and data were analyzed to determine mass distributions for man-made space debris. Hypervelocity (3.0 to 4.5 km/sec) projectile impact with a spacecraft wall, high intensity explosions and low intensity explosions were studied. For hypervelocity projectile impact of a spacecraft wall, the number of fragments fits a power law. The number of fragments for both high intensity and low intensity explosions fits an exponential law. However, the number of fragments produced by low intensity explosions is much lower than the number of fragments produced by high intensity explosions. Fragment masses down to 10 to the -7 power gram were produced from hypervelocity impact, but the smallest fragment mass resulting from an explosion appeared to be about 10 mg. Velocities of fragments resulting from hypervelocity impact were about 10 m/sec, and those from low intensity explosions were about 100 m/sec. Velocities of fragments from high intensity explosions were about 3 km/sec.

  19. Respiratory health effects of man-made vitreous (mineral) fibres.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, P; Dumortier, P; Swaen, G M; Pairon, J C; Brochard, P

    1995-12-01

    The group of man-made mineral or vitreous fibres (MMMFs or MMVFs) includes glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments and microfibres, and refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs). Experimental observations have provided evidence that some types of MMVF are bioactive under certain conditions. The critical role of size parameters has been demonstrated in cellular and animal experiments, when intact fibres are in direct contact with the target cells. It is, however, difficult to extrapolate the results from these studies to humans since they bypass inhalation, deposition, clearance and translocation mechanisms. Inhalation studies are more realistic, but show differences between animal species regarding their sensibility to tumour induction by fibres. Fibre biopersistence is an important factor, as suggested by recent inhalation studies, which demonstrate positive results with RCF for fibrosis, lung tumours and mesothelioma. There is no firm evidence that exposure to glass-, rock- and slag wool is associated with lung fibrosis, pleural lesions, or nonspecific respiratory disease in humans. Exposure to RCF could enhance the effects of smoking in causing airways obstruction. An elevated standard mortality ratio for lung cancer has been demonstrated in cohorts of workers exposed to MMVF, especially in the early technological phase of mineral (rock slag) wool production. During that period, several carcinogenic agents (arsenic, asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) were also present at the workplace and quantitative data about smoking and fibre levels are lacking. It is not possible from these data to determine whether the risk of lung cancer is due to the MMVFs themselves. No increased risk of mesothelioma has been demonstrated in the cohorts of workers exposed to glass-, slag- or rock wool. There are in fact insufficient epidemiological data available concerning neoplastic diseases in RCF production workers because of the small size of the workforce and the

  20. Comparison of cytotoxicity of man-made vitreous fibres.

    PubMed

    Luoto, K; Holopainen, M; Sarataho, M; Savolainen, K

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the cytotoxicity of man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs): four refractory ceramic fibres (RCFs 1-4), two glasswool fibres (MMVF 10 and 11), a rockwool fibre (MMVF 21) and a slagwool fibre (MMVF 22). The ability of the fibres to induce haemolysis in sheep erythrocytes, to release lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and to increase the production of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) was studied. To assess the relative cytotoxicity of MMVFs, their toxicity was compared with that induced by quartz, chrysotile or titanium dioxide. MMVFs induced a modest, but dose-dependent, increase of haemolysis at doses of 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0 mg ml-1. The amount of haemolysis and LDH release induced by MMVFs was generally similar to that induced by titanium dioxide. Glasswool fibre MMVF 10 induced less LDH release from rat AM than rockwool MMVF 21 or slagwool MMVF 22 fibres, whereas glasswool fibre MMVF 11 induced less LDH release than slagwool fibre MMVF 22 (P < 0.05). All fibres also dose-dependently increased the production of ROMs at doses between 25 and 500 micrograms ml-1. The shapes of the time-courses of MMVF-induced production of ROMs suggest that the mechanisms whereby the different fibres induce ROM production may exhibit similar features. There are clear-cut differences in the potency of various MMVFs to induce cytotoxicity and oxidative burst. The present results also emphasize the importance of using several measures of toxicity when assessing the biological activity of various fibres in vitro.

  1. Recent studies of man-made vitreous fibers. Chronic animal inhalation studies.

    PubMed

    Bunn, W B; Bender, J R; Hesterberg, T W; Chase, G R; Konzen, J L

    1993-02-01

    The history of asbestos use and asbestos-related disease is replete with comments that the public health would have been better protected if the results of laboratory investigation, epidemiologic surveys, and clinical studies were made available at appropriate intervals during the ongoing research, rather than in the generally accepted method of awaiting completion of studies prior to reporting medical and scientific findings. No substantive evidence of long-term adverse effects has been published in workers exposed to man-made vitreous fibers. Nevertheless, in an effort to preclude a repetition of this error of omission that occurred with asbestos exposure and use, the Thermal Insulation Manufacturers Association is regularly reporting interim and final data from ongoing animal studies. A significant segment of man-made vitreous fibers have now been tested in state-of-the-art chronic studies. This paper includes the recently completed animal inhalation studies on refractory ceramic fibers and fibrous glass. It also reviews interim data on mineral wool studies.

  2. Cancer mortality among man-made vitreous fiber production workers.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Saracci, R; Andersen, A; Bertazzi, P A; Chang-Claude, J; Cherrie, J; Ferro, G; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Hansen, J; Olsen, J; Plato, N; Teppo, L; Westerholm, P; Winter, P D; Zocchetti, C

    1997-05-01

    We have updated the follow-up of cancer mortality for a cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber production workers from Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy, from 1982 to 1990. In the mortality analysis, 22,002 production workers contributed 489,551 person-years, during which there were 4,521 deaths. Workers with less than 1 year of employment had an increased mortality [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-1.53]. Workers with 1 year or more of employment, contributing 65% of person-years, had an SMR of 1.05 (95% CI = 1.02-1.09). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.08-1.63, 97 deaths) among rock/slag wool workers and 1.27 (95% CI = 1.07-1.50, 140 deaths) among glass wool workers. In the latter group, no increase was present when local mortality rates were used. Among rock/slag wool workers, the risk of lung cancer increased with time-since-first-employment and duration of employment. The trend in lung cancer mortality according to technologic phase at first employment was less marked than in the previous follow-up. We obtained similar results from a Poisson regression analysis limited to rock/slag wool workers. Five deaths from pleural mesothelioma were reported, which may not represent an excess. There was no apparent excess for other categories of neoplasm. Tobacco smoking and other factors linked to social class, as well as exposures in other industries, appear unlikely to explain the whole increase in lung cancer mortality among rock/slag wool workers. Limited data on other agents do not indicate an important role of asbestos, slag, or bitumen. These results are not sufficient to conclude that the increased lung cancer risk is the result of exposure to rock/slag wool; however, insofar as respirable fibers were an important component of the ambient pollution of the working environment, they may have contributed to the increased risk.

  3. Automatic RST-based system for a rapid detection of man-made disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, Valerio; Corrado, Rosita; Filizzola, Carolina; Livia Grimaldi, Caterina Sara; Mazzeo, Giuseppe; Marchese, Francesco; Pergola, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Man-made disasters may cause injuries to citizens and damages to critical infrastructures. When it is not possible to prevent or foresee such disasters it is hoped at least to rapidly detect the accident in order to intervene as soon as possible to minimize damages. In this context, the combination of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), able to identify for sure actual (i.e. no false alarm) accidents, and satellite sensors with high temporal resolution seems to assure both a reliable and a timely detection of abrupt Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to dangerous explosions. A processing chain, based on the RST approach, has been developed in the framework of the GMOSS and G-MOSAIC projects by DIFA-UNIBAS team, suitable for automatically identify on MSG-SEVIRI images harmful events. Maps of thermal anomalies are generated every 15 minutes (i.e. SEVIRI temporal repetition rate) over a selected area together with kml files (containing information on latitude and longitude of "thermally" anomalous SEVIRI pixel centre, time of image acquisition, relative intensity of anomalies, etc.) for a rapid visualization of the accident position even on Google Earth. Results achieved in the cases of gas pipelines recently exploded or attacked in Russia and in Iraq will be presented in this work.

  4. Chemical and mineralogical concerns for the use of man-made materials in the post-emplacement environment

    SciTech Connect

    Meike, A.

    1993-01-16

    In a radioactive waste repository, materials will be introduced for a variety of reasons. Some materials such as metals, bonding agents, and concrete will serve as active parts of the designed engineered barrier system (EBS). Other materials will be introduced to serve a number of purposes that include any or all of the following: surveillance (thermocouples, gauges), construction and operation (drilling rigs, roadbeds, exhaust fumes, chemical toilets, concrete, grout, rebar), lubrication (petroleum-based products, rope dressing) and other functions. Water chemistry will directly affect the corrosion of containers, the dissolution of spent fuel and waste glass and the concentration of dissolved or suspended radionuclides in water that exits breached containers. To predict the water quality requires a knowledge of the dissolution kinetics of the phases present in man-made materials, and the precipitation kinetics of product phases. The chemical evolution of man-made materials of interest to the Yucca Mountain project are by and large not presently known. Prediction of the long-term behavior (10,000 years) required of the modeling efforts is an additional layer of complexity that is not addressed by current models of water chemistry. Man-made modifications to the environment may significantly alter the thermal, chemical and radionuclide transportation attributes of the natural environment that are presently being considered in order to determine a waste package design. The specific chemical concerns addressed here are: solubility and stability of solid phases; liquid and gas phase stability; long term effects; radiolysis effects; colloids; and interactions between man-made material, rock, and J-13 or concentrated J-13 water. The report concludes with recommendations.

  5. Toxic Effects of Man-Made Mineral Fibers with Particular Reference to Ceramic Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Mineral Wool , Rock Wool, Sarcoma, Slag Wool. BEST AVAILABLE COPY PREFACE This document presents information on the toxic effects of man-made mineral fibers...Naturally Synthetic Occurring Asbestos Others Man-Made OthersMineral Fibers Chrysotile Others Fibrous Ceramic Glass Crocidolite Mineral Wool Rock Slag...In recent years both ceramic fiber and mineral wool have been used to replace asbestos on board many U.S. Navy ships. In particular, material

  6. [Chemical and physical characteristics and toxicology of man-made mineral fibers].

    PubMed

    Foà, V; Basilico, S

    1999-01-01

    The evidence for the adverse health effects following exposure to asbestos (i.e. fibrogenic and carcinogenic effect) has prompted widespread removal of asbestos-containing materials and led to banning of asbestos internationally (in Italy, DPR 257/1992), resulting in the increased use of substitutes composed of both naturally occurring and synthetic materials, including man made mineral fibres (MMMFs) and man made organic fibres (MMOF). MMMFs represent a family of synthetic, inorganic vitreous substances derived primarily from glass, rock, slag, or clay. MMMFs are further divided into two categories: 1) man made vitreous fibres (MMVFs), further divided as follows: a) fibrous glass, including mainly continuous filament, special purpose fibres; and microfibres. The materials are typically composed of oxides of silicon, calcium, sodium, potassium, aluminum, and boron. b) Mineral wool, including glass wool, rock wool (derived from magma rock) and slag wool (made from molten slag produced in metallurgical processes such as the production of iron, steel, or copper). The main components of rock wool and slag wool are oxides of silicon, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and iron. 2) Refractory/ceramic fibres, amorphous or partially crystalline materials made from kaolin clay or oxides of aluminum, silicon or other metal oxides (i.e. oxides of zirconium and yttrium). Less commonly, refractory fibres are also made from non-oxide refractory materials such as silicon carbide, silicon nitride, or boron nitride. Industrial production of MMVFs began in the second half of the 19th century, while ceramic fibres production began more recently, in the early 1970s. Major uses of MMMFs include thermal, acoustic and aerospace insulation, fire proofing, reinforcing material in plastics, cement and textile, optic fibres, air and liquid filtration, friction products, refractory coatings. Serious questions have been raised about health implications of MMMFs. Suspicion about the possible

  7. Animal and vegetation patterns in natural and man-made bog pools: implications for restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazerolle, M.J.; Poulin, M.; Lavoie, C.; Rochefort, L.; Desrochers, A.; Drolet, B.

    2006-01-01

    1. Peatlands have suffered great losses following drainage for agriculture, forestry, urbanisation, or peat mining, near inhabited areas. We evaluated the faunal and vegetation patterns after restoration of a peatland formerly mined for peat. We assessed whether bog pools created during restoration are similar to natural bog pools in terms of water chemistry, vegetation structure and composition, as well as amphibian and arthropod occurrence patterns. 2. Both avian species richness and peatland vegetation cover at the site increased following restoration. Within bog pools, however, the vegetation composition differed between natural and man-made pools. The cover of low shrubs, Sphagnum moss, submerged, emergent and floating vegetation in man-made pools was lower than in natural pools, whereas pH was higher than in typical bog pools. Dominant plant species also differed between man-made and natural pools. 3. Amphibian tadpoles, juveniles and adults occurred more often in man-made pools than natural bog pools. Although some arthropods, including Coleoptera bog specialists, readily colonised the pools, their abundance was two to 26 times lower than in natural bog pools. Plant introduction in bog pools, at the stocking densities we applied, had no effect on the occurrence of most groups. 4. We conclude that our restoration efforts were partially successful. Peatland-wide vegetation patterns following restoration mimicked those of natural peatlands, but 4 years were not sufficient for man-made pools to fully emulate the characteristics of natural bog pools.

  8. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  9. Man-made Boards Technology Trends based on TRIZ Evolution Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huiling; Fan, Delin

    China is one of the world's largest manufacturers and consumers of man-made board applications. A systematic and efficient method of foreseeing future technology trends and their evolutionary potentials is a key task that can help companies guide their planning and allocate their resources. Application of the law of evolution with a S-shaped curve could contribute essentially to the accuracy of the long-term forecast. This research seeks to determine the current stage and the position on the S-curve of man-made board technology in China on the TRIZ evolution theo ryand introduce a methodology which combines patent analysis and technology life cycle forecasting to find a niche space of man-made technology development in China.

  10. Efficient Semantic Segmentation of Man-Made Scenes Using Fully-Connected Conditional Random Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihao; Yang, Michael Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we explore semantic segmentation of man-made scenes using fully connected conditional random field (CRF). Images of man-made scenes display strong contextual dependencies in the spatial structures. Fully connected CRFs can model long-range connections within the image of man-made scenes and make use of contextual information of scene structures. The pairwise edge potentials of fully connected CRF models are defined by a linear combination of Gaussian kernels. Using filter-based mean field algorithm, the inference is very efficient. Our experimental results demonstrate that fully connected CRF performs better than previous state-of-the-art approaches on both eTRIMS dataset and LabelMeFacade dataset.

  11. Ukrainian network of Optical Stations for man-made space objects observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya

    2016-07-01

    The Ukrainian Network of Optical Stations (UNOS) for man-made objects research was founded in 2012 as an association of professional astronomers. The main goals of network are: positional and photometric observations of man-made space objects, calculation of orbital elements, research of shape and period of rotation. The network consists of 8 stations: Kiev, Nikolaev, Odesa, Uzhgorod, Lviv, Yevpatoriya, Alchevsk. UNOS has 12 telescopes for observation of man-made space objects. The new original methods of positional observation were developed for optical observation of geosynchronous and low earth orbit satellites. The observational campaigns of LEO satellites held in the network every year. The numerical model of space object motion, developed in UNOS, is using for orbit calculation. The results of orbital elements calculation are represented on the UNOS web-site http://umos.mao.kiev.ua/eng/. The photometric observation of selected objects is also carried out in network.

  12. An Assessment of Potential Detectors to Monitor the Man-made Orbital Debris Environment. [space debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, R. C.; Ruck, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Observations using NORAD radar showed that man made debris exceeds the natural environment for large objects. For short times (a few days to a few weeks) after solid rocket motor (SRM) firings in LEO, man made debris in the microparticle size range also appears to exceed the meteoroid environment. The properties of the debris population between these size regimes is currently unknown as there has been no detector system able to perform the required observations. The alternatives for obtaining data on this currently unobserved segment of the population are assessed.

  13. AAFE man-made noise experiment project. Volume 1: Introduction experiment definition and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure and map the man-made radio frequency emanations which exist at earth orbital altitudes. The major objectives of the program are to develop a complete conceptual experiment and developmental hardware for the collection and processing of data required to produce meaningful statistics on man-made noise level variations as functions of time, frequency, and geographic location. A wide dispersion measurement receiver mounted in a spacecraft operating in a specialized orbit is used to obtain the data. A summary of the experiment designs goals and constraints is provided. The recommended orbit for the spacecraft is defined. The characteristics of the receiver and the antennas are analyzed.

  14. Some characteristics of soils on the man made mounds in the Harran Plain of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Seyyid; Surucu, Abdülkadir

    2007-12-15

    Morphological, chemical and some mineralogical characteristics of five soils, were researched to understand the genesis of soils on the man made mounds in the Harran Plain, in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Five soil profiles developed on the man made mounds in the arid region. Time and climate have affected soil formation. Also, parent material has influenced the chemistry of soils. The parent material of man made mounds were carried from around soils in the Harran Plain by men in years ago. The parent materials of around soils are calcareous parent materials and alluvium materials. Pedon 1 was described on the Konuklu man made mounds the northeast of the study area and Pedon 5 was described on the Küplüce man made mounds the southeast of the study area. According to the place of man made mounds were ordered from north to south as following: Pedon 1, Pedon 2, Pedon 3, Pedon 4 and Pedon 5. The old of Konuklu mounds is approximately 5000-6000 years. The old of Sultantepe and Koruklu mounds are approximately 6000 years. Pedon 4 which was described on the old Harran city remnants have the youngest soils of study area. The Harran mounds was made in 1258 A.I. by Mongolians. Mongolians destroyed the Harran City and made the Harran mounds. The most important pedogenic processes is carbonate leaching and accumulation in the pedon 5 on the Küplüce man made mounds. The CaCO3 content of Pedon 5 may be attributed to eolian addition from Syria. Total Al2O3 contents of soils higher than total Fe2O3 content. According to the degree of soil formation the profiles were ordered as following: Pedon 3 > Pedon 5 > Pedon 2 > Pedon 1 > Pedon 4. The results of total elements analysis were used to determine the beta leaching factor according to Jenny. The leaching factor were determined as < 1 in the Pedon 1 (0.99), Pedon 2 (0.97), Pedon 3 (0.74) and Pedon 5 (0.92). The leaching factor were determined as >1 in the Pedon 4(1.13).

  15. The man-made creators of the imbalance of water in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    At 2011 we have described the imbalance of water in Nature as the system [1]. At 2012 we have described water and carbon and the glaciers [2], [3] as creators of the imbalance of Nature. Now we are describing some man-made creators of the imbalance of Nature. The photosynthesis is a powerful creator of the imbalance of Nature. The photosynthesis significantly increases the complexity of the structures and reduces the entropy. Earth's hydrosphere contains water less than it was flowed via photosynthesis. This is an example of the imbalance of involving when the return of water has delayed because water is involved into the processes of life and other processes. People widely use photosynthesis and create not only an additional man-made imbalance of water in Nature, but also the man-made changing the albedo, and a lot of other important parameters of the planet of Earth. All of these processes are significantly imbalanced. The fossil hydrocarbons have accumulated during millions of years, but now are burned. This is an example of the imbalance delay by time. The man-made burning of the hydrocarbons is creating the imbalances of impact or explosive type, because of the burning processes is in millions of times faster than the accumulation processes. Please pay attention to the imbalance of redeployment by places. For example, oil and gas are extracted in one places, and burned in others. During combustion is standing out not only water, but energy, and other components. The temperature in the centers of big cities is always higher and there is dominating the rising air. It pollutes the environment, changes circulations, create greenhouse effect, etc. Other examples of the imbalance of relocation are shown in the production and consumption of food. The irrigation systems transfer water from one place to another. This transfer of water creates a lot of imbalances in change climate, ecosystems, etc in places where water was took and where the water was brought. Usually

  16. Exposure to man-made mineral fibers: A summary of current animal data

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, C.S. )

    1990-03-01

    The inhalation of asbestos fibers (crocidolite, chrysotile and amosite) has been implicated in the development of a number of lung disorders including lung cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma. The mechanism responsible for these effects is not well characterized but is generally thought to be related to the fibrous nature of these materials. Therefore, concerns have also been raised as to the potential health impact of other fibrous materials including man-made mineral fibers. Man-made mineral fibers are being used as substitutes for asbestos in a wide range of products. However, relatively little data are available on the potential health impact of these fibrous materials. Epidemiology and clinical studies have served as an important source of information on the effect of various environmental pollutants, but have not been sufficient to date to fully address the potential health impact of man-made mineral fibers. This is due in part to the relatively recent introduction of a number of these materials, the long latency period before the onset of clinical symptoms, and in general, the lower exposure levels associated with these materials. Therefore, a number of animal studies have been performed to predict or confirm the toxicity of various man-made mineral fibers in humans. Both fibrosis and mesothelioma have been induced in experimental animals exposed to man-made mineral fibers although no disease has been consistently observed in occupationally exposed workers. While little is known about the mechanism of this response, information from animal and cell culture experiments indicate that dose, fiber dimension, and fiber durability are the most important factors in determining the biological activity of these materials. 50 references.

  17. Texture-based discrimination of man-made and natural objects in sidescan sonar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, Ronald T.

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution sidescan sonars are often used in underwater warfare for large-area surveys of the seafloor in the search for sea mines. Much effort has gone toward the automatic detection of sea mines. In its more advanced forms, such auto-detection entails pattern recognition: the automatic assignment of class labels (target/non-target) to signatures according to their distinctive features. This paper demonstrates a texture-based feature for automatically discriminating between man-made and natural objects. Real sonar data is used, and the demonstration includes performance estimates in the form of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves necessary (though often omitted) for evaluating detectors for operational use. The merits of redefining the allowable automatic responses-from the classes of mine targets ultimately sought, to the class of man-made objects more generally-are reviewed from both the pattern-recognition and operational perspectives.

  18. Mourning dove use of man-made ponds in a cold-desert ecosystem in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, F.P.; Flake, L.D. )

    1989-10-31

    Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in a cold-desert ecosystem used man-made ponds for watering, feeding, gritting, loafing, and courting. Diurnal pond use by doves peaked in the morning and evening. Monthly dove use of ponds fluctuated slightly during the summers of 1984 and 1985. Pond size, pH, and shoreline characteristics had little association with the intensity of pond use by doves; but geographic isolation of ponds was weakly associated had pond-use intensity. The number of doves present at the beginning of the one-hour period was a poor indicator of the number of arrivals during that period. We conclude that man-made water sources are important in areas where water availability may limit mourning dove productivity and abundance. It is suggested that mourning dove arrival rates could be used as a population index in cold-desert areas.

  19. Effects of structure on deformation and strength characteristics of transversely isotropic man-made geomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoltseva, OM; Tsoi, PA; Semenov, VN

    2017-02-01

    The laboratory tests on uniaxial and triaxial (Karman scheme) compression of bedded specimens (made of equivalent man-made geomaterial, meta-siltstone and shale) has allowed deriving relations between the strength and deformation characteristics and the bedding angle of the specimens. The elasticity and strength are assessed in accordance with the theoretical model by Salamon–Tien and the Hoek–Brown failure criterion. For the bedded geomedia (man-made geomaterial), the Salamon–Tien model yields a satisfactory estimate of the elastic characteristics (elasticity modulus, Poisson’s ratio). Based on the use of the Hoek–Brown criterion, the authors have derived a strength parameter independent of the lateral pressure.

  20. Thunderstorms observed by radio astronomy Explorer 1 over regions of low man made noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, J. A.; Herman, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I observations of thunderstorms over regions of low man-made noise levels are analyzed to assess the satellite's capability for noise source differentiation. The investigation of storms over Australia indicates that RAE can resolve noise generation due to thunderstorms from the general noise background over areas of low man-made noise activity. Noise temperatures observed by RAE over stormy regions are on the average 10DB higher than noise temperatures over the same regions in the absence of thunderstorms. In order to determine the extent of noise contamination due to distant transmitters comprehensive three dimensional computer ray tracings were generated. The results indicate that generally, distant transmitters contribute negligibly to the total noise power, being 30DB or more below contributions arriving from an area immediately below the satellite.

  1. AAFE man-made noise experiment project. Volume 2: Project and experiment discussions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An experiment for the acquisition and processing of man-made noise interference data on earth orbital altitudes is discussed. The objectives of the project are to confirm the results of analytical studies concerning radio frequency man-made noise in space. It is stated that the measurements of the amounts and types of noise in frequency bands of interest could allow the allocation and utilization of frequencies to be optimized and would also contribute to the engineering objective of optimizing flight receiving systems. A second objective of the project was to design and fabricate a noise measuring receiver which would demonstrate the feasibility of the experiment design under the project. The procedures for acquiring and processing the electromagnetic radiation data are discussed.

  2. Architectural control of construction materials with application of man-made wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, Ruslan; Abdrakhmanova, Layla

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the principles of construction materials formation based on non-organic and organic raw materials when material matrix is filled with particulate fillers from man-made wastes of various nature formed in different conditions. Qualitative and quantitative requirements for mineral, chemical and material composition of wastes to modify construction materials are detailed. The ways to use them as modifiers of construction materials are shown by the example of wastes group belonging to slags.

  3. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  4. Position of social determinants of health in urban man-made lakes plans.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimloo, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malek Afzali, Hossein; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-09-04

    A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Participants' points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community's health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration.

  5. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.L.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report.

  6. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Level § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. (a) General....

  7. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Level § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. (a) General....

  8. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Level § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. (a) General....

  9. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Level § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. (a) General....

  10. 19 CFR 10.609 - Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. 10.609 Section 10.609 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Level § 10.609 Transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods. (a) General....

  11. Cellular automaton modelling of lightning-induced and man made forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, R.; Hergarten, S.

    2009-10-01

    The impact of forest fires on nature and civilisation is conflicting: on one hand, they play an irreplaceable role in the natural regeneration process, but on the other hand, they come within the major natural hazards in many regions. Their frequency-area distributions show power-law behaviour with scaling exponents α in a quite narrow range, relating wildfire research to the theoretical framework of self-organised criticality. Examples of self-organised critical behaviour can be found in computer simulations of simple cellular automaton models. The established self-organised critical Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is one of the most widespread models in this context. Despite its qualitative agreement with event-size statistics from nature, its applicability is still questioned. Apart from general concerns that the Drossel-Schwabl model apparently oversimplifies the complex nature of forest dynamics, it significantly overestimates the frequency of large fires. We present a modification of the model rules that distinguishes between lightning-induced and man made forest fires and enables a systematic increase of the scaling exponent α by approximately 1/3. In addition, combined simulations using both the original and the modified model rules predict a dependence of the overall event-size distribution on the ratio of lightning induced and man made fires as well as a splitting of their partial distributions. Lightning is identified as the dominant mechanism in the regime of the largest fires. The results are confirmed by the analysis of the Canadian Large Fire Database and suggest that lightning-induced and man made forest fires cannot be treated separately in wildfire modelling, hazard assessment and forest management.

  12. The need to measure man-made radiation from orbit for spectrum management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerman, J.; Wolff, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of RF radiation from orbiting spacecraft are discussed as an approach to improving man-made radio-wave spectrum management for avoidance and prediction of harmful RF interferences. It is pointed out that a measurement program is required for acquisition of data on electromagnetic fields to be expected in orbits, and that several types of satellites could provide platforms for such missions. Papers by Reich et al. (1972) and Kelleher et al. (1972) are referred to for descriptions as to how such platforms could be used. An electromagnetic field spectrum measurement program is outlined for orbital missions.

  13. The Exxon Valdez oil spill; The environmental health response to man-made disasters

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, R.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental health professions faced many challenges in 1989, among them the protection of public health in the wake of both natural and man-made disasters. Following hurricanes in the Caribbean and southeast United States, the earthquake in northern California and the Exxon oil spill in Alaska, environmental health officials and consultants were confronted with extraordinary problems concerning housing, drinking water, hazardous materials spills, solid waste management, waste water management and sanitation. This article discusses the environmental health response to one of these events - the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

  14. Recovery of enthalpy as work from thermal effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molini, A. E.

    1982-08-01

    Enthalpy is recovered as work from hot industrial effluents by the controlled expansion of liquids through convergent-divergent nozzles in true reaction turbines. For hot liquid effluents, the effluent itself serves as the working fluid. For gaseous effluents, a high boiling stable liquid is heated by the gas in a scrubbing tower and then the liquid is expanded as the work fluid. If the effluents contain undesirable levels of particulate pollutants, the liquid is cleaned before it is expanded. The results predicted when using both impulse and true reaction turbines are reported. Results predicted when using work fluids as glycerol, tricresyl phosphate, bi-phenyls, and silicone oils are presented. Cycle efficiencies as high as 26% are predicted as possible.

  15. Design and engineering of a man-made diffusive electron-transport protein

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Bryan A.; Solomon, Lee A.; Dutton, P. Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Maquettes are man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences. Here we focus on water-soluble maquettes designed and engineered to perform diffusive electron transport of the kind typically carried out by cytochromes, ferredoxins and flavodoxins and other small proteins in photosynthetic and respiratory energy conversion and oxido-reductive metabolism. Our designs were tested by analysis of electron transfer between heme maquettes and the well-known natural electron transporter, cytochrome c. Electron-transfer kinetics were measured from seconds to milliseconds by stopped-flow, while sub-millisecond resolution was achieved through laser photolysis of the carbon monoxide maquette heme complex. These measurements demonstrate electron transfer from the maquette to cytochrome c, reproducing the timescales and charge complementarity modulation observed in natural systems. The ionic strength dependence of inter-protein electron transfer from 9.7 × 106 M−1s−1 to 1.2 × 109 M−1s−1 follows a simple Debye-Hückel model for attraction between +8 net charged oxidized cytochrome c and −19 net charged heme maquette, with no indication of significant protein dipole moment steering. Successfully recreating essential components of energy conversion and downstream metabolism in man-made proteins holds promise for in vivo clinical intervention and for the production of fuel or other industrial products. PMID:26423266

  16. Survivability of ancient man-made earthen mounds: implications for uranium mill tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Mishima, J.; King, S.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1983-06-01

    As part of a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating long-term stabilization techniques for uranium mill impoundments. Part of this investigation involves the design of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of the underlying soil cover, which in turn prevents exposure of the tailings to the environment. However, the need for the armoring blanket, as well as the blanket's effectiveness, depends on the stability of the underlying soil cap (radon suppression cover) and on the tailings themselves. Compelling evidence in archaeological records suggests that large man-made earthen structures can remain sound and intact for time periods comparable to those required for the stabilization of the tailings piles if properly constructed. We present archaeological evidence on the existence and survivability of man-made earthen and rock structures through specific examples of such structures from around the world. We also review factors contributing to their survival or destruction and address the influence of climate, building materials, and construction techniques on survivability.

  17. Engineering the Assembly of Heme Cofactors in Man-Made Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Timely ligation of one or more chemical cofactors at preselected locations in proteins is a critical preamble for catalysis in many natural enzymes, including the oxidoreductases and allied transport and signaling proteins. Likewise, ligation strategies must be directly addressed when designing oxidoreductase and molecular transport functions in man-made, first-principle protein constructs intended to operate in vitro or in vivo. As one of the most common catalytic cofactors in biology, we have chosen heme B, along with its chemical analogues, to determine the kinetics and barriers to cofactor incorporation and bishistidine ligation in a range of 4-α-helix proteins. We compare five elementary synthetic designs (maquettes) and the natural cytochrome b562 that differ in oligomeric forms, apo- and holo-tertiary structural stability; qualities that we show can either assist or hinder assembly. The cofactor itself also imposes an assembly barrier if amphiphilicity ranges toward too hydrophobic or hydrophilic. With progressive removal of identified barriers, we achieve maquette assembly rates as fast as native cytochrome b562, paving the way to in vivo assembly of man-made hemoprotein maquettes and integration of artificial proteins into enzymatic pathways. PMID:24495285

  18. Effects Of Atmospheric And Man-Made Obscurants On Visual Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkey, Richard C.

    1981-12-01

    The development of simulation models to assess the ability of modern day sensors operating under adverse weather conditions and in the presence of man-made obscurants, to detect, recognize, and identify objects of interest is an ambitious goal made difficult by the large number of independent variables involved. A first step toward the achievement of this goal is the development of the Electro-Optical Systems Atmospheric Effects Library (EOSAEL). With this concept (library of models) the effects of stratus, stratocumulus, cumulus congestus cloud types; fog/haze and rain; atmospheric gases; vehicular dust; chemical and artillery smoke/dust can be examined separately or in conjunction to determine their effects (degradation) on the , propagation of radiation through the aforementioned media. The atmospheric constituents can be varied to determine their effects on contrast and transmission. The change in transmission due to the effects of windspeed on the man-made obscurants as a function of time can also be examined. Using EOSAEL a sensitivity study investigating the effects of obscurants on the contrast transmission has been performed for the specific scenario of a sensor (human eye) looking at an object over a fixed geometry under daytime illumination conditions.

  19. Aquatic insect assemblages of man-made permanent ponds, Buenos Aires city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fontanarrosa, M S; Collantes, M B; Bachmann, A O

    2013-02-01

    Freshwater habitats are important elements within urban green space and they are endangered by various types of human activity. With the aim to increase the knowledge about species biodiversity in urban ecosystems, we characterised the assemblages of aquatic insects in four permanent man-made ponds in Buenos Aires city (Argentina) during a 1-year period. We recorded 32 species with Sigara spp. (Hemiptera) as the most abundant. The removal of aquatic vegetation from the studied ponds may have affected both the establishment and permanence of the insect community. Swimmers were the dominant group in the studied sites, followed by burrowers and sprawlers, and only a few strictly climbers were collected. Therefore, all sampled ponds were dominated by collectors (principally gatherers), secondarily by predators and only few shredders were detected, which was much affected by the removal of macrophytes. Non-parametric abundance indexes estimated a number of species very close to the observed number in each site. Conversely, the incidence indexes estimated more species because there were many more taxa present only in one sample than those represented by few individual in a sample. Our data provides some insights on the community of man-made ponds that can improve the management of these aquatic urban habitats. Considering that macrophytes affect animal assemblages due to their role as physical structures that increase the complexity or heterogeneity of habitats, they should not be removed by authorities in order to promote biodiversity.

  20. Engineering the assembly of heme cofactors in man-made proteins.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lee A; Kodali, Goutham; Moser, Christopher C; Dutton, P Leslie

    2014-02-26

    Timely ligation of one or more chemical cofactors at preselected locations in proteins is a critical preamble for catalysis in many natural enzymes, including the oxidoreductases and allied transport and signaling proteins. Likewise, ligation strategies must be directly addressed when designing oxidoreductase and molecular transport functions in man-made, first-principle protein constructs intended to operate in vitro or in vivo. As one of the most common catalytic cofactors in biology, we have chosen heme B, along with its chemical analogues, to determine the kinetics and barriers to cofactor incorporation and bishistidine ligation in a range of 4-α-helix proteins. We compare five elementary synthetic designs (maquettes) and the natural cytochrome b562 that differ in oligomeric forms, apo- and holo-tertiary structural stability; qualities that we show can either assist or hinder assembly. The cofactor itself also imposes an assembly barrier if amphiphilicity ranges toward too hydrophobic or hydrophilic. With progressive removal of identified barriers, we achieve maquette assembly rates as fast as native cytochrome b562, paving the way to in vivo assembly of man-made hemoprotein maquettes and integration of artificial proteins into enzymatic pathways.

  1. [Roles of moisture in constructing man-made algal crust with Micocoleus vaginatus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Chang; Wang, Jing-Zhu; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Shao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    To explore the roles of moisture in the construction of man-made algal crust with inoculated Micocoleus vaginatus, a laboratory experiment was conducted to study the variations of the microalgal biomass, algal crust thickness, crust compressive strength, and crust microstructure under six moisture doses and four moisture treatment intervals. When M. vaginatus was inoculated to the naked sands without moisture addition, the microalgal biomass was very low, and no algal crust was formed. With increasing dose of moisture, the microalgal biomass, algal crust thickness, and crust compressive strength increased significantly, and the algal filaments and extracellulhr polysaccharides (EPS) had a gradual increase, wrapped around the sands and formed a complex network. After 15 days moisture treatment, stable algal crust was formed, which had the highest microalgal biomass, crust thickness, and crust compressive strength. The optimal moisture dose for M. vaginatus to form man-made algal crust was 3-4 L.m-2.d-1, and the addition of moisture should be continued for 15 d. The availability of the moisture promoted the metabolic processes of M. vaginatus and the synthesis of the algal EPS, which increased the microalgal biomass and its ability to resist desiccation. The moisture availability at early stage was the key factor for M. vaginatus to successfully form algal crust. This study could offer some guidance for the recovery of biological soil crusts in the field.

  2. Habitat use by giant panda in relation to man-made forest in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Hongwei; Duan, Lijuan; Li, Junqing

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of human restoration in species conservation, in this study, we undertook a field survey of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitat and man-made forest habitat in Wanglang Nature Reserve of China. Our results revealed that giant panda did not use the man-made forest in this area so far, and that there were significant differences between the giant panda habitat and the man-made forest habitat. Compared with giant panda habitat, the man-made forest habitat was characterized by lower shrub coverage, thinner trees and lower bamboo density. To improve the effectiveness of human restoration, the habitat requirement of giant panda should be fully consider in the whole process of habitat restoration.

  3. Man Made Elements Periodic Table, Astronomical Periodic Table, Geographic Periodic Table-Dimitri Mendeleev Imitation in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, J.-T.

    2013-11-01

    A man made elements periodic table, including every single current element not just synthetic elements can be built differently than the naturally occurring element periodic table. Implications for knowing producible elements in space travel.

  4. Natural and man-made V-gene repertoires for antibody discovery

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, William J. J.; Almagro, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are the fastest-growing segment of the biologics market. The success of antibody-based drugs resides in their exquisite specificity, high potency, stability, solubility, safety, and relatively inexpensive manufacturing process in comparison with other biologics. We outline here the structural studies and fundamental principles that define how antibodies interact with diverse targets. We also describe the antibody repertoires and affinity maturation mechanisms of humans, mice, and chickens, plus the use of novel single-domain antibodies in camelids and sharks. These species all utilize diverse evolutionary solutions to generate specific and high affinity antibodies and illustrate the plasticity of natural antibody repertoires. In addition, we discuss the multiple variations of man-made antibody repertoires designed and validated in the last two decades, which have served as tools to explore how the size, diversity, and composition of a repertoire impact the antibody discovery process. PMID:23162556

  5. Crystalline silica in heated man-made vitreous fibres: a review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Terry P; Harrison, Paul T C

    2014-02-01

    Refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) and alkaline earth silicate (AES) wools are types of man-made vitreous fibre (MMVF) that are used in demanding high-temperature industrial applications, generally above 900 °C and up to 1400 °C. When exposed to prolonged high temperatures, MMVF can devitrify with the formation of cristobalite and other crystalline silica species, which is of potential concern because crystalline silica (CS) is classified as carcinogenic. This article reviews the chemico-physical processes and morphological consequences of fibre devitrification, the forms and micro-location of CS produced, and the toxicity of devitrified fibres and the CS species formed in this way. It also examines scenarios for worker exposure to the products of fibre devitrification in industries using RCF and/or AES wools. We identify gaps in knowledge and make recommendations for future research.

  6. Man-made Earthquakes & Multifractals in Neutral Fluid Turbulence/Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    Man-made earthquakes coincides with induced seismicity:''typically minor earthquakes & tremors that are caused by human activity that alters the stresses & Strains on the earth crust''[Wikipedia:''induced seismicity'']. For these, RD Andrews wrote:''Based on observed seismicity rate &geographical trends following major oil & gas plays with large amounts of produced water, the rates &trends in seismicity are very unlikely to represent a naturally occurring process''. ``The Prague, Oklahoma, earthquake sequence of 2011, along the Wilzetta faults zone, included the significant foreshock, a main shock of magnetic 5.7, it has been suggested that this sequence represent earthquakes triggered by fluid injection/natural fluid turbulence shows multifractal characteristics , of [405 ]-325-7968 of Dr. G. Randy Keller to UI tuitions of @ Rp. 29, 405, 000.00. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  7. Differential preferences of oviposition by Aedes mosquitos in man-made containers under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Chua, I-Ly; Chua, I-Ee; Chua, Kerk Hsiang

    2004-09-01

    A study was made of the oviposit behavior of gravid female Aedes mosquitos in man-made habitats under field conditions. The study showed that the gravid female Aedes mosquitos preferred containers with relatively easy access but not too open to external environmental influence. The dark surface of the containers served as the initial and long-range attractant to the breeding sites. Volatile chemicals generated by the decaying vegetation in the container may serve as a close-range attractant. Finally, the water quality and the quantity of 'food' derived from decaying vegetative matter in the water determined the amount of eggs deposited in each container. The study confirmed previous findings that each gravid female Aedes mosquito had the tendency to lay her eggs in more than one container. However, the results of the study suggests that under favorable conditions, each gravid female Aedes mosquito could be encouraged to lay all her eggs in a single breeding site.

  8. How East Germany Fabricated the Myth of HIV Being Man-Made.

    PubMed

    Jeppsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that the origin of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) being a contamination and a mutation originating from primates is well-documented alternative narratives are often being heard ofespecially in sub-Saharan Africa. One such narrative is about HIV being man-made in a military laboratory in the United States. In this article, it is shown how this narrative was fabricated by the intelligence services in East Germany (German Democratic Republic - GDR) as part of the ideological warfare during the Cold War. The purpose of this article is to put an end to a long-lasting conspiracy theory, which is still alive and may create diversion from serious research on the topic.

  9. Geotrupine beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) as bio-monitors of man-made radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia

    2003-04-01

    Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body.

  10. Biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers in the human lung.

    PubMed Central

    Sébastien, P

    1994-01-01

    There is now a substantial body of experimental data on the pulmonary biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibers (MMVSF), but human data are seriously lacking. Our knowledge in this field is essentially limited to a few reports of measurements of fibers retained in lung tissue samples taken at autopsy from workers manufacturing these products. Three types of exposure were studied: fibrous glass, mineral wool, and refractory ceramic fibers. Overall, the available data do not provide evidence for substantial long-term retention of fibers in the human lung after occupational exposure to MMVSF dusts. A word of caution, however; the amount of data supporting the previous statement is much greater for fibrous glass than for either mineral wool or refractory ceramic fibers. There is no human data on the key question of the kinetics of pulmonary clearance of inhaled MMVSF. PMID:7882938

  11. Functional, regulatory and indicator features of microorganisms in man-made ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    Functional, regulatory and indicator features of microorganisms in development and functioning of the systems and sustaining stability of three man-made ecosystem types has been studied. 1) The functional (metabolic) feature was studied in aquatic ecosystems of biological treatment of sewage waters for the reducer component. 2) The regulatory feature of bacteria for plants (producer component) was studied in simple terrestrial systems "wheat plants-rhizospheric microorganisms - artificial soil" where the behavior of the system varied with activity of the microbial component. For example with atmospheric carbon dioxide content elevated microbes promote intensification of photosynthesis processes, without binding the carbon in the plant biomass. 3) The indicator feature for the humans (consumer component) was studied in Life Support Systems (LSS). High sensitivity of human microflora to system conditions allowed its use as an indicator of the state of both system components and the entire ecosystem.

  12. Small Satellites Constellation for Monitoring of Natural and Man-made Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, K.; Oraevsky, V.; Salikhov, R.; Danilkin, V.

    The possibility of creation a new conception of using the small satellites constellation arises today in connection with the development of the circuit technology for manufacturing real small space vehicles (SSV). Their low price allows to form the multi purpose satellite constellation. Such constellation is formed in frame of the Russian Federal space program till 2006. It is intended for monitoring of the natural (typhoons, hurricanes, eruptions of volcano etc.) and man-made (radioactive contamination etc.) catastrophes. The space segment will be designed and manufactured by Research Institute for Electromechanics Federal State Unitary Enterprise. The scientific instrumentation and program will be designed by IZMIRAN. Three types of SSV will be in the constellation: The high-altitude group is composed by 4 SV (200 kg each) and the low-altitude group consists of up to 12 SV (200 kg or 60 kg each). Parameters measured by the on-board information system are as follows: plasma composition, ionosphere altitude profile, UHF/VHF/HF noise factor, atmosphere glow, weather parameters, the Earth surface temperature, high-energy particles, magnetic field, electric field. The multi-spectrum instrumentation of remote sensing will be also mounted on vehicle. The first SV are scheduled to be launched to the sun-sinchronous orbit by ROCOT, STRELA or SHTEL launch- vehicles within 2005 - 2006. After realization of the first projects the system configuration can be changed.For example the multisatellite system can provide: - Short-term, intermediate term and long-term prognosis of earthquakes, typhoons, hurricanes, tsunami; - Monitoring of radioactive and other contaminations - Evaluation of extreme situations and consequences of catastrophes in regions; - Analysis of a condition of the equipment and pipelines of gas and oil complex, scattering of gas emissions in turbulent atmosphere, prediction of the probable man- made catastrophes; - Analysis of influence of solar activity on

  13. Interactive coupling of electronic and optical man-made devices to biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozden, Ilker

    Fireflies blink synchronously, lasers are "mode-locked" for amplification, cardiac pacemaker cells maintain a steady heartbeat, and crickets chirps get in step. These are examples of coupled oscillators. Coupled non-linear limit-cycle oscillator models are used extensively to provide information about the collective behavior of many physical and biological systems. Depending on the system parameters, namely, the coupling coefficient and the time delay in the coupling, these coupled limit-cycle oscillator exhibit several interesting phenomena; they either synchronize to a common frequency, or oscillate completely independent of each other, or drag each other to a standstill i.e., show "amplitude death". Many neuronal systems exhibit synchronized limit-cycle oscillations in network of electrically coupled cells. The inferior olivary (IO) neuron is an example of such a system. The inferior olive has been widely studied by neuroscientists as it exhibits spontaneous oscillations in its membrane potential, typically in the range of 1--10 Hz. Located in the medulla, the inferior olive is believed to form the neural basis for precise timing and learning in motor circuits by making strong synaptic connections onto Purkinjee cells in the cerebellum. In this thesis work, we report on work, which focuses on the implementation and study of coupling of a biological circuit, which is the inferior olivary system, with a man-made electronic oscillator, the so-called Chua's circuit. We were able to study the interaction between the two oscillators over a wide range coupling conditions. With increasing coupling strength, the oscillators become phase-locked, or synchronized, but with a phase relationship which is either in- or out-of-phase depending on the detailed adjustment in the coupling. Finally, the coupled system reaches the conditions for amplitude death, a rather fundamental result given that the interaction has taken place between purely biological and man-made circuit

  14. Design considerations for a Space Station radiation shield for protection from both man-made and natural sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Peddicord, K. Lee; Felsher, Harry; Smith, Simon

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze scenarios involving the use of nuclear-power vehicles in the vicinity of a manned Space Station (SS) in low-earth-orbit (LEO) to quantify their radiological impact to the station crew. In limiting the radiant dose to crew members, mission planners may (1) shut the reactor down prior to reentry, (2) position the vehicle at a prescribed parking distance, and (3) deploy radiation shield about the shutdown reactor. The current report focuses on the third option in which point-kernel gamma-ray shielding calculations were performed for a variety of shield configurations for both nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicles. For a returning NTR vehicle, calculations indicate that a 14.9 MT shield would be needed to limit the integrated crew exposure to no more than 0.05 Sv over a period of six months (25 percent of the allowable exposure to man-made radiation sources). During periods of low vehicular activity in LEO, the shield may be redeployed about the SS habitation module in order to decrease crew exposures to trapped proton radiations by approximately a factor of 10. The corresponding shield mass required for deployment at a returning NEP vehicle is 2.21 MT. Additional scenarios examined include the radioactivation of various metals as might be found in tools used in EVA activities.

  15. Effect of cooling rate on timing and dynamics of crystallization within a man-made magma body

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, N.W.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. )

    1992-01-01

    A 1.3 [times] 10[sup 7] g, 3 m diameter, hemispheric-shaped, man-made mafic melt produced by inductance heating was allowed to cool naturally, dropping from a maximum temperature of 1,500 C to 500 C in 6 days. The cooled melt was found to be almost completely crystalline, and is composed dominantly of unzoned pyroxene and plagioclase. A thermal arrest, a 20 hr period of constant temperature (1,140 C) observed during cooling resulted from the release of latent heat during crystallization. However, crystallization within the central part of the melt probably began at a higher temperature, as indicated by thermal perturbations between 1,300 C and 1,140 C. Comparison of results from simple conductive cooling models with the observed cooling curves influenced by latent heat input allows estimates of the timing of crystalline growth. Growth rates for plagioclase and pyroxene are estimated to range between 10[sup [minus]5] and 10[sup [minus]6] cm/sec. Although the melt was physically, chemically, and thermally homogeneous at the time that cooling was initiated, the crystal morphology and composition varies systematically with distance from the edge of the melt, presumably as a function of cooling rate and degree of undercooling at the time that crystallization was initiated. Crystals near the edge of the melt, where cooling was most rapid are characterized by disequilibrium skeletal or spherulitic morphologies. With increased proximity to the interior, and progressively slower cooling rates, crystal morphology grade from chain-like to lath-like, and finally to tabular in the slowest-cooled areas. The chemical composition of the diopsidic pyroxene also varies as function of growth rate. Crystals that grew near the edge of the melt are enriched with respect to Al, and depleted with respect to Mg as compared to crystals from the central area.

  16. Lung function in Lancashire cotton and man made fibre spinning mill operatives.

    PubMed Central

    Fishwick, D; Fletcher, A M; Pickering, C A; McL Niven, R; Faragher, E B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--This survey was conducted to investigate current lung function levels in operatives working with cotton and man made fibres. Dust concentrations, smoking history, and occupational details were recorded so that factors influencing lung function could be identified. METHODS--A cross sectional study of respiratory symptoms and lung function was made in 1057 textile spinning operatives of white caucasian extraction. This represented 96.9% of the total available working population to be studied. Most (713) worked currently with cotton. The remainder worked with man made fibre. Lung function was assessed by measuring forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Exposure to cotton dust was measured in the work area and personal breathing zones, and retrospective exposure to cotton dust over a working life was estimated with accurate work history and best available hygiene data. RESULTS--3.5% of all operatives had byssinosis, 55 (5.3%) chronic bronchitis, 36 (3.5%) work related persistent cough, 55 (5.3%) non-byssinotic work related chest tightness, and 56 (5.3%) work related wheeze. A total of 212 static work area dust samples (range 0.04-3.23 mg/m3) and 213 personal breathing zone samples (range 0.14-24.95 mg/m3) were collected. Percentage of predicted FEV1 was reduced in current smokers (mean 89.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 88-91) in comparison with non-smokers (93.1, 90.5-94.1) and FVC was reduced in operatives currently working with man made fibre (95.3, 93.8-96.9) in comparison with cotton (97.8, 96.6-99.0). Regression analysis identified smoking (P < 0.01), increasing age (P < 0.01), increasing time worked in the waste room (P < 0.01), and male sex (P < 0.05) as being associated with a lower FEV1 and FVC. Current and retrospective cotton dust exposures did not appear as predictor variables in the regression analysis although in a univariate analysis, FEV1 was reduced in those operatives exposed to high dust

  17. An application of geophysical techniques to the study of man-made cavities of historical importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Pietro; Martimucci, Vincenzo; Parise, Mario; Sammarco, Mariangela

    2010-05-01

    Geophysical techniques, based on different methodologies (Ground Penetrating Radar, electric tomography), are very useful to integrate the classical archaeological investigations, and may provide important results to be combined with other surveys. In this study, the geophysical prospections are applied aimed at gaining a better knowledge of a cultural heritage site in the inner part of Apulia region, in southern Italy. The study area is located near Altamura, in a rural area of the Murge plateau, and specifically in the immediate surroundings of Masseria Jesce (masseria is the typical countryside mansion in the region), which first settlement dates back to the end of 1500. There, five man-made cavities are present, two being located in front of the main facade of the mansion, whilst the remaining three are at its back. They are related to different activities carried out in the centuries at the site: from shelters for animals, to sites of production of milk and cheese, works for water collection and distribution, etc. All the man-made cavities are of high historical value but the most important is probably an hypogean crypt, site of christian worship, which walls are decorated with several frescoes dating back to the 14th century. Within the framework of a project dedicated to reach a better knowledge of the area, and to partial restoration of the site as well, geophysical techniques have been used in combination with direct speleological surveys to detect the known artificial caves, and to help in the identification of the probable, further ones. Main goal of the survey was in fact to obtain detailed information on the development and features of the underground cavities, and to verify their likely continuation. At Masseria Jesce the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) prospecting was carried out by means of a SIR20 GSSI system with GSSI 270 Mhz antenna, that provides a good compromise between resolution and depth of investigation. The data were subsequently processed

  18. Responses of mental health professionals to man-made trauma: the Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z

    1996-09-01

    The reactions and responses of mental health professionals in the area of armed conflict is the focus of this paper. It examines the way the therapeutic community has dealt with the survivors of two catastrophes-the Holocaust and warfare. A parallel process of a gradual change of attitudes towards the survivors was observed: emotional detachment, lack of recognition in the early stages and, eventually, social acceptance and empathy. The origins of these attitudes will be discussed, and three explanations will be offered. Israel is a small, stress-ridden country that has known seven full-scale wars and countless hostilities during its 47 years of existence. Our national history over 2000 years has been beset with persecution, programs and deportations, culminating in the Nazi Holocaust. The establishment of the State of Israel brought with it the hope of a secure existence. Unfortunately, this has not been achieved, and Israel is a natural laboratory of war stress. The reactions and responses of mental health professionals in areas of armed conflict is the focus of this paper. Presented here will be this author's analysis of the way the Israeli society and the helping professions in Israel have dealt with two kinds of man-made catastrophic events: the Nazi Holocaust and seven Arab-Israeli wars. In these different events of human violence, a parallel process of a gradual change of attitude towards the survivors was observed. This remarkable parallel presents emotional detachment, lack of recognition and at times blaming the victims in the early stages and, eventually, social acceptance and empathy. The process of social change becomes complex when the agents of change are themselves members of the social entity undergoing the change. This paper shall demonstrate that therapists and mental health planners had considerable difficulties in transcending public attitudes toward survivors of the Holocaust and psychiatric casualties of the Israeli-Arab conflict. As a result

  19. Dissipative out-of-equilibrium assembly of man-made supramolecular materials.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Susan A P; Tena-Solsona, Marta; van Esch, Jan H; Eelkema, Rienk; Boekhoven, Job

    2017-09-18

    The use of dissipative self-assembly driven by chemical reaction networks for the creation of unique structures is gaining in popularity. In dissipative self-assembly, precursors are converted into self-assembling building blocks by the conversion of a source of energy, typically a photon or a fuel molecule. The self-assembling building block is intrinsically unstable and spontaneously reverts to its original precursor, thus giving the building block a limited lifetime. As a result, its presence is kinetically controlled, which gives the associated supramolecular material unique properties. For instance, formation and properties of these materials can be controlled over space and time by the kinetics of the coupled reaction network, they are autonomously self-healing and they are highly adaptive to small changes in their environment. By means of an example of a biological dissipative self-assembled material, the unique concepts at the basis of these supramolecular materials will be discussed. We then review recent efforts towards man-made dissipative assembly of structures and how their unique material properties have been characterized. In order to help further the field, we close with loosely defined design rules that are at the basis of the discussed examples.

  20. [IARC multicenter study on neoplastic disease caused by man-made vitreous mineral fibers (MMVF)].

    PubMed

    Consonni, D; Bernucci, I; Bertazzi, P A

    1999-01-01

    Man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF) showed carcinogenic potential in experimental animals. Epidemiological data suggested an increased mortality from lung cancer among production workers, but the interpretation is still a matter of controversy. A European study encompassing 13 plants in 7 countries pointed towards a moderate excess of lung cancer among workers employed longer than 1 year in the production of rock/slag wool (SMR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.08-1.63) and glass wool (SMR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.07-1.50); the latter increase was not confirmed after applying local rates to calculate expected deaths. The elevated risk among rock/slag wool producers was present even in comparison with local rates, and was associated with increasing time from first exposure, and duration of exposure. Glass wool results exhibited a less definite pattern. Smoking was excluded, although indirectly, as a sufficient alternative explanation of the increased lung cancer risk. In a few plants, exposure to asbestos had occurred in limited periods for some workers, and might have contributed to the findings. Case-control studies are under way to thoroughly investigate the relative and possibly combined role of the different exposures, either occupational or not. Cohort studies in the USA produced results closely consistent with those of the European study.

  1. Rat lung reactivity to natural and man-made fibrous silicates following short-term exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, I. ); Dionne, P.G. ); Nadeau, D.; Dunnigan, J. )

    1989-04-01

    The inflammatory and fibrogenic potential of three naturally occurring and two man-made industrial minerals were compared. Groups of five rats each received respectively a single intratracheal instillation of saline (control), UICC chrysotile B asbestos, short chrysotile 4T30, attapulgite, xonotlite (a calcium silicate), and Fiberfrax (an aluminum silicate) at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg. One month after the treatment, assessment of lung morphology and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed on each animal. Under these conditions, UICC chrysotile B at all doses tested (1, 5, and 10 mg) induced fibrotic lesions in bronchiolar tissues while short chrysotile 4T30 (1, 5, and 10 mg) caused focal accumulation of inflammatory cells in the alveolar structures but no apparent fibrosis. Compared to these positive reactions with different fibrogenicity, xonotlite caused minimal inflammatory reactions detectable only at high dose (10 mg) and by bronchoalveolar analysis. By contrast, the rat lung reacted more significantly to attapulgite and Fiberfrax although the tissue reaction differed considerably for these two materials. While attapulgite, at doses up to 10 mg caused minimal reactions characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration mainly in the alveolar structures, Fiberfrax at 1 mg and higher caused significant granulomatous reactions and the appearance of early fibrosis. Overall the order of lung biological reactivity observed for the various silicates was xonotlite

  2. [Population biology of cestode genus Triaenophorus in natural and man-made water bodies].

    PubMed

    Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I; Il'mast, N V

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of the frequencies of occurrence and distribution of the abundances of pike parasites, tapeworms of the genus Triaenophorus, was carried out in natural lakes and water bodies contaminated by the Kostomuksha mining and concentration mill (Northern Karelia). We demonstrate that the wide presence of T. crassus and T. nodulosus in natural northern lakes is due to the diversity of aquatic organisms and the structure of trophic relations. The abundance of both species is modeled by the negative binomial distribution. Relations in the host-parasite system are stable. Estimates of the parameter k of the negative binomial distribution reflect the changes in the interactions in the host-parasite system. T. nodulosus has survived in the man-made water body storing the highly mineralized recirculated water from the mill. Disturbance-related distinctions were detected in the parameters of the T. nodulosus abundance distribution in the host population. In the Okunevoye Lake, where the water discharged from the tailings dump is more diluted, the infection rates in pike did not differ from those in undisturbed water bodies.

  3. Man-made mineral fibers (MMMF): Human exposures and health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) are made by spraying or extruding molten glass, furnace slag, or mineral rock. Health concerns are based on the morphological and toxicological similarities between MMF and asbestos, and the well-documented evidence that asbestos fibers can cause lung fibrosis (asbestosis), bronchial cancer, and mesothelioma in humans. Epidemiological evidence for human disease from inhalation exposures to fibrous glass is largely negative. Some positive associations have been reported from slag and rockwools. Most of the toxicological evidence for MMMF toxicity in laboratory animals is based on nonphysiological exposures such as intratracheal instillation or intraperitoneal injection of fiber suspensions. The risks for lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma for industrial exposures to most fibrous glass products are either low or negligible for a variety of reasons. First, most commercial fibrous glass products have mean fiber diameters of {approximately} 7.5 {mu}m, which results in mean aerodynamic diameters > 22 {mu}m. Thus, most glass fibers, even if dispersed into the air, do not penetrate into the lung to any great extent. Second, the small fraction of smaller diameter fibers which do penetrate into the lungs are not persistent within the lungs for most fibrous glass products, due to mechanical breakage into shorter lengths and dissolution. Dissolution is most rapid for the smaller diameters capable of producing mesothelioma. The greater hazards for slag and rockwools, in comparison to conventional fibrous glass, appear to be related to their smaller diameters and greater durability within the lungs.

  4. Isotope and ion selectivity in reverse osmosis desalination: geochemical tracers for man-made freshwater.

    PubMed

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Vengosh, Avner; Guerrot, Catherine; Millot, Romain; Pankratov, Irena

    2008-07-01

    A systematic measurement of ions and 2H/1H, 7Li/6Li, 11B/10B, 18O/ 16O, and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes in feed-waters, permeates, and brines from commercial reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in Israel (Ashkelon, Eilat, and Nitzana) and Cyprus (Larnaca) reveals distinctive geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of fresh water generated from desalination of seawater (SWRO) and brackish water (BWRO). The degree of isotope fractionation during the passage of water and solutes through the RO membranes depends on the medium (solvent-water vs. solutes), chemical speciation of the solutes, their charge, and their mass difference. O, H, and Sr isotopes are not fractionated during the RO process. 7Li is preferentially rejected in low pH RO, and B isotope fractionation depends on the pH conditions. Under low pH conditions, B isotopes are not significantly fractionated, whereas at high pH, RO permeates are enriched by 20 per thousand in 11B due to selective rejection of borate ion and preferential permeation of 11B-enriched boric acid through the membrane. The specific geochemical and isotopic fingerprints of SWRO provide a unique tool for tracing "man-made" fresh water as an emerging recharge component of natural water resources.

  5. Phytoplankton patterns along a series of small man-made reservoirs in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Straubinger-Gansberger, Nadja; Kaggwa, Mary N; Schagerl, Michael

    2014-08-01

    We studied nine small man-made reservoirs located in different climate regions of Kenya to get an insight into the relationship between phytoplankton community structure and its environment. The investigated ponds form three groups of three reservoirs each found in the rural areas of Machakos district, Mount Kenya region, and Lake Victoria area with varied climatic characteristics. The ponds were sampled in monthly intervals between May 2007 and June 2008 for physicochemical variables including water chemistry, phytoplankton community composition, zooplankton abundance, and bacterial numbers. All ponds were classified as hypertrophic. Seasonal changes were reflected in the phytoplankton pattern, as all ponds showed a community shift after the short dry season in February. Due to high nutrient loads and increased turbidity, Cyanobacteria, which were initially thought to be predominating in all investigated water bodies, were found to play only a minor role except for the Bomet reservoir in Lake Victoria region. Instead, Chloro- and Streptophyta, Dinophyta, and Euglenophyta were abundant in the pelagial. A principal component analysis explained around 85 % of the data variance with four principal components (PCs) interpreted as "location", "ions", "zooplankton", and "particulate matter". A clear separation of ponds with and without cattle access based on algal species community data was found indicating the need for a sustainable use and regular monitoring program as the local population is largely dependent on these sensitive small-scale ecosystems.

  6. Fusion of monocular cues to detect man-made structures in aerial imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shufelt, Jefferey; Mckeown, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The extraction of buildings from aerial imagery is a complex problem for automated computer vision. It requires locating regions in a scene that possess properties distinguishing them as man-made objects as opposed to naturally occurring terrain features. It is reasonable to assume that no single detection method can correctly delineate or verify buildings in every scene. A cooperative-methods paradigm is useful in approaching the building extraction problem. Using this paradigm, each extraction technique provides information which can be added or assimilated into an overall interpretation of the scene. Thus, the main objective is to explore the development of computer vision system that integrates the results of various scene analysis techniques into an accurate and robust interpretation of the underlying three dimensional scene. The problem of building hypothesis fusion in aerial imagery is discussed. Building extraction techniques are briefly surveyed, including four building extraction, verification, and clustering systems. A method for fusing the symbolic data generated by these systems is described, and applied to monocular image and stereo image data sets. Evaluation methods for the fusion results are described, and the fusion results are analyzed using these methods.

  7. Gas exchange across the air - water interface determined with man-made and natural tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Wanninkhof, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients were determined on Rockland Lake, NY; Crowley Lake, CA; and Mono Lake, CA which have surface areas of 1 km/sup 2/, 20 km/sup 2/, and 190 km/sup 2/, respectively, by injecting a small amount of man made tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF/sub 6/) into the lake and measuring the rate of concentration decrease in the water column with time. The dependency of gas exchange on wind speed is similar for the three lakes indicating that wind fetch is not a critical parameter for the gas exchange coefficient for lakes with sizes greater than 1 km/sup 2/. Little gas exchange occurs for wind speeds less than 2.5 m/s and gas exchange increases linearly with wind speed from 2.5 to 6 m/s. The relationship of gas exchange and wind speed for the lakes agrees well with a compilation of earlier single wind speed - exchange coefficient measurements on lakes and oceans but they are lower than most results obtained in wind tunnels.

  8. Tumorigenicity of fine man-made fibers after intratracheal administrations to hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo ); Kimura, Kikuzi )

    1991-02-01

    Six types of man-made fibers were administered intratracheally (2.0 mg/animal each a week, for 5 weeks; total 10 mg/animal) to female Syrian hamsters that were observed histologically for 2 years after administration. The fibers were rock wool, fiberglass, potassium titanate fiber, calcium sulfate fiber, basic magnesium sulfate fiber, and metaphosphate fiber. Tumors were observed in hamsters that had received basic magnesium sulfate fiber (9/20), metaphosphate fiber (6/20), calcium sulfate fiber (3/20), and fiberglass (2/20) but not in the control, rock wool, or potassium titanate fiber groups. The primary sites of the tumors were not only in the pleural cavity but also in the intracelial organs, kidney, adrenal gland, bladder, and uterus. Only a few of the tumors were identified as mesotheliomas, by histological examination. In addition to neoplastic lesions, fibrosis, pleural thickening, and chronic inflammatory changes in the lungs were observed in the hamsters, but these changes appeared too mild to foster a pneumoconiosis such as asbestosis.

  9. Summer Boundary Layer structure and circulations in the presence of a large man made lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Rui; Soares, Pedro; Policarpo, Carlos; Le Moigne, Patrick; Miranda, Pedro; Potes, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of the thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric boundary layer over and in the vicinity of the Alqueva reservoir, a 250 km2 man made lake in south Portugal, is studied using mesoscale simulations and observations. The Observations were carried out during the intensive period (IOP) of the ALqueva hydro-meteorological Experiment, ALEX 2014 (www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt), which took place between 22 and 24 July 2014. Twomodels were used, and the results have been inter-compared: The Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF, andthe non-hydrostatic Meso-NH. During the ALEX 2014 IOP, radiosondes were launched every tree hours and the near surface fluxes of energy, vapor and momentum were measured using an eddy covariance system installed on a floating platform in the lake. The ALEX field campaign includes also several surface meteorological stations, over water and land in order to characterize the local horizontal structure of the surface layer. The simulations, validated by the observations, allows the study of the effects of the lake in the boundary layer and on the atmospheric flow.

  10. In vivo evaluation of chemical biopersistence of man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A

    1994-01-01

    Techniques developed at the Harwell Laboratory for the determination of the biopersistence of man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) in vivo are described. Results obtained with samples of glass fiber with a range of compositions, and with a sample of rockwool, are summarized. With glass fibers the rate of dissolution of fibers in vivo depends not only on their chemical composition, but also on their length. Certainly, for all fibers exceeding 10 microns in length, the longer the fiber the more rapidly it dissolves. This effect is attributed to differences in the microenvironments to which long and short fibers are exposed. Although this phenomenon appears to operate with all glass fibers, it may not apply to other types of MMMF that dissolve more readily in environments with low pH. Finally, the article examines the validity of the intratracheal method of administration for studying the biopersistence of MMMF in vivo and the use of the rat for this purpose. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B PMID:7882916

  11. The occupational physician's point of view: the model of man-made vitreous fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Brochard, P; Pairon, J C; Bignon, J

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a detailed description of the procedure the occupational physician uses in interpreting the available scientific data to provide useful information for prevention of pulmonary diseases related to man-made mineral fibers, particularly lung cancer and mesothelioma. As it is difficult to reach definite conclusions from human data on the toxicity of specific fibers, an experimental approach is needed. Concerning animal data, we emphasize that adequate inhalation studies are the "gold standard" for extrapolating to humans. However, experiments using intracavitary injection or cells in vitro may represent indicative tests for a possible carcinogenic effect. Such tests should be used to assess the intrinsic carcinogenicity of fibers, but they must be confirmed by adequate inhalation models. Despite the present uncertainties, a proposal is made that could make it possible to classify fibers according to their toxicologic potential, grading them in accordance with physicochemical parameters, in vitro testing, and animal experiments. This procedure may be applicable to nonvitreous fibers and to organic fibers. PMID:7882952

  12. Do insulation products of man-made vitreous fibres still cause skin discomfort?

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Lennart; Moberg, Cecilia; Lidén, Carola

    2014-01-01

    Background Man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs) are used in products for insulation and as reinforcement in materials. Contamination of the skin may arise through direct or indirect contact, and from the deposition of airborne fibres. The scientific basis regarding the effects on skin of MMVFs dates from 1970–1980. Objectives To investigate whether currently used insulation MMVF products still cause skin discomfort. Methods Focus group interviews and structured interviews were performed among workers engaged in insulation tasks and among do-it-yourself consumers with a recent experience of MMVF products. Results A majority of interviewees experienced skin discomfort when handling MMVF products. Complaints caused by traditional (yellow) glass fibre products were more severe than those caused by products of rock or slag wool fibres. The wrists, forearms, neck and face were the locations where the skin was most affected. The situations causing problems varied between occupational tasks, but working with the hands over the head or in narrow spaces were described as the worst situations. Building construction apprentices performed insulation tasks more often than senior workers. Conclusions MMVF insulation products do still cause skin discomfort. Updated knowledge about people’s experiences of work with such products should influence legislation. PMID:24684557

  13. Environmental surveys in the European man-made mineral fiber production industry.

    PubMed

    Cherrie, J; Dodgson, J; Groat, S; Maclaren, W

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of airborne fiber concentrations and fiber size for European man-made mineral fiber (MMMF) factories on the basis of measurements made in 1977-1980. The airborne fiber concentrations previously reported at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1982 have been revised to harmonize the results with the WHO-European MMMF reference counting level. The result was an approximate doubling of the reported airborne fiber levels. After the revisions the average combined occupational group concentrations in the rock- and glass-wool plants were still generally low (less than 0.01 fibers/ml). In the glass continuous-filament factories the airborne fiber concentrations were very low (less than 0.01 fibers/ml). The average plant median for fiber length ranged from 10 to 20 microns, and the corresponding median diameters ranged from 0.7 to 2 microns. In general the glass-wool fibers were thinner than the rock-wool fibers. The fiber concentrations measured in other studies in the MMMF production and user industries are reviewed. Higher levels (between 0.1 and 1.0 fibers/ml) have been measured in some insulation wool production, secondary production, and user industries. The highest levels (greater than 1.0 fibers/ml) occurred in very fine glass-fiber production and in other specialist insulation wool usage.

  14. Classification of man-made vitreous fibers: Comments on the revaluation by an IARC working group.

    PubMed

    Wardenbach, P; Rödelsperger, K; Roller, M; Muhle, H

    2005-11-01

    In 2001, an IARC working group revaluated the carcinogenic risks of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF). Compared with the IARC evaluation in 1987, the overall evaluations of insulation glass wool, rock (stone) wool, and slag wool were changed from Group 2B to Group 3. These changes ensued from an alteration in the evidence for cancer in humans and in experimental animals: Instead of "sufficient," the evidence for cancer in experimental animals is now looked upon as "limited" if there is a carcinogenic response after intraperitoneal injection but not after recently conducted inhalation experiments. For these studies, it is argued that they did properly address the technological limitations of earlier inhalation experiments. For Maxim and McConnell [Maxim L.D., McConnell E.E., 2001. Interspecies comparisons of the toxicity of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibers: a weight-of-the-evidence approach. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 33, 319-342], well-conducted inhalation studies are very sensitive and rats may be more sensitive than humans in detecting the carcinogenic potential of MMVF. However, their arguments are highly questionable. The explanations of the IARC working group for preferring the newer inhalation studies are not sufficiently supported by the published data. Having in mind the higher sensitivity of humans compared to rats after inhalation of asbestos, more emphasis should have been given to the carcinogenic response after intraperitoneal injection.

  15. Do insulation products of man-made vitreous fibres still cause skin discomfort?

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lennart; Moberg, Cecilia; Lidén, Carola

    2014-06-01

    Man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs) are used in products for insulation and as reinforcement in materials. Contamination of the skin may arise through direct or indirect contact, and from the deposition of airborne fibres. The scientific basis regarding the effects on skin of MMVFs dates from 1970-1980. To investigate whether currently used insulation MMVF products still cause skin discomfort. Focus group interviews and structured interviews were performed among workers engaged in insulation tasks and among do-it-yourself consumers with a recent experience of MMVF products. A majority of interviewees experienced skin discomfort when handling MMVF products. Complaints caused by traditional (yellow) glass fibre products were more severe than those caused by products of rock or slag wool fibres. The wrists, forearms, neck and face were the locations where the skin was most affected. The situations causing problems varied between occupational tasks, but working with the hands over the head or in narrow spaces were described as the worst situations. Building construction apprentices performed insulation tasks more often than senior workers. MMVF insulation products do still cause skin discomfort. Updated knowledge about people's experiences of work with such products should influence legislation. © 2014 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Freshwater environmental quality parameters of man-made lakes of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Dorđevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-08-01

    In this study, 28 lakes were selected from the freshwater resources of the network of man-made lakes throughout the Vojvodina Province and the central part of Serbia. Samples were analyzed for the physicochemicals indicators of the water and nutrients. Most of the values of the chemicals indicators and nutrients of the samples from the Vojvodina Province exceeded the Water Act and Regulations on the Monitoring of Water Quality introduced by the Government of the Republic of Serbia (MWQ) and/or the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption. The sample from Lake Međuvršje, where the NH4 (+) concentration was 0.28 mg/L, and the sample from Ovcar Banja, where the total phosphorus (TP) content was 0.15 mg/L with a high total nitrogen (TN) content of 1.21 mg/L, are particularly noteworthy. These high concentrations exceeded the proposed guidelines for safe drinking water; therefore, water from these lakes should be used with care as harmful health effects may occur. The majority of the Serbian lakes are characterized by phosphorus-limited photosynthesis.

  17. Significance of the biodurability of man-made vitreous fibers to risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Muhle, H; Bellmann, B

    1997-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the biodurability of man-made vitreous fibers is a major factor for the characterization of potential health effects. As there is currently no standardization of experimental protocols to determine biodurabilty, the results of the clearance assays have not been used up to now for regulatory purposes. Methods used to analyze biodurability in animal models are short-term inhalational exposure and intratracheal instillation of rat respirable fibers. Both test methods have strengths and limitations for regulatory purposes. We outline recommended procedures for standardized biodurability assays that can be used to compare different fiber types. In animal experiments, biodurability is difficult to separate from biopersistence, as mucociliary and macrophage-mediated clearance occur simultaneously with dissolution and disintegration. For intratracheal instillation, a sized rat respirable sample must be used. Precautions should be taken to prevent aggregation of fibers in the lungs. Although from a scientific point of view questions remain about quantifying the influence of fiber length, diameter, dose, and exposure route, consistent data on the biodurability of vitreous glass fibers are available which may be used for regulatory purposes. PMID:9400698

  18. Dual pH durability studies of man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF).

    PubMed

    Bauer, J F; Law, B D; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-10-01

    Dissolution of fibers in the deep lung may involve both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms. This process was modeled in vitro for each environment using an experimental flow-through system to characterize both total dissolution and specific chemical changes for three representative MMVF's: a glasswool, a slagwool, and a refractory ceramic fiber (RCF). Synthetic physiological fluids at pH 4 and at pH 7.6 were used to simulate macrophage intraphagolysosomal, and extracellular environments, respectively. Actual commercial fiber, sized to rat-respirable dimension, having an average fiber diameter of 1 micron and an average length between 15 and 25 microns, was used in the experiments. Fiber dissolution was monitored through change in chemistry of the fluid collected after percolation at a constant rate through a thin bed of sample. There are great differences in total fiber dissolution rates for the different fibers. Slagwool and RCF dissolve more rapidly at pH 4 than at pH 7.6, while the reverse is true for glasswool. Dissolution is sometimes accompanied by a noticeable change in fiber morphology or dimension, and sometimes by no change. There is strong dependency on pH, which affects not only total fiber dissolution, but also the leaching of specific chemical components. This effect is different for each type of fiber, indicating that specific fiber chemistry largely controls whether a fiber dissolves or leaches more rapidly under acidic or neutral conditions. Both total dissolution rates and calculated fiber composition changes are valuable guides to interpreting in vivo behavior of man-made vitreous fibers, and demonstrate the usefulness of in vitro acellular experiments in understanding overall fiber persistence.

  19. Combining natural and man-made DNA tracers to advance understanding of hydrologic flow pathway evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlke, H. E.; Walter, M. T.; Lyon, S. W.; Rosqvist, G. N.

    2014-12-01

    Identifying and characterizing the sources, pathways and residence times of water and associated constituents is critical to developing improved understanding of watershed-stream connections and hydrological/ecological/biogeochemical models. To date the most robust information is obtained from integrated studies that combine natural tracers (e.g. isotopes, geochemical tracers) with controlled chemical tracer (e.g., bromide, dyes) or colloidal tracer (e.g., carboxilated microspheres, tagged clay particles, microorganisms) applications. In the presented study we explore how understanding of sources and flow pathways of water derived from natural tracer studies can be improved and expanded in space and time by simultaneously introducing man-made, synthetic DNA-based microtracers. The microtracer used were composed of polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres into which short strands of synthetic DNA and paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are incorporated. Tracer experiments using both natural tracers and the DNA-based microtracers were conducted in the sub-arctic, glacierized Tarfala (21.7 km2) catchment in northern Sweden. Isotopic hydrograph separations revealed that even though storm runoff was dominated by pre-event water the event water (i.e. rainfall) contributions to streamflow increased throughout the summer season as glacial snow cover decreased. This suggests that glaciers are a major source of the rainwater fraction in streamflow. Simultaneous injections of ten unique DNA-based microtracers confirmed this hypothesis and revealed that the transit time of water traveling from the glacier surface to the stream decreased fourfold over the summer season leading to instantaneous rainwater contributions during storm events. These results highlight that integrating simultaneous tracer injections (injecting tracers at multiple places at one time) with traditional tracer methods (sampling multiple times at one place) rather than using either approach in isolation can

  20. Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: II. Mortality from mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Marsh, G M; Gula, M J; Youk, A O; Buchanich, J M; Churg, A; Colby, T V

    2001-09-01

    As part of our ongoing mortality surveillance program for the US man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) industry, we examined mortality from malignant mesothelioma using data from our 1989 follow-up of 3478 rock/slag wool workers and our 1992 follow-up of 32,110 fiberglass workers. A manual search of death certificates for 1011 rock/slag wool workers and 9060 fiberglass workers revealed only 10 death certificates with any mention of the word "mesothelioma." A subsequent review of medical records and pathology specimens for 3 of the 10 workers deemed two deaths as definitely not due to mesothelioma and one as having a 50% chance of being caused by mesothelioma. Two other deaths, for which only medical records were available, were given less than a 50% chance of being due to mesothelioma. Eight of the 10 decedents had potential occupational asbestos exposure inside or outside the MMVF industry. We also estimated the mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma in the cohort using two cause-of-death categorizations that included both malignant and benign coding rubrics. Using the more comprehensive scheme, we observed overall deficits in deaths among the total cohort and fiberglass workers and an overall excess among rock/slag wool workers. The excess in respiratory system cancer is largely a reflection of elevated lung cancer risks that we attributed mainly to confounding by smoking, to exposures outside the MMVF industry to agents such as asbestos, or to one or more of the several co-exposures present in many of the study plants (including asbestos). The second scheme, which focused on pleural mesothelioma in time periods when specific malignant mesothelioma coding rubrics were available, classified only one cohort death as being caused by malignant mesothelioma, compared with 2.19 expected deaths (local county comparison). We conclude that the overall mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma does not seem to be elevated in the US MMVF cohort.

  1. Differential responses of rat alveolar and peritoneal macrophages to man-made vitreous fibers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dörger, M; Münzing, S; Allmeling, A M; Messmer, K; Krombach, F

    2001-03-01

    Different approaches, including inhalation and intraperitoneal injection assays, have been used to assess the potential health effects of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF). The purpose of this study was to compare the phagocytic activity and the formation of reactive oxygen species by rat alveolar macrophages (AM) and peritoneal macrophages (PM) upon exposure to MMVF10 glass wool and MMVF21 rock wool fibers. Macrophage (Mphi) phagocytosis of mineral fibers was assessed by optical videomicroscopy and computer-aided image analysis. Mphi were classified as cells not associated with fibers, cells with attached fibers, cells with incompletely phagocytized fibers (an appearance known as "frustrated phagocytosis"), and cells with completely phagocytized fibers. The production of superoxide anions by AM and PM upon incubation with MMVF10 and MMVF21 fibers was determined by the superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome C. PM were found to have a lower phagocytic activity than AM. A significantly higher percentage of AM than of PM underwent frustrated phagocytosis of MMVF10 and MMVF21 fibers. In line with these findings, AM generated higher levels of oxygen radicals than PM upon exposure to MMVF21 fibers. In contrast, MMVF10 fibers failed to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species by both AM and PM. Our in vitro results show that the phagocytic activity, in particular the frustrated phagocytosis of mineral fibers, was significantly lower in PM than in AM. The data support the idea that the durability and biopersistence of mineral fibers are higher in the peritoneal cavity than in the lung.

  2. Predicting the Effects of Man-Made Fishing Canals on Floodplain Inundation - A Modelling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastry, A. R.; Durand, M. T.; Neal, J. C.; Fernandez, A.; Hamilton, I.; Kari, S.; Laborde, S.; Mark, B. G.; Arabi, M.; Moritz, M.; Phang, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Logone floodplain in northern Cameroon is an excellent example of coupled human-natural systems because of strong couplings between the social, ecological and hydrologic systems. Overbank flow from the Logone River in September and October is essential for agriculture and fishing livelihoods. Fishers dig canals to catch fish during the flood's recession to the river in November and December by installing nets at the intersection of canals and the river. Fishing canals connect the river to natural depressions in the terrain and may serve as a man-made extension of the river drainage network. In the last four decades, there has been an exponential increase in the number of canals which may affect flood hydraulics and the fishery. The goal of this study is to characterize the relationship between the fishing canals and flood dynamics in the Logone floodplain, specifically, parameters of flooding and recession timings and the duration of inundation. To do so, we model the Bara region ( 30 km2) of the floodplain using LISFLOOD-FP, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with sub-grid parameterizations of canals. We use a simplified version of the hydraulic system at a grid-cell size of 30-m, using synthetic topography, parameterized fishing canals, and representing fishnets as a combination of weir and mesh screens. The inflow at Bara is obtained from a separate, lower resolution (1-km grid-cell) model forced by daily discharge records obtained from Katoa, located 25-km upstream of Bara. Preliminary results show more canals lead to early recession of flood and a shorter duration of flood inundation. A shorter duration of flood inundation reduces the period of fish growth and will affect fisher catch returns. Understanding the couplings within the system is important for predicting long-term dynamics and the impact of building more fishing canals.

  3. Production of reactive oxygen species by man-made vitreous fibres in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, M; Hirvonen, M R; Luoto, K; Savolainen, K M

    1999-06-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) or erythrocytes, isolated from human blood, were exposed to graded doses of asbestos (chrysotile), quartz, or man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF), i.e. refractory ceramic fibres (RCF), glasswool, or rockwool fibres. None of the MMVF affected either the viability of PMNL, as measured by trypan blue exclusion test, or induced haemolysis, whereas the positive controls, quartz and chrysotile, dose-dependently induced haemolysis in PMNL. MMVF did not increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the PMNL, whereas the positive controls, chrysotile and quartz, induced a marked and dose-dependent release of LDH. When PMNL were exposed to MMVF, some of the fibre types slightly increased the levels of free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) within the cells in a manner similar to that induced by chrysotile or quartz. All MMVF induced a dose-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PMNL, with RCF-induced production of ROS being the most marked. Production of ROS by MMVF seemed to depend on the availability of extracellular calcium because it could be attenuated with a Ca2+ channel blocker, verapamil, or a Ca2+ chelating agent, EGTA. Production of ROS may be a common pathway through which PMNL respond to MMVF-induced cell activation, but alterations of levels of free intracellular Ca2+ do not seem to be an absolute prerequisite for this effect. Fibre length seemed not to be an important factor in affecting the ability of MMVF to induce ROS production in PMNL. However, the balance between different elements in the fibre seemed importantly to affect the biological activity of a fibre.

  4. Evaluation of the oncogenic potential of man-made vitreous fibres: the inhalation model.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, D M; Thevenaz, P; Fleissner, H; Anderson, R; Hesterberg, T W; Mast, R

    1995-10-01

    A rodent inhalation model has been developed for the evaluation of the eoncogenic potential of man-made vitreous fibres. It is successful in delivering a quantified dose of well-characterized fibres to the lungs of rodents, and with it sufficiently high fibre aerosol concentrations were lofted to enable a maximum tolerated dose to be achieved. Fischer 344 male rats were exposed to a well-defined rat-respirable aerosol at concentrations for MMVF of 30, 16 or 3 mg m-3, 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 104 weeks with final sacrifice at 20% survival. A control group was exposed to filtered air. The high dose was chosen based upon a 28-day maximum tolerated dose study with refractory ceramic fibres (RCF). The fibre aerosol generation system lofted fibres without breaking, grinding or contaminating the bulk material. Exposure was by flow-past nose-only systems which provided fresh fibre in a laminar stream to each animal individually. The study was performed according to the Good Laboratory Practice regulations. Fibre count, fibre diameter and length distribution, aerosol mass and chemical composition were determined throughout the study. Interim sacrifices were performed at 3 or 6 month intervals for 24 months. At each sacrifice, full necropsy was performed, the accessory lobe removed for subsequent digestion to determine the fibre lung burden and the remaining lobes inflated with fixative for histopathological evaluation. The lungs were evaluated by a pathologist and graded for the degree of macrophage infiltration, bronchiolization, fibrosis and pleural thickening, and were also scored according to the Wagner scale. Lesions were evaluated according to the number of adenomas, carcinomas and mesotheliomas. The accessory lobe was digested by low-temperature plasma ashing and the number, size distribution and chemical composition of the fibres determined. This model provides a sensitive and reproducible method for evaluating existing and new fibres. A variety of different

  5. Scientific activities of Euro Chlor in monitoring and assessing naturally and man-made organohalogens.

    PubMed

    Lecloux, A J

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a review of the scientific activities and research programmes carried out by Euro Chlor, the European Federation of chlor-alkali producers is presented according to two main axes: marine risk assessments with statistical analysis of monitoring data, temporal trends of emission levels and environmental concentrations. The methodology applied in each field is briefly presented and then illustrated by several practical examples. As a large part of the uncertainties in assessing the risk of a chemical to a given species or ecosystem often comes from the difficulty in evaluating the exposure level, Euro Chlor has chosen to use a monitoring approach, the exposure level being estimated from a statistical analysis of measured concentrations levels in water and sediment from rivers, estuaries and coastal areas. As the modelling approach often used by the authorities to estimate the predicted environmental concentration value is starting from roughly estimated emission levels, Euro Chlor collated emissions data from about 80 production plants in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with the default values introduced in the modelling approach.A brief review of the European emission levels for chlorinated organic substances is given as well as the temporal trends of both emission and environmental levels. A methodology to quantify the trends in measured concentrations at local and regional scales is briefly described. The observed decreasing trends demonstrate the continuous progress made by the Euro Chlor member companies in protecting the environment.Finally, the problems linked to the simultaneous presence in the environment of naturally and man-made chlorinated substances are briefly reviewed. To stimulate further research in the field, two key questions are raised which have not yet found a satisfactory answer: how to quantify natural background levels and how to quantify global persistence in the environment?

  6. Development of a methodology to assess man-made risks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, D.; Jung, D.; Murshed, S. M.; Werner, U.

    2006-09-01

    Risk is a concept used to describe future potential outcomes of certain actions or events. Within the project "CEDIM - Risk Map Germany - Man-made Hazards" it is intended to develop methods for assessing and mapping the risk due to different human-induced hazards. This is a task that has not been successfully performed for Germany so far. Concepts of catastrophe modelling are employed including the spatial modelling of hazard, the compilation of different kinds of exposed elements, the estimation of their vulnerability and the direct loss potential in terms of human life and health. The paper is divided in two sections: First, an analytic framework for assessing the broad spectrum of human-induced risks is introduced. This approach is then applied for three important types of human-induced hazards that are representative for a whole class of hazards: Accidents due to nuclear power plants (NPP) or air traffic, and terrorism. For the analysis of accidents, risk is measured with respect to getting injured or dying when living in certain buffer zones around hazard locations. NPP hazard expert knowledge is used and supplemented with observations on aging effects leading to a proprietary index value for the risk. Air traffic risk is modelled as an area related phenomenon based on available accident statistics leading to an expected value of risk. Terrorism risk is assessed by the attraction certain elements (like embassies in the case of conventional threats) display in the eye of potential aggressors. For non-conventional targets like football games, a detailed approach measuring their susceptibility to different kinds of attacks within predefined scenarios was developed; this also allows a ranking of attack modes.

  7. Rat lung reactivity to natural and man-made fibrous silicates following short-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, I; Dionne, P G; Nadeau, D; Dunnigan, J

    1989-04-01

    The inflammatory and fibrogenic potential of three naturally occurring and two man-made industrial minerals were compared. Groups of five rats each received respectively a single intratracheal instillation of saline (control), UICC chrysotile B asbestos, short chrysotile 4T30, attapulgite, xonotlite (a calcium silicate), and Fiberfrax (an aluminum silicate) at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg. One month after the treatment, assessment of lung morphology and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed on each animal. Under these conditions, UICC chrysotile B at all doses tested (1, 5, and 10 mg) induced fibrotic lesions in bronchiolar tissues while short chrysotile 4T30 (1, 5, and 10 mg) caused focal accumulation of inflammatory cells in the alveolar structures but no apparent fibrosis. Compared to these positive reactions with different fibrogenicity, xonotlite caused minimal inflammatory reactions detectable only at high dose (10 mg) and by bronchoalveolar analysis. By contrast, the rat lung reacted more significantly to attapulgite and Fiberfrax although the tissue reaction differed considerably for these two materials. While attapulgite, at doses up to 10 mg caused minimal reactions characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration mainly in the alveolar structures, Fiberfrax at 1 mg and higher caused significant granulomatous reactions and the appearance of early fibrosis. Overall the order of lung biological reactivity observed for the various silicates was xonotlite much less than attapulgite less than short chrysotile 4T30 less than Fiberfrax less than UICC chrysotile B. These observations indicate that Fiberfrax, attapulgite, and, to a lesser extent, xonotlite are biologically active within the time span studied and potentially deleterious for lung tissue.

  8. Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines in the ground and under the sea, and in general all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of the natural electromagnetic field. The resulting currents in the networks (commonly named geomagnetically induced currents, GIC), are produced by the conductive and/or inductive coupling and can compromise or even disrupt system operations and, in extreme cases, cause power blackouts, railway signalling mis-operation, or interfere with pipeline corrosion protection systems. To properly model the GIC in order to mitigate their impacts it is necessary to know the frequency dependence of the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations which naturally span a wide frequency range. For that, the general equations of the electromagnetic induction in a multi-layered infinitely long cylinder (representing cable, power line wire, rail or pipeline) embedded in uniform media have been solved utilising methods widely used in geophysics. The derived electromagnetic fields and currents include the effects of the electromagnetic properties of each layer and of the different types of the surrounding media. This exact solution then has been used to examine the electromagnetic response of particular samples of long conducting structures to the external electromagnetic wave for a wide range of frequencies. Because the exact solution has a rather complicated structure, simple approximate analytical formulas have been proposed, analysed and compared with the results from the exact model. These approximate formulas show good coincidence in the frequency range spanning from geomagnetic storms (less than mHz) to pulsations (mHz to Hz) to atmospherics (kHz) and above, and can be recommended for use in space weather applications.

  9. Cellular effects of particles--impact of dissolution on toxicity of man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed

    Luoto, K; Holopainen, M; Perander, M; Karppinen, K; Savolainen, K M

    1996-01-01

    The use of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) has grown rapidly because exposure to natural fibers, mainly asbestos, has proved harmful to humans. Biological activity of MMVF made of glass, rock, slag, or other minerals does not depend only on their respirability, but also on their chemical durability and persistency. In the use of MMVF, the goal is to decrease harmful effects of fibers by increasing their dissolution and removal from the lungs. The dissolution of Fe and Al from MMVF is more marked by rat alveolar macrophages (AMs) in culture than by mere medium, whereas medium is more effective than AMs in dissoluting silicon (Si) from MMVF, Fe and Al content of the fibers correlate negatively with the fiber Si dissolution by the AMs. Scanning electron micrographs show that MMVF are readily phagocytized by rat AMs in culture. The phagocytosis begins within 30 min after the onset of the exposure and continues for a 96-h observation period. Short fibers, less than 20 microns in length, are readily phagocytized by the AMs whereas longer fibers are attacked with a large number of AMs. MMVF induce also non-lethal changes in the rat AM surface morphology. Before exposure the cells have continuous membranes. The exposed AMs produce extensions which fasten them to the fibers or to other cells to form clumps or clusters of cells and fibers, each cell engulfing a part of a fiber. Over 70% of the exposed cells are viable after 96 h of exposure suggesting that MMVF are not acutely toxic rat AMs. MMVF also slightly damage cell membrane and increase the production of reactive oxygen species.

  10. What factors control the percentage of nitrogen that gets exported downstream from man-made reservoirs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonpane, J. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Whitney, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Man-made dams influence more than just the flow of water in a river. The build up of sediments and organic matter, increased residence times, and elevated nutrient inputs from upstream can result in increased algal growth and blooms, altered DO patterns, and can also influence the flux of nutrients from watersheds. Many of the effects of dams vary in intensity based on the geomorphology of their resulting reservoirs. In this study, we examined eight reservoirs located in four different coastal watersheds in New England, USA, to analyze the role that characteristics such as depth, width, volume, and residence time play in regards to metabolism (GPP and Respiration) and nutrient retention. At the inflows and outflow of each reservoir, we measured conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, nitrate, phosphate, chlorophyll, and dissolved organic carbon. Using conductivity, which is conservative, and watershed area, we created a mass balance for each watershed. In most cases the conductivity mass balance indicated that water inputs and outputs were at equilibrium during sampling, allowing us to assess the alteration of non-conservative material fluxes. Dissolved oxygen and TSS were not balanced, indicating that the reservoirs acted as both a source and a sink for DO and sediments depending upon the time of day and amount of algal activity. Similar analyses will be conducted for nutrients. The net change of each variable across the reservoirs will be related to geomorphological characteristics of the reservoirs. With nutrient loading from anthropogenic sources, and increased push for small dam removal, this study provides useful information regarding the consequences of dam removal to downstream aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Characterization of exposure and dose of man made vitreous fiber in experimental studies.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, R D; Miiller, W C; Christensen, D R; Anderson, R; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-01-01

    The use of fibrous test materials in in vivo experiments introduces a number of significant problems not associated with nonfibrous particulates. The key to all aspects of the experiment is the accurate characterization of the test material in terms of fiber length, diameter, particulate content, and chemistry. All data related to fiber properties must be collected in a statistically sound manner to eliminate potential bias. Procedures similar to those outlined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or the World Health Organization (WHO) must be the basis of any fiber characterization. The test material to which the animal is exposed must be processed to maximize the amount of respirable fiber and to minimize particulate content. The complex relationship among the characteristics of the test material, the properties of the delivery system, and the actual dose that reaches the target tissue in the lung makes verification of dose essential. In the case of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF), dose verification through recovery of fiber from exposed animals is a complex task. The potential for high fiber solubility makes many of the conventional techniques for tissue preservation and digestion inappropriate. Processes based on the minimum use of aggressive chemicals, such as cold storage and low temperature ashing, are potentially useful for a wide range of inorganic fibers. Any processes used to assess fiber exposure and dose must be carefully validated to establish that the chemical and physical characteristics of the fibers have not been changed and that the dose to the target tissue is completely and accurately described. PMID:7882912

  12. Multi proxy approach for the formation of calcium carbonates in alkaline man-made environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinder, T.; Dietzel, M.; Leis, A.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of calcium carbonates, e.g. in drainage systems of tunnels, may be induced by degassing of CO2-rich groundwater which enters the building. However, the dissolution of portlandite (Ca(OH)2) from cements or the shotcrete of the tunnel wall bears an additional and immense potential for the formation of carbonates from alkaline solutions. Variations in trace element incorporation and distribution of the stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in the precipitated calcium carbonates may represent powerful tools to identify individual mechanisms for carbonate formation. As portlandite dissolves, highly alkaline solutions are obtained. In this case, precipitation of calcium carbonate can be related to the absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere. Isotopic analyses of the calcite show that fixation of CO2 from the Earth's atmosphere leads to significantly lighter ^13Ccalcite values (down to -25 o/oo, VPDB) as expected for the fixation of groundwater carbonate (typical ^13Ccalcite values between -10 and -16o/oo, VPDB). The evolution of Sr/Ca ratios in the alkaline drainage solutions and in the corresponding calcium carbonate precipitation provides insight into the dissolution process at the concrete with respect to the amount of primarily dissolved portlandite from the cement. Moreover, an inverse relationship between Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios is observed due to the liberation of aqueous strontium by the dissolution of portlandite and the formation of brucite (Mg(OH)2) at alkaline conditions. Less incorporation of magnesium in the calcite structure is a strong indicator for carbonate precipitation from highly alkaline environments. Applications of such multi proxy approaches are discussed with case studies. Main tasks are the reconstruction of the environmental conditions during primary CaCO3 formation and monitoring of ongoing precipitation of calcium carbonates and cement-water interaction in alkaline man-made environments.

  13. Non-neoplastic mortality of European workers who produce man made vitreous fibres

    PubMed Central

    Sali, D.; Boffetta, P.; Andersen, A.; Cherrie, J. W.; Claude, J. C.; Hansen, J.; Olsen, J. H.; Pesatori, A. C.; Plato, N.; Teppo, L.; Westerholm, P.; Winter, P.; Saracci, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study mortality from non-neoplastic diseases among European workers who produce man made vitreous fibres (MMVF). METHODS: 11,373 male workers were studied, who were employed for at least 1 year in the production of rock or slag wool (RSW), glass wool (GW), and continuous filament (CF) in 13 factories from seven European countries. Workers were followed up from the beginning of production, between 1933 and 1950 to 1990-2 and contributed 256,352 person-years of observation. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated with national mortalities for reference; an internal exposure-response analyses based on multivariate Poisson regression models was also conducted. RESULTS: Mortality from bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma was not increased (SMR 1.03, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.82 to 1.28). In RSW workers, there was no overall increase in mortality from non-malignant renal diseases (SMR 0.97, 95% CI 0.36 to 2.11), although there was the suggestion of an increase in risk with duration of employment. Mortality from ischaemic heart disease was not increased overall (SMR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.11), but RSW and CF workers with > or = 30 years since first employment had a higher risk. RSW and CF workers showed an increased mortality from external causes, mainly motor vehicle accidents and suicide, which was higher among workers with a short duration of employment. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality from most non-neoplastic diseases does not seem to be related to employment in the MMVF industry. The results on mortality from ischaemic heart disease and non- malignant renal diseases, however, warrant further investigations.   PMID:10615294

  14. Review of animal/in vitro data on biological effects of man-made fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Ellouk, S A; Jaurand, M C

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the investigations with man-made fibers (MMF). Insulation woods: glasswool (GW), rockwool (RW), slagwool (SW), glass microfibers (GMF), glass filaments (GFiI), and refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) have been used in experimental animals and in in vitro cell systems. A large heterogeneous number of fibers, methods of fiber preparation, size selection, aerosolization, fiber size, and fiber burden measurement were noted, rendering difficult a comparison between results. By inhalation, RCF and asbestos used as positive controls produced a significant tumor increase. In some studies, a low tumor yield was found after inhalation of insulation wools; when all inhalation data were gathered, a significant tumor increase was found with GW. However, it is difficult to draw definitive conclusions on the potential of other fiber types because, in addition to the different compositions of the fibers, differences in fiber number and sizes existed, especially in comparison with asbestos. Moreover, experiments using inoculation, especially by the intraperitoneal route revealed a carcinogenic potential of all fibers types but GFiI and SW. In these two groups a small number of animals has been investigated and the fiber characteristics were sometimes irrelevant. So far, a relationship between the carcinogenic potency and fiber dimensions has been established. Other fiber parameters may be of importance (surface chemistry, biopersistence, fiber structure, for example) but further investigations are necessary to determine the correlations between these parameters and tumor incidence. In vitro experiments have emphasized the fiber characteristics identified in vivo as playing a role in the carcinogenic potency and should be developed as a better approach of the mechanistic effects of MMF. PMID:7925187

  15. Dual pH durability studies of man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF).

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, J F; Law, B D; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-01-01

    Dissolution of fibers in the deep lung may involve both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms. This process was modeled in vitro for each environment using an experimental flow-through system to characterize both total dissolution and specific chemical changes for three representative MMVF's: a glasswool, a slagwool, and a refractory ceramic fiber (RCF). Synthetic physiological fluids at pH 4 and at pH 7.6 were used to simulate macrophage intraphagolysosomal, and extracellular environments, respectively. Actual commercial fiber, sized to rat-respirable dimension, having an average fiber diameter of 1 micron and an average length between 15 and 25 microns, was used in the experiments. Fiber dissolution was monitored through change in chemistry of the fluid collected after percolation at a constant rate through a thin bed of sample. There are great differences in total fiber dissolution rates for the different fibers. Slagwool and RCF dissolve more rapidly at pH 4 than at pH 7.6, while the reverse is true for glasswool. Dissolution is sometimes accompanied by a noticeable change in fiber morphology or dimension, and sometimes by no change. There is strong dependency on pH, which affects not only total fiber dissolution, but also the leaching of specific chemical components. This effect is different for each type of fiber, indicating that specific fiber chemistry largely controls whether a fiber dissolves or leaches more rapidly under acidic or neutral conditions. Both total dissolution rates and calculated fiber composition changes are valuable guides to interpreting in vivo behavior of man-made vitreous fibers, and demonstrate the usefulness of in vitro acellular experiments in understanding overall fiber persistence. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C PMID:7882957

  16. Clearance of man made mineral fibres from the lungs of sheep

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, A.; Perrault, G.; Yamato, H.; Masse, S.; Begin, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the clearance rate, the related pathology, and the chemical and morphological changes of three man made mineral fibres (MMMFs) in the sheep model of pneumoconiosis. METHODS: Fibrous particles were extracted from lung parenchyma and analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). RESULTS: The concentration of MMMF11, MMMF21, refractory ceramic fibre (RCF-1), and crocidolite asbestos fibres decreased with time according to a slow and a fast kinetic component. There was a statistical difference in the four regression lines as a function of time and the type of fibres (p < 0.001). The diameter of MMMFs decreased during the course of the time, whereas the crocidolite fibres did not seem to show any change. There was a statistical difference in the four regression lines as a function of time (p = 0.037) and type of fibres (p < 0.001). Ferruginous bodies were counted in the 40 sheep for which the latency period was 2 years. No typical ferruginous bodies were found in the groups exposed to MMMFs. The geometric mean concentration of asbestos bodies in the group exposed to crocidolite was 2421 bodies/g lung tissue (95% CI 385 to 15260). CONCLUSIONS: The number of initially retained fibres decreased with time according to a slow and a fast kinetic component. MMMF11 and MMMF21 have similar clearance, faster than RCF-1 and crocidolite. The geometric mean diameter and length of MMMF decreased with time, but crocidolite did not. After 2 years in the sheep tracheal lobe, ferruginous bodies were not found in all three MMMF groups but were substantial in the crocidolite group. Clearance is thought to proceed through dissolution and macrophage translocation.   PMID:10658548

  17. Possible application of urinary analysis to estimate dissolution of some man-made vitreous fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Wastiaux, A; Blanchard, O; Honnons, S

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary study at the institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS) examined the dissolution of three man-made vitreous fiber samples (glasswool, rockwool, glass microfibers: JM 100) after intraperitoneal injections in male Wistar rats. The chemical composition of the original fibers was determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). The urine of the rats was collected at fixed times between day 1 and day 204, and the ICP was used to look for elements known to be present in the original fibers. At day 204, a piece of omentum was removed at autopsy, ashed and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) to identify the elements remaining in the fibers. Silicon and aluminium were retained in the fibers from all samples at day 204. Losses in calcium, sodium, magnesium, and sulfur were observed, but these elements were not studied in the urine samples because they are naturally present in relatively high concentrations in rat cells and biological fluids. Although there was a loss of zinc from the glass microfibers, no corresponding difference was observed between the zinc levels excreted by the treated animals and by the controls. Similarly, despite the loss of manganese from the rockwool fibers at day 204, none was detectable in the urine samples. Titanium, present at the 0.3% level in rockwool, was not detectable by EDXA at day 204, but small quantities were detected in the first 2 weeks in the urine samples of rats treated with rockwool.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7882936

  18. Characteristics of short-crested waves and currents behind offshore man-made island type power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeno, Masaaki; Kajima, Ryoichi; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Sakakiyama, Tsutomu

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the diffracted waves with breaking and the nearshore currents caused by short-crested waves, behind a man-made island, on which nuclear power plants are constructed. Firstly, hydraulic model tests with a multi-directional wave maker were performed. Effects of the irregularity and directional spreading of waves, and the effects of cooling water intake flow on diffracted waves and nearshore currents behind a man-made island, were investigated experimentally. Secondly, a numerical model was developed to simulate deformation of multi-directional irregular waves and nearshore currents. The validity of the numerical model was verified through comparison with the experimental results.

  19. Self-healing behaviour in man-made engineering materials: bioinspired but taking into account their intrinsic character.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, S; van Dijk, N H; Jonkers, H M; Mookhoek, S D; Sloof, W G

    2009-05-13

    Man-made engineering materials generally demonstrate excellent mechanical properties, which often far exceed those of natural materials. However, all such engineering materials lack the ability of self-healing, i.e. the ability to remove or neutralize microcracks without (much) intentional human interaction. This inability is the unintentional consequence of the damage prevention paradigm underlying all current engineering material optimization strategies. The damage management paradigm observed in nature can be reproduced successfully in man-made engineering materials, provided the intrinsic character of the various types of engineering materials is taken into account.

  20. A resource-saving technology for purifying oil-contaminated effluent waters from thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodai, E. N.; Nikolaeva, L. A.; Laptev, A. G.

    2011-07-01

    A modified resource-saving scheme for purifying effluent waters produced at thermal stations from petroleum products is described taking the Kazan TETs-3 cogeneration station as an example, in which the sludge from chemical water treatment is used as adsorbent.

  1. THE MAN MADE WORLD, A HIGH SCHOOL COURSE ON THE THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO OUR TECHNOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THIS STUDENTS' MANUAL FOR THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT'S (ECCP) HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, "THE MAN MADE WORLD," IS THE THIRD DRAFT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL VERSION. THE MATERIAL WRITTEN BY SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND EDUCATORS, EMPHASIZES THE THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO OUR TECHNOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION. RESOURCES OF THE MAN-MADE…

  2. Natural and Man Made Objects. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Kindergarten. [Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    This publication, the first in a series of seven, for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It presents a unit of exercises selected for kindergarten students to introduce the ideas of natural and man-made objects in the environment and the topics of waste and litter. Litter is…

  3. Surviving the Unexpected: A Curriculum Guide for Wilderness Survival and Survival from Natural and Man Made Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Daniel E., Ed.; Fear, Eugene H., Ed.

    Intended for students in elementary school, secondary school, and adult classes, the curriculum guide presents information about human factors and priorities in three kinds of disasters: wilderness emergencies, natural disasters, and man-made disasters. The guide contains lesson plans in each containing objectives, desired understanding, and…

  4. Surviving the Unexpected: A Curriculum Guide for Wilderness Survival and Survival from Natural and Man Made Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Daniel E., Ed.; Fear, Eugene H., Ed.

    Intended for students in elementary school, secondary school, and adult classes, the curriculum guide presents information about human factors and priorities in three kinds of disasters: wilderness emergencies, natural disasters, and man-made disasters. The guide contains lesson plans in each containing objectives, desired understanding, and…

  5. Potential pulmonary effects of man-made organic fiber (MMOF) dusts.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Hart, G A; Hesterberg, T W; Collins, J J; Dyer, W M; Swaen, G M; Castranova, V; Soiefer, A I; Kennedy, G L

    2001-11-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century epidemiologic evidence linked elevated incidences of pulmonary fibrosis and cancer with inhalation of chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, a family of naturally occurring inorganic fibrous materials. As the serpentine and amphibole forms of asbestos were phased out, synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs; fiber glass, mineral wool, and refractory fiber) became increasingly utilized, and concerns were raised that they too might cause adverse health effects. Extensive toxicological research on SVFs has demonstrated that their pulmonary effects are directly related to fiber dose in the lung over time. This is the result of deposition (thin fibers deposit in the lower lung more efficiently than thick fibers) and lung-persistence ("biopersistence" is directly related to fiber length and inversely related to dissolution and fragmentation rates). In rat inhalation studies, asbestos was determined to be 7- to 10-fold more biopersistent in the lung than SVFs. Other than its effect on biopersistence, fiber composition did not appear to play a direct role in the biological activity of SVFs. Recently, the utilization of man-made organic fibers (MMOFs) (also referred to by some as synthetic organic fibers) has increased rapidly for a variety of applications. In contrast to SVFs, research on the potential pulmonary effects of MMOFs is relatively limited, because traditionally MMOFs were manufactured in diameters too thick to be respirable (inhalable into the lower lung). However, new developments in the MMOF industry have resulted in the production of increasingly fine-diameter fibers for special applications, and certain post-manufacturing processes (e.g., chopping) generate respirable-sized MMOF dust. Until the mid-1990s, there was no consistent evidence of human health affects attributed to occupational exposure to MMOFs. Very recently, however, a unique form of interstitial lung disease has been reported in nylon flock workers in three

  6. Mapping of natural and man-made groundwater mineralization by helicopter-borne electromagnetics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steuer, A.; Siemon, B.; Meyer, U.

    2010-12-01

    Helicopter-borne electromagnetics (HEM) is an important tool for hydrogeological questions. HEM investigations enable the differentiation of sandy and clayey sediments as well as saltwater and freshwater saturated sediments down to about 150 meters depth. The frequency-domain HEM system operated at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) is the RESOLVE system manufactured by Fugro Airborne Surveys. In 2008 and 2009, BGR conducted airborne geophysical measurements for saltwater-freshwater investigation at several survey areas at the German North Sea coast. The surveys were carried out in cooperation with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences (LIAG) in frame of the project D-AERO. One of these survey areas covers the estuary of the Elbe river to the north-west of the city of Hamburg. Parts of the results of this survey are involved in the project KLIMZUG-NORD, where the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg investigates the environmental effects of the climate change on the estuary of the Elbe river. The HEM measurements reveal both the course of the Geest ridge (high-lying hinterland consisting of pleistocenic moraine sediments) and the swamp belt due to their elevated resistivities, whereas the Marsch land (plain holocenic wet land, alluvium) occurred more conductive. Here, an electrical conductivity anomaly was detected witch could neither be related with seawater intrusion nor with anthropogenic sources. The significant low-resistivity zone of about three square kilometers was identified as a saltwater-rising zone by water analyses of surface water and is an example for natural groundwater mineralization. A man-made groundwater mineralization was investigated by HEM in the Werra river valley in central Germany. About 1000 million cubic meters saline waste water from potash mining have been stored in a karstic limestone and dolomite bed to reduce the amount of saline water emissions directly into the river. BGR conducted surveys in

  7. Effects of man-made structures on sedimentary oxygenation: extent, seasonality and implications for offshore renewables.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Thomas A

    2014-06-01

    The number of man-made structures to be placed in the marine environment is set to increase massively in the near future as a consequence of the wide-scale adoption and commercialisation of offshore electricity generation. Marine renewable energy devices (MREDs) interact with their receiving environment and are de-facto artificial reefs. The Loch Linnhe Artificial Reef (LLR) complex is a large-scale experimental facility, with the main matrix consisting of 30 separate reef modules deployed in 10-30 m depth and over a gradient of hydrographic and sedimentological conditions. The LLR offers potential to examine impacts that are analogous to those likely to occur around MREDs. The extent of the impact of the LLR modules on the receiving environment was assessed by determining their effect on sedimentary redox potential, as a function of distance from the reef-edge, and season, using an innovative, hand-held, underwater redox probe. The results are commensurate with the reef-proximal baffling of water flow resulting in the entrapment of drifting phytodetritus. At the least current-exposed reef-group the expected decrease in mean redox, at 80 mm sediment depth, was 80 mV (95% CI 40, 120 mV) but this effect was not observed more than 1 m from the reef edge and only occurred during summer months (water temperature >10 °C). Redox at the reef edge, particularly during summer months, was more variable compared to redox taken at 1 m and 4 m reef-distance and was associated with the patchy distribution of phytodetrital accumulations. At all reef groups, there was no discernible difference in modelled mean redox between observations taken at 1 m and 4 m-reef distance. Artificial structures, including MREDs, may cause quite major sedimentary changes but this evidence suggests that these effects will be of limited spatial scale and, where phytodetrital accumulations occur, are only likely to be detrimental in oxygen-deficient sediments. Where these changes occur at

  8. Investigation of Natural and Man-Made Radiation Effects on Crews on Long Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolch, Wesley E.; Parlos, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has studied a variety of mission scenarios designed to establish a permanent human presence on the surface of Mars. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is one of the possible elements in this program. During the initial stages of vehicle design work, careful consideration must be given to not only the shielding requirements of natural space radiation, but to the shielding and configuration requirements of the on-board reactors. In this work, the radiation transport code MCNP has been used to make initial estimates of crew exposures to reactor radiation fields for a specific manned NEP vehicle design. In this design, three 25 MW(sub th), scaled SP-100-class reactors are shielded by three identical shields. Each shield has layers of beryllium, tungsten, and lithium hydride between the reactor and the crew compartment. Separate calculations are made of both the exiting neutron and gamma fluxes from the reactors during beginning-of-life, full-power operation. This data is then used as the source terms for particle transport in MCNP. The total gamma and neutron fluxes exiting the reactor shields are recorded and separate transport calculations are then performed for a 10 g/sq cm crew compartment aluminum thickness. Estimates of crew exposures have been assessed for various thicknesses of the shield tungsten and lithium hydride layers. A minimal tungsten thickness of 20 cm is required to shield the reactor photons below the 0.05 Sv/y man-made radiation limit. In addition to a 20-cm thick tungsten layer, a 40-cm thick lithium hydride layer is required to shield the reactor neutrons below the annual limit. If the tungsten layer is 30-cm thick, the lithium hydride layer should be at least 30-cm thick. These estimates do not take into account the photons generated by neutron interactions inside the shield because the MCNP neutron cross sections did not allow reliable estimates of photon production in these materials. These results, along with

  9. A systematic review of probable posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders following man-made mass violence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C

    2015-09-30

    The current study was a systematic review examining probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders following man-made mass violence. A systematic literature search yielded 20 studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The prevalence rates of probable PTSD across all 20 studies ranged from 1.3% to 22.0%. Fifteen of the 20 articles focused on first responders following the September 11th terrorist attacks and many of the studies used the same participant recruitment pools. Overall, the results of the systematic review described here suggest that our understanding of PTSD in first responders following man-made mass violence is based on a very small set of articles that have focused on a few particular events. This paper is meant to serve as a call for additional research and to encourage more breadth in the specific incidents that are examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A MapReduce scheme for image feature extraction and its application to man-made object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Fei; Chen, Honghui

    2013-07-01

    A fundamental challenge in image engineering is how to locate interested objects from high-resolution images with efficient detection performance. Several man-made objects detection approaches have been proposed while the majority of these methods are not truly timesaving and suffer low degree of detection precision. To address this issue, we propose a novel approach for man-made object detection in aerial image involving MapReduce scheme for large scale image analysis to support image feature extraction, which can be widely used to compute-intensive tasks in a highly parallel way, and texture feature extraction and clustering. Comprehensive experiments show that the parallel framework saves voluminous time for feature extraction with satisfied objects detection performance.

  11. Vegetation Versus Man-Made Object Detection from Imagery for Unmanned Vehicles in Off-Road Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    vegetation , using six spectral cameras as well as texture and statistical data from stereo cameras.15 Several methods have been proposed for autonomous... Vegetation Versus Man-Made Object Detection from Imagery for Unmanned Vehicles in Off-Road Environments Josh Harguess and Jacoby Larson Space and...cation challenges. This paper addresses two of decisions must be made about obstacles in the vehicle’s path. The most common obstacle is vegetation , but

  12. Assessing the integrated sediment trapping role of man-made and natural sediment sinks, Minizr catchment, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Stroosnijder, Leo; Baartman, Jantiene

    2016-04-01

    To enhance sedimentation within a catchment, man-made sediment trapping (ST) measures and natural sediment sinks are playing a vital role. To evaluate the ST role of such measures, this study was conducted at Minizr catchment, northwest Ethiopian highlands. Man-made soil and water conservation (SWC) structures constructed within the catchment and natural sediment sinks (floodplain and wetland) were digitized and quantified from Google earth imagery. Sediment pins, vertical cut measurements through the deposit (after the rainy season) and SWC structures dimension measurements (before and after the rainy seasons) were used to estimate the trapped sediment depth. Inflow and outflow suspended sediment measurements were done to calculate sediment trapping efficacies (STEs). On average, SWC structures trapped ~7922 t yr-1 (56 kg m-1 yr-1) and micro-trenches trapped ~13260 kg yr-1 (a micro-trench trapped 23 kg yr-1). A floodplain located near the centre of the catchment trapped ~ 9971 t yr-1 (59 kg m-2 yr-1) and a wetland located near the outlet of the catchment trapped ~ 8715 t yr-1 (36 kg m-2 yr-1). The STEs of the wetland and the floodplain were found to be 85 % and 77 %, respectively. Substantial difference was observed between the STE of grassed and un-grassed waterways, 75 % and 21 %, respectively. About ~40 % of the transported sediment was trapped by major sediment traps (both man-made and natural) and ~60 % is still leaving the catchment and entering into Koga reservoir. Although man-made structures and natural sediment sinks trapped large amount of sediment, the rate of sediment red-deposition is lower than the rate of sediment export at the outlet of the catchment, which is because of lack of an integrated ST approach.

  13. Target discrimination of man-made objects using passive polarimetric signatures acquired in the visible and infrared spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Daniel A.; Breton, Mélanie; Fournier, Georges; Charette, Jean-François; Pichette, Mario; Rivet, Vincent; Bernier, Anne-Pier

    2011-10-01

    Surveillance operations and search and rescue missions regularly exploit electro-optic imaging systems to detect targets of interest in both the civilian and military communities. By incorporating the polarization of light as supplementary information to such electro-optic imaging systems, it is possible to increase their target discrimination capabilities, considering that man-made objects are known to depolarized light in different manner than natural backgrounds. As it is known that electro-magnetic radiation emitted and reflected from a smooth surface observed near a grazing angle becomes partially polarized in the visible and infrared wavelength bands, additional information about the shape, roughness, shading, and surface temperatures of difficult targets can be extracted by processing effectively such reflected/emitted polarized signatures. This paper presents a set of polarimetric image processing algorithms devised to extract meaningful information from a broad range of man-made objects. Passive polarimetric signatures are acquired in the visible, shortwave infrared, midwave infrared, and longwave infrared bands using a fully automated imaging system developed at DRDC Valcartier. A fusion algorithm is used to enable the discrimination of some objects lying in shadowed areas. Performance metrics, derived from the computed Stokes parameters, characterize the degree of polarization of man-made objects. Field experiments conducted during winter and summer time demonstrate: 1) the utility of the imaging system to collect polarized signatures of different objects in the visible and infrared spectral bands, and 2) the enhanced performance of target discrimination and fusion algorithms to exploit the polarized signatures of man-made objects against cluttered backgrounds.

  14. [Peculiarities of microbiological and immunological indices of human nose mucosa in conditions of man-made pollution].

    PubMed

    Voĭtovych, O V; Kamyshnyĭ, O M

    2014-01-01

    Possible influence of man-made load on formation and function of microbiocenosis of the nose mucosa in practically healthy people of industrial city has been studied. Microbiota composition, content of secretory immunoglobulin A, functional state and expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 by mucosa cells were studied in the given human biotope. The residing in conventionally contaminated districts of the industrial city tells on the increase of ecologic role of Candida albicans in the composition of microbiocenosis of the nose mucosa. The authors have shown high sensitivity of the number of TLR-4-positive epithelial cells to the type of the basic taxon of a microorganism in the composition of the nose mucosa microbiota and also sensitivity of the number of TLR-2 and TLR-4-positive epithelial cells and the density of expression by TLR-4 epithelial cells to the man-made pollution, they have also established the expressed unbalance of the system of inherent immunity of the nose mucosa of practically healthy young persons in conditions of man-made pollution.

  15. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects. PMID:26456585

  16. Natural and man-made radionuclides in sediments of an inlet in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Franciane Martins de; Lauria, Dejanira da Costa; Ribeiro, Fernando Carlos Araújo; Fonseca, Rafael Tonelli; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Martins, Nádia Soido Falcão

    2016-06-15

    The distribution of natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K and man-made radionuclides ((54)Mn, (60)Co and (137) Cs) in the surface sediments of an inlet of Ribeira Bay were investigated. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for radionuclides, organic matter, carbonate, sulfate, cationic exchange capacity and grain size composition. The natural radionuclide concentrations ranged from 4.4 to 45, from 10 to 93, from 66 to 1347Bq·kg(-1) dry weight for (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Natural radionuclide concentrations tend to be higher in the silt fraction, which determines their pattern distributions. Only one sample presented measurable concentration for (137)Cs, while (54)Mn was detected in two samples and (60)Co in four sediment samples. Man-made radionuclides present a maximum value of dose external four times lower than the normal background and the potential risk due to the presence of man-made radionuclides in sediments is lower than the risk provided by the natural radionuclides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L

    2015-10-12

    In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR - in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR - are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to: 1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations. 2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell's electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.

  18. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rates in man-made tiles used as building materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, K; Hosoda, M; Suwankot, N; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    Man-made tiles frequently used in Japan were collected, and activity concentrations and radon ((222)Rn) exhalation rates in these tiles were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built using these tiles were also carried out. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in the man-made tiles were 31-170, 35-110 and 260-980 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The (222)Rn exhalation rates in the tiles were 8.8-21 μBq m(-2) s(-1). The ranges of experimental activity concentrations and (222)Rn exhalation rates were almost identical to those of natural rocks used as typical building materials in Japan. The maximum value of effective dose to inhabitants living in houses built with the man-made tiles was 0.14 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the reference level range (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for abnormally high levels of natural background radiation published in the ICRP Publication 103.

  19. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  20. Greenhouse effects due to man-made perturbations of trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Lacis, A. A.; Mo, T.; Hansen, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and a number of other trace constituents of the earth's atmosphere have infrared absorption bands in the spectral range from 7 to 14 microns. Despite their small amounts, these gases can have a significant effect on the thermal structure of the atmosphere by transmitting most of the thermal radiation from the earth's surface to the lower atmosphere. In the present paper, this greenhouse effect is computed for a number of trace gases. The nature and climatic implications of possible changes in the concentrations of N2O, CH4, NH3, and HNO3 are discussed.

  1. A Domain-Specific System for Representing Knowledge of Both Man-Made Objects and Human Actions. Evidence from a Case with an Association of Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to…

  2. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... § 10.425 Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel...

  3. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... § 10.425 Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel...

  4. A Domain-Specific System for Representing Knowledge of Both Man-Made Objects and Human Actions. Evidence from a Case with an Association of Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to…

  5. The discrimination of man-made explosions from earthquakes using seismo-acoustic analysis in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Jeon, Jeong-Soo

    2010-05-01

    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) operates an infrasound network consisting of seven seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea. Development of the arrays began in 1999, partially in collaboration with Southern Methodist University, with the goal of detecting distant infrasound signals from natural and anthropogenic phenomena in and around the Korean Peninsula. The main operational purpose of this network is to discriminate man-made seismic events from seismicity including thousands of seismic events per year in the region. The man-made seismic events are major cause of error in estimating the natural seismicity, especially where the seismic activity is weak or moderate such as in the Korean Peninsula. In order to discriminate the man-made explosions from earthquakes, we have applied the seismo-acoustic analysis associating seismic and infrasonic signals generated from surface explosion. The observations of infrasound at multiple arrays made it possible to discriminate surface explosion, because small or moderate size earthquake is not sufficient to generate infrasound. Till now we have annually discriminated hundreds of seismic events in seismological catalog as surface explosions by the seismo-acoustic analysis. Besides of the surface explosions, the network also detected infrasound signals from other sources, such as bolide, typhoons, rocket launches, and underground nuclear test occurred in and around the Korean Peninsula. In this study, ten years of seismo-acoustic data are reviewed with recent infrasonic detection algorithm and association method that finally linked to the seismic monitoring system of the KIGAM to increase the detection rate of surface explosions. We present the long-term results of seismo-acoustic analysis, the detection capability of the multiple arrays, and implications for seismic source location. Since the seismo-acoustic analysis is proved as a definite method to discriminate surface explosion, the analysis will be

  6. Ecological foundations of measures to protect the hydrosphere against man-made pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Polikarpov, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    General problems of classification of pollutants, development of limits, and protection of the hydrosphere are discussed. Pollutants can be subdivided, first of all, into those involving energy and water. Sound and thermal vibrations, visible light, ultraviolet, and ionizing radiation, as well as shock factors of diverse origin producing breakage, trauma, and death of aquatic organisms are among the ''energy dependent'' pollutants. Man does not create fundamentally new energy-dependent pollutants, but merely adds to those in nature, by producing noise in power plants, shock waves in instantaneous to continuous--intensified or more often reduced, intensifying ultraviolet irradiation by progressive destruction of the ozone layer in the stratosphere, as well as ionizing radiation as a result of nuclear explosions and from nuclear reactors. Radioactive contaminants (fission and induced products) combine the properties of energy- and matter-dependent factors, namely, they are emitters of ionizing radiation and may act as environment-disturbing chemical elements. (JMT)

  7. Use of a Neural Network to Identify Man-made Structure in Millimeter-Wave Images for Security Screening Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Paul E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Sheen, David M.

    2006-06-01

    Events in the past few years have heightened security concerns necessitating the development of more advanced methods for detecting potential threats being carried on individuals. One approach is to use imaging methods that see through clothing to find potentially threatening objects being concealed by individuals on their person. This sparks obvious privacy concerns. This paper describes one technique based on neural networks and Fourier features applied to active millimeter-wave imagery that finds man-made structure potentially indicating a threat without compromising personal privacy.

  8. Use of geophysical methods in man-made hazard management strategies. Case study from Ploiesti city, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitea, F.; Anghelache, M. A.; Ioane, D.

    2010-05-01

    Identification of damages/changes that are affecting the underground water quality due to the effect of anthropogenic activities is often done after environmental problems have become evident, water potability being strongly affected. In this paper we will discuss the necessity of implementing non-invasive and non-destructive investigation tools in different parts of the management plan for urban areas affected or with high risk of being affected by man-made hazards. Geophysical investigations represent nowadays a useful tool in environmental problems that affect soil and underground water in urban areas, as useful information can be obtained regarding the following aspects: - detection of affected areas, especially when the effect or hazard sources are not visible at the surface - zonation of the area (severely affected zone or less affected) - investigation of the area (details on affected surface and affected soil depth) - location of "hidden" sources (illegal waste dump sites, petroleum transport or transfer pipes, etc) - estimation of soil and underground damages by monitoring petrophysical markers - risk evaluation (estimations on the direction and speed of environmental problems development, estimations of amplifying negative effects) - recovery from the man-made hazard of a certain area (monitoring information can give information about natural attenuation of the environmental problems or efficacy of resilience program) - preparedness for man-made hazards (prediction). Functionality of the above mentioned plans of geophysical applicability in identifying and characterizing the effect of anthropogenic hazards which affect soil and underground water quality has been tested in Ploiesti city, Romania. In this urban area, as well as in surrounding villages, water potability is severely affected because of the oil-products contamination caused by the refinery facilities developed in the area. Oil-contamination is a major problem environmental problem, due to the

  9. Preliminary geochemical and physical testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on environmental conditions (both natural and man-made) at the Hanford Site are sufficient for preconceptual plug system design. Results of the geochemical testing program indicate that preferred candidate plug materials are chemically nonreactive during laboratory tests that simulated some of the expected environmental conditions. Agitated, crushed-basalt samples and mixtures containing basalt were found to be self-cementing under the hydrothermal conditions. Materials considered most suitable for consideration in future test programs and preconceptual plug design are mixtures of natural materials (basalt, clay, glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and zeolite) and processed natural materials (portland cement Type V and grouts plus additives).

  10. The Impact of Conservation Management on the Community Composition of Multiple Organism Groups in Eutrophic Interconnected Man-Made Ponds.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative impact of individual measures on different taxonomic groups is important for the development of effective conservation programs. We conducted a field study of 28 man-made ponds, representing four management types differing in the frequency of periodic pond drainage and the intensity of fish stock management. We disentangled the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pond management measures on the community composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent vascular plants. With the exception of phytoplankton, pond management had strong effects on the community composition of all investigated biota. Whether management affected communities directly or indirectly through its impact on fish communities or local environmental conditions in the pond varied between organism groups. Overall, the impact of pond drainage regime and fish community characteristics on the community composition of target organism groups were more important than local environmental conditions. The majority of taxa were negatively associated with fish density, whereas multiple emergent plant species and several taxa of aquatic macro-invertebrates were positively affected by increased drainage frequency. The effects of fish community and drainage tended to be largely independent. The present study indicates that pond drainage is an important element for biodiversity conservation in eutrophicated shallow and interconnected man-made ponds.

  11. The Impact of Conservation Management on the Community Composition of Multiple Organism Groups in Eutrophic Interconnected Man-Made Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative impact of individual measures on different taxonomic groups is important for the development of effective conservation programs. We conducted a field study of 28 man-made ponds, representing four management types differing in the frequency of periodic pond drainage and the intensity of fish stock management. We disentangled the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pond management measures on the community composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent vascular plants. With the exception of phytoplankton, pond management had strong effects on the community composition of all investigated biota. Whether management affected communities directly or indirectly through its impact on fish communities or local environmental conditions in the pond varied between organism groups. Overall, the impact of pond drainage regime and fish community characteristics on the community composition of target organism groups were more important than local environmental conditions. The majority of taxa were negatively associated with fish density, whereas multiple emergent plant species and several taxa of aquatic macro-invertebrates were positively affected by increased drainage frequency. The effects of fish community and drainage tended to be largely independent. The present study indicates that pond drainage is an important element for biodiversity conservation in eutrophicated shallow and interconnected man-made ponds. PMID:26422390

  12. Atmospheric propagation effects through natural and man-made obscurants for visible to MM-wave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    Modern, precision-guided weapons require that guidance and target acquisition/recognition systems take into account the effects of the propagation environment. Successful performance must be obtained under adverse weather conditions such as haze, clouds, fog, rain, and snow and under adverse battlefield conditions such as dust, smoke, and man-made obscurants. Sensors operate at wavelengths ranging across the millimeter, IR, and the visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Propagation effects vary drastically over this wavelength span and systems may employ a combination of sensors to mitigate adverse environmental conditions. The effectiveness of countermeasures such as multispectral obscurants and multispectral camouflage also depends on atmospheric properties. System performance is measured in terms of probability of detection, probability of recognition, and, ultimately, in terms of probability of a kill. A partial listing of the processes that affect theses probabilities and, in turn, are affected by the propagation environment includes extinction, angles and amplitude scintillation, target to background contrast, contrast transmission, and clutter characteristics. The symposium addresses the following topics: natural obscurants, multispectral camouflage, man-made obscurants and battlefield-induced phenomena, and target and background signatures.

  13. Soil quality succession of mudflat in coastal area of China under different types of man-made land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haiying; Shao, Hongbo; Xu, Zhaolong; Peng, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Marshy reclamation in coastal area is becoming an important strategy for food safety security and economic development in China. After the reclamation of mudflat, the nutrient concentration in soil is one of the dominated factors restricting the development of marshy agriculture. However, little information is available for soil nutrient dynamics and its driving mechanisms under different types of man-made land uses. In this review, we summarized the soil nutrient dynamics under different types of man-made land uses (bare mudflat soil, rice-wheat rotation soil, aquaculture soil, and forest soil), including the change of physical and chemical features of the reclaimed soil; ii) the dynamics of soil organic matters and its driving mechanism in marshy land; iii) the migration of N, P, and K in marshy soil; and iv) the oriented cultivation and improvement for soil nutrient in marshy soil. This study contributes not only to understanding the soil nutrient cycling in marshy land, but also to providing valuable information for the sustainable development of salt-soil agriculture in marshy land along seaside cities of China.

  14. Psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Witt, A; Fegert, J M; Keller, F; Rassenhofer, M; Plener, P L

    2017-04-11

    Children and adolescents are a vulnerable group to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms after natural or man-made disasters. In the light of increasing numbers of refugees under the age of 18 years worldwide, there is a significant need for effective treatments. This meta-analytic review investigates specific psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents after man-made and natural disasters. In a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, as well as hand-searching existing reviews and contacting professional associations, 36 studies were identified. Random- and mixed-effects models were applied to test for average effect sizes and moderating variables. Overall, treatments showed high effect sizes in pre-post comparisons (Hedges' g = 1.34) and medium effect sizes as compared with control conditions (Hedges' g = 0.43). Treatments investigated by at least two studies were cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative exposure therapy for children (KIDNET) and classroom-based interventions, which showed similar effect sizes. However, studies were very heterogenic with regard to their outcomes. Effects were moderated by type of profession (higher level of training leading to higher effect sizes). A number of effective psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent survivors of disasters exist. CBT, EMDR, KIDNET and classroom-based interventions can be equally recommended. Although disasters require immediate reactions and improvisation, future studies with larger sample sizes and rigorous methodology are needed.

  15. a Study for Remote Detection of Industrial Effluents' Effect on Rice Using Thermal Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehnavi, S.; Abkar, A. A.; Maghsoudi, Y.; Dehnavi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rice is one of the most important nutritious grains all over the world, so that only in some parts of Asia more than 300 million acres allocated for cultivating this product. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative management of this product is of great importance in commercial, political and financial viewpoints. Rice plant is very influenced by physical and chemical characteristics of irrigation water, due to its specific kind of planting method. Hence, chemically-polluted waters which received by plant can change in live plants and their products. Thus, a very high degree of treatment will be required if the effluent discharges to rice plants. Current waters receive a variety of land-based water pollutants ranging from industrial wastes to excess sediments. One of the most hazardous wastes are chemicals that are toxic. Some factories discharge their effluents directly into a water body. So, what would happen for rice plant or its product if this polluted water flow to paddies? Is there any remotely-based method to study for this effect? Are surface temperature distributions (thermal images) useful in this context? The first goal in this research is thus to investigate the effect of a simulated textile factory's effluent sample on the rice product. The second goal is to investigate whether the polluted plant can be identified by means of thermal remote sensing or not. The results of this laboratory research have proven that the presence of industrial wastewater cause a decrease in plant's product and its f-cover value, also some changes in radiant temperature.

  16. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal.

  17. Bioaccumulation, oxidative stress and genotoxicity in fish (Channa punctatus) exposed to a thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-05-01

    Metal bioaccumulation and induction of biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) and DNA damage are potential indicators of stress in Channa punctatus exposed to effluents. In canal water, receiving thermal power plant discharges, Fe and Ni concentrations exceeded the recommended guidelines set by the United Nations Environment Programme Global Environment Monitoring System (UNEPGEMS). Fe was highly bioavailable and accumulated in all organs (liver, kidney, muscle and integument). The highest metal pollution index (MPI) value of 41.2 was observed in kidney and the lowest 13.5 in muscle tissue. LPO, SOD, CAT and GST levels were significantly higher in liver and kidney, whereas GSH levels declined significantly compared to fish from the reference site. Concomitant damage to DNA was observed with significantly higher mean tail length in the exposed fish gill cells (26.5µm) and in liver (20.8µm) compared to reference fish. Therefore, it can be concluded that the thermal power plant effluent had the potential to cause oxidative stress and DNA damage in C. punctatus.

  18. Meta-Analytic Review of Psychological Interventions for Children Survivors of Natural and Man-Made Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kirlic, Namik; Tett, Robert; Nelson, Summer; Liles, Brandi

    2015-01-01

    Although many post-disaster interventions for children and adolescent survivors of disaster and terrorism have been created, little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. Therefore, this meta-analysis assessed PTSD outcomes among children and adolescent survivors of natural and man-made disasters receiving psychological interventions. Aggregating results from 24 studies (total N=2630) indicates that children and adolescents receiving psychological intervention fared significantly better than those in control or waitlist groups with respect to PTSD symptoms. Moderator effects were also observed for intervention package, treatment modality (group vs. individual), providers’ level of training, intervention setting, parental involvement, participant age, length of treatment, intervention delivery timing, and methodological rigor. Findings are discussed in detail with suggestions for practice and future research. PMID:25085234

  19. Gomphocythere besni n. sp. (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from a man-made pool (Adıyaman, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Külköylüoğlu, Okan; Yavuzatmaca, Mehmet; Cabral, Maria Cristina; Colin, Jean-Paul

    2015-03-26

    We describe a new species (Gomphocythere besni n. sp.) from the Tavaş man-made pool in Besni town (Adıyaman, Turkey). The species has several differences from its congeners in furcal structures (forked organ, seta of caudal ramus), numbers of setae on maxillula and maxillular palp, particular ornamentation with up to eight fossae in each mesh of the reticulation and in the presence of two types of lateral pore-canals (single pore opening with a sensillum and sieve plates) on the carapace. The finding of the new species extends the known geographical distribution of the living forms of the genus further to the North. The new species was found from relatively cool (16.6 ºC) and medium oxygenated waters (7.36 mg/L) in a mixture of sand and gravel substrate. Details about its ecology and taxonomic status are also compared and discussed with other species of the same genus.

  20. Meta-analytic review of psychological interventions for children survivors of natural and man-made disasters.

    PubMed

    Newman, Elana; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Kirlic, Namik; Tett, Robert; Nelson, Summer; Liles, Brandi

    2014-09-01

    Although many post-disaster interventions for children and adolescent survivors of disaster and terrorism have been created, little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions. Therefore, this meta-analysis assessed PTSD outcomes among children and adolescent survivors of natural and man-made disasters receiving psychological interventions. Aggregating results from 24 studies (total N=2630) indicates that children and adolescents receiving psychological intervention fared significantly better than those in control or waitlist groups with respect to PTSD symptoms. Moderator effects were also observed for intervention package, treatment modality (group vs. individual), providers' level of training, intervention setting, parental involvement, participant age, length of treatment, intervention delivery timing, and methodological rigor. Findings are discussed in detail with suggestions for practice and future research.

  1. Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: Man-Made Hazards, Vulnerability Factors, and Risk to Environmental Health.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Christopher; Sase, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to examine the environmental health implications of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster from an all-hazards perspective. The authors performed a literature review that included Japanese and international nuclear guidance and policy, scientific papers, and reports on the Chernobyl and Three Mile Island disasters while also considering all-hazards preparedness rubrics in the U.S. The examination of the literature resulted in the following: a) the authors' "All-Hazards Planning Reference Model" that distinguishes three planning categories-Disaster Trigger Event, Man-Made Hazards, and Vulnerability Factors; b) the generalization of their model to other countries; and c) advocacy for environmental health end fate to be considered in planning phases to minimize risk to environmental health. This article discusses inconsistencies in disaster planning and nomenclature existing in the studied materials and international guidance and proposes new opportunity for developing predisaster risk assessment, risk communication, and prevention capacity building.

  2. Asbestos fibres and man made mineral fibres: induction and release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha from rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ljungman, A G; Lindahl, M; Tagesson, C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Mounting evidence suggests that asbestos fibres can stimulate alveolar macrophages to generate the potent inflammatory and fibrogenic mediator, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and that this may play an important part in the onset and development of airway inflammation and lung fibrosis due to asbestos fibre inhalation. Little is known, however, about the ability of other mineral fibres to initiate formation and release of TNF-alpha by alveolar macrophages. Therefore the effects of different fibres (crocidolite, chrysotile A, chrysotile B, two man made mineral fibres (MMVF 21 and MMVF 22), a ceramic fibre (RCF 1), and a silicon carbide whisker fibre (SiCwh)) on formation and release of TNF-alpha by rat alveolar macrophages were examined. METHODS--Cells were isolated and incubated at 37 degrees C with the different fibres, or with culture medium alone (controls), and the amounts of TNF-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) in the cells and TNF-alpha bioactivity released into the culture medium were measured at different time points. RESULTS--Significantly (P < 0.05 v control) increased amounts of TNF-alpha mRNA were found in cells exposed to crocidolite, chrysotile A, chrysotile B, MMVF 21, RCF 1, or SiCwh for 90 minutes, and significantly (P < 0.05 v control) increased activities of TNF-alpha were found in the medium of macrophages exposed to crocidolite, chrysotile A, chrysotile B, or MMVF 21 for four hours. CONCLUSION--These observations suggest that not only natural mineral fibres but also certain man made mineral fibres are able to induce the formation and release of TNF-alpha by alveolar macrophages in vitro. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7849857

  3. Natural and man-made controls on the performance of DNAPL-pump-and-treat systems -- A comparative case study

    SciTech Connect

    Losonsky, G.; Landry, G.R.; Valentine, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Although the recovery of dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs) using pump-and-treat technology generally does not achieve regulatory cleanup criteria for dissolved phase concentrations in groundwater, the technology is commonly used to achieve two alternate goals--to recover DNAPL mass and to prevent or slow down the spread of DNAPL pools. Both the physico-chemical characteristics of the DNAPL and the hydrogeologic characteristics of the subsurface determine the effectiveness of DNAPL pump-and-treat systems in achieving these goals. Physico-chemical characteristics include density, viscosity, interfacial tension, and solubility. Some of these parameters can change naturally over time, and some can be manipulated using enhanced recovery agents, such as steam or surfactants. Hydrogeologic characteristics include hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, heterogeneity, fracture porosity, capillary pressure, and hydraulic gradients. The operation of a pump-and-treat system necessarily affects the hydraulic gradients and capillary pressures governing subsurface fluid flow at a DNAPL site. Both naturally occurring low-permeability zones and man-made, compacted clay liners influence DNAPL migration. The performance of a DNAPL pump-and-treat system changes with time. High mass removal may occur early in the operation of such a system, whereas DNAPL migration away from the recovery wells or even out of the pumped hydrostratigraphic unit may dominate later stages of operation of the system. A comparison of several interim corrective measures (ICM) pump-and-treat systems at a site in the Gulf Coast illustrates the combined effects of both natural and man-made controls on the performance of the DNAPL recovery systems.

  4. Fluvial wood function downstream of beaver versus man-made dams in headwater streams in Massachusetts, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, G. C.; DeVito, L. F.; Munz, K. T.; Lisius, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fluvial wood is an essential component of stream ecosystems by providing habitat, increasing accumulation of organic matter, and increasing the processing of nutrients and other materials. However, years of channel alterations in Massachusetts have resulted in low wood loads despite the afforestation that has occurred since the early 1900s. Streams have also been impacted by a large density of dams, built during industrialization, and reduction of the beaver population. Beavers were reintroduced to Massachusetts in the 1940s and they have since migrated throughout the state. Beaver dams impound water, which traps sediment and results in the development of complex channel patterns and more ecologically productive and diverse habitats than those found adjacent to man-made dams. To develop better management practices for dam removal it is essential that we understand the geomorphic and ecologic function of wood in these channels and the interconnections with floodplain dynamics and stream water chemistry. We investigate the connections among fluvial wood, channel morphology, floodplain soil moisture dynamics, and stream water chemistry in six watersheds in Massachusetts that have been impacted by either beaver or man-made dams. We hypothesize that wood load will be significantly higher below beaver dams, subsequently altering channel morphology, water chemistry, and floodplain soil moisture. Reaches are surveyed up- and downstream of each type of dam to better understand the impact dams have on the fluvial system. Surveys include a longitudinal profile, paired with dissolved oxygen and ammonium measurements, cross-section and fluvial wood surveys, hydraulic measurements, and floodplain soil moisture mapping. We found that dissolved oxygen mirrored the channel morphology, but did not vary significantly between reaches. Wood loads were significantly larger downstream of beaver dams, which resulted in significant changes to the ammonium levels. Floodplain soil moisture

  5. Lung cancer and exposure to man-made vitreous fibers: results from a pooled case-control study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pohlabeln, H; Jöckel, K H; Brüske-Hohlfeld, I; Möhner, M; Ahrens, W; Bolm-Audorff, U; Arhelger, R; Römer, W; Kreienbrock, L; Kreuzer, M; Jahn, I; Wichmann, H E

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF), a pooled analysis of two case-control studies was conducted in the years 1988-1994. The case series consisted of 3498 males who were histologically or cytologically verified primary lung cancer cases. 3541 male population controls were drawn at random from the general population and matched to cases by sex, age, and place of residence. To examine the relationship between MMVF and lung cancer we asked all study subjects who worked for at least 6 months as construction and installation workers whether they ever installed or removed insulations and what kind of insulation material they used. Some 304 (8.7%) cases and 170 (4.8%) controls reported to have insulated with glass wool or mineral wool mats. Coded as ever/never exposed, the odds ratio was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.17-1.88), adjusted for smoking and asbestos. To be sure to exclude any confounding effect of asbestos, we tried to identify those cases and controls who insulated with glass wool or mineral wool mats only and never reported any asbestos exposure. For this group we calculated an odds ratio of 1.56 (95% CI: 0.92-2.65), after adjustment for smoking. An elevated risk was also estimated on the basis of an expert rating which was done for a subgroup of cases and controls. Ever exposure to MMVF (but not to asbestos) in this subgroup yielded an odds ratio of 1.30 (95% CI: 0.82-2.07). Our study provides some indication for an excess risk of man-made vitreous fibers. This result also persists after adjustment for smoking and asbestos. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... § 10.425 Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods...

  7. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... § 10.425 Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods...

  8. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods. 10.425 Section 10.425 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... § 10.425 Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods...

  9. Time Evolution of Man-Made Harbour Modifications in San Diego: Effects on Tsunami Amplitudes and Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M.; Gica, E.

    2014-12-01

    Harbors are typically modified to enhance operations and increase space in ports. Ports are usually designed to protect boats and docks against sudden vertical water fluctuations. Tsunami currents however are often ignored-current monitoring is usually not quantitative- in the design of harbor modifications. Damage from tsunami currents in ports has occurred in several recent tsunamis (Sea of Japan, 1983; Chile, 1960, 2010; Tohoku, 2011). Significant tsunami currents (>2 m/sec) often occur without substantial wave amplitudes (<1-2 meters). Because tsunami amplitudes are used as the basis to determine event "significance", the hazard from potentially strong currents may be overlooked. In order to evaluate the impact of anthropogenic effects on tsunami impact at ports, we examine the history of man-made modifications made to San Diego Bay since the late nineteenth century. Digital elevation models were created based on historic nautical charts of 1892, 1935, 1945 and at present. Tsunami simulations were conducted based on two distant events (1960 Chile and 2011 Tohoku) and two hypothetical severe local cases (San Clemente fault bend and Coronado Canyon landslide). The distant events provide historical comparisons with the model while the local events are based on offshore geology and tectonic activity. Most of the changes in San Diego Bay have included dredging, enlargement of the North Island/Coronado, widening of the Silver Strand, and creation of new marinas by enhancing already existing dunes or filling and creating breakwaters. Those changes mostly occurred during the first half of the 20th century. Post- 1965 the bay has sustained a similar appearance to the bathymetry/topography we know today. Early harbor configurations showed strong currents in the narrow channel between Point Loma and North Island/Coronado while overtopping of the narrow Silver Strand to the south occurred. The modern configuration finds increased currents at the harbor entrance and between

  10. Rescue and emergency management of a man-made disaster: lesson learnt from a collapse factory building, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Animesh; Rahman, Aminur; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Humaira, Tasnuva; Dalal, Koustuv

    2015-01-01

    A tragic disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in Bangladesh, when a nine storied building in a suburban area collapsed and killed 1115 people and injured many more. The study describes the process of rescue operation and emergency management services provided in the event. Data were collected using qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with the involved medical students, doctors, volunteers, and local people. Immediately after the disaster, rescue teams came to the place from Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, and Dhaka Metropolitan and local Police and doctors, medical students, and nurses from nearby medical college hospitals and private hospitals and students from colleges and universities including local civil people. Doctors and medical students provided 24-hour services at the disaster place and in hospitals. Minor injured patients were treated at health camps and major injured patients were immediately carried to nearby hospital. Despite the limitations of a low resource setting, Bangladesh faced a tremendous challenge to manage the man-made disaster and experienced enormous support from different sectors of society to manage the disaster carefully and saved thousands of lives. This effort could help to develop a standard emergency management system applicable to Bangladesh and other counties with similar settings.

  11. Recombination of the GFP gene to the BFP gene using a man-made site-selective DNA cutter.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshihito; Mori, Satoshi; Chen, Wen; Sumaoka, Jun; Komiyama, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    By using the recently developed man-made DNA cutter [a combination of Ce(IV)/EDTA and two DNA additives], green fluorescent protein (GFP) was converted to closely related blue fluorescent protein (BFP). The phosphodiester linkages at T196-A200 in the sense strand of GFP were hydrolyzed by the cutter, and the A1-T196 fragment in the product was selectively connected with the downstream fragment (C197-A720) of BFP by T4 DNA ligase. This recombination changed three codons in the GFP gene (TGC at 196-198, TAT at 199-201, and ACC at 502-504) to TCT, CAT, and ATC in BFP, and accordingly three amino acids in GFP (Cys65, Tyr66, and Thr167) were altered to Ser65, His66, and Ile167. The recombinant gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and emitted blue fluorescence, confirming the absence of undesired side reactions (mutation, deletion, insertion, depurination, etc.) in the DNA manipulation.

  12. The role of smoking and exposure to asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers in a questionable case of mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Gula, Mary Jean; Roggli, Victor L; Churg, Andrew

    2003-10-01

    A remaining uncertainty in the U.S. cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) workers is whether asbestos exposure contributed to 10 questionable cases of mesothelioma. We report further details on one case from our previous mesothelioma investigation, including results of a recent lung tissue analysis. Case is a 68 year-old white male employed 1951-54 in a rock/slag wool plant where asbestos-containing products were manufactured. Cause of death was recorded as "mesothelioma, malignant, right pleural cavity" (ICD9: 163.9). Analysis for presence of asbestos bodies identified 18,300 asbestos bodies per gram of wet lung tissue (AB/gm), which greatly exceeds the normal range of 0-20 AB/gm. No MMVFs were identified in this sample. We conclude that this patient's tumor was not a mesothelioma, but a carcinoma possibly arising in the lung or mediastinum, and that this case supports the view that the few suspected mesotheliomas found in the U.S. cohort may have been caused by asbestos exposure.

  13. Cytotoxic and oxidative effects induced by man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) in a human mesothelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Delia; Campopiano, Antonella; Cardinali, Giorgia; Casciardi, Stefano; De Simone, Paolo; Kovacs, Daniela; Perniconi, Barbara; Spagnoli, Giuseppe; Ursini, Cinzia L; Fanizza, Carla

    2004-09-01

    The introduction of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) as a substitute for asbestos in industrial and residential applications raises concerns about their potential health hazards. The aim of our study was to assess cytotoxic and oxidative effects induced on a human mesothelial cell line (MeT-5A) by exposure to glass wool (GW), rock wool (RW) and refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) in comparison with crocidolite asbestos (CR). MeT-5A cells were exposed for 24 h to 2, 5 and 10 microg/cm2 of MMVF and crocidolite fibers and analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) for cell surface alterations. Cells were exposed for 2 h to 1, 2, 5 and 10 microg/cm2 of the same fibers and analysed by enzyme Fpg-modified comet test for direct and oxidative DNA damage. SEM revealed loss of microvilli in cells exposed to RCF and numerous blebs in cells exposed to higher doses of RW. Comet test showed significant direct DNA damage in cells exposed to RCF even at the lowest dose. Comet test with Fpg, that permits the detection of oxided DNA bases, showed significant oxidative DNA damage in cells exposed to higher doses of RW. The presence of DNA damage and alterations of cell surface induced by low doses of RCF and the presence of oxidative DNA damage and blebs on cell surface in cells exposed to higher dose of RW suggest possible cytotoxic, oxidative and genotoxic effects for these MMVFs.

  14. Estimating renewal timescales with residence time and connectivity in an urban man-made lake in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Residence times and connectivity are computed for 12 subregions in an urban man-made lake in China using a high-resolution tracer-transport model. The renewal timescales are explicitly defined and computed for two groups of four freshwater inflow scenarios related to water diversion projects. First, the timescale values are computed and compared using different computational criteria for the upper limit of integration in the residence time equation. The sensitivity analysis suggests that a calculation time of 300 days is necessary to satisfy the relative error (0.001) and 5 % cutoff value criteria. Secondly, the residence times can range from 1.5 to 102 and 1.0 to 66 days under low and high flow conditions, respectively. Water in the inner lake would reside in the lake for less than 66 days prior to exiting the region of interest. The timescale values can be applied to impact studies that investigate the extent of sudden water pollution events that initially affect a subdomain of a lake. Finally, the lacustrine residence times are decomposed into the different subregion residence times, resulting in a connectivity matrix. This matrix can illustrate preferential connections among the individual subregions and reveal hidden patterns relating to local hydrodynamics in the lake.

  15. Identification of the man-made barium copper silicate pigments among some ancient Chinese artifacts through spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Q H; Yang, J C; Li, L; Dong, J Q; Zhao, H X; Liu, S

    2015-03-05

    This article describes the complementary application of non-invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the characterization of some ancient Chinese silicate artifacts. A total of 28 samples dated from fourth century BC to third century AD were analyzed. The results of chemical analysis showed that the vitreous PbO-BaO-SiO2 material was used to sinter these silicate artifacts. The barium copper silicate pigments including BaCuSi4O10, BaCuSi2O6 and BaCu2Si2O7 were widely identified from colorful areas of the samples by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, other crystalline phases such as Fe2O3, BaSi2O5, BaSO4, PbCO3 and quartz were also identified. The present study provides very valuable information to trace the technical evolution of man-made barium copper silicate pigments and their close relationship with the making of ancient PbO-BaO-SiO2 glaze and glass.

  16. Rescue and Emergency Management of a Man-Made Disaster: Lesson Learnt from a Collapse Factory Building, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Animesh; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Humaira, Tasnuva; Dalal, Koustuv

    2015-01-01

    A tragic disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in Bangladesh, when a nine storied building in a suburban area collapsed and killed 1115 people and injured many more. The study describes the process of rescue operation and emergency management services provided in the event. Data were collected using qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with the involved medical students, doctors, volunteers, and local people. Immediately after the disaster, rescue teams came to the place from Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, and Dhaka Metropolitan and local Police and doctors, medical students, and nurses from nearby medical college hospitals and private hospitals and students from colleges and universities including local civil people. Doctors and medical students provided 24-hour services at the disaster place and in hospitals. Minor injured patients were treated at health camps and major injured patients were immediately carried to nearby hospital. Despite the limitations of a low resource setting, Bangladesh faced a tremendous challenge to manage the man-made disaster and experienced enormous support from different sectors of society to manage the disaster carefully and saved thousands of lives. This effort could help to develop a standard emergency management system applicable to Bangladesh and other counties with similar settings. PMID:25954767

  17. Magnitude-based discrimination of man-made seismic events from naturally occurring earthquakes in Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Keith D.; Pechmann, James C.; Burlacu, Relu; Pankow, Kristine L.; Stein, Jared; Hale, J. Mark; Roberson, Paul; McCarter, Michael K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate using the difference between local (ML) and coda/duration (MC) magnitude to discriminate man-made seismic events from naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes in and around Utah. For 6846 well-located earthquakes in the Utah region, we find that ML-MC is on average 0.44 magnitude units smaller for mining-induced seismicity (MIS) than for tectonic seismicity (TS). Our interpretation of this observation is that MIS occurs within near-surface low-velocity layers that act as a waveguide and preferentially increase coda duration relative to peak amplitude, while the vast majority of TS occurs beneath the near-surface waveguide. A second data set of 3723 confirmed or probable explosions in the Utah region also has significantly lower ML-MC values than TS, likely for the same reason as the MIS. These observations suggest that ML-MC is useful as a depth indicator and could discriminate small explosions and mining-induced earthquakes from deeper, naturally occurring earthquakes at local-to-regional distances.

  18. Phased Array Approach To Retrieve Gases, Liquids, Or Solids From Subsurface And Subaqueous Geologic Or Man-Made Formations

    DOEpatents

    Rynne, Timothy M.; Spadaro, John F.; Iovenitti, Joe L.; Dering, John P.; Hill, Donald G.

    1998-10-27

    A method of enhancing the remediation of contaminated soils and ground water, production of oil and gas, and production of any solid, gas, and/or liquid from subsurface geologic and man-made formations including the steps of estimating the geometric boundaries of the region containing the material to be recovered, drilling a recovery well(s) into subsurface in a strategic location to recover the material of interest, establishing multiple sources of acoustical power in an array about and spaced-apart from the surface or at various depths below the surface in a borehole(s) and/or well(s), directing a volume of acoustical excitation from the sources into the region containing the material to be recovered, the excitation in the form of either controllable sinusoidal, square, pulsed, or various combinations of these three waveforms, and controlling the phasing, frequency, power, duration, and direction of these waveforms from the sources to increase and control the intensity of acoustical excitation in the region of the material to be recovered to enhance. the recovery of said material from the recovery well(s). The invention will augment any technology affecting the removal of materials from the subsurface.

  19. Fate of perchlorate in a man-made reflecting pond following a fireworks display in Albany, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Oldi, John F; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-11-01

    Perchlorate is a widespread contaminant in aquatic environments. Despite this, the aquatic environmental fate of perchlorate released from fireworks displays is not well known. In the present study, we examined the fate of perchlorate in man-made reflecting ponds, from 2008 to 2010, following three fireworks displays in Albany, New York, USA. Immediately after the fireworks display, perchlorate in pond waters increased significantly, with concentrations from 30 to 1,480 times higher than the baseline values. Perchlorate concentrations in pond water increased from 0.11 µg/L to up to 519 µg/L, following the fireworks display in 2008. Perchlorate concentrations in pond water decreased at a first-order kinetic degradation rate, with a mean k(obs) value of 0.026 d⁻¹ and an average half-life of 29 d. The rate of perchlorate deposition into water bodies following fireworks displays was estimated to range from 670 to 2,620 g/ha. We also estimated the perchlorate ingestion rate by the inhalation of aerosols of pond water by people frequently near the ponds. The estimated daily intake of perchlorate through the ingestion of aerosols was 32% (226 ng/kg body wt), 13% (92 ng/kg body wt), and 6% (42 ng/kg body wt) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's reference dose for infants, children, and adults, respectively.

  20. Long-term health effects in hamsters and rats exposed chronically to man-made vitreous fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Ortiz, L.W.; Archuleta, R.F.; Johnson, N.F.

    1986-01-01

    Rats and hamsters were exposed to several types of airborne man-made vitreous fibers. Exposure protocols were ''nose-only'' 6 h a day, 5 d a week for 24 m with surviving animals maintained for the rest of their lives. Challenge aerosols consisted of 4 types of fibrous glass, 1 refractory ceramic fiber (RCF), and 1 mineral wool fiber. UICC crocidolite asbestos and clean air served as positive and negative controls for the inhalation groups. Groups of additional controls were unmanipulated caged animals, intraperitoneally (IP) injected animals, and intratracheally (IT) instilled animals. Animals, after their deaths, were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Fiber lung burdens were significant for the inhalation exposures and related to the mean diameters of the fibrous challenge aerosols. The inhalation exposures with MMVF did not result in any adverse effects except for a mesothelioma of the lung in 1 hamster exposed to the RCF, not a statistically significant finding. Consistent with other reported work, abdominal mesotheliomas were induced in the groups of hamsters and rats injected IP with 0.45-micron mean diameter fibrous glass, RCF, and crocidolite asbestos. With IT instillations, primary lung tumors were found only in hamsters and rats receiving UICC crocidolite; no lung tumors occurred in animals instilled IT with 2 types of MMVF. 28 refs., 2 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Toxic effects of man-made mineral fibers with particular reference to ceramic fibers. Technical report, December 1986-January 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, A.

    1987-09-01

    In order to evaluate the potential hazards of man-made mineral fibers (MMMF): particularly ceramic fibers in the Navy work environment, the following areas are considered. First, the current standards and recommendations of other agencies are presented as an overview of current consensus as to relative hazards of asbestos, MMMF, and cristobalite (a form of crystalline silica). Then, a summary of recent epidemiological evidence is presented. These data should be the most relevant for human exposure. Unfortunately, there are no data for workers in the ceramic-fiber field. Then a review is presented of the data from animal experiments which employed exposure by inhalation, intratracheal instillation, and intrapleural or intraperitoneal injection. The experiments reviewed involve only non-ceramic MMMF. Some detail of the protocol and results of each experiment are presented to provide a better understanding of the non-uniformity of the protocols used. Another issue of particular importance in understanding fiber toxicity is the durability of the fiber. These data are presented for non ceramic MMMF.

  2. Molecular identification of Hartmannella vermiformis and Vannella persistens from man-made recreational water environments, Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nazar, Mahdieh; Haghighi, Ali; Taghipour, Niloofar; Ortega-Rivas, Antonio; Tahvildar-Biderouni, Farid; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Eftekhar, Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    A survey was conducted on man-made recreational water located in different regions of Tehran, Iran to detect the free-living amoebae present in ponds and fountains of parks and squares. Fifty water samples from 22 municipal districts of Tehran were screened for free-living amoebae and identified by morphological characters and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Amoebae detected were identified as Hartmannella vermiformis (12 %) and Vannella persistens (4 %), which are the first reports of these two amoebas in recreational water environments of Iran. Since, H. vermiformis, which is highly similar to strains serving as hosts for Legionella pneumophila, is a common component of the microbial community in fresh surface water. Although Vannella spp. is not proved to be pathogenic itself, they are capable of harboring pathogenic intracellular organisms. Due to some reports related to pathogenicity of these amoebas, the particular hazard related to these microorganisms should be taken into account in the encounter with drinking and washing in these waters. We recommend control strategies based on physical removal rather than on disinfection to be adopted where necessary.

  3. Man-Made Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2008-01-01

    Initial findings from a national study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) characterize the occurrence of about 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water (defined as water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment) at nine community water systems in nine States in the Nation. The organic compounds analyzed in this study are primarily man-made and include pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, disinfection by-products, and manufacturing additives. The study also describes and compares the occurrence of selected compounds detected in source water with their occurrence in finished water, which is defined as water that has passed through treatment processes but prior to distribution. This fact sheet summarizes major findings and implications of the study and serves as a companion product to two USGS reports that present more detailed and technical information for the nine systems studied during 2002-05 (Carter and others, 2007; Kingsbury and others, 2008).

  4. Eddy covariance flux measurements over a man made lake during the ALEX 2014 field campaign in South Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, R.; Potes, M.; Albino, A.; Rodrigues, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Energy, vapor, CO2 and momentum exchanges between water and air were measured using the new IRGASON eddy covariance system, an integrated open-path CO2 /H2O Gas Analyser and 3D Sonic Anemometer, installed on a instrumented floating platform (Figure 1) in the Alqueva reservoir, a large man made lake (area of 250 km2) in South Portugal. Radiation sensors were also mounted on the raft in order to measure near surface up and down radiative fluxes, while the water temperature profile below the platform were continuously archived. An accelerometer was mounted on the support bar near the sonic anemometer in order to correct the vertical component of the wind due to the the raft swing. The measurements were performed during the ALqueva hydro-meteorological EXperiment, ALEX 2014, between June and September 2014. ALEX 2014 ( http://www.alex2014.cge.uevora.pt) was an integrated field campaign with measurements of chemical, physical and biological parameters at different experimental sites in the reservoir and in its surrounding area. Worldwide, there are few reported flux measurements over lakes. This set of observations contribute to improve the characterization of the exchanges between a lake and the atmosphere in a semi-arid climate. The eddy covariance estimates of lake evaporation are compared against other methods.

  5. News from the "blowout", a man-made methane pockmark in the North Sea: chemosynthetic communities and microbial methane oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea I.; Wilfert, Philipp; Schmidt, Mark; Bryant, Lee; Haeckel, Matthias; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Linke, Peter; Sommer, Stefan; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2013-04-01

    The accidental penetration of a base-Quaternary shallow gas pocket by a drilling rig in 1990 caused a "blowout" in the British sector of the North Sea (57°55.29' N, 01°37.86' E). Large quantities of methane have been seeping out of this man-made pockmark ever since. As the onset of gas seepage is well constrained, this site can be used as a natural laboratory to gain information on the development of methane oxidizing microbial communities at cold seeps. During an expedition with the R/V Celtic Explorer in July and August 2012, we collected sediments by video-guided push-coring with an ROV (Kiel 6000) along a gradient from inside the crater (close to where a jet of methane bubbles enters the water column) outwards. We also sampled the water column in a grid above the blowout at three different depths. In this presentation, we provide evidence for the establishment of methanotrophic communities in the sediment (AOM communities) on a time scale of decades. Furthermore, we will report data on methane concentrations and anaerobic methane oxidation rates in the sediment. Finally, we will also discuss the spatial distribution of methane and aerobic methane oxidation rates in the water column.

  6. Influence of airspace geometry and surfactant on the retention of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF 10a).

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Marianne; Matter, Matthias; Maye, Isabelle; Im Hof, Vinzenz; Gehr, Peter; Schürch, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Inhaled and deposited man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) 10a (low-fluorine preparation of Schuller 901 insulation glass) were studied by electron microscopy in hamster lungs, fixed by intravascular perfusion within 23 +/- 2 min (SD) of the initial inhalation. We found fibers on the surfaces of conducting airways and alveoli. In the airways, 89% of the fibers were totally and 11% partially covered by lining-layer material. In the alveoli, 32% of the fibers were totally submersed; others touched the alveolar wall, stuck at one end, bridging the airspace. Studies in a surface balance showed that fibers were immersed into the aqueous subphase by approximately 50% at film surface tensions of 20-25 mJ/m2) and were submersed (totally immersed; i.e., totally surrounded by fluid) at approximately 10 mJ/m2). Fibers were also found to be phagocytosed by macrophages. We found a substantial number of particle profiles within alveolar blood capillaries. Fiber length and alveolar geometry appear to be important limiting factors for the submersion of vitreous fibers into the lungs' surface lining layer. PMID:12782489

  7. Effects of sand burial on biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence and extracellular polysaccharides of man-made cyanobacterial crusts under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, WeiBo; Yang, CuiYun; Tang, DongShan; Li, DunHai; Liu, YongDing; Hu, ChunXiang

    2007-08-01

    Soil cyanobacterial crusts occur throughout the world, especially in the semiarid and arid regions. It always encounters sand burial, which is an important feature of mobile sand dunes. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sand burial on biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence and extracellular polysaccharides of man-made cyanobacterial crusts in six periods of time (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 d after burying) and at five depths (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 cm). The results indicated that with the increase of the burial time and burial depth extracellular polysaccharides content and Fv/Fm decreased correspondingly and there were no significant differences between 20 and 30 burial days under different burial depths. The degradation of chlorophyll a content appeared only at 20 and 30 burial days and there was also no significant difference between them under different burial depths. It was also observed a simultaneous decrease of the values of the Fv/Fm and the content of extracellular polysaccharides happened in the crusted cyanobacterium Microcoleus vaginatus Gom. It may suggest that there exists a relationship between extracellular polysaccharides and recovery of the activity of photosystem II (PS II) after rehydration.

  8. Macrobenthic succession and characteristics of a man-made intertidal sandflat constructed in the diversion channel of the Ohta River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Wataru; Nakano, Yoichi; Nakai, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-05-15

    We compared succession and characteristics of the macrobenthic community in a small-scale experimental intertidal sandflat constructed in the artificial diversion channel of the Ohta River Estuary with those of three natural intertidal sandflats at lower elevation in the same channel. The macrobenthic population density in the man-made intertidal sandflat increased significantly between 3 and 9 months after construction. Simplisetia erythraeensis was dominant (98% of individuals) after 9 months, but its proportion gradually declined with the increase in biodiversity until 26 months, indicating that succession of the macrobenthic community was nearly complete by 26 months. The macrobenthic community in the man-made intertidal sandflat differed from those of the three natural intertidal sandflats, and its population density was about double that at the natural sites, with smaller temporal fluctuation. The different structures of the macrobenthic communities in the man-made and natural intertidal sandflats were likely caused by differences in elevation.

  9. Effect of thermal power effluents on the community structure and primary production of phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, N.K.; Ambasht, R.S.; Kumar, R. )

    1993-01-01

    Effluents discharged by the coal-fired thermal power plant at Obra (22[degrees] 52[prime] N lat. and 83[degrees] 5[prime]E long.) reach into the nearby flowing Rihand river and alter the ecological features of the river ecosystem. The temperature and pH of the receiving river water increased while the transparency, dissolved oxygen, chloride, NO[sub 3]-N, and PO[sub 4]-P decreased. In the effluent zone of the river, no phytoplankton existed during a one-year study period (January to December 1987). Chlorophycean members like Spirogyra and Scenedesmus which were present in the unaffected upstream (control site) were replaced by Bacillariophycean members like Pinnularia and Nitzschia with reduced phytoplankton density in the downstream-affected water. At the control site (average of 12 months), Chlorophyta density contributed 335 unit L[sup [minus]1] to the total phytoplankton density (774 unit L[sup [minus]1]) followed by Cyanophyta (260 unit L[sup [minus]1]) and Bacillariophyta (188 unit L[sup [minus]1]). At the affected site maximum of 112, the unit L[sup [minus]1] contribution was by Bacillariophyta followed by 90 unit L[sup [minus]1] of Chlorophyta and 60 unit L[sup [minus]1] of Cyanophyta to the total phytoplankton density (221 unit L[sup [minus]1]). Phytoplankton diversity indices and primary production were reduced in the affected zone. Chloride and PO[sub 4]-P together accounted for 54% (p<0.01) of the variability of the Bacillariophyta density, while no clear influence on Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta density was observed. Total phytoplankton density was changed by 28% (p<0.05) by chloride itself. Gross and net primary productivities were significantly (p<0.01) influenced by alteration of the NO[sub 3]-N concentrations of the water. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. European perspectives on regional estimates of standing water bodies and the relevance of man-made ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasmaa, Jaanus; Bartout, Pascal; Marzecova, Agata; Touchart, Laurent; Koff, Tiiu; Choffel, Quentin; Kapanen, Galina; Maleval, Véronique; Millot, Camille; Qsair, Zoubida; Vandel, Egert

    2015-04-01

    threshold limit 0.01 ha which will illustrate the quantitative importance of very small often man-made ponds, which are however, abundant cultural heritage in many parts of Europe. Secondly, by comparing detailed national inventories compiled for France and Estonia, we will introduce usefulness of the the 'local to global' approach in which the local databases may significantly strengthen the precision of the regional (EU) level analysis. Overall, we will disss that all standing water bodies - including small and man-made ponds - play an important role in ecosystem services and require careful management to avoid hydrological and environmental deterioration. References: Verpoorter et al. (2014) Geophysical Research Letters, 41. Bartout & Touchart,(2013) Annales de Géographie, 691. Downing et al., (2006) Limnology and Oceanography, 51(5). Kuusisto & Raatikainen, (1988) Terra, 102. Meybeck, (1995) in Lerman et al., Physics and chemistry of lakes. Rjanžin, (2005) Priroda, 4.

  11. Chronic inhalation studies of man-made vitreous fibres: characterization of fibres in the exposure aerosol and lungs.

    PubMed

    Hesterberg, T W; Miiller, W C; Thevenaz, P; Anderson, R

    1995-10-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted to determine the chronic biological effects in rodents of respirable fractions of different man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including refractory ceramic fibre (RCF), fibrous glass, rock (stone) wool and slag wool. Animals were exposed nose-only, 6 h per day, 5 days per week, for 18 months (hamsters) or 24 months (rats). Exposure to 10 mg m-3 of crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos induced pulmonary fibrosis, lung tumours and mesothelioma in rats, thus validating the inhalation model with known human carcinogenic fibres. Exposure of rats to 30 mg m-3 of refractory ceramic fibres (RCF) also resulted in pulmonary fibrosis as well as significant increases in lung tumours and mesothelioma. In hamsters, 30 mg m-3 of RCF induced a 41% incidence of mesotheliomas. Exposure of rats to 30 mg m-3 of fibre glasses (MMVF 10 or 11) or of slag wool (MMVF 22) was associated with an inflammatory response, but no mesotheliomas or significant increase in the lung tumours were observed. Rock wool (stone wool: MMVF 21) at the same exposure level resulted in minimal lung fibrosis, but no mesotheliomas or significant increase in the lung tumours were observed. Fibre numbers (WHO fibres) and dimensions in the aerosols and lungs of exposed animals were comparable in this series of inhalation studies. Differences in lung fibre burdens and lung clearance rates could not explain the differences observed in the toxicologic effects of the MMVFs. These findings indicate that dose, dimension and durability may not be the only determinants of fibre toxicity. Chemical composition and the surface physico-chemical properties of the fibres may also play an important role.

  12. Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: V. Tobacco-smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Buchanich, J M; Marsh, G M; Youk, A O

    2001-09-01

    As part of our ongoing mortality surveillance program for the US man-made vitreous fiber industry, we surveyed a random sample of study members to estimate tobacco-smoking habits for the total cohort. Separate sampling frames were constructed for four study groups: male and female workers within the fiberglass and rock/slag wool subcohorts. The frames included all persons who had worked a year or more between 1945 and 1986 (with some exceptions), and who were alive as adults (18+ years) on January 1, 1980, the year the age distribution of the cohort most resembled the US comparison population. Subjects were randomly selected from the frames, and a structured telephone interview was administered to the subject or a proxy respondent between January 1995 and December 1997. Using survey data, we estimated the point prevalence of ever and current cigarette smoking on January 1, 1980, and made comparisons with other occupational groups and general populations. Overall response rates (interviews/targeted sample) were greater than 78% for each of the four study groups. From our estimates, we infer that male workers from both the fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts and female rock/slag wool workers had higher rates of ever smoking than the corresponding general populations of the United States and most of the states where the study plants were located. These findings suggest that at least part of the elevated externally standardized mortality ratios (US and regional rate-based) for respiratory system cancer noted among male subjects and the male-dominated total cohort in our previous cohort analyses were due to uncontrolled positive confounding by smoking.

  13. Biological effects of naturally occurring and man-made fibres: in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Okayasu, R; Wu, L; Hei, T K

    1999-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of tremolite, erionite and the man-made ceramic (RCF-1) fibre were studied using the human– hamster hybrid A L cells. Results from these fibres were compared with those of UICC Rhodesian chrysotile fibres. The A L cell mutation assay, based on the S1 gene marker located on human chromosome 11, the only human chromosome contained in the hybrid cell, has been shown to be more sensitive than conventional assays in detecting deletion mutations. Tremolite, erionite and RCF-1 fibres were significantly less cytotoxic to A L cells than chrysotile. Mutagenesis studies at the HPRT locus revealed no significant mutant yield with any of these fibres. In contrast, both erionite and tremolite induced dose-dependent S1− mutations in fibre-exposed cells, with the former inducing a significantly higher mutant yield than the latter fibre type. On the other hand, RCF-1 fibres were largely non-mutagenic. At equitoxic doses (cell survival at ∼ 0.7), erionite was found to be the most potent mutagen among the three fibres tested and at a level comparable to that of chrysotile fibres. These results indicate that RCF-1 fibres are non-genotoxic under the conditions used in the studies and suggest that the high mesothelioma incidence previously observed in hamster may either be a result of selective sensitivity of hamster pleura to fibre-induced chronic irritation or as a result of prolonged fibre treatment. Furthermore, the relatively high mutagenic potential for erionite is consistent with its documented carcinogenicity. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10188871

  14. Detection of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) from various man-made sources using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmboldt, J.; Park, J.; von Frese, R. R. B.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) is generated by various sources and detectable by observing the spatial and temporal change of electron contents in the ionosphere. This study focused on detecting and analyzing TIDs generated by acoustic-gravity waves from man-made events including underground nuclear explosions (UNEs), mine collapses, mine blasts, and large chemical explosions (LCEs) using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). In this study we selected different types of events for case study which covers two US and three North Korean UNEs, two large US mine collapses, three large US mine blasts, and a LCE in northern China and a second LCE at the Nevada Test Site. In most cases, we successfully detected the TIDs as array signatures from the multiple nearby GNSS stations. The array-based TID signatures from these studies were found to yield event-appropriate TID propagation speeds ranging from about a few hundred m/s to roughly a km/s. In addition, the event TID waveforms, and propagation angles and directions were established. The TID waveforms and the maximum angle between each event and the IPP of its TID with the longest travel distance from the source may help differentiate UNEs and LCEs, but the uneven distributions of the observing GNSS stations complicates these results. Thus, further analysis is required of the utility of the apertures of event signatures in the ionosphere for discriminating these events. In general, the results of this study show the potential utility of GNSS observations for detecting and mapping the ionospheric signatures of large-energy anthropological explosions and subsurface collapses.

  15. Investigation of Natural and Man-Made Radiation Effects on Crews on Long Duration Space Missions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolch, W.E.; Parlos, A.

    1996-02-01

    Over the past several years, NASA has studied a variety of mission scenarios designed to establish a permanent human presence on the surface of Mars. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is one of the possible elements in this program. During the initial stages of vehicle design work, careful consideration must be given to not only the shielding requirements of natural space radiation, but to the shielding and configuration requirements of the on-board reactors. In this work, the radiation transport code MCNP has been used to make initial estimates of crew exposures to reactor radiation fields for a specific manned NEP vehicle design. In this design, three 25 MW(sub th), scaled SP-100-class reactors are shielded by three identical shields. Each shield has layers of beryllium, tungsten, and lithium hydride between the reactor and the crew compartment. Separate calculations are made of both the exiting neutron and gamma fluxes from the reactors during beginning-of-life, full-power operation. This data is then used as the source terms for particle transport in MCNP. The total gamma and neutron fluxes exiting the reactor shields are recorded and separate transport calculations are then performed for a 10 g/sq cm crew compartment aluminum thickness. Estimates of crew exposures have been assessed for various thicknesses of the shield tungsten and lithium hydride layers. A minimal tungsten thickness of 20 cm is required to shield the reactor photons below the 0.05 Sv/y man-made radiation limit. In addition to a 20-cm thick tungsten layer, a 40-cm thick lithium hydride layer is required to shield the reactor neutrons below the annual limit. If the tungsten layer is 30-cm thick, the lithium hydride layer should be at least 30-cm thick. These estimates do not take into account the photons generated by neutron interactions inside the shield because the MCNP neutron cross sections did not allow reliable estimates of photon production in these materials.

  16. In situ measurements of shear stress, erosion and deposition in man-made tidal channels within a tidal saltmarsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieterse, Aline; Puleo, Jack A.; McKenna, Thomas E.; Figlus, Jens

    2017-06-01

    A field study was conducted in man-made ditches in a tidal saltmarsh in Lewes, Delaware, USA. Ditches are prevalent throughout tidal marshes along the Atlantic US coast, and influence hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The field study focused on measuring near-bed velocity, shear stress, sediment concentration, and bed level variability at 5 stations over a 3-week period. Velocities in the ditch (2-5 m wide, 1 m deep) peaked between 0.4 and 0.6 m/s and were slightly ebb dominated. Velocity and shear stress were maximum during a storm event, with peak shear stresses of 2 N/m2. Bed levels were estimated from acoustic amplitude return of a downward-looking velocity profiler. The bed level in the ditch at the landward locations increased ∼ 0.03 m over 3 weeks, while there was ∼ 0.01 m bed level decrease at the most seaward site suggesting a net import of sediment into the channel. At all sites, erosion (∼ 0.005-0.015 m) occurred during the accelerating phase of the flood tide, and accretion of a similar magnitude occurred during the decelerating phase of the ebb tide. This erosion-deposition sequence resulted in small net changes in bed level at the end of each tidal cycle. The intratidal behavior of the bed level was simulated using erosion and deposition flux equations based on shear stress, critical shear stress, and suspended sediment concentration. Erosion was predicted well with RMS errors on the order of 2 ṡ10-3 m. The bed level during the deposition phase could not be reproduced using the simple approach. Model inaccuracies for deposition were attributed to advection and variations in fall velocity due to flocculation that were not modeled due to lack of ground-truth observations.

  17. Laboratory and field investigations of pestiferous Chironomidae (Diptera) in some man-made wetlands in central Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Ali, Arshad; Leckel, Robert J; Jahan, Nusrad; Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2009-03-01

    A 1-year larval and adult population survey of pestiferous chironomids was conducted in 4 man-made wetlands in a resort area of central Florida, USA. Benthic samples were randomly collected from each wetland at least once every month. Geocoordinates, water depth, and physical composition of substrates at each larval sample location were noted. Adult midge populations were sampled weekly around the wetlands by employing 10 New Jersey light traps permanently placed in the area. Chironominae and Tanypodinae midges occurred in the larval and adult samples; a few Orthocladiinae were also taken. Among Chironominae, Chironomini (mostly Polypedilum spp., Cryptochironomus spp., Glyptotendipes paripes, and Goeldichironomus carus) and Tanytarsini (mostly Tanytarsus spp.), and some other Chironomidae were recorded. Tanypodinae were quantitatively not important. Monthly mean number of total adults per trap-night ranged from 23 in February to 211 in October. Annual mean larval density and range of total chironomids in the study wetlands amounted to 1,128/m2, range: 0-12,332/m2. The total larvae were most abundant in May. Tanytarsus spp. and Polypedilum spp. were numerically the most predominant spatially as well as temporally. Mean water depth at the sampled locations was 1.83 m (range: <1-8.75 m); 47% of the total collected larvae occurred at <1-m water depth and 53% at >1-m-deep water. Of all sampled locations, substrates such as sand, mixed substrates, and muck were respectively encountered at 656, 371, and 299 locations. The predominance of sand and mixed substrates was conducive to supporting the numerically dominant Tanytarsus spp. and Polypedilum spp. In laboratory bioassays, Tanytarsus spp., Polypedilum spp., Glyptotendipes paripes, and Goeldichironomus carus were highly susceptible to temephos, as well as to s-methoprene. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis was most effective against Tanytarsus spp. and least against Goeldichironomus carus.

  18. Natural and man-made disasters: the vulnerability of women-headed households and children without families.

    PubMed

    Sapir, D G

    1993-01-01

    Since 1980, over 2 million people have died as an immediate result of natural and man-made disasters and by 1992, the refugee population registered nearly 16 million people. This article reviews the human impact of disasters as a composite of two elements: the catastrophic event itself and the vulnerability of people. It also examines the specific case of women and children in the current world emergency context. It identifies four broad policy areas that affect women and children in disaster situations and discusses them with examples and field evidence. The first policy area addresses humanitarian assistance and armed conflicts, and armed conflict and international humanitarian law, the use of food as instrument of war, mines and civilian disability, and rape and sexual violence are discussed within this context. The second problem discussed is the issue of unaccompanied and abandoned children in terms of its magnitude and implications for relief response. Thirdly, the article examines the differential risks in emergencies for mortality and morbidity, specifically for women and children. Finally, it addresses certain policies and approaches to disaster rehabilitation which effectively mirror and reinforce inherent inequities in the affected society. The article notes that: (i) the largest proportion of disaster victims today arise from civil strife and food crises and that the majority of those killed, wounded and permanently disabled are women and children; and (ii) the ability of any country to respond effectively to disasters depends on the strength of its health and social infrastructure, and its overall developmental status. It concludes by identifying seven areas where concrete measures could be taken to improve the current situation.

  19. 4D velocity of Strombolian eruptions and man-made explosions derived from multiple Doppler radar instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerst, Alexander; Hort, Matthias; Kyle, Philip R.; Vöge, Malte

    2008-11-01

    We used a novel system of three continuous wave Doppler radars to successfully record the directivity of i) Strombolian explosions from the active lava lake of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, ii) eruptions at Stromboli volcano, Italy, and iii) a man-made explosion in a quarry. Erebus volcano contains a convecting phonolite lava lake, presumably connected to a magma chamber at depth. It is one of the few open vent volcanoes that allow a direct observation of source processes during explosions. Its lava lake is the source of frequent violent Strombolian explosions, caused by large gas bubbles bursting at the lake surface. The exact mechanism of these bubble bursts is unclear, as is the mechanism of the creation of the infrasound signal accompanying the explosions. We use the Doppler radar data to calculate the directivity of Strombolian eruptions at Erebus. This allows us to derive information about the expected type of infrasound source pattern (i.e. the role of a dipole in addition to the monopole signature) and the physical structure of the volcano. We recorded 10 large explosions simultaneously with three radars, enabling us to calculate time series of 3D directivity vectors (i.e. effectively 4D), which describe the direction of preferred expansion of the gas bubble during an explosion. Such directivity information allows a comparison to dipole infrasound radiation patterns recorded during similar explosions only a few weeks later. Video observations of explosions support our interpretation of the measurements. We conclude that at Erebus, the directivity of explosions is mainly controlled by random processes. Since the geometry of the uppermost conduit is assumed to have a large effect on the directivity of explosions, the results suggest a largely symmetrical uppermost conduit with a vertical axis of symmetry. For infrasound recordings, a significant dipole signature can be expected in addition to the predominant monopole signature.

  20. Biopersistences of man-made vitreous fibers and crocidolite fibers in rat lungs following short-term exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, R P; Miiller, W C; Eastes, W; Hadley, J G; Kamstrup, O; Thevenaz, P; Hesterberg, T W

    1994-01-01

    Biopersistence of commercial man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) and crocidolite were studied in Fischer 344 rats. MMVF used were size-selected to be rat-respirable, and rats were exposed nose-only 6 h/day for 5 days to gravimetric concentrations (30 mg/m3) of two fiber glass compositions--a rockwool, and a slagwool--or to 10 mg/m3 of long-fibered crocidolite, or to filtered air. Animals were sacrificed at 1 hr, 1, 5, 31, 90, 180, 270, 365, and 545 days after exposure stopped. Fibers were recovered from digested lung tissue to determine changes in concentrations (fibers/mg dry lung) and fiber retentions (expressed as percent of day 1 retention [PR]) for selected dimension categories. One-day average concentrations of lung-retained MMVF and crocidolite fibers, of diameter > or = 0.5 micron or > 20 microns in length, were nearly equal, permitting direct comparisons between MMVF and crocidolite. At 270 days average PR for MMVF > or = 0.5 micron in diameter were from 3 to 6 +/- 2% and 27 +/- 9% for crocidolite. For fibers > 20 microns, PR were 1 to 4 +/- 4% for MMVF and 37 +/- 20% for crocidolite. At 545 days, MMVF > 20 microns in length were at background level while concentration of crocidolite fibers > 20 microns in length remained at 2000 +/- 400 f/mg DL (dry lung), or 38 +/- 9% of day-1 retention. These results suggest strongly that MMVF dissolved or fractured in vivo whereas crocidolite fibers did not change. PMID:7882918

  1. Distribution and risk assessment of metals and arsenic contamination in man-made ditch sediments with different land use types.

    PubMed

    Nsenga Kumwimba, Mathieu; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Muyembe, Diana Kavidia

    2016-12-01

    Ditches are subjected to a large input of nutrients, trace metals, and arsenic and the enhancement of sedimentation due to human activities. However, the influence of different types of land uses on the distribution and associated environmental risk of metals and arsenic in the Red purple Sichuan Basin remains largely unclear, which is needed for water management. This study was carried out to characterize metal/metalloid status in ditch sediments from different land uses. A total of 68 surface sediment samples (0-5 cm) were collected from open ditches distributed in different land use types, i.e., cultivated ditches (CD), barren land ditches (BLD), roadside ditches (RSD), and residential ditches (RD), within the Sichuan Basin. Mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Mn in both RD and RSD were above the soil background values of Sichuan Basin, but Cd in ditch sediments of the basin posed considerable ecological risk to the environment. Overall, metals/metalloid (except Pb) decreased in the following order of RD > RSD > BLD > CD. Of the different land use types in the hilly region, residential and roadside land uses were likely to adverse effects on aquatic life. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that Mn, As, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, and Al were mainly influenced by natural weathering (erosion), while Pb might come from heavy vehicular traffic. The degree of contamination (Md), enrichment factor (EF), and the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed that Cd causes strong sediment pollution in the basin. Sediment quality guidelines SQG-Q values displayed that metals and arsenic created medium-low potential of adverse biological effects. These results provide baseline information on the metals and arsenic pollution in the Sichuan Basin. Awareness of land use type contributions to metals and arsenic requires that these man-made ditches be considered for their mitigation of pollutants in this region.

  2. Biological durability and oxidative potential of man-made vitreous fibres as compared to crocidolite asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Hippeli, S; Dornisch, K; Wiethege, T; Gillissen, A; Müller, K M; Elstner, E F

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated relationships between redox properties and biodurability of crocidolite asbestos fibres and three different man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF): traditional stone wool fibres (MMVF 21), glass fibres (MMVF 11) and refractory ceramic fibres (RCF). Each fibre type was incubated up to 22 weeks in four different incubation media: gamble solution (GS) pH 5.0 and pH 7.4, representing blood plasma without proteins, and surfactant-like solution (SLS) pH 5.0 and pH 7.4. During incubation time aliquots of incubation mixtures were removed and analysed in a biochemical model reaction, mimicking activated phagocytes. In addition, changes of fibre morphology and chemical composition were examined using SEM- and EDX-technology. In the presence of crocidolite asbestos fibres and MMVF 21 the formation of OH*-radicals according to the Haber-Weiss sequence could be demonstrated, whereas MMVF 11 and RCF showed no reactivity. Crocidolite asbestos fibres exhibited a significant higher activity compared with the stone wool fibres at the onset of incubation. The oxidative capacities of these fibre types were shown to depend on both specific surface area and iron content. The oxidative potentials of crocidolite asbestos fibres as well as MMVF 21 were not constant during incubation over several weeks in each incubation medium. The reactivities showed sinoidal curves including reactivities much higher than those at the onset of incubation time. These irregular changes of oxidative capacity may be explained by changes of the redox state of fibre surface-complexed iron. Furthermore our results showed clear differences between incubation of fibres in GS and SLS, respectively, indicating that phospholipids play an important part in fibre dissolution behaviour and oxidative reactivity. In conclusion we suggest, that biodurability testing procedures should not exclusively concentrate on dissolution rates of fibres. They should include fibre characteristics concerning known

  3. Monitoring climate and man-made induced variations in terrestrial water storage (TWS) across Africa using GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. E.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.; Bonin, J. A.; Chouinard, K.

    2012-12-01

    It is common practice for researchers engaged in research related to climate change to examine the temporal variations in relevant climatic parameters (e.g., temperature, precipitation) and to extract and examine drought indices reproduced from one or more such parameters. Drought indices (meteorological, agricultural and hydrological) define departures from normal conditions and are used as proxies for monitoring water availability. Many of these indices exclude significant controlling factor(s), do not work well in specific settings and regions, and often require long (≥50 yr) calibration time periods and substantial meteorological data, limiting their application in areas lacking adequate observational networks. Additional uncertainties are introduced by the models used in computing model-dependent indices. Aside from these uncertainties, none of these indices measure the variability in terrestrial water storage (TWS), a term that refers to the total vertically integrated water content in an area regardless of the reservoir in which it resides. Inter-annual trends in TWS were extracted from monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data acquired (04/2002 to 08/2011) over Africa and correlated (in a GIS environment) with relevant temporal remote sensing, geologic, hydrologic, climatic, and topographic datasets. Findings include the following: (1) large sectors of Africa are undergoing statistically significant variations (+36 mm/yr to -16 mm/yr) due to natural and man-made causes; (2) warming of the tropical Atlantic ocean apparently intensified Atlantic monsoons and increased precipitation and TWS over western and central Africa's coastal plains, proximal mountainous source areas, and inland areas as far as central Chad; (3) warming in the central Indian Ocean decreased precipitation and TWS over eastern and southern Africa; (4) the high frequency of negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) increased precipitation and TWS over

  4. Cytotoxicity of respirable dusts from industrial minerals: comparison of two naturally occurring and two man-made silicates.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, D; Fouquette-Couture, L; Paradis, D; Khorami, J; Lane, D; Dunnigan, J

    1987-01-01

    The membranolytic and cytotoxic properties of two naturally occurring (chrysotile asbestos; attapulgite clay) and two man-made (Fiberfrax, an aluminium-silicate, and xonotlite, a calcium silicate) industrial minerals were compared. "Short" fiber fractions of chrysotile and Fiberfrax were obtained by sedimentation in demineralized water, while the attapulgite and xonotlite samples were used as obtained. The aluminium silicate fibers were found to be non- hemolytic, while for the other three silicates, chrysotile had the strongest hemolysis potential, followed very closely by xonotlite; attapulgite was less hemolytic than the former two silicates, but was nevertheless highly hemolytic to the rat erythrocytes. Using rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages, the in vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that with fresh cell monolayers, all four silicates were equivalent in causing cell damages at a dose of 250 micrograms; at a lower dose (50 micrograms), the intensity of the cytotoxic effect was in the decreasing order: Fiberfrax greater than attapulgite greater than chrysotile greater than xonotlite. With one day-old cultured cell monolayers, a dose of 250 micrograms of the silicates fibers was less cytotoxic, with the exception of the attapulgite fibers which remained essentially as cytotoxic as with the fresh cell monolayers. The reduced cytotoxic response was especially noticeable with the chrysotile fibers. At 50 micrograms, the cytotoxicity scale of the mineral dusts with one day-old cell monolayers was essentially the same as the one obtained with the fresh cell monolayers, that is: Fiberfrax approximately equal to attapulgite greater than chrysotile greater than or equal to xonotlite. Overall, these in vitro tests imply: 1) that all four industrial silicates tested can be considered to be "biologically active"; 2) that on the basis of their different reactivities with the two types of cell culture conditions used, their biological reactivity in vivo might be quite distinct

  5. Impact of Natural and Man-Made Factors on Mineral Composition of the Ardon River Water and Hydrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim, Ermakov; Elena, Korobova; Alexander, Degtyarev; Nina, Petrunina; Sergey, Tyutikov

    2013-04-01

    The Unal basin located in mountain region of Northern Ossetia (the Caucasus) belongs to Pb-Zn natural province with anthropogenic and natural transformation of the environment leading to risks of ecological damage. Activity of the Misursk Mining Combine and its Arkhon-Khosta tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn content in soils, water and biotic components relative to background values [1-5]. A catastrophic mud flow of 2002 and the later construction of a gas pipeline and a dam for hydroelectric power station changed local landscapes and biota (plants, algae, and amphibia). Biogeochemical studies performed in the area in 2001, 2003 and 2008 showed that in some cases the specified factors might change the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and the erosion of outcropping rocks which could be followed by corresponding transformation of the chemical composition of draining waters and flood plain soils, and could also change the character of species' invasion. Algae were proved to adapt and to indicate both natural and man-made transformation of the environment [3, 4]. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon river waters and water mineralization was discovered. However, heavy metals' concentration level in waters of the Ardon river appeared in general to be within the acceptable hygienic standards and therefore ecologically not critical. References 1. Degtyarev V.P., Ermakov V.V. Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geokhimiya, 1998, 1, 88-94. 2. Karpova E.A., Krechetova E.V., Degtyarev V.P. Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. Modern problems of soil contamination, Moscow State University, V. 1, 2007, 106-110. 3. Petrunina N.S., Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F., Karpova E.A., Levkina L.M., Gololobova M.A. Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic

  6. Testing surface gas monitoring methods at sites of natural and man-made CO2 seepage in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D.; Lister, R.; Barkwith, A.; Barlow, T.; Shaw, R.; Strutt, M.; Lombardi, S.; Beaubien, S.; Annunziatellis, A.; Graziani, S.

    2011-12-01

    temporal variability that is best achieved through continuous monitoring methods. Mobile open path laser CO2 and CH4 analysers have proved capable of detecting small gas vents at natural seepage, landfill and experimental sites. Both known and unknown features have been identified and areas accessible to all-terrain vehicles can be covered quickly. Mobile IR methods have also proved effective and can be deployed on foot in areas where vehicle access is not possible. Continuous monitoring has been tested successfully using eddy covariance and accumulation chamber arrays for CO2 flux, and buried or surface mounted monitoring stations for soil gas. Open path lasers can also be deployed at fixed locations for continuous monitoring. Useful experience has been gained through testing at natural and man-made CO2 seepage sites, and this has been transferred to develop and implement monitoring plans at proposed and actual CO2 storage sites.

  7. A domain-specific system for representing knowledge of both man-made objects and human actions. Evidence from a case with an association of deficits.

    PubMed

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-07-01

    We report the single-case study of a brain-damaged individual, JJG, presenting with a conceptual deficit and whose knowledge of living things, man-made objects, and actions was assessed. The aim was to seek for empirical evidence pertaining to the issue of how conceptual knowledge of objects, both living things and man-made objects, is related to conceptual knowledge of actions at the functional level. We first found that JJG's conceptual knowledge of both man-made objects and actions was similarly impaired while his conceptual knowledge of living things was spared as well as his knowledge of unique entities. We then examined whether this pattern of association of a conceptual deficit for both man-made objects and actions could be accounted for, first, by the "sensory/functional" and, second, the "manipulability" account for category-specific conceptual impairments advocated within the Feature-Based-Organization theory of conceptual knowledge organization, by assessing, first, patient's knowledge of sensory compared to functional features, second, his knowledge of manipulation compared to functional features and, third, his knowledge of manipulable compared to non-manipulable objects and actions. The later assessment also allowed us to evaluate an account for the deficits in terms of failures of simulating the hand movements implied by manipulable objects and manual actions. The findings showed that, contrary to the predictions made by the "sensory/functional", the "manipulability", and the "failure-of-simulating" accounts for category-specific conceptual impairments, the patient's association of deficits for both man-made objects and actions was not associated with a disproportionate impairment of functional compared to sensory knowledge or of manipulation compared to functional knowledge; manipulable items were not more impaired than non-manipulable items either. In the general discussion, we propose to account for the patient's association of deficits by the

  8. A trial on the quantitative risk assessment of man-made mineral fibers by the rat intraperitoneal administration assay using the JFM standard fibrous samples.

    PubMed

    Adachi, S; Kawamura, K; Takemoto, K

    2001-04-01

    We tried to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of man-made mineral fiber based on the mesothelioma incidence in female F344 rats after intraperitoneal administration. Rats (female F344/ Nslc, 5-week-old, n=330) were observed for 2 years after the intraperitoneal administration of 5 to 20 mg of 9 types of the JFM (Japan Fibrous Material Research Association) standard fiber samples (glass wool, rock wool, micro fiber glass, three types of refractory fiber, potassium titanate whisker, silicon carbide whisker, titanium oxide whisker), wollastonite (natural fiber) and UICC chrysotile B. All rats administered 10 mg of silicon carbide whisker had developed peritoneal mesothelioma within a year. The cumulative incidence of peritoneal mesothelioma at the end of the experiment was 85% for 10 mg UICC chrysotile B, 77% for 10 mg of potassium titanate whisker, 70% for 5 mg of silicon carbide whisker, 20% for 5 mg of potassium titanate whisker, 20% for 20 mg of refractory fiber 2 and 10% for 20 mg of refractory fiber 1. Carcinogenicity was estimated 2.4 times for silicon carbide whisker and 0.23 for potassium titanate whisker in comparison with UICC chrysotile B. It has been well documented from several experimental studies that man-made fibers are safer than asbestos because of the different durability in the lung. Present results consistently suggest that man-made fibers with high durability have similar or higher risk as carcinogen than asbestos.

  9. Man-made marine debris and sea turtle strandings on beaches of the upper Texas and southwestern Louisiana coasts, June 1987 through September 1989. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Duronslet, M.J.; Revera, D.B.; Stanley, K.M.

    1991-02-01

    The upper Texas and southwestern Louisiana coastlines were divided into six sampling zones to survey the amounts, types and rates of accumulation of man-made marine debris, the number of sea turtle strandings, the incidence of sea turtle entanglements in marine debris and the incidence of ingestion of such debris by sea turtles. From June 1987 through September 1989, 473 sample plots were examined for marine debris. Significant differences were detected in mean number of debris items per 100 sq m of beach sampled by year, zone and month. Significant differences in mean weight of debris items per 100 sq m of beach sampled were detected by month and zone. Both number and weights (per 100 sq m) of debris were lowest in the winter months. Number per 100 sq m was greatest in August while weight per 100 sq m peaked in May. Tar balls and plastic items were the most frequently encountered marine debris items. Wooden items had the highest average weights while tar balls and polystyrene foam were the lightest items collected. A total of 171 sea turtles stranded on the surveyed beaches during the study. Of 26 gastrointestinal tracts examined, 16 had ingested some form of man-made debris. Six turtles were entangled in man-made debris and 9 were live stranded.

  10. Mortality and incidence of cancer of workers in the man made vitreous fibres producing industry: an international investigation at 13 European plants.

    PubMed Central

    Saracci, R; Simonato, L; Acheson, E D; Andersen, A; Bertazzi, P A; Claude, J; Charnay, N; Esteve, J; Frentzel-Beyme, R R; Gardner, M J

    1984-01-01

    A total of 25 146 workers at 13 plants producing man made mineral fibres (MMMF) in seven European countries (Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, and United Kingdom) were studied in a historical cohort investigation. At 12 of the 13 plants an environmental survey was carried out to determine present day concentrations of airborne man made mineral fibres that showed levels of respirable fibres usually below 1 f/ml and most commonly in the range 0.01 to 0.1 f/ml. Workers were entered into the cohort at the moment of their first employment at one of the 13 factories (which started to operate between 1900 and 1955), and were followed up to at least 31 December 1977. Three per cent of the workers were lost to follow up. National death rates and national cancer incidence rates, where applicable, were used for each of the seven countries for comparison with the workers' cohort. A single death from mesothelioma was reported out of a total of 309 353 person-years of observation. No consistent differences (within and between plants) were noted between observed and expected numbers concerning individual causes of death or individual cancer sites, apart from lung cancer. For this cause a tendency was observed for the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) to increase with time from first employment. When the data from all the plants were pooled a statistically significant raised SMR of 192 (17 observed, 8.9 expected; 95% confidence interval 117-307) appeared in the group with 30 years or more since first employment. The relevance of this finding, to which different factors including uncontrolled confounders such as smoking habits may have contributed, cannot be established at present. The result is suggestive, however, of an increased risk associated with the man made mineral fibres working environment of 30 or more years ago. PMID:6498106

  11. Ground Observation of the Hayabusa Reentry: The Third Opportunity of Man-made Fireball from Interplanetary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Fujita, K.

    2010-12-01

    After 7 years and 6,000,000,000 km of challenging cruise in the solar system, the Hayabusa did come back to the Earth on June 13, 2010. The Hayabusa, the first sample-return explorer to NEA, landed on 25243 Itokawa in 2005, capturing surface particles on the S-type asteroid into its sample return capsule (SRC). Following to the reentries of the Genesis in 2004 and the Stardust in 2006, the return of the Hayabusa SRC was the third direct reentry event from the interplanetary transfer orbit to the Earth at a velocity of over 11.2 km/s. In addition, it was world first case of direct reentry of spacecraft from interplanetary transfer orbit. After the successful resumption of the SRC, it was carefully sent to ISAS/JAXA, and at present, small particles expected to be the first sample-return materials from the minor planet are carefully investigated. In order to obtain precise trajectory information to ensure the quick procedure for the Hayabusa SRC resumption team, we observed the Hayabusa SRC reentry by optically in Australian night sky. High-resolution imaging and spectroscopy were carried out with several high-sensitivity instruments to investigate thermal-protection process of thermal protection ablator (TPA) as well as interaction process between SRC surface materials and upper atmospheric neutral and plasma components. Moreover, shockwaves were observed by infrasound/seismic sensor arrays on ground to investigate reentry related shockwaves as well as air-to-ground coupling process at the extremely rare opportunity. With respect to nominal trajectory of the Hayabusa SRC reentry, four optical stations were set inside and near the Woomera Prohibited Area, Australia, targeting on peak-heat and/or front-heat profiles of ablating TPA for engineering aspect. Infrasound and seismic sensors were also deployed as three arrayed stations and three single stations to realize direction findings of sonic boom type shockwaves from the SRC and spacecraft and point source type

  12. Semantic memory impairment for biological and man-made objects in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or late-life depression.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Brandy L; Joubert, Sven; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Macoir, Joël; Belleville, Sylvie; Rousseau, François; Bouchard, Rémi W; Verret, Louis; Hudon, Carol

    2015-06-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and late-life depression (LLD) both increase the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Very little is known about the similarities and differences between these syndromes. The present study addresses this issue by examining the nature of semantic memory impairment (more precisely, object-based knowledge) in patients at risk of developing AD. Participants were 17 elderly patients with aMCI, 18 patients with aMCI plus depressive symptoms (aMCI/D+), 15 patients with LLD, and 29 healthy controls. All participants were aged 55 years or older and were administered a semantic battery designed to assess semantic knowledge for 16 biological and 16 man-made items. Overall performance of aMCI/D+ participants was significantly worse than the 3 other groups, and performance for questions assessing knowledge for biological items was poorer than for questions relating to man-made items. This study is the first to show that aMCI/D+ is associated with object-based semantic memory impairment. These results support the view that semantic deficits in aMCI are associated with concomitant depressive symptoms. However, depressive symptoms alone do not account exclusively for semantic impairment, since patients with LLD showed no semantic memory deficit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Natural and man-made induced hydrological signals, detected by high resolution tilt observations at the Geodynamic Observatory Moxa/Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, T.; Jentzsch, G.; Weise, A.

    2009-12-01

    It is well known, that high resolution borehole tiltmeters are able to observe deformations, caused by hydrological variations. The quantitative coherence is often unexplained, especially if the sources of deformation can be based on both natural as well as man-made hydrological variations. Since 1999 tilt observations have been taken at the Geodynamic Observatory Moxa in Thuringia/Germany. In two 50 m and one 100 m deep boreholes the ASKANIA tiltmeters are installed. The high quality of the recorded tilt data can be proved by the analysis of well known geodynamic signals like the tides of the solid Earth and the free modes of the Earth. Here we focus on investigations of induced tilt signals caused by pore pressure changes due to precipitation and/or ground water level changes and, in addition, on man-made induced pore pressure variations. The correlation of natural ground water level changes with the observed tilt data can be shown by different events of precipitation and snow melting. However, also the load effect of a big truck yields a small elastic deformation which is clearly detectable in the ground water level recording. The correlated tilt effect is discussed regarding changes of the tilt amplitude and the orientation of the induced pendulum tip movement during the load phase.

  14. Removal of PCDD/Fs from contaminated sediment and released effluent gas by charcoal in a proposed cost-effective thermal treatment process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Iwasaki, Kanae; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2013-11-01

    A novel cost-effective thermal treatment technology has been proposed for the removal of PCDD/Fs from contaminated sediment and released effluent gas using charcoal as both an adsorbent and a thermal source. When a reactor was used for thermal treatment, the PCDD/Fs removal efficiency exceeded 98% from the sediment at the three different air superficial velocities employed in this study. The total PCDD/F international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ) contents, both in the treated sediments and effluent gas, were below the Japanese emission standard limit. Analysis of the PCDD/F contents in different fractions showed that large quantities of PCDDs but not PCDFs were evaporated from the sediment and adsorbed in the moist sediment column. This difference was attributed to the formation of PCDDs from pentachlorophenol (PCP) during the cooling process following the thermal treatment process in the reactor. This proposed thermal process provides a promising alternative to the conventional methods.

  15. Far-field model of the regional influence of effluent plumes from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.P.

    1985-07-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants discharge large volumes of cold water into the upper ocean. A three-dimensional, limited-area model was developed to investigate the regional influence of the far-field effluent plume created by the negatively buoyant discharge. The model was applied to discharges from a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant into coastal waters characterized by various ambient ocean conditions. A typical ambient temperature structure and nutrient distribution, as well as the behavior of the effluent plume itself, were strongly modified by the discharge-induced circulation. Although temperature perturbations in the plume were small, upward entrainment of nutrients from below the thermocline was significant. The regional influence of discharges from an 80-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant, the interactions between the discharges from two adjacent 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plants, and the effects of coastal boundary and bottom discharge were examined with respect to the regional influence of a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant located in deep water off a coast (base case).

  16. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with the presence of Anopheles arabiensis immatures and their abundance in naturally occurring and man-made aquatic habitats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. Methods In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Results Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3–0.7]) was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5–0.8]). Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. Conclusions If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex and factors affecting

  17. Abiotic and biotic factors associated with the presence of Anopheles arabiensis immatures and their abundance in naturally occurring and man-made aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Gouagna, Louis Clément; Rakotondranary, Manpionona; Boyer, Sebastien; Lempérière, Guy; Dehecq, Jean-Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2012-05-19

    Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) is a potential malaria vector commonly present at low altitudes in remote areas in Reunion Island. Little attention has been paid to the environmental conditions driving larval development and abundance patterns in potential habitats. Two field surveys were designed to determine whether factors that discriminate between aquatic habitats with and without An. arabiensis larvae also drive larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats. In an initial preliminary survey, a representative sample of aquatic habitats that would be amenable to an intensive long-term study were selected and divided into positive and negative sites based on the presence or absence of Anopheles arabiensis larvae. Subsequently, a second survey was prompted to gain a better understanding of biotic and abiotic drivers of larval abundance, comparatively in man-made and naturally occurring habitats in the two studied locations. In both surveys, weekly sampling was performed to record mosquito species composition and larval density within individual habitats, as well as in situ biological characteristics and physico-chemical properties. Whilst virtually any stagnant water body could be a potential breeding ground for An. arabiensis, habitats occupied by their immatures had different structural and biological characteristics when compared to those where larvae were absent. Larval occurrence seemed to be influenced by flow velocity, macrofauna diversity and predation pressure. Interestingly, the relative abundance of larvae in man-made habitats (average: 0.55 larvae per dip, 95%CI [0.3-0.7]) was significantly lower than that recorded in naturally occurring ones (0.74, 95%CI [0.5-0.8]). Such differences may be accounted for in part by varying pressures that could be linked to a specific habitat. If the larval ecology of An. arabiensis is in general very complex and factors affecting breeding site productivity sometimes not easy to

  18. Effect of effluents of a thermal power plant complex on reproductive processs of a winter season weed

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, F.A.; Iqbal, M.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant Complex (located in the District Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India) runs on a low grade, sulphur rich, bituminous type of coal with a daily average consumption rte of about 3,192 metric tons during winter season. Its effluents, mainly consisting of oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon as well as particulate matters, were noted to affect the reproductive behavior of Melilotus indica-a winter season weed growing wild as a component of a grassland community. The samples consisting of 10 plants were collected at monthly intervals from 5 sites located about 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leaward from the Complex. Emergence of inflorescence was delayed at the polluted sites. However, fruit formation started simultaneously (in March) at all the five sites. The pollution induced senescence of floral buds, flowers and fruits, but did not alter markedly weight of seed and fruit.

  19. Effects of thermal power plant effluents on formation and senescence of reproductive parts of Anagallis arvensis L

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M.; Khan, F.A.; Saquib, M.; Ahmad, Z.; Ghouse, A.K.M. )

    1989-04-01

    Oxides of sulfur, nitrogen and carbon and particulates are the major air pollutants emitted in huge amounts by the Thermal Power Plant Complex of Kasimpur (Aligarh, UP, India) running on 3192 MT of coal/day. These effluents significantly affect reproductive phase of Anagallis arvensis L. Samples of 10 plants each were randomly collected at monthly intervals at seedling to mature stage from 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leeward from the power plant complex. Bud formation and flowering were delayed in the population thriving at 0.5 km from the pollution source. As a 2 month old stage, 60% of the population showed a decline in bud formation in the vicinity of the source compared to a heavy bud emergence in the whole population thriving 20 km away from it. Bud formation, flowering fruit set and seed set showed a correlation with multiple growth factors viz productivity, shoot length and distance from the source.

  20. Integrated use of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in two fish species to assess pollution in man-made hydroelectric reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Sakuragui, M M; Paulino, M G; Pereira, C D S; Carvalho, C S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H; Fernandes, M N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between contaminant body burden and the oxidative stress status of the gills and livers of two wild fish species in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station (HPS) reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Gills and livers presented similar pathways of metals and organochlorine bioaccumulation. During June, organochlorines were associated with lipid peroxidation (LPO), indicating oxidative stress due to the inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In the most polluted areas, metal concentrations in the liver were associated with metallothionein. During December, contaminants in the gills and liver were associated with catalase activity and LPO. Aldrin/dieldrin was the contaminant most associated with oxidative damage in the livers of both species. This integrated approach shed light on the relationship between adverse biological effects and bioaccumulation of contaminants inputted by intensive agricultural practices and proved to be a suitable tool for assessing the environmental quality of man-made reservoirs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An experiment protocol for a search for radio signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin in the presence of man-made radio frequency sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of signal extraction in a microwave search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence are examined. Parametric relations are summarized which are applicable to a microwave search of constrained duration that employs FFT spectrum-analyzer receivers, with sensitivity enhancement by spectrum accumulation and detection by a threshold criterion. Three types of natural and man-made false alarms are identified, the probability of false alarm in a single data channel is computed, and the implications of false alarms for a constant-beamwidth sky survey are considered. It is shown that the key to an efficient search is the prompt and unambiguous elimination of false alarms. An experimental protocol is suggested which eliminates spurious signals primarily through procedural techniques involving antenna repointing, delayed repeated observations, and storage of particular historical parameters for suspect signals.

  2. An experiment protocol for a search for radio signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin in the presence of man-made radio frequency sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of signal extraction in a microwave search for evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence are examined. Parametric relations are summarized which are applicable to a microwave search of constrained duration that employs FFT spectrum-analyzer receivers, with sensitivity enhancement by spectrum accumulation and detection by a threshold criterion. Three types of natural and man-made false alarms are identified, the probability of false alarm in a single data channel is computed, and the implications of false alarms for a constant-beamwidth sky survey are considered. It is shown that the key to an efficient search is the prompt and unambiguous elimination of false alarms. An experimental protocol is suggested which eliminates spurious signals primarily through procedural techniques involving antenna repointing, delayed repeated observations, and storage of particular historical parameters for suspect signals.

  3. Man-Made Climatic Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberg, Helmut E.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

  4. Modeling Man-Made Epidemics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    weapons. B. BACKGROUND 1. The Study of Epidemics The study of epidemics is as old as the study of medicine. Hippocrates , in the fifth century B.C...mortality rate. He was also able to track the seasonal change in mortality rates that Hippocrates had mentioned more the 2000 years prior. [Ref. 4: pp. 4

  5. Man-Made Climatic Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberg, Helmut E.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

  6. Data Mining of Satellite-Based Measurements to Distinguish Natural From Man-Made Oil Slicks at the Sea Surface in Campeche Bay (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, G. D. A.; Minnett, P. J.; de Miranda, F. P.; Landau, L.; Paes, E.

    2016-02-01

    Campeche Bay, located in the Mexican portion of the Gulf of Mexico, has a well-established activity engaged with numerous oil rigs exploring and producing natural gas and oil. The associated risk of oil slicks in this region - that include oil spills (i.e. oil floating at the sea surface solely attributed to man-made activities) and oil seeps (i.e. surface footprint of the oil that naturally comes out of the seafloor reaching the surface of the ocean) - leads Pemex to be in a continuous state of alert for reducing possible negative influence on marine and coastal ecosystems. Focusing on a monitoring strategy, a multi-year dataset (2008-2012) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) measurements from the RADARSAT-2 satellite is used to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of the oil slicks observed at the surface of the ocean in the Campeche Bay region. The present study is an exploratory data analysis that seeks to discriminate between these two possible oil slick types: oil seeps and oil spills. Multivariate data analysis techniques (e.g. Principal Components Analysis, Clustering Analysis, Discriminant Function, etc.) are explored to design a data-learning classification algorithm to distinguish natural from man-made oil slicks. This analysis promotes a novel idea bridging geochemistry and remote sensing research to express geophysical differences between seeped and spilled oil. Here, SAR backscatter coefficients - i.e. sigma-naught (σo), beta-naught (βo), and gamma-naught (γo) - are combined with attributes referring to the geometry, shape, and dimension that describe the oil slicks. Results indicate that the synergy of combining these various characteristics is capable of distinguishing oil seeps from oil spills observed on the sea surface to a useful accuracy.

  7. Man-Made Climatic Changes: Man's activities have altered the climate of urbanized areas and may affect global climate in the future.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, H E

    1970-12-18

    Natural climatic fluctuations, even those of recent years, cover a considerable range. They can be characterized as a "noise" spectrum which masks possible global effects of man-caused increases of atmospheric CO(2) and particulates. Local modifications, either deliberate or inadvertent, measurably affect the microclimate. Some artificial alterations of the microlimate are beneficial in agriculture. Among the unplanned effects, those produced by urbanization on local temperature and on wind field are quite pronounced. The influences on rainfall are still somewhat controversial, but effects may extend considerably beyond the confines of metropolitan areas. They are the result of water vapor released by human activity and of the influence of condensation and freezing nuclei produced in overabundance by motor vehicles and other combustion processes. Therefore it appears that on the local scale man-made influences on climate are substantial but that on the global scale natural forces still prevail. Obviously this should not lead to complacency. The potential for anthropogenic changes of climate on a larger and even a global scale is real. At this stage activation of an adequate worldwide monitoring system to permit early assessment of these changes is urgent. This statement applies particularly to the surveillance of atmospheric composition and radiation balance at sites remote from concentrations of population, which is now entirely inadequate. In my opinion, man-made aerosols, because of their optical properties and possible influences on cloud and precipitation processes, constitute a more acute problem than CO(2). Many of their effects are promptly reversible; hence, one should strive for elimination at the source. Over longer intervals, energy added to the atmosphere by heat rejection and CO(2) absorption remain matters of concern.

  8. Is the preference of natural versus man-made scenes driven by bottom-up processing of the visual features of nature?

    PubMed

    Kardan, Omid; Demiralp, Emre; Hout, Michael C; Hunter, MaryCarol R; Karimi, Hossein; Hanayik, Taylor; Yourganov, Grigori; Jonides, John; Berman, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that viewing images of nature scenes can have a beneficial effect on memory, attention, and mood. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the preference of natural versus man-made scenes is driven by bottom-up processing of the low-level visual features of nature. We used participants' ratings of perceived naturalness as well as esthetic preference for 307 images with varied natural and urban content. We then quantified 10 low-level image features for each image (a combination of spatial and color properties). These features were used to predict esthetic preference in the images, as well as to decompose perceived naturalness to its predictable (modeled by the low-level visual features) and non-modeled aspects. Interactions of these separate aspects of naturalness with the time it took to make a preference judgment showed that naturalness based on low-level features related more to preference when the judgment was faster (bottom-up). On the other hand, perceived naturalness that was not modeled by low-level features was related more to preference when the judgment was slower. A quadratic discriminant classification analysis showed how relevant each aspect of naturalness (modeled and non-modeled) was to predicting preference ratings, as well as the image features on their own. Finally, we compared the effect of color-related and structure-related modeled naturalness, and the remaining unmodeled naturalness in predicting esthetic preference. In summary, bottom-up (color and spatial) properties of natural images captured by our features and the non-modeled naturalness are important to esthetic judgments of natural and man-made scenes, with each predicting unique variance.

  9. Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: VI. Respiratory system cancer standardized mortality ratios adjusted for the confounding effect of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Marsh, G M; Buchanich, J M; Youk, A O

    2001-09-01

    To date, the US cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber workers has provided no consistent evidence of a relationship between man-made vitreous fiber exposure and mortality from malignant or non-malignant respiratory disease. Nevertheless, there have been small, overall excesses in respiratory system cancer (RSC) among workers from the fiberglass and rock/slag wool production plants included in the study that were unexplained by estimated worker exposures to respirable fiber or other agents present in the plants. The present investigation was designed to provide a quantitative estimate of the extent to which the overall excess in RSC mortality observed at the total cohort level among male fiberglass and rock/slag wool workers is a result of the positive confounding effects of cigarette smoking. Because cigarette-smoking data were neither available nor obtainable at the individual level for all members of the fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts, we used the "indirect" method to adjust RSC standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) at the group (cohort and plant) level. Our adjustment suggested that cigarette smoking accounts for all of the 7% and 24% excesses in RSC observed, respectively, for the male fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts in the latest mortality updates. The same conclusion was reached regardless of which of several alternative formulations were used to adjust local rate-based RSC SMRs. We found that our smoking adjustments were robust with respect to several alternative characterizations and (with the exception of one fiberglass plant) produced adjusted RSC SMRs that were lower than their unadjusted counterparts. Further, all statistically significantly elevated unadjusted SMRs were reduced to not statistically significant levels. These results reaffirm that RSC SMRs based on US and local rates must take into account the potential confounding effects of cigarette smoking. They also suggest that the use of local county mortality rate-based SMRs may not

  10. Effect of chlorine and temperature on free-living protozoa in operational man-made water systems (cooling towers and hot sanitary water systems) in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Canals, Oriol; Serrano-Suárez, Alejandra; Salvadó, Humbert; Méndez, Javier; Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Dellundé, Jordi; Araujo, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, free-living protozoa (FLP) have gained prominence as the focus of research studies due to their pathogenicity to humans and their close relationship with the survival and growth of pathogenic amoeba-resisting bacteria. In the present work, we studied the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems, i.e. cooling towers (CT) and hot sanitary water systems (HSWS), related to a high risk of Legionella spp. outbreaks, as well as the effect of the biocides used, i.e. chlorine in CT and high temperature in HSWS, on FLP. In CT samples, high-chlorine concentrations (7.5 ± 1.5 mg chlorine L(-1)) reduced the presence of FLP by 63.8 % compared to samples with low-chlorine concentrations (0.04 ± 0.08 mg chlorine L(-1)). Flagellates and amoebae were observed in samples collected with a level of 8 mg chlorine L(-1), which would indicate that some FLP, including the free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba spp., are resistant to the discontinuous chlorine disinfection method used in the CT studied. Regarding HSWS samples, the amount of FLP detected in high-temperatures samples (53.1 ± 5.7 °C) was 38 % lower than in low-temperature samples (27.8 ± 5.8 °C). The effect of high temperature on FLP was chiefly observed in the results obtained by the culture method, in which there was a clear reduction in the presence of FLP at temperatures higher than 50 °C, but not in those obtained by PCR. The findings presented here show that the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems should be taken into account in future regulations.

  11. Is the preference of natural versus man-made scenes driven by bottom–up processing of the visual features of nature?

    PubMed Central

    Kardan, Omid; Demiralp, Emre; Hout, Michael C.; Hunter, MaryCarol R.; Karimi, Hossein; Hanayik, Taylor; Yourganov, Grigori; Jonides, John; Berman, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that viewing images of nature scenes can have a beneficial effect on memory, attention, and mood. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the preference of natural versus man-made scenes is driven by bottom–up processing of the low-level visual features of nature. We used participants’ ratings of perceived naturalness as well as esthetic preference for 307 images with varied natural and urban content. We then quantified 10 low-level image features for each image (a combination of spatial and color properties). These features were used to predict esthetic preference in the images, as well as to decompose perceived naturalness to its predictable (modeled by the low-level visual features) and non-modeled aspects. Interactions of these separate aspects of naturalness with the time it took to make a preference judgment showed that naturalness based on low-level features related more to preference when the judgment was faster (bottom–up). On the other hand, perceived naturalness that was not modeled by low-level features was related more to preference when the judgment was slower. A quadratic discriminant classification analysis showed how relevant each aspect of naturalness (modeled and non-modeled) was to predicting preference ratings, as well as the image features on their own. Finally, we compared the effect of color-related and structure-related modeled naturalness, and the remaining unmodeled naturalness in predicting esthetic preference. In summary, bottom–up (color and spatial) properties of natural images captured by our features and the non-modeled naturalness are important to esthetic judgments of natural and man-made scenes, with each predicting unique variance. PMID:25954228

  12. A Space Dust Experiment (SPADUS) for Measurement of the Distribution of Man-made and Natural Dust in the Near-earth Space for Flight on the P91-1 Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    measurements of the mass, flux, velocity and arrival directions of individual particles in near-Earth space, both for man-made particles ( orbital debris ) and...Earth space; c) To determine the trajectory for each incident dust particle and thus to determine its likely origin as either man-made orbital debris (occupying...distribution for small debris particles; f) To characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of orbital debris (debris streams); g) To obtain data

  13. A Space Dust Experiment (SPADUS) for Measurement of the Distribution of Man-made and Natural Dust in Near-Earth Space for Flight on the P91-1 Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    arrival directions of individual particles in near-Earth space, both for man-made particles ( orbital debris ) and for particles of natural origin. These...2. Evaluate the trajectories of incident dust particles, and thus determine their likely origin as either man-made orbital debris (occupying... orbital debris (i.e., debris streams). The SPADUS flight instrument, shown in figure 1, consists of: (a) a dust trajectory system consisting of

  14. Thermal mapping, geothermal source location, natural effluents and plant stress in the Mediterranean coast of Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delascuevas, R. N.; Desagredo, D. F. L.; Miralles, D. J. M.; Araujo, D. P. H.; Perlado, D. J. P.; Parrilla, D. G.; Picon, D. J. L.; Labrandero, D. J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Although no significant results were achieved during the report period, research continues. A sample of imagery showing thermal inertia and temperature differences over the northeastern United States and Europe was received. The project coordinator attended a TELLUS Project meeting in Ispra, Italy at which general guidelines for the future were established and the quality of the data received was discussed.

  15. Currents, Water Budget and Turn-Over Time Within A Man-Made Coastal Mega-Structure: Palm Jumeirah, Southern Arabian Gulf, United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, G.; Kjerfve, B.

    2009-05-01

    Large-scale land reclamation projects along the coastline of Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), are set to expand from 45 km of natural shoreline to more than 1,500 km by 2010. The increasing scale of coastal development in Dubai has large-scale effects on water movement throughout the project area. Palm Jumeirah is the oldest, most well-developed of several man-made coastal mega-constructions in Dubai. This construction project started 6 years ago, has an overall surface area of 7.9 km2 and a footprint of 23 km2, and is connected to the coast via a 5-km long spine from the mainland to the crescent tip. We made time series observations of hydrographic properties and currents within the Palm Jumeirah Lagoon (PJL) during 29 days in April/May 2008 to examine the current flows, water budget, salt transport, and turn-over time. The currents and water flow within the PJL were quite variable, with stronger currents, greater material transports, lower water temperatures, and slightly lower salinities in areas close to the entrances where flushing is ample. Due to the shallow water depths, we found only weak vertical stratification during a tidal cycle. The lagoon system is comprised of 18 blind channels surrounded by a semi-circular open channel, which in turn is linked to the coastal waters by 4 gaps (one each on the East and West sides and two at the base of the development) in the rocky breakwater that surrounds the development. We found substantial differences in water discharge between the east and west gaps, with high discharge on average exiting the east gap and extremely low water discharge exiting the west gap. Our results indicate that the PJL is flushed unequally between the east and west sides with residence times of 1.2 and 42 days for the east and west sides of the development, respectively. Previous studies of water residence time using the DELFT3D hydrodynamics simulation modeling software did not capture this difference accurately, estimating residence

  16. Lactose Variability of Escherichia coli in Thermally Stressed Reactor Effluent Waters

    PubMed Central

    Kasweck, K. L.; Fliermans, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lactose-utilizing and nalidixic acid-resistant populations of Escherichia coli, having an optimum growth temperature of 37°C, were placed in modified diffusion chambers. The chambers were submerged in the epilimnion and hypolimnion of a 1,100-hectare lake (Par Pond) which receives cooling water from a nuclear production reactor. Control chambers were placed in a deep-water reservoir and a Flowing-Streams Laboratory, both of which had comparable temperatures to Par Pond. The populations of E. coli were sampled regularly for up to 3 weeks. Viability of the bacteria was determined by dilution plating to nutrient agar followed by replicate plating onto selective medium to determine lactose utilization and nalidixic acid sensitivity. Initial populations of E. coli were lactose positive but changed to lactose negative in Par Pond when the reactor was operating (i.e., cooling water from the heat exchangers was being discharged to the lake). This alteration occurred most rapidly in the chambers closest to the cooling-water discharge point. Such changes did not occur in a deep-water reservoir, in Par Pond when the reactor was not operating, or in the Flowing-Streams Laboratory. The nalidixic acid-resistant characteristic remained stable regardless of the chambers' placement or reactor operations. Although the reasons for such alterations are unclear, it appears that lactose-negative populations of E. coli are selected for in these reactor effluent waters. The loss of the lactose characteristic prevents the recognition and identification of E. coli in this cooling lake (when the reactor is operating) and may prevent the assessment of water quality based on coliform recognition. PMID:365111

  17. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of lamda-lacI transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Topinka, J; Loli, P; Hurbáková, M; Kováciková, Z; Volkovová, K; Wolff, T; Oesterle, D; Kyrtopoulos, S A; Georgiadis, P

    2006-03-20

    In an attempt to examine the interaction of man-made mineral fibres with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), homozygous X-lacI transgenic F344 rats were intratracheally treated with rock (stone) wool RWI and glass wool MMVF 10 fibres together with B[a]P. To analyze the induction of gene mutations by fibres and B[a]P in lung, single doses of 1 and 2 mg fibres/animal or multiple doses of 2 mg fibres/animal were administered weekly on 4 consecutive weeks (total dose 8 mg/animal). B[a]P (10 mg/animal) was administered either simultaneously with fibres (for single dose treatment with fibres) or together with the last fiber treatment (for multiple dose treatment with fibres). Animals were scarified 4 weeks after the last treatment. Benzo[a]pyrene administered simultaneously with RW1 fibres exhibited a strong synergistic effect on mutagenicity, the observed mutant frequency (MF) being more than three-fold higher than the net sum of the MF induced after separate administration of both agents. Our data suggest that DNA adducts induced by simultaneous B[a]P and fiber treatment lead to a strong increase in mutatant frequencies.

  18. The use of tethered satellites for the collection of cosmic dust and the sampling of man made orbital debris far from the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corso, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a tethered subsatellite employed downward into the earth's upper atmosphere to an altitude of about 110 km above the earth would eliminate the orbital contamination problem while at the same time affording a measure of atmospheric braking to reduce the velocities of many particles to where they may be captured intact or nearly so with properly designed collectors. The same technique could also be used to monitor the flux of all types of man-made orbital debris out to a distance of more than a hundred kilometers in any direction from the space station. In this way the build up of any debris belt orbiting earth could be determined. The actual collecting elements used for both purposes could be of several different materials and designs so as to optimize the collection of different types of particles with different densities. Stacks of foils, films, plastics, and foams, as well as simple capture cells would be mounted in clusters around the outside of a tethered satellite and protected by iris covers until the tethered had been fully deployed. If the orientation history of the satellite were known the direction of the incoming material could be infered. A chief advantage in deploying such tethered collectors from the Space Station instead of from the shuttle is the ability to maintain deployment of the tether for days instead of hours resulting in much greater yields of intact particles and impact debris.

  19. Close encounters of the small kind: adverse effects of man-made materials interfacing with the nano-cosmos of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, Anna A; Kagan, Valerian E; Fadeel, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have unique physico-chemical properties that make them promising for many technological and biomedical applications, including tissue regeneration, drug and gene delivery, and in vivo monitoring of disease processes. However, with the burgeoning capabilities to manipulate structures at the nano-scale, intentional as well as unintentional human exposures to engineered nanomaterials are set to increase. Nanotoxicology is an emerging discipline focused on understanding the properties of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with biological systems, and may be viewed as the study of the undesirable interference between man-made nanomaterials and cellular nanostructures or nanomachines. In this review, we discuss recognition of engineered nanomaterials by the immune system, our primary defense system against foreign invasion. Moreover, as oxidative stress is believed to be one of the major deleterious consequences of exposure to nanomaterials, we explore triggering of pro- and antioxidant pathways as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Finally, we highlight in vivo studies of the toxicological outcomes of engineered nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, with an emphasis on inflammation and genotoxic responses.

  20. Ecology of rabies virus exposure in colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at natural and man-made roosts in Texas.

    PubMed

    Turmelle, Amy S; Allen, Louise C; Jackson, Felix R; Kunz, Thomas H; Rupprecht, Charles E; McCracken, Gary F

    2010-03-01

    Previous studies have investigated rabies virus (RABV) epizootiology in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in natural cave roosts. However, little is known about geographic variation in RABV exposure, or if the use of man-made roosts by this species affects enzootic RABV infection dynamics within colonies. We sampled rabies viral neutralizing antibodies in bats at three bridge and three cave roosts at multiple time points during the reproductive season to investigate temporal and roost variation in RABV exposure. We report seropositive bats in all age and sex classes with minimal geographic variation in RABV seroprevalence among Brazilian free-tailed bat colonies in south-central Texas. While roost type was not a significant predictor of RABV seroprevalence, it was significantly associated with seasonal fluctuations, suggesting patterns of exposure that differ between roosts. Temporal patterns suggest increased RABV seroprevalence after parturition in cave colonies, potentially related to an influx of susceptible young, in contrast to more uniform seroprevalence in bridge colonies. This study highlights the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding patterns of RABV seroprevalence in colonies of the Brazilian free-tailed bat.

  1. Dissolution of man-made vitreous fibers in rat alveolar macrophage culture and Gamble's saline solution: influence of different media and chemical composition of the fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, K; Holopainen, M; Karppinen, K; Perander, M; Savolainen, K

    1994-01-01

    The effect of different chemical compositions of man-made vitreous fibers (MMVF) on their dissolution by alveolar macrophages (AM) in culture and in Gamble's solution was studied. The fibers were exposed to cultured rat AMs, culture medium alone; or Gamble's saline solution for 2, 4, or 8 days. The dissolution of the fibers was studied by measuring the amount of silicon (Si), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al) in each medium. The AMs in culture dissolved Fe and Al from the fibers but the dissolution of Si was more marked in the cell culture medium without cells and in the Gamble's solution. The dissolution of Si, Fe, and Al was different for different fibers, and increased as a function of time. The Fe and Al content of the fibers correlated negatively with the dissolution of Si by AMs from the MMVF, i.e., when the content of Fe and Al of the fibers increased the dissolution of Si decreased. These results suggest that the chemical composition of MMVFs has a marked effect on their dissolution. AMs seem to affect the dissolution of Fe and Al from the fibers. This suggests that in vitro models with cells in the media rather than only culture media or saline solutions would be preferable in dissolution studies of MMVFs. PMID:7882911

  2. 40 CFR 458.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black Thermal Process Subcategory § 458.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  3. Adapting to a Changing World: Unraveling the Role of Man-Made Habitats as Alternative Feeding Areas for Slender-Billed Gull (Chroicocephalus genei)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Francisco; Navarro, Joan; Afán, Isabel; Hobson, Keith A.; Delgado, Antonio; Forero, Manuela G.

    2012-01-01

    Current rates of wildlife habitat loss have placed increasing demands on managers to develop, validate and implement tools aimed at improving our ability to evaluate such impacts on wildlife. Here, we present a case study conducted at the Natural Area of Doñana (SW Spain) where remote sensing and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) analyses of individuals were combined to unravel (1) the effect of variations in availability of natural food resources (i.e. from natural marshes) on reproductive performance of a Slender-billed Gull (Chroicocephalus genei) population, and (2) the role of two adjacent, artificial systems (a fish farm and saltmines) as alternate anthropogenic feeding areas. Based on long-term (1983–2004) remote-sensing, we inferred the average extent of flooded area at the marshland (a proxy to natural resource availability) annually. Estimated flooded areas (ranging from extreme drought [ca. 151 ha, 1995] to high moisture [15,049 ha, 2004]) were positively related to reproductive success of gulls (estimated for the 1993–2004 period, and ranging from ca. 0 to 1.7 fledglings per breeding pairs), suggesting that habitat availability played a role in determining their reproductive performance. Based on blood δ13C and δ15N values of fledglings, 2001–2004, and a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, we conclude that saltmines acted as the main alternative foraging habitat for gulls, with relative contributions increasing as the extent of marshland decreased. Although adjacent, anthropogenic systems have been established as the preferred breeding sites for this gull population, dietary switches towards exploitation of alternative (anthropogenic) food resources negatively affected the reproductive output of this species, thus challenging the perception that these man-made systems are necessarily a reliable buffer against loss of natural feeding habitats. The methodology and results derived from this study could be extended to a large suite of threatened natural

  4. Artificial wetlands as tools for frog conservation: stability and variability of reproduction characteristics in Sahara frog populations in Tunisian man-made lakes.

    PubMed

    Bellakhal, Meher; Neveu, André; Fertouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Aleya, Lotfi

    2017-09-27

    Amphibian populations are in decline principally due to climate change, environmental contaminants, and the reduction in wetlands. Even though data concerning current population trends are scarce, artificial wetlands appear to play a vital role in amphibian conservation. This study concerns the reproductive biology of the Sahara frog over a 2-year period in four Tunisian man-made lakes. Each month, gonad state (parameters: K, GSI, LCI), fecundity, and fertility of females (using 1227 clutches) were evaluated in the field under controlled conditions. Clutches were present for 110-130 days at two of the sites, but only for 60-80 days at the other two. Maximum egg laying occurred in May, corresponding to the highest point in the gonad somatic index. Clutch densities were higher in the smaller lakes. Female fecundity was in relation to body size; mean clutch fecundity attained 1416 eggs, with no differences observed according to site. Egg fertility varied over a 1-year period, with a maximum in May followed by a decrease when water temperature was at its highest. Eggs were smaller at the beginning of spawning; maximum size was in May, which might explain the higher fertility, but no maternal influence was detected. Embryonic development was strictly dependent on temperature. The population at each site appeared as a small patch within a metapopulation in overall good health, as shown by the relative temporal stability in reproduction variables. Constructed wetlands may therefore play an important role in the conservation of amphibians, especially in semi-arid zones.

  5. Impact of climate change and man-made irrigation systems on the transmission risk, long-term trend and seasonality of human and animal fascioliasis in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afshan, Kiran; Fortes-Lima, Cesar A; Artigas, Patricio; Valero, Adela M; Qayyum, Mazhar; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of the province of Punjab, Pakistan are endemic for fascioliasis, resulting in high economic losses due to livestock infection but also affecting humans directly. The prevalence in livestock varies pronouncedly in space and time (1-70%). Climatic factors influencing fascioliasis presence and potential spread were analysed based on data from five meteorological stations during 1990-2010. Variables such as wet days (Mt), water-budget-based system (Wb-bs) indices and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were obtained and correlated with geographical distribution, seasonality patterns and the two-decade evolution of fascioliasis in livestock throughout the province. The combined approach by these three indices proved to furnish a useful tool to analyse the complex epidemiology that includes (i) sheep-goats and cattlebuffaloes presenting different immunological responses to fasciolids; (ii) overlap of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica; (iii) co-existence of highlands and lowlands in the area studied; and (iv) disease transmission following bi-seasonality with one peak related to natural rainfall and another peak related to man-made irrigation. Results suggest a human infection situation of concern and illustrate how climate and anthropogenic environment modifications influence both geographical distribution and seasonality of fascioliasis risks. Increased fascioliasis risk throughout the Punjab plain and its decrease in the northern highlands of the province became evident during the study period. The high risk in the lowlands is worrying given that Punjab province largely consists of low-altitude, highly irrigated plains. The importance of livestock in this province makes it essential to prioritise adequate control measures. An annual treatment scheme to control the disease is recommended to be applied throughout the whole province.

  6. Design of nano- and microfiber combined scaffolds by electrospinning of collagen onto starch-based fiber meshes: a man-made equivalent of natural extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Tuzlakoglu, Kadriye; Santos, Marina I; Neves, Nuno; Reis, Rui L

    2011-02-01

    Mimicking the structural organization and biologic function of natural extracellular matrix has been one of the main goals of tissue engineering. Nevertheless, the majority of scaffolding materials for bone regeneration highlights biochemical functionality in detriment of mechanical properties. In this work we present a rather innovative construct that combines in the same structure electrospun type I collagen nanofibers with starch-based microfibers. These combined structures were obtained by a two-step methodology and structurally consist in a type I collagen nano-network incorporated on a macro starch-based support. The morphology of the developed structures was assessed by several microscopy techniques and the collagenous nature of the nano-network was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, and especially regarding the requirements of large bone defects, we also successfully introduced the concept of layer by layer, as a way to produce thicker structures. In an attempt to recreate bone microenvironment, the design and biochemical composition of the combined structures also envisioned bone-forming cells and endothelial cells (ECs). The inclusion of a type I collagen nano-network induced a stretched morphology and improved the metabolic activity of osteoblasts. Regarding ECs, the presence of type I collagen on the combined structures provided adhesive support and obviated the need of precoating with fibronectin. It was also importantly observed that ECs on the nano-network organized into circular structures, a three-dimensional arrangement distinct from that observed for osteoblasts and resembling the microcappillary-like organizations formed during angiogenesis. By providing simultaneously physical and chemical cues for cells, the herein-proposed combined structures hold a great potential in bone regeneration as a man-made equivalent of extracellular matrix.

  7. Developing a vacuum thermal stripping - acid absorption process for ammonia recovery from anaerobic digester effluent.

    PubMed

    Ukwuani, Anayo T; Tao, Wendong

    2016-12-01

    To prevent acetoclastic methanogens from ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion of protein-rich substrates, ammonia needs to be removed or recovered from digestate. This paper presents an innovative ammonia recovery process that couples vacuum thermal stripping with acid absorption. Ammonia is stripped out of digestate boiling at a temperature below the normal boiling point due to vacuum. Stripped ammonia is absorbed to a sulfuric acid solution, forming ammonium sulfate crystals as a marketable product. Three common types of digestate were found to have boiling point temperature-vacuum curves similar to water. Seven combinations of boiling temperature and vacuum (50 °C 16.6 kPa, 58 °C 20.0 kPa, 65 °C 25.1 kPa, 70 °C 33.6 kPa, 80 °C 54.0 kPa, 90 °C 74.2 kPa, and 100 °C 101.3 kPa) were tested for batch stripping of ammonia in dairy manure digestate. 93.3-99.9% of ammonia was stripped in 3 h. The Lewis-Whitman model fitted ammonia stripping process well. Ammonia mass transfer coefficient was significantly higher at boiling temperature 65-100 °C and vacuum pressure 25.1-101.3 kPa than 50-58 °C and 16.6-20.0 kPa. The low ammonia saturation concentrations (0-24 mg N/L) suggested a large driving force to strip ammonia. The optimum boiling point temperature - vacuum pressure for ammonia recovery in a recirculation line of a mesophilic digester was 65 °C and 25.1 kPa, at which the ammonia mass transfer coefficient was as high as 37.3 mm/h. Installation of a demister and liquid trap could avoid negative effects of higher stripping temperature and stronger vacuum on formation of ammonium sulfate crystals. Pilot tests demonstrated that high-purity ammonium sulfate crystals could be produced by controlling sulfuric acid content and maintaining acid solution saturated with ammonium sulfate. Although volatile organic compounds such as cyclohexene were found in the final acid solutions, no volatile organic compounds were found in the recovered

  8. Spatio-temporal variation of biting flies, Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae), along a man-made disturbance gradient, from primary forest to the city of Makokou (North-East, Gabon).

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, J-F; Picard, N; Kohagne, L T; M'batchi, B; Gilles, J; Duvallet, G

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the pattern of abundance of vector populations is important to control the potential of transmission of associated pathogens. The pattern of abundance of Stomoxys Geoffroy, an ubiquitous blood-sucking fly, is poorly known in tropical Africa. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal pattern of abundance of the Stomoxys genus along a gradient of man-made disturbance in north-eastern Gabon. Three sites (one in primary forest, one in secondary forest and one in a man-made environment) were monitored during 13 months using Vavoua traps. Seven species and subspecies were found to live in sympatry, but with distinct patterns of abundance with respect to space and time. The most abundant species was Stomoxys transvittatus Villeneuve, whereas the rarest species was S. xanthomelas Roubaud. Stomoxys calcitrans Linné was preferentially found in man-made environments, whereas S. xanthomelas was preferentially found in primary forest. Stomoxys abundance was the greatest in secondary forest, then in man-made environments and finally in primary forest. A seasonal variation in Stomoxys abundance was also found. In conclusion, forest degradation and deforestation are likely both to favour the concentration of populations of Stomoxys, and to change the specific composition of the Stomoxys community.

  9. Concrete-Water-Interaction and Ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) Precipitation in a Man-Made River Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, R.; Dietzel, M.; Reichl, P.; Leis, A.; Pölt, P.; Baldermann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Centimetre-thick, beige-colored and soft crusts were observed shortly after construction of a man-made river bed, i.e. a small natural river was bypassed flowing through a new bed lined with concrete and blocks. Hydrochemical investigations during wintertime - when water temperatures dropped down close to freezing - showed surprisingly high pH values up to 13.0 and elevated Ca2+ concentrations up to 200 mg/l. Both, the artifical and natural (downstream) section of the river bed were affected by the anomalous hydrochemistry and formation of prominent secondary precipitates. In order to better understand the particular and rapid water-rock-interaction, a hydrochemical monitoring program was launched and several of the delicate precipitates were recovered in refrigerator boxes in their original solution. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory within a few hours after sampling and stored at 1 °C. XRD and FT-IR patterns clearly revealed the predominant occurrence of "ikaite" in the crusts next to minor amounts of other carbonates (calcite, aragonite, vaterite) and detrital minerals. Ikaite - calcium carbonate hexahydrate - is a worldwide rarely documented carbonate mineral. This mineral is metastable and needs particular and narrow conditions in order to precipitate from solutions, i.e. a very limited water-temperature range between 0 and 4 °C (with ambient-pressure and low-salinity), highly alkaline pH conditions, high supersaturation values, and in many cases carbonate precipitation inhibitors (e.g. phosphates). Outside these conditions it disintegrates into calcite and water within minutes to hours. The few places of ikaite formation include Ikka Fjord in Greenland, Arctic- and Antarctic sea-ice and some sites of water mixing at Mono Lake, California. Combining detailed field monitoring results, solid-phase analyses and regional meteorological data (rainfall, water discharge, temperature) with hydrogeochemical modeling allows constraining the mechanisms of

  10. Effects of asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers on cell division in cultured human mesothelial cells in comparison to rodent cells.

    PubMed

    Pelin, K; Kivipensas, P; Linnainmaa, K

    1995-01-01

    We report the effects of chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos, and glass and rock wool fibers (man-made vitreous fibers, MMVF) on the induction of binucleate cells in vitro. The response of human mesothelial cells (target cells in fiber carcinogenesis) and rodent cells was compared. Human primary mesothelial cells, MeT-5A cells (an immortalized human mesothelial cell line), and rat liver epithelial (RLE) cells were exposed to asbestos and MMVF samples of similar size range. Milled glass wool, milled rock wool, and titanium dioxide were used as non-fibrous particle controls. All four fiber types caused statistically significant increases in the amount of binucleate cells in human primary mesothelial cells and MeT-5A cells (in the dose range 0.5-5.0 micrograms/cm2). Chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos were more effective (1.3-3.0-fold increases) than thin glass wool and thin rock wool fibers (1.3-2.2-fold increases). However, when the fiber doses were expressed as the number of fibers per culture area, the asbestos and MMVF appeared equally effective in human mesothelial cells. In RLE cells, chrysotile was the most potent inducer of binucleation (2.9-5.0-fold increases), but the response of the RLE cells to crocidolite, thin glass wool, and thin rock wool fibers was similar to the response of the human mesothelial cells. No statistically significant increases in the number of bi- or multinucleate cells were observed in human primary mesothelial cells or RLE cells exposed to the non-fibrous dusts. In MeT-5A cells exposed to 5 micrograms/cm2 of milled glass wool and milled rock wool, as well as in cultures exposed to 2 and 5 micrograms/cm2 of TiO2, significant increases were, however, observed. Our results show that rodent cells respond differently to mineral fibers than human cells. The results also add evidence to the suggested importance of disturbed cell division in fiber carcinogenesis.

  11. CHAMBARA: The changing hydrography and man made biomass burning in Africa: a concept for earth observations from the International Space Station.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian

    2010-05-01

    In parallel to vegetation mapping exemplified by VEGETATION and spectral thematic instruments as MERIS, other important natural and man-made phenomena characterize the equatorial and low latitude regions region covered especially well by the International Space Station orbit. The agreement between the space agencies evolves now to a lifetime of the ISS up to 2025. Two themes can be proposed: hydrography and biomass burning. Hydrography has an extreme human importance as human life and agriculture depend on water, transport as well; also the hydroelectric energy which could be harnessed from the hydrological network is tremendous and would allow a sustainable development of the entire region. The CHAMBARA proposed concept differs from other satellite observation programmes in a sense that the images are taken either according either to pre-planned scientific campaigns controlled from an operation centre either according to real time unexpected events or emergencies. For example, biomass burning imaging campaigns are organised at the end of the dry season, while deltas and lake are monitored at specific points of the dry seasons and, if the cloud cover allows it, at periods of the wet season. In exceptional cases, as natural disasters or rapidly varying scenes, the operation centre will reschedule the programme and even ask for exceptional crew assistance. This project aims at this point to the European and African scientific communities specialized on Sub-Saharan Africa which is currently studied by several Belgian scientific institutions but its techniques could also be extended to the Amazon basin, tropical Asia and Oceania. The equipment proposed will be an advanced true colour rapid camera, external mounting is wished in order to free the optical window but nadir pointing should be the nominal position. An example of the concept is given by the serendipitous image ISS004E11 Central African observation (ISS photograph, May 16, 2002, centered near 8.6 degrees

  12. Radiological investigations at the "Taiga" nuclear explosion site, part II: man-made γ-ray emitting radionuclides in the ground and the resultant kerma rate in air.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Repin, V; Medvedev, A; Khramtsov, E; Timofeeva, M; Yakovlev, V

    2012-07-01

    Samples of soil and epigeic lichens were collected from the "Taiga" peaceful nuclear explosion site (61.30°N 56.60°E, the Perm region, Russia) in 2009 and analyzed using high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. For soil samples obtained at six different plots, two products of fission ((137)Cs and (155)Eu), five products of neutron activation ((60)Co, (94)Nb, (152)Eu, (154)Eu, (207)Bi) and (241)Am have been identified and quantified. The maximal activity concentrations of (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am for the soils samples were measured as 1650, 7100, and 6800 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.), respectively. The deposit of (137)Cs for the top 20 cm of soil on the tested plots at the "Taiga" site ranged from 30 to 1020 kBq m(-2); the maximal value greatly (by almost 3 orders of magnitude) exceeded the regional background (from global fallout) level of 1.4 kBq m(-2). (137)Cs contributes approximately 57% of the total ground inventory of the man-made γ-ray emitters for the six plots tested at the "Taiga" site. The other major radionuclides -(241)Am and (60)Co, constitute around 40%. Such radionuclides as (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am, and (207)Bi have also been determined for the epigeic lichens (genera Cladonia) that colonized certain areas at the ground lip produced by the "Taiga" explosion. Maximal activity concentrations (up to 80 Bq kg(-1) for (60)Co, 580 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs, 200 Bq kg(-1) for (241)Am, and 5 Bq kg(-1) for (207)Bi; all are given in terms of d.w.) have been detected for the lower dead section of the organisms. The air kerma rates associated with the anthropogenic sources of gamma radiation have been calculated using the data obtained from the laboratory analysis. For the six plots tested, the kerma rates ranged from 50 to 1200 nGy h(-1); on average, 51% of the dose can be attributed to (137)Cs and 45% to (60)Co. These estimates agree reasonably well with the results of the in situ measurements made during our field survey of the "Taiga" site in August

  13. On the Identification of Rayon/Viscose as a Major Fraction of Microplastics in the Marine Environment: Discrimination between Natural and Man-made Cellulosic Fibers by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Wieland, Karin; Ramer, Georg; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard

    2016-09-20

    This work was sparked by the reported identification of man-made cellulosic fibers (rayon/viscose) in the marine environment as a major fraction of plastic litter by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) transmission spectroscopy and library search. To assess the plausibility of such findings, both natural and man-made fibers were examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra acquired by transmission microscopy, attenuated total reflection (ATR) microscopy, and ATR spectroscopy were compared. Library search was employed and results show significant differences in the identification rate depending on the acquisition method of the spectra. Careful selection of search parameters and the choice of spectra acquisition method were found to be essential for optimization of the library search results. When using transmission spectra of fibers and ATR libraries it was not possible to differentiate between man-made and natural fibers. Successful differentiation of natural and man-made cellulosic fibers has been achieved for FT-IR spectra acquired by ATR microscopy and ATR spectroscopy, and application of ATR libraries. As an alternative, chemometric methods such as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis were employed to facilitate identification based on intrinsic relationships of sample spectra and successful discrimination of the fiber type could be achieved. Differences in the ATR spectra depending on the internal reflection element (Ge versus diamond) were observed as expected; however, these did not impair correct classification by chemometric analysis. Moreover, the effects of different levels of humidity on the IR spectra of natural and man-made fibers were investigated, too. It has been found that drying and re-humidification leads to intensity changes of absorption bands of the carbohydrate backbone, but does not impair the identification of the fiber type by library search or cluster

  14. Influence of stratigraphic factors on the failure mechanisms of sinkholes related to man-made underground caves at Cutrofiano (South-Eastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Margiotta, Stefano; Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    An increasing number of areas in southern Italy are being interested by sinkholes related to the presence of man-made cavities, with underground quarries representing the more problematic typology of anthropogenic caves in terms of instability. The case of Cutrofiano (Apulia, SE Italy) is here presented as a representative case study. This territory is well known for the underground quarrying activity of soft calcarenitic rocks that caused in the last decades widespread phenomena of subsidence at the surface, with extensive damage and problems to the main communication routes in the area. A very complex and intricate network of subterranean galleries is present underground, for a total development on the order of several tens of kilometres. The Gravina Calcarenite Formation, that is the object of the underground quarries, consists of whitish calcarenite with an upper greenish clayey-sandy interval rich in fossils. This formation is overlain by grey sandy clays (Subapennine Clays) grading upward to fossil-rich sands (Brindisi Sands). In recent years, clay mining has been resumed at the ground surface, following the opening of a cement factory, and resulting in the realization of wide open-pit quarries. The local sedimentary sequence is closed by terraced calcarenite deposits, that holds a phreatic groundwater body. The results of detailed geological, geomorphological and geomechanical surveys, supported by laboratory tests, show that in the Cutrofiano area the thickness of the stratigraphical succession, the depth of the underground galleries, the structural conditions of the rock mass, and the failure mechanisms observed within the quarries are variable. The geological model reconstructed represents the base for the implementation of numerical simulations, which are aimed at defining the eventual mechanisms of rock failure, up to the formation of the sinkhole. Local changes in the stratigraphy are very common in the area, due to the overall slight attitude of the

  15. Atmospheric Propagation Effects through Natural and Man-Made Obscurants for Visible to MM-Wave Radiation (Les Effets des Conditions Defavorables de Propagation sur les Systemes Optiques, IR et a Ondes Millimetiques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    Aufbereitung und Speicherung der panding gun blast have been achieved. In this study, Bildzeilensignale" (Transl.: "CCD Optical Sensor the priority was set...multiplexed data are transmitted from the radar via a fiber - optic data link to the remote For PDM calibration purposes, depending on computer control...conditions such as haze, clouds, fog, rain, snow and under adverse battlefield conditions such as dust, smoke and man-made obscurants. Sensors

  16. A Space Dust Experiment (Spadus) for Measurement of the Distribution of Man-Made and Natural Dust in the Near-Earth Space FOR Flight on the P91-1 Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    particles ( orbital debris ) and for particles of natural origin. These measurements will be carried out over a particle size range in which there are...particle and thus to determine its likely origin as either man-made orbital debris (occupying primarily bound, near- circular orbits) or from natural...spatial and temporal characteristics of orbital debris (debris streams); g) To obtain data that will permit determination of hazards to critical surfaces

  17. Integration of remotely sensed data and hydrodynamic modeling into a GIS to assess the impacts of thermal effluent in an estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Mustard, J.F.; Sen, A.; Swanson, C.; Mendelsohn, D.

    1997-08-01

    A project to assess the effects of thermal effluent from a electrical generating facility on an estuary is described. The project is designed to integrate remote sensing observations with in situ field data and a computer model system to provide continuous, estuary-wide predictions of the effluent plume location and configurations. Remote sensing data was acquired over the ebb tide cycle by an aircraft-mounted multi-channel imaging spectrometer. A ground truth field program measured water temperature on a series of transects during the overflights. Moored instruments continuously acquired data on currents, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen before, during and after the day of the overflight. A hydrodynamic model was used to predict the three-dimensional structure of the currents, temperature and salinity in the estuary. A Lagrangian particle-based trajectory model was used to predict the small scale surface features seen in the overflight images. Results indicate that such a system can provide useful data in support of analyses of thermal effects of the ecology of estuarine environments.

  18. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases.

  19. Studies on the oxidative stress and gill histopathology in Channa punctatus of the canal receiving heavy metal-loaded effluent of Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Masood

    2015-01-01

    Some investigations were made on the canal water and inhabiting fish Channa punctatus at Kasimpur, district Aligarh (U.P.). It is a prime source for drinking, washing, and irrigation which was found to be receiving effluent from the adjoining Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant. The water samples were found to contain heavy metals, and the values obtained for Fe (8.71 mg L(-1)) and Ni (0.12 mg L(-1)) were beyond the recommended levels set by UNEPGEMS. C. punctatus was found to be the predominant fish in this canal. Fishes' gills are directly exposed to the ambience; hence, the changes are expected to be more prominent. Among the analyzed heavy metals, bioaccumulation of Zn (500.41 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw)) was highest and Ni (13.93 mg kg(-1) dw), the least. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) as well as antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were found in the gills of the test fishes. The level of reduced glutathione (GSH), a nonenzymatic antioxidant, was quite expectedly lower than that in the reference fish. The gills of inhabiting fishes contained several lesions like necrosis, epithelial lifting, lamellar fusion, hyperplasia, syneching, infiltration of lymphocytes, and bridging in gill tissue. The present study demonstrated that wastewater/effluent released from thermal power plant containing heavy metals has strong potential to affect the physicochemical properties of the water and well-being of aquatic living organisms.

  20. On a model simulating lack of hydraulic connection between a man-made reservoir and the volume of poroelastic rock hosting the focus of a post-impoundment earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chander, Ramesh; Tomar, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The idea that a direct hydraulic connection between a man-made reservoir and the foci of post-impoundment earthquakes may not exist at all sites is eminently credible on geological grounds. Our aim is to provide a simple earth model and related theory for use during investigations of earthquakes near new man-made reservoirs. We consider a uniform circular reservoir which rests on the top surface of a no-hydraulic-connection earth model (NHCEM). The model comprises a top elastic (E) layer, an intermediate poroelastic (P) layer, and a bottom elastic half space. The focus of a potential earthquake in the P layer is located directly under the reservoir. The E layer disrupts the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the focus. Depth of water in the reservoir varies as H ' + hcos( ω t). Expressions for reservoir-induced stresses and pore pressure in different layers of the NHCEM are obtained by solving the boundary-value problem invoking full coupling between mean normal stress and pore pressure in the P layer. As an application of the derived mathematical results, we have examined and found that earthquakes on 60∘ normal faults may occur in the P-layer of a selected NHCEM at epochs of low reservoir level if the reservoir lies mostly in the footwall of the fault. The exercise was motivated by observations of such earthquakes under the man-made Lake Mead after it was impounded.

  1. 40 CFR 458.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Thermal Process Subcategory § 458.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... this paragraph which may be discharged from the carbon black thermal process by a point source subject...

  2. SAB report: Radionuclides in drinking water. Review of the Office of Drinking Water`s criteria documents and related reports for uranium, radon, and man-made beta-gamma emitters by the radiation advisory committee

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-01

    EPA`s Office of Drinking Water developed draft criteria documents and related reports that were the basis for new drinking water standards for uranium, radium, radon and man-made beta-gamma emitting radionuclides during the period November 1989-July 1990. The overall quality of the four draft criteria documents submitted to the Subcommittee for its review was not good. Taken as a set, the documents are inconsistent in approach and with Agency practice in the derivation of drinking water criteria for other contaminants.

  3. Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  4. The effect of man made source processes on the behavior of total gaseous mercury in air: a comparison between four urban monitoring sites in Seoul Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Nguyen, Hang Thi; Jung, Kweon; Park, Chan-Goo; Bae, Gwi Nam

    2011-09-01

    Concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were measured continuously at four urban residential locations (G (Guro-gu); N (Nowon-gu); S (Songpa-gu); and Y (Yongsan-gu)) in Seoul, Korea from 2004 to 2009. The mean concentrations of Hg at these sites were found on the order of N (3.98±1.68 ng m(-3)), S (3.87±1.56 ng m(-3)), G (3.80±1.60 ng m(-3)), and Y (3.36±1.55 ng m(-3)). Evidence indicates that the spatial distribution of Hg should be affected by the combined effects of both local anthropogenic (incineration facilities and thermal power plants) and natural (soil) emission sources in association with the meteorological parameters. Inspection of the Hg temporal patterns indicates the co-existence of contrasting seasonal patterns between the central site Y (winter dominance) and all other outbound sites near city borders (summer dominance). The long-term trend of Hg, if examined by combining our previous studies and the present one, shows that Hg levels in this urban area declined gradually across decadal periods despite slight variabilities in spatial scale: (1) above 10 ng m(-3) in the late 1980s, (2) ~5 ng m(-3) in the late 1990s, and (3) ~3 ng m(-3) toward the late 2000s. The results of the principal component analysis along with observed differences in seasonal patterns (between study sites) suggest that Hg distributions between different urban sites are greatly distinguishable with strong source signatures at each individual site.

  5. Catalytic thermal treatment (catalytic thermolysis) of a rice grain-based biodigester effluent of an alcohol distillery plant.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Chaudhari, Parmesh Kumar; Mazumdar, Bidyut; Choudhary, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic thermolysis (CT) process is an effective and novel approach to treat rice grain-based biodigester effluent (BDE) of the distillery plant. CT treatment of rice grain-based distillery wastewater was carried out in a 0.5 dm(3) thermolytic batch reactor using different catalysts such as CuO, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. With the CuO catalyst, a temperature of 95°C, catalyst loading of 4 g/dm(3) and pH 5 were found to be optimal, obtaining a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour removal of 80.4% and 72%, respectively. The initial pH (pHi) was an important parameter to remove COD and colour from BDE. At higher pHi (pH 9.5), less COD and colour reduction were observed. The settling characteristics of CT-treated sludge were also analysed at different temperatures. It was noted that the treated slurry at a temperature of 80°C gave best settling characteristics. Characteristics of residues are also analysed at different pH.

  6. Production of demineralized water for use in thermal power stations by advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Gkotsis, Petros; Castellana, Massimo; Cartechini, Fabricio; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2017-04-01

    The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, producing steam to feed the steam turbine of the power station. The inlet water was the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant of the city of Bari (Italy). The treatment stages comprised (1) coagulation, using ferric chloride, (2) lime softening, (3) powdered activated carbon, all dosed in a sedimentation tank. The treated water was thereafter subjected to dual-media filtration, followed by ultra-filtration (UF). The outlet of UF was subsequently treated by reverse osmosis (RO) and finally by ion exchange (IX). The inlet water had total organic carbon (TOC) concentration 10-12 mg/L, turbidity 10-15 NTU and conductivity 3500-4500 μS/cm. The final demineralized water had TOC less than 0.2 mg/L, turbidity less than 0.1 NTU and conductivity 0.055-0.070 μS/cm. Organic matter fractionation showed that most of the final DOC concentration consisted of low molecular weight neutral compounds, while other compounds such as humic acids or building blocks were completely removed. It is notable that this plant was operating under "Zero Liquid Discharge" conditions, implementing treatment of any generated liquid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  8. The First Man-Made Nuclear Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worth Seagondollar, L.

    2004-10-01

    This talk is part Nuclear Physics, part description of the greatest war-time experience possible for a young graduate student, and part eye-witness description of the 1945 plutonium fission devise explosion in the New Mexico desert. Living and working in the secret Manhattan District laboratory was truly unique. Hearing talks by Nobel Laureates (past & future), participating in nuclear experiments that determined the critical masses for U-235 and Pu-239, having near-catastrophic accidents, working with an armed guard watching you, having Enrico Fermi ask you to come to his office--these are unforgettable memories. There will be a description of 3 days in the New Mexico desert and a description of the early morning nuclear explosion at the Trinity Site and a description of that Site 30 days later.

  9. Natural Disasters and Man-Made Catastrophes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article categorizes and discusses the kinds of cataclysmic events that threaten the human race and the natural world. A useful set of definitions is provided, and an annotated bibliography of a representative assortment of reference books and monographs.

  10. Is magnetospheric line radiation man-made?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, Craig J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Yearby, Keith H.; Smith, Andy J.

    2000-07-01

    Magnetospheric line radiation (MLR) events are relatively narrowband VLF signals (~30 Hz) that sometimes drift in frequency and that have been observed in both ground-based and satellite data sets. We present the result of a survey undertaken on the basis of measurements made of MLR events observed at Halley station, Antarctica (75°35'S, 26°33'W, L~4.3) during June, July, September, and December 1995, specifically to examine whether there is a link between MLR and power line harmonic radiation (PLHR). We find that (1) the diurnal variation of MLR occurrence at Halley does not resemble the expected load pattern in the industrialized conjugate hemisphere; (2) MLR does not show the pronounced east-west asymmetry in the distribution of arrival directions which would be the case if it was linked to North American electrical load; (3) MLR does not show an immediate association with geomagnetic activity, as would be expected from increases in PLHR levels produced by geomagnetically-induced currents saturating transformers; and (4) there is no evidence of a Sunday, weekend, or other 7-day cycle in the occurrence of MLR. Taken together these results strongly suggest that MLR is a natural VLF emission and is not primarily caused by PLHR. In addition, Halley data have been examined to determine whether the intensity of all types of VLF emissions are influenced by PLHR. We find that (1) there is no significant difference between weekdays and weekends over the frequency range 0.5-9.3 kHz and (2) there is no consistent change in wave intensity that is observed around any of the major North American holiday periods. It is concluded that PLHR is not a significant influence on geospace as viewed from Halley.

  11. Geohazards: Natural and man-made

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, G.J.H.; Laming, D.J.C.; Scott, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This book of conference presentations from a meeting of the Geological Society of London in 1989 includes 20 papers grouped in 5 sections. Sections include the following: volcanos; earthquakes; landslides; quiet hazards such as sea-level changes and loss of soils or biodiversity; discussion of the question of what can be done to reduce such disasters. Interaction of man's activities to initiate disasters, to increase the scope of disasters and/or to mitigate them is included in a number of papers. In the fourth section a final paper provides a summary of the food-soil, energy-climate, waste-garbage, and water-contamination interactions.

  12. Background radiation: natural and man-made.

    PubMed

    Thorne, M C

    2003-03-01

    A brief overview and comparison is given of dose rates arising from natural background radiation and the fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Although there are considerable spatial variations in exposure to natural background radiation, it is useful to give estimates of worldwide average overall exposures from the various components of that background. Cosmic-ray secondaries of low linear energy transfer (LET), mainly muons and photons, deliver about 280 microSv a(-1). Cosmic-ray neutrons deliver about another 100 microSv a(-1). These low- and high-LET exposures are relatively uniform to the whole body. The effective dose rate from cosmogenic radionuclides is dominated by the contribution of 12 microSv a(-1) from 14C. This is due to relatively uniform irradiation of all organs and tissues from low-energy beta particles. Primordial radionuclides and their progeny (principally the 238U and 232Th series, and 40K) contribute about 480 microSv a(-1) of effective dose by external irradiation. This is relatively uniform photon irradiation of the whole body. Internally incorporated 40K contributes a further 165 microSv a(-1) of effective dose in adults, mainly from beta particles, but with a significant gamma component. Equivalent doses from 40K are somewhat higher in muscle than other soft tissues, but the distinction is less than a factor of three. Uranium and thorium series radionuclides give rise to an average effective dose rate of around 120 microSv a(-1). This includes a major alpha particle component, and exposures of radiosensitive tissues in lung, liver, kidney and the skeleton are recognised as important contributors to effective dose. Overall, these various sources give a worldwide average effective dose rate of about 1160 microSv a(-1). Exposure to 222Rn, 220Rn and their short-lived progeny has to be considered separately. This is very variable both within and between countries. For 222Rn and its progeny, a worldwide average effective dose rate is about 1105 microSv a(-1). For 220Rn and its progeny, the corresponding value is 91 microSv a(-1). In both cases, the effective dose is mainly due to a particle irradiation of the bronchial tissues of the lungs. Overall, the worldwide average effective dose rate from natural background is about 2400 microSv a(-1) or 2.4 mSv a(-1). For comparison, worldwide average effective dose rates from weapons fallout peaked at 113 microSv a(-1) (about 5% of natural background) in 1963 and have since fallen to about 5.5 microSv a(-1) (about 0.2% of natural background). These values perhaps serve to emphasise that even gross insults to the natural environment from anthropogenic releases of radioactive materials are likely to be of limited significance when set in the context of the ambient radioactive environment within which all organisms, including humans, have developed.

  13. Natural Disasters and Man-Made Catastrophes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article categorizes and discusses the kinds of cataclysmic events that threaten the human race and the natural world. A useful set of definitions is provided, and an annotated bibliography of a representative assortment of reference books and monographs.

  14. The smallest man-made jet engine.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Samuel; Solovev, Alexander A; Harazim, Stefan M; Deneke, Christoph; Mei, Yong Feng; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2011-12-01

    The design of catalytic engines powered by chemical fuels is an exciting and emerging field in multidisciplinary scientific communities. Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled scientists to shrink the size of macroengines down to microscopic, but yet powerful, engines. Since a couple of years ago, we have reported our progress towards the control and application of catalytic microtubular engines powered by the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide fuel which produces a thrust of oxygen bubbles. Efforts were undertaken in our group to prove whether the fabrication of nanoscale jets is possible. Indeed, the smallest jet engine (600 nm in diameter and 1 picogram of weight) was synthesized based on heteroepitaxially grown layers. These nanojets are able to self-propel in hydrogen peroxide solutions and are promising for the realisation of multiple tasks. Copyright © 2011 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Study of chemical and thermal treatment of kaolinite and its influence on the removal of contaminants from mining effluents.

    PubMed

    de Sales, Priscila F; Magriotis, Zuy M; Rossi, Marco Aurélio de L S; Tartuci, Letícia G; Papini, Rísia M; Viana, Paulo R M

    2013-10-15

    The effects of chemical and thermal treatments on the structure of kaolinite were examined, as well as the influence of those changes upon the removal of etheramine, a cationic collector used in the processing of iron ore. The materials were characterized using XRD, XRF, specific surface area (SBET), FTIR, zeta potential and a test for determination of acid sites. The effects of the treatments on the structure of kaolinite were evaluated using chemometric tools developed from principal components analysis algorithms and hierarchical components analysis. The parameters evaluated in the kinetic study of adsorption were contact time, initial concentration of etheramine, quantity of adsorbent and pH. The adsorption of etheramine in the samples subjected to chemical treatments could be explained by a pseudo-second order model, whilst for the sample subjected to thermal treatment, better fit was with the pseudo-first order model. With regard to adsorption isotherms, it was shown that for the three adsorbents used, adsorption followed the Langmuir model. The maximum quantities adsorbed were 27 mg g(-1), 29 mg g(-1) and 59 mg g(-1), respectively, for the samples subjected to acid, thermal and peroxide treatments. The treatment with peroxide was found to be the most suitable for removal of etheramine.

  16. Stress response of biomolecules (carbohydrate, protein and lipid profiles) in fish Channa punctatus inhabiting river polluted by Thermal Power Plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2015-03-01

    Qualitative and quantitative assessment of heavy metals in the Thermal Power Plant effluent was performed to study the impact of their toxic effects on various biomarkers (carbohydrate, protein and lipid profiles). Heavy metals present in the water were in the order Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr. Fe and Ni exceeded and Cr was equal to the USA standards set by UNEPGEMS. Glycogen in liver (p < 0.001) and muscle (p < 0.01) depleted significantly. Insignificant (p < 0.05) decline in blood glucose (-21.0%) and significant (p < 0.05) elevation in both total protein and globulin in serum, liver and muscle was noted. Albumin decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in serum but showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in liver and muscle. Thus A:G ratio fell in serum and rose in liver and muscle. Similarly lipid profile also gets altered where significant elevation in serum total lipid (p < 0.01), total cholesterol (p < 0.01), phospholipid (p < 0.05), triglycerides (p < 0.001), LDL (p < 0.01) was observed but significant (p < 0.05) decline in VLDL was recorded. These biomarkers suggested that fish become hypoglycemic, hyperlipidemic and hypercholesterolemic. Heavy metals also provoked immune response as evident from the rise in globulin. In conclusion the Thermal Power Plant wastewater containing heavy metals induced stress, making fish weak and vulnerable to diseases.

  17. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of four γ-hexachlorocyclohexane-degrading bacterial strains: insights into the evolution of bacteria able to degrade a recalcitrant man-made pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Michiro; Ohhata, Satoshi; Nikawadori, Yuki; Kishida, Kouhei; Sato, Takuya; Kawasumi, Toru; Kato, Hiromi; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Masataka; Nagata, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) is a recalcitrant man-made chlorinated pesticide. Here, the complete genome sequences of four γ-HCH-degrading sphingomonad strains, which are most unlikely to have been derived from one ancestral γ-HCH degrader, were compared. Together with several experimental data, we showed that (i) all the four strains carry almost identical linA to linE genes for the conversion of γ-HCH to maleylacetate (designated “specific” lin genes), (ii) considerably different genes are used for the metabolism of maleylacetate in one of the four strains, and (iii) the linKLMN genes for the putative ABC transporter necessary for γ-HCH utilization exhibit structural divergence, which reflects the phylogenetic relationship of their hosts. Replicon organization and location of the lin genes in the four genomes are significantly different with one another, and that most of the specific lin genes are located on multiple sphingomonad-unique plasmids. Copies of IS6100, the most abundant insertion sequence in the four strains, are often located in close proximity to the specific lin genes. Analysis of the footprints of target duplication upon IS6100 transposition and the experimental detection of IS6100 transposition strongly suggested that the IS6100 transposition has caused dynamic genome rearrangements and the diversification of lin-flanking regions in the four strains. PMID:27581378

  18. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of four γ-hexachlorocyclohexane-degrading bacterial strains: insights into the evolution of bacteria able to degrade a recalcitrant man-made pesticide.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Michiro; Ohhata, Satoshi; Nikawadori, Yuki; Kishida, Kouhei; Sato, Takuya; Kawasumi, Toru; Kato, Hiromi; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Masataka; Nagata, Yuji

    2016-12-01

    γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) is a recalcitrant man-made chlorinated pesticide. Here, the complete genome sequences of four γ-HCH-degrading sphingomonad strains, which are most unlikely to have been derived from one ancestral γ-HCH degrader, were compared. Together with several experimental data, we showed that (i) all the four strains carry almost identical linA to linE genes for the conversion of γ-HCH to maleylacetate (designated "specific" lin genes), (ii) considerably different genes are used for the metabolism of maleylacetate in one of the four strains, and (iii) the linKLMN genes for the putative ABC transporter necessary for γ-HCH utilization exhibit structural divergence, which reflects the phylogenetic relationship of their hosts. Replicon organization and location of the lin genes in the four genomes are significantly different with one another, and that most of the specific lin genes are located on multiple sphingomonad-unique plasmids. Copies of IS6100, the most abundant insertion sequence in the four strains, are often located in close proximity to the specific lin genes. Analysis of the footprints of target duplication upon IS6100 transposition and the experimental detection of IS6100 transposition strongly suggested that the IS6100 transposition has caused dynamic genome rearrangements and the diversification of lin-flanking regions in the four strains.

  19. A joint research project -- Investigating man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) insulation removal practices in the power industry, with preliminary results of potential worker exposure to airborne MMVF fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Axten, C.W.; Anoush, F.

    1996-10-01

    Man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs) are components of a large number of important products manufactured worldwide, and include glass wool, rock and slag wool, and refractory ceramic fibers. These fibers are distinguished from each other by their chemical composition, physical properties and methods of production. Glass wool, or fiber glass as it is more commonly known is a borosilicate compound, produced from molten sand and inorganic materials under highly controlled conditions, Rock and slag wool, sometimes collectively referred to as mineral wool, is comprised of calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate glass. Slag wool is produced by melting a mixture of various blast furnace iron ore slags and other raw materials such as clay, sand and limestone in a coke fired cupola. Rock wool is produced using the same process, with a mixture of various natural and synthetic rock sources that yield the desired composition. In both rock and slag wool manufacturing, typically one raw material is the primary component, with other material added to supplement chemical deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to develop a flexible, representative, and valid exposure database for fiber glass and rock and slag wool insulation removal and reinstallation in a cross section of industrial environments with excellent supporting documentation. This information will be used to make more informed decisions to further worker health and safety through recommendation of exposure controls, product modifications, and personal protective equipment use and/or work practice controls.

  20. 40 CFR 458.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Carbon Black Thermal Process Subcategory § 458.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree..., controlled by this paragraph which may be discharged from the carbon black thermal process by a point source...

  1. 40 CFR 458.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Carbon Black Thermal Process Subcategory § 458.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree..., controlled by this paragraph which may be discharged from the carbon black thermal process by a point source...

  2. Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) describes the aggregate toxic effect of an aqueous sample (e.g., whole effluent wastewater discharge) as measured by an organism's response upon exposure to the sample (e.g., lethality, impaired growth, or reproduction).

  3. Facility effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  4. Biological responses of the american oyster 'Crassostrea virginica' (gmelin) to thermal effluent in the Chesapeake-Delaware Bay area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsman, J.C.; Maurer, D.; Pennachi, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the results of a 1979 study of various aspects of the life history of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the effects of temperature-salinity interactions in the mid-Atlantic region. The study was intended to provide input to power plant siting decisions in the Chesapeake Bay area. Eighteen collections of planted oysters were made from effluent and control stations of two power plant sites in the mid-Atlantic region. Oyster mortalities were related to physical extremes at both sites, but were higher at PEPCO. Shell growth was evident at DPL, but not at PEPCO.

  5. 40 CFR 458.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CARBON BLACK MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Black... this paragraph which may be discharged from the carbon black thermal process by a point source subject...

  6. Thermal cracking of retort oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dearth, J.D.; Smith, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    The thermal cracking of retort oil vapors in an elongated reactor is improved by passing the effluent oil vapors and gases from a retort to a thermal cracking unit before the temperature of the retort effluent falls below 680* F. This encourages the more desirable cracking reactions, increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and avoids preheater coking.

  7. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  8. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  9. Estimating effluent COD

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Landine, R.

    1995-06-01

    In many parts of the world, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a primary effluent parameter. Unlike BOD, which considers only biodegradable organics, COD also includes non-degradable organics and non-degradable biological oxidation by-products, generally referred to as soluble microbial products (SMP). The SMP can vary from 2% to 10% of the influent degradable COD. If the technology is limited to biological treatment only, the degradable COD will be removed. Further reductions in COD will require physical chemical treatments such as activated carbon. Effluent COD values for several industrial wastewaters are presented. Effluent characteristics from the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewaters are also discussed.

  10. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    PubMed

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  11. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  12. NATIONAL WWTP EFFLUENT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of potential wildlife risk from exposure to environmental estrogens emphasize the need to better understand both estrogenic presence and persistence in treated wastewater effluents. In addition to wildlife exposure, human exposure should also be examined, especially in si...

  13. Effluent Guidelines Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA publishes a biennial plan for the annual review & revision of promulgated effluent guidelines, identifying new categories and scheduling promulgation of new & revised regulations; under Clean Water Act sec. 304(m).

  14. Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

    2014-05-01

    In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137 and Sr-90 strongly chemically bind into both the sandy and clay soils found in Southern Belarus, consequently have low solubility, and hence the temporal radiation levels from soil contamination change only slowly at near the half-life of these isotopes, with weathering being a minor contribution to reducing the radiation dose rates, in regions with such soil chemistry.

  15. Man-Made Rotary Nanomotors: A Review of Recent Development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Fan, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The development rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of the state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery. PMID:27152885

  16. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Fan, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery.

  17. Man-made velocity estimators based on insect vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, Sreeja; O'Carroll, David; Abbott, Derek

    2005-04-01

    The study of insect vision is of significant interest to engineers for inspiring the design of future motion-sensitive smart sensor devices, for collision avoidance applications. Although insects are relatively simple organisms compared to vertebrates, they are blessed with a very efficient visual system, which enables them to navigate with great ease and accuracy. Biologically inspired motion detection models are bound to replace the conventional machine vision technology because of their simplicity and significant advantages in a number of applications. The dominant model for insect motion detection, first proposed by Hassentein and Reichardt in 1956, has gained widespread acceptance in the invertebrate vision community. The template model is another known model proposed later by Horridge in 1990, which permits simple tracking techniques and lends itself easily to both hardware and software. In this paper, we compare these two different motion detecting strategies. It was found from the data obtained from the intracellular recordings of the steady-state responses of wide-field neurons in the hoverfly Volucella, that the shape of the curves obtained agree with the theoretical predictions made by Dror. In order to compare this with the template model, we carried out an experiment to obtain the velocity response curves of the template model to the same image statistics. The results lead us to believe that the fly motion detector emulates a modified Reichardt correlator. In the second part of the paper, modifications are made to the Reichardt detector that improve its performance in velocity detection by reducing its dependance on contrast and image structure. Our recent neurobiological experiments suggest that adaptive mechanisms decrease the EMD (elementary motion detector) dependence on pattern contrast and improve reliability. So appropriate modelling of an adaptive feedback mechanism is carried out to normalize contrast of input signals in order to improve the reliability and robustness of velocity estimation.

  18. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  19. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  20. Man-made Star Shines in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists celebrate another major milestone at Cerro Paranal in Chile, home of ESO's Very Large Telescope array. Thanks to their dedicated efforts, they were able to create the first artificial star in the Southern Hemisphere, allowing astronomers to study the Universe in the finest detail. This artificial laser guide star makes it possible to apply adaptive optics systems, that counteract the blurring effect of the atmosphere, almost anywhere in the sky. ESO PR Photo 07a/06 ESO PR Photo 07a/06 First Light of the VLT Laser Guide Star On 28 January 2006, at 23:07 local time, a laser beam of several watts was launched from Yepun, the fourth 8.2m Unit Telescope of the Very Large Telescope, producing an artificial star, 90 km up in the atmosphere. Despite this star being about 20 times fainter than the faintest star that can be seen with the unaided eye, it is bright enough for the adaptive optics to measure and correct the atmosphere's blurring effect. The event was greeted with much enthusiasm and happiness by the people in the control room of one of the most advanced astronomical facilities in the world. It was the culmination of five years of collaborative work by a team of scientists and engineers from ESO and the Max Planck Institutes for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching and for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. After more than one month of integration on site with the invaluable support of the Paranal Observatory staff, the VLT Laser Guide Star Facility saw First Light and propagated into the sky a 50cm wide, vivid, beautifully yellow beam. ESO PR Photo 07b/06 ESO PR Photo 07b/06 An Artificial Star Above Paranal "This event tonight marks the beginning of the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics era for ESO's present and future telescopes", said Domenico Bonaccini Calia, Head of the Laser Guide Star group at ESO and LGSF Project Manager. Normally, the achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. This drawback can be surmounted with adaptive optics, allowing the telescope to produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. This means that finer details in astronomical objects can be studied, and also that fainter objects can be observed. In order to work, adaptive optics needs a nearby reference star that has to be relatively bright, thereby limiting the area of the sky that can be surveyed. To overcome this limitation, astronomers use a powerful laser that creates an artificial star, where and when they need it. ESO PR Photo 07c/06 ESO PR Photo 07c/06 The Laser Guide Star Laboratory The laser beam, shining at a well-defined wavelength, makes the layer of sodium atoms that is present in Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of 90 kilometres glow. The laser is hosted in a dedicated laboratory under the platform of Yepun. A custom-made fibre carries the high power laser to the launch telescope situated on top of the large Unit Telescope. An intense and exhilarating twelve days of tests followed the First Light of the Laser Guide Star (LGS), during which the LGS was used to improve the resolution of astronomical images obtained with the two adaptive optics instruments in use on Yepun: the NAOS-CONICA imager and the SINFONI spectrograph. In the early hours of 9 February, the LGS could be used together with the SINFONI instrument, while in the early morning of 10 February, it was with the NAOS-CONICA system. ESO PR Video 07/06 ESO PR Video 07/06 Learn more with the video! "To have succeeded in such a short time is an outstanding feat and is a tribute to all those who have together worked so hard over the last few years," said Richard Davies, project manager for the laser source development at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. A second phase of commissioning will take place in the spring with the aim of optimizing the operations and refining the performances before the instrument is made available to the astronomers, later this year. The experience gained with this Laser Guide Star is also a key milestone in the design of the next generation of Extremely Large Telescope in the 30 to 60 metre range that is now being studied by ESO together with the European astronomical community. High resolution images and their captions are available on this page. This press release is also accompanied by Broadcast quality material. Notes The Laser Guide Star Facility is a collaborative project between ESO, the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany (MPE) and the Max Planck Institut for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany (MPIA). The team members are D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, M. Cullum, M. Dimmler, I. Guidolin, C. Araujo, E. Allaert, D. Popovic, M. Comin, M. Quattri, E. Brunetto, F. Koch, A. Silber, J-L. Alvarez, M. Tapia, E. Bendek, J. Quentin, G. Fischer, M. Tarenghi, G.Monnet, and R.Gilmozzi (ESO), R. Davies, S. Rabien, T. Ott, R. Genzel, S.Kellner, S. Huber, W. Zaglauer, A. Goldbrunner, and J. Li (MPE), and S. Hippler, U. Neumann, D. Butler, R.-R. Rohloff, and B.Grimm (MPIA). Members of ESO's Adaptive Optics team also participated to First Light: M. Kasper, S. Stroebele, E. Fedrigo, R. Donaldson, S. Oberti, and C. Soenke. This press release is issued in coordination between ESO and the Max Planck Society. A German version is available at http://www.mpg.de/bilderBerichteDokumente/dokumentation/pressemitteilungen/2006/

  1. Survey of man-made electrical noise affecting radio broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisignani, W. T.; Garner, W. B.

    1969-01-01

    Survey, consisting of limited noise measurements, was made to augment and verify existing data at HF and VHF and to obtain basic data at UHF. Exact frequencies were determined by the absence of intentionally generated signals around three selected frequencies.

  2. Seismic data from man-made impacts on the moon.

    PubMed

    Latham, G; Ewing, M; Dorman, J; Press, F; Toksoz, N; Sutton, G; Meissner, R; Duennebier, F; Nakamura, Y; Kovach, R; Yates, M

    1970-11-06

    Unusually long reverberations were recorded from two lunar impacts by a seismic station installed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 12 astronauts. Seismic data from these impacts suggest that the lunar mare in the region of the Apollo 12 landing site consists of material with very low seismic velocities near the surface, with velocity increasing with depth to 5 to 6 kilometers per second (for compressional waves) at a depth of 20 kilometers. Absorption of seismic waves in this structure is extremely low relative to typical continental crustal materials on earth. It is unlikely that a major boundary similar to the crustmantle interface on earth exists in the outer 20 kilometers of the moon. A combination of dispersion and scattering of surface waves probably explains the lunar seismic reverberation. Scattering of these waves implies the presence of heterogeneity within the outer zone of the mare on a scale of from several hundred meters (or less) to several kilometers. Seismic signals from 160 events of natural origin have been recorded during the first 7 months of operation of the Apollo 12 seismic station. At least 26 of the natural events are small moonquakes. Many of the natural events are thought to be meteoroid impacts.

  3. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  4. TIN based image segmentation for man-made feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wanshou; Xie, Junfeng

    2005-10-01

    Traditionally, the splitting and merging algorithm of image segmentation is based on quad tree data structure, which is not convenient to express the topography of regions, the line segments and other information. A new framework is discussed in this paper. It is "TIN based image segmentation and grouping", in which edge information and region information are integrated directly. Firstly, the constrained triangle mesh is constructed with edge segments extracted by EDISON or other algorithm. And then, region growing based on triangles is processed to generate a coarse segmentation. At last, the regions are combined further with perceptual organization rule.

  5. Coping with a Man-Made Crisis: Lessons from Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Scott S.

    2009-01-01

    In the fall of 2005, Tulane University responded to Katrina's devastation by undertaking a significant re-envisioning of the university's mission and strategy. Tulane needed to survive financially without sacrificing the core academic strengths that have drawn so many students to them: a holistic undergraduate experience that leverages the…

  6. The Rickover effect: How one man made a difference

    SciTech Connect

    Rockwell, T.

    1992-12-31

    This book chronicles the life of Admiral Hyman G. Rickover from 1939 to 1986. Admiral Rickover was a key figure in building America`s nuclear navy. This story shows how the general thrust of Rickover`s nuclear program changed as time went on. Initially, the aim was to build a decisive weapon. Then, as it became clear that this program was to be the means by which nuclear power `for the homes, farms, and factories` was to become a reality, the program emphasized harnessing this basic new source of energy. Later, as industry was brought in to accomplish these goals, it became evident that the program would have to focus on upgrading the quality of American industry. And finally, as the deficiencies of industry were seen to be rooted in basic weaknesses in education and motivation.

  7. Species adaptability trials for man-made forests in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Craig D. Whitesell; Gerald A. Walters

    1976-01-01

    The performance of 90 species, mostly from the tropics and subtropics, was appraised in field trials for 5 years. Planting sites ranged from near sea level to 6360 feet (1940 m) elevation; rainfall from less than 20 inches to more than 200 inches (500 to 5000 mm); and soils from thin mucks overlaying lava rock to deep, highly leached latosols. Thirty-two hardwoods and...

  8. Strategies for Control of Man-Made Eutrophication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    The key concerns for both long- and short-term control strategies for cultural eutrophication are: (1) controls which reflect the regional character of the problem, and (2) concern for the potential public health and environmental implications of the nonphosphate detergent formulations. (Author/CP)

  9. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z X; Zhu, F Q; Fan, D L

    2016-05-19

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery.

  10. Information Fusion for Natural and Man-Made Disasters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-31

    comprehensively large, and metaphysically accurate model of situations, through which specific tasks such as situation assessment, knowledge discovery , or the...significance” is always context specific. Event discovery is a very important element of the HLF process, which can lead to knowledge discovery about...expected, given the current state of knowledge . Examples of such behavior may include discovery of a new aggregate or situation, a specific pattern of

  11. Strategies for Control of Man-Made Eutrophication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundy, Richard D.

    1971-01-01

    The key concerns for both long- and short-term control strategies for cultural eutrophication are: (1) controls which reflect the regional character of the problem, and (2) concern for the potential public health and environmental implications of the nonphosphate detergent formulations. (Author/CP)

  12. Durability of ceramic and novel man-made mineral fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, I C; Brown, R C; Jubb, G A; Pickering, P; Hoskins, J A

    1994-01-01

    In vitro solubility testing is an important means of assessing the likely behavior of fibers that are respired and accumulate in the lung. The problem has been that such tests often do not mirror the dissolution and removal mechanisms seen in vivo. Comparison of iron and silica solubility values of various types of mineral fiber showed no obvious correlation. Treating a mineral fiber containing high levels of calcium with normal balanced salt solutions produces a precipitate of calcium phosphate on the fiber surface. This deposit was not seen in fibers isolated from the lung of exposed animals. New solutions have been developed and with variations in the methods of exposing fibers, results similar to those seen in vivo have been obtained. Suitable fluid phases have been examined in static and flow-through systems. The relationship of solubility to biological activity is discussed. Images Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6. PMID:7882958

  13. Coping with a Man-Made Crisis: Lessons from Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Scott S.

    2009-01-01

    In the fall of 2005, Tulane University responded to Katrina's devastation by undertaking a significant re-envisioning of the university's mission and strategy. Tulane needed to survive financially without sacrificing the core academic strengths that have drawn so many students to them: a holistic undergraduate experience that leverages the…

  14. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  15. Man-Made Moons: Satellite Communications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Lawrence P.; And Others

    In an effort to prepare teachers for the coming changes in education caused by the rapidly developing communication satellite technology, this monograph offers a non-technical background to this new development. It begins by explaining the importance of such satellites and offers a layman's guide to the technology of satellite systems. It reviews…

  16. Evolution of a Man-Made Plume in Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Karen L.; Bowles, Jeff; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donato, Tim; Rhea, William J.; Snyder, W. A.; Korwan, Daniel R.; Miller, Lee M.; Petrie, Gregg M.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Hibler, Lyle F.

    2006-12-19

    The ability to understand the biogeophysical parameters that create ocean color in coastal waters is fundamental to the ability to exploit remote sensing for coastal applications. This article describes an experiment in which a controlled quantity of a single inorganic material with known absorption and scattering properties was released into a coastal environment. The plume experiment was conducted in conjunction with a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) field collection campaign in and around Sequim Bay on the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Washington State. The objective of the field campaign was to identify and characterize features in the near shore environment from the standpoint of quantifying environmental parameters to improve operational planning in littoral regions. The aerial component of the mission involved imagery acquisitions from the NRL's PHILLS hyperspectral sensor, and two commercial IR cameras. Coincident satellite data was obtained from commercial sources. Ground truth activities included atmospheric profiles, ground, surface water, and in-water spectral measurements, panels for radiometric calibration, water column water optics, water samples and profiles from support vessels, in-situ tide and weather measurements, and beach and intertidal transects and surveys (via scientific dive teams). This field collection campaign provided a unique opportunity for a multisensor data collection effort in littoral regions, to identify and characterize features from multiple platforms (satellite, aerial, water surface and subsurface) and sensors. Data from this mission is being used as input to both radiative transfer and ocean transport models, for characterizing the water column and the near-shore, and quantitatively estimating circulation and transport in coastal environments.

  17. Recent Progress on Man-Made Inorganic Nanomachines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Xu, Xiaobin; Fan, D L

    2015-09-02

    The successful development of nanoscale machinery, which can operate with high controllability, high precision, long lifetimes, and tunable driving powers, is pivotal for the realization of future intelligent nanorobots, nanofactories, and advanced biomedical devices. However, the development of nanomachines remains one of the most difficult research areas, largely due to the grand challenges in fabrication of devices with complex components and actuation with desired efficiency, precision, lifetime, and/or environmental friendliness. In this work, the cutting-edge efforts toward fabricating and actuating various types of nanomachines and their applications are reviewed, with a special focus on nanomotors made from inorganic nanoscale building blocks, which are introduced according to the employed actuation mechanism. The unique characteristics and obstacles for each type of nanomachine are discussed, and perspectives and challenges of this exciting field are presented.

  18. A thermal ground cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  19. Silage effluent management: a review.

    PubMed

    Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D

    2014-10-01

    Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of

  20. Biosafety and containment plan & design for direct sampling of operating effluent decontamination tanks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently, Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) uses an effluent decontamination system (EDS) that serves as an enhancement, or extra barrier for biocontainment. Wastewater effluent from (A)BSL-3E and (A)BSL-2E laboratories is collected in tanks for thermal inactivation (180°F for 30 minut...

  1. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  2. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-09-29

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  4. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to <3 μm, and chemically synthesized effluent. Reduction in hydraulic conductivity was observed to be primarily due to the colloidal fraction of the effluent, with larger particulate fractions providing minimal further reduction. Pond sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented.

  5. Pulp mill effluent color removal process

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, H.L.; Adams, W.S. Jr.; Boyden, B.

    1991-07-16

    This paper describes a method for removing color from an effluent having a low pH and containing organic chromophores. It comprises: increasing the pressure of the effluent to between 200 and 600 psi to prevent the liquid within the effluent from changing phase; heating the effluent to a temperature between 200{degrees} and 250{degrees} C. for a retention time up to 20 minutes in accordance with the temperature to alter the chemical structure of lignin chromophores in the effluent; cooling the effluent to a temperature between 35{degrees} and 60{degrees} C.; adjusting the pressure of the effluent to between 0 to 10 psi; adjusting the pH of the effluent to between 10 and 12 to initiate flocculation of the altered chromophores in the effluent; and separating the chromophores from effluent.

  6. Radiation treatment of municipal effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1993-10-01

    The recycling of municipal wastewater is an effective means of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. After irradiation, the refractory organic substances in wastewater were decomposed. COD, light brown color, offensive odor and foaminess in the effluents were reduced with increasing dose. Inactivation efficiencies (D 10) of six microorganisms added to the secondary effluents and return sludge supernatant by irradiation were investigated. The survival curves of total bacteria, total coliforms and enterococci in the secondary effluents were compared. The number of total coliforms exponentially decreased with increasing dose and fell to undetectable levels at 0.5 kGy. The elimination of suspended solids in the secondary effluents is effective in diminishing the dose required to disinfect and prevent bacteria regrowth.

  7. Statistical Evaluation of Effluent Monitoring Data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, Vernon G.

    2000-03-08

    This report updates the original effluent variability study for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and provides supporting justification for modifying the effluent monitoring portion of the discharge permit. Four years of monitoring data were evaluated and used to statistically justify changes in permit effluent monitoring conditions. As a result, the TEDF effluent composition and variability of the effluent waste stream are now well defined.

  8. Analysis of solid-rocket effluents for aluminum, silicon, and other trace elements by neutron activation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furr, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity and reliability of neutron activation analysis in detecting trace elements in solid rocket effluents are discussed. Special attention was given to Al and Si contaminants. The construction and performance of a thermal column irradiation unit was reported.

  9. Bioaugmentation process of secondary effluents for reduction of pathogens, heavy metals and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Al-Gheethi, A A; Mohamed, R M S R; Efaq, A N; Norli, I; Abd Halid, Abdullah; Amir, H K; Ab Kadir, M O

    2016-10-01

    The study probed into reducing faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria, heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics, from four types of secondary effluents by bioaugmentation process, which was conducted with Bacillus subtilis strain at 45 °C. As a result, faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria were reduced due to the effect of thermal treatment process (45 °C), while the removal of heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics was performed through the functions of bioaccumulation and biodegradation processes of B. subtilis. Faecal coliform met the guidelines outlined by WHO and US EPA standards after 4 and 16 days, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were reduced to below the detection limits without renewed growth in the final effluents determined by using a culture-based method. Furthermore, 13.5% and 56.1% of cephalexin had been removed, respectively, from secondary effluents containing 1 g of cephalexin L(-1) (secondary effluent 3), as well as 1 g of cephalexin L(-1) and 10 mg of Ni(2+) L(-1) (secondary effluent 4) after 16 days. The treatment process, eventually, successfully removed 96.6% and 66.3% of Ni(2+) ions from the secondary effluents containing 10 mg of Ni(2+) L(-1) (secondary effluent 2) and E4, respectively. The bioaugmentation process improved the quality of secondary effluents.

  10. 40 CFR 426.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  12. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  13. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  14. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  15. 40 CFR 409.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar... beet sugar processing operation. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day...

  16. 40 CFR 463.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cleaning Water Subcategory § 463.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  18. 40 CFR 427.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 430.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Deink Subcategory § 430.92 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 428.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 428.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex Rubber Subcategory § 428.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 426.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Automotive Glass Tempering Subcategory § 426.67 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 464.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  10. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  11. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  13. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  14. 40 CFR 414.63 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.63 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  15. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  16. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  17. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  18. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  19. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  20. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  1. 40 CFR 414.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  2. 40 CFR 414.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  3. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  4. 40 CFR 414.81 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.81 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  5. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  6. 40 CFR 414.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  7. 40 CFR 414.61 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.61 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  8. 40 CFR 414.71 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.71 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  9. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 428.23 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.23 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 428.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Solution Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 405.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cultured Products Subcategory § 405.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 420.62 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Continuous Casting Subcategory § 420.62 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 427.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Roofing Subcategory § 427.62 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 427.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Millboard Subcategory § 427.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 420.117 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....117 Section 420.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT... § 420.117 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

  19. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.62 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 422.43 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.43 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.62 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.62 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 422.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Defluorinated Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 422.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.62 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 422.62 - Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.62 Effluent limitations and guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 430.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanical Pulp Subcategory § 430.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 430.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanical Pulp Subcategory § 430.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 430.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanical Pulp Subcategory § 430.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 430.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanical Pulp Subcategory § 430.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 430.72 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mechanical Pulp Subcategory § 430.72 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 440.35 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.35 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  18. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal Runaway Severity Reduction Assessment and Implementation: On Li-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Preventing cell-cell thermal runaway propagation and flames/sparks from exiting battery enclosure is possible with proper thermal & electrical design and cell thermal runaway ejecta/effluent management and can be had with minimal mass/volume penalty.

  20. Effluent Charts Help | ECHO | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effluent Charts present dynamic charts and tables of permitted effluent limits, releases, and violations over time for Clean Water Act (CWA) wastewater discharge permits issued under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).

  1. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for...

  2. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for...

  3. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for...

  4. 40 CFR 417.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.163 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree... detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for...

  5. 40 CFR 408.267 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology: Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 408.257 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... best conventional pollutant control technology: Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum...

  7. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  8. The use of fly ash the thermal power plants in the construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Yushin, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The problems of ecological and radiation safety of the construction of man-made waste like fly ash thermal power plants were researched. The chemical composition of TPPs ashes of Primorsky Territory was studied, defined their specific effective activity of natural radionuclides. The most modern research methods were used - differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray analysis. It was revealed that the ash of the Primorskaya TPP and Partizanskaya TPP has exceed the permissible parameters of radioactivity, so not suitable for use in construction. Ashes of Vladivostok TPP-2 and Artem TPP of Primorsky Region on parameters radioactivity and chemical composition have suitable for use as a filler in the concrete.

  9. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  10. Composition of CBRN Decontamination Effluent and Development of Surrogate Mixtures for Testing Effluent Treatment Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ EL S R -1 6 -2 Composition of CBRN Decontamination Effluent and Development of Surrogate Mixtures for Testing Effluent...ERDC/EL SR-16-2 July 2016 Composition of CBRN Decontamination Effluent and Development of Surrogate Mixtures for Testing Effluent Treatment...there has been an absence of CBRN events to collect samples for analysis; so, the best alternative is to estimate the composition and concentration

  11. Bioremediation of paper and pulp mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, K

    2003-11-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents pollute water, air and soil, causing a major threat to the environment. Several methods have been attempted by various researchers throughout the world for the removal of colour from pulp and paper mill effluents. The biological colour removal process uses several classes of microorganisms--bacteria, algae and fungi--to degrade the polymeric lignin derived chromophoric material. White rot fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Corius versicolor, Trametes versicolor etc., are efficient in decolourizing paper and pulp mill effluents. Gliocladium virens, a saprophytic soil fungus decolourised paper and pulp mill effluents by 42% due to the production of hemicellulase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase.

  12. 40 CFR 435.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Offshore Subcategory § 435.14 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction... effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  13. 40 CFR 435.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Subcategory § 435.14 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  14. 40 CFR 435.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Subcategory § 435.14 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  15. 40 CFR 435.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Offshore Subcategory § 435.14 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction... effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  16. 40 CFR 435.44 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... Coastal Subcategory § 435.44 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction... effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the...

  17. Liquid effluent study characterization data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    During the development of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), public comments were received regarding reduction of the discharge of liquid effluents into the soil column. As a result, the US Department of Energy (DOE), with concurrence of the Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE)and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), committed to a special project designed to document the discharge history and the charter of Hanford Site liquid discharges. The results of this project will be used in determining the need for additional waste stream analysis, and/or to negotiate additional milestones pertaining to such discharges in the Tri-Party Agreement. Wastestream sampling data collected prior to October 1989 were reported in the Waste Stream Characterization Report. Preliminary Stream-specific Reports were prepared which evaluated that data and proposed dangerous waste designations for each stream. This document contains the wastestream sampling and analysis data collected as part of the liquid effluent study. Data contained in this report were obtained from samples collected from October 1989 through March 1990. Information is presented on the wastestreams that have been sampled, the parameters analyzed, and the dates and times at which the samples were collected. This information will be evaluated in the final Stream-Specific Reports. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Septic tank effluent pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, H.L.; Bounds, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Septic tank effluent pump (STEP) systems are beginning to be recognized as the preferred and most economical method of collecting and transporting partially-treated wastewater to a treatment facility. A conventional septic tank provides pretreatment, removing most settable and floatable solids from the wastewater. Specially designed pumps convey the septic tank effluent under pressure through a network of small diameter plastic piping to a treatment site. Shallow collection lines, following the contours of the terrain, eliminate the need for costly deep excavations. Changes in both vertical and horizontal alignments may be made in the field. The impetus for this rapidly developing technology has come mainly from the western US. Oregon's Department of Environmental Quality, for example, requires engineers to consider STEP systems whenever a new wastewater collection project is contemplated. The success of a STEP system depends primarily on the skill of the engineer in designing and managing the project. Guidelines for designers are discussed and brief descriptions of several successful STEP systems are included.

  19. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

    1997-11-25

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor. 6 figs.

  20. Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, Charles M.; Shapiro, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    A method for treating a gaseous effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor containing entrained solids is provided comprising the steps of expanding the gas/solids effluent from a first to a second lower pressure at a temperature at which no liquid condenses; separating the solids from the gas effluent; neutralizing the effluent to remove any acid gases; condensing the effluent; and retaining the purified effluent to the supercritical water oxidation reactor.

  1. Herpetofaunal and vegetational characterization of a thermally-impacted stream at the beginning of restoration

    Treesearch

    Catherine F. Bowers; Hugh G. Hanlin; David C. Guynn; John P. McLendon; James R. Davis

    2000-01-01

    Pen Branch, a third order stream on the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, SC, USA, received thermal effluents from the cooling system of a nuclear production reactor from 1954 to 1988. The thermal effluent and increased flow destroyed vegetation in the stream corridor (i.e. impacted portion of the floodplain), and subsequent erosion created a braided...

  2. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-08-30

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs.

  3. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  4. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  5. 40 CFR 447.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 447.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 447.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) INK FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 430.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Secondary Fiber Non-Deink Subcategory § 430.102 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  15. 40 CFR 446.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PAINT FORMULATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Oil-Base Solvent Wash Paint Subcategory § 446.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  16. 40 CFR 417.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 417.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 417.93 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 417.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  1. 40 CFR 417.193 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  2. 40 CFR 417.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  3. 40 CFR 411.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... by the application of the best available technology economically achievable. The following... application of the best available technology economically achievable. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  4. 40 CFR 417.133 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 417.183 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  6. 40 CFR 417.103 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  7. 40 CFR 417.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  8. 40 CFR 417.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  9. 40 CFR 417.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  10. 40 CFR 411.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant... by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology. The following limitations... best conventional pollutant control technology. Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations (maximum...

  11. 40 CFR 417.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable... subpart after application of the best available technology economically achievable: Effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 415.632 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  13. 40 CFR 415.552 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  14. 40 CFR 415.602 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  15. 40 CFR 415.142 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  16. 40 CFR 415.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  17. 40 CFR 415.442 - Effluent limitations quidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  18. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  19. 40 CFR 415.432 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  20. 40 CFR 415.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  1. 40 CFR 415.272 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  2. 40 CFR 415.352 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  3. 40 CFR 415.412 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  4. 40 CFR 415.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  5. 40 CFR 415.382 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  6. 40 CFR 415.292 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  7. 40 CFR 415.312 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable...

  8. 40 CFR 405.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Products Subcategory § 405.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For fluid...

  9. 40 CFR 405.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cultured Products Subcategory § 405.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For cultured...

  10. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GRAIN MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Normal Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  11. 40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.84 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 430.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  13. 40 CFR 430.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  14. 40 CFR 430.82 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.82 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 430.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  16. 40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.84 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 430.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  18. 40 CFR 430.83 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.83 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.84 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 430.84 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.84 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...