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Sample records for managed aquatic systems

  1. Aquarium Viromes: Viromes of Human-Managed Aquatic Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yiseul; Van Bonn, William; Aw, Tiong G; Rose, Joan B

    2017-01-01

    An aquarium ecosystem is home to many animal species providing conditions similar to native aquatic habitats but under highly controlled management. With a growing interest in understanding the interaction of microbiomes and resident animal health within aquarium environments, we undertook a metagenomic survey of viromes in seven aquarium systems with differing physicochemical and resident animal profiles. Our results show that a diverse array of viruses was represented in aquarium viromes, many of which were widespread in different aquarium systems (27 common viral families in all of the aquarium systems). Most viromes were dominated by DNA phages of the order Caudovirales as commonly found in other aquatic environments with average relative abundance greater than 64%. The composition and structure of aquarium viromes were associated with controlled system parameters, including nitrate, salinity, and temperature as well as resident animal profiles, indicating the close interaction of viromes with aquarium management practices. Furthermore, finding human associated viruses in a touch exhibit suggested that exposure of aquarium systems to human contact may lead to introduction of human cutaneous viruses into aquaria. This is consistent with the high abundance of skin microflora on the palms of healthy individuals and their detection in recreational waters, such as swimming pools. Lastly, assessment of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquarium viromes revealed a unique signature of ARGs in different aquarium systems with trimethoprim being the most common. This is the first study to provide vital information on viromes and their unique relationships with management practices in a human-built and controlled aquarium environment.

  2. Aquarium Viromes: Viromes of Human-Managed Aquatic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yiseul; Van Bonn, William; Aw, Tiong G.; Rose, Joan B.

    2017-01-01

    An aquarium ecosystem is home to many animal species providing conditions similar to native aquatic habitats but under highly controlled management. With a growing interest in understanding the interaction of microbiomes and resident animal health within aquarium environments, we undertook a metagenomic survey of viromes in seven aquarium systems with differing physicochemical and resident animal profiles. Our results show that a diverse array of viruses was represented in aquarium viromes, many of which were widespread in different aquarium systems (27 common viral families in all of the aquarium systems). Most viromes were dominated by DNA phages of the order Caudovirales as commonly found in other aquatic environments with average relative abundance greater than 64%. The composition and structure of aquarium viromes were associated with controlled system parameters, including nitrate, salinity, and temperature as well as resident animal profiles, indicating the close interaction of viromes with aquarium management practices. Furthermore, finding human associated viruses in a touch exhibit suggested that exposure of aquarium systems to human contact may lead to introduction of human cutaneous viruses into aquaria. This is consistent with the high abundance of skin microflora on the palms of healthy individuals and their detection in recreational waters, such as swimming pools. Lastly, assessment of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquarium viromes revealed a unique signature of ARGs in different aquarium systems with trimethoprim being the most common. This is the first study to provide vital information on viromes and their unique relationships with management practices in a human-built and controlled aquarium environment. PMID:28713358

  3. Integrated monitoring and information systems for managing aquatic invasive species in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Henry; Reusser, Deborah A.; Olden, Julian D.; Smith, Scott S.; Graham, Jim; Burkett, Virginia; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Mcphedran, John

    2008-01-01

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, and other climatic drivers and sea-level rise will affect populations of existing native and non-native aquatic species and the vulnerability of aquatic environments to new invasions. Monitoring surveys provide the foundation for assessing the combined effects of climate change and invasions by providing baseline biotic and environmental conditions, although the utility of a survey depends on whether the results are quantitative or qualitative, and other design considerations. The results from a variety of monitoring programs in the United States are available in integrated biological information systems, although many include only non-native species, not native species. Besides including natives, we suggest these systems could be improved through the development of standardized methods that capture habitat and physiological requirements and link regional and national biological databases into distributed Web portals that allow drawing information from multiple sources. Combining the outputs from these biological information systems with environmental data would allow the development of ecological-niche models that predict the potential distribution or abundance of native and non-native species on the basis of current environmental conditions. Environmental projections from climate models can be used in these niche models to project changes in species distributions or abundances under altered climatic conditions and to identify potential high-risk invaders. There are, however, a number of challenges, such as uncertainties associated with projections from climate and niche models and difficulty in integrating data with different temporal and spatial granularity. Even with these uncertainties, integration of biological and environmental information systems, niche models, and climate projections would improve management of aquatic ecosystems under the dual threats of biotic invasions and climate change

  4. Managing invasive aquatic plants in a changing system: strategic consideration of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Hershner, Carl; Havens, Kirk J

    2008-06-01

    Climate change is projected to increase stress for many coastal plant communities. Along large portions of the North American coast, habitat degradation from anthropogenic changes to the environment already threaten the community structure of tidal marshes and submerged aquatic grass beds. The potential loss of ecological services historically provided by these communities has been a long-standing rationale for aggressive control of invading plants such as Phragmites australis and Hydrilla verticillata. Increasing evidence of ecological services provided by invasive species such as P. australis and H. verticillata suggest that, in the face of increasing stress, it may be prudent to take a more pragmatic approach regarding the effect of these species on coastal ecosystems. The notable resilience of these species to control efforts and their competitive success and comparative vigor in stressed systems and capacity to provide at least some beneficial services combine to suggest some invasive species may have a useful role in managed coastal ecosystems.

  5. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  6. Aquatic models, genomics and chemical risk management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Keith C; Hinton, David E; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Planchart, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Nairn et al., 2001; Schmale, 2004; Schmale et al., 2007; Hinton et al., 2009) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yields data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant-microbe interaction in aquatic system and their role in the management of water quality: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Jatin K.; Chandra, Harish; Kalra, Swinder J. S.; Mishra, Pratibha; Khan, Hena; Yadav, Poonam

    2016-04-01

    Microbial assemblage as biofilm around the aquatic plant forms a firm association that largely depends upon the mutual supplies of nutrients, e.g., microbes interact with plants in an aquatic system most likely for organic carbon and oxygen, whereas plants receive defensive immunity and mineral exchange. Apart from the mutual benefits, plant-microbe interactions also influence the water quality especially at rhizosphere providing inherent ability to the aquatic system for the mitigation of pollution from the water column. The review presents and in-depth information along with certain research advancements made in the field of ecological and bio/chemical aspects of plant-microbe interactions and the underlying potential to improve water quality.

  8. Plant-microbe interaction in aquatic system and their role in the management of water quality: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Jatin K.; Chandra, Harish; Kalra, Swinder J. S.; Mishra, Pratibha; Khan, Hena; Yadav, Poonam

    2017-06-01

    Microbial assemblage as biofilm around the aquatic plant forms a firm association that largely depends upon the mutual supplies of nutrients, e.g., microbes interact with plants in an aquatic system most likely for organic carbon and oxygen, whereas plants receive defensive immunity and mineral exchange. Apart from the mutual benefits, plant-microbe interactions also influence the water quality especially at rhizosphere providing inherent ability to the aquatic system for the mitigation of pollution from the water column. The review presents and in-depth information along with certain research advancements made in the field of ecological and bio/chemical aspects of plant-microbe interactions and the underlying potential to improve water quality.

  9. Applying four principles of headwater system aquatic biology to forest management

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Danehy; Sherri L. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Headwater systems, including the channel and the adjacent riparian forest, are a dominant landscape feature in forested watersheds, draining most of the watershed area, and comprising the majority of channel length in drainage networks. Being at the upper extent of watersheds, these systems are smaller and steeper than large streams, and create microhabitats that...

  10. Modeling Aquatic Toxicity through Chromatographic Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pumarega, Alejandro; Amézqueta, Susana; Farré, Sandra; Muñoz-Pascual, Laura; Abraham, Michael H; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2017-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information. In this work, we have studied the similarity in the response of the toxicity to different species and we have selected eight representative aquatic species (including tadpoles, fish, water fleas, protozoan, and bacteria) with known nonspecific toxicity to chemical substances. Next, we have selected four chromatographic systems offering good perspectives for surrogation of the eight selected aquatic systems, and thus prediction of toxicity from the chromatographic measurement. Then toxicity has been correlated to the chromatographic retention factor. Satisfactory correlation results have been obtained to emulate toxicity in five of the selected aquatic species through some of the chromatographic systems. Other aquatic species with similar characteristics to these five representative ones could also be emulated by using the same chromatographic systems. The final aim of this study is to model chemical products toxicity to aquatic species by means of chromatographic systems to reduce in vivo testing.

  11. Photochemistry of environmental aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, R.G.; Cooper, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides an incisive look at the subject of aquatic photochemistry. It divides this topic into three main areas: fresh water, estuarine, and marine environments and discussions on natural and anthropogenic impacts. In summary it brings together a diverse selection of viewpoints.

  12. Master plan: Guntersville Reservoir Aquatic Plant Management. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1989, Congress provided funding to start a five-year comprehensive project to manage aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir, to be jointly implemented by the US Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). TVA serves as the overall project coordinator and is the lead agency for this project. Known as the Joint Agency Guntersville Project (JAGP), the project will test and demonstrate innovative management technologies, and incorporate the most effective technologies into a comprehensive aquatic plant management plan for Guntersville Reservoir. The JAGP is intended to serve as a National Demonstration Project for aquatic plant management. As part of this JAGP, the Master Plan for Aquatic Plant Management for the Guntersville Reservoir Project, Alabama-Tennessee is authorized by Corps Contract Number DACW62-90-C-0067.

  13. Effective Best Management Practices for Nitrogen Removal in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated nitrate levels in streams and groundwater are detrimental to human and ecosystem health. The Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the USEPA investigates best management practices (BMP’s) that enhance nitrogen removal in aquatic ecosystems througho...

  14. Effective Best Management Practices for Nitrogen Removal in Aquatic Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated nitrate levels in streams and groundwater are detrimental to human and ecosystem health. The Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) of the USEPA investigates best management practices (BMP’s) that enhance nitrogen removal in aquatic ecosystems througho...

  15. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  16. Aquatic Plants: Management and Control. Special Circular 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, R. G.; And Others

    This publication, produced by the Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension Service, is a non-technical guide to chemical control of aquatic vegetation. The purpose of this circular is to aid the land owner or manager in managing ponds, streams, and other water bodies for desired uses by managing the vegetation in, on, and around the water. Among the…

  17. Aquatic Plants: Management and Control. Special Circular 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, R. G.; And Others

    This publication, produced by the Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension Service, is a non-technical guide to chemical control of aquatic vegetation. The purpose of this circular is to aid the land owner or manager in managing ponds, streams, and other water bodies for desired uses by managing the vegetation in, on, and around the water. Among the…

  18. The interaction between biology and the management of aquatic macrophytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    'Management' refers to controlling nuisance aquatic species and to restoring or restructing aquatic plant communities. Producing stable, diverse, aquatic plant communities containing a high percentage of desirable species is a primary management goal. There are a variety of techniques including harvesting, herbicides, water-level fluctuation, sediment alteration, nutrient limitation, light alteration, and biological controls which can be used for managing macrophytes. These techniques are briefly reviewed along with discussions of biological considerations important to the efficacy of the technique and the environmental impacts of the technique. There is a growing interest in restoring and restructing aquatic plant communities. Techniques for community restoration are discussed as are emerging management technologies using growth regulators and bioengineering. New management technologies will probably be limited by costs and environmental impacts. In the near future, better macrophyte management will come through better planning and more effective use of present technology. The challenge is to make current planning and management techniques more effective through increased biological inputs. The potential for biological input ranges from subcellular biology to species biology, to community and ecosystem biology. Some information needs are identified. ?? 1991.

  19. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  20. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Jana S.; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Gossner, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  1. Aquatic Plant Management Program current status and seasonal workplan

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.R.; Bates, A.L.; Webb, D.H.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the TVA Aquatic Plant Management Program is to support in an environmentally and economically responsible manner, the balanced multiple uses of the water resource of the Tennessee Valley. This is accomplished by following an integrated approach to prevent introduction and spread of noxious species, documenting occurrence and spread of existing species, and suppressing or eliminating problems in designated high use areas. It is not the TVA objective, nor is it biologically feasible and prudent to eliminate all aquatic vegetation. Aerial photography, helicopter reconnaissance, and field surveys are used to assess distributions and abundance of various aquatic macrophytes. Water level fluctuations are supplemented by herbicide applications to control undesirable vegetation. Investigations are conducted to evaluate water level fluctuation schemes, as well as biological, mechanical, and alternative chemical control techniques which offer potential for more environmentally compatible and cost-effective management operations.

  2. Novel aquatic modules for bioregenerative life-support systems based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (c.e.b.a.s.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, Volker; Paris, Frank

    2002-06-01

    The closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S) is a man-made aquatic ecosystem which consists of four subcomponents: an aquatic animal habitat, an aquatic plant bioreactor, an ammonia oxidizing bacteria filter and a data acquisition/control unit. It is a precursor for different types of fish and aquatic plant production sites which are disposed for the integration into bioregenerative life-support systems. The results of two successful spaceflights of a miniaturized C.E.B.A.S version (the C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE) allow the optimization of aquatic food production systems which are already developed in the ground laboratory and open new aspects for their utilization as aquatic modules in space bioregenerative life support systems. The total disposition offers different stages of complexity of such aquatic modules starting with simple but efficient aquatic plant cultivators which can be implemented into water recycling systems and ending up in combined plant/fish aquaculture in connection with reproduction modules and hydroponics applications for higher land plants. In principle, aquaculture of fishes and/or other aquatic animals edible for humans offers optimal animal protein production under lowered gravity conditions without the tremendous waste management problems connected with tetrapod breeding and maintenance. The paper presents details of conducted experimental work and of future dispositions which demonstrate clearly that aquaculture is an additional possibility to combine efficient and simple food production in space with water recycling utilizing safe and performable biotechnologies. Moreover, it explains how these systems may contribute to more variable diets to fulfill the needs of multicultural crews.

  3. Novel aquatic modules for bioregenerative life-support systems based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.).

    PubMed

    Bluem, Volker; Paris, Frank

    2002-06-01

    The closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S) is a man-made aquatic ecosystem which consists of four subcomponents: an aquatic animal habitat, an aquatic plant bioreactor, an ammonia oxidizing bacteria filter and a data acquisition/control unit. It is a precursor for different types of fish and aquatic plant production sites which are disposed for the integration into bioregenerative life-support systems. The results of two successful spaceflights of a miniaturized C.E.B.A.S version (the C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE) allow the optimization of aquatic food production systems which are already developed in the ground laboratory and open new aspects for their utilization as aquatic modules in space bioregenerative life support systems. The total disposition offers different stages of complexity of such aquatic modules starting with simple but efficient aquatic plant cultivators which can be implemented into water recycling systems and ending up in combined plant/fish aquaculture in connection with reproduction modules and hydroponics applications for higher land plants. In principle, aquaculture of fishes and/or other aquatic animals edible for humans offers optimal animal protein production under lowered gravity conditions without the tremendous waste management problems connected with tetrapod breeding and maintenance. The paper presents details of conducted experimental work and of future dispositions which demonstrate clearly that aquaculture is an additional possibility to combine efficient and simple food production in space with water recycling utilizing safe and performable biotechnologies. Moreover, it explains how these systems may contribute to more variable diets to fulfill the needs of multicultural crews.

  4. Hydro-climatic Changes: Potential Non-linear Responses of Phosphorus Dynamic in Aquatic/Semi-aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2007-12-01

    Depending on resilience, threshold and lag times, hydro-climatic changes can cause nonlinear and/or irreversible changes in phosphorus (P) dynamic, and instigate P enrichment in aquatic/semi-aquatic systems. Thus, studying direct/indirect effects of expected global climate change on bioavailability of organic P in aquatic systems are in critical need, to help manage or increase the resilience of the ecosystem. The central hypothesis of this study is that P dynamic in aquatic, especially freshwater, ecosystem is likely to behave nonlinearly due to expected changes in sediment and water acidity, redox status, etc., because of potential hydro-climatic changes in the decades to come, thus, could face irreversible adverse changes. Devising possible biological and chemical treatments for the removal of P from eutrophic lakes, estuaries, etc, as well as helping in predicting the movement and fate of P under changing hydro-climatic conditions would be crucial to manage aquatic ecosystem in the near future. The critical question is not how much P is stored in any given aquatic/semi-aquatic system, but how the resilience and nonlinearity relate to the stability of stored P are affected due to the levels of environmental stressors, which are expected to fluctuate due to global change in the decades to come. Studies related to 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy analysis, and multiple hydraulic retention cycles showed that, in general, frequent drying and reflooding of a semi-aquatic system such as wetland could significantly increase the bioavailability of P due to degradation of relatively less stable organic P, e.g., glycerophosphate and nucleoside monophosphate. Moreover, nutrients flux from sediments to the water column depended on the concentration gradients of the sediment-water interface and redox status. Shift in equilibrium P concentration of the water column as the water level rises, may cause release of adsorbed P from the sediments. Restoration of a

  5. Modeling nanomaterial environmental fate in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Dale, Amy L; Casman, Elizabeth A; Lowry, Gregory V; Lead, Jamie R; Viparelli, Enrica; Baalousha, Mohammed

    2015-03-03

    Mathematical models improve our fundamental understanding of the environmental behavior, fate, and transport of engineered nanomaterials (NMs, chemical substances or materials roughly 1-100 nm in size) and facilitate risk assessment and management activities. Although today's large-scale environmental fate models for NMs are a considerable improvement over early efforts, a gap still remains between the experimental research performed to date on the environmental fate of NMs and its incorporation into models. This article provides an introduction to the current state of the science in modeling the fate and behavior of NMs in aquatic environments. We address the strengths and weaknesses of existing fate models, identify the challenges facing researchers in developing and validating these models, and offer a perspective on how these challenges can be addressed through the combined efforts of modelers and experimentalists.

  6. Low-cost aquatic lab animal holding system.

    PubMed

    Hohn, Claudia; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed a low-cost aquatic animal holding system that provides an alternative to expensive, commercially available systems. Our flow-through system is especially useful for programs that are limited in space and funding. The easy assembly and maintenance of the system are advantages for the researchers who may be unfamiliar with aquatic animals.

  7. Aquatics Systems Branch: transdisciplinary research to address water-related environmental problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dong, Quan; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Aquatic Systems Branch at the Fort Collins Science Center is a group of scientists dedicated to advancing interdisciplinary science and providing science support to solve water-related environmental issues. Natural resource managers have an increasing need for scientific information and stakeholders face enormous challenges of increasing and competing demands for water. Our scientists are leaders in ecological flows, riparian ecology, hydroscape ecology, ecosystem management, and contaminant biology. The Aquatic Systems Branch employs and develops state-of-the-science approaches in field investigations, laboratory experiments, remote sensing, simulation and predictive modeling, and decision support tools. We use the aquatic experimental laboratory, the greenhouse, the botanical garden and other advanced facilities to conduct unique research. Our scientists pursue research on the ground, in the rivers, and in the skies, generating and testing hypotheses and collecting quantitative information to support planning and design in natural resource management and aquatic restoration.

  8. Ecological history vs. social expectations: managing aquatic ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    Gordon H. Reeves; Sally L. Duncan

    2009-01-01

    The emerging perspective of ecosystems as both non-equilibrium and dynamic fits aquatic ecosystems as well as terrestrial systems. It is increasingly recognized that watersheds historically passed through different conditions over time. Habitat conditions varied in quantity and quality, primarily as a function of the time since the last major disturbance and the legacy...

  9. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  10. VASCULAR PLANTS AS ENGINEERS OF OXYGEN IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of organisms on oxygen is one of the most dramatic examples of ecosystem engineering on Earth. In aquatic systems, which have much lower oxygen concentrations than the atmosphere, vascular aquatic plants can affect oxygen concentrations significantly not only on long t...

  11. Microbial detoxification of metalaxyl in aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmed H; Derbalah, Aly S; Belal, El-Sayed B

    2008-01-01

    Four microorganisms, Pseudomonas sp. (ER2), Aspergillus niger (ER6), Cladosporium herbarum (ER4) and Penicilluim sp. (ER3), were isolated from cucumber leaves previously treated with metalaxyl using enrichment technique. These isolates were evaluated for detoxification of metalaxyl at the recommended dose level in aquatic system. The effect of pH and temperature on the growth ability of the tested isolates was also investigated by measuring the intracellular protein and mycelia dry weight for bacterial and fungal isolates, respectively. Moreover, the toxicity of metalaxyl after 28 d of treatment with the tested isolates was evaluated to confirm the complete removal of any toxic materials (metalaxyl and its metabolites). The results showed that the optimum degree pH for the growth of metalaxyl degrading isolates (bacterial and fungal isolates) was 7. The temperature 30 degrees C appeared to be the optimum degree for the growth of either fungal or bacterial isolates. The results showed that Pseudomonas sp. (ER2) was the most effective isolate in metalaxyl degradation followed by Aspergillus niger (ER6), Cladosporium herbarum (ER4) and Penicilluim sp. (ER3), respectively. There is no toxicity of metalaxyl detected in the supernatant after 28 d of treatment with Pseudomonas sp. (ER2). The results suggest that bioremediation by Pseudomonas sp. (ER2) isolate was considered to be effective method for detoxification of metalaxyl in aqueous media.

  12. Estimating Virus Production Rates in Aquatic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Matteson, Audrey R.; Budinoff, Charles R.; Campbell, Claire E.; Buchan, Alison; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are pervasive components of marine and freshwater systems, and are known to be significant agents of microbial mortality. Developing quantitative estimates of this process is critical as we can then develop better models of microbial community structure and function as well as advance our understanding of how viruses work to alter aquatic biogeochemical cycles. The virus reduction technique allows researchers to estimate the rate at which virus particles are released from the endemic microbial community. In brief, the abundance of free (extracellular) viruses is reduced in a sample while the microbial community is maintained at near ambient concentration. The microbial community is then incubated in the absence of free viruses and the rate at which viruses reoccur in the sample (through the lysis of already infected members of the community) can be quantified by epifluorescence microscopy or, in the case of specific viruses, quantitative PCR. These rates can then be used to estimate the rate of microbial mortality due to virus-mediated cell lysis. PMID:20972392

  13. Modeling Mercury Fate and Transport in Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoudieh, Arash; Žagar, Dušan; Green, Peter G.; Cabrera-Toledo, Carlos; Horvat, Milena; Ginn, Timothy R.; Barkouki, Tammer; Weathers, Tess; Bombardelli, Fabian A.

    Mercury in the aquatic environment is a neurotoxin with several known adverse effects on the natural ecosystem and the human health. Mathematical modeling is a cost-effective way for assessing the risk associated with mercury to aquatic organisms and for developing management plans for the reduction of mercury exposure in such systems. However, the analysis of mercury fate and transport in the aquatic environment requires multiple disciplines of science ranging from sediment transport and hydraulics, to geochemistry and microbiology. Also, it involves the knowledge of some less understood processes such as the microbial and diagenetic processes affecting the chemical speciation of mercury and various mechanisms involved in the mass-exchange of mercury species between the benthic sediments and the overlying water. Due to these complexities, there are many challenges involved in developing an integrated mercury fate and transport model in aquatic systems. This paper identifies the various processes that are potentially important in mercury fate and transport as well as the knowns and unknowns about these processes. Also, an integrated multi-component reactive transport modeling approach is suggested to capture several of those processes. This integrated modeling framework includes the coupled advective-dispersive transport of mercury species in the water body, both in dissolved phase and as associated to mobile suspended sediments. The flux of mercury in the benthic sediments as a result of diffusive mass exchange, bio-dispersion, and hyporheic flow, and the flow generated due to consolidation of newly deposited sediments is also addressed. The model considers in addition the deposition and resuspension of sediments and their effect on the mass exchange of mercury species between the top water and the benthic sediments. As for the biogeochemical processes, the effect of redox stratification and activities of sulfate and iron-reducing bacteria on the methylation of

  14. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for better visualization tools for environmental science is well documented, and the Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to both help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations and to determine which visualizatio...

  15. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for better visualization tools for environmental science is well documented, and the Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to both help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations and to determine which visualizatio...

  16. Predicting the resilience and recovery of aquatic systems: A framework for model evolution within environmental observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hamilton, David P.; Hanson, Paul C.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Coletti, Janaine Z.; Read, Jordan S.; Ibelings, Bas W.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Brookes, Justin D.

    2015-09-01

    Maintaining the health of aquatic systems is an essential component of sustainable catchment management, however, degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat continues to challenge scientists and policy-makers. To support management and restoration efforts aquatic system models are required that are able to capture the often complex trajectories that these systems display in response to multiple stressors. This paper explores the abilities and limitations of current model approaches in meeting this challenge, and outlines a strategy based on integration of flexible model libraries and data from observation networks, within a learning framework, as a means to improve the accuracy and scope of model predictions. The framework is comprised of a data assimilation component that utilizes diverse data streams from sensor networks, and a second component whereby model structural evolution can occur once the model is assessed against theoretically relevant metrics of system function. Given the scale and transdisciplinary nature of the prediction challenge, network science initiatives are identified as a means to develop and integrate diverse model libraries and workflows, and to obtain consensus on diagnostic approaches to model assessment that can guide model adaptation. We outline how such a framework can help us explore the theory of how aquatic systems respond to change by bridging bottom-up and top-down lines of enquiry, and, in doing so, also advance the role of prediction in aquatic ecosystem management.

  17. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  18. The application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health management.

    PubMed

    Peeler, E J; Murray, A G; Thebault, A; Brun, E; Giovaninni, A; Thrush, M A

    2007-09-14

    Risk analysis has only been regularly used in the management of aquatic animal health in recent years. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) stimulated the application of risk analysis to investigate disease risks associated with international trade (import risk analysis-IRA). A majority (9 of 17) of the risk analyses reviewed were IRA. The other major focus has been the parasite of Atlantic salmon--Gyrodactylus salaris. Six studies investigated the spread of this parasite, between countries, rivers and from farmed to wild stocks, and clearly demonstrated that risk analysis can support aquatic animal health policy development, from international trade and biosecurity to disease interaction between wild and farmed stocks. Other applications of risk analysis included the spread of vertically transmitted pathogens and disease emergence in aquaculture. The Covello-Merkhofer, risk analysis model was most commonly used and appears to be a flexible tool not only for IRA but also the investigation of disease spread in other contexts. The limitations of the identified risk assessments were discussed. A majority were qualitative, partly due to the lack of data for quantitative analysis, and this, it can be argued, constrained their usefulness for trade purposes (i.e. setting appropriate sanitary measures); in other instances, a qualitative result was found to be adequate for decision making. A lack of information about the disease hazards of the large number of fish species traded is likely to constrain quantitative analysis for a number of years. The consequence assessment element of a risk analysis was most likely to be omitted, or limited in scope and depth, rarely extending beyond examining the evidence of susceptibility of farmed and wild species to the identified hazard. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations made to develop guidelines for a consistent, systematic and multi-disciplinary approach to consequence

  19. Predicting the resilience and recovery of aquatic systems: a framework for model evolution within environmental observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hamilton, David P.; Hanson, Paul C.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Coletti, Janaine Z; Read, Jordan S.; Ibelings, Bas W; Valensini, Fiona J; Brookes, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the health of aquatic systems is an essential component of sustainable catchmentmanagement, however, degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat continues to challenge scientistsand policy-makers. To support management and restoration efforts aquatic system models are requiredthat are able to capture the often complex trajectories that these systems display in response to multiplestressors. This paper explores the abilities and limitations of current model approaches in meeting this chal-lenge, and outlines a strategy based on integration of flexible model libraries and data from observationnetworks, within a learning framework, as a means to improve the accuracy and scope of model predictions.The framework is comprised of a data assimilation component that utilizes diverse data streams from sensornetworks, and a second component whereby model structural evolution can occur once the model isassessed against theoretically relevant metrics of system function. Given the scale and transdisciplinarynature of the prediction challenge, network science initiatives are identified as a means to develop and inte-grate diverse model libraries and workflows, and to obtain consensus on diagnostic approaches to modelassessment that can guide model adaptation. We outline how such a framework can help us explore thetheory of how aquatic systems respond to change by bridging bottom-up and top-down lines of enquiry,and, in doing so, also advance the role of prediction in aquatic ecosystem management.

  20. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-07-29

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;00:000-000. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Iron Biogeochemistry in Aquatic Systems: From Source to Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Norman, Louiza; Cabanesa, Damien J E; Blanco-Ameijeiras, Sonia; Moisset, Sophie A M; Hassler, Christel S

    2014-11-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential trace element for several key metabolic processes in phytoplankton; however Fe is present in low concentration in many aquatic systems including vast oceanic regions and large lakes. In these systems, Fe can limit the growth of phytoplankton and atmospheric carbon dioxide biological fixation. Indeed Fe limitation exerts a global impact on the carbon cycle and the imprint of aquatic systems on our climate. In order to understand how aquatic systems function and increase our ability to predict their response to changing conditions, it is therefore paramount to understand when and how Fe controls operate. This review presents the complex relationship between Fe chemistry and the biology of surface waters to highlight the parameters defining the forms of Fe that are accessible for phytoplankton growth (or bioavailable). Particular attention is given to the identification of Fe sources and Fe organic complexation as these, in conjunction with biological recycling and remineralisation, mostly control Fe residence time, chemistry and bioavailability.

  2. Linking Changes in Management and Riparian Physical Functionality to Water Quality and Aquatic Habitat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife and aquatic habitats are dependent on the development of riparian area management strategies. Land management strategies consider certain basic ecological and economic relationships. These relationships are functions of riparian and te rrestrial ecosystems, which include...

  3. Determining the Effectiveness of Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration, Conservation, and Management Practices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science of aquatic ecosystem restoration and management is still in its infancy, largely because most projects are inadequately tracked and monitored for assessing their success. Historically, evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) has relied heavily...

  4. Determining the Effectiveness of Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration, Conservation, and Management Practices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science of aquatic ecosystem restoration and management is still in its infancy, largely because most projects are inadequately tracked and monitored for assessing their success. Historically, evaluating the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) has relied heavily...

  5. Linking Changes in Management and Riparian Physical Functionality to Water Quality and Aquatic Habitat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife and aquatic habitats are dependent on the development of riparian area management strategies. Land management strategies consider certain basic ecological and economic relationships. These relationships are functions of riparian and te rrestrial ecosystems, which include...

  6. A Flow-through Exposure System for Evaluating Suspended Sediments Effects on Aquatic Life.

    PubMed

    Suedel, Burton C; Wilkens, Justin L

    2017-01-09

    This paper describes the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES). The flow-through exposure system is used to investigate the effects of suspended sediment on various aquatic species and life stages in the laboratory by using pumps and automating delivery of sediment and water to simulate suspension of sediment. FLEES data are used to develop exposure-response curves between the effects on aquatic organisms and suspended sediment concentrations at the desired exposure duration. The effects data are used to evaluate management practices used to reduce the interactions between aquatic organisms and anthropogenic causes of suspended sediments. The FLEES is capable of generating total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations as low as 30 to as high as 800 mg/L, making this system an ideal choice for evaluating the effects of TSS resulting from many activities including simulating low ambient levels of TSS to evaluating sources of suspended sediments from dredging operations, vessel traffic, freshets, and storms.

  7. Microsporidia: diverse, dynamic, and emergent pathogens in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Stentiford, Grant D; Feist, Stephen W; Stone, David M; Bateman, Kelly S; Dunn, Alison M

    2013-11-01

    Microsporidia cause important diseases in aquatic organisms. Susceptible hosts span a remarkable taxonomic spectrum, from protists to mammals. Known genera represent a small fraction of extant taxa in global aquatic systems. Transmitting horizontally or vertically, effects range from cryptic to catastrophic; individual level effects being extrapolated to populations and ecosystems. Debate over positioning within the eukaryotes and internal structuring of the phylum has benefited from molecular phylogenetic approaches to taxonomy. Similar tools offer new perspectives on transmission between hosts of differing trophic status and habitats. Accessible models for host-pathogen interaction are emerging from full genome sequencing projects. Hyperparasitism and the close phylogenetic relationship between taxa infecting invertebrates and vertebrates not only underline a ubiquity in aquatic systems but also potential for zoonotic transfer.

  8. Emergent aquatics: stand establishment, management, and species screening

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Andrews, N.J.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Penko, M.; Read, P.E.; Zimmerman, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    Several emergent aquatic species have been identified as potential biomass crops, including Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus spp. (rush), Sparganium spp. (bur reed), and Phragmites (reed). This report discusses first year results from studies of stand establishment and management, Typha nutrient requirements, wetland species yield comparisons, and Typha micropropagation. In a comparison of the relative effectiveness of seed, seedlings, and rhizomes for stand establishment, rhizomes appeared to be more consistent and productive under a wire variety of conditions. Both rhizomes and seedling established plots grew successfully on excavated peatland sites. First season results from a multiyear fertilizer rate experiment indicate that fertilizer treatment resulted in significantly increased tissue nutrient concentrations which should carry over into subsequent growing seasons. Shoot density and belowground dry weight were also significantly increased by phosphorus + potassium and potassium applications, respectively. First season yields of selected wetland species from managed paddies generally were comparable to yields reported from natural stands. Several particularly productive clones of Typha spp. have been identified. A method of establishing Typha in tissue culture is described.

  9. The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System: A 12 months Test of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Ludwig, Ch.; Paaßen, U.; Voeste, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ``Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System'' (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three month is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological ``mechanical'' filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A simple data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  10. The closed equilibrated biological aquatic system: a 12 months test of an artificial aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Ludwig, C h; Paassen, U; Voeste, D

    1999-01-01

    The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) is finally disposed for long-term multi-generation experiments with aquatic organisms in a space station. Therefore a minimum operation time of three months is required. It is verified in three versions of laboratory prototypes. The third one passed successfully a 12 months mid-term test in 1995/96 thus demonstrating its high biological stability. The third version of the C.E.B.A.S. consists of a 100 l animal tank, two plant cultivators with a volume of 15 l each with independent illuminations, a 3.0 l semibiological "mechanical" filter, a 3.0 l bacteria filter, a heating/cooling device and a dummy filter unit. The live-bearing teleost Xiphophorus helleri is the vertebrate and the pulmonate water snail Biomphalana glabrata the invertebrate experimental animal in the system. The rootless higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum is the producer organism. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and other microorganisms settle in the filters. A sample data acquisition is combined with temperature and plant illumination control. Besides of the space aspects the C.E.B.A.S. proved to be an extremely suitable tool to investigate the organism and subcomponent interactions in a well defined terrestrial aquatic closed ecosystem by providing physical, chemical and biological data which allow an approach to a comprehensive system analysis. Moreover the C.E.B.A.S. is the base for the development of innovative combined animal-plant aquaculture systems for human nutrition on earth which could be implemented into bioregenerative life support systems with a higher degree of complexity suitable for lunar or planetary bases.

  11. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3-D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental modeling community has a long-standing need for affordable, easy-to-use tools that support 3-D visualization of complex spatial and temporal model output. The Visualization of Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effe...

  12. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3-D

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental modeling community has a long-standing need for affordable, easy-to-use tools that support 3-D visualization of complex spatial and temporal model output. The Visualization of Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to help scientists produce effe...

  13. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  14. Expert System Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-30

    Expert System Management System (ESMS) Small Business Innovative Research Contract developed a distributed fault-tolerant expert system shell for...multiple expert systems in a multiprocessor environment. The ESMS contained four domain specific expert systems called Manager Expert System , Route...Planner Expert System , Weapon Expert System , and Situation Awareness and Display Expert System . The ESMS expert system shell was written in LISP

  15. Source contributions and mass loadings for chemicals of emerging concern: Chemometric application of pharmaco-signature in different aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Brimblecombe, Peter; Vydrova, Lucie; Fang, Meng-Der

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the source contributions of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) from different aquatic environments of Taiwan, we collected water samples from different aquatic systems, which were screened for 30 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs. The total estimated mass loadings of CECs were 23.1 g/d in southern aquatic systems and 133 g/d in central aquatic systems. We developed an analytical framework combining pollutant fingerprinting, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) to infer the pharmaco-signature and source contributions of CECs. Based on this approach, we estimate source contributions of 62.2% for domestic inputs, 16.9% for antibiotics application, and 20.9% for drug abuse/medication in southern aquatic system, compared with 47.3% domestic, 35.1% antibiotic, and 17.6% drug abuse/medication inputs to central aquatic systems. The proposed pharmaco-signature method provides initial insights into the profile and source apportionment of CECs in complex aquatic systems, which are of importance for environmental management.

  16. 3. A Closed Aquatic System for Space and Earth Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.; Jastorff, B.; Ranke, J.; Schirmer, M.

    Increased durations in space travel as well as living in extreme environments are requiring reliable life support systems in general and bioregenerative ones in detail. Waste water management, air revitalization and food production are obviously center goals in this research, however, in addition a potential influence by chemicals, drugs etc. released to the closed environment must be considered. On this basis ecotoxicological data become more and more important for CELSS (Closed Ecological Life Support System) development and performance. The experiences gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of an aquatic habitat, called AquaHab (formerly CBRU), which is a closed, self-sustaining system with a total water volume of 9 liters. In the frame program of a R&D project funded by the state of Bremen and OHB System, AquaHab is under adaptation to become an ecotoxicological research unit containing for example Japanese Medaka or Zebra Fish, amphipods, water snails and water plants. Test runs were standardized and analytical methods were developed. Beside general biological and water chemical parameters, activity measurements of biotransforming enzymes (G6PDH, CytP450-Oxidase, Peroxidase) and cell viability tests as well as residual analysis of the applied substance and respective metabolites were selected as evaluation criteria. In a first series of tests low doses effects of TBT (Tributyltin, 0.1 to 20 μgTBT/l nominal concentration) were analyzed. The AquaHab and data obtained for applied environmental risk assessment will be presented at the assembly.

  17. Epidemiological approach to aquatic animal health management: opportunities and challenges for developing countries to increase aquatic production through aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2005-02-01

    Aquaculture appears to have strongest potential to meet the increasing demands for aquatic products in most regions of the world. The world population is on the increase, as is the demand for aquatic food products. Production from capture fisheries at a global level is levelling off. Potential contributions from aquaculture to local food security, livelihoods and nutrition can be highly significant, especially in many remote and resource-poor rural areas. One of the major constraints to aquaculture production is the losses due to diseases. Over the decades, the sector has faced significant problems with disease outbreaks and epidemics which caused significant economic losses. The use of sound epidemiological principles and logical and science-based approach to identify and manage risks comprise two of the most important components of an effective biosecurity program. The maintenance of effective biosecurity in aquaculture is becoming more and more essential. There will be more demand for aquatic animal epidemiologists as well as epidemiological tools/resources in the region. The use of epidemiology will significantly improve health management, risk analysis and disease control. Although there are clear limitations and complications in the use of epidemiology for controlling aquatic animal pathogens, some positive results have recently emerged from a series of studies and trials to control diseases affecting the small-scale shrimp farming sector in southern India. This paper summarises the results of one such study which emphasizes the significant benefit of close collaboration with farmers, both individually and as groups, and capacity and awareness building among them and the importance of understanding the risk factors and implementing better management practices.

  18. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Narumalani, S.; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  19. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Use of the White Amur for Aquatic Plant Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    on the fate of the fish growth rates , food preferences, repro- through time-how their numbers, size, duction, and tolerances to various aquatic biomass...chemistry and native biota. While the within the water body, growth rates , and majority of the information for this report feeding preferences. A computer...temperate Amur Basin of the to two to three times the body weight under Soviet Union, the greatest growth rate of optimal conditions. This high rate

  20. Effects of Management Legacies on Stream Fish and Aquatic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quist, Michael C.; Schultz, Randall D.

    2014-09-01

    Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages often provide insight on ecological conditions for guiding management actions. Unfortunately, land use and management legacies can constrain the structure of biotic communities such that they fail to reflect habitat quality. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns in fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure, and evaluate relationships between biota and habitat characteristics in the Chariton River system of south-central Iowa, a system likely influenced by various potential management legacies (e.g., dams, chemical removal of fishes). We sampled fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and physical habitat from a total of 38 stream reaches in the Chariton River watershed during 2002-2005. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were dominated by generalist species tolerant of poor habitat quality; assemblages failed to show any apparent patterns with regard to stream size or longitudinal location within the watershed. Metrics used to summarize fish assemblages and populations [e.g., presence-absence, relative abundance, Index of Biotic Integrity for fish (IBIF)] were not related to habitat characteristics, except that catch rates of piscivores were positively related to the depth and the amount of large wood. In contrast, family richness of benthic macroinvertebrates, richness of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa, and IBI values for benthic macroinvertebrates (IBIBM) were positively correlated with the amount of overhanging vegetation and inversely related to the percentage of fine substrate. A long history of habitat alteration by row-crop agriculture and management legacies associated with reservoir construction has likely resulted in a fish assemblage dominated by tolerant species. Intolerant and sensitive fish species have not recolonized streams due to downstream movement barriers (i.e., dams). In contrast, aquatic insect assemblages reflected aquatic habitat, particularly

  1. Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Impacts on Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobling, Susan

    2014-07-01

    We often talk about the importance of water, but one area that's often overlooked is the safety of our water supply. How many people actually think about the purity of their water when they turn on the tap? We may have real reason to be concerned because our water delivery systems and treatment technology seem to be stuck in the past, relying on old water treatment and water delivery systems. While these systems still do a great job filtering out particles, parasites and bacteria, they usually fail to remove 21st century contaminants like pesticides, industrial chemicals, lead, pharmaceuticals and arsenic. Indeed our water contains already a whole plethora of things in daily commerce and pharmaceuticals are increasingly showing up in the water supply, including antibiotics, anti-convulsants, mood altering medications and sex hormones. As the world's dependence on chemicals grows, our water supplies will continue to feel the effects, which inevitably will touch every person on this planet...

  2. Community metabolism of aquatic closed ecological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taub, Frieda B.

    Ecological systems have certain properties in common, and by studying small, easily replicated units, we may be able to better understand the earth's biosphere and assist in the development of ecosystems with desirable properties. Results from small, simple systems can suggest hypotheses that can be tested, often with existing data. Ecological systems consisting of a chemically defined medium, primary producers (3 species of algae), grazers (Daphnia magna) and associated (unidentified) microbes developed selforganizing and self-sustaining (months to year) communities. Oxygen and pH were measured by internal sensors, algal abundance was estimated by in vivo fluorescence, and animal abundances were counted directly and imaged for confirmation. In these systems, there were strong algae-grazer interactions. If grazers were abundant and increasing, algae became overgrazed, pH was 6, and CO2 was abundant; when grazer populations declined and eventually died out, pH became ˜ 10, and carbon became limiting (as estimated from pH and alkalinity). Even without grazers (including systems to which grazers had not been introduced), the systems continued having diurnal oxygen and pH cycles. The oxygen measurements showed a strong linkage between day and night responses; changes that reduced day-time oxygen production (such as shading, shorter lighted periods), also reduced night-time oxygen uptake. This linkage suggests that there may be internal feedbacks that (within limits) maintain more stable oxygen concentrations than would be expected. By studying whole, interacting ecosystems, we may learn properties that would not be obvious from studying isolated sub-components.

  3. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  4. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 2. First Year Poststocking Results. Volume II. The Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    waterfowl and wading birds , and aquatic mammal populations on Lake Conway were surveyed for 1 year after the introduction of the herbivorous fish, white...of a series of reports documenting a large-scale operations management test of use of the white amur for control of problem aquatic plants in Lake... Manager of the Aquatic Plant Control Research Program, EL. The study was under the general supervision of Mr. B. 0. Benn, Chief, Environmental Systems

  5. Natural attenuation of chloroacetinilide herbicides in aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, David W.; Graham, William H.; DeNoyelles, Frank; Smith, Val H.; Thurman, E. Michael; Leeson, Andrea; Alleman, Bruce C.

    1999-01-01

    Chloroacetanilide herbicides (e.g. alachlor and metolachlor) and their breakdown products are frequently found in agriculturally impacted and other natural waters. Although these compounds are usually present at low concentrations in aquatic systems, defining their fate and attenuation rate is important because they can be toxic at comparatively low exposure levels. This paper summarizes results from a four-year research program assessing factors that affect herbicide attenuation rates and breakdown product formation patterns in aquatic systems. Over 70 different field microcosms (11.3 m3 cylindrical fiberglass tanks) were selectively manipulated (in replicate) to create nine unique aquatic ecosystems for this study. Alachlor and/or metolachlor were added to these units and transformations were observed over time. Alachlor half-lives ranged from 6.0 days to more than 100 days depending upon the temperature, oxygen conditions, and the nutrient conditions in the microcosm waters. The highest rates of alachlor decay were observed in warm, nutrient-rich, anaerobic water columns, whereas the lowest alachlor decay rates were observed under cooler, aerobic, oligotrophic water conditions. Similar relationships were observed for metolachlor, although metolachlor decay rates were about 40% slower. Our data suggest that herbicides will decay rapidly in waters that are high in nutrients possibly resulting from human activities. Alternately, low nutrient or pristine waters will have the lowest rates of herbicide decay. On a policy level, all efforts should be made to prevent exposure of comparatively pristine waters to herbicide inputs.

  6. 'Carolina' session: a major utilities program to manage aquatic weeds

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, D.H.

    1984-06-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company has recently experienced aquatic weed problems in two of its impoundments. These problems have impacted power plant operations, water quality, and recreational activities. The Company is actively pursuing a program to deal with these weed problems through education, research, monitoring, and control activities.

  7. Pelargonic acid - a potential organic aquatic herbicide for duckweed management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Duckweed (Lemna spp.) are small, free floating aquatic plants that flourish on stagnant, or slow moving, water surfaces throughout the continental U.S. Members of the genus are among the smallest flowering plants, providing food for fish and fowl, but their aggressive growth and invasive habit make...

  8. Joint Agency Plan, Aquatic Plant Management on Guntersville Reservoir

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    regulators will be evaluated and demonstrated. Triclopyr (Renovate), bensulfuron methyl (Mariner), and a new granular formulation of endothail (Aquathol...Various aquatic herbicides (e.g., fluridone endothall, diquat, triclopyr , etc.) will be evaluated against Eurasian watermilfoil and hydrilla. The her

  9. Weed Risk Assessment for Aquatic Plants: Modification of a New Zealand System for the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Doria R.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Keller, Reuben P.; Champion, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand’s Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders), and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31–39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species. PMID:22808088

  10. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Doria R; Gantz, Crysta A; Jerde, Christopher L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Keller, Reuben P; Champion, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders), and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  11. Partition of nonionic organic compounds in aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Witkowski, Patrick J.; Chiou, Cary T.

    1988-01-01

    In aqueous systems, the distribution of many nonionic organic solutes in soil-sediment, aquatic organisms, and dissolved organic matter can be explained in terms of a partition model. The nonionic organic solute is distributed between water and different organic phases that behave as bulk solvents. Factors such as polarity, composition, and molecular size of the solute and organic phase determine the relative importance of partition to the environmental distribution of the solute. This chapter reviews these factors in the context of a partition model and also examines several environmental applications of the partition model for surface- and ground-water systems.

  12. Watershed Management For Endangered Aquatic and Riparian Species: Facts and Fallacies

    Treesearch

    D.G. Neary; J.N. Rinne; A.L. Medina; M.B. Baker; J.L. Michael

    2000-01-01

    River basin management is becoming increasingly complex in the United States since watershed managers are required to take into consideration the threatened and endangered (T&E) species that inhabit aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Unfortunately too many fallacies and political agendas have crept into the picture. Suppositions and hypotheses fly everywhere in the...

  13. Prescribed-fire effects on an aquatic community of a southwest montane grassland system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Colleen A.; Jacobi, Gerald Z.; Anderson, Michael C.; Parmenter, Robert R.; McGann, Jeanine; Gould, William R.; DuBey, Robert; Jacobi, M. Donna

    2013-01-01

    The use of prescription fire has long been recognized as a reliable management tool to suppress vegetative succession processes and to reduce fuel loading to prevent catastrophic wildfires, but very little attention has been paid to the effects on aquatic systems. A late-fall prescribed burn was implemented to characterize effects on an aquatic community within a montane grassland system in north-central New Mexico. The fire treatment was consistent with protocols of a managed burn except that the fire was allowed to burn through the riparian area to the treatment stream to replicate natural fire behavior. In addition to summer and fall preburn assessment of the treatment and reference stream, we characterized immediate postfire effects (within a week for macroinvertebrates and within 6 months for fish) and seasonal effects over a 2-year period. Responses within the treatment stream were compared with an unburned reference stream adjacent to the prescription burn. During the burn, the diel range in air temperature increased by 5°C while diel range in water temperature did not change. Carbon–nitrogen ratios did not differ between treatment and reference streams, indicating the contribution of ash from the surrounding grassland was negligible. Although total taxa and species richness of aquatic macroinvertebrates were not altered, qualitative indices revealed departure from preburn condition due to loss of sensitive taxa (mayflies [order Ephemeroptera] and stoneflies [order Plecoptera]) and an increase in tolerant taxa (midges [order Chironomidae]) following the burn. Within 1 year of the burn, these attributes returned to preburn conditions. The density and recruitment of adult Brown Trout Salmo trutta did not differ between pre- and postburn collections, nor did fish condition differ. Fire is rarely truly replicated within a given study. Although our study represents one replication, the results will inform managers about the importance in timing (seasonality

  14. Technological Innovation and Developmental Strategies for Sustainable Management of Aquatic Resources in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, Julius Ibukun

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development.

  15. Technological innovation and developmental strategies for sustainable management of aquatic resources in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Agboola, Julius Ibukun

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development.

  16. The global change of continental aquatic systems: dominant impacts of human activities.

    PubMed

    Meybeck, M

    2004-01-01

    Continental aquatic systems, particularly rivers, are exposed to major changes due to human pressures. Some changes are voluntary such as flow regulation and the fragmentation of river courses, both due to damming, or the water consumption particularly in dry regions, which results in a partial to complete dry-up of some rivers (neo-arheism). Other changes result from indirect impacts of other human activities, and include: sediment unbalance of river systems, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication, thermal unbalance, radioactive contamination, microbial contamination, and aquatic species introduction/invasion. These changes can be regarded as syndromes which have now reached a global amplitude, even in less populated regions, as the result of damning, mining and of long-range atmospheric pollution, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene, where continental aquatic systems are no longer controlled by earth systems processes but by human activities. Each region of the globe has developed specific patterns of syndromes trajectories that can be reconstructed from historical analysis and through environmental archives. These trajectories reveal multiple types of human responses to aquatic environmental issues (e.g. water quality), usually lasting 10 to 50 years for the successful ones. The reactions of the earth system to such major changes of fluxes (water, energy, nutrients, carbon, pollutants) via the continental waterscape, the land-ocean interactions, the water bodies-atmosphere interactions, are likely to take place over a longer time scale (100-1,000 years) yet are poorly addressed by scientists and not considered in Integrated Water Management, particularly as concerns the coastal zone.

  17. Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Ways forward for aquatic conservation: Applications of environmental psychology to support management objectives.

    PubMed

    Walker-Springett, Kate; Jefferson, Rebecca; Böck, Kerstin; Breckwoldt, Annette; Comby, Emeline; Cottet, Marylise; Hübner, Gundula; Le Lay, Yves-François; Shaw, Sylvie; Wyles, Kayleigh

    2016-01-15

    The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors.

  19. Rapid detection of microbial cell abundance in aquatic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Andrea M.; Yuan, Quan; Close, Dan M.; ...

    2016-06-01

    The detection and quantification of naturally occurring microbial cellular densities is an essential component of environmental systems monitoring. While there are a number of commonly utilized approaches for monitoring microbial abundance, capacitance-based biosensors represent a promising approach because of their low-cost and label-free detection of microbial cells, but are not as well characterized as more traditional methods. Here, we investigate the applicability of enhanced alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) capacitive sensing as a new application for rapidly detecting and quantifying microbial cellular densities in cultured and environmentally sourced aquatic samples. ACEK capacitive sensor performance was evaluated using two distinct and dynamicmore » systems the Great Australian Bight and groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN. Results demonstrate that ACEK capacitance-based sensing can accurately determine microbial cell counts throughout cellular concentrations typically encountered in naturally occurring microbial communities (103 – 106 cells/mL). A linear relationship was observed between cellular density and capacitance change correlations, allowing a simple linear curve fitting equation to be used for determining microbial abundances in unknown samples. As a result, this work provides a foundation for understanding the limits of capacitance-based sensing in natural environmental samples and supports future efforts focusing on evaluating the robustness ACEK capacitance-based within aquatic environments.« less

  20. Rapid detection of microbial cell abundance in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Andrea M; Yuan, Quan; Close, Dan M; O'Dell, Kaela B; Fortney, Julian L; Wu, Jayne; Hazen, Terry C

    2016-11-15

    The detection and quantification of naturally occurring microbial cellular densities is an essential component of environmental systems monitoring. While there are a number of commonly utilized approaches for monitoring microbial abundance, capacitance-based biosensors represent a promising approach because of their low-cost and label-free detection of microbial cells, but are not as well characterized as more traditional methods. Here, we investigate the applicability of enhanced alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) capacitive sensing as a new application for rapidly detecting and quantifying microbial cellular densities in cultured and environmentally sourced aquatic samples. ACEK capacitive sensor performance was evaluated using two distinct and dynamic systems - the Great Australian Bight and groundwater from the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN. Results demonstrate that ACEK capacitance-based sensing can accurately determine microbial cell counts throughout cellular concentrations typically encountered in naturally occurring microbial communities (10(3)-10(6) cells/mL). A linear relationship was observed between cellular density and capacitance change correlations, allowing a simple linear curve fitting equation to be used for determining microbial abundances in unknown samples. This work provides a foundation for understanding the limits of capacitance-based sensing in natural environmental samples and supports future efforts focusing on evaluating the robustness ACEK capacitance-based within aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An expert system for prediction of aquatic toxicity of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, James P.; Aldridge, Andrew J.; Passino, Dora R. May; Frank, Anthony M.; Hushon, Judith M.

    1990-01-01

    The National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has developed an interactive computer program in muLISP that runs on an IBM-compatible microcomputer and uses a linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) to predict acute toxicity to four representative aquatic species from the detailed structure of an organic molecule. Using the SMILES formalism for a chemical structure, the expert system identifies all structural components and uses a knowledge base of rules based on an LSER to generate four structure-related parameter values. A separate module then relates these values to toxicity. The system is designed for rapid screening of potential chemical hazards before laboratory or field investigations are conducted and can be operated by users with little toxicological background. This is the first expert system based on LSER, relying on the first comprehensive compilation of rules and values for the estimation of LSER parameters.

  2. Assessing carbon dynamics in natural and perturbed boreal aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellet, Alexandre; Lalonde, Karine; Plouhinec, Jean-Baptiste; Soumis, Nicolas; Lucotte, Marc; GéLinas, Yves

    2012-09-01

    Most natural freshwater lakes are net greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters. Compared to natural systems, human perturbations such as watershed wood harvesting and long-term reservoir impoundment lead to profound alterations of biogeochemical processes involved in the aquatic cycle of carbon (C). We exploited these anthropogenic alterations to describe the C dynamics in five lakes and two reservoirs from the boreal forest through the analysis of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), oxygen (O2), and organic carbon (DOC), as well as total nitrogen and phosphorus. Dissolved and particulate organic matter, forest soil/litter and leachates, as well as dissolved inorganic carbon were analyzed for elemental and stable isotopic compositions (atomic C:N ratios, δ13Corg, δ13Cinorg and δ15Ntot). We found links between the export of terrestrial organic matter (OM) to these systems and the dissolved CO2 and O2 concentrations in the water column, as well as CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere. All systems were GHG emitters, with greater emissions measured for systems with larger inputs of terrestrial OM. The differences in CO2 concentrations and fluxes appear controlled by bacterial activity in the water column and the sediment. Although we clearly observed differences in the aquatic C cycle between natural and perturbed systems, more work on a larger number of water bodies and encompassing all four seasons should be undertaken to better understand the controls, rates, and spatial as well as temporal variability of GHG emissions, and to make quantitatively meaningful comparisons of GHG emissions (and other key variables) from natural and perturbed systems.

  3. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn; Duester, Lars; Heininger, Peter; Körner, Andrea; Mayer, Philipp; Paschke, Albrecht; Rauert, Caren; Reifferscheid, Georg; Rüdel, Heinz; Schlechtriem, Christian; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Schudoma, Dieter; Smedes, Foppe; Steffen, Dieter; Vietoris, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Bioaccumulation, the accumulation of a chemical in an organism relative to its level in the ambient medium, is of major environmental concern. Thus, monitoring chemical concentrations in biota are widely and increasingly used for assessing the chemical status of aquatic ecosystems. In this paper, various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental risk assessment. Assessing bioaccumulation in the field is challenging since many factors have to be considered that can affect the accumulation of a chemical in an organism. Passive sampling can complement biota monitoring since samplers with standardised partition properties can be used over a wide temporal and geographical range. Bioaccumulation is also assessed for regulation of chemicals of environmental concern whereby mainly data from laboratory studies on fish bioaccumulation are used. Field data can, however, provide additional important information for regulators. Strategies for bioaccumulation assessment still need to be harmonised for different regulations and groups of chemicals. To create awareness for critical issues and to mutually benefit from technical expertise and scientific findings, communication between risk assessment and monitoring communities needs to be improved. Scientists can support the establishment of new monitoring programs for bioaccumulation, e.g. in the frame of the amended European Environmental Quality Standard Directive.

  4. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Aquatic ecosystem studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Thomas M.; Stout, R. J.; Winterstein, Scott; Coon, Thomas; Novinger, Doug

    1994-11-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program that monitored biota and ecological miationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents the results and conclusions of aquatic studies conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan State University (MSU) monitored aquatic flora and fauna on matched reaches of the Ford River. A treatment site was located immediately adjacent to the antenna, whereas a control site was situated at a distance downstream. Functional and structural components of the periphyton, insect, and fish communities were monitored. The research team also measured ambient factors such as temperature, discharge, and water quality indicators. Data were analyzed using a variety of statistical tests; however, BACI techniques were emphasized. Results indicated a relative increase in algal biomass at the treatment site after the antenna became fully operational, but no changes in any other parameter or organism. MSU concludes that algal biomass was affected by ELF EM exposure. Since neither the other ecological characteristics of the periphyton nor the insect and fish communities showed any effects, MSU infers little EM impact to riverine habitats.

  5. Aquatic Turtles Of Diversely Managed Watersheds in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Joseph P. Phelps

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Aquatic turtles were trapped using hoop nets in creeks and ponds located in four Ouachita Mountain water-sheds (Little Glazypeau, North Alum, Bread, and South Alum Creeks). These watersheds range in management from one dominated by industrial loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations to one having virtually no...

  6. Correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system.

  7. Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Qing-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic plants are phylogenetically well dispersed across the angiosperms. Reproductive and other life-history traits of aquatic angiosperms are closely associated with specific growth forms. Hydrophilous pollination exhibits notable examples of convergent evolution in angiosperm reproductive structures, and hydrophiles exhibit great diversity in sexual system. In this study, we reconstructed ancestral characters of aquatic lineages based on the phylogeny of aquatic angiosperms. Our aim is to find the correlations of life form, pollination mode and sexual system in aquatic angiosperms. Hydrophily is the adaptive evolution of completely submersed angiosperms to aquatic habitats. Hydroautogamy and maleflower-ephydrophily are the transitional stages from anemophily and entomophily to hydrophily. True hydrophily occurs in 18 submersed angiosperm genera, which is associated with an unusually high incidence of unisexual flowers. All marine angiosperms are submersed, hydrophilous species. This study would help us understand the evolution of hydrophilous pollination and its correlations with life form and sexual system. PMID:25525810

  8. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  9. INVESTIGATING CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS: THE CAUSAL ANALYSIS/DIAGNOSIS DECISION INFORMATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, the regulatory, remedial and restoration actions taken to manage impaired environments are based on measurement and analysis of the biotic community. When an aquatic community has been identified as impaired, the cause of the impairment must be determined so that a...

  10. INVESTIGATING CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS: THE CAUSAL ANALYSIS/DIAGNOSIS DECISION INFORMATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, the regulatory, remedial and restoration actions taken to manage impaired environments are based on measurement and analysis of the biotic community. When an aquatic community has been identified as impaired, the cause of the impairment must be determined so that a...

  11. Competition of Invertebrates Mixed Culture in the Closed Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, Tamara

    The study considers the experimental model of interactions between invertebrates (the cilates Paramecium caudatum, Paramecium bursaria and the rotifers Brachionis plicatilis) in the closed aquatic system. The infusoria P.caudatum can feed on yeast, bacteria and chlorella; in this experiment growth and reproduction were maintained by bacteria only. The P.bursaria - zoochlorella endosymbiosis is a natural model of a simple biotic cycle. P.bursaria consumes glucose and oxygen released by zoochlorella in the process of biosynthesis and releases nitrogenous compounds and carbon dioxide necessary for algal photosynthesis. The rotifers Br. plicatilis can consume algae, bacteria and detritus. Thus in experiment with the mixed culture of invertebrates they can use different food sources. However with any initial percentage of the invertebrates the end portion of P.bursaria reaches 90-99

  12. Organic volatile sulfur compounds in inland aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The speciation, concentration, and fluxes of organic volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in a wide variety of inland aquatic systems wee studied. Dissolved VSCs were sparged from water samples, trapped cryogenically, and quantified by gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Species detected and mean surface water concentrations were: carbonyl sulfide (COS), 0.091-7.6 nM; methanethiol (MSH), undetected-180 nM; dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 0.48-1290 nM; carbon disulfide (CS[sub 2]), undetected-69 nM; dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), undetected-68 nM. The range in surface water concentrations of over five orders of magnitude was influenced principally by lake depth and sulfate concentration ([SO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  13. A co-beneficial system using aquatic plants: bioethanol production from free-floating aquatic plants used for water purification.

    PubMed

    Soda, S; Mishima, D; Inoue, D; Ike, M

    2013-01-01

    A co-beneficial system using constructed wetlands (CWs) planted with aquatic plants is proposed for bioethanol production and nutrient removal from wastewater. The potential for bioethanol production from aquatic plant biomass was experimentally evaluated. Water hyacinth and water lettuce were selected because of their high growth rates and easy harvestability attributable to their free-floating vegetation form. The alkaline/oxidative pretreatment was selected for improving enzymatic hydrolysis of the aquatic plants. Ethanol was produced with yields of 0.14-0.17 g-ethanol/ g-biomass in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation mode using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain or a typical yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Subsequently, the combined benefits of the CWs planted with the aquatic plants for bioethanol production and nutrient removal were theoretically estimated. For treating domestic wastewater at 1,100 m(3)/d, it was inferred that the anoxic-oxic activated sludge process consumes energy at 3,200 MJ/d, whereas the conventional activated sludge process followed by the CW consumes only 1,800 MJ/d with ethanol production at 115 MJ/d.

  14. Potential risk of biochar-amended soil to aquatic systems: an evaluation based on aquatic bioassays.

    PubMed

    Bastos, A C; Prodana, M; Abrantes, N; Keizer, J J; Soares, A M V M; Loureiro, S

    2014-11-01

    It is vital to address potential risks to aquatic ecosystems exposed to runoff and leachates from biochar-amended soils, before large scale applications can be considered. So far, there are no established approaches for such an assessment. This study used a battery of bioassays and representative aquatic organisms for assessing the acute toxicity of water-extractable fractions of biochar-amended soil, at reported application rates (80 t ha(-1)). Biochar-amended aqueous soil extracts contained cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) (Σmetals 96.3 µg l(-1)) as well as the 16 priority PAHs defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Σ16PAHs 106 ng l(-1)) at contents in the range of current EU regulations for surface waters. Nevertheless, acute exposure to soil-biochar (SB) extracts resulted in species-specific effects and dose-response patterns. While the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri was the most sensitive organism to aqueous SB extracts, there were no effects on the growth of the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. In contrast, up to 20 and 25% mobility impairment was obtained for the invertebrate Daphnia magna upon exposure to 50 and 100% SB extract concentrations (respectively). Results suggest that a battery of rapid and cost-effective aquatic bioassays that account for ecological representation can complement analytical characterization of biochar-amended soils and risk assessment approaches for surface and groundwater protection.

  15. IV. Aquatics

    Treesearch

    Michael K.. Young

    2011-01-01

    The problem of invasive aquatic species has long been recognized by scientists at the Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fausch and others (2006, 2009) recently overviewed this issue. A point that often distinguishes nonnative aquatic species from nonnatives in other environments is that the presence of some species is frequently prized by managers and the public. For...

  16. What's New: Acquatic Stabilization: Aquatic Rehabilitation Strategies for the Lumbar Spine and Risk Management for the Aquatic Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschettti, Marilou

    Through dynamic aquatic stabilization techniques, patients will develop the ability to characterize sensory distractions and develop self-awareness and sensitivity to movement in the water, which will relate directly to improved motor function. Aquatic therapy is a systematic method of treatment, with programs developed by a licensed physical…

  17. What's New: Acquatic Stabilization: Aquatic Rehabilitation Strategies for the Lumbar Spine and Risk Management for the Aquatic Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschettti, Marilou

    Through dynamic aquatic stabilization techniques, patients will develop the ability to characterize sensory distractions and develop self-awareness and sensitivity to movement in the water, which will relate directly to improved motor function. Aquatic therapy is a systematic method of treatment, with programs developed by a licensed physical…

  18. ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION: MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR PROTECTING AND ENHANCING AQUATIC RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes research that addresses the question: Which management practices are most successful for protection and restoration of ecological resources? The Ecosystem Restoration Research Program of EPA/ORD is designed to conduct basic and applied field research to eva...

  19. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Treesearch

    Gordon H. Reeves; Brian R. Pickard; K. Norman. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    The Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan guides management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands in western Oregon, western Washington, and northern California. We applied new scientific findings and tools to evaluate two potential options, A and B, for refining interim riparian reserves to meet ACS goals and likely challenges...

  20. DEVELOPING TOOLS TO ASSESS THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE NATION'S AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aquatic Monitoring and Bioassement Branch (AMBB) at the Environmental Protection Agency's Western Ecology Division leads ORD's research on monitoring freshwater aquatic systems. This work is in response to the Clean Water Act (CWA, Section 305b) that requires EPA to report bi...

  1. DEVELOPING TOOLS TO ASSESS THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE NATION'S AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aquatic Monitoring and Bioassement Branch (AMBB) at the Environmental Protection Agency's Western Ecology Division leads ORD's research on monitoring freshwater aquatic systems. This work is in response to the Clean Water Act (CWA, Section 305b) that requires EPA to report bi...

  2. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  3. Contribution of science to farm-level aquatic animal health management.

    PubMed

    Corsin, F; Giorgetti, G; Mohan, C V

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of science to farm level disease management is a story of two worlds. The development of effective vaccines has allowed for the control of important salmonid diseases such as furunculosis, yersiniosis and vibriosis and has significantly reduced farmers' reliance on antibiotics. Control of diseases for which cost-effective vaccines have yet to be developed has been achieved through the development of increasingly targeted antibiotics and chemotherapeutants. Increasingly, accurate and rapid diagnostic and water quality tests have allowed farmers to improve farm-level aquatic animal health management. In developed countries, these achievements have been possible thanks to the strong link between science and farm management. This link has been assisted by the presence of strong farmer organizations capable of coordinating research projects and hosting meetings at which scientific information is discussed and disseminated. Although Asia is responsible for the production of about 90% of aquaculture products, it presents a rather different picture from the above. Science has indeed made significant progress in health management but the links with farm management are still weak. Management practices capable of preventing important health problems in shrimp and fish farming are still poorly adopted by farmers. This is largely due to constraints in the dissemination of information to the large number of producers involved, the limited resources of both producers and their countries and the lack of effective farmer organizations capable of liaising with the scientific world. Recently, the Asian region has witnessed some successful examples of aquatic animal health management through the adoption of simple Better Management Practices. Efforts so far have been largely focused on shrimp farming, although activities have been initiated to adopt a similar approach to other commodities. The need for both observational and experimental epidemiological studies to

  4. Automated Scalable Heat Shock Modification for Standard Aquatic Housing Systems.

    PubMed

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2015-08-01

    Heat shock is a common technique for inducible gene expression system in a variety of organisms. Heat shock treatment of adult zebrafish is more involved and generally consists of manually transferring fish between housing rack tanks and preheated water tanks or the use of timed heaters in stand-alone aquaria. To avoid excessive fish handling and to take advantage of the continuous flow of a standard housing rack, proposed modifications consisted of installing an aquarium heater inside each tank, manually setting the heater to reach heat shocking temperatures (> 37°C) and, after that, testing that every tank responded equally. To address the limitations in the existing systems, we developed a novel modification of standard zebrafish housing racks to perform heat shock treatment in conditions of continuous water flow. By adding an extra manifold to the housing rack and connecting it to a recirculating bath to create a parallel water flow system, we can increase the temperature from standard conditions (28.5°C) to heat shock conditions with high precision (38.0-38.3°C, mean ± SD = 38.1°C ± 0.14°C) and minimal variation among experimental tanks (coefficient of variation [CV] = 0.04%). This means that there is virtually no need for laborious pretreatment calibrations or continuous adjustments to minimize intertank variation. To test the effectiveness of our design, we utilized this system to induce enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression in hsp70-EGFP fish and performed a fin regeneration experiment with hsp70l:dnfgfr1-EGFP fish to confirm that heat-induced gene expression reached physiological levels. In summary, our newly described aquatic heat shock system minimizes effort during heat shock experiments, while ensuring the best water quality and fish welfare and facilitating large heat shock settings or the use of multiple transgenic lines for both research and teaching experiments.

  5. International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Aquatic Plants. Volume 31

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Biochemists, Inc., 6120 W. Douglas Ave., Tomislav Petr - Food and Agriculture Organization, Fisheries De- Milwaukee, WI 53218. partment (FIRI), 00100 Rome...Environmental Studies, Depart- Kenneth Scott - Santee Cooper, I Riverwood Dr., Moncks Corner, ment of Chemistry , University of South Florida, Tampa, FL...secondary activities of aquatic plant manage- The California Department of Food and Agriculture, ment? This, I think, is much tougher to figure out. On the

  6. Management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems using variable-width buffers

    Treesearch

    Brian Pickard; Gordon H. Reeves

    2016-01-01

    Management of aquatic and riparian ecosystems is constrained because of the reliance on “off-the-shelf” and one-size-fits-all concepts and designs, rather than considering specific features and capabilities of the location of interest. As a result, use of fixed- width buffers that generally depend on stream size is the most common approach.

  7. Plan of Study for Determining Economic Values of Aquatic Plant Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    can occur without being impeded or diminished by the plant biomass. Removal of aquatic plants or management of plants at nonprob - lem levels makes... sampling designs. For specific waterways or lakes, public perception surveys will be administered to a sample of the users of the proj- ect. The sample ...rigorous sampling designs, while not providing the statistical level of reliability, can still give an indication of public perceptions and preferences

  8. Preventing, controlling, and managing alien species introduction for the health of aquatic and marine ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, C.I.; Gross, S.K.; Wilkinson, D.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction and spread of invasive species is an emerging global problem. As economic and ecological impacts continue to grow, there will be an increasing need to develop innovative solutions and global partnerships to combat the increasing rate of invasions and their accompanying impacts. Threats to sustainable fisheries in North America associated with alien species come from many global directions and sources and can be deliberate or the unintended consequence of other actions. Decisions about the role of sustainable fisheries in protecting and restoring the health of aquatic ecosystems become even more complex when economic and social factors are considered along with environmental impacts, because many intentionally introduced species also have associated economic and community costs and benefits. Actions designed to prevent or control alien species in an aquatic ecosystem are often complicated by these nonenvironmental factors as well as public perception and opinion. Aquatic ecosystems are disturbed to varying degrees by alien species, including disease organisms. Prevention is the first and best line of defense. Determining likely pathways and effective countermeasures is more cost-effective than either eradication or control. Our ability to quickly identify new species and their associated risk to ecosystems is critical in designing and implementing effective control and management actions. Lack of infrastructure and necessary resources, clear-cut authority for regulation and action, and scientific information about the biology of alien species and effective control techniques are often limiting factors that prevent the needed action to protect aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Advances in management and utilization of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in aquatic ecosystems - a review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shao-Hua; Song, Wei; Guo, Jun-Yao

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this review is to provide a concise summary of literature in the Chinese language since late 1970s and focuses on recent development in global scenarios. This work will replenish the FAO summary of water hyacinth utilization from 1917 to 1979 and review ecological and socioeconomic impacts of the water hyacinth from 1980 to 2010. This review also discusses the debate on whether the growth of the water hyacinth is a problem, a challenge or an opportunity. Literature suggested that integrated technologies and good management may be an effective solution and the perception of water hyacinth could change from that of a notorious aquatic weed to a valuable resource, including its utilization as a biological agent for the application in bioremediation for removing excess nutrients from eutrophic water bodies at low cost. Key aspects on system integration and innovation may focus on low-cost and efficient equipment and the creation of value-added goods from water hyacinth biomass. In the socioeconomic and ecological domain of global development, all the successful and sustainable management inputs for the water hyacinth must generate some sort of social and economic benefit simultaneously, as well as benefiting the ecosystem. Potential challenges exist in linkages between the management of water hyacinth on the large scale to the sustainable development of agriculture based on recycling nutrients, bio-energy production or silage and feed production. Further research and development may focus on more detailed biology of water hyacinth related with its utilization, cost-benefit analysis of middle to large-scale application of the technologies and innovation of the equipment used for harvesting and dehydrating the plant.

  10. Pyrogenic carbon distribution in landscapes and input to aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, J.; Jauss, V.; Ahmed, Z.; Sullivan, P.; Sanderman, J.; Woodbury, P.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) has been found in many soils and sediments world-wide. Landscape-scale dynamics and the input to aquatic systems remain poorly understood. Here, we present data from large spatial assessments of PyC across several US states and detailed assessments of flowpaths from terrestrial to aquatic environments in East Africa to quantify landscape-scale controls on PyC distribution. In an area comprising the New England states in the northeastern US, soil PyC concentrations correlated well with plant tissue lignin and soil drainage class. Across soil catenae at five diverse Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites across the US, PyC was also found to have a significant relationship with drainage, but also with climate conditions. For 650 stratified-sampling locations throughout Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Wyoming, landscape position also dominated the model explaining PyC distribution in topsoils. Soil properties played only a minor role in any of the studies. A correlation between PyC and total soil sulfur suggests the opportunity of including related environmental parameters in the spatial assessment of PyC in soils. PyC was not found to be preferentially eroded relative to total C or non-PyC in four headwater catchments in Western Kenya, as topsoil PyC concentrations were greater than runoff sediment and dissolved PyC concentrations. In addition, PyC proportions in eroded sediment were lower than and uncorrelated with topsoil PyC. Base-flow PyC proportions of TOC correlated well with subsoil PyC but not with topsoil PyC. Similar PyC proportions were found in the studied headwater streams, their downstream inflow into Lake Victoria, the other nine major rivers into Lake Victoria and its outflow into the White Nile. Leaching and subsoil movement appears to be an important factor controlling distribution of PyC and its input to surface water.

  11. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Darling, John A; Mahon, Andrew R

    2011-10-01

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to improve on traditional monitoring approaches by enhancing detection sensitivity, reducing analytical turnaround times and monitoring costs, and increasing specificity of target identifications. However, despite the promise of DNA-based monitoring methods, the adoption of these tools in decision-making frameworks remains challenging. Here, rather than explore technical aspects of method development, we examine impediments to effective translation of those methods into management contexts. In addition to surveying current use of DNA-based tools for aquatic invasive species monitoring, we explore potential sources of uncertainty associated with molecular technologies and possibilities for limiting that uncertainty and effectively communicating its implications for decision-making. We pay particular attention to the recent adoption of DNA-based methods for detection of invasive Asian carp species in the United States Great Lakes region, as this example illustrates many of the challenges associated with applying molecular tools to achieve desired management outcomes. Our goal is to provide a useful assessment of the obstacles associated with integrating DNA-based methods into aquatic invasive species management, and to offer recommendations for future efforts aimed at overcoming those obstacles.

  12. Pollutant fluxes to aquatic systems via bed-sediment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.; Maranto, L.; Valsaraj, K.T.

    1995-10-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) sorb strongly to sediments and partition weakly into the porewater and overlying water. This leads to the detection of HOCs in sediments long after, their original introduction to the environment. Water bodies with active sediment processes have larger fluxes of HOCs to overlying water. In the absence of sediment resuspension by erosive processes, the normal life cycle activities of benthic organisms will predominate in the transport of particles from within the sediment bed to the sediment-water interface. As a result the HOCs associated with the particles are released to the water column. This process is called bioturbation and is the focus of this paper. There are a number of species that act as bioturbators. The most prevalent ones, especially in contaminated sediments across many sites in the U.S. are the Tubificidae species that burrow within the sediment and defecate at the surface. Capping with clean sediment is a possible remediation measure for isolating the aquatic system from contaminated sediments. The placement of the cap will effectively increase the pathlength for contaminant transport by diffusion and advection and, will also decrease pollutant release by direct bioturbation of contaminated particles. This paper describes our experiments on contrasting the flux of HOCs from bioturbated capped and uncapped sediments in small laboratory microcosms with those of control microcosms (capped and uncapped) without bioturbators.

  13. Ca isotopic geochemistry of an Antarctic aquatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. Berry; Bullen, Thomas D.; Welch, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are a polar desert ecosystem. The hydrologic system of the dry valleys is linked to climate with ephemeral streams that flow from glacial melt during the austral summer. Past climate variations have strongly influenced the closed-basin, chemically stratified lakes on the valley floor. Results of previous work point to important roles for both in-stream processes (e.g., mineral weathering, precipitation and dissolution of salts) and in-lake processes (e.g., mixing with paleo-seawater and calcite precipitation) in determining the geochemistry of these lakes. These processes have a significant influence on calcium (Ca) biogeochemistry in this aquatic ecosystem, and thus variations in Ca stable isotope compositions of the waters can aid in validating the importance of these processes. We have analyzed the Ca stable isotope compositions of streams and lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The results validate the important roles of weathering of aluminosilicate minerals and/or CaCO3 in the hyporheic zone of the streams, and mixing of lake surface water with paleo-seawater and precipitation of Ca-salts during cryo-concentration events to form the deep lake waters. The lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys evolved following different geochemical pathways, evidenced by their unique, nonsystematic Ca isotope signatures.

  14. Plant Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests by Carole A. Lembi, Tara Chand-Goyal...Research Program January 1994 Plant Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests by...ulal D Lemb, Car GEMECH111ACA IXmMN ~~rO POl miA1N 90MT •Y m In DMIMDTLemi PUBLIC AFAR.OFC Plant growth regulators as potential tools in aquatic plant

  15. Capacity of management plans for aquatic invasive species to integrate climate change.

    PubMed

    Bierwagen, Britta G; Thomas, Roxanne; Kane, Austin

    2008-06-01

    The consequences of climate change will affect aquatic ecosystems, including aquatic invasive species (AIS) that are already affecting these ecosystems. Effects on AIS include range shifts and more frequent overwintering of species. These effects may create new challenges for AIS management. We examined available U.S. state AIS management plans to assess each program's capacity to adapt to climate-change effects. We scored the adaptive capacity of AIS management plans on the basis of whether they addressed potential impacts resulting from climate change; demonstrated a capacity to adapt to changing conditions; provided for monitoring strategies; provided for plan revisions; and described funding for implementation. Most plans did not mention climate change specifically, but some did acknowledge climatic boundaries of species and ecosystem sensitivities to changing conditions. Just under half the plans mentioned changing environmental conditions as a factor, most frequently as part of research activities. Activities associated with monitoring showed the highest capacity to include information on changing conditions, and future revisions to management plans are likely to be the easiest avenue through which to address climate-change effects on AIS management activities. Our results show that programs have the capacity to incorporate information about climate-change effects and that the adaptive-management framework may be an appropriate approach.

  16. Think before you flush! A sustainable aquatic eco-system's relation to human health.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Elaine; Pawloski, Judith

    2012-12-18

    What we do every day at work and in our home lives can make a difference in the quality of our environment. Consider, for example, the flushing of pharmaceuticals into the sewer system can lead to water pollution resulting in a threat to aquatic and human life. In contrast, keeping aquatic life healthy may contribute to human health. Some aquatic-based medications are currently on the market. Others are in various stages of development. In this article the authors argue that, for the benefit of both human and marine life, it is time to implement safer disposal methods for unwanted medications. The authors begin by sharing nursing's guiding principles for environmental health; after which they review research related to pharmaceutical pollution of water resources; describe health care treatments derived from marine life; and discuss suggestions for promoting aquatic health. They conclude that by taking care to preserve aquatic life, we contribute to the quality of our own human lives.

  17. Nematodes Relevance in Soil Quality Management and their Significance as Biomarkers in Aquatic Substrates: Review.

    PubMed

    Akpheokhai, Leonard I; Oribhabor, Blessing J

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of man with the ecosystem is a major factor causing environmental pollution and its attendant consequences such as climate change in our world today. Patents relating to nematodes' relevance in soil quality management and their significance as biomarkers in aquatic substrates were reviewed. Nematodes are useful in rapid, easy and inexpensive method for testing the toxicity of substance (e.g. aquatic substrates). This review paper sets out to examine and discuss the issue of soil pollution, functions of nematodes in soil and aquatic substrates as well as bio-indicators in soil health management in terrestrial ecology. The information used were on the basis of secondary sources from previous research. It is abundantly clear that the population dynamics of plant parasitic or free-living nematodes have useful potentials as biomonitor for soil health and other forms of environmental contamination through agricultural activities, industrial pollution and oil spillage, and the analysis of nematode community structure could be used as complementary information obtained from conventional soil testing approaches.

  18. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3D - in IEEE VisWeek 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for better visualization tools for environmental science is well documented, and the Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to both help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations and to determine which visualizatio...

  19. Enantiomer specific measurements of current-use pesticides in aquatic systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to predictions, current-use pesticides are adversely affecting aquatic systems in both urban and agricultural watersheds, particularly in California. One possible divergence from fate and effect predictions is that some current-use pesticides are chiral molecules. Increa...

  20. Enantiomer specific measurements of current-use pesticides in aquatic systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to predictions, current-use pesticides are adversely affecting aquatic systems in both urban and agricultural watersheds, particularly in California. One possible divergence from fate and effect predictions is that some current-use pesticides are chiral molecules. Increa...

  1. Visualizing Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in 3D - in IEEE VisWeek 2014

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for better visualization tools for environmental science is well documented, and the Visualization for Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems project (VISTAS) aims to both help scientists produce effective environmental science visualizations and to determine which visualizatio...

  2. Exposure assessment of veterinary medicines in aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metcalfe, Chris; Boxall, Alistair; Fenner, Kathrin; Kolpin, Dana W.; Silberhorn, Eric; Staveley, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The release of veterinary medicines into the aquatic environment may occur through direct or indirect pathways. An example of direct release is the use of medicines in aquaculture (Armstrong et al. 2005; Davies et al. 1998), where chemicals used to treat fish are added directly to water. Indirect releases, in which medicines make their way to water through transport from other matrices, include the application of animal manure to land or direct excretion of residues onto pasture land, from which the therapeutic chemicals may be transported into the aquatic environment (Jørgensen and Halling-Sørensen 2000; Boxall et al. 2003, 2004). Veterinary medicines used to treat companion animals may also be transported into the aquatic environment through disposal of unused medicines, veterinary waste, or animal carcasses (Daughton and Ternes 1999, Boxall et al. 2004). The potential for a veterinary medicine to be released to the aquatic environment will be determined by several different criteria, including the method of treatment, agriculture or aquaculture practices, environmental conditions, and the properties of the veterinary medicine.

  3. TOOLS FOR DIAGNOSING IMPAIRMENT BY NUTRIENTS TO AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main goal of this project is to provide information needed by States to set nutrient criteria at a level appropriately protective of their water bodies' aquatic life uses. The information that would be generated by this study is critically needed in order for states to use i...

  4. Long-term environmental trends: selection of sampling locations in a reactor-aquatic cooling system.

    PubMed

    Revsin, B K; Watson, J E

    1993-02-01

    The study objective was to determine whether environmental radionuclide accumulations were occurring in an aquatic system with a 13-y history of supplying a power plant with reactor-cooling water as well as receiving plant discharge. The aquatic system consisted of the following: 1) a reactor-cooling lake; 2) a secondary lake approximately 8 km downstream; and 3) a small stream that interfaced with the two lakes. Gamma-emitting radionuclides were identified and quantified in samples of benthic sediments obtained from representative areas of the aquatic system. This study demonstrated that in a reactor-aquatic cooling system, the component of the aquatic system most likely to experience radionuclide accumulation will not necessarily be the reactor-cooling lake, but will be that component of the aquatic system whose benthic sediments contain the highest concentrations of organic matter. Further, it was shown that the quantity of oxidizable organic matter present in a sediment is a good predictor or marker for potential sites of radionuclide accumulation (i.e., 60Co and 137Cs).

  5. Comparison of four aquatic plant treatment systems for nutrient removal from eutrophied water.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihua; Yang, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhengfang; Shan, Ying; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient removal behaviors of four aquatic plant treatment systems (Oenanthe javanica, Iris pseudacorus L., Canna lily, and Potamogeton crispus) were systematically examined and compared. The kinetics of nutrient uptake were conducted with the standard depletion method. All four aquatic species exhibited a strong preference of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) over nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO2(-)-N). Main pathways of nutrient removal in the aquatic plant treatment system were examined in details. It was estimated that direct assimilation by plants accounted for 28.2-34.5% of N reduction and 25.2-33.4% of P reduction while substrate absorption accounted for 7.2-25.5% of N reduction and 7.3-25.0% of P reduction. The activity of urease and phosphatase in the substrates could indicate the aquatic plant treatment system's capability for reducing TN and soluble P load.

  6. Influence of trophic status on the behaviour of contaminants in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, R. M.; Carey, J. H.; Lean, D. R. S.; Burnison, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of eutrophication through nutrient enrichment and contamination with persistent contaminants have traditionally been regarded as unrelated by water scientists and managers, but recently evidence has appeared suggesting that the fate of organic contaminants in an aquatic ecosystem is influenced by the trophic state of the system. There is also evidence that the dissolved organic matter in dystrophic, or humic, waters may influence contaminant dynamics. Mechanisms that may be involved include changes in the metabolic capabilities of organisms with changes in trophic state; reductive degradation in the anoxic hypolimnia of highly productive waters; binding of contaminants by dissolved organic matter or organisms, or photochemical degradation induced by light-absorbing molecules. The possible significance of these processes is discussed.

  7. Are phytoplankton and bacteria coupled within an aquatic oligotrophic system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Benítez, N.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    spatial variability within this oligotrophic aquatic system showing, lack of dependence of bacterial metabolism on algal production within the less productive area, and strong coupling between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton within the most productive area.

  8. Abundance, diversity, and seasonal population dynamics of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera in rice fields: effects of direct seeding management.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Koji, Shinsaku; Hidaka, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Recent introduction of modern drainage systems has produced intensely dry conditions in rice farmlands and has degraded habitats for aquatic animals. In this study, we compared water beetle (Coleoptera) and water bug (Heteroptera) communities within rice fields cultivated under different management regimes: V-furrow no-till direct-seeding (DS) and conventional regimes. In DS fields, rice is sown in well-drained fields, and flooding is performed a month later than in conventional rice fields. DS fields are then continuously flooded until harvesting; unlike in conventional fields, where midseason drainage is performed in summer. We observed that DS fields supported higher densities of water beetles and water bugs than conventional fields, probably because of the high compatibility between the flooding period and the reproductive season of the insects. The species richness of water beetles was higher in DS fields than in conventional fields. Overall, DS fields showed higher water beetle and water bug abundance, but the effect was variable for individual species: seven species were more abundant in DS than in conventional fields, whereas two species showed opposite tendencies. Considering the differential responses among species to the management regimes, a mosaic of DS and conventional fields is preferable to either field alone for the conservation of aquatic insects in rice agroecosystems.

  9. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  10. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    PubMed

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems

  11. Aquatic worms eating waste sludge in a continuous system.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, T L G; Temmink, H; Elissen, H J H; Buisman, C J N

    2009-10-01

    Aquatic worms are a biological approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced at waste water treatment plants. A new reactor concept was recently introduced in which the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is immobilised in a carrier material. The current paper describes the experiments that were performed to test whether this concept could also be applied in continuous operation, for which worm growth is an important condition. This was tested for two mesh sizes of the carrier material. With an increase in mesh size from 300 to 350 microm, worm biomass growth was possible in the reactor at a rate of 0.013 d(-1) and with a yield of 0.13 g dw/g VSS digested by the worms. Mass balances over the worm reactors showed the importance of correcting for natural sludge breakdown, as the contribution of the worms to total VSS reduction was 41-71%.

  12. Controlled Environments Enable Adaptive Management in Aquatic Ecosystems Under Altered Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are impacted by altered environment conditions resulting from climate, drought, and land use changes. Gaps in the science knowledge base regarding plant community response to these novel and rapid changes limit both science understanding and management of ecosystems. We describe how CE Technologies have enabled the rapid supply of gap-filling science, development of ecosystem simulation models, and remote sensing assessment tools to provide science-informed, adaptive management methods in the impacted aquatic ecosystem of the California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The Delta is the hub for California's water, supplying Southern California agriculture and urban communities as well as the San Francisco Bay area. The changes in environmental conditions including temperature, light, and water quality and associated expansion of invasive aquatic plants negatively impact water distribution and ecology of the San Francisco Bay/Delta complex. CE technologies define changes in resource use efficiencies, photosynthetic productivity, evapotranspiration, phenology, reproductive strategies, and spectral reflectance modifications in native and invasive species in response to altered conditions. We will discuss how the CE technologies play an enabling role in filling knowledge gaps regarding plant response to altered environments, parameterization and validation of ecosystem models, development of satellite-based, remote sensing tools, and operational management strategies.

  13. Human effects on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems: Integrating scientific approaches to support management and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Crook, David A; Lowe, Winsor H; Allendorf, Frederick W; Erős, Tibor; Finn, Debra S; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Hadwen, Wade L; Harrod, Chris; Hermoso, Virgilio; Jennings, Simon; Kilada, Raouf W; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Hansen, Michael M; Page, Timothy J; Riginos, Cynthia; Fry, Brian; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-11-15

    Understanding the drivers and implications of anthropogenic disturbance of ecological connectivity is a key concern for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem processes. Here, we review human activities that affect the movements and dispersal of aquatic organisms, including damming of rivers, river regulation, habitat loss and alteration, human-assisted dispersal of organisms and climate change. Using a series of case studies, we show that the insight needed to understand the nature and implications of connectivity, and to underpin conservation and management, is best achieved via data synthesis from multiple analytical approaches. We identify four key knowledge requirements for progressing our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic impacts on ecological connectivity: autecology; population structure; movement characteristics; and environmental tolerance/phenotypic plasticity. Structuring empirical research around these four broad data requirements, and using this information to parameterise appropriate models and develop management approaches, will allow for mitigation of the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on ecological connectivity in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Copper Complexation in Aquatic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Kramer and Duinker, 1984; Moffett and Zika , 1987; 19 Tjood et al., 1983; van den Berg, 1984a,b; Huizenga and Kester, 1983; Mackey, 1983). The extent...62-71. Moffett, J.W. and R.G. Zika (1987) Mar. Chem, 21: 303-13. Morel, F.M.M. (1983) Principles of Aquatic Chemistry., New York: Wiley-Interscience...35. Moffitt, J.W.; Zika , R.G. Mar. Chem. 1987, 21, 301. 36. Sunda, W.G.; Hanson, A.K. Lirunol. Oceanog. 1987, 32, 537. 37. Sunda, W.G. Mar. Chem

  15. Carbon Cycling in Permafrost Aquatic Systems of Bylot Island, Eastern Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, F.; Preskienis, V.; Laurion, I.; Fortier, D.

    2014-12-01

    Aquatic systems are widespread in permafrost environments and play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles, especially in GHG emissions (CO2, CH4). Amount, rate and age of carbon released from permafrost thawing can be strongly influenced by local geomorphology, which affects the biogeochemical dynamics of ponds and lakes. Bylot Island (Nunavut) is located in the heart of the Eastern Canadian Arctic and comprises numerous glacial and periglacial aquatic landscapes. Several glacial valleys of the island represent highly dynamic biogeosystems rich in permafrost ground ice, peat, and aquatic environments. We aimed at characterizing the influence of geomorphology and permafrost degradation processes on aquatic system biogeochemistry. We sampled gas, water, permafrost and lacustrine sediment in different types of aquatic systems: polygonal ponds, collapsed ice-wedge trough ponds, and larger lakes overlying unfrozen soil ('talik'). Preliminary results and field observations indicate a relationship between pond/lake morphology, processes of permafrost degradation, and the age of carbon processed - ultimately released as GHG - in these aquatic systems. Small and shallow ponds produced modern or young (< 500 yr BP) CO2 and CH4, whereas larger and deeper lakes released older (< 2000 yr BP) gases. We also observed a substantial difference in gas fluxes between similar ponds of comparable size and depth. When pond margins were actively eroding (eroded and collapsed peat blocks), fluxes were several orders of magnitude higher than when their margins were stabilized. Such findings underscore the strong impact of local geomorphology and permafrost degradation processes on aquatic system biogeochemistry. Upscaling of GHG emissions at the watershed scale requires a better understanding of the emissions from different types of ecosystems.

  16. Aquatic dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Heidi; Landthaler, Michael; Vogt, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Despite the fascination of the aquatic world, it can be associated with some medical risks. Natural bodies of water, swimming pools and aquariums contain many living organisms. Some of these aquatic species may cause traumatic or toxic skin reactions after contact as well as life-threatening systemic reactions. Most frequently, the injuries include poisonous bites and stings by coelenter-ates, worms,stinging fish,mollusks and echinoderms or skin infections. A basic knowledge regarding the flora and fauna that populate the aquatic world can help to avoid contact with such organisms,or if it happens,to promptly initiate appropriate therapy.

  17. Persistence of biologically active compounds in aquatic systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boelter, A.M.; Fernandez, J.D.; Meyer, J.S.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.

    1986-11-01

    Waters collected from two study sites were tested for persistence of biologically active compounds as the waters percolated through experimental media. At the first site, the Paraho Lysimeter in Anvil Points, Colorado, two leachate samples (early and late flow in Spring 1983) were collected from each of four piles of processed oil shale overlain by different thicknesses of soil. Although water quality differed among samples, six of eight lysimeter leachates tested were acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, and five were acutely toxic to fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Water collected from a modified in situ (MIS) retort was percolated through columns containing three different types of soil. Raw leachate from the MIS spent shale was acutely toxic to an aquatic invertebrate, Ceriodaphnia dubia. The toxicity of samples from nine pore volumes of retort water percolating through a column containing a sandy soil increased with successive pore volumes, but leachate toxicity never equaled the toxicity of the retort water. In contrast, the first pore volumes of retort water or reconstituted water leached through a sandy loam soil were more toxic than the retort water; however, the second pore volumes of leachates were not toxic. First pore volume leachates of retort water percolating through a sandy clay loam soil were much less toxic than the retort water; second pore volume leachates were not toxic.

  18. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the aquatic environment are regarded as emerging contaminants and have attracted increasing concern. The use of aquatic plant-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs) for treatment of conventional pollutants has been well documented. However, available research studies on aquatic plant-based systems for PPCP removal are still limited. The removal of PPCPs in CWs often involves a diverse and complex set of physical, chemical and biological processes, which can be affected by the design and operational parameters selected for treatment. This review summarizes the PPCP removal performance in different aquatic plant-based systems. We also review the recent progress made towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms and pathways of PPCP attenuation during such phytoremediation. Additionally, the effect of key CW design characteristics and their interaction with the physico-chemical parameters that may influence the removal of PPCPs in functioning aquatic plant-based systems is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and performance of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center photovoltaic system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, A.; Begovic, M.; Long, R.; Ropp, M.; Pregelj, A.

    1996-12-31

    A building-integrated DC PV array has been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. The array is mounted on the roof of the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center (GTAC), site of the aquatic events during the 1996 Paralympic and Olympic Games in Atlanta. At the time of its construction, it was the world`s largest roof-mounted photovoltaic array, comprised of 2,856 modules and rates at 342 kW. This section describes the electrical and physical layout of the PV system, and the associated data acquisition system (DAS) which monitors the performance of the system and collects measurements of several important meteorological parameters.

  20. Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) User's Manual Beta Test Version 2.1. EPA/600/R-01/035

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    this report describes the theoretical development, parameterization, and application software of a generalized, community-based, bioaccumulation model called BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator).

  1. The occurrence of micopollutants in the aquatic environment: a new challenge for water management.

    PubMed

    Ternes, T

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment has become a crucial topic in the last two decades owing to the innovative development of analytical instrumentation such as LC tandem MS. Using these new techniques it became obvious that pesticides, pharmaceuticals, ingredients of personal care products, biocides, flame retardants, and perfluorinated compounds are entering rivers and streams via treated wastewater. Also contamination of bank filtrates, groundwater and in a few cases even drinking water was identified. Wastewater treatment plants are not designed to remove polar persistent organic pollutants occurring in the sub-mg/L range and hence many of these organic pollutants are passing WWTPs to a high extent. Waterworks with a potential pesticide contamination in their raw water are equipped with advanced techniques such ozonation, activated carbon or nanofiltration enabling the removal of a high variety of other organic compounds. However, waterworks without an expected pesticide contamination are frequently equipped with common treatment processes not enabling the removal of these kinds of organic pollutants. Therefore, comprehensive management activities for protection of aquatic environments and water resources must consider the removal of all micropollutants relevant to water quality and ecology, independent of their usage or origin.

  2. Accounting for Uncertainty and Time Lags in Equivalency Calculations for Offsetting in Aquatic Resources Management Programs.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Michael J

    2017-05-18

    Biodiversity offset programs attempt to minimize unavoidable environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities by requiring offsetting measures in sufficient quantity to counterbalance losses due to the activity. Multipliers, or offsetting ratios, have been used to increase the amount of offsets to account for uncertainty but those ratios have generally been derived from theoretical or ad-hoc considerations. I analyzed uncertainty in the offsetting process in the context of offsetting for impacts to freshwater fisheries productivity. For aquatic habitats I demonstrate that an empirical risk-based approach for evaluating prediction uncertainty is feasible, and if data are available appropriate adjustments to offset requirements can be estimated. For two data-rich examples I estimate multipliers in the range of 1.5:1 - 2.5:1 are sufficient to account for the uncertainty in the prediction of gains and losses. For aquatic habitats adjustments for time delays in the delivery of offset benefits can also be calculated and are likely smaller than those for prediction uncertainty. However, the success of a biodiversity offsetting program will also depend on the management of the other components of risk not addressed by these adjustments.

  3. Facility Design and Health Management Program at the Sinnhuber Aquatic Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Barton, Carrie L; Johnson, Eric W; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    The number of researchers and institutions moving to the utilization of zebrafish for biomedical research continues to increase because of the recognized advantages of this model. Numerous factors should be considered before building a new or retooling an existing facility. Design decisions will directly impact the management and maintenance costs. We and others have advocated for more rigorous approaches to zebrafish health management to support and protect an increasingly diverse portfolio of important research. The Sinnhuber Aquatic Research Laboratory (SARL) is located ∼3 miles from the main Oregon State University campus in Corvallis, Oregon. This facility supports several research programs that depend heavily on the use of adult, larval, and embryonic zebrafish. The new zebrafish facility of the SARL began operation in 2007 with a commitment to build and manage an efficient facility that diligently protects human and fish health. An important goal was to ensure that the facility was free of Pseudoloma neurophilia (Microsporidia), which is very common in zebrafish research facilities. We recognize that there are certain limitations in space, resources, and financial support that are institution dependent, but in this article, we describe the steps taken to build and manage an efficient specific pathogen-free facility.

  4. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  5. Adaptive management of large aquatic ecosystem recovery programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thom, Ronald; St Clair, Tom; Burns, Rebecca; Anderson, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive management (AM) is being employed in a number of programs in the United States to guide actions to restore aquatic ecosystems because these programs are both expensive and are faced with significant uncertainties. Many of these uncertainties are associated with prioritizing when, where, and what kind of actions are needed to meet the objectives of enhancing ecosystem services and recovering threatened and endangered species. We interviewed nine large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration programs across the United States to document the lessons learned from implementing AM. In addition, we recorded information on ecological drivers (e.g., endangered fish species) for the program, and inferred how these drivers reflected more generic ecosystem services. Ecosystem services (e.g., genetic diversity, cultural heritage), albeit not explicit drivers, were either important to the recovery or enhancement of the drivers, or were additional benefits associated with actions to recover or enhance the program drivers. Implementing programs using AM lessons learned has apparently helped achieve better results regarding enhancing ecosystem services and restoring target species populations. The interviews yielded several recommendations. The science and AM program must be integrated into how the overall restoration program operates in order to gain understanding and support, and effectively inform management decision-making. Governance and decision-making varied based on its particular circumstances. Open communication within and among agency and stakeholder groups and extensive vetting lead up to decisions. It was important to have an internal agency staff member to implement the AM plan, and a clear designation of roles and responsibilities, and long-term commitment of other involved parties. The most important management questions and information needs must be identified up front. It was imperative to clearly identify, link and continually reinforce the essential

  6. Ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River system

    SciTech Connect

    Bart, H. Jr.; Martinat, P.; Spahn, S.

    1996-05-02

    This project has three major subsections; reports on the progress are detailed in the article. Community and Trophic Responses of fishes to aquatic contamination looks at the fate of environmental contaminants in fish from a lateral floodplain swamp in the lower Mississippi River system and at the ecological risks contaminants pose for fish and other aquatic organisms. Contaminants include cadmium, mercury, nickel, chromium, HCB and HCBC. The second section looks at tree cores of baldcypress as biomarkers of present and past pollution events by heavy metals. The third section evaluates the effects of environmental contamination on colonial wading birds and the usefulness of these birds as indicators of environmental contamination. 3 refs.

  7. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  8. MAPPING AND MONITORING OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN ESCAMBIA-PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, the distribution and changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Escambia-Pensacola Bay System in northwestern Florida were monitored by two techniques. One technique used divers to measure changes in the deepwater margin of beds and provided horizontal growth...

  9. MAPPING AND MONITORING OF SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION IN ESCAMBIA-PENSACOLA BAY SYSTEM, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, the distribution and changes in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the Escambia-Pensacola Bay System in northwestern Florida were monitored by two techniques. One technique used divers to measure changes in the deepwater margin of beds and provided horizontal growth...

  10. BIOACCUMULATION AND AQUATIC SYSTEM SIMULATOR (BASS) USER'S MANUAL BETA TEST VERSION 2.1

    EPA Science Inventory

    BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator) is a Fortran 95 simulation program that predicts the population and bioaccumulation dynamics of age-structured fish assemblages that are exposed to hydrophobic organic pollutants and class B and borderline metals that complex wi...

  11. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  12. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Paris, F

    2001-01-01

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity. Grant numbers: WS50WB9319-3, IVA1216-00588.

  13. A Dynamic Information Framework (DIF): A Portal for the Changing Biogeochemistry of Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, J. E.; Fernandes, E. C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability of societies to adapt to climate and landuse change in aquatic systems is functionally and practically expressed by how regional stakeholders are able to address complex management issues. These targets represent a very complex set of intersecting issues of scale, cross-sector science and technology, education, politics, and economics. Implications transcend individual projects and ministries. An immediate challenge is to incorporate the realities of changing environmental conditions in these sectors into the policies and projects of the Ministries nominally responsible. Ideally this would be done on the basis of the absolute best understanding of the issues involved, and done in a way that optimizes a multi-stakeholder return. Central to a response is "actionable information-" the synthesis and "bringing to life" of the key information that integrates the end-to-end knowledge required to provide the high-level decision support to make the most informed decisions. But, in practice, the information necessary and even perspectives are virtually absent, in much of especially the developing world. To meet this challenge, we have been developing a Dynamic Information Framework (DIF), primarily through collaborations with the World Bank in Asia, Africa, and Brazil. The DIF is, essentially a decision support structure, built around "earth system" models. The environment is built on progressive information layers that are fed through hydrological and geospatial landscape models to produce outputs that address specific science questions related to water resources management of the region. Information layers from diverse sources are assembled, according to the principles of how the landscape is organized, and computer models are used to bring the information "to life." A fundamental aspect to a DIF is not only the convergence of multi-sector information, but how that information can be conveyed, in the most compelling, and visual, manner. Deployment of the

  14. Dolomite surface speciation and reactivity in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Schott, Jacques; Thomas, Fabien

    1999-10-01

    The surface charge of dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) was measured as a function of pH (6.5-11.5), pCO2 (10-3.5, 0.01, and 0.96 atm) and ionic strength (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M NaCl) using potentiometric titrations in a limited residence time reactor. Dolomite zeta potential (ζ) was determined using streaming potential and electrophoresis techniques at pH 2 to 12 in solutions having ionic strengths from 0.001 to 0.1 M NaCl as a function of aqueous Ca2+, Mg2+, and CO32- concentrations. The point of zero charge (PZC) and isoelectric point (IEP) of dolomite are the same (pH ∼8 at pCO2 ∼10-3.5 atm) and very close to those of calcite and magnesite. On the basis of these results, a surface complexation model (SCM) is proposed that postulates the presence of three distinct primary hydration sites: >CO3H°, >CaOH°, and >MgOH°. The intrinsic stability constants of dolomite surface reactions were determined by fitting the pH dependence of the surface charge and taking into account the isoelectric points and ζ-potential values for a wide range of solution compositions. In most natural aquatic environments, dolomite surface speciation can be modeled using the following species: >CO3-, >CO3Me+, >MeOH2+, >MeHCO3o, and >MeCO3-, where Me = Ca, Mg. The speciation model presented in this study allows description of metal and ligand adsorption onto dolomite surface and provides new insights on the mechanisms that control dolomite dissolution/crystallization in aqueous solutions. In particular, it is shown that dolomite dissolution is controlled by the protonation of >CO3H° surface complexes at pH < 6 and by hydrolysis of >MeOH2+ groups at higher pH.

  15. Dolomite surface speciation and reactivity in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovsky, O.S.; Schott, J.; Thomas, F.

    1999-10-01

    The surface charge of dolomite (CaMg(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}) was measured as a function of pH (6.5--11.5), pCO{sub 2} (10{sup {minus}3.5}, 0.01, and 0.96 atm) and ionic strength (0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M NaCl) using potentiometric titrations in a limited residence time reactor. Dolomite zeta potential ({zeta}) was determined using streaming potential and electrophoresis techniques at pH 2 to 12 in solutions having ionic strengths from 0.001 to 0.1 M NaCl as a function of aqueous Ca{sup 1+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} concentrations. The point of zero charge (PZC) and isoelectric point (IEP) of dolomite are the same (pH {approximately}8 at pCO{sub 2} {approximately}10{sup {minus}3.5 atm}) and very close to those of calcite and magnesite. On the basis of these results, a surface complexation model (SCM) is proposed that postulates the presence of three distinct primary hydration sites: {gt}CO{sub 3}H{degree}, {gt}CaOH{degree}, and {gt}MgOH{degree}. The intrinsic stability constants of dolomite surface reactions were determined by fitting the pH dependence of the surface charge and taking into account the isoelectric points and {zeta}-potential values for a wide range of solution compositions. In most natural aquatic environments, dolomite surface speciation can be modeled using the following species: {gt}CO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, {gt}CO{sub 3}Me{sup +}, {gt}MeOH{sub 2}{sup +}, {gt}MeHCO{degree}{sub 3}, and {gt}MeCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where Me = Ca, Mg. The speciation model presented in this study allows description of metal and ligand adsorption onto dolomite surface and provides new insights on the mechanisms that control dolomite dissolution/crystallization in aqueous solutions. In particular, it is shown that dolomite dissolution is controlled by the protonation of {gt}CO{sub 3}H{degree} surface complexes at pH {gt} 6 and by hydrolysis of {gt}MeOH{sub 2}{sup +} groups at higher pH.

  16. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  17. The role of sediments in the chemistry of aquatic systems; proceedings of the sediment chemistry workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, Wesley L.; Horowitz, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A workshop on sediment chemistry was held at the U.S. Geological Survey National Headquarters in Reston, Virginia, February 8-12, 1982, to discuss the state of the science and possible future directions for research and operational programs in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. Technical papers presented broad overviews of current conceptual models for and research on the interactions between sediments, water, and biota with respect to the occurrence, distribution, movement, and fate of metals and organic substances in aquatic systems. Five separate disciplines within the overall theme were discussed: physical and chemical partitioning of inorganic constituents; analysis association, and effects of organic constituents; bioavailability of sediment-bound metals; concepts and methods regarding physical properties of sediments; and simulation of transport-related properties. The discussions of the participants regarding needs and possible future directions are summarized. The papers and discussions should help guide individual investigators and policy/program managers alike for the next several years.

  18. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    collection results and experience gained during post-Chernobyl decades at the Dnieper River aquatic system are presented (catchments, river and reservoirs). This experience show that only information on radionuclide deposition levels is not enough for accurate predictions on radionuclide wash-out and transport in the hydrological systems. Data on speciation in fallout, rates of transformation processes and site-specific environmental characteristics determining these rates are needed. Information on radionuclide chemical forms, their transformation in other words mobility and bioavailability should be taken into account when rehabilitation and decontamination strategies are developed on local or regional scale. Number of inadequate water protection measures carried out during initial post-accidental period took place because lack of preparedness, data and decision making support tools were in use, Environmental radiation monitoring network has not been developed and huge impact of social stressing and inadequate risk perception took place. Many experimental data, models developed and experience for safe management at the contaminated watersheds and water bodies can be useful and in particular those, who dealing with consequences of Fucusima accident 2011. The paper gives extended overview and describes experience of authors in justification and evaluation of the remedial actions applied after Chernobyl accident with focus on most important lessons learned and potentially utilized in future.

  19. NASA's Risk Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Leadership is key to success. Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks -- risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  20. Managing aquatic ecosystems and water resources under multiple stress--an introduction to the MARS project.

    PubMed

    Hering, Daniel; Carvalho, Laurence; Argillier, Christine; Beklioglu, Meryem; Borja, Angel; Cardoso, Ana Cristina; Duel, Harm; Ferreira, Teresa; Globevnik, Lidija; Hanganu, Jenica; Hellsten, Seppo; Jeppesen, Erik; Kodeš, Vit; Solheim, Anne Lyche; Nõges, Tiina; Ormerod, Steve; Panagopoulos, Yiannis; Schmutz, Stefan; Venohr, Markus; Birk, Sebastian

    2015-01-15

    Water resources globally are affected by a complex mixture of stressors resulting from a range of drivers, including urban and agricultural land use, hydropower generation and climate change. Understanding how stressors interfere and impact upon ecological status and ecosystem services is essential for developing effective River Basin Management Plans and shaping future environmental policy. This paper details the nature of these problems for Europe's water resources and the need to find solutions at a range of spatial scales. In terms of the latter, we describe the aims and approaches of the EU-funded project MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) and the conceptual and analytical framework that it is adopting to provide this knowledge, understanding and tools needed to address multiple stressors. MARS is operating at three scales: At the water body scale, the mechanistic understanding of stressor interactions and their impact upon water resources, ecological status and ecosystem services will be examined through multi-factorial experiments and the analysis of long time-series. At the river basin scale, modelling and empirical approaches will be adopted to characterise relationships between multiple stressors and ecological responses, functions, services and water resources. The effects of future land use and mitigation scenarios in 16 European river basins will be assessed. At the European scale, large-scale spatial analysis will be carried out to identify the relationships amongst stress intensity, ecological status and service provision, with a special focus on large transboundary rivers, lakes and fish. The project will support managers and policy makers in the practical implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD), of related legislation and of the Blueprint to Safeguard Europe's Water Resources by advising the 3rd River Basin Management Planning cycle, the revision of the WFD and by developing new tools for

  1. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  2. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  3. NASA's Risk Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2013-01-01

    Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks - not just risk office personnel. Each group/department is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. ? Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  4. Fish and aquatic habitat conservation in South America: a continental overview with emphasis on neotropical systems.

    PubMed

    Barletta, M; Jaureguizar, A J; Baigun, C; Fontoura, N F; Agostinho, A A; Almeida-Val, V M F; Val, A L; Torres, R A; Jimenes-Segura, L F; Giarrizzo, T; Fabré, N N; Batista, V S; Lasso, C; Taphorn, D C; Costa, M F; Chaves, P T; Vieira, J P; Corrêa, M F M

    2010-06-01

    Fish conservation in South America is a pressing issue. The biodiversity of fishes, just as with all other groups of plants and animals, is far from fully known. Continuing habitat loss may result in biodiversity losses before full species diversity is known. In this review, the main river basins of South America (Magdalena, Orinoco, Amazon and Paraná-La Plata system), together with key aquatic habitats (mangrove-fringed estuaries of the tropical humid, tropical semi-arid and subtropical regions) are analysed in terms of their characteristics and main concerns. Habitat loss was the main concern identified for all South American ecosystems. It may be caused by damming of rivers, deforestation, water pollution, mining, poor agricultural practice or inadequate management practice. Habitat loss has a direct consequence, which is a decrease in the availability of living resources, a serious social and economic issue, especially for South American nations which are all developing countries. The introduction of exotic species and overfishing were also identified as widespread across the continent and its main freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems. Finally, suggestions are made to find ways to overcome these problems. The main suggestion is a change of paradigm and a new design for conservation actions, starting with integrated research and aiming at the co-ordinated and harmonized management of the main transboundary waters of the continent. The actions would be focused on habitat conservation and social rescue of the less well-off populations of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. Energy and freshwater demands will also have to be rescaled in order to control habitat loss.

  5. Systems Engineering Management Guide,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    LOGISTICS SUPPORTMISO "CRITICAL COMPUTER RESOURCES TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT 90 06 21 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE fForm Approvedl REPORT DOCUMENTATION...MONITORING ORGANIZATION Defense Systems Management (If applicable) College DSMC-SE-T 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) Fort Belvoir, VA 22O6O-5426 Sa...NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING Ob. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUPEMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION Defense Systems (if applicable) Management

  6. A GIS model of subsurface water potential for aquatic resource inventory, assessment, and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Baker, Matthew E; Wiley, Michael J; Carlson, Martha L; Seelbach, Paul W

    2003-12-01

    Biological, chemical, and physical attributes of aquatic ecosystems are often strongly influenced by groundwater sources. Nonetheless, widespread access to predictions of subsurface contributions to rivers, lakes, and wetlands at a scale useful to environmental managers is generally lacking. In this paper, we describe a "neighborhood analysis" approach for estimating topographic constraints on spatial patterns of recharge and discharge and discuss how this index has proven useful in research, management, and conservation contexts. The Michigan Rivers Inventory subsurface flux model (MRI-DARCY) used digital elevation and hydraulic conductivity inferred from mapped surficial geology to estimate spatial pattems of hydraulic potential. Model predictions were calculated in units of specific discharge (meters per day) for a 30-m-cell raster map and interpreted as an index of potential subsurface water flux (shallow groundwater and event through-flow). The model was evaluated by comparison with measurements of groundwater-related attributes at watershed, stream segment, and local spatial scales throughout Lower Michigan (USA). Map-based predictions using MRI-DARCY accounted for 85% of the observed variation in base flow from 128 USGS gauges, 69% of the observed variation in discharge accrual from 48 river segments, and 29% of the residual variation in local groundwater flux from 33 locations as measured by hyporheic temperature profiles after factoring out the effects of climate. Although it does not incorporate any information about the actual water table surface, by quantifying spatial variation of key constraints on groundwater-related attributes, the model provides strata for more intensive study, as well as a useful spatial tool for regional and local conservation planning, fisheries management, wetland characterization, and stream assessment.

  7. Managing wastewater effluent to enhance aquatic receiving ecosystem productivity: a coastal lagoon in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniel A; Imberger, Jörg

    2012-05-30

    Large amounts of waste are generated in urban centers that if properly managed could promote ecological services. In order to promote nutrient cycling and productivity without endangering aquatic ecosystems, management of wastewater treatment and effluent discharges to receiving waters must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. We applied this premise to examine a municipal wastewater treated effluent discharge in a shallow oligotrophic coastal lagoon in Western Australia. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological modeling (ELCOM-CAEDYM) was used to assess the reaction of ecosystem for effluent quality. Two scenarios were evaluated for the summer 2000-2001 period, the actual or "current" (conventional secondary treatment) and an "alternative" (involving substitution of biological nutrient removal by advanced treatment). The residence time of the simulated numerical domain averaged 8.4 ± 1.3 days. For the current scenario the model successfully estimated phytoplankton biomass, as chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), that is within field-measured ranges and previously recorded levels. The model was able to reproduce nitrogen as the main limiting nutrient for primary production in the coastal ecosystem. Simulated surface Chl-a means were 0.26 (range 0.19-0.38) μg Chl-a/L for the current scenario and 0.37 (range 0.19-0.67) μg Chl-a/L for the alternative one. Comparison of the alternative scenario with field-measured Chl-a levels suggests moderate primary production increase (16-42%), within local historical variability. These results, suggest that such a scenario could be used, as part of a comprehensive wastewater management optimization strategy, to foster receiving ecosystem's productivity and related ecological services maintaining its oligotrophic state.

  8. Waste management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Jorgensen, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    The function of the waste management system was to control the disposition of solid and liquid wastes and waste stowage gases. The waste management system consisting of a urine subsystem and a fecal subsystem is described in detail and its overall performance is evaluated. Recommendations for improvement are given.

  9. Medical Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  10. Anesthesia information management systems.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joe R

    2005-06-01

    Documentation is the last component of anesthesia patient management to be affected by technology. Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) have been introduced in a limited number of practice sites. The automated systems provide unbiased reporting of most patient information. This results in improved patient care and possible medical legal advantages. AIMS also allow anesthesia departments to monitor their business related activity.

  11. Management Information System Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Walter J.; Harr, Gordon G.

    The Management Information System (MIS) described in this report represents a plan to utilize modern management techniques to facilitate the goal of a learner-responsive school system. The MIS component is being developed to meet the need for the coordination of the resources of staff, facilities, and time with the long range planning and…

  12. Archival Information Management System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    management system named Archival Information Management System (AIMS), designed to meet the audit trail requirement for studies completed under the...are to be archived to the extent that future reproducibility and interrogation of results will exist. This report presents a prototype information

  13. Metadata management staging system

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    Django application providing a user-interface for building a file and metadata management system. An evolution of our Node.js and CouchDb metadata management system. This one focuses on server functionality and uses a well-documented, rational and REST-ful API for data access.

  14. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  15. Geochemical Flows of Heavy Metals in Aquatic Systems of the Volga River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, Mikhail; Tkachenko, Anna; Kasimov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the long-term environmental-geochemical studies of aquatic systems of the Volga River mouth area. It occupies a special place among the world's largest river deltas. The strong interest of researchers from different fields of science in the problems of the Volga River delta is associated with the high rate of periodic fluctuations of the Caspian Sea level, and also many factors of the technogenic geochemical impact on the aquatic systems. They range from the local impact of pollution sources in the delta to the regional impact of pollution sources located upstream. Aquatic systems of the Volga delta are highly diverse in morphology, hydrodynamic regime, lithology, sediments, and biota. This diversity determines the considerable spatial and temporal variability of the conditions of migration of heavy metals (HM) and other chemical elements. The study showed that the present contamination of the aquatic systems is manifested mainly in excess of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd) in suspended matter over the global background values, most notably, in the flood period. In general the content of HM in the water and sediments during the last decades remains low; pollution of the bottom sediments is largely insignificant and of local character. We have identified the significant role of the water plants due to migration and accumulation of heavy metals in the shallow near-shore zones. Higher aquatic plants may serve as biogeochemical indicators of aquatic systems pollution. The metal content in macrophytes varies substantially depending on the ecological and morphological characteristics of species, as well as on conditions of their habitat. The difference between the minimal and maximal HM content may reach two to three orders of magnitude. Thickets of hornweed (Ceratophyllum demersum) and of other macrophytes in the mouths of the watercourses at the near-shore mouth area play the role of the biofilters precipitating a significant part of the

  16. Next Generation Framework for Aquatic Modeling of the Earth System (NextFrAMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, B. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Lakhankar, T.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    Earth System model development is becoming an increasingly complex task. As scientists attempt to represent the physical and bio-geochemical processes and various feedback mechanisms in unprecedented detail, the models themselves are becoming increasingly complex. At the same time, the surrounding IT infrastructure needed to carry out these detailed model computations is growing increasingly complex as well. To be accurate and useful, Earth System models must manage a vast amount of data in heterogenous computing environments ranging from single CPU systems to Beowulf type computer clusters. Scientists developing Earth System models increasingly confront obstacles associated with IT infrastructure. Numerous development efforts are on the way to ease that burden and offer model development platforms that reduce IT challenges and allow scientists to focus on their science. While these new modeling frameworks (e.g. FMS, ESMF, CCA, OpenMI) do provide solutions to many IT challenges (performing input/output, managing space and time, establishing model coupling, etc.), they are still considerably complex and often have steep learning curves. Over the course of the last fifteen years ,the University of New Hampshire developed several modeling frameworks independently from the above-mentioned efforts (Data Assembler, Frameworks for Aquatic Modeling of the Earth System and NextFrAMES which is continued at CCNY). While the UNH modeling frameworks have numerous similarities to those developed by other teams, these frameworks, in particular the latest NextFrAMES, represent a novel model development paradigm. While other modeling frameworks focus on providing services to modelers to perform various tasks, NextFrAMES strives to hide all of those services and provide a new approach for modelers to express their scientific thoughts. From a scientific perspective, most models have two core elements: the overall model structure (defining the linkages between the simulated processes

  17. The effect of chronic silver nanoparticles on aquatic system in microcosms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong Sheng; Yin, Liyan; Ren, Na Na; Xian, Ling; Zhao, Suting; Li, Wei; Gontero, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inevitably discharge into aquatic environments due to their abundant use in antibacterial products. It was reported that in laboratory conditions, AgNPs display dose-dependent toxicity to aquatic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, macrophytes, snails and fishes. However, AgNPs could behave differently in natural complex environments. In the present study, a series of microcosms were established to investigate the distribution and toxicity of AgNPs at approximately 500 μg L(-1) in aquatic systems. As a comparison, the distribution and toxicity of the same concentration of AgNO3 were also determined. The results showed that the surface layer of sediment was the main sink of Ag element for both AgNPs and AgNO3. Both aquatic plant (Hydrilla verticillata) and animals (Gambusia affinis and Radix spp) significantly accumulated Ag. With short-term treatment, phytoplankton biomass was affected by AgNO3 but not by AgNPs. Chlorophyll content of H. verticillata increased with both AgNPs and AgNO3 short-term exposure. However, the biomass of phytoplankton, aquatic plant and animals was not significantly different between control and samples treated with AgNPs or AgNO3 for 90 d. The communities, diversity and richness of microbes were not significantly affected by AgNPs and AgNO3; in contrast, the nitrification rate and its related microbe (Nitrospira) abundance significantly decreased. AgNPs and AgNO3 may affect the nitrogen cycle and affect the environment and, since they might be also transferred to food web, they represent a risk for health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of source material in determining the photoreactivity of DOM in peatland aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, Amy; Heal, Kate; McLeod, Andy; Dinsmore, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic systems draining peatlands receive a high loading of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from surrounding terrestrial environments. However the fate of aquatic DOM remains poorly constrained, in part due to lack of knowledge regarding the photoreactivity of DOM and how this changes as a function of variability in source material. In this study water samples were collected monthly for a 13-month period from two contrasting aquatic systems in Scotland: a stream draining a peatland with high DOM concentrations (33.3 ± 14.2 mg DOC L-1) and a reservoir draining a peat catchment with low DOM concentrations (4.16 ± 0.91 mg DOC L-1). Controlled UV irradiation laboratory experiments were conducted on samples filtered to 0.2 μm in order to assess the photoreactivity of the DOM, measured as the unit mass of DOC lost upon irradiation. Experiments took place over 8h in temperature controlled conditions, with unirradiated samples used as controls. After exposure, a range of analytical techniques were used to characterise the DOM to yield information about its source material and to determine how this was related to the observed photoreactivity. Lignin phenol analyses indicate considerable contribution of Sphagnum to DOM at the stream site, particularly during summer, as demonstrated by high P-hydroxy/Vanillyl phenol ratios (P/V). Low P/V ratios were correlated with increased photoreactivity, (Pearson's: -0.410; p = 0.15, n = 13), suggesting that DOM from woody lignin sources within the catchment was more photolabile. Photoreactivity was also negatively correlated with Fluorescence Index (FI) values (Pearson's: -0.555; p = 0.055, n = 13), where low FI values are understood to indicate greater contribution of terrestrially derived material to aquatic DOM. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) indicate that DOM at the stream site was primarily comprised of a humic-like peak (Ex/Em = 340, 380/460 nm). However, there was also contribution from a protein-like peak (Ex/Em = 290

  19. Application of portable in situ UV fluorescence sensors in natural and engineered aquatic systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Bethany; Rushworth, Cathy; Atrridge, John

    2016-04-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous throughout aquatic systems. This heterogeneous mixture of organic matter is central for aquatic ecosystems and, both local and global, biogeochemical cycling. Improvements in technology and data analysis has allowed for advances in the understanding and characterisation of aquatic organic matter. However, much of the technological expansions have focussed on benchtop instruments. In recent years, there has been interest in the continued development of portable in situ sensors for monitoring NOM characteristics within a wide range of applications, spanning both natural and engineered systems. The UviLux (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd., UK) is an in situ portable UV fluorescence sensor that can be configured to monitor a range of NOM in aquatic systems, as well as anthropogenic inputs such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and optical brighteners. Here we will focus on the use of the Tryptophan and CDOM UviLux sensors across a variety of applications in both natural systems, such as rivers and leachate into groundwater, and engineered systems, including drinking water and waste water treatment. Recent work has focused on standardising the fluorescence output across the UviLux range of sensors, reporting data in quinine sulphate units (QSU), which enables the output from two different fluorometers to be directly compared both to each other, and to bench-top data. A key advantage of deploying multiple sensors is the ability to fingerprint the fluorescence, by providing, for example, a Tryptophan/CDOM ratio. From the data collected, the ratio of the different fluorescence regions has been shown to provide more robust in situ data and help identify true temporal variations and patterns across multiple applications and sampling locations.

  20. Operations management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandli, A. E.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Kelly, C. M.; Mccandless, W.; Rue, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of an operations management system is to provide an orderly and efficient method to operate and maintain aerospace vehicles. Concepts are described for an operations management system and the key technologies are highlighted which will be required if this capability is brought to fruition. Without this automation and decision aiding capability, the growing complexity of avionics will result in an unmanageable workload for the operator, ultimately threatening mission success or survivability of the aircraft or space system. The key technologies include expert system application to operational tasks such as replanning, equipment diagnostics and checkout, global system management, and advanced man machine interfaces. The economical development of operations management systems, which are largely software, will require advancements in other technological areas such as software engineering and computer hardware.

  1. Effects of Grazing Management and Cattle on Aquatic Habitat Use by the Anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis in Agro-Savannah Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Garey, Michel V.; Rossa-Feres, Denise C.

    2016-01-01

    Because of their strong dependence on the environment, the spatial distribution of pond-breeding amphibians can be greatly influenced by anthropogenic habitat alteration. In some agricultural landscapes in Brazil, the anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis appears to be highly influenced by land use. Because adult males and tadpoles of this species are usually found in marshy areas with cattle hoof prints, we hypothesized that P. mystacalis preferentially occupies aquatic habitats with marshy areas that are trampled by cattle. To test our hypothesis, we assessed whether the occurrence of P. mystacalis is associated with the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas, and which environmental features best explain the spatial distribution and abundance of P. mystacalis. To do so, we sampled 38 aquatic habitats in an area intensely used for livestock in southeastern Brazil. We found that the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas in aquatic habitats are positively associated to P. mystacalis occurrence. Additionally, the abundance of calling males is better predicted by variables of landscape and local habitat structure. Specifically, the size of trampled marshy areas and the proportion of herbaceous vegetation within the aquatic habitat are positively associated with abundance, while distance to nearest aquatic habitat are negatively associated with abundance of calling males. All three of these variables can be directly or indirectly linked to the presence of cattle or grazing management. Therefore, this work shows evidence that Pseudopaludicola mystacalis is positively influenced by grazing management with cattle, and draws attention to other unknown potential consequences of different land use to fresh water diversity. PMID:27658203

  2. Effects of Grazing Management and Cattle on Aquatic Habitat Use by the Anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis in Agro-Savannah Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pelinson, Rodolfo M; Garey, Michel V; Rossa-Feres, Denise C

    Because of their strong dependence on the environment, the spatial distribution of pond-breeding amphibians can be greatly influenced by anthropogenic habitat alteration. In some agricultural landscapes in Brazil, the anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis appears to be highly influenced by land use. Because adult males and tadpoles of this species are usually found in marshy areas with cattle hoof prints, we hypothesized that P. mystacalis preferentially occupies aquatic habitats with marshy areas that are trampled by cattle. To test our hypothesis, we assessed whether the occurrence of P. mystacalis is associated with the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas, and which environmental features best explain the spatial distribution and abundance of P. mystacalis. To do so, we sampled 38 aquatic habitats in an area intensely used for livestock in southeastern Brazil. We found that the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas in aquatic habitats are positively associated to P. mystacalis occurrence. Additionally, the abundance of calling males is better predicted by variables of landscape and local habitat structure. Specifically, the size of trampled marshy areas and the proportion of herbaceous vegetation within the aquatic habitat are positively associated with abundance, while distance to nearest aquatic habitat are negatively associated with abundance of calling males. All three of these variables can be directly or indirectly linked to the presence of cattle or grazing management. Therefore, this work shows evidence that Pseudopaludicola mystacalis is positively influenced by grazing management with cattle, and draws attention to other unknown potential consequences of different land use to fresh water diversity.

  3. The energetic contributions of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs in a mid-size river system.

    PubMed

    Kautza, Adam; Mazeika, S; Sullivan, P

    2016-03-01

    Rivers are increasingly recognized as providing nutritional subsidies (i.e., energy and nutrients) to adjacent terrestrial food webs via depredation of aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, crayfish, fish) by terrestrial consumers. However, because these prey organisms assimilate energy from both aquatic (e.g., benthic algae, phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes) and terrestrial (e.g., riparian leaf detritus) primary producers, river subsidies to terrestrial consumers represent a combination of aquatically and terrestrially derived energy. To date, the explicit contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to terrestrial consumers has not been fully explored yet might be expected to be quantitatively important to terrestrial food webs. At 12 reaches along a 185-km segment of the sixth-order Scioto River system (Ohio, USA), we quantified the relative contribution of energy derived from aquatic primary producers to a suite of terrestrial riparian consumers that integrate the adjacent landscape across multiple spatial scales through their foraging activities (tetragnathid spiders, rove beetles, adult coenagrionid damselflies, riparian swallows, and raccoons). We used naturally abundant stable isotopes (13C and 15N) of periphyton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, and terrestrial vegetation to evaluate the energetic contribution of aquatic primary producers to terrestrial food webs. Shoreline tetragnathid spiders were most reliant on aquatic primary producers (50%), followed by wider-ranging raccoons (48%), damselflies (44%), and riparian swallows (41%). Of the primary producers, phytoplankton (19%) provisioned the greatest nutritional contribution to terrestrial consumers (considered collectively), followed by periphyton (14%) and macrophytes (11%). Our findings provide empirical evidence that aquatic primary producers of large streams and rivers can be a critical nutritional resource for terrestrial food webs. We also show that aquatically

  4. Management Information Systems Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Research on management information systems is illusive in many respects. Part of the basic research problem in MIS stems from the absence of standard...definitions and the lack of a unified body of theory. Organizations continue to develop large and often very efficient information systems , but...decision making. But the transition from these results to the realization of ’satisfactory’ management information systems remains difficult indeed. The

  5. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  6. Chromium isotopic fractionation in aquatic systems and foraminiferal calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Wu, W.; Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N.

    2016-12-01

    The stable chromium (Cr) isotope system is an emerging proxy for studying the reduction/oxidation (redox) state of the early earth. However, the distribution and isotopic composition of Cr in many modern environments is still poorly known. For this reason, Cr isotope fractionation during biological processes, in rivers, estuaries, seawaters, and modern sediments need to be constrained to calibrate this potentially very useful paleoredox proxy. Here we report concentrations and isotope systematics of dissolved and suspended Cr in the Connecticut River system, and from core-top planktonic foraminiferal calcite from the global ocean. In the Connecticut River system, soil profile samples are unfractionated from bulk silicate Earth (BSE) values. River waters range from -0.2‰ to 0.9‰ (δ53Cr expressed as 53Cr/52Cr relative to NIST SRM 979 standard), with some, but not all tributaries showing seasonal differences. Suspended particulate samples range from -0.1 to 0‰ in autumn and from 0 to 0.1‰ in spring. Modern planktonic foraminifera show a wide range of δ53Cr values, from 0.2‰ to 2.2‰. Such variability seems to be controlled by both seawater heterogeneity and biological fractionation. In summary, weathering environments studied so far suggest wide variability of δ53Cr in rivers and weathered rocks, but with indiscernible correlation with climate types (temperate vs. tropical). In addition, large spatial variability has been detected in the modern seawater and large biological fractionation has been observed during marine biological calcification. These observations provide important guidelines for interpreting the ancient Cr isotope record.

  7. Systems engineering management plans.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Tamara S.

    2009-10-01

    The Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is a comprehensive and effective tool used to assist in the management of systems engineering efforts. It is intended to guide the work of all those involved in the project. The SEMP is comprised of three main sections: technical project planning and control, systems engineering process, and engineering specialty integration. The contents of each section must be tailored to the specific effort. A model outline and example SEMP are provided. The target audience is those who are familiar with the systems engineering approach and who have an interest in employing the SEMP as a tool for systems management. The goal of this document is to provide the reader with an appreciation for the use and importance of the SEMP, as well as provide a framework that can be used to create the management plan.

  8. The potential of the fresh-water fern Azolla in aquatic farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter K.; Werf, vd, Adrie; Schluepmann, Henriette; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Brouwer, Paul; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Hellgardt, Klaus; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2014-05-01

    With aquatic farming systems a new avenue in agriculture is explored, in which the competition with conventional arable land is avoided. The aquatic, ubiquitous, floating fern Azolla is not yet widely explored as potential crop in such farming systems, despite its high potential because it grows in many natural systems under low-light intensities, has an enormous annual yield, and has special biomass qualities for applications in food, feed and specialty chemical industries. But, what makes Azolla particularly interesting as cost-effective crop is its capability to take up atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria Anabaena azollae. This makes Azolla independent of nitrogen fertilization. In order to explore the potential of Azolla as a crop for a suite of applications, we have assembled a team of expertise: AZOFAST, consisting of agricultural engineers, plant physiologists, chemical engineers and organic chemists. Our growth experiments reveal high annual production yields with constant harvest. We are developing a germination and spore collecting/preservation protocol as a first step to domestication. Finally we have explored the biomass quality of different species of extant Azolla. We performed organic chemical analyses on lipid and tannin extracts, and quantified yields of specific compounds within these fractions. In our presentation we will present some of our results to show the potential of Azolla as a new, sustainable aquatic crop serving all kinds of industrial streams from protein feed to platform chemicals.

  9. Microbial plant litter decomposition in aquatic and terrestrial boreal systems along a natural fertility gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, A. Margarida P. M.; Kritzberg, Emma S.; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Plant litter decomposition is a global ecosystem process, with a crucial role in carbon and nutrient cycling. The majority of litter processing occurs in terrestrial systems, but an important fraction also takes place in inland waters. Among environmental factors, pH impacts the litter decomposition through its selective influence on microbial decomposers. Fungal communities are less affected by pH than bacteria, possibly owing to a wider pH tolerance by this group. On the other hand, bacterial pH optima are constrained to a narrower range of pH values. The microbial decomposition of litter is universally nutrient limited; but few comparisons exist between terrestrial and aquatic systems. We investigated the microbial colonisation and decomposition of plant litter along a fertility gradient, which varied in both pH and N availability in both soil and adjacent water. To do this we installed litterbags with birch (Betula pendula) in streams and corresponding soils in adjacent riparian areas in a boreal system, in Krycklan, Sweden. During the four months covering the ice-free growth season we monitored the successional dynamics of fungal (acetate incorporation into ergosterol) and bacterial growth (thymidine incorporation), microbial respiration in leaf litter, and quantitative and qualitative changes in litter over time. We observed that bacterial growth rates were initially higher in litter decomposing in streams than those in soils, but differences between terrestrial and aquatic bacterial production converged towards the end of the experiment. In litter bags installed in soils, bacterial growth was lower at sites with more acidic pH and lower N availability, while aquatic bacteria were relatively unaffected by the fertility level. Fungal growth rates were two-fold higher for litter decomposing in streams than in soils. In aquatic systems, fungal growth was initially lower in low fertility sites, but differences gradually disappeared over the time course. Fungal

  10. Safety Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, A. T.; Wood, D. O.

    This document discusses the issues that need to be considered by the education and training system as it responds to the changing needs of industry in Great Britain. Following a general introduction, the development of quality management ideas is traced. The underlying principles of safety and risk management are clarified and the implications of…

  11. Native aquatic vertebrates: Conservation and management in the Rio Sonoyta Basin, Sonora, Mexico

    Treesearch

    C. Minckley; Izar Izaguirre Pompa; Doug Duncan; Ross Timmons; Dennis Caldwell; Jaime Lopez Mendez; Phil Rosen

    2013-01-01

    The Río Sonoyta in northern Sonora is an important aquatic ecosystem that is disappearing because of drought and groundwater withdrawal. Its native species are also threatened by introduced species. The only watered reach is an intermittent segment (

  12. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  13. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  14. A Comparison of Methods for Counting Viruses in Aquatic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bettarel, Yvan; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore; Amblard, Christian; Laveran, Henri

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we compared different methods—including transmission electron microscopy—and various nucleic acid labeling methods in which we used the fluorochromes 4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), 4-[3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-(benzo-1,3-oxazole)-2-methylmethyledene]-1-(3′-trimethyl ammoniumpropyl)-quinilinium diioide (YOPRO-1), and SYBR Green I, which can be detected by epifluorescence microscopy (EM), for counting viruses in samples obtained from freshwater ecosystems whose trophic status varied and from a culture of T7 phages. From a quantitative and qualitative viewpoint, our results showed that the greatest efficiency for all ecosystems was obtained when we used the EM counting protocol in which YOPRO-1 was the label, as this fluorochrome exhibited strong and very stable fluorescence. A modification of the original protocol in which YOPRO-1 was used is recommended, because this modification makes the protocol faster and allows it to be used for routine analysis of fixed samples. Because SYBR Green I fades very quickly, the use of this fluorochrome is not recommended for systems in which the viral content is very high (>108 particles/ml), such as treated domestic sewage effluents. Experiments in which we used DNase and RNase revealed that the number of viruses determined by EM was slightly overestimated (by approximately 15%) because of interference caused by the presence of free nucleic acids. PMID:10831400

  15. Floodplain Mapping and Wetland Connectivity to Lotic Aquatic Systems of Indiana and North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C.; Hall, A.; D'Amico, E.; Sangwan, N.; Merwade, V.

    2015-12-01

    In a recent literature review of over 1,350 publications, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that wetlands in floodplains are physically, chemically, and biologically integrated with rivers and can improve downstream water quality. However, current knowledge on the extent of floodplains is limited, with national-scale maps unavailable with the exception of coarse-scale Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs). Recently, novel approaches to rapidly and inexpensively map floodplains using widely available soil survey data have been developed, as have approaches using hydrogeomorphic metrics. To better understand wetland connectivity to other aquatic systems, we contrasted FIRMs with soil-based, hydrogeomorphic, and simple distance-based metrics in watersheds of Indiana and North Dakota. Soil-based, hydrogeomorphic, and distance-based measures were particularly useful in determining connectivity. For example, in the White River of Indiana, these three measures connected 74-86% of the watershed's wetland area while the FEMA FIRMs only connected 58% of the watershed's wetland area, with omissions coming from stark demarcations of FIRMs at seemingly arbitrary locations. Overall, we found that FEMA FIRMs were generally unsuitable for use in determining watershed-scale floodplains, as FIRMs tended to focus on urban areas at the expense of agricultural (or non-urban) regions. Distance-based connectivity measures likely over-estimated floodplain extent through the "creation" of non-existent floodplains on low-order streams. As with any method, the accuracy of the hydrogeomorphic and soil-based measures was highly dependent on the resolution and quality of the input data. However, these two methods in particular appear to hold great promise for accurately extending our knowledge of floodplains throughout the conterminous United States.

  16. Environmental Management Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site on Environmental Management Systems (EMS) provides information and resources related to EMS for small businesses and private industry, as well as local, state and federal agencies, including all the EPA offices and laboratories.

  17. Intranet Document Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

    1998-01-01

    Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

  18. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring aquatic weeds in a river system using SPOT 5 satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Witte, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Aquatic weeds have caused significant problems in many lakes and river systems worldwide. Weed outbreaks of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and para-grass (Urochloa mutica) are common in Australia and their ecological and recreational impacts mostly negative and costly. Remote sensing offers the ability to map and monitor the distribution of aquatic weeds and their early detection. The objective of this project was to develop an efficient method, using remote sensing techniques, to map and monitor the change of dense water weeds in a river system and to identify a suitable spatial scale for this process. Two SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) 5 images from May 2006 and May 2007 were used in combination with two mapping approaches on a) multispectral image data with 10 m spatial resolution and b) pan-sharpened multispectral image data with 2.5 m spatial resolution. A scale dependent validation resulted in case b) an overall producer's classification accuracy of 81%. Small outbreaks (~2 m2) alone were 71% accurate with increasing accuracies of >95% for outbreaks larger than 6.25m2 (2.5m x 2.5m pixel). Case a) generally had lower accuracies, with accuracies of >95% for outbreaks in the order of 100m2 (10m x 10m pixel) and larger. The results suggest that the river infestation by aquatic weeds in a test area of the mid-Brisbane River has increased by a factor of 2 to 3 during the 12-month period. The infested area is estimated to be between 13.6% and 15.9 % of the waterbody in 2007, while 6.2% to 6.8% in 2006. The method applied in this study included geometric and radiometric corrections, along with linear spectral unmixing and spectral angle mapper techniques. This method is applicable to other waterways worldwide and offers the potential for the early detection of infestations of aquatic surface weeds.

  20. Characterization of natural organic matter as major constituents in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimmel, F. H.

    1998-12-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in global aquatic systems, the mass concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 100 mg/l of organic carbon. The polydispersity of molar masses and the chemical structures comprising NOM give it a multifunctional role in natural environment and in water treatment processes. Important functions include serving as an electron donor in metal complexation, sorption of xenobiotics and adsorption onto mineral phases and onto activated carbon. NOM is partially oxidized during microbial utilization and during water treatment in which it may also become substituted with chlorine leading to a suite of products with toxic relevance. Meaningful methods of NOM characterization would be useful for the development of a predictive capacity for NOM behaviour in different water sources. Among analytical characterization methods, those directly applicable to aqueous samples are most useful and in addition to classical spectroscopic methods, more advanced methods have become available within the last decade. High pressure liquid chromatography using gels have proved useful in combination with UV/vis, fluorescence, light scattering and sensitive dissolved organic carbon detection techniques, yielding information on molecular absorbance, size distribution, molar mass and reactivity. Information on biodegradability of NOM can be deduced from experimental measurement of bacterial growth under defined conditions. The nature and amount of biologically assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in combination with the bacterial cell number and growth rate constants can provide a meaningful characterization of microbial stability in aquatic systems. In addition, determination of directly available and acid or enzymatically hydrolysable amino acids and carbohydrates can add to the understanding of NOM biodegradability over different time scales. The paper gives the results obtained by the application of the different methods for the characterization of aquatic NOM and

  1. Optimization of 15 parameters influencing the long-term survival of bacteria in aquatic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obenhuber, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    NASA is presently engaged in the design and development of a water reclamation system for the future space station. A major concern in processing water is the control of microbial contamination. As a means of developing an optimal microbial control strategy, studies were undertaken to determine the type and amount of contamination which could be expected in these systems under a variety of changing environmental conditions. A laboratory-based Taguchi optimization experiment was conducted to determine the ideal settings for 15 parameters which influence the survival of six bacterial species in aquatic systems. The experiment demonstrated that the bacterial survival period could be decreased significantly by optimizing environmental conditions.

  2. Application of vascular aquatic plants for pollution removal, energy and food production in a biological system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Barlow, R. M.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants such as water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (Mart.) Griesb., when utilized in a controlled biological system (including a regular program of harvesting to achieve maximum growth and pollution removal efficiency), may represent a remarkably efficient and inexpensive filtration and disposal system for toxic materials and sewage released into waters near urban and industrial areas. The harvested and processed plant materials are sources of energy, fertilizer, animal feed, and human food. Such a system has industrial, municipal, and agricultural applications.

  3. Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1981 Wayne Erickson founded Microrim, Inc, a company originally focused on marketing a microcomputer version of RIM (Relational Information Manager). Dennis Comfort joined the firm and is now vice president, development. The team developed an advanced spinoff from the NASA system they had originally created, a microcomputer database management system known as R:BASE 4000. Microrim added many enhancements and developed a series of R:BASE products for various environments. R:BASE is now the second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software in the world.

  4. Management systems and software.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    2001-02-01

    To ensure that your software optimizes your practice management systems, design systems that allow you and your team to achieve your goals and provide high levels of quality dentistry and customer service to your patients. Then use your current software system or purchase a new practice management software program that will allow your practice to operate within the guidelines of the systems which you have established. You can be certain that taking these steps will allow you to practice dentistry with maximum profitability and minimum stress for the remainder of your career.

  5. Risk, Uncertainty, and Decision Analysis Applied to the Management of Aquatic Nuisance Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    of fishing systems . Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 33(1): 145-159. Watson, S. R., and D. M. Buede . 1987...alternative hypotheses regarding the impact of an ANS on the system . Budgets are usually limited and the number of possible studies that could be...an ecosystem and the decisions made to manage that system based on that understanding. Bayesian analysis, a fundamental concept in “value of

  6. Oil field management system

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  7. Integrated work management system.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Edward J., Jr.; Henry, Karen Lynne

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories develops technologies to: (1) sustain, modernize, and protect our nuclear arsenal (2) Prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction; (3) Provide new capabilities to our armed forces; (4) Protect our national infrastructure; (5) Ensure the stability of our nation's energy and water supplies; and (6) Defend our nation against terrorist threats. We identified the need for a single overarching Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS) that would enable us to focus on customer missions and improve FMOC processes. Our team selected highly configurable commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software with out-of-the-box workflow processes that integrate strategic planning, project management, facility assessments, and space management, and can interface with existing systems, such as Oracle, PeopleSoft, Maximo, Bentley, and FileNet. We selected the Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS) from Tririga, Inc. Facility Management System (FMS) Benefits are: (1) Create a single reliable source for facility data; (2) Improve transparency with oversight organizations; (3) Streamline FMOC business processes with a single, integrated facility-management tool; (4) Give customers simple tools and real-time information; (5) Reduce indirect costs; (6) Replace approximately 30 FMOC systems and 60 homegrown tools (such as Microsoft Access databases); and (7) Integrate with FIMS.

  8. Automated RTOP Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, P.

    1984-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology electronic information system network from 1983 to 1985 is illustrated. The RTOP automated system takes advantage of existing hardware, software, and expertise, and provides: (1) computerized cover sheet and resources forms; (2) electronic signature and transmission; (3) a data-based information system; (4) graphics; (5) intercenter communications; (6) management information; and (7) text editing. The system is coordinated with Headquarters efforts in codes R,E, and T.

  9. Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

  10. Predator prey interactions of Procambarus clarkii with aquatic macroinvertebrates in single and multiple prey systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Alexandra Marçal; Bandeira, Nuno; Anastácio, Pedro Manuel

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the interspecific interactions of Procambarus clarkii with other aquatic macroinvertebrates will help to unveil the mechanisms and processes underlying biological invasiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate predator-prey interactions of two ontogenic phases of P. clarkii with native and exotic species of aquatic macroinvertebrates at a single and multiple prey level. We performed laboratory experiments to determine the consumption and the behavioral responses of Chironomus riparius, Physa acuta and Corbicula fluminea to P. clarkii. The presence of P. clarkii significantly affected the abundance of C. riparius and P. acuta, but not of C. fluminea whether prey species were provided singly or simultaneously. The consumption of C. riparius by P. clarkii was higher than P. acuta for both crayfish sizes and situations (single/multiple prey systems) and C. fluminea was never consumed. Physa acuta was the only species that exhibited an anti-predator behavior to P. clarkii. Our results show that P. clarkii can have strong consumptive and trait effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate prey at a single and multiple prey level, resulting in differential impacts on different prey species. This study clarifies some aspects of the predator-prey interactions between P. clarkii and native as well as other exotic macroinvertebrate species that have invaded freshwater biocenosis worldwide.

  11. Occurrence and fate of the human pharmaceutical metabolite ritalinic acid in the aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Letzel, Marion; Weiss, Klaus; Schüssler, Walter; Sengl, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the occurrence and fate of ritalinic acid - the main human metabolite of the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate - in the aquatic environment, a HPLC-electrospray-MS/MS method for the quantification of ritalinic acid in wastewater, surface water and bank filtrate was developed. Carbamazepine known as very stable in the aquatic environment was analyzed as anthropogenic marker in parallel. Furthermore, the removal of ritalinic acid was studied in a sewage treatment plant using an activated sludge system during a field study and in lab-scale plants. In good agreement between lab-scale and field studies a low removal rate of 13% and 23%, respectively, was determined. As a consequence, the concentration of ritalinic acid in the wastewater effluents were in the range of <50-170 ngL(-1) which corresponds to a mean specific load per capita of 17.7 μgd(-1). Ritalinic acid has further been detected in German rivers at concentrations of 4-23 ngL(-1) and in bank filtrate samples in 100-850 m distance from the river up to 5 ngL(-1) demonstrating the widespread occurrence of this stable metabolite in the aquatic environment. A comparison to available sales data shows that a significant amount of methylphenidate applied can be found in waters as ritalinic acid.

  12. Data Grid Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

  13. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  14. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  15. Aquatic environment, housing, and management in the eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: additional considerations and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mason, Timothy J; Matthews, Monte

    2012-05-01

    The eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recognizes the widespread use of aquatic and semiaquatic research animals by including, among other references, an entire section on aquatic animals in its chapter on environment, housing, and management. Recognizing the large number of aquatic and semiaquatic species used in research and the inherent diversity in animal needs, the Guide refers the reader to texts and journal reviews for specific recommendations and suggests consultations with persons experienced in caring for aquatic species. Here we present considerations that may add to the basic information presented in the Guide and offer some recommendations that may be useful for aquatic animal model caregivers and researchers.

  16. Aquatic Environment, Housing, and Management in the Eighth Edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Additional Considerations and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Timothy J; Matthews, Monte

    2012-01-01

    The eighth edition of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recognizes the widespread use of aquatic and semiaquatic research animals by including, among other references, an entire section on aquatic animals in its chapter on environment, housing, and management. Recognizing the large number of aquatic and semiaquatic species used in research and the inherent diversity in animal needs, the Guide refers the reader to texts and journal reviews for specific recommendations and suggests consultations with persons experienced in caring for aquatic species. Here we present considerations that may add to the basic information presented in the Guide and offer some recommendations that may be useful for aquatic animal model caregivers and researchers. PMID:22776190

  17. MCNP simulation and spectrum unfolding for an NaI monitor of radioactivity in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, C.; De Lellis, C.; Van Put, P.; Tondeur, F.

    2007-09-01

    Spectrum unfolding can be implemented when the angular distribution of the radiation fluence is known, e.g. when the source-detector geometry is fixed. In the case of the system developed by Institut National des Radio-Elements (IRE) for monitoring radioactivity in aquatic systems, the source is an infinite homogenous medium surrounding the monitor, with constant density. Its response function for gamma rays is calculated with MCNP4.C2. The simulation model is validated with reference measurements of standard sources diluted in a drum. Results of unfolding with UMG 3.3 are presented for this situation, and for a measurement in sea water.

  18. Computer memory management system

    DOEpatents

    Kirk, III, Whitson John

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  19. Materials management information systems.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The hospital materials management function--ensuring that goods and services get from a source to an end user--encompasses many areas of the hospital and can significantly affect hospital costs. Performing this function in a manner that will keep costs down and ensure adequate cash flow requires effective management of a large amount of information from a variety of sources. To effectively coordinate such information, most hospitals have implemented some form of materials management information system (MMIS). These systems can be used to automate or facilitate functions such as purchasing, accounting, inventory management, and patient supply charges. In this study, we evaluated seven MMISs from seven vendors, focusing on the functional capabilities of each system and the quality of the service and support provided by the vendor. This Evaluation is intended to (1) assist hospitals purchasing an MMIS by educating materials managers about the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs and (2) educate clinical engineers and information system managers about the scope of materials management within a healthcare facility. Because software products cannot be evaluated in the same manner as most devices typically included in Health Devices Evaluations, our standard Evaluation protocol was not applicable for this technology. Instead, we based our ratings on our observations (e.g., during site visits), interviews we conducted with current users of each system, and information provided by the vendor (e.g., in response to a request for information [RFI]). We divided the Evaluation into the following sections: Section 1. Responsibilities and Information Requirements of Materials Management: Provides an overview of typical materials management functions and describes the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs. Also includes the supplementary article, "Inventory Cost and Reimbursement Issues" and the glossary, "Materials Management Terminology." Section 2. The

  20. Management Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    New Automated Management Information Center (AMIC) employs innovative microcomputer techniques to create color charts, viewgraphs, or other data displays in a fraction of the time formerly required. Developed under Kennedy Space Center's contract by Boeing Services International Inc., Seattle, WA, AMIC can produce an entirely new informational chart in 30 minutes, or an updated chart in only five minutes. AMIC also has considerable potential as a management system for business firms.

  1. Can sacrificial feeding areas protect aquatic plants from herbivore grazing? Using behavioural ecology to inform wildlife management.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kevin A; Stillman, Richard A; Daunt, Francis; O'Hare, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems.

  2. Can Sacrificial Feeding Areas Protect Aquatic Plants from Herbivore Grazing? Using Behavioural Ecology to Inform Wildlife Management

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin A.; Stillman, Richard A.; Daunt, Francis; O’Hare, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Effective wildlife management is needed for conservation, economic and human well-being objectives. However, traditional population control methods are frequently ineffective, unpopular with stakeholders, may affect non-target species, and can be both expensive and impractical to implement. New methods which address these issues and offer effective wildlife management are required. We used an individual-based model to predict the efficacy of a sacrificial feeding area in preventing grazing damage by mute swans (Cygnus olor) to adjacent river vegetation of high conservation and economic value. The accuracy of model predictions was assessed by a comparison with observed field data, whilst prediction robustness was evaluated using a sensitivity analysis. We used repeated simulations to evaluate how the efficacy of the sacrificial feeding area was regulated by (i) food quantity, (ii) food quality, and (iii) the functional response of the forager. Our model gave accurate predictions of aquatic plant biomass, carrying capacity, swan mortality, swan foraging effort, and river use. Our model predicted that increased sacrificial feeding area food quantity and quality would prevent the depletion of aquatic plant biomass by swans. When the functional response for vegetation in the sacrificial feeding area was increased, the food quantity and quality in the sacrificial feeding area required to protect adjacent aquatic plants were reduced. Our study demonstrates how the insights of behavioural ecology can be used to inform wildlife management. The principles that underpin our model predictions are likely to be valid across a range of different resource-consumer interactions, emphasising the generality of our approach to the evaluation of strategies for resolving wildlife management problems. PMID:25077615

  3. Response of sago pondweed, a submerged aquatic macrophyte, to herbicides in three laboratory culture systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Ailstock, M.S.; Momot, J.J.; Norman, C.M.; Gorsuch, Joseph W.; Lower, William R.; Wang, Wun-cheng; Lewis, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of atrazine, paraquat, glyphosate, and alachlor to sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), a submerged aquatic macrophyte, was tested under three types of laboratory culture conditions. In each case, tests were conducted in static systems, the test period was four weeks, and herbicide exposure was chronic, resulting from a single addition of herbicide to the test vessels at the beginning of the test period. The three sets of test conditions employed were(1) axenic cultures in 125-mL flasks containing a nutrient media and sucrose; (2) a microcosm system employing 18.9-L buckets containing a sand, shell, and peat substrate; and (3) an algae-free system employing O.95-L jars containing reconstituted freshwater and a nutrient agar substrate. The primary variable measured was biomass production. Plants grew well in all three test systems, with biomass of untreated plants increasing by a factor of about 5 to 6.5 during the four-week test period. Biomass production in response to herbicide exposure differed significantly among culture systems, which demonstrates the need for a standardized testing protocol for evaluating the effects of toxics on submerged aquatic plants.

  4. Strategic analysis for sustainable urban river aquatic environment using the system dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T; Chang, Y C

    2006-01-01

    A sustainable aquatic environment, which relates to the issues of pollution mitigation and ecological restoration, is one of the important indicators of the vitality and prosperity of a city. Traditionally, resort to engineering efforts is always the first priority in dealing with such problems. Nevertheless, treated as an integrated system, the nature of the problem should involve many aspects including economic, ecological, environmental, and engineering factors. Meanwhile, the special feature of the time-dependent state has also made such a system a dynamic and complex problem. The current research has employed the concepts of integrated assessment trying to aggregate related studies and tackling the problem as a complete system. With the aid of the system dynamic modeling tool, which is capable of dealing with dynamic and complex problems, the simulation model was formulated following the macrostructure of system behavior. Various strategies for improving the sustainability of the aquatic environment in Love River, Kaohsiung, Taiwan have been evaluated. The decision makers are therefore allowed to choose more effective strategies based on the integrated perspectives.

  5. Climate data management system

    SciTech Connect

    Drach, R

    1999-07-13

    The Climate Data Management System is an object-oriented data management system, specialized for organizing multidimensional, gridded data used in climate analysis and simulation. The building blocks of CDMS are variables, container classes, structural classes, and links. All gridded data stored in CDMS is associated with variables. The container objects group variables and structural objects. Variables are defined in terms of structural objects. Most CDMS objects can have attributes, which are scalar or one-dimensional metadata items. Attributes which are stored in the database, that is are persistent, are called external attributes. Some attributes are internal; they are associated with an object but do not appear explicitly in the database.

  6. The Occurrence and Diversity of Waterborne Fungi in African Aquatic Systems: Their Impact on Water Quality and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Magwaza, Nontokozo M.; Nxumalo, Edward N.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is a worldwide growing interest in the occurrence and diversity of fungi and their secondary metabolites in aquatic systems, especially concerning their role in water quality and human health. However, this concern is hampered by the scant information that is available in the literature about aquatic fungi and how they affect water quality. There are only few published reports that link certain species of aquatic fungi to human health. The common aquatic fungal species that have been reported so far in African aquatic systems belong to the hyphomycetes kingdom. This paper thus aims to survey the information about the occurrence and factors that control the distribution of different species of fungi in African aquatic systems, as well as their effect on water quality and the possible metabolic pathways that lead to the formation of toxic secondary metabolites that are responsible for the deterioration of water quality. This review will also investigate the analytical and bioanalytical procedures that have been reported for the identification of different species of waterborne fungi and their secondary metabolites. PMID:28531124

  7. Use of chemical communication in the management of freshwater aquatic species that are vectors of human diseases or are invasive.

    PubMed

    Corkum, Lynda D; Belanger, Rachelle M

    2007-01-01

    Chemical communication occurs when both originator (signaller) and one or more receiver(s) possess specializations for chemical exchange of information. Chemical information can be used by a wide variety of species to locate food and mates, avoid predators and engage in social interactions. In this review, we focus on chemical signalling between mates or cues from nest sites or hosts by selected aquatic pest species and indicate how chemical information can be used to manage pests. The pests are vectors of disease (blood-sucking insects) or invasive species (crayfishes and fishes) that have exhibited detrimental effects on indigenous species. Pheromones released by females attract and stimulate males in some taxa (insects, crayfish, goldfish, and crucian carp), whereas pheromones released by males attract females in others (round goby, sea lamprey). Other chemicals (e.g., habitat odours or odours given off by developmental stages of conspecifics) can affect oviposition decisions of pest species. In areas of aquatic environments where other cues may be limited (e.g., visual), freshwater organisms may rely solely on chemical signals or in concert with environmental cues for reproduction. Once the chemical structure of odour attractants are identified and shown to lure conspecifics to traps, odorants or their blends can be used to control the aquatic pests. There is promise for the application of pheromone traps to control the malarian vector (Anopheles gambiae) or invasive species such as signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) by disrupting the reproductive behaviours of these species.

  8. Toxicological effects of the lipid regulator gemfibrozil in four aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jorge L; Repetto, Guillermo; Jos, Angeles; Salguero, Manuel; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Cameán, Ana M

    2007-02-15

    Gemfibrozil is a lipid-regulating agent widely used in patients at risk of coronary disease. Pharmaceutical products, such as gemfibrozil, are found in municipal effluents and represent a major source of contamination. To date, there is little available information about the adverse effects of gemfibrozil in aquatic organisms. For this reason, the toxic effects were investigated using model systems from four trophic levels. The most sensitive system was the immobilization of Daphnia magna, with a non-observed adverse effect level of 30 microM and a mean effective concentration of 120 microM after 72 h, followed by the inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, the hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 line and the inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization and lysosomal function were reduced in PLHC-1 cells, stimulations were observed for lysosomal function, metallothionein levels and succinate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and acetylcholinesterase activities. No changes were observed in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. The main morphological alterations were hydropic degeneration and loss of cells. Modulation studies on gemfibrozil toxicity were also carried out. General antioxidants and calcium chelators did not modify the toxicity of gemfibrozil, whereas a Fe(III) chelator, a membrane permeable sulphydryl-protecting compound and glutathione level modifying agents did change the toxicity. One of the possible mechanisms of gemfibrozil toxicity seems to be the binding to sulphydryl groups, including those of glutathione. According to the result, gemfibrozil should be classified as harmful to aquatic organisms. However, comparing the concentrations in water and the toxicity quantified in the assayed systems, gemfibrozil is not expected to represent acute risk to the aquatic biota.

  9. Flow management for hydropower extirpates aquatic insects, undermining river food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Theodore; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Lytle, D.A.; Miller, S.A.; Dibble, Kimberly L.; Kortenhoeven, Eric W.; Metcalfe, Anya; Baxter, Colden V.

    2016-01-01

    Dams impound the majority of rivers and provide important societal benefits, especially daily water releases that enable on-peak hydroelectricity generation. Such “hydropeaking” is common worldwide, but its downstream impacts remain unclear. We evaluated the response of aquatic insects, a cornerstone of river food webs, to hydropeaking using a life history–hydrodynamic model. Our model predicts that aquatic-insect abundance will depend on a basic life-history trait—adult egg-laying behavior—such that open-water layers will be unaffected by hydropeaking, whereas ecologically important and widespread river-edge layers, such as mayflies, will be extirpated. These predictions are supported by a more-than-2500-sample, citizen-science data set of aquatic insects from the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon and by a survey of insect diversity and hydropeaking intensity across dammed rivers of the Western United States. Our study reveals a hydropeaking-related life history bottleneck that precludes viable populations of many aquatic insects from inhabiting regulated rivers.

  10. Use of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing to Evaluate Efficacy of Aquatic Plant Management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive aquatic weeds negatively affect biodiversity, fluvial dynamics, water quality, and water storage and conveyance for a variety of human resource demands. In California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta one submersed species - Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa) - and one floating species ...

  11. Climate change, aquatic ecosystems, and fishes in the Rocky Mountain West: implications and alternatives for management

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Rieman; Daniel J. Isaak

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly altering aquatic ecosystems across the Rocky Mountain West and may detrimentally impact populations of sensitive species that are often the focus of conservation efforts. The objective of this report is to synthesize a growing literature on these topics to address the following questions: (1) What is changing in climate and...

  12. MASS2, Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions, User Guide and Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-07-01

    The Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions (MASS2) is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamics and transport model. The model simulates time varying distributions of depth-averaged velocities, water surface elevations, and water quality constituents. This manual documents the use of MASS2. It is the second of two reports on MASS2. The first report documents the theory and numerical methods used in MASS2, and is often referred to herein as the Theory Manual. MASS2 is applicable to a wide variety of environmental analyses of rivers and estuaries where vertical variations in the water column are negligible or unimportant.

  13. Management control system description

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Software Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A software management system, originally developed for Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) by Century Computing, Inc. has evolved from a menu and command oriented system to a state-of-the art user interface development system supporting high resolution graphics workstations. Transportable Applications Environment (TAE) was initially distributed through COSMIC and backed by a TAE support office at GSFC. In 1993, Century Computing assumed the support and distribution functions and began marketing TAE Plus, the system's latest version. The software is easy to use and does not require programming experience.

  15. Oxygen stress reduces zoospore survival of Phytophthora species in a simulated aquatic system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Phytophthora includes a group of agriculturally important pathogens and they are commonly regarded as water molds. They produce motile zoospores that can move via water currents and on their own locomotion in aquatic environments. However, zoosporic response to dissolved oxygen, an important water quality parameter, is not known. Like other water quality parameters, dissolved oxygen concentration in irrigation reservoirs fluctuates dramatically over time. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how zoospore survival may be affected by elevated and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in water to better understand the aquatic biology of these pathogens in irrigation reservoirs. Results Zoospores of P. megasperma, P. nicotianae, P. pini and P. tropicalis were assessed for survival in 10% Hoagland’s solution at a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.9 to 20.1 mg L-1 for up to seven exposure times from 0 to 72 h. Zoospore survival was measured by resultant colony counts per ml. Zoospores of these species survived the best in control Hoagland’s solution at dissolved oxygen concentrations of 5.3 to 5.6 mg L-1. Zoospore survival rates decreased with increasing and decreasing concentration of dissolved oxygen, depending upon Phytophthora species and exposure time. Overall, P. megasperma and P. pini are less sensitive than P. nicotianae and P. tropicalis to hyperoxia and hypoxia conditions. Conclusion Zoospores in the control solution declined over time and this natural decline process was enhanced under hyperoxia and hypoxia conditions. These findings suggest that dramatic fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in irrigation reservoirs contribute to the population decline of Phytophthora species along the water path in the same reservoirs. These findings advanced our understanding of the aquatic ecology of these pathogens in irrigation reservoirs. They also provided a basis for pathogen risk mitigation by prolonging the turnover

  16. Ecotoxicological effects of the antioxidant additive propyl gallate in five aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jorge L; Jos, Angeles; del Peso, Ana; Salguero, Manuel; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Repetto, Guillermo

    2007-06-01

    Propyl gallate is an antioxidant widely used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The occurrence and fate of additives in the aquatic environment is an emerging issue in environmental chemistry. To date, there is little available information about the adverse effects of propyl gallate on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the toxic effects were investigated, using five model systems from four trophic levels. The most sensitive system was the hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 according to total protein content, with an EC(50) of 10 microM and a NOAEL of 1 microM at 72 h, followed by the immobilization of Daphnia magna, the inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2 and the inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization and acetylcholinesterase activity were reduced in PLHC-1 cells, stimulations were observed for lysosomal function, succinate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities. No changes were observed in metallothionein levels. The main morphological observations were the loss of cells and the induction of cell death mainly by necrosis but also by apoptosis. The protective and toxic effects of propyl gallate were evaluated. General antioxidants and calcium chelators did not modify the toxicity of propyl gallate, but an iron-dependent lipid peroxidation inhibitor gave 22% protection. The results also suggest that propyl gallate cytotoxicity is dependent on glutathione levels, which were modulated by malic acid diethyl ester and 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. According to the results, propyl gallate should be classified as toxic to aquatic organisms.

  17. Oxygen stress reduces zoospore survival of Phytophthora species in a simulated aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ping; Hong, Chuanxue

    2014-05-13

    The genus Phytophthora includes a group of agriculturally important pathogens and they are commonly regarded as water molds. They produce motile zoospores that can move via water currents and on their own locomotion in aquatic environments. However, zoosporic response to dissolved oxygen, an important water quality parameter, is not known. Like other water quality parameters, dissolved oxygen concentration in irrigation reservoirs fluctuates dramatically over time. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how zoospore survival may be affected by elevated and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in water to better understand the aquatic biology of these pathogens in irrigation reservoirs. Zoospores of P. megasperma, P. nicotianae, P. pini and P. tropicalis were assessed for survival in 10% Hoagland's solution at a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.9 to 20.1 mg L(-1) for up to seven exposure times from 0 to 72 h. Zoospore survival was measured by resultant colony counts per ml. Zoospores of these species survived the best in control Hoagland's solution at dissolved oxygen concentrations of 5.3 to 5.6 mg L(-1). Zoospore survival rates decreased with increasing and decreasing concentration of dissolved oxygen, depending upon Phytophthora species and exposure time. Overall, P. megasperma and P. pini are less sensitive than P. nicotianae and P. tropicalis to hyperoxia and hypoxia conditions. Zoospores in the control solution declined over time and this natural decline process was enhanced under hyperoxia and hypoxia conditions. These findings suggest that dramatic fluctuations of dissolved oxygen in irrigation reservoirs contribute to the population decline of Phytophthora species along the water path in the same reservoirs. These findings advanced our understanding of the aquatic ecology of these pathogens in irrigation reservoirs. They also provided a basis for pathogen risk mitigation by prolonging the turnover time of runoff water in recycling

  18. INVESTIGATING CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS: A PLAN FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAUSAL ANALYSIS/DIAGNOSIS DECISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, the regulatory, remedial and restoration actions taken to manage impaired environments are based on measurement and analysis of the biotic community. When an aquatic community has been identified as impaired, the cause of the impairment must be determined so that a...

  19. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  20. Maintenance Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    maintenance opera- tions. d. Available national maintenance management system (MMS) software be utilized to develop the planning, organizing...portland cement concrete pavements to level and realign faulted areas between slabs or craks within the slab by grinding the high side. MAINTENANCE ITEM

  1. Management Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Jean, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This collection of papers addresses key questions facing college managers and others choosing, introducing, and living with big, complex computer-based systems. "What Use the User Requirement?" (Tony Coles) stresses the importance of an information strategy driven by corporate objectives, not technology. "Process of Selecting a…

  2. Visual management support system

    Treesearch

    Lee Anderson; Jerry Mosier; Geoffrey Chandler

    1979-01-01

    The Visual Management Support System (VMSS) is an extension of an existing computer program called VIEWIT, which has been extensively used by the U. S. Forest Service. The capabilities of this program lie in the rapid manipulation of large amounts of data, specifically opera-ting as a tool to overlay or merge one set of data with another. VMSS was conceived to...

  3. Content Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  4. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  5. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  6. A Sushi Science Module in Food Production Systems and Aquatic Resource Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livengood, Elisa J.; Chapman, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    No other food industry depends so heavily on a wild caught resource than those associated with aquatic food products. Domestication of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic resources production has lagged behind other terrestrial livestock products; however, demand for these aquatic natural resources has continued to increase dramatically. Teaching…

  7. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, Volker; Paris, Frank

    2001-03-01

    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adpated at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICASL COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90 spaceshuttle missions and the

  8. Aquatic modules for bioregenerative life support systems based on the C.E.B.A.S. biotechnology [correction of biotechnilogy].

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Paris, F

    2001-01-01

    Most concepts for bioregenerative life support systems are based on edible higher land plants which create some problems with growth and seed generation under space conditions. Animal protein production is mostly neglected because of the tremendous waste management problems with tetrapods under reduced weightlessness. Therefore, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System" (C.E.B.A.S.) was developed which represents an artificial aquatic ecosystem containing aquatic organisms which are adapted at all to "near weightlessness conditions" (fishes Xiphophorus helleri, water snails Biomphalaria glabrata, ammonia oxidizing bacteria and the rootless non-gravitropic edible water plant Ceratophyllum demersum). Basically the C.E.B.A.S. consists of 4 subsystems: a ZOOLOGICAL (correction of ZOOLOGICASL) COMPONENT (animal aquarium), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (aquatic plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition and control unit). Superficially, the function principle appears simple: the plants convert light energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis thus producing biomass and oxygen. The animals and microorganisms use the oxygen for respiration and produce the carbon dioxide which is essential for plant photosynthesis. The ammonia ions excreted by the animals are converted by the bacteria to nitrite and then to nitrate ions which serve as a nitrogen source for the plants. Other essential ions derive from biological degradation of animal waste products and dead organic matter. The C.E.B.A.S. exists in 2 basic versions: the original C.E.B.A.S. with a volume of 150 liters and a self-sustaining standing time of more than 13 month and the so-called C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE with a volume of about 8.5 liters. In the latter there is no closed food loop by reasons of available space so that animal food has to be provided via an automated feeder. This device was flown already successfully on the STS-89 and STS-90

  9. Analytical Services Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Shane; Nigbor, Mike; Hillman, Daniel

    2005-03-30

    Analytical Services Management System (ASMS) provides sample management services. Sample management includes sample planning for analytical requests, sample tracking for shipping and receiving by the laboratory, receipt of the analytical data deliverable, processing the deliverable and payment of the laboratory conducting the analyses. ASMS is a web based application that provides the ability to manage these activities at multiple locations for different customers. ASMS provides for the assignment of single to multiple samples for standard chemical and radiochemical analyses. ASMS is a flexible system which allows the users to request analyses by line item code. Line item codes are selected based on the Basic Ordering Agreement (BOA) format for contracting with participating laboratories. ASMS also allows contracting with non-BOA laboratories using a similar line item code contracting format for their services. ASMS allows sample and analysis tracking from sample planning and collection in the field through sample shipment, laboratory sample receipt, laboratory analysis and submittal of the requested analyses, electronic data transfer, and payment of the laboratories for the completed analyses. The software when in operation contains business sensitive material that is used as a principal portion of the Kaiser Analytical Management Services business model. The software version provided is the most recent version, however the copy of the application does not contain business sensitive data from the associated Oracle tables such as contract information or price per line item code.

  10. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  11. Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilemon, David L.

    1973-01-01

    As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

  12. Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilemon, David L.

    1973-01-01

    As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

  13. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  14. Air System Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  15. Petascale system management experiences.

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, N.; Bradshaw, R.; Lueninghoener, C.; Cherry, A.; Coghlan, S.; Scullin, W.

    2008-01-01

    National Laboratory, and a 504 TF Opteron-based system has been deployed at Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC). Intrepid is comprised of 40,960 nodes with a total of 163,840 cores. While systems like these are uncommon now, we expect them to become more widespread in the coming years. The scale of these large systems impose several requirements upon system architecture. The need for scalability is obvious, however, power efficiency and density constraints have become increasingly important in recent years. At the same time, because the size of administrative staff cannot grow linearly with the system size, more efficient system management techniques are needed. In this paper we will describe our experiences administering Intrepid. Over the last year, we have experienced a number of interesting challenges in this endeavor. Our initial expectation was for scalability to be the dominant system issue. This expectation was not accurate. Several issues expected to have minor impact have played a much greater role in system operations. Debugging, due to the large numbers of components used in scalable system operations, has become a much more difficult endeavor. The system has a sophisticated monitoring system, however, the analysis of this data has been problematic. These issues are not specific to HPC workloads in any way, so we expect them to be of general interest. This paper consists of three major parts. First, we will provide a detailed overview of several important aspects of Intrepid's hardware and software. In this, we will highlight aspects that have featured prominently in our system management experiences. Next, we will describe our administration experiences in detail. Finally, we will draw some conclusions based on these experiences. In particular, we will discuss the implications for the non-HPC world, system managers, and system software developers.

  16. Thermal tolerance of aquatic insects inhabiting the Tennessee River-Reservoir system

    SciTech Connect

    Tennessen, K.J.; Miller, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The objectives were to (1) determine the short-term thermal tolerance of several important species of aquatic insects in the Tennessee River-Reservoir system, (2) investigate the effect of acclimation temperature on tolerance, and the possibility of delayed mortality, (3) determine the most sensitive stage in the life cycle, and (4) conduct field studies on growth and emergence of selected aquatic insects within actual thermal plume areas. In laboratory tests, nymphs of Hexagenia bilineata (Ephemeroptera) and larvae of Chironomus crassicaudatus (Diptera) were highly tolerant of short term thermal shocks (six hour duration, simulating entrainment in a thermal plume and drifting to ambient). TL50 values increased from 35/sup 0/C at an acclimation temperature of 5/sup 0/C to 38 to 40/sup 0/C at an acclimation temperature of 20 to 25/sup 0/C. However, survivors of these treatments experienced higher percentages of delayed mortality compared to controls after being held for ten days to four weeks at the original acclimation temperature. The most senstitive stage found in the life cycle of H. bilineata was the egg during oviposition (time of fertilization); eggs exposed to 33/sup 0/C for 15 minutes during oviposition hatched at a significantly lower percentage than controls (ambient was 28/sup 0/C). The data generated indicate that aquatic insect species inhabiting TVA's large warm-water reservoirs are living close to their thermal maximum, and that an upper limit of 33/sup 0/C would ensure the maintenance of sizeable populations of the species studied.

  17. Aquatic toxicity assessment of the additive 6-methylcoumarine using four experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Jos, A; Repetto, G; Ríos, J C; Del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Cameán, A M

    2009-01-01

    The toxicity assessment of chemicals is one of the main issues in the current policies in order to protect the health of the environment and human beings. Food and cosmetic additives have been extensively studied in relation to their toxicity to humans, but data about their ecotoxicological effects are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of the additive 6-methylcoumarine in the aquatic milieu using a test battery comprising experimental model systems from different trophic levels. The inhibition of bioluminiscence was studied in the bacteria Vibrio fischeri (decomposer), the inhibition of growth was evaluated in the alga Chlorella vulgaris (producer) and immobilization was studied in the cladoceran Daphnia magna (first consumer). Finally, several end points were evaluated in the RTG-2 salmonid fish cell line, including neutral red uptake, protein content, methylthiazol tetrazolium salt metabolization, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and leakage, and morphology. The sensitivity of the test systems employed was as follows: V. fischeri > D. magna > C. vulgaris > RTG-2 cell line. The results show that 6-methylcoumarine is not expected to produce acute toxic effects on the aquatic biota. However, chronic and synergistic effects with other chemicals cannot be excluded and should be further investigated.

  18. Characterization of oxidation products of TNT metabolism in aquatic phytoremediation systems of Myriophyllum aquaticum

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, R.; Spanggord, R.J.; Wayment, D.G.; Hughes, J.B.; Shanks, J.V.

    1999-10-01

    TNT transformation processes in sediment-free, natural, aquatic phytoremediation systems of Myriophyllum aquaticum were investigated with specific interest in oxidation products. Extraction procedures combining liquid-liquid extractions and solid-phase extractions were developed for the isolation of the mostly acidic, oxidized TNT metabolites. Six compounds unique from the reduction products of TNT were isolated and characterized by UV-vis, {sup 1}H, and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, by mass spectroscopy, and by chemical synthesis where feasible. These compounds include 2-amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid, 2,4-dinitro-6-hydroxyl-benzyl alcohol, 2-N-acetoxyamino-4,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde, 2,4-dinitro-6,hydroxytoluene, and two binuclear metabolites unique from the customary azoxytetranitrotoluenes. The monoaryl compounds show clear evidence of oxidative transformations, methyl oxidation and/or aromatic hydroxylation. It is possible that oxidative transformation(s) preceded nitro reduction since studies on exposure of M. aquaticum to either 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene or 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene did not yield any of the oxidation products identified here. The accumulation of oxidation products was significant: 2-amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid, 4.4%; 2,4-dinitro-6-hydroxy-benzyl alcohol, 8.1%; 2-N-acetoxyamino-4,6-dinitrobenzaldehyde, 7.8%; and, 2,4-dinitro-6-hydroxytoluene, 15.6%. The binuclear metabolites accounted for an estimated 5.6%. This study is the first direct evidence for oxidative transformations in aquatic phytoremediation systems.

  19. Competition of the natural and mammade biotic cycles in the closed aquatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T.; Somova, L.

    The study addresses the competition of the Paramecium bursaria endosymbiosis and the infusoria Paramecium caudatum in the closed aquatic system. The P. bursaria - zoochlorella endosymbiosis is a natural model of a simple biotic cycle. P. bursaria consumes glucose and oxygen released by zoochlorella in the process of biosynthesis and releases nitrogenous compounds and carbon dioxide necessary for algal photosynthesis. P. caudatum was fed on bacteria. It was shown that populations of infusoria of closely allied species could coexist in a closed aquatic system during 60 days, if two food sources (algae and bacteria) were available. However, the infusoria P. bursaria united in one cycle with Chlorella have a higher competitive ability than P. caudatum. Coexistence occurs in the mixed culture of infusoria whatever their initial proportions. The end portion of P. bursaria amounts to 90 - 95%, which is significantly higher than the end portion of the P. caudatum population. It is assumed that the sustenance expenditures of P. caudatum are greater than those of paramecia in endosymbiosis, i.e. the closing of the components into a biotic cycle leads to a decrease in the sustenance expenditures.

  20. Hydrologic modeling of aquatic plant treatment systems polishing dairy lagoon effluents.

    PubMed

    Cothren, G M; Chen, S; Rahman, M; Malone, R

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of the hydrologic balance of an aquatic plant treatment system (APTS) has been developed. The mass balance approach has been adopted and the major components of the water balance, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET) and percolation have been incorporated into the model. For estimation of ET for duckweed and water hyacinth plants, mathematical relationships were established between ET and pan evaporation using data collected at the site. The observed ET rates of water hyacinths were up to 66% higher than the pan evaporation rates. But for duckweed, the observed ET rates were 10 to 20% lower than the pan evaporation rates. Using the available historic precipitation and pan evaporation data, several computer simulations of the model were run to estimate the HLR and HRT of the ponds under different design requirements. The results indicate that aquatic ponds with water hyacinths can operate at greater HLR's than ponds supporting duckweed. For a zero discharge system, the allowable HLR for a water hyacinth pond was found to be 5 times that of a pond containing duckweed.

  1. Power management system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  2. Persistence of Aquatic Insects across Managed Landscapes: Effects of Landscape Permeability on Re-Colonization and Population Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Galic, Nika; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Van den Brink, Paul J.; Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; Bruns, Eric; Baveco, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    Human practices in managed landscapes may often adversely affect aquatic biota, such as aquatic insects. Dispersal is often the limiting factor for successful re-colonization and recovery of stressed habitats. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the effects of landscape permeability, assuming a combination of riparian vegetation (edge permeability) and other vegetation (landscape matrix permeability), and distance between waterbodies on the colonization and recovery potential of weakly flying insects. For this purpose, we developed two models, a movement and a population model of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, an aquatic insect with weak flying abilities. With the movement model we predicted the outcome of dispersal in a landscape with several linear water bodies (ditches) under different assumptions regarding landscape-dependent movement. Output from the movement model constituted the probabilities of encountering another ditch and of staying in the natal ditch or perishing in the landscape matrix, and was used in the second model. With this individual-based model of midge populations, we assessed the implications for population persistence and for recovery potential after an extreme stress event. We showed that a combination of landscape attributes from the movement model determines the fate of dispersing individuals and, once extrapolated to the population level, has a big impact on the persistence and recovery of populations. Population persistence benefited from low edge permeability as it reduced the dispersal mortality which was the main factor determining population persistence and viability. However, population recovery benefited from higher edge permeability, but this was conditional on the low effective distance that ensured fewer losses in the landscape matrix. We discuss these findings with respect to possible landscape management scenarios. PMID:23365675

  3. Mastering the management system.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2008-01-01

    Companies have always found it hard to balance pressing operational concerns with long-term strategic priorities. The tension is critical: World-class processes won't lead to success without the right strategic direction, and the best strategy in the world will get nowhere without strong operations to execute it. In this article, Kaplan, of Harvard Business School, and Norton, founder and director of the Palladium Group, explain how to effectively manage both strategy and operations by linking them tightly in a closed-loop management system. The system comprises five stages, beginning with strategy development, which springs from a company's mission, vision, and value statements, and from an analysis of its strengths, weaknesses, and competitive environment. In the next stage, managers translate the strategy into objectives and initiatives with strategy maps, which organize objectives by themes, and balanced scorecards, which link objectives to performance metrics. Stage three involves creating an operational plan to accomplish the objectives and initiatives; it includes targeting process improvements and preparing sales, resource, and capacity plans and dynamic budgets. Managers then put plans into action, monitoring their effectiveness in stage four. They review operational, environmental, and competitive data; assess progress; and identify barriers to execution. In the final stage, they test the strategy, analyzing cost, profitability, and correlations between strategy and performance. If their underlying assumptions appear faulty, they update the strategy, beginning another loop. The authors present not only a comprehensive blueprint for successful strategy execution but also a managerial tool kit, illustrated with examples from HSBC Rail, Cigna Property and Casualty, and Store 24. The kit incorporates leading management experts' frameworks, outlining where they fit into the management cycle.

  4. Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in permafrost soils and aquatic systems: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonk, J. E.; Tank, S. E.; Mann, P. J.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Treat, C. C.; Striegl, R. G.; Abbott, B. W.; Wickland, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    As Arctic regions warm and frozen soils thaw, the large organic carbon pool stored in permafrost becomes increasingly vulnerable to decomposition or transport. The transfer of newly mobilized carbon to the atmosphere and its potential influence upon climate change will largely depend on the degradability of carbon delivered to aquatic ecosystems. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a key regulator of aquatic metabolism, yet knowledge of the mechanistic controls on DOC biodegradability is currently poor due to a scarcity of long-term data sets, limited spatial coverage of available data, and methodological diversity. Here, we performed parallel biodegradable DOC (BDOC) experiments at six Arctic sites (16 experiments) using a standardized incubation protocol to examine the effect of methodological differences commonly used in the literature. We also synthesized results from 14 aquatic and soil leachate BDOC studies from across the circum-arctic permafrost region to examine pan-arctic trends in BDOC. An increasing extent of permafrost across the landscape resulted in higher DOC losses in both soil and aquatic systems. We hypothesize that the unique composition of (yedoma) permafrost-derived DOC combined with limited prior microbial processing due to low soil temperature and relatively short flow path lengths and transport times, contributed to a higher overall terrestrial and freshwater DOC loss. Additionally, we found that the fraction of BDOC decreased moving down the fluvial network in continuous permafrost regions, i.e. from streams to large rivers, suggesting that highly biodegradable DOC is lost in headwater streams. We also observed a seasonal (January-December) decrease in BDOC in large streams and rivers, but saw no apparent change in smaller streams or soil leachates. We attribute this seasonal change to a combination of factors including shifts in carbon source, changing DOC residence time related to increasing thaw-depth, increasing water temperatures later

  5. Biodegradability of dissolved organic carbon in permafrost soils and aquatic systems: a meta-analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorien E. Vonk,; Tank, Suzanne E.; Paul J. Mann,; Robert G.M. Spencer,; Treat, Claire C.; Striegl, Robert G.; Benjamin W. Abbott,; Wickland, Kimberly P.

    2015-01-01

    As Arctic regions warm and frozen soils thaw, the large organic carbon pool stored in permafrost becomes increasingly vulnerable to decomposition or transport. The transfer of newly mobilized carbon to the atmosphere and its potential influence upon climate change will largely depend on the degradability of carbon delivered to aquatic ecosystems. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a key regulator of aquatic metabolism, yet knowledge of the mechanistic controls on DOC biodegradability is currently poor due to a scarcity of long-term data sets, limited spatial coverage of available data, and methodological diversity. Here, we performed parallel biodegradable DOC (BDOC) experiments at six Arctic sites (16 experiments) using a standardized incubation protocol to examine the effect of methodological differences commonly used in the literature. We also synthesized results from 14 aquatic and soil leachate BDOC studies from across the circum-arctic permafrost region to examine pan-arctic trends in BDOC.An increasing extent of permafrost across the landscape resulted in higher DOC losses in both soil and aquatic systems. We hypothesize that the unique composition of (yedoma) permafrost-derived DOC combined with limited prior microbial processing due to low soil temperature and relatively short flow path lengths and transport times, contributed to a higher overall terrestrial and freshwater DOC loss. Additionally, we found that the fraction of BDOC decreased moving down the fluvial network in continuous permafrost regions, i.e. from streams to large rivers, suggesting that highly biodegradable DOC is lost in headwater streams. We also observed a seasonal (January–December) decrease in BDOC in large streams and rivers, but saw no apparent change in smaller streams or soil leachates. We attribute this seasonal change to a combination of factors including shifts in carbon source, changing DOC residence time related to increasing thaw-depth, increasing water temperatures later

  6. Training Management Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Rackley, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Training Management Information System (TMIS) is an integrated information system for all training related activities. TMIS is at the leading edge of training information systems used in the nuclear industry. The database contains all the necessary records to confirm the department's adherence to accreditation criteria and houses all test questions, student records and information needed to evaluate the training process. The key to the TMIS system is that the impact of any change (i.e., procedure change, new equipment, safety incident in the commercial nuclear industry, etc.) can be tracked throughout the training process. This ensures the best training can be performed that meets the needs of the employees. TMIS is comprised of six functional areas: Job and Task Analysis, Training Materials Design and Development, Exam Management, Student Records/Scheduling, Evaluation, and Commitment Tracking. The system consists of a VAX 6320 Cluster with IBM and MacIntosh computers tied into an ethernet with the VAX. Other peripherals are also tied into the system: Exam Generation Stations to include mark sense readers for test grading, Production PC's for Desk-Top Publishing of Training Material, and PC Image Workstations. 5 figs.

  7. A guideline management system.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Caffi, Ezio; Boiocchi, Lorenzo; Quaglini, Silvana; Stefanelli, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture of NewGuide, a guide-line management system for handling the whole life cycle of a computerized clinical practice guideline. NewGuide components are organized in a distributed architecture: an editor to formalize guidelines, a repository to store them, an inference engine to implement guidelines instances in a multi-user environment, and a reporting system storing the guidelines logs in order to be able to completely trace any individual physician guideline-based decision process. There is a system "central level" that maintains official versions of the guidelines, and local Healthcare Organizations may download and implement them according to their needs. The architecture has been implemented using the Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) platform. Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) and a set of con-tracts are the key factors for the integration of NewGuide with healthcare legacy systems. They allow maintaining unchanged legacy user interfaces and connecting the system with what-ever electronic patient record. The system functionality will be illustrated in three different contexts: homecare-based pressure ulcer prevention, acute ischemic stroke treatment and heart failure management by general practitioners.

  8. Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    CENTRA 2000 Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Auto-trol technology, obtained permission to use software originally developed at Johnson Space Center for the Space Shuttle and early Space Station projects. To support their enormous information-handling needs, a product data management, electronic document management and work-flow system was designed. Initially, just 33 database tables comprised the original software, which was later expanded to about 100 tables. This system, now called CENTRA 2000, is designed for quick implementation and supports the engineering process from preliminary design through release-to-production. CENTRA 2000 can also handle audit histories and provides a means to ensure new information is distributed. The product has 30 production sites worldwide.

  9. Chemical Management System

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-30

    CMS provides an inventory of all chemicals on order or being held in the laboratory, to provide a specific location for all chemical containers, to ensure that health and safety regulatory codes are being upheld, and to provide PNNL staff with hazardous chemical information to better manage their inventories. CMS is comprised of five major modules: 1) chemical purchasing, 2) chemical inventory, 3) chemical names, properties, and hazard groups, 4) reporting, and 5) system administration.

  10. Management systems research study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, A. V.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a Monte Carlo simulation of procurement activities at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. Data cover: simulation of the procurement cycle, construction of a performance evaluation model, examination of employee development, procedures and review of evaluation criteria for divisional and individual performance evaluation. Determination of the influences and apparent impact of contract type and structure and development of a management control system for planning and controlling manpower requirements.

  11. Aquatic habitat change in the Arkansas river after the development of a lock-and-dam commercial navigation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Minnis, R.B.; Spencer, A.B.; Theel, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    The McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System (MKARNS), completed in 1971, required the construction of 17 locks and dams and associated navigation works to make the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers navigable for barge traffic from the Mississippi River to Catoosa, Oklahoma. We used a Geographic Information System to assess habitat changes in the 477-km portion of this system within Arkansas from 1973 to 1999. Total aquatic area declined by 9% from 42 404 to 38 655 ha. Aquatic habitat losses were 1-17% among pools. Greatest habitat losses occurred in diked secondary channels (former secondary channels with flow reduced by rock dikes) and backwaters adjacent to the main channel. Most of the area of dike pools (aquatic habitat downstream of rock dikes), diked secondary channels and adjacent backwaters were <0.9 m deep. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Metrics of ecosystem status for large aquatic systems: a global comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dobiesz, N.E.; Hecky, R.E.; Johnson, T.B.; Sarvala, J.; Dettmers, J.M.; Lehtiniemi, M.; Rudstam, L. G.; Madenjian, C.P.; Witte, F.

    2010-01-01

    We identified an objective set of 25 commonly available ecosystem metrics applicable across the world's large continental freshwater and brackish aquatic ecosystem. These metrics measure trophic structure, exploited species, habitat alteration, and catchment changes. We used long-term trends in these metrics as indicators of perturbations that represent an ecosystem not in homeostasis. We defined a healthy ecosystem as being in a homeostatic state; therefore, ecosystems with many changing trends were defined as more disturbed than ecosystems with fewer changing trends. Healthy ecosystems (lakes Baikal, Superior, and Tanganyika) were large, deep lakes in relatively unpopulated areas with no signs of eutrophication and no changes to their trophic structure. Disturbed ecosystems (lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Victoria) had shallow to moderately deep basins with high watershed population pressure and intense agricultural and residential land use. Transitioning systems had widely varying trends and faced increasing anthropogenic pressures. Standardized methodologies for capturing data could improve our understanding of the current state of these ecosystems and allow for comparisons of the response of large aquatic ecosystems to local and global stressors thereby providing more reliable insights into future changes in ecosystem health.

  13. A generic, process-based model of microbial pollution in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Antenucci, Jason P.; Brookes, Justin D.

    2008-07-01

    Based on a comprehensive synthesis of data available within the literature, a new process-based model of microbial pollution is presented, which is applicable for surface and coastal waters. The model is based on a generic set of parameterisations that describe the dynamics of most protozoan, bacterial and viral organisms of interest, including pathogens and microbial indicator organisms. The parameterisations dynamically account for the effects of temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, sunlight, nutrients and turbidity on the growth and mortality of enteric organisms. Parameters for a range of organisms are also presented which are based on collation of literature data. The model has been implemented within an aquatic ecology model, Computational Aquatic Ecosystem Dynamics Model (CAEDYM), which can couple to multidimensional hydrodynamic models. Without adjustment of the literature derived parameter values, a 3-D implementation is validated against observed data from three freshwater systems that differ in their climatic zone, trophic status and operation. The simulations highlight the spatial and temporal variability that may be encountered by operators. Additionally, large differences in the fate and distribution of different species originate from variable rates of growth, mortality and sedimentation and it is emphasized that the use of surrogates for quantifying risk is problematic. The model can be used to help design targeted monitoring programs, explore differences between species, and to support real-time decision-making. Areas where insufficient understanding and data exist are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of confocal laser scanning microscopy for enumeration of virus-like particles in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Peduzzi, Peter; Agis, Martin; Luef, Birgit

    2013-07-01

    Abundances of virus-like particles (VLPs, mostly bacteriophages) are high in aquatic environments; therefore, techniques for precise enumeration are essential in ecological monitoring. VLPs were determined after staining with SYBR Gold by conventional epifluorescence microscopy and compared to enumerations performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In order to assess the potential of CLSM for viral direct counts (VDCs), we processed samples from different freshwater and marine systems. Optical sectioning by CLSM and production of an overlay picture of multiple scans enables the often uneven whole investigated filter area to be brought to the plane of focus. This allows for subsequent image analysis of digitally created high-quality images. Another advantage using the CLSM was that the short spot excitation of the stain via laser beam minimized fading of the stain. The VDC results show that there is no significant difference between the two methods. Regarding the known difficulties of viral abundance estimates on particulate material, CLSM was further applied to enumerate VLPs on a small set of marine transparent exopolymeric particles sampled from the Atlantic Ocean. Our data suggest that CLSM is a useful tool to count viruses in water samples as well as attached to certain types of aquatic aggregates.

  15. Multiplication of the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum in an aquatic biofilm system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In natural aquatic environments biofilms are known to act as environmental reservoirs for Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. However, the fate of these oocysts within biofilms has yet to be determined. Methods This study aimed to identify if biofilms have the ability to support the multiplication of Cryptosporidium by measuring the change in parasite number over time using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and detecting the possible extracellular developmental stages using a combination of confocal microscopy and immunolabelling techniques. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm flow cell systems were established and C. parvum oocysts were constantly supplied over a six day period. Results A significant (P < 0.001) increase in Cryptosporidium was detected as the biofilm matured, with the total number of C. parvum multiplying 2–3 fold during this period. With this, various Cryptosporidium developmental stages (sporozoites, trophozoites, type I and II meronts) were identified from the biofilm. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating that biofilms not only serve as an environmental reservoir for oocysts, but are also capable of supporting the multiplication of Cryptosporidium over time in an aquatic environment. PMID:24330483

  16. Aeshnid dragonfly larvae as bioindicators of methylmercury contamination in aquatic systems impacted by elevated sulfate loading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeremiason, Jeffrey D.; Reiser, T. K.; Weitz, R. A.; Berndt, M.E.; Aiken, George R.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) levels in dragonfly larvae and water were measured over two years in aquatic systems impacted to varying degrees by sulfate releases related to iron mining activity. This study examined the impact of elevated sulfate loads on MeHg concentrations and tested the use of MeHg in dragonfly larvae as an indicator of MeHg levels in a range of aquatic systems including 16 river/stream sites and two lakes. MeHg concentrations in aeshnid dragonfly larvae were positively correlated (R2 = 0.46, p < 0.01) to peak MeHg concentrations in the dissolved phase for the combined years of 2012 and 2013. This relation was strong in 2012 (R2 = 0.85, p < 0.01), but showed no correlation in 2013 (R2 = 0.02, p > 0.05). MeHg in dragonfly larvae were not elevated at the highest sulfate sites, but rather the reverse was generally observed. Record rainfall events in 2012 and above average rainfall in 2013 likely delivered the majority of Hg and MeHg to these systems via interflow and activated groundwater flow through reduced sediments. As a result, the impacts of elevated sulfate releases due to mining activities were not apparent in these systems where little of the sulfate is reduced. Lower bioaccumulation factors for MeHg in aeshnid dragonfly larvae were observed with increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. This finding is consistent with previous studies showing that MeHg in high DOC systems is less bioavailable; an equilibrium model shows that more MeHg being associated with DOC rather than algae at the base of the food chain readily explains the lower bioaccumulation factors.

  17. Oxygen isotopes as a tracer of phosphate sources and cycling in aquatic systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. B.; Kendall, C.; Paytan, A.

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate can provide valuable information about sources and processes affecting phosphorus as it moves through hydrologic systems. Applications of this technique in soil and water have become more common in recent years due to improvements in extraction methods and instrument capabilities, and studies in multiple aquatic environments have demonstrated that some phosphorus sources may have distinct isotopic compositions within a given system. Under normal environmental conditions, the oxygen-phosphorus bonds in dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) can only be broken by enzymatic activity. Biological cycling of DIP will bring the phosphate oxygen into a temperature-dependent equilibrium with the surrounding water, overprinting any existing isotopic source signals. However, studies conducted in a wide range of estuarine, freshwater, and groundwater systems have found that the phosphate oxygen is often out of biological equilibrium with the water, suggesting that it is common for at least a partial isotopic source signal to be retained in aquatic systems. Oxygen isotope analysis on various potential phosphate sources such as synthetic and organic fertilizers, animal waste, detergents, and septic/wastewater treatment plant effluents show that these sources span a wide range of isotopic compositions, and although there is considerable overlap between the source groups, sources may be isotopically distinct within a given study area. Recent soil studies have shown that isotopic analysis of phosphate oxygen is also useful for understanding microbial cycling across different phosphorus pools, and may provide insights into controls on phosphorus leaching. Combining stable isotope information from soil and water studies will greatly improve our understanding of complex phosphate cycling, and the increasing use of this isotopic technique across different environments will provide new information regarding anthropogenic phosphate inputs and

  18. Aeshnid dragonfly larvae as bioindicators of methylmercury contamination in aquatic systems impacted by elevated sulfate loading.

    PubMed

    Jeremiason, J D; Reiser, T K; Weitz, R A; Berndt, M E; Aiken, G R

    2016-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) levels in dragonfly larvae and water were measured over two years in aquatic systems impacted to varying degrees by sulfate releases related to iron mining activity. This study examined the impact of elevated sulfate loads on MeHg concentrations and tested the use of MeHg in dragonfly larvae as an indicator of MeHg levels in a range of aquatic systems including 16 river/stream sites and two lakes. MeHg concentrations in aeshnid dragonfly larvae were positively correlated (R(2) = 0.46, p < 0.01) to peak MeHg concentrations in the dissolved phase for the combined years of 2012 and 2013. This relation was strong in 2012 (R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.01), but showed no correlation in 2013 (R(2) = 0.02, p > 0.05). MeHg in dragonfly larvae were not elevated at the highest sulfate sites, but rather the reverse was generally observed. Record rainfall events in 2012 and above average rainfall in 2013 likely delivered the majority of Hg and MeHg to these systems via interflow and activated groundwater flow through reduced sediments. As a result, the impacts of elevated sulfate releases due to mining activities were not apparent in these systems where little of the sulfate is reduced. Lower bioaccumulation factors for MeHg in aeshnid dragonfly larvae were observed with increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. This finding is consistent with previous studies showing that MeHg in high DOC systems is less bioavailable; an equilibrium model shows that more MeHg being associated with DOC rather than algae at the base of the food chain readily explains the lower bioaccumulation factors.

  19. Aquatic Ecosystem Services in the 21st Century Northeast Corridor: Assessment Using a Regional Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Miara, A.; Stewart, R. J.; Wollheim, W. M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of the Northeast United States will be significantly impacted by both global climate change and the regional-scale strategic management decisions made in the next few years. We have developed a Regional Earth System Model for the Northeast Corridor (NE-RESM) that simulates the impacts of climate, land use, and development policy on the interacting cycles of energy, water, carbon and nutrients. The NE-RESM will provide a unique and critically needed tool for policymakers to understand how their current decisions will impact ecosystem services over the 21st Century. To test our modeling framework, we conducted a retrospective experiment focusing on the water-energy-economy nexus during the period 2000-2010. Component models were developed to 'translate' physical outputs from the NE-RESM - such as stream discharge and water temperature - into ecosystem services including water regulation for thermoelectric cooling and the ability for streams to serve as a refugia for wildlife. Simulations were performed both with and without Clean Water Act limits on thermal pollution. Through this work, we were able to obtain spatially distributed information on how these laws impact power generation by the thermoelectric sector but also enable Northeast streams to serve as habitat for temperature-sensitive aquatic species (Brook Trout, Atlantic Salmon, River Herring and the American Eel). Our ongoing research examines future climate and policy scenarios through 2100. We are considering the impact of changing land cover patterns (a return to agriculture vs. suburban sprawl) and various strategies to meet energy and municipal water needs under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5).

  20. Resources Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Delta Data Systems, Inc. was originally formed by NASA and industry engineers to produce a line of products that evolved from ELAS, a NASA-developed computer program. The company has built on that experience, using ELAS as the basis for other remote sensing products. One of these is AGIS, a computer package for geographic and land information systems. AGIS simultaneously processes remotely sensed and map data. The software is designed to operate on a low cost microcomputer, putting resource management tools within reach of small operators.

  1. Competition of the natural and manmade biotic cycles in the closed aquatic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T. I.; Somova, L. A.

    This study addresses competition between the Paramecium bursaria and zooch lorella - endosymbiosis and the infusoria Paramecium caudatum in a closed aquatic system. The system is a natural model of a simple biotic cycle. P. bursaria consumes glucose and oxygen released by its zoochlorella and releases nitrogenous compounds and carbon dioxide necessary for algal photosynthesis. P. caudatum was fed on bacteria. It was shown that the infusoria P. bursaria united in one cycle with Chlorella had a higher competitive ability than P. caudatum. With any initial percentage of the infusoria in the mixed culture, the end portion of P. bursaria reached 90 - 99%, which was significantly higher than the end potion of the P. caudatum population. It is assumed that the sustenance expenditures of P. caudatum were greater than those of the endosymbiotic paramecium, i.e. the closing of the components into a biotic cycle leads to a decrease in sustenance expenditures.

  2. A digital underwater video camera system for aquatic research in regulated rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Benjamin M.; Irwin, Elise R.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a digital underwater video camera system to monitor nesting centrarchid behavior in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, 20 km below a peaking hydropower dam with a highly variable flow regime. Major components of the system included a digital video recorder, multiple underwater cameras, and specially fabricated substrate stakes. The innovative design of the substrate stakes allowed us to effectively observe nesting redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus in a highly regulated river. Substrate stakes, which were constructed for the specific substratum complex (i.e., sand, gravel, and cobble) identified at our study site, were able to withstand a discharge level of approximately 300 m3/s and allowed us to simultaneously record 10 active nests before and during water releases from the dam. We believe our technique will be valuable for other researchers that work in regulated rivers to quantify behavior of aquatic fauna in response to a discharge disturbance.

  3. Ultrastructural and growth indices of chlorella culture in multicomponent aquatic systems under space flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. F.; Sytnik, K. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Meleshko, G. I.; Sychev, V. N.; Levinskykh, M. A.

    Submicroscopic organization of Chlorella cells cultivated under space flight conditions in three-component aquatic system has been studied. Comparison of the experimental cells with that of the controls revealed certain rearrangements of cell organelles particularly, a reduction in the amount of reserve polysaccharides in chloroplasts, increase of cell vacuolization and mitochondrion volume, complication configuration of plasmalemma evaginations and invaginations, and also disturbances in the process of cytokinesis. More over an increase in the number of Chlorella cells infected by bacteria was shown in the experimental variant. No considerable differences were established in the growth characteristics of the experimental and control populations. A comparative cytological analysis revealed general regularities of organelles in Chlorella cells cultivated under space flight condition in the uni- and multicomponent systems.

  4. Heavy Metals and Biogenic Elements in Aquatic Systems of the Don River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Anna; Tkachenko, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    River deltas are located in the lower parts of the cascade landscape-geochemical systems of the river basins, so their geochemical conditions often characterize the anthropogenic impact on whole river system. The Don River runs through the one of the most agriculturally developed and densely populated area of Russia, and flows into the Azov Sea - the smallest and shallowest sea in the world. These factors determine the geochemical features of aquatic systems of the Don River mouth area and the specificity of the "river-sea" geochemical barrier zone. The paper presents results of the field studies of the geochemical structure of the Don River mouth area, which were conducted in frames of the RFBR project in 2012-2013. Major types of the deltaic water streams and bodies were studied in different hydrological seasons: spring floods, summer, autumn and winter low water periods. About 50 samples of water, suspended matter and 60 samples of bottom sediments have been collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Cr, Cd etc.) and biogenic elements (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphates, silica, total nitrogen and phosphorus, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll) content. To assess the toxicity degree and nutrient potential of water, bioassay test conducted by growing daphnia in water samples were held. The study shows that the Don River delta water is characterized by the relatively low values of dissolved heavy metal content. Significantly higher values of heavy metals were determined in the vicinity of settlements only. Metal accumulation in bottom sediments can be associated mainly with the rate of water flow. Higher values were found in sediments of small channels with weak flow velocity and prevailing processes of the suspended matter deposition. The data on the seasonal dynamics of nutrients and spatial variability of their forms have been obtained. The maximum concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and other biogenic elements are

  5. Temporal Changes in Photochemically Labile DOM and Implications for Carbon Budgets in Peatland Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic systems in peatland catchments are subject to high loading of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from surrounding terrestrial environments. However the significance of photochemical transformation of DOM in peatland carbon budgets remains poorly constrained. In this study UV irradiation experiments were conducted on water samples collected over one year from two contrasting systems in Scotland: a stream draining a peatland with high levels of DOM and a reservoir draining a peat catchment with low levels of DOM. Further samples were collected from the high DOM system during two storm events. After experimental exposure, optical and chemical analyses were employed to determine photochemical lability of the DOM pool. At both sites irradiation-induced decreases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a percentage of the total carbon pool were greatest in winter, suggesting that DOM was depleted in photo-reactive molecules in summer. Seasonal variability in DOC was high at the stream site and was positively correlated with CO₂ and CO photoproduction (r2 = 0.81 and 0.83, respectively; p<0.05). Lignin phenol analyses indicate considerable contribution of peat to the DOM pool at the stream site, particularly during summer. Whilst DOC concentrations did not vary greatly during storm events, UV-Vis absorbance indicators did, signifying changing DOM source material from activation of different hydrological pathways. The most photo-reactive DOM occurred 5-10 hours after peak discharge, suggesting that storms replenish photochemically labile DOM in headwater streams. Conservative estimates using data from this study suggest that up to 7% of the DOM pool of peatland streams can be lost (primarily as CO₂ and CO) upon exposure to 8 hours of environmentally representative UV irradiation. Further investigation in field campaigns under natural UV exposure are underway to assess the importance of photodegradation of DOM as a loss pathway of carbon based gases from aquatic systems.

  6. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 2. First Year Poststocking Results. Volume III. The Plankton and Benthos of Lake Conway, Florida,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    several exotic plant species. These include waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Florida elodea (Hydrilla verticillata), and Eurasian watermilfoil...LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONSm o .. MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE OFI . THE WHITE AMUR FOR CONTROL OF PROBLEM AQUATIC PLANTS . Report 2 FIRST YEAR POSTSTOCKING RESULTS...OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE OF THE WHITE AMUR FOR CONTROL OF PROBLEM AQUATIC PLANTS Report I: Baseline Studies Volume I: The Aquatic Macropyes of

  7. A spatial classification and database for management, research, and policy making: The Great Lakes aquatic habitat framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Lizhu; Riseng, Catherine M.; Mason, Lacey; Werhrly, Kevin; Rutherford, Edward; McKenna, James E.; Castiglione, Chris; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Infante, Dana M.; Sowa, Scott P.; Robertson, Mike; Schaeffer, Jeff; Khoury, Mary; Gaiot, John; Hollenhurst, Tom; Brooks, Colin N.; Coscarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Managing the world's largest and most complex freshwater ecosystem, the Laurentian Great Lakes, requires a spatially hierarchical basin-wide database of ecological and socioeconomic information that is comparable across the region. To meet such a need, we developed a spatial classification framework and database — Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat Framework (GLAHF). GLAHF consists of catchments, coastal terrestrial, coastal margin, nearshore, and offshore zones that encompass the entire Great Lakes Basin. The catchments captured in the database as river pour points or coastline segments are attributed with data known to influence physicochemical and biological characteristics of the lakes from the catchments. The coastal terrestrial zone consists of 30-m grid cells attributed with data from the terrestrial region that has direct connection with the lakes. The coastal margin and nearshore zones consist of 30-m grid cells attributed with data describing the coastline conditions, coastal human disturbances, and moderately to highly variable physicochemical and biological characteristics. The offshore zone consists of 1.8-km grid cells attributed with data that are spatially less variable compared with the other aquatic zones. These spatial classification zones and their associated data are nested within lake sub-basins and political boundaries and allow the synthesis of information from grid cells to classification zones, within and among political boundaries, lake sub-basins, Great Lakes, or within the entire Great Lakes Basin. This spatially structured database could help the development of basin-wide management plans, prioritize locations for funding and specific management actions, track protection and restoration progress, and conduct research for science-based decision making.

  8. Semantische Content Management Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, Erich; Mitterdorfer, Daniel

    Content Management Systeme (CMS) sind in vielen Organisationen bereits seit längerer Zeit fester Bestandteil zur Verwaltung und kollaborativen Bearbeitung von Text- und Multimedia-Inhalten. Im Zuge der rasch ansteigenden Fülle an Informationen und somit auch Wissen wird die Überschaubarkeit der Datenbestände jedoch massiv eingeschränkt. Diese und zusätzliche Anforderungen, wie automatisch Datenquellen aus dem World Wide Web (WWW) zu extrahieren, lassen traditionelle CMS immer mehr an ihre Grenzen stoßen. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert die neuen Herausforderungen an traditionelle CMS und bietet Lösungsvorschläge, wie CMS kombiniert mit semantischen Technologien diesen Herausforderungen begegnen können. Die Autoren stellen eine generische Systemarchitektur für Content Management Systeme vor, die einerseits Inhalte für das Semantic Web generieren, andererseits Content aus dem Web 2.0 syndizieren können und bei der Aufbereitung des Content den User mittels semantischer Technologien wie Reasoning oder Informationsextraktion unterstützen. Dabei wird auf Erfahrungen bei der prototypischen Implementierung von semantischer Technologie in ein bestehendes CMS System zurückgegriffen.

  9. Using a holistic approach to assess the impact of engineered nanomaterials inducing toxicity in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaojia; Aker, Winfred G; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Hwang, Huey-Min

    2014-03-01

    In this report, we critically reviewed selected intrinsic physicochemical properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and their role in the interaction of the ENMs with the immediate surroundings in representative aquatic environments. The behavior of ENMs with respect to dynamic microenvironments at the nano-bio-eco interface level, and the resulting impact on their toxicity, fate, and exposure potential are elaborated. Based on this literature review, we conclude that a holistic approach is urgently needed to fulfill our knowledge gap regarding the safety of discharged ENMs. This comparative approach affords the capability to recognize and understand the potential hazards of ENMs and their toxicity mechanisms, and ultimately to establish a quantitative and reliable system to predict such outcomes.

  10. Potential Effects of Climate Changes on Aquatic Systems: Laurentian Great Lakes and Precambrian Shield Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuson, J. J.; Webster, K. E.; Assel, R. A.; Bowser, C. J.; Dillon, P. J.; Eaton, J. G.; Evans, H. E.; Fee, E. J.; Hall, R. I.; Mortsch, L. R.; Schindler, D. W.; Quinn, F. H.

    1997-06-01

    increase but many complex reactions of the phytoplankton community to altered temperatures, thermocline depths, light penetrations and nutrient inputs would be expected. Zooplankton biomass would increase, but, again, many complex interactions are expected.Generally, the thermal habitat for warm-, cool- and even cold-water fishes would increase in size in deep stratified lakes, but would decrease in shallow unstratified lakes and in streams. Less dissolved oxygen below the thermocline of lakes would further degrade stratified lakes for cold water fishes. Growth and production would increase for fishes that are now in thermal environments cooler than their optimum but decrease for those that are at or above their optimum, provided they cannot move to a deeper or headwater thermal refuge. The zoogeographical boundary for fish species could move north by 500-600 km; invasions of warmer water fishes and extirpations of colder water fishes should increase. Aquatic ecosystems across the region do not necessarily exhibit coherent responses to climate changes and variability, even if they are in close proximity. Lakes, wetlands and streams respond differently, as do lakes of different depth or productivity. Differences in hydrology and the position in the hydrological flow system, in terrestrial vegetation and land use, in base climates and in the aquatic biota can all cause different responses. Climate change effects interact strongly with effects of other human-caused stresses such as eutrophication, acid precipitation, toxic chemicals and the spread of exotic organisms. Aquatic ecological systems in the region are sensitive to climate change and variation. Assessments of these potential effects are in an early stage and contain many uncertainties in the models and properties of aquatic ecological systems and of the climate system.

  11. Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, Christopher J.; McGillis, Wade R.; Raymond, Peter A.; Edson, James B.; Hintsa, Eric J.; Zemmelink, Hendrik J.; Dacey, John W. H.; Ho, David T.

    2007-05-01

    Air-water gas transfer influences CO2 and other climatically important trace gas fluxes on regional and global scales, yet the magnitude of the transfer is not well known. Widely used models of gas exchange rates are based on empirical relationships linked to wind speed, even though physical processes other than wind are known to play important roles. Here the first field investigations are described supporting a new mechanistic model based on surface water turbulence that predicts gas exchange for a range of aquatic and marine processes. Findings indicate that the gas transfer rate varies linearly with the turbulent dissipation rate to the ${^1}\\!/{_4 power in a range of systems with different types of forcing - in the coastal ocean, in a macro-tidal river estuary, in a large tidal freshwater river, and in a model (i.e., artificial) ocean. These results have important implications for understanding carbon cycling.

  12. MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Management Information System being developed for the Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The work is being done at the suggestion of Academician V. M. Glushkov under the leadership of Candidate of Physico-Mathematical Sciences A. A. Stognii. Projects reports prepared in various departments of the Institute of Cybernetics in 1963-64 were used in writing this paper. Among them, the works of V. N. Afanas’ev, V. G Bodnarchuk, E. F. Skorokhod’ko, and V. I. Shurikhin should be mentioned. A great deal of factural

  13. Environmental management system.

    SciTech Connect

    Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System (EMS) is identification of environmental consequences from SNL/NM activities, products, and/or services to develop objectives and measurable targets for mitigation of any potential impacts to the environment. This Source Document discusses the annual EMS process for analysis of environmental aspects and impacts and also provides the fiscal year (FY) 2010 analysis. Further information on the EMS structure, processes, and procedures are described within the programmatic EMS Manual (PG470222).

  14. TGSS products management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantharia, N. G.; Teli, S.; Gonjari, T.; Sirothia, S. K.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Gopal-Krishna

    A comprehensive data products management system to handle the products emerging from the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey has been developed. TPMS, as it is referred to allows viewing of field images and catalogues, running data quality checks and generating field-level and release-level statistics. It has also been programmed to generate a quality flag for each TGSS field based on several pre-defined tests thus automating and speeding up data quality checks. TPMS has been used for TGSS DR5.

  15. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló Cullerés, Damià; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Water and water-related services are major components of the human wellbeing, and as such are major factors of socio-economic development in Europe; yet freshwater systems are under threat by a variety of stressors (organic and inorganic pollution, geomorphological alterations, land cover change, water abstraction, invasive species and pathogens. Some stressors, such as water scarcity, can be a stressor on its own because of its structural character, and drive the effects of other stressors. The relevance of water scarcity as a stressor is more important in semi-arid regions, such as the Mediterranean basin, which are characterized by highly variable river flows and the occurrence of low flows. This has resulted in increases in frequency and magnitude of extreme flow events. Furthermore, in other European regions such as eastern Germany, western Poland and England, water demand exceeds water availability and water scarcity has become an important management issue. Water scarcity is most commonly associated with inappropriate water management, with resulting river flow reductions. It has become one of the most important drivers of change in freshwater ecosystems. Conjoint occurrence of a myriad of stressors (chemical, geomorphological, biological) under water scarcity will produce novel and unfamiliar synergies and most likely very pronounced effects. Within this context, GLOBAQUA has assembled a multidisciplinary team of leading scientists in the fields of hydrology, chemistry, ecology, ecotoxicology, economy, sociology, engineering and modeling in order to study the interaction of multiple stressors within the frame of strong pressure on water resources. The aim is to achieve a better understanding how current management practices and policies could be improved by identifying the main drawbacks and alternatives.

  16. Virus-bacterium interactions in water and sediment of West African inland aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvy, Marc; Dumont, Claire; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2006-08-01

    The ecology of virioplankton in tropical aquatic ecosystems is poorly documented, and in particular, there are no references concerning African continental waters in the literature. In this study, we examined virus-bacterium interactions in the pelagic and benthic zones of seven contrasting shallow inland waters in Senegal, including one hypersaline lake. SYBR Gold-stained samples revealed that in the surface layers of the sites, the numbers of viruses were in the same range as the numbers of viruses reported previously for productive temperate systems. Despite high bacterial production rates, the percentages of visibly infected cells (as determined by transmission electron microscopy) were similar to the lowest percentages (range, 0.3 to 1.1%; mean, 0.5%) found previously at pelagic freshwater or marine sites, presumably because of the local environmental and climatic conditions. Since the percentages of lysogenic bacteria were consistently less than 8% for pelagic and benthic samples, lysogeny did not appear to be a dominant strategy for virus propagation at these sites. In the benthic samples, viruses were highly concentrated, but paradoxically, no bacteria were visibly infected. This suggests that sediment provides good conditions for virus preservation but ironically is an unfavorable environment for proliferation. In addition, given the comparable size distributions of viruses in the water and sediment samples, our results support the paradigm that aquatic viruses are ubiquitous and may have moved between the two compartments of the shallow systems examined. Overall, this study provides additional information about the relevance of viruses in tropical areas and indicates that the intensity of virus-bacterium interactions in benthic habitats may lower than the intensity in the adjacent bodies of water.

  17. Virus-Bacterium Interactions in Water and Sediment of West African Inland Aquatic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bettarel, Yvan; Bouvy, Marc; Dumont, Claire; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore

    2006-01-01

    The ecology of virioplankton in tropical aquatic ecosystems is poorly documented, and in particular, there are no references concerning African continental waters in the literature. In this study, we examined virus-bacterium interactions in the pelagic and benthic zones of seven contrasting shallow inland waters in Senegal, including one hypersaline lake. SYBR Gold-stained samples revealed that in the surface layers of the sites, the numbers of viruses were in the same range as the numbers of viruses reported previously for productive temperate systems. Despite high bacterial production rates, the percentages of visibly infected cells (as determined by transmission electron microscopy) were similar to the lowest percentages (range, 0.3 to 1.1%; mean, 0.5%) found previously at pelagic freshwater or marine sites, presumably because of the local environmental and climatic conditions. Since the percentages of lysogenic bacteria were consistently less than 8% for pelagic and benthic samples, lysogeny did not appear to be a dominant strategy for virus propagation at these sites. In the benthic samples, viruses were highly concentrated, but paradoxically, no bacteria were visibly infected. This suggests that sediment provides good conditions for virus preservation but ironically is an unfavorable environment for proliferation. In addition, given the comparable size distributions of viruses in the water and sediment samples, our results support the paradigm that aquatic viruses are ubiquitous and may have moved between the two compartments of the shallow systems examined. Overall, this study provides additional information about the relevance of viruses in tropical areas and indicates that the intensity of virus-bacterium interactions in benthic habitats may lower than the intensity in the adjacent bodies of water. PMID:16885276

  18. Integrated fuel management system

    SciTech Connect

    Barbeau, D.E.

    1987-09-29

    An aircraft fuel management system to regulate fuel from an airframe reservoir is described. The system comprises: an aircraft turbine engine having a combustor providing propulsion for the aircraft; a fuel pump receiving fuel from the reservoir and supplying fuel to the turbine engine; a motor controlling the pump so as to provide fuel to the turbine engine; means for sensing at least one engine condition; means responsive to the sensing means for controlling fuel flow to the turbine engine, and wherein the pump and the motor are of the constant speed type and further comprising valve means for controlling the fuel flow rate to the turbine engine and wherein the controlling means modulates the position of the valve means.

  19. Discrepancy Reporting Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tonja M.; Lin, James C.; Chatillon, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) is a computer program designed for use in the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to help establish the operational history of equipment items; acquire data on the quality of service provided to DSN customers; enable measurement of service performance; provide early insight into the need to improve processes, procedures, and interfaces; and enable the tracing of a data outage to a change in software or hardware. DRMS is a Web-based software system designed to include a distributed database and replication feature to achieve location-specific autonomy while maintaining a consistent high quality of data. DRMS incorporates commercial Web and database software. DRMS collects, processes, replicates, communicates, and manages information on spacecraft data discrepancies, equipment resets, and physical equipment status, and maintains an internal station log. All discrepancy reports (DRs), Master discrepancy reports (MDRs), and Reset data are replicated to a master server at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Master DR data are replicated to all the DSN sites; and Station Logs are internal to each of the DSN sites and are not replicated. Data are validated according to several logical mathematical criteria. Queries can be performed on any combination of data.

  20. Heavy metal pollution induced due to coal mining effluent on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and its management through naturally occurring aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Upadhyaya, Alka Rani; Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-03-01

    Three aquatic plants Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhhiza were used in laboratory for the removal of heavy metals from the coal mining effluent. Plants were grown singly as well as in combination during 21 days phytoremediation experiment. Results revealed that combination of E. crassipes and L. minor was the most efficient for the removal of heavy metals while E. crassipes was the most efficient in monoculture. Significant correlations between metal concentration in final water and macrophytes were obtained. Translocation factor i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of aquatic macrophytes. Analytical results showed that plant roots have accumulated heavy metals approximately 10 times of its initial concentration. These plants were also subjected to toxicity assessment and no symptom of metal toxicity was found therefore, this method can be applied on the large scale treatment of waste water where volumes generated are very high and concentrations of pollutants are low.

  1. The potential environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in Vietnamese aquatic systems: case study of antibiotics and synthetic hormones.

    PubMed

    Thanh Thuy, Hoang Thi; Nguyen, Tuan Dinh

    2013-11-01

    Presently, many pharmaceuticals are listed as emerging contaminants since they are considered to be great potential threats to environmental ecosystems. These contaminants, thus, present significant research interest due to their extensive use and their physicochemical and toxicological properties. This review discusses a whole range of findings that address various aspects of the usage, occurrence, and potentially environmental risks of pharmaceuticals released from various anthropogenic sources, with emphasis on the aquatic systems in Vietnam. The published information and collected data on the usage and occurrence of antibiotics and synthetic hormone in effluents and aquatic systems of Vietnam is reported. This is followed by a potential ecological risk assessment of these pollutants. The extensive use of antibiotics and synthetic hormones in Vietnam could cause the discharge and accumulation of these contaminants in the aquatic systems and potentially poses serious risks for ecosystems. Vietnam is known to have extensively used antibiotics and synthetic hormones, so these contaminants are inevitably detected in aquatic systems. Thus, an appropriate monitoring program of these contaminants is urgently needed in order to mitigate their negative effects and protect the ecosystems.

  2. Caffeine and paraxanthine in aquatic systems: Global exposure distributions and probabilistic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gil, J L; Cáceres, N; Dafouz, R; Valcárcel, Y

    2017-09-06

    This study presents one of the most complete applications of probabilistic methodologies to the risk assessment of emerging contaminants. Perhaps the most data-rich of these compounds, caffeine, as well as its main metabolite (paraxanthine), were selected for this study. Information for a total of 29,132 individual caffeine and 7442 paraxanthine samples was compiled, including samples where the compounds were not detected. The inclusion of non-detect samples (as censored data) in the estimation of environmental exposure distributions (EEDs) allowed for a realistic characterization of the global presence of these compounds in aquatic systems. EEDs were compared to species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), when possible, in order to calculate joint probability curves (JPCs) to describe the risk to aquatic organisms. This way, it was determined that unacceptable environmental risk (defined as 5% of the species being potentially exposed to concentrations able to cause effects in>5% of the cases) could be expected from chronic exposure to caffeine from effluent (28.4% of the cases), surface water (6.7% of the cases) and estuary water (5.4% of the cases). Probability of exceedance of acute predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for paraxanthine were higher than 5% for all assessed matrices except for drinking water and ground water, however no experimental effects data was available for paraxanthine, resulting in a precautionary deterministic hazard assessment for this compound. Given the chemical similarities between both compounds, real effect thresholds, and thus risk, for paraxanthine, would be expected to be close to those observed for caffeine. Negligible Human health risk from exposure to caffeine via drinking or groundwater is expected from the compiled data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Virginia's traffic management system

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.; Marber, S. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that Northern Virginia, like most other urban areas, faces the challenge of moving more and more vehicles on roads that are already overloaded. Traffic in Northern Virginia is continually increasing, but the development surrounding Interstate 395, 495, and 66 makes little room available for roadway expansion. Even if land were unlimited, the strict requirement of the Clean Air Act make building roads difficult. This paper reports that ensuring the most efficient use of the interstate highways is the goal of the Virginia Department of Transportation's (VDOT's) traffic management system (TMS). TMS is a computerized highway surveillance and control system that monitors 30 interstate miles on I-395, I-495, and I-66. The system helps squeeze the most use from these interstates by detecting and helping clear accidents or disabled vehicles and by smoothing traffic flow. TMS spots and helps clear an average of two incidents a day and prevents accidents caused by erratic traffic flow from ramps onto the main line. For motorists, these TMS functions translate into decreased travel time, vehicle operating costs, and air pollution. VDOT's TMS is the foundation for the intelligent vehicle-highway systems of tomorrow. It employs several elements that work together to improve traffic flow.

  4. Designing and using phenological studies to define management strategies for aquatic plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scientists and managers alike have recognized that weed management activities in the past were timed more for the convenience of the applicator or response of the resource manager than in consideration of the biology of the target plant. A thorough understanding of the life history and phenology of...

  5. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin Project management. Technical quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, J.; Ide, C.F.; O`Connor, S.

    1996-08-01

    This quarterly report summarizes accomplishments for the Project examining hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Among the many research areas summarized are the following: assessment of mechanisms of metal-induced reproductive toxicity in aquatic species as a biomarker of exposure; hazardous wastes in aquatic environment;ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River System; remediation of selected contaminants; rapid on-site immunassay for heavy metal contamination; molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity induced by retinoids and retinoid-like molecules; resuseable synthetic membranes for the removal of aromatic and halogenated organic pollutants from waste water; Effects of steroid receptor activation in neurendocrine cell of the mammalian hypothalamus; modeling and assessment of environmental quality of louisiana bayous and swamps; enhancement of environmental education. The report also contains a summary of publications resulting from this project and an appendix with analytical core protocals and target compounds and metals.

  6. Environmental Management System Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Robert; Thorson, Patrick; Horst, Blair; Speros, John; Rothermich, Nancy; Hatayama, Howard

    2009-03-24

    Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management establishes the policy that Federal agencies conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities in a manner that is environmentally, economically and fiscally sound, integrated, continually improving, efficient, and sustainable. The Department of Energy (DOE) has approved DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program and DOE Order 430.2B, Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy and Transportation Management as the means of achieving the provisions of this Executive Order. DOE Order 450.1A mandates the development of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) to implement sustainable environmental stewardship practices that: (1) Protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources potentially impacted by facility operations; (2) Meet or exceed applicable environmental, public health, and resource protection laws and regulations; and (3) Implement cost-effective business practices. In addition, the DOE Order 450.1A mandates that the EMS must be integrated with a facility's Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) established pursuant to DOE P 450.4, 'Safety Management System Policy'. DOE Order 430.2B mandates an energy management program that considers energy use and renewable energy, water, new and renovated buildings, and vehicle fleet activities. The Order incorporates the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The Order also includes the DOE's Transformational Energy Action Management initiative, which assures compliance is achieved through an Executable Plan that is prepared and updated annually by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL, Berkeley Lab, or the Laboratory) and then approved by the DOE Berkeley Site Office. At the time of this revision to the EMS plan, the 'FY2009 LBNL Sustainability Executable Plan' represented the most current Executable Plan. These

  7. Cryptographic Key Management System

    SciTech Connect

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  8. Phosphorus budget as a water quality management tool for closed aquatic mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Claude; Parent, Serge; Comeau, Yves; Bouvrette, Jean

    2002-02-01

    Since the start-up of the St. Lawrence Mesocosm (SLM) at the Montreal Biodome in 1992, phosphorus has accumulated slowly, reaching about 18 mg P l(-1) in 2000. It was decided that this concentration should be lowered to about 2mg P l(-1) to maintain a safe nitrogen:phosporus (N:P) ratio of about 10. Before deciding what type of treatment to use for the removal of phosphorus, a P budget was estimated for 1998 in order to evaluate the different pathways of phosphorus in the mesocosm. The resulting budget had only a 1% difference between the inputs (CV = 12.9%) and the sum of the outputs and changes in P pools (CV = 12.5%). P inputs amounted to 40.5 kg for 1998: food for fish and invertebrates contributed 76% of the inputs while seabird guano contributed 20%. Filtration and general cleaning removed 51% of the inputs while water losses removed 22%. The slight but constant difference between total phosphorus and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in 1998 and previous years led us to believe that only DRP (mostly orthophosphate) accumulated in the system. The accumulation of DRP was 10% of the inputs in 1998. The budget showed that the importance of water losses is relative and depends on the DRP concentration in the SLM. Furthermore, it was possible to compare this P budget with an N budget of the SLM prepared in 1995. The comparison helped us understand why nitrate in closed-circuit mesocosms are characterized by a high, never-ending accumulation while DRP is characterized by a net increase in the first few years after start-up followed by a very small increase in the following years. Considering its low CV, this P budget was considered a useful water quality management tool in designing a P removal unit for the SLM. This budget may also serve as a guideline for managers of closed-circuit systems such as marine aquariums and aquacultures as well as for designers of P removal units.

  9. Supplier Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Eric; Gutheinz, Sandy; Brison, James; Ho, Anita; Allen, James; Ceritelli, Olga; Tobar, Claudia; Nguyen, Thuykien; Crenshaw, Harrel; Santos, Roxann

    2008-01-01

    Supplier Management System (SMS) allows for a consistent, agency-wide performance rating system for suppliers used by NASA. This version (2.0) combines separate databases into one central database that allows for the sharing of supplier data. Information extracted from the NBS/Oracle database can be used to generate ratings. Also, supplier ratings can now be generated in the areas of cost, product quality, delivery, and audit data. Supplier data can be charted based on real-time user input. Based on these individual ratings, an overall rating can be generated. Data that normally would be stored in multiple databases, each requiring its own log-in, is now readily available and easily accessible with only one log-in required. Additionally, the database can accommodate the storage and display of quality-related data that can be analyzed and used in the supplier procurement decision-making process. Moreover, the software allows for a Closed-Loop System (supplier feedback), as well as the capability to communicate with other federal agencies.

  10. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, Harold B.; McNair, Robert C.; White, Kenneth; Maugeri, Terry

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base.RTM., an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches.

  11. Computerized training management system

    DOEpatents

    Rice, H.B.; McNair, R.C.; White, K.; Maugeri, T.

    1998-08-04

    A Computerized Training Management System (CTMS) is disclosed for providing a procedurally defined process that is employed to develop accreditable performance based training programs for job classifications that are sensitive to documented regulations and technical information. CTMS is a database that links information needed to maintain a five-phase approach to training-analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation independent of training program design. CTMS is designed using R-Base{trademark}, an-SQL compliant software platform. Information is logically entered and linked in CTMS. Each task is linked directly to a performance objective, which, in turn, is linked directly to a learning objective; then, each enabling objective is linked to its respective test items. In addition, tasks, performance objectives, enabling objectives, and test items are linked to their associated reference documents. CTMS keeps all information up to date since it automatically sorts, files and links all data; CTMS includes key word and reference document searches. 18 figs.

  12. A new aquatic gastropod stable isotopic continental paleoclimate proxy for New Zealand systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    Endemic to New Zealand, the aquatic gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum (i.e. New Zealand Mud Snail), is extremely common in modern aqueous environments and is an abundant subfossil preserved in Quaternary sediments throughout the country. This ubiquity presents unprecedented opportunities to explore stable isotope based paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental research across New Zealand’s diverse natural systems through time. In an effort to evaluate the utility of New Zealand Mud Snail shells as isotopic proxies, approximately 10 modern snails were collected at each of 18 freshwater systems located throughout New Zealand and analyzed for stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions. Results indicate: 1) the oxygen isotope composition of P. antipodarum shells collected from through-flowing lakes and streams exhibit a significant positive correlation with mean annual catchment temperature; 2) shell isotopic compositions typically vary over an approximately 2 permil range for both carbon and oxygen within a single site; 3) inter-site variability is also relatively high with each site defining an isotopically distinct population; 4) shells collected from closed-basin lakes showed markedly more positive delta-values than geographically similar through-flowing systems most likely due to evaporative effects. These results suggest P. antipodarum represents an important new continental climate change proxy for New Zealand systems. However, the modern snail shell results indicate there are also several weaknesses associated with this new proxy. Most importantly, the relatively high degree of natural variability within individual sites indicates multiple contemporaneous shells are needed when performing paleo-research. Additionally, the modern results indicate, as expected, the oxygen isotope composition of snails shells is sensitive to both changes in temperature and hydrologic balance, making it difficult to differentiate between paleo-hydrologic and thermal signals. In

  13. Manpower management information system /MIS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravette, M. C.; King, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    System of programs capable of building and maintaining data bank provides all levels of management with regular manpower evaluation reports and data source for special management exercises on manpower.

  14. The role of hybridization in the evolution of sexual system diversity in a clonal, aquatic plant.

    PubMed

    Yakimowski, Sarah B; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2016-06-01

    The stable coexistence within populations of females, males, and hermaphrodites (subdioecy) is enigmatic because theoretical models indicate that maintenance of this sexual system involves highly restricted conditions. Subdioecy is more commonly interpreted as a transitory stage along the gynodioecious pathway from hermaphroditism to dioecy. The widespread, North American, aquatic plant Sagittaria latifolia is largely composed of monoecious or dioecious populations; however, subdioecious populations with high frequencies of hermaphrodites (mean frequency = 0.50) characterize the northern range boundary of dioecy in eastern North America. We investigated two hypotheses for the origin of subdioecy in this region. Using polymorphic microsatellite loci, we evaluated whether subdioecy arises through selection on standing genetic variation for male sex inconstancy in dioecious populations, or results from hybridization between monoecious and dioecious populations. We found evidence for both pathways to subdioecy, although hybridization was the more common mechanism, with genetic evidence of admixture in nine of 14 subdioecious populations examined. Hybridization has also played a role in the origin of androdioecious populations in S. latifolia, a mechanism not often considered in the evolution of this rare sexual system. Our study demonstrates how hybridization has the potential to play a role in the diversification of plant sexual systems. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Microbiological monitoring of acid mine drainage treatment systems and aquatic surroundings using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Han, J S; Kim, C G

    2009-01-01

    In general, acid mine drainage (AMD) causes low pH and high metal concentrations in mining areas and surroundings. The aim of this research was to achieve microbiological monitoring for AMD and to assess whether mine water outflows have any ecological effects on the aqueous ecosystem receiving effluents from different types of treatment system. The water quality of aquatic sample was analyzed and the molecular biological diversity of the samples was assessed using 16S rRNA methods, which were implemented to determine which bacteria existed throughout various unit processes for different AMD treatment systems and their receiving water environments. Acidiphilium cryptum, a heterotrophic acidophile, was found at the AMD sites, and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, which can reduce iron using insoluble Fe(III) as an electron acceptor, was detected at many AMD treatment facilities and downstream of the treatment processes. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on specific genes of selected bacteria. Surprisingly, obvious trends were observed in the relative abundance of the various bacteria that corresponded to the water quality analytical results. The copy number of Desulfosporosinus orientus, a sulfate reducing bacteria, was also observed to decrease in response to decreases in metals according to the downstream flow of the AMD treatment system.

  16. Does Waterborne Exposure Explain Effects Caused by Neonicotinoid-Contaminated Plant Material in Aquatic Systems?

    PubMed

    Englert, Dominic; Zubrod, Jochen P; Link, Moritz; Mertins, Saskia; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2017-05-16

    Neonicotinoids are increasingly applied on trees as protection measure against insect pests. Consequently, neonicotinoids are inevitably transferred into aquatic environments either via spray drift or surface runoff or (due to neonicotinoids' systemic nature) via senescent leaves. There particularly leaf-shredding invertebrates may be exposed to neonicotinoids through both the water phase and the consumption of contaminated leaves. In 7 day bioassays (n = 30), we examined ecotoxicological differences between these two exposure scenarios for an amphipod and an insect nymph with their feeding rate as the response variable. Organisms either experienced waterborne neonicotinoid (i.e., imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and acetamiprid) exposure only or a combined exposure (waterborne and dietary) through both the consumption of contaminated leaves and neonicotinoids leaching from leaves into water. The amphipod (7 day EC50s from 0.3 to 8.4 μg/L) was more sensitive than the insect nymph (7 day EC50s from 7.0 to 19.4 μg/L). Moreover, for both species, concentration-response models derived from water concentrations indicated higher effects under the combined exposure. Together with the observed inability of shredders to avoid neonicotinoid-contaminated leaves, our results emphasize the relevance of dietary exposure (e.g., via leaves) for systemic insecticides. Thus, it would be prudent to consider dietary exposure during the registration of systemic insecticides to safeguard ecosystem integrity.

  17. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Swiss agriculture is legally committed to fulfill several, partially conflicting goals such as agricultural production on the one hand and the conservation of natural resources on the other hand. In the context of the research project AProWa ("Agricultural Production and Water"), the relationships between the production aspect and the conservation of aquatic ecosystems is analyzed with a holistic approach. Agricultural production and the protection of water resources have high potential for conflicts: Farmers use ground and surface water to irrigate their fields. On the other hand, drainage systems enable the production on otherwise unfavorably wet soils. These in turn often affect ground water recharge and divert precipitation directly into surface waters, which changes their hydrological regime. Typically, drainage systems also elevate the input of nutrients and pesticides into the water bodies. In general, applied fertilizers, plant protection products, veterinary drugs and phytohormones of cultivated plants are introduced into the ground and surface waters through different processes such as drift, leaching, runoff, preferential flow or erosion. They influence the nutrient cycles and ecological health of aquatic systems. The nutrient and pesticide loss processes themselves can be altered by tillage operations and other agricultural practices. Furthermore, the competition for space can lead to additional conflicts between agriculture and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. For example, channelized or otherwise morphologically changed rivers do not have a natural discharge pattern and are often not suitable for the local flora and fauna; but naturally meandering rivers need space that cannot be used for agriculture. In a highly industrialized and densely populated country like Switzerland, all these potential conflicts are of importance. Although it is typically seen as a water-rich country, local and seasonal overexploitation of rivers through water extraction

  18. Factors influencing aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transport to terrestrial arthropod consumers in a multiuse river system.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Jeremy M; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2016-06-01

    Emerging aquatic insects are important vectors of contaminant transfer from aquatic to terrestrial food webs. However, the environmental factors that regulate contaminant body burdens in nearshore terrestrial consumers remain largely unexplored. We investigated the relative influences of riparian landscape composition (i.e., land use and nearshore vegetation structure) and contaminant flux via the emergent aquatic insect subsidy on selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) body burdens of riparian ants (Formica subsericea) and spiders of the family Tetragnathidae along 11 river reaches spanning an urban-rural land-use gradient in Ohio, USA. Model-selection results indicated that fine-scale land cover (e.g., riparian zone width, shrub cover) in the riparian zone was positively associated with reach-wide body burdens of Se and Hg in both riparian F. subsericea and tetragnathid spiders (i.e., total magnitude of Hg and Se concentrations in ant and spider populations, respectively, for each reach). River distance downstream of Columbus, Ohio - where study reaches were impounded and flow through a large urban center - was also implicated as an important factor. Although stable-isotope analysis suggested that emergent aquatic insects were likely vectors of Se and Hg to tetragnathid spiders (but not to F. subsericea), emergent insect contaminant flux did not emerge as a significant predictor for either reach-wide body burdens of spider Hg or Se. Improved understanding of the pathways and influences that control aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transport will be critical for effective risk management and remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, En-Rong; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Yin; He, Feng; Liu, Bi-Yun; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the sediments

  20. Internal nitrogen removal from sediments by the hybrid system of microbial fuel cells and submerged aquatic plants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Xiao, En-Rong; Xu, Dan; Zhou, Yin; He, Feng; Liu, Bi-Yun; Zeng, Lei; Wu, Zhen-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Sediment internal nitrogen release is a significant pollution source in the overlying water of aquatic ecosystems. This study aims to remove internal nitrogen in sediment-water microcosms by coupling sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) with submerged aquatic plants. Twelve tanks including four treatments in triplicates were designed: open-circuit (SMFC-o), closed-circuit (SMFC-c), aquatic plants with open-circuit (P-SMFC-o) and aquatic plants with closed-circuit (P-SMFC-c). The changes in the bio-electrochemical characteristics of the nitrogen levels in overlying water, pore water, sediments, and aquatic plants were documented to explain the migration and transformation pathways of internal nitrogen. The results showed that both electrogenesis and aquatic plants could facilitate the mineralization of organic nitrogen in sediments. In SMFC, electrogenesis promoted the release of ammonium from the pore water, followed by the accumulation of ammonium and nitrate in the overlying water. The increased redox potential of sediments due to electrogenesis also contributed to higher levels of nitrate in overlying water when nitrification in pore water was facilitated and denitrification at the sediment-water interface was inhibited. When the aquatic plants were introduced into the closed-circuit SMFC, the internal ammonium assimilation by aquatic plants was advanced by electrogenesis; nitrification in pore water and denitrification in sediments were also promoted. These processes might result in the maximum decrease of internal nitrogen with low nitrogen levels in the overlying water despite the lower power production. The P-SMFC-c reduced 8.1%, 16.2%, 24.7%, and 25.3% of internal total nitrogen compared to SMFC-o on the 55th, 82th, 136th, and 190th days, respectively. The smaller number of Nitrospira and the larger number of Bacillus and Pseudomonas on the anodes via high throughput sequencing may account for strong mineralization and denitrification in the sediments

  1. Systems management techniques and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Report is reviewed which discusses history and trends of systems management, its basic principles, and nature of problems that lend themselves to systems approach. Report discusses systems engineering as applied to weapons acquisition, ecology, patient monitoring, and retail merchandise operations.

  2. Coalition Network Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    adopted PECC architecture will integrate mechanisms for resource management through the use of Semantically Augmented Resource Managers ( SARM ). The...goal is to provide minimally intrusive resource management, using as few windows as possible. SARM will allow a network manager to focus on the...tasks specific to each individual operator using one-glance awareness of task availability and caution panel style indicators. SARM will provide a

  3. Characterization of the hydrology, water chemistry, and aquatic communities of selected springs in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Gerwig, Robert M.; Tate, William B.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrology, water chemistry, and aquatic communities of Silver Springs, De Leon Spring, Gemini Springs, and Green Spring in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida, were studied in 2004 to provide a better understanding of each spring and to compile data of potential use in future water-management decisions. Ground water that discharges from these and other north-central Florida springs originates from the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system, a karstic limestone aquifer that extends throughout most of the State's peninsula. This report summarizes data about flow, water chemistry, and aquatic communities, including benthic invertebrates, fishes, algae, and aquatic macrophytes collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, the St. Johns River Water Management District, and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection during 2004, as well as some previously collected data. Differences in water chemistry among these springs reflect local differences in water chemistry in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The three major springs sampled at the Silver Springs group (the Main Spring, Blue Grotto, and the Abyss) have similar proportions of cations and anions but vary in nitrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Water from Gemini Springs and Green Spring has higher proportions of sodium and chloride than the Silver Springs group. Water from De Leon Spring also has higher proportions of sodium and chloride than the Silver Springs group but lower proportions of calcium and bicarbonate. Nitrate concentrations have increased over the period of record at all of the springs except Green Spring. Compounds commonly found in wastewater were found in all the springs sampled. The most commonly detected compound was the insect repellant N,N'-diethyl-methyl-toluamide (DEET), which was found in all the springs sampled except De Leon Spring. The pesticide atrazine and its degradate 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT) were detected in water

  4. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Kreuzberg, K; Paassen, U; Schreibman, M P; Voeste, D

    1998-01-01

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surrounding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facility is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 degrees C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/l by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the microorganisms of filter and biofilm provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon

  5. Novel laboratory approaches to multi-purpose aquatic bioregenerative closed-loop food production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Paassen, U.; Schreibman, M. P.; Voeste, D.

    Based on the construction principle of the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) two novel combined animal-plant production systems were developed in laboratory scale the first of which is dedicated to mid-term operation in closed state up to two years. In principle both consist of the "classic" C.E.B.A.S. subcomponents: animal tank (Zoological Component), plant cultivators (Botanical Component), ammonia converting bacteria filter (Microbial Component) and data acquisition/control unit (Electronical Component). The innovative approach in the first system is the utilization of minimally three aquatic plant cultivators for different species. In this one the animal tank has a volume of about 160 liters and is constructed as an "endless-way system" surronding a central unit containing the heat exchanger and the bacteria filter with volumes of about 1.5 liters each. A suspension plant cultivator (1 liter) for the edible duckweed Wolffia arrhiza is externally connected. The second plant cultivator is a meandric microalgal bioreactor for filamentous green algae. The third plant growth facilitiy is a chamber with about 2.5 liters volume for cultivation of the "traditional" C.E.B.A.S. plant species, the rootless buoyant Ceratophyllum demersum. Both latter units are illuminated with 9 W fluorescent lamps. In the current experiment the animal tank contains the live-bearing teleost fish Xiphophorus helleri and the small pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata because their physiological adaptation to the closed system conditions is well known from many previous C.E.B.A.S. experiments. The water temperature is maintained at 25 °C and the oxygen level is regulated between 4 and 7 mg/1 by switching on and off the plant cultivator illuminations according to a suitable pattern thus utilizing solely the oxygen produced by photosynthesis. The animals and the micoorganisms of filter and bioflim provide the plants with a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide

  6. Hydrolytic Activation Kinetics of the Herbicide Benzobicyclon in Simulated Aquatic Systems.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katryn L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2016-06-22

    Herbicide resistance is a growing concern for weeds in California rice fields. Benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has proven successful against resistant rice field weeds in Asia. A pro-herbicide, BZB forms the active agent, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), in water; however, the transformation kinetics are not understood for aquatic systems, particularly flooded California rice fields. A quantitative experiment was performed to assess the primary mechanism and kinetics of BZB hydrolysis to BH. Complete conversion to BH was observed for all treatments. Basic conditions (pH 9) enhanced the reaction, with half-lives ranging from 5 to 28 h. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) hindered transformation, which is consistent with other base-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions. BH was relatively hydrolytically stable, with 18% maximum loss after 5 days. Results indicate BZB is an efficient pro-herbicide under aqueous conditions such as those of a California rice field, although application may be best suited for fields with recirculating tailwater systems.

  7. Ecotoxicological impact of the fungicide tebuconazole on an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    PubMed

    Zubrod, Jochen P; Bundschuh, Mirco; Feckler, Alexander; Englert, Dominic; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    Leaf litter breakdown is a fundamental process in aquatic ecosystems that is realized by microbial decomposers and invertebrate detritivores. Although this process may be adversely affected by fungicides, among other factors, no test design exists to assess combined effects on such decomposer-detritivore systems. Hence, the present study assessed effects of the model fungicide tebuconazole (65 µg/L) on the conditioning of leaf material (by characterizing the associated microbial community) as well as the combined effects (i.e., direct toxicity and food quality-related effects (=indirect)) on the energy processing of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum using a five-week semistatic test design. Gammarids exposed to tebuconazole produced significantly less feces (≈ 20%), which in turn significantly increased their assimilation (≈ 30%). Moreover, a significantly reduced lipid content (≈ 20%) indicated lower physiological fitness. The conditioning process was altered as well, which was indicated by a significantly reduced fungal biomass (≈ 40%) and sporulation (≈ 30%) associated with the leaf material. These results suggest that tebuconazole affects both components of the investigated decomposer-detritivore system. However, adverse effects on the level of detritivores cannot be explicitly attributed to direct or indirect pathways. Nevertheless, as the endpoints assessed are directly related to leaf litter breakdown and associated energy transfer processes, the protectiveness of environmental risk assessment for this ecosystem function may be more realistically assessed in future studies by using this or comparable test designs.

  8. Pressure, O2, and CO2, in aquatic Closed Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taub, Frieda B.; McLaskey, Anna K.

    2013-03-01

    Pressure increased during net photosynthetic O2 production in the light and decreased during respiratory O2 uptake during the dark in aquatic Closed Ecological Systems (CESs) with small head gas volumes. Because most CO2 will be in the liquid phase as bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and CO2 is more soluble than O2, volumes of gaseous CO2 and gaseous O2 will not change in a compensatory manner, leading to the development of pressure. Pressure increases were greatest with nutrient rich medium with NaHCO3 as the carbon source. With more dilute media, pressure was greatest with NaHCO3, and less with cellulose or no-added carbon. Without adequate turbulence, pressure measurements lagged dissolved O2 concentrations by several hours and dark respiration would have been especially underestimated in our systems (250-1000 ml). With adequate turbulence (rotary shaker), pressure measurements and dissolved O2 concentrations generally agreed during lights on/off cycles, but O2 measurements provided more detail. At 20 °C, 29.9 times as much O2 will distribute into the gas phase as in the liquid, per unit volume, as a result of the limited solubility of O2 in water and according to Henry's Law. Thus even a small head gas volume can contain more O2 than a larger volume of water. When both dissolved and gaseous O2 and CO2 are summed, the changes in Total O2 and CO2 are in relatively close agreement when NaHCO3 is the carbon source. These findings disprove an assumption made in some of Taub's earlier research that aquatic CESs would remain at approximately atmospheric pressure because approximately equal molar quantities of O2 and CO2 would exchange during photosynthesis and respiration; this assumption neglected the distribution of O2 between water and gas phases. High pressures can occur when NaHCO3 is the carbon source in nutrient rich media and if head-gas volumes are small relative to the liquid volume; e.g., one "worse case" condition developed 800 mm Hg above atmospheric

  9. In Situ Probing Nucleation, Growth, and Aggregation of Iron Oxides in Geochemical Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Y.; Hu, Y.; Ray, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Nucleation, growth, and aggregation of iron oxide nanoparticles can significantly alter the fate of organic and inorganic contaminants in geochemical aquatic systems. This talk will address how we can improve our understanding of nucleation, growth, and aggregation of iron oxide nanoparticles by providing more accurate quantitative and qualitative empirical information. In this study, a novel environmental setup—which allows time-resolved simultaneous measurements of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and grazing incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) in the presence of bulk solution—was utilized for real-time monitoring of nanoparticle formation at water-mineral interfaces. This setup enabled us to probe the size, shape, and location of iron oxide nanoparticles on the substrate and in solution without dehydration of samples. Experiments were conducted with 10-4 M ferric ions in the presence of environmentally important and abundant anions (nitrate, chlorite, sulfate) and cations (aluminum) at pH = 3.7 ± 0.1. The substrates used were geologically ubiquitous media such as quartz, mica, and organic polymer-coated surfaces. Once ferric solutions were introduced, the homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of iron oxides occurred and the size and volume evolution of nanoparticles were monitored. To complement these observations, atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, contact angle analysis, dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic mobility analysis were utilized. Based on in situ measurements of initial nuclei evolution at aqueous interfaces, this approach provided new, important information for upscaling such as size, volume, surface area, and location (i.e., in solution vs. on mineral surfaces) of iron oxides precipitates formed in the presence of organic matter and different substrate morphological and chemical properties. Using this quantitative information, we identified the

  10. A systems-based approach to predict biological responses of aquatic organisms to complex environmental mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as new-generation pesticides, pharmaceuticals, household and personal care products, steroid hormones, and flame retardants enter the aquatic environment through multiple sources such as wastewater treatment plants and agricultural ope...

  11. A systems-based approach to predict biological responses of aquatic organisms to complex environmental mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as new-generation pesticides, pharmaceuticals, household and personal care products, steroid hormones, and flame retardants enter the aquatic environment through multiple sources such as wastewater treatment plants and agricultural ope...

  12. A Computer Simulation of the Trophic Dynamics of an Aquatic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, D. W.; Randerson, P. F.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a computer program, AQUASIM, which simulates interaction between environmental factors, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish in an aquatic ecosystem. The conceptual flow, equations, variables, rate processes, and parameter manipulations are discussed. (CW)

  13. A Computer Simulation of the Trophic Dynamics of an Aquatic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, D. W.; Randerson, P. F.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a computer program, AQUASIM, which simulates interaction between environmental factors, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish in an aquatic ecosystem. The conceptual flow, equations, variables, rate processes, and parameter manipulations are discussed. (CW)

  14. User Oriented Financial Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Larry G.; Waters, James M.

    1979-01-01

    The School of Chemical Sciences at the University of Illinois has developed a user-oriented financial management system to meet the needs of project managers for financial reporting that were not met by the central accounting system. The system presents detailed budget obligations and expenditures data needed to plan and monitor daily research…

  15. Inferring nutrient loading of estuarine systems by remote sensing of aquatic vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    THe use of remote sensing to record algal and vascular aquatic plant growths in estuarine waters is discussed. A technique is proposed that uses a combination of data to hierarchically classify watersheds with regard to severity of potential pollution. Specific nonpoint sources of nutrients in tributaries of the watershed are identified with lower altitude photography of vegetation and selected ground sampling. It is concluded that excessive growths of some aquatic plants may be related to nutrient pollution.

  16. Inferring nutrient loading of estuarine systems by remote sensing of aquatic vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    THe use of remote sensing to record algal and vascular aquatic plant growths in estuarine waters is discussed. A technique is proposed that uses a combination of data to hierarchically classify watersheds with regard to severity of potential pollution. Specific nonpoint sources of nutrients in tributaries of the watershed are identified with lower altitude photography of vegetation and selected ground sampling. It is concluded that excessive growths of some aquatic plants may be related to nutrient pollution.

  17. Fluid management system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, E. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer; fluid handling; and components and instrumentation.

  18. Influence of wetland size on aquatic communities within wetland reservoir subirrigation systems in northwestern Ohio.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Establishment of a water management system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Specifically, each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to ...

  19. The role of hybridization in the distribution, conservation and management of aquatic species: Symposium review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epifanio, John; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries contains six papers addressing several critical aspects of hybridization in fishes and aquatic organisms. Hybridization is a phenomenon long recognized in fishes (Hubbs, 1920, 1955; Schwarz, 1981), as well as in other plant and vertebrate taxa, despite some rather dogmatic proclamations to the contrary, e.g., comments made by David Starr Jordan at the beginning of the 20th century that the species “line” is rarely crossed in fishes (Clark Hubbs, personal communication). Since that time, interspecific genetic introgression has been well documented in many fish genera and species: Barbus (Berrebi and CattaneoBerrebi, 1993); Cyprinodon (Echelle and Connor, 1989; Dowling and DeMarais, 1993); Gambusia (Hubbs, 1959; Scribner and Avise, 1994); Esox (Wahl and Stein, 1993); Lepomis (Avise et al., 1984); Luxilus (Duvernell and Aspinwall, 1995); Morone (Harrell et al., 1993); Notropis (Dowling et al., 1989; Dowling and Hoeh, 1991); Oncorhynchus (Busack and Gall, 1981; Campton and Utter, 1985; Loudenslager et al., 1986; Leary et al., 1987; Forbes and Allendorf, 1991; Dowling and Childs, 1992); Salmo (Nyman, 1970; Wilkins et al., 1993; Giuffra et al., 1996; Hartley, 1996; Perez et al., 1999); Salvalinus (Hammar et al., 1991; Bernatchez et al., 1995; Baxter et al., 1997; Glemet et al., 1998; Wilson and Bernatchez, 1998); Sebastes (Seeb, 1988); Stizostedion (Billington et al., 1988). See also reviews in Campton (1987), Verspoor and Hammar (1991), Smith (1992), and Scribner et al. (2000). More recently, a number of investigations have documented not only first generation hybrids, but also subsequent generation introgressant hybrids (Bartley et al., 1990; Verspoor and Hammar, 1991). As a result, our views about species typology and hybrids continue to change.

  20. Community structure of fishes inhabiting aquatic refuges in a threatened Karst wetland and its implications for ecosystem management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kobza, Robert M.; Trexler, J.C.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    We illustrate the importance of subsurface refuges for conservation of aquatic fauna with our studies of karstic wetlands in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Managers have proposed that water levels there should not fall more than 46 cm below ground level for more than 90 days annually. In four areas, 84% of solution holes were less than 46 cm deep and holes deeper than lm were rare (<3 km-2). Null-model analysis indicated no "structure" in the solution-hole fish communities early in the dry season, but that structure emerged as drying progressed. Native cyprinodontiforms were abundant in shallow solution holes that dry annually under current management, while predatory species (often non-native) tended to dominate deeper holes. Water quality was correlated with hole volume and with composition of late dry-season fish communities. Tremendous losses of fish biomass occurred when water levels fell below 46 cm from ground surface. Most native taxa were unlikely to survive in the deep refuges that held predatory non-native taxa. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  2. Aquatic Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquatic microbiology can be defined as the study of microorganisms and microbial communities in water environments. Aquatic environments occupy more than 70% of the earth’s surface including oceans, estuaries, rivers, lakes, wetlands, streams, springs, and aquifers. Water is essential for life and m...

  3. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  4. Managing the inventory control system.

    PubMed

    Daniels, C E

    1985-02-01

    The four functions of management--planning, organizing, directing, and controlling--are described in relation to the hospital pharmacy inventory control system. Planning includes the development of inventory system objectives and identification of the resources needed to complete them. Organizing requires the manager to decide on the best method of grouping system activities and resources to complete the objectives in order of priority. Directing is a continual activity that involves obtaining optimal performance from the inventory system resources available. Controlling consists of regulation and verification of inventory system activities. The effective inventory system manager integrates planning, organizing, directing, and controlling in a continuous cycle.

  5. Creating and managing wetland impoundments to provide habitat for aquatic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kangas, P.; Obrecht, H.H.; Comin, Francisco A.; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A.; Ramirez-Ramirez, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Patuxent Research Refuge, located in Central Maryland (USA), has approximately 140 ha of impoundments that were constructed for recreational and wildlife conservation purposes. Impoundments are of three major designs: dammed ravines, excavated basins, and diked ponds. Over 50 species of wetland plants were transplanted to impoundments of Patuxent from many parts of the United States between 1945 and 1963 to determine the species best suited for establishment in tannin-stained infertile waters. The wood duck was the only waterfowl species commonly observed on the Refuge when the area was established, but Canada geese, mallards, and black ducks, were introduced and numerous techniques developed to improve nesting and brood habitat. Twenty-six waterfowl species and 80 species of other water birds have used the impoundments for resting, feeding, or nesting. Management is now conducted to optimize avian biodiversity. Management techniques include drawdowns of water every 3-5 years in most impoundments to provide maximum plant and invertebrate food resources for wildlife. Research on the impounded wetlands at Patuxent has included evaluation of vegetation in regard to water level management, improving nest box design to reduce use of boxes by starlings, imprinting of waterfowl to elevated nesting structures to reduce predation on nests, and drawdown techniques to increase macroinvertebrates. Data on waterfowl abundance are evaluated relative to management activities and a preliminary computer model for management of the impoundments has been developed. Past, present, and future management and research projects are reviewed in this paper.

  6. NIF Project Management System Description

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.

    1997-08-01

    This document has been prepared for two purposes: 1. To demonstrate compliance with the project management requirements of DOE Order 430. 1, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM). 2. To summarize in one place the approved Project documents which, taken as a whole, describe the NIF Project Management System.

  7. Coalition Network Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    architecture will allow for new mechanisms for resource management and development has begun on Service Augmented Resource Managers ( SARM ). The goal is to...provide minimally intrusive resource management, using as few windows as possible. SARM will allow a focus on the tasks specific to each individual...operator using one-glance awareness of task availability using caution panel style indicators. SARM will enable remote execution for simple resource

  8. Heteroaggregation of multiwall Carbon Nanotubes and Naturally Occurring Colloids in Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, Patricia

    significantly enhance the sedimentation of the CNTs at neutral pH. The unfiltered samples exhibited enhanced sedimentation of the COOH-MWCNTs compared to the filtered samples. There was also evidence of enhanced removal of other particles present in the natural water sample due to the addition of CNTs. This indicates that the presence of CNTs could affect the transport of other contaminants in aquatic systems, altering the distribution of contaminants particularly at the sediment-water interface. These results suggest that NOCs enhance the sedimentation of CNTs in the natural environment and are highly dependent on pH and the ratio of carbon nanotube to natural colloid.

  9. Tritium and 14C background levels in pristine aquatic systems and their potential sources of variability.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Claval, David; Cossonnet, Catherine; Zebracki, Mathilde; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Radakovitch, Olivier; Calmon, Philippe; Leclerc, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Tritium and (14)C are currently the two main radionuclides discharged by nuclear industry. Tritium integrates into and closely follows the water cycle and, as shown recently the carbon cycle, as does (14)C (Eyrolle-Boyer et al., 2014a, b). As a result, these two elements persist in both terrestrial and aquatic environments according to the recycling rates of organic matter. Although on average the organically bound tritium (OBT) activity of sediments in pristine rivers does not significantly differ today (2007-2012) from the mean tritiated water (HTO) content on record for rainwater (2.4 ± 0.6 Bq/L and 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq/L, respectively), regional differences are expected depending on the biomass inventories affected by atmospheric global fallout from nuclear testing and the recycling rate of organic matter within watersheds. The results obtained between 2007 and 2012 for (14)C show that the levels varied between 94.5 ± 1.5 and 234 ± 2.7 Bq/kg of C for the sediments in French rivers and across a slightly higher range of 199 ± 1.3 to 238 ± 3.1 Bq/kg of C for fish. This variation is most probably due to preferential uptake of some organic carbon compounds by fish restraining (14)C dilution with refractory organic carbon and/or with old carbonates both depleted in (14)C. Overall, most of these ranges of values are below the mean baseline value for the terrestrial environment (232.0 ± 1.8 Bq/kg of C in 2012, Roussel-Debet, 2014a) in relation to dilution by the carbonates and/or fossil organic carbon present in aquatic systems. This emphasises yet again the value of establishing regional baseline value ranges for these two radionuclides in order to account for palaeoclimatic and lithological variations. Besides, our results obtained from sedimentary archive investigation have confirmed the delayed contamination of aquatic sediments by tritium from the past nuclear tests atmospheric fallout, as recently demonstrated from data chronicles (Eyrolle

  10. Do food processing industries contribute to the eutrophication of aquatic systems?

    PubMed

    Tusseau-Vuillemin, M H

    2001-10-01

    Eutrophication is the enrichment of water bodies with plant nutrients and precursors, typically nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter. There exists a "natural" and slow eutrophication, which, over geological times, turns a lake into a marsh and then dries it entirely. Today, however, eutrophication is mostly referred to the human process that "results in the stimulation of an array of symptomatic changes, among which increased production of algae and macrophytes, deterioration of water quality and other symptomatic changes are found to be undesirable and interfere with water uses" as defined by the OECD in 1982. This undesirable process is observed mostly in enclosed water bodies, such as lakes, but also in some rivers, some estuaries, and some coastal zones. In most freshwater systems, phosphorus has been identified as the "limiting nutrient" to phytoplankton development. This nutrient is brought to aquatic environments from rock weathering, soil leaching, and rain (natural sources), but also and mostly from agricultural runoff and domestic sewage. Some food processing industries (meat, vegetables, cheese processing) also contribute significantly to the phosphorus budget, even though the pollution may be due to floor and utensil cleaning rather than to direct food wastes. Copyright 2001 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Toward an ecologically meaningful view of resource stoichiometry in DOM-dominated aquatic systems

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, Martin; Sponseller, Ryan A.; Alves Soares, Ana R.; Bergström, Ann-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Research on nutrient controls of planktonic productivity tends to focus on a few standard fractions of inorganic or total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, there is a wide range in the degree to which land-derived dissolved organic nutrients can be assimilated by biota. Thus, in systems where such fractions form a majority of the macronutrient resource pool, including many boreal inland waters and estuaries, our understanding of bacterio- and phytoplankton production dynamics remains limited. To adequately predict aquatic productivity in a changing environment, improved standard methods are needed for determining the sizes of active (bioavailable) pools of N, P and organic carbon (C). A synthesis of current knowledge suggests that variation in the C:N:P stoichiometry of bioavailable resources is associated with diverse processes that differentially influence the individual elements across space and time. Due to a generally increasing organic nutrient bioavailability from C to N to P, we hypothesize that the C:N and N:P of bulk resources often vastly overestimates the corresponding ratios of bioavailable resources. It is further proposed that basal planktonic production is regulated by variation in the source, magnitude and timing of terrestrial runoff, through processes that have so far been poorly described. PMID:26251558

  12. MASS2, Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions, Theory and Numerical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-07-01

    The Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions (MASS2) is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamics and transport model. The model simulates time varying distributions of depth-averaged velocities, water surface elevations, and water quality constituents. MASS2 uses a structured, multi-block, boundary-fitted, curvilinear computational mesh, which allows the simulation of very complex riverine or estuarine networks. The blocks may be of varying resolution, which allows high resolution to be used only where needed. MASS2 can simulate a wide variety of hydrodynamic conditions, including supercritical flow and hydraulic jumps. It can also simulate a wide variety of water quality conditions, including sediment, conservative or decaying contaminants, sediment-sorbed contaminants, water temperature, and total dissolved gas. Any number of these constituents may be simulated simultaneously. In addition, transport simulations may be performed using pre-calculated hydrodynamic conditions, allowing long-term transport simulations unencumbered by the more intensive hydrodynamic calculations, or repeated transport simulations without re-simulating hydrodynamics. This report documents the theory and numerical methods used in MASS2. In addition, the results are presented from several of hydrodynamic and transport validation tests to which MASS2 was subjected. The companion user manual documents the application of MASS2.

  13. Biodiversity and monitoring of colorless filamentous bacteria in sulfide aquatic systems of North Caucasus region.

    PubMed

    Chernousova, E Yu; Akimov, V N; Gridneva, E V; Dubinina, G A; Grabovich, M Yu

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial mats in sulfide aquatic systems of North Caucasus are basically composed by the species of genera Thiothrix and Sphaerotilus. Additionally, several non-filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were isolated from the mats and several minor 16S rRNA phylotypes were found in clone libraries from these mats. The minor components were affiliated with Proteobacteria, Chlorobia, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. Even in an individual mat population heterogeneity of Thiothrix spp. was revealed by analysis of 16S rRNA gene and RAPD-PCR. Five Thiothrix isolates were described as new species Thiothrix caldifontis sp. nov. and Thiothrix lacustris sp. nov. In the Thiothrix-Sphaerotilus type of bacterial mat the proportion of dominant organisms might be influenced by sulfide concentration in the spring water. The higher sulfide concentration (more than 10 mg/l) in the spring water is more favorable for the development of bacterial mats with dominant Thiothrix organisms than for Thiothrix-Sphaerotilus type of sulfur mat.

  14. Breakthroughs in the biogeochemistry of Nordic aquatic systems: Lessons from Water's Journey from Rain to Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    A sustainable society has been said to require knowledge of the limits placed by nature. Whatever one's views on the know-ability and significance of such limits, science strives to improve our understanding of these limiting factors, of which water is recognized to be one of the most important. Despite the centrality of water, the water cycle is maddeningly difficulty to pin down with the level of detail that is desired for resolving issues about the fate of pollutants, nutrient cycling and the global carbon balance, etc. But there is hope lurking in the Swedish landscape. The simplicity of hydrology in many Fennoscandian till soils, combined with applications of the only true tracers of water (isotopes of the water molecule) that were pioneered by Uppsala University hydrologists -provide a hydrological basis for breakthroughs in the biogeochemistry of critical earth support systems. This talk will explore some recent advances in understanding both pollutants and natural cycles, with linkages back to the concepts presented in the Water's Journey from Rain to Stream by Harald Grip and Allan Rodhe. The examples will include the mercury, acidity, and biogenic carbon of relevance to the "aquatic conduit" in the global carbon cycle. The talk will finish with thoughts about where to go next with the power that a well-characterized hydrology can provide.

  15. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  16. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-08-25

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  17. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr, Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2016-10-11

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  18. Lighting system with thermal management system

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Seeley, Charles Erklin; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Utturkar, Yogen Vishwas; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2015-02-24

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  19. Bioaccumulation and detection of trace levels of cadmium in aquatic systems by Eichhornia crassipes

    PubMed Central

    Wolverton, B. C.; McDonald, Rebecca C.

    1978-01-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) may be used as a sensitive biological indicator for continuously monitoring trace quantities of toxic heavy metals in aquatic systems. A river water system polluted with cadmium was simulated while other factors of temperature, day-night cycle, water quality, and light intensity remained constant. When the water hyacinth is maintained in river water containing 0.001 mg/l. of cadmium chloride, the plant's root system will concentrate this element at an average rate of 0.9, 1.4, and 3.0 μg Cd/g root dry weight after 24, 48, and 72 hr exposure periods, respectively. At a higher cadmium concentration of 0.01 mg/l., cadmium was concentrated in the roots much faster to levels of 6.8, 13.6, and 39.1 μg/g root after 4, 8, and 24 hr exposure periods, respectively. At initial concentrations of 0.05 mg/l. cadmium, the roots contained 29.5, 48.8, and 156 μg/g root following 4, 8, and 24 hr exposure periods, respectively. During these same time intervals, the water hyacinth sorbed 56.7, 153, and 281 μg/g root when the initial cadmium concentration was increased to 0.10 mg/l. The water hyacinth tops can also assist in the monitoring process when cadmium contamination levels are 0.10 mg/l. and greater. At this initial cadmium concentration, cadmium is translocated into the tops. After 8 hr, the tops averaged 1.1 μg/g top. After 24 hr, this concentration was increased to 6.1 μg/g top. PMID:738234

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  1. Efficient Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2009-01-01

    A learning management system (LMS) provides the platform for web-based learning environment by enabling the management, delivery, tracking of learning, testing, communication, registration process and scheduling. There are many LMS systems on the market that can be obtained for free or through payment. It has now become an important task to choose…

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

  3. Aquatic fate of a double-stranded RNA in a sediment---water system following an over-water application.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Uffman, Joshua P; Jiang, Changjian; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    Determining the rate of biodegradation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the environment is an essential element of a comprehensive risk assessment of an RNA-based agricultural product. This information is used during problem formulation to define relevant routes and durations of environmental exposure for in planta-expressed dsRNA. Although exposure to biotechnology-derived crops expressing dsRNA traits in the aquatic environment is predicted to be minimal, little is known regarding the fate of dsRNA in these environments. To assess exposure to aquatic environments, a study was conducted to measure the rate of biodegradation of DvSnf7 dsRNA in aerobic water-sediment systems. Aquatic systems containing natural water and sediments that varied in physical and chemical characteristics were treated with dsRNA by applying DvSnf7 dsRNA directly to the water column. In the present study, DvSnf7 dsRNA dissipated rapidly from the water phase and was undetectable within 7 d as measured by QuantiGene (Affymetrix) and a sensitive insect bioassay in these diverse systems. Degradation kinetics estimated a half-life (time to 50% dissipation [DT50]) of less than 3 d and a time to 90% dissipation of approximately 4 d. Further analysis indicated that DvSnf7 dsRNA had DT50 values of less than 6 d in both sediment-free systems containing natural water and systems with only sediment. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that dsRNA-based agricultural products rapidly degrade and consequently are unlikely to persist in aquatic environments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:727-734. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. The role of the Forest Service in aquatic invasive species research

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Adams; Kelly M. Burnett; Peter Bisson; Bret Harvey; Keith H. Nislow; Bruce E. Rieman; John Rinne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems include the most imperiled taxa in the United States, and invasive species are the second leading contributor to this imperilment. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service is legally mandated to sustainably manage aquatic habitats and native species on National Forest System (NFS) lands. Invasive species add complexity and...

  5. Data base management systems activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Data Management System-1100 is designed to operate in conjunction with the UNIVAC 1100 Series Operating System on any 1100 Series computer. DMS-1100 is divided into the following four major software components: (1) Data Definition Languages (DDL); (2) Data Management Routine (DMR); (3) Data Manipulation Languages (DML); and (4) Data Base Utilities (DBU). These software components are described in detail.

  6. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  7. C.E.B.A.S., a closed equilibrated biological aquatic system as a possible precursor for a long-term life support system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.

    C.E.B.A.S.-AQUARACK is a long-term multi-generation experimental device for aquatic organisms which is disposed for utlizitation in a space station. It results from the basic idea of a space aquarium for maintaining aquatic animals for longer periods integrated in a AQUARACK which consists of a modular animal holding tank, a semi-biological/physical water recycling system and an electronical control unit. The basic idea to replace a part of the water recycling system by a continuous culture of unicellular algae primarily leads to a second system for experiments with algae, a botanical AQUARACK consisting of an algal reactor, a water recycling and the electronical control unit. The combination of the zoological part, and the botanical part with a common control system in the AQUARACK, however, results in a ``Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System'' (C.E.B.A.S.) representing an closed artificial ecosystem. Although this is disposed primarily as an experimental device for basic zoological, botanical and interdisciplinary research it opens the theoretical possibility to adapt it for combined production of animal and plant biomass on ground or in space. The paper explains the basic conception of the hardware construction of the zoological part of the system, the corresponding scientific frame program including the choice of the experimental animals and gives some selected examples of the hardware-related resrearch. It furtheron discusses the practical and economical relevance of the system in the development of a controlled aquatical life support system in general.

  8. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Reports 2 and 3. First and Second Year Poststocking Results. Volume 5. The Herpetofauna of Lake Conway, Florida: Community Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    AD Al 34 34 1 AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PROGRAM LARGE-SC ALE Ij OPERATIONS MANAG E MENT . Ul UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA DEPT OF BIOLOGY R...TEST CHART NATIONAL BVIREAU OF StANARS-1963- I AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT A-78-2 LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF...Road, Springfield, Va. 22161. 19. KEY BORDS (Continue.o --- ,.. old. it ,o..0,y And IdentiIy by block -ob) Amphibia Reptiles Aquatic plant control

  9. Fault management for data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark A.; Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    1993-01-01

    Issues related to automating the process of fault management (fault diagnosis and response) for data management systems are considered. Substantial benefits are to be gained by successful automation of this process, particularly for large, complex systems. The use of graph-based models to develop a computer assisted fault management system is advocated. The general problem is described and the motivation behind choosing graph-based models over other approaches for developing fault diagnosis computer programs is outlined. Some existing work in the area of graph-based fault diagnosis is reviewed, and a new fault management method which was developed from existing methods is offered. Our method is applied to an automatic telescope system intended as a prototype for future lunar telescope programs. Finally, an application of our method to general data management systems is described.

  10. Riparian and aquatic habitats of the Pacific Northwest and southeast Alaska: ecology, management history, and potential management strategies.

    Treesearch

    Fred H. Everest; Gordon H. Reeves

    2007-01-01

    Management of riparian habitats is controversial because land use policies have historically emphasized economic values (e.g., timber production) at the expense of ecological and social values. Attempting to manage these valuable resources to attain the greatest combination of benefits has created a long-term controversy that continues to the present. Our analysis...

  11. Fate of methane in aquatic systems dominated by free-floating plants.

    PubMed

    Kosten, Sarian; Piñeiro, Marcia; de Goede, Eefje; de Klein, Jeroen; Lamers, Leon P M; Ettwig, Katharina

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide the area of free-floating plants is increasing, which can be expected to alter methane (CH4) emissions from aquatic systems in several ways. A large proportion of the CH4 produced may become oxidized below the plants due to the accumulation of CH4 as a result of a decrease in the diffusive water-atmosphere flux and the entrapment of part of the ebullitive CH4, in combination with suitable conditions for methane oxidizing (MOX) bacteria in the aerobic rhizosphere. We used a set of essays to test this hypothesis and to explore the effect of different densities for three widespread free-floating species: Azolla filiculoides, Salvinia natans, and Eichhornia crassipes. The gas exchange velocity, proportion of CH4 bubbles trapped by the plants, occurrence of radial oxygen loss from roots, and MOX rates on the roots were assessed. We subsequently used the outcome of these experiments to parameterize a simple model. With this model we estimated the proportion of the produced CH4 that is oxidized, for different plant species and different densities. We found that in a shallow (1 m) system up to 70% of the CH4 produced may become oxidized as a result of a strong decrease in gas exchange combined with high MOX activity of the rhizosphere microbiome. As floating plants also are likely to increase CH4 production by organic matter production, especially when their presence induces anaerobic conditions, the overall effect on CH4 emission will strongly depend on local conditions. This explains the contrasting effects of floating plants on CH4 emissions in literature as reviewed here. As the effect of floating plants on CH4 emissions, including the high MOX rates we show here, can be substantial, there is an urgent need to consider this impact when assessing greenhouse gas budgets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Workflow management systems in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Thomas; Meetz, Kirsten; Schmidt, Joachim

    1998-07-01

    In a situation of shrinking health care budgets, increasing cost pressure and growing demands to increase the efficiency and the quality of medical services, health care enterprises are forced to optimize or complete re-design their processes. Although information technology is agreed to potentially contribute to cost reduction and efficiency improvement, the real success factors are the re-definition and automation of processes: Business Process Re-engineering and Workflow Management. In this paper we discuss architectures for the use of workflow management systems in radiology. We propose to move forward from information systems in radiology (RIS, PACS) to Radiology Management Systems, in which workflow functionality (process definitions and process automation) is implemented through autonomous workflow management systems (WfMS). In a workflow oriented architecture, an autonomous workflow enactment service communicates with workflow client applications via standardized interfaces. In this paper, we discuss the need for and the benefits of such an approach. The separation of workflow management system and application systems is emphasized, and the consequences that arise for the architecture of workflow oriented information systems. This includes an appropriate workflow terminology, and the definition of standard interfaces for workflow aware application systems. Workflow studies in various institutions have shown that most of the processes in radiology are well structured and suited for a workflow management approach. Numerous commercially available Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) were investigated, and some of them, which are process- oriented and application independent, appear suitable for use in radiology.

  13. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  14. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management. PMID:27513336

  15. Assessing and Managing the Current and Future Pest Risk from Water Hyacinth, (Eichhornia crassipes), an Invasive Aquatic Plant Threatening the Environment and Water Security.

    PubMed

    Kriticos, Darren J; Brunel, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios. Under two future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2080 simulated with three Global Climate Models, the area with a favourable temperature regime appears set to shift polewards. The greatest potential for future range expansion lies in Europe. Elsewhere in the northern hemisphere temperature gradients are too steep for significant geographical range expansion under the climate scenarios explored here. In the Southern Hemisphere, the southern range boundary for E. crassipes is set to expand southwards in Argentina, Australia and New Zealand; under current climate conditions it is already able to invade the southern limits of Africa. The opportunity exists to prevent its spread into the islands of Tasmania in Australia and the South Island of New Zealand, both of which depend upon hydroelectric facilities that would be threatened by the presence of E. crassipes. In Europe, efforts to slow or stop the spread of E. crassipes will face the challenge of limited internal biosecurity capacity. The modelling technique demonstrated here is the first application of niche modelling for an aquatic weed under historical and projected future climates. It provides biosecurity agencies with a spatial tool to foresee and manage the emerging invasion threats in a manner that can be included in the international standard for pest risk assessments. It should also support more detailed local and regional management.

  16. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA.

  17. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  18. Medical-Information-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  19. Medical-Information-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterescu, Sidney; Friedman, Carl A.; Frankowski, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Medical Information Management System (MIMS) computer program interactive, general-purpose software system for storage and retrieval of information. Offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases required. User quickly and efficiently extracts, displays, and analyzes data. Used in management of medical data and handling all aspects of data related to care of patients. Other applications include management of data on occupational safety in public and private sectors, handling judicial information, systemizing purchasing and procurement systems, and analyses of cost structures of organizations. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77.

  20. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  1. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-07-07

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land.

  2. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-01-01

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land. PMID:27383663

  3. Phenotypic flexibility of gape anatomy fine-tunes the aquatic prey-capture system of newts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wassenbergh, Sam; Heiss, Egon

    2016-07-01

    A unique example of phenotypic flexibility of the oral apparatus is present in newts (Salamandridae) that seasonally change between an aquatic and a terrestrial habitat. Newts grow flaps of skin between their upper and lower jaws, the labial lobes, to partly close the corners of the mouth when they adopt an aquatic lifestyle during their breeding season. Using hydrodynamic simulations based on μCT-scans and cranial kinematics during prey-capture in the smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris), we showed that this phenotypic flexibility is an adaptive solution to improve aquatic feeding performance: both suction distance and suction force increase by approximately 15% due to the labial lobes. As the subsequent freeing of the corners of the mouth by resorption of the labial lobes is assumed beneficial for the terrestrial capture of prey by the tongue, this flexibility of the mouth fine-tunes the process of capturing prey throughout the seasonal switching between water and land.

  4. Contaminants in aquatic systems at the Rocky Mountain arsenal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenlund, B.; Jennings, D.; Kurey, B.

    1986-01-29

    The objective of this study, conducted from May to November, 1984, are to: document the amount of Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, and Hg in various trophic levels of aquatic life throughout the lower lakes and the pathway these contaminants follow from sediment to fish; and to document the difference in Aldrin, Dieldrn, Endrin, and Hg contamination between samples captured from lake bottom locations known to be high or low in sediment contamination. The body of the report consists of data on water quality and in aquatic vegetation, aquatic insects, amphibians, and fish. Appendices: Laboratory methods, Colorado epidemiological pesticide study center; laboratory quality control; and preliminary investigation of Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, and Hg residues in eggs and young of waterfowl nesting at RMA.

  5. Managing aquatic species of conservation concern in the face of climate change and invasive species.

    PubMed

    Rahel, Frank J; Bierwagen, Britta; Taniguchi, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    The difficult task of managing species of conservation concern is likely to become even more challenging due to the interaction of climate change and invasive species. In addition to direct effects on habitat quality, climate change will foster the expansion of invasive species into new areas and magnify the effects of invasive species already present by altering competitive dominance, increasing predation rates, and enhancing the virulence of diseases. In some cases parapatric species may expand into new habitats and have detrimental effects that are similar to those of invading non-native species. The traditional strategy of isolating imperiled species in reserves may not be adequate if habitat conditions change beyond historic ranges or in ways that favor invasive species. The consequences of climate change will require a more active management paradigm that includes implementing habitat improvements that reduce the effects of climate change and creating migration barriers that prevent an influx of invasive species. Other management actions that should be considered include providing dispersal corridors that allow species to track environmental changes, translocating species to newly suitable habitats where migration is not possible, and developing action plans for the early detection and eradication of new invasive species.

  6. Impact assessment of emission management strategies of the pharmaceuticals Metformin and Metoprolol to the aquatic environment using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Brandmayr, Caterina; Kerber, Heide; Winker, Martina; Schramm, Engelbert

    2015-11-01

    The issue of pharmaceuticals in the environment has caused increasing concern in the recent years and various strategies have been proposed to tackle this problem. This work describes a Bayesian network (BN)-based socio-ecological impact assessment of a set of measures aimed at reducing the entry of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. The measures investigated were selected across three sectors: public health market, environmental politics and drug design innovation. The BN model was developed for two drugs, Metformin and Metoprolol, and it models the distribution of the Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) values as a function of different measures. Results show that the sensitivity of the PEC for the two drugs to the measures investigated reflects the distinct drug characteristics, suggesting that in order to ensure the successful reduction of a broad range of substances, a spectrum of measures targeting the entire lifecycle of a pharmaceutical should be implemented. Furthermore, evaluation of two scenarios reflecting different emission management strategies highlights that the integrated implementation of a comprehensive set of measures across the three sectors results in a more extensive reduction of the contamination. Finally, the BN provides an initial forecasting tool to model the PEC of a drug as a function of a combination of measures in a context-specific manner and possible adaptations of the model are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge Base Management for Model Management Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    inter- faces as they relate to aspects of model base management. The focus of this study is to identify some organiza- tions of knowledge about models...Vertical thinking is loosely related to systemic thinking, where one idea establishes a logical foundation upon which to construct the next idea...thinking is somewhat associated with creative thinking, and the idea of pattern matching from one circumstance to another. Mintzberg IRef. 41 has related

  8. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    PubMed

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  9. Animal protein production modules in biological life support systems: Novel combined aquaculture techniques based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Andriske, M.; Kreuzberg, K.; Schreibman, M. P.

    Based on the experiences made with the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) which was primarily deveoloped for long-term and multi-generation experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station highly effective fresh water recycling modules were elaborated utilizing a combination of ammonia oxidizing bacteria filters and higher plants. These exhibit a high effectivity to eliminate phosphate and anorganic nitrogen compounds and arc. in addidition. able to contribute to the oxygen supply of the aquatic animals. The C.E.B.A.S. filter system is able to keep a closed artificial aquatic ecosystem containing teleost fishes and water snails biologically stable for several month and to eliminate waste products deriving from degraded dead fishes without a decrease of the oxygen concentration down to less than 3.5 mg/l at 25 °C. More advanced C.E.B.A.S. filter systems, the BIOCURE filters, were also developed for utilization in semiintensive and intensive aquaculture systems for fishes. In fact such combined animal-plant aquaculture systems represent highly effective productions sites for human food if proper plant and fish species are selected The present papers elucidates ways to novel aquaculture systems in which herbivorous fishes are raised by feeding them with plant biomass produced in the BIOCURE filters and presents the scheme of a modification which utilizes a plant species suitable also for human nutrition. Special attention is paid to the benefits of closed aquaculture system modules which may be integrated into bioregenerative life support systems of a higher complexity for, e. g.. lunar or planetary bases including some psychologiccal aspects of the introduction of animal protein production into plant-based life support systems. Moreover, the basic reproductive biological problems of aquatic animal breeding under reduced gravity are explained leading to a disposition of essential research programs in this context.

  10. Autonomous, In-situ Instrumentation for Continuous Measurement of Dissolved Copper and Zinc in Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Z.; Holm, C. E.; Groshong, H.; Yannasch, H.; Johnson, K.

    2008-12-01

    Quantifying trace metal concentrations in aquatic systems is complicated, costly, and prone to contamination artifacts. Consequently, very little is known about high-frequency temporal variability (hours-to-days) in metal concentrations. Such data can be used to assess the origin, fate and impact of toxic trace metals such as copper and zinc. We have developed autonomous, in-situ instrumentation to measure dissolved copper and zinc concentrations, suitable for deployment on time scales from weeks to a month. Both instruments use the commercially available in-situ nitrate analyzer (YSI 9600) as the base platform. Micro solenoid pumps take in sample and dispense reagent, standard, and blank solutions. Filtration (0.45 μm) and acidification (pH ~1.7) permit a measurement of total dissolved metal. The copper instrument features a custom-made photomultiplier (PMT) based detector and flow-cell. Copper is detected through chemiluminescence of 1-10- phenanthroline. The zinc instrument features a custom-made PMT and LED-based fluorometric detector and flow-cell. Zinc is detected using the fluorescent probe Fluo-Zin3. Averaged over all in-situ estuarine deployments, the copper instrument has a detection limit of 0.8 nM ±0.3 nM, a sample precision of 11% (n=612), and an accuracy of 17% (compared to discrete samples n=27). The instrument is capable of functioning autonomously for 25 days when sampling every hour and calibrating every six hours. Based on bench tests, the zinc instrument has a detection limit of ~2 nM and a sample precision better than 2%. The hardware and analytical approach can be easily modified to detect additional metals by chemiluminescence (e.g. Co, Fe, Mn) and fluorescence (e.g. Al, Cd).

  11. Antibiotics as a chemical stressor affecting an aquatic decomposer-detritivore system.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Gessner, Mark O; Schulz, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a variety of antibiotic residues may affect the integrity of streams located downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Aquatic communities comprising bacterial and fungal decomposers and invertebrate detritivores (shredders) play an important role in the decomposition of allochthonous leaf litter, which acts as a primary energy source for small running waters. The aim of the present study was to assess whether an antibiotic mixture consisting of sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin-H2O, roxithromycin, and clarithromycin has an effect on such a decomposer-detritivore system. Leaf discs were exposed to these antibiotics (total concentration of 2 or 200 microg/L) for approximately 20 d before offering these discs and corresponding control discs to an amphipod shredder, Gammarus fossarum, in a food choice experiment. Gammarus preferred the leaf discs conditioned in the presence of the antibiotic mixture at 200 microg/L over the control discs (pair-wise t test; p = 0.006). A similar tendency, while not significant, was observed for leaves conditioned with antibiotics at a concentration of 2 microg/L. The number of bacteria associated with leaves did not differ between treatments at either antibiotic concentration (t test; p = 0.57). In contrast, fungal biomass (measured as ergosterol) was significantly higher in the 200 microg/L treatment (t test; p = 0.038), suggesting that the preference of Gammarus may be related to a shift in fungal communities. Overall these results indicate that mixtures of antibiotics may disrupt important ecosystem processes such as organic matter flow in stream ecosystems, although effects are likely to be weak at antibiotic concentrations typical of streams receiving wastewater treatment plant effluents.

  12. Integrated Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Cossarin, Mary; Doxsee, Harry; Schwartz, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Four integrated learning management packages were reviewed: "CentraOne", "IntraLearn", "Lyceum", and "Silicon Chalk". These products provide different combinations of synchronous and asynchronous tools. The current report examines the products in relation to their specific value for distance educators and students.

  13. Potentially pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria found in aquatic systems. Analysis from a reclaimed water and water distribution system in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rodal, A I; Mazari-Hiriart, M; Lloret-Sánchez, L T; Sachman-Ruiz, B; Vinuesa, P; López-Vidal, Y

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in three Mexican aquatic systems to evaluate the prevalence with the distribution of NTM species. Key physicochemical parameters of the water samples were determined to find correlations with the species' distributions. We used multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on hsp65, rpoB, and 16S rRNA fragments to determine their taxonomic affiliations. NTM were recovered from water distribution systems and reclaimed water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The isolated species were associated with a temperature of 21°C and pH >7.7. The phylogenetic analysis showed that eight of the 14 different NTM strains were unambiguously classifiable: Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. nonchromogenicum (2), M. smegmatis (2), M. fortuitum, M. avium ssp. hominissuis, M. arupense, M. gordonae, and M. chitae. One strain was tentatively identified as M. mantenni/ scrofulaceum and another strain was related to M. porcinum/M. septicum. All NTM species identified in the water distribution system were also detected in the reclaimed water, but some species from the reclaimed water were not found in the water distribution systems. Two of the identified species found in the reclaimed water, M. avium and M. fortuitum, are considered important human opportunistic pathogens.

  14. Development of static system procedures to study aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithers, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The microbial ecology facility in the Analytical and Physical Chemistry Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center is tasked with anticipation of potential microbial problems (and opportunities to exploit microorganisms) which may occur in partially closed systems such as space station/vehicles habitats and in water reclamation systems therein, with particular emphasis on the degradation of materials. Within this context, procedures for microbial biofilm research are being developed. Reported here is the development of static system procedures to study aquatic biofilms and their responses to disinfection and invading species. Preliminary investigations have been completed. As procedures are refined, it will be possible to focus more closely on the elucidation of biofilm phenomena.

  15. The FAO/NACA Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals: lessons learned from their development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, R P; Bondad-Reantaso, M G

    2008-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted in aquatic animals and animal products moving around the world rapidly, causing serious disease outbreaks stemming from incursions of pathogens through unregulated transboundary movements. It has become necessary to develop appropriate guidelines for establishing national regulatory frameworks to improve responsibility in transboundary movement of live aquatic animals. In 2000, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and in partnership with 21 Asian countries, developed the Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals. The present article outlines the development process of the guidelines, the lessons learned from their implementation at national level and the way forward.

  16. Factors that may increase the risk of aquatic organisms to the harmful effects of ultraviolet-B radiation: A management perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Little, E.E.; Fabacher, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Elevated levels of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion may cause harmful effects in aquatic organisms. Solar UVB radiation penetrates clear water and can have a direct biological impact on some organisms, causing lesions, infection, and mortality. Numerous evolutionary adaptations and repair mechanisms appear to have evolved in aquatic organisms for coping with solar radiation. The authors found that some species of fish are more susceptible to the harmful effects of solar simulated UVB than other species. Such differences were directly related to the amount of an unidentified dorsal skin component that may function as a natural sunscreen and protect some fish from the harmful effects of UVB. Ozone depletion arising from the destruction of ozone by chlorofluorocarbons is expected to average around 11% annually in mid-northern latitudes through the rest of the century. Since many aquatic organisms appear to exist at their limits of tolerance for solar UVB radiation, environmental changes that result in increased UVB radiation may be directly harmful to sensitive populations. Identification of risk factors and management of aquatic communities exposed to enhanced UVB require not only information about UVB climatology, but also knowledge of the sensitivity and behavioral habits of each species, and an assessment of environmental variables that may increase or mitigate UVB exposure.

  17. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-Use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  18. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems (#2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  19. #2) Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  20. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-Use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  1. #2) Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  2. Enantiomer Specific Measurements of Current-use Pesticides in Aquatic Systems (#2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that current-use pesticides can enter urban and agricultural watersheds and adversely affect aquatic organisms. A potential cause may be higher concentrations of the more toxic pesticide enantiomer present in the pesticide mixture. The presence of pesticide ena...

  3. The developing renal, reproductive, and respiratory systems of the African elephant suggest an aquatic ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Gaeth, A. P.; Short, R. V.; Renfree, M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The early embryology of the elephant has never been studied before. We have obtained a rare series of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) embryos and fetuses ranging in weight from 0.04 to 18.5 g, estimated gestational ages 58–166 days (duration of gestation is ≈660 days). Nephrostomes, a feature of aquatic vertebrates, were found in the mesonephric kidneys at all stages of development whereas they have never been recorded in the mesonephric kidneys of other viviparous mammals. The trunk was well developed even in the earliest fetus. The testes were intra-abdominal, and there was no evidence of a gubernaculum, pampiniform plexus, processus vaginalis, or a scrotum, confirming that the elephant, like the dugong, is one of the few primary testicond mammals. The palaeontological evidence suggests that the elephant’s ancestors were aquatic, and recent immunological and molecular evidence shows an extremely close affinity between present-day elephants and the aquatic Sirenia (dugong and manatees). The evidence from our embryological study of the elephant also suggests that it evolved from an aquatic mammal. PMID:10318922

  4. The developing renal, reproductive, and respiratory systems of the African elephant suggest an aquatic ancestry.

    PubMed

    Gaeth, A P; Short, R V; Renfree, M B

    1999-05-11

    The early embryology of the elephant has never been studied before. We have obtained a rare series of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) embryos and fetuses ranging in weight from 0.04 to 18.5 g, estimated gestational ages 58-166 days (duration of gestation is approximately 660 days). Nephrostomes, a feature of aquatic vertebrates, were found in the mesonephric kidneys at all stages of development whereas they have never been recorded in the mesonephric kidneys of other viviparous mammals. The trunk was well developed even in the earliest fetus. The testes were intra-abdominal, and there was no evidence of a gubernaculum, pampiniform plexus, processus vaginalis, or a scrotum, confirming that the elephant, like the dugong, is one of the few primary testicond mammals. The palaeontological evidence suggests that the elephant's ancestors were aquatic, and recent immunological and molecular evidence shows an extremely close affinity between present-day elephants and the aquatic Sirenia (dugong and manatees). The evidence from our embryological study of the elephant also suggests that it evolved from an aquatic mammal.

  5. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the St. Louis River System

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort represents the most spatially and ta...

  6. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the St. Louis River System

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort represents the most spatially and ta...

  7. Mechanical Harvesting of Aquatic Plants. Report 3. Evaluation of the Limnos System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    portions are characterized by hard- wood swamps and some marshlands. The target problem aquatic plant in this environment is the waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia ... crassipes (Hart.) Solms). In situ densities of this plant range from 40 to over 150 tons per acre. Distribution of the plant is predominately aligned

  8. Is litter decomposition 'primed' by primary producer-release of labile carbon in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, A. Margarida P. M.; Kritzberg, Emma S.; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    It is possible that recalcitrant organic matter (ROM) can be 'activated' by inputs of labile organic matter (LOM) through the priming effect (PE). Investigating the PE is of major importance to fully understand the microbial use of ROM and its role on carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In aquatic ecosystems it is thought that the PE is triggered by periphytic algae release of LOM. Analogously, in terrestrial systems it is hypothesized that the LOM released in plant rhizospheres, or from the green crusts on the surface of agricultural soils, stimulate the activity and growth of ROM decomposers. Most previous studies on PE have utilised pulse additions of single substrates at high concentrations. However, to achieve an assessment of the true importance of the PE, it is important to simulate a realistic delivery of LOM. We investigated, in a series of 2-week laboratory experiments, how primary producer (PP)-release of LOM influence litter degradation in terrestrial and aquatic experimental systems. We used soil (terrestrial) and pond water (aquatic) microbial communities to which litter was added under light and dark conditions. In addition, glucose was added at PP delivery rates in dark treatments to test if the putative PE in light systems could be reproduced. We observed an initial peak of bacterial growth rate followed by an overall decrease over time with no treatment differences. In light treatments, periphytic algae growth and increased fungal production was stimulated when bacterial growth declined. In contrast, both fungal growth and algal production were negligible in dark treatments. This reveals a direct positive influence of photosynthesis on fungal growth. To investigate if PP LOM supplements, and the associated fungal growth, translate into a modulated litter decomposition, we are using stable isotopes to track the use of litter and algal-derived carbon by determining the δ13C in produced CO2. Fungi and bacteria

  9. Developing biohopanoid molecular proxies for bacterially derived soil organic matter and its fate in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, H. M.; Cooke, M. P.; Zhu, C.; Handley, L.; Van Dongen, B.; Doğrul Selver, A.; Kim, J.; Pancost, R. D.; Pereira, R.; Graham, D.; Wagner, T.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially-mediated processes at the Earth's surface and in the subsurface are fundamental controls on the global carbon and climate cycle. Bacteria and other microorganisms produce a variety of lipid biomarkers which are important for studying their activity in modern and Recent environments; however, many of these molecules are not well preserved in the sedimentary record. A developing approach to tackle bacterial biomarkers in sediments is to apply bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), membrane lipids biosynthesised by many, but not all bacteria. Recently identified in sediments up to 55 Ma, these compounds, consist of a stable pentacyclic hydrocarbon skeleton with an extended, highly functionalised side chain containing at least 4 functional groups. BHPs are significant components in soils and sediments and although some BHPs have a diverse range of biological source organisms, others have more restricted origins. Recently several BHPs have been proposed as novel markers for specific biogeochemical processes including aerobic methane oxidation and nitrogen-fixation. Here we will focus on the persistent need to understand carbon dynamics and reactions involving organic matter at the land-ocean interface which has lead to a proposed new BHP based approach. We have identified a group of compounds related to adenosylhopane which are highly abundant components in soils but generally scarce or absent in lacustrine sediments and open marine systems. We propose that the relative contribution of this group of compounds to the sedimentary BHP pool may be a useful proxy for terrestrial organic matter input. Development is still ongoing; however, as a foundation to this application we have surveyed the BHP composition of over 600 soil samples from around the world including new samples from the tropics and polar regions and will here present a synthesis of this data, comparing terrestrial BHP fingerprints to those from a range of aquatic sediments located within different climate

  10. Springs as Model Systems for Aquatic Ecosystems Ecology: Stoichiometry, Metabolism and Nutrient Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. J.; Nifong, R. L.; Kurz, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Cropper, W. P.; Korhnak, L. V.

    2013-12-01

    Springs have been called nature's chemostats, where low variation in discharge, temperature and chemistry creates a natural laboratory in which to address basic questions about aquatic ecosystems. Ecological stoichiometry posits that patterns of metabolism, trophic energy transfer and community structure arise in response to coupled elemental cycles. In this work we synthesize several recent studies in Florida's iconic springs to explore the overarching hypothesis that stoichiometry can be used to indicate the nutrient limitation status of autotrophs and ecosystem metabolism. Of foremost importance is that the chemically stable conditions observed in springs ensures that autotroph tissue elemental composition, which is thought to vary with environmental supply, is near steady state. Moreover, the elemental ratios of discharging water vary dramatically across our study springs (for example, molar N:P ranges from 0.4:1 to 400:1), subjecting the communities of autotrophs, which are largely conserved across systems, to dramatically different nutrient supply. At the scale of whole ecosystem metabolism, we show that C:N:P ratios are strongly conserved across a wide gradient of environmental supplies, counter to the prediction of stoichiometric plasticity. Moreover, the absence of a relationship between gross primary production and nutrient concentrations or stoichiometry suggests that metabolic homeostasis may be a diagnostic symptom of nutrient saturation. At the scale of individual autotrophs, both submerged vascular plants and filamentous algae, this finding is strongly reinforced, with remarkable within-species tissue C:N:P homeostasis over large gradients, and no statistically significant evidence that gradients in nutrient supply affect autotroph composition. Expanding the suite of elements for which contemporaneous environment and tissue measurements are available to include 19 metals and micronutrients revealed that, while plants were homeostatic across large N

  11. Creating Effective Enrollment Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don

    A guide to the development and operation of a college enrollment management system is presented for college administrators. After describing current issues that affect traditional student enrollments, the concept of enrollment management is defined, and its basic elements are introduced, along with broader organizational perspectives such as…

  12. Developing a Management System (AMOAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, James E.; Price, Bonnie B.

    To evaluate their school management personnel, the Muhlenberg (Pennsylvania) School District adopted the Administrative Management by Objectives Appraisal System (AMOAS). Administrators are evaluated on the basis of objectives that they establish in conjunction with their immediate supervisor and on everyday job performance. Above satisfactory…

  13. Developing a Management System (AMOAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, James E.; Price, Bonnie B.

    To evaluate their school management personnel, the Muhlenberg (Pennsylvania) School District adopted the Administrative Management by Objectives Appraisal System (AMOAS). Administrators are evaluated on the basis of objectives that they establish in conjunction with their immediate supervisor and on everyday job performance. Above satisfactory…

  14. Readiness System Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-13

    on the CINCS assessments and problems. The third part of the formal input is the daily situation report(SITREP). Thl ^ is the means whereby each...the specific purpose of inclusion in future editions of the Army War College textbook Army Command and Management: Theory and Practice(3 volumes...forces in peacetime is to be prepared to fight in war. This military preparedness, or readiness, serves two objectives: 1. To reduce the likelihood

  15. Mass storage system reference model system management

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.; McLarty, T.

    1988-01-01

    System Management is the collection of functions that are primarily concerned with the control, performance and utilization of the Mass Storage System defined by the Mass Storage System Reference Model. These functions are often very site-dependent, involve human decision making, and span multiple ''severs'' of the Mass Storage System. The functions may be implemented as standalone programs, may be integrated with the other Mass Storage System software, or may just be policy. 4 refs.

  16. Data management system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Harry F.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on data management system technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: systems technology area needs; storage technology area needs; processor technology area needs; communications technology area needs; software system technology area needs; human interface technology area needs; software development and verification; and onboard communications.

  17. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  18. The Columbus Data Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdan, P.; Laborde, X.; Pitard, P.

    1986-10-01

    The design constraints applied to the on-board Data Management System (DMS) of the European Columbus space segment are discussed, as are the key features of the system. The DMS architecture is examined with particular reference to the manned system, maintenance in space, system evolvability, commonality, autonomy, information security and privacy, and standards accommodation. The main concepts underlying the DMS architecture are the distributed system concept, layered software, and fault tolerance. The discussion covers a description of the principal DMS subsystems.

  19. Managing aquatic parasites for reduced drug resistance: lessons from the land.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Gregor F; Groner, Maya L; Burnett, Danielle L; Fast, Mark D; Revie, Crawford W

    2016-12-01

    Atlantic salmon farming is one of the largest aquaculture industries in the world. A major problem in salmon farms is the sea louse ectoparasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis, which can cause stress, secondary infection and sometimes mortality in the salmon host. Sea lice have substantial impacts on farm economics and potentially nearby wild salmonid populations. The most common method of controlling sea louse infestations is application of chemicals. However, most farming regions worldwide have observed resistance to the small set of treatment chemicals that are available. Despite this, there has been little investigation of treatment strategies for managing resistance in aquaculture. In this article, we compare four archetypical treatment strategies inspired by agriculture, where the topic has a rich history of study, and add a fifth strategy common in aquaculture. We use an agent-based model (ABM) to simulate these strategies and their varying applications of chemicals over time and space. We analyse the ABM output to compare how the strategies perform in controlling louse abundance, number of treatments required and levels of resistance in the sea louse population. Our results indicated that among the approaches considered applying chemicals in combination was the most effective over the long term. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Assessment of the ecotoxicological risk of combined sewer overflows for an aquatic system using a coupled "substance and bioassay" approach.

    PubMed

    Gooré Bi, Eustache; Monette, Frederic; Gasperi, Johnny; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Very few tools are available for assessing the impact of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) on receiving aquatic environments. The main goal of the study was to assess the ecotoxicological risk of CSOs for a surface aquatic ecosystem using a coupled "substance and bioassay" approach. Wastewater samples from the city of Longueuil, Canada CSO were collected for various rainfall events during one summer season and analyzed for a large panel of substances (n = 116). Four bioassays were also conducted on representative organisms of surface aquatic systems (Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analytical data did not reveal any ecotoxicological risk for St. Lawrence River organisms, mainly due to strong effluent dilution. However, the substance approach showed that, because of their contribution to the ecotoxicological hazard posed by the effluent, total phosphorus (Ptot), aluminum (Al), total residual chlorine, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), pyrene, ammonia (N-NH4 (+)), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) require more targeted monitoring. While chronic ecotoxicity tests revealed a potential impact of CSO discharges on P. promelas and C. dubia, acute toxicity tests did not show any effect on D. magna or O. mykiss, thus underscoring the importance of chronic toxicity tests as part of efforts aimed at characterizing effluent toxicity. Ultimately, the study leads to the conclusion that the coupled "substance and bioassay" approach is a reliable and robust method for assessing the ecotoxicological risk associated with complex discharges such as CSOs.

  1. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use.

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against systemic bacteria of aquatic animals

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lee Seong; Wee, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives This paper describes chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon nardus citronella essential oil against Edwardsiella spp. (n = 21), Vibrio spp. (n = 6), Aeromonas spp. (n = 2), Escherichia coli (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 2), Flavobacterium spp. (n = 1), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 1) and Streptococcus spp. (n = 1) isolated from internal organs of aquatic animals. Due to the ban of antibiotics for aquaculture use, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of citronella essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotic use against systemic bacteria in cultured aquatic animals. Materials & Methods The essential oil of C. nardus was prepared by using the steam distillation method and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil tested against bacterial isolates from various aquatic animals and ATCC type strains were determined using two-fold broth micro dilution method with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. Results A total of 22 chemical compounds were detected in C. nardus essential oil with 6-octenal, 3, 7-dimethyl- or citronellal representing the major compounds (29.6%). The MIC values of the citronella oil ranged from 0.244 µg/ml to 0.977 µg/ml when tested against the bacterial isolates. Conclusion The results of the present study revealed the potential of C. nardus essential oil as alternative to commercial antibiotics for aquaculture use. PMID:23825733

  3. [PAHs concentrations in aquatic products and food safety evaluation in the coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qiu; Li, Yao-Chu; Huang, Jin-Mu; Nan, Yan; Lin, Mao-Hong

    2012-06-01

    In order to know about the PAHs concentration in aquatic products from mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system and to make sure of food quality and food safety, HPLC was used to determine concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tilapia mossambica, Mugil cephalu and Concha ostreae from coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ponds, food safety in aquatic products was also evaluated. The 13 PAHs were Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phe), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benz[a] anthraces (BaA), Chrysene (Chr), Benzo[b] fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k] fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[a] Pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo [a, h] anthercene (DahA), Benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) and Indeno [1,2,3-c, d] pyrene (InP). Concentrations of PAHs were the highest in Concha ostreae which were in the range of 89.79-98.49 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, while those were in the range of 25.97-34.64 microg x kg(-1) in Mugil cephalu and 12.31-14.41 microg x kg(-1) in Tilapia mossambica. The content of fat affected the levels of PAHs content in different aquatic products. The individual composition of PAHs was characterized by 3 rings in samples with the range of 41.58% - 83.35%. Comparing with other areas, PAHs pollution of aquatic products in the studied area was in the mild level. Values of the total BaP(eq) concentration ranged from 0.0689 microg x kg(-1) to 1.0373 microg x kg(-1), which were lower than the maximum level set by European Union.

  4. RIMS: Resource Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symes, J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities and functions of the resource management system (RIMS). It is a simple interactive DMS tool which allows users to build, modify, and maintain data management applications. The RIMS minimizes programmer support required to develop/maintain small data base applications. The RIMS also assists in bringing the United Information Services (UIS) budget system work inhouse. Information is also given on the relationship between the RIMS and the user community.

  5. RIMS: Resource Information Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symes, J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview is given of the capabilities and functions of the resource management system (RIMS). It is a simple interactive DMS tool which allows users to build, modify, and maintain data management applications. The RIMS minimizes programmer support required to develop/maintain small data base applications. The RIMS also assists in bringing the United Information Services (UIS) budget system work inhouse. Information is also given on the relationship between the RIMS and the user community.

  6. Portfolio 2000: managing clinical systems.

    PubMed

    Hunter, L L

    1998-01-01

    Powerful forces are changing the provision of health care. Management is transitioning into new responsibility for a leaner, more flexible, customer-focused operation to support the goals of integrated systems of the 21st century--to minimize disease and to promote health. In response to this evolution, the clinical systems management concept describes multidimensional competencies, which are transportable throughout the continuum of care (1). These new knowledge competencies and core competencies applied in a different context are characterized in this paper.

  7. The role of photochemical reactions of suspended particulate matter on mercury cycling in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenberg, J. L.; Peters, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) provides a large amount of surface area for chemical reactions that are important for trace metal cycling. In many settings, particulate-bound mercury (Hg) dominates the total Hg pool. Coatings of iron (Fe) oxides or organic material (OM) on suspended inorganic constituents have long been recognized as important surfaces for reactions with trace metals in aquatic systems. Both Fe and OM are photoreactive and have been well studied in the dissolved phase, and extensive data has been published regarding photochemical influences on mercury cycling. Photoreactions involving particulates have been little studied, but could affect the stability of mercury-SPM complexes in natural and contaminated systems. The purpose of this experiment was to assess the importance of photochemical reactions of SPM for controlling mercury partitioning and emission. The influence of particle coating type (Fe vs. OM vs. no coating) was also evaluated. A pilot experiment was conducted using filtered (F) and unfiltered (UF) waters collected from a contaminated estuary (Berry's Creek, NJ, USA) to evaluate the effect of particle presence and absence on Hg emission rates. Four treatments (F-Light, F-Dark,UF-Light, UF-Dark) in flux chambers were exposed to sunlight for approximately 6 hours. Light was able to penetrate the flux chambers from the sides as well as the top throughout the experiment, and Hg emission was continuously measured using atomic absorption. Results of the pilot study indicated significantly different Hg emissions from the 4 treatments, with emissions increasing in the following order: F-Dark, UF-Dark, F-Light, and UF-Light. Additional experiments were then conducted to better characterize the role of particulates, especially particle type, on Hg partitioning and emission rates. Ground quartz (5-20 um) was cleaned and then coated with iron or organic matter, or left uncoated. Deionized water was amended with mercury to achieve a final

  8. Highway 61 Revisited: Finding Drivers for Hypoxia in Aquatic Systems in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, F., Jr.; Murdock, J. N.; Lizotte, R. E., Jr.; Knight, S. S.; Locke, M. A.; Testa, S., III

    2011-12-01

    Streams and lakes in the intensively cultivated Mississippi River alluvial plain frequently experience periods of hypoxia that are evidence of ecological stress. Although hydrologic perturbations and sediments and nutrients derived from nonpoint sources are likely drivers of these conditions, the most efficient pathway for obtaining partial ecological recovery (e.g., N load reduction or P load reduction or flow augmentation or erosion control) is not clear. To gain deeper understanding of these systems, three similar ~20 km2 watersheds in northwestern Mississippi were selected for study and instrumented for collection of hydrologic and water quality data in 2011. Aquatic systems within each watershed consisted of shallow natural lakes embedded in networks of sporadically flowing ditches, natural channels and wetlands, with hydrology strongly impacted by irrigation withdrawals from groundwater and return flows to surface water bodies. Waters were usually turbid, with mean Secchi disk readings 10-15 cm and mean suspended solids concentrations 200-600 mg/L. Strong diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) occurred even in the wetter, cooler winter months, with up to 50% of daily means below state standards (5 mg/L). The average diurnal range (daily max-daily min) in DO varied from 0.9 to 2.5 mg/L for lakes and from 1.7 to 6.0 mg/L for channels. Attendant extreme diurnal variations in temperature and pH were also observed. Observations of chlorophyll a concentrations, water column phytoplankton, and attached algae indicate the importance of algal photosynthesis and respiration to DO levels, but these processes are limited by light availability and N and P concentrations in a complex fashion. Light levels are governed by channel width, water depth and turbidity, which is due to suspended sediment and algae. Preliminary nutrient limitation studies showed both N and P limit algal growth, and microbial production and respiration. N and N+P co

  9. Managing pipeline systems: key roles.

    PubMed

    Dillow, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    While the UK has an enviable safety record in the management of medical gas systems, it is only via strict adherence to the four tenets - 'continuity, adequacy, identity, and quality' - embodied within Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: 2006 - 'Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' (MGPS) that we can be certain that patients will not be harmed by these systems. So says Geoff Dillow, a former training head at the forerunner to today's Eastwood Park, the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, and co-author of the HTM, who has over 35 years' professional experience in assessing medical gas systems for compliance. In the first of four HEJ guidance articles on 'Managing Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' planned for coming months, he examines the critical role of the MGPS Permit to Work System (PTWS), and describes the parts played by those involved in its implementation and day-to-day management.

  10. Freshwater Aquatic Nuisance Species Impacts and Management Costs and Benefits at Federal Water Resources Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    rapidly into the Mississippi River system from Lake St. Clair where it first became established in the United States after accidental introduction... United States for animal ANS in the Great Lakes probably exceeded $28 to $39 million per year in the 1990s by some unknown amount, but probably does not...introduced into rivers of the southwestern United States where it endangers other species (e.g., Fuller et al. (1999)). But ANS can be identified among

  11. Interconnecting heterogeneous database management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gligor, V. D.; Luckenbaugh, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is still a great need for the development of improved communication between remote, heterogeneous database management systems (DBMS). Problems regarding the effective communication between distributed DBMSs are primarily related to significant differences between local data managers, local data models and representations, and local transaction managers. A system of interconnected DBMSs which exhibit such differences is called a network of distributed, heterogeneous DBMSs. In order to achieve effective interconnection of remote, heterogeneous DBMSs, the users must have uniform, integrated access to the different DBMs. The present investigation is mainly concerned with an analysis of the existing approaches to interconnecting heterogeneous DBMSs, taking into account four experimental DBMS projects.

  12. Automated flight test management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Tartt, D. M.; Agarwal, A.

    1991-01-01

    The Phase 1 development of an automated flight test management system (ATMS) as a component of a rapid prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight concepts is discussed. The ATMS provides a flight engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight test planning, monitoring, and simulation. The system is also capable of controlling an aircraft during flight test by performing closed loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The ATMS is being used as a prototypical system to develop a flight research facility for AI based flight systems concepts at NASA Ames Dryden.

  13. Aquatic sports massage therapy.

    PubMed

    Bell, G W

    1999-04-01

    Athletic trainers are continually bombarded with requests to assist aquatic athletes with the management of musculoskeletal concerns involved with training and overtraining. The trainer has options for initial training management through the administration of massage, cryotherapy, thermotherapy, and injury-preventative strengthening exercises. This article describes and illustrates athletic training techniques such as massage, cryotherapy or cold applications, thermotherapy or heat applications, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation or strengthening exercise.

  14. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  15. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Aquatic Communities of Selected Springs in the St. Johns River Water Management District, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Strom, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic, physicochemical, and aquatic community data were collected and compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for selected springs within the St. Johns River Water Management District from January 2004 to October 2007. Nine springs were included in this study: Alexander, Apopka, Bugg, De Leon, Gemini, Green, Rock, Silver Glen, and Wekiwa. Urban lands increased in Alexander, Apopka, De Leon, Gemini, Green, and Wekiwa springsheds between 1973 and 2004, accompanied by a loss of forested and/or agricultural lands in most springsheds. Forested cover increased and open surface waters and wetlands decreased in the Bugg and Rock springsheds. Although rainfall did not change significantly over time in each springshed, spring discharge decreased significantly in De Leon, Fern Hammock, Rock, Silver, and Wekiwa Springs. Nitrate concentrations increased significantly with time in Apopka, Fern Hammock, Gemini Springs run, and Juniper Springs, and decreased significantly in Alexander Spring, Bugg Spring run, Rock Springs, and Wekiwa Springs. Phosphorus increased significantly with time in Juniper Springs and decreased significantly in Apopka, De Leon, Rock, Silver Glen, and Wekiwa Springs. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities ranged from relatively low diversity assemblages (Green Spring) to assemblages with high taxonomic richness, diversity, and dominance (Rock and De Leon Springs). Shannon-Wiener diversity index averages among samples pooled by spring were lowest for Apopka Spring and greatest for Rock, Bugg, and Silver Glen Springs. Mean Stream Condition Index for pooled samples per spring was lowest for De Leon and Gemini Springs and highest for Rock and Wekiwa Springs. Mean percentages of very tolerant taxa were lowest for Alexander Spring and highest for Bugg and Green Springs. Fish community richness was lowest for Green Spring, and greatest for Alexander Spring run and Silver Glen Springs. Forty five fish species representing 35 genera and 23 families were collected

  16. NICA project management information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashashin, M. V.; Kekelidze, D. V.; Kostromin, S. A.; Korenkov, V. V.; Kuniaev, S. V.; Morozov, V. V.; Potrebenikov, Yu. K.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Philippov, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The science projects growth, changing of the efficiency criteria during the project implementation require not only increasing of the management specialization level but also pose the problem of selecting the effective planning methods, monitoring of deadlines and interaction of participants involved in research projects. This paper is devoted to choosing the project management information system for the new heavy-ion collider NICA (Nuclotron based Ion Collider fAcility). We formulate the requirements for the project management information system with taking into account the specifics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna, Russia) as an international intergovernmental research organization, which is developed on the basis of a flexible and effective information system for the NICA project management.

  17. Systems Engineering Management Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-03-10

    10 March 1966 EXHIBIT 2 -implementation Requirements Pi"railraph PGI7L Puirpose and Scope. ... . . . .. .... .. . . .. 1. 0 75 GSE TDC .,r SEG R&kT...34test svqtem.* etc. piacement. post-repair ci~eckout. and~ repaired GSE/ TDC -Cieneral system engineering/techni- post transport and storriv for nnY...PCO--Procuring contracting officer. plished during the life cycle of the system pro- PDR-Preliminary desirn review, gram by the SPO. SEG R&T. GSE/ TDC

  18. Environmental management: A system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petak, William J.

    1981-05-01

    This paper presents a system framework whose purpose is to improve understanding of environmental management. By analyzing the links between elements of the environmental management system, it is possible to construct a model that aids thinking systematically about the decision-making subsystem, and other subsystems, of the entire environmental management system. Through a multidisciplinary environmental approach, each of the individual subsystems is able to adapt to threats and opportunities. The fields of government, market economics, social responsibility and ecology, for example, are so complex that it is extremely difficult to develop a framework that gives full consideration to all aspects. This paper, through the application of a highly idealized system framework, attempts to show the general relationships that exist between complex system elements.

  19. A Rapid and Portable DIC Analysis for Aquatic Systems: Rise of the Blanks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olack, G.; Pfister, C. A.; Wootton, J. T.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon analysis, in both fresh water and marine systems, can help determine carbon sources, sinks and flows through an ecosystem (Apongwa et al. 2013). Methods to measure DIC with small quantities in situ are becoming more important as the need for DIC estimation increases across aquatic ecosystems. Recently a number of papers have measured both δ13CVPDB and concentrations by injecting a relatively small amount of sample, e.g. 1 to 2 mL, into prepared sample tubes and then analyzing the headspace gas (Spötl 2004, Torres et al. 2005, Assayag et al. 2006). The initial sampling can be done in the field and samples are stable for weeks to months (Capasso et al. 2005, Taipale and Sonninen 2009) prior to analysis. However, CO2 gas samples can have a contaminant interfering with measurements when concentrations are low, e.g. 0.04% CO2 (Knohl et al. 2004), though the effect can be negligible at higher concentrations, e.g. 1% (Spötl 2005). We investigate fitting a blank correction to a suite of standards to quantify the contamination and more accurately measure the DIC concentration and isotopic values. We examined 6 and 18 month time points, using the suite of standards with δ13CVPDB of 18.69, -2.69 and -16.86 ‰, 2 to 3 mM concentration range. Fitting the blank correction allows us to detect the blank in the 6 month time point. The blank only has a minor effect on the -2.69 and -16.86 ‰ standards, <0.1 ‰, but a significant one for the 18.69 ‰ standard, ~0.4 ‰. Samples run ca. 2 mM in the range of 0 ‰ only see a blank effect in the range of 0.15 ‰, but samples run at < 1 mM show potential shifts of up to 0.8 ‰. The 18 month test showed the tubes are under vacuum—apparently the He diffuses thru the chlorobutyl rubber septa. Those samples can still be analyzed, either by charging them with He so they will not be under vacuum, or running as is and letting the vacuum in the tubes draw in air during the analysis. After correcting for the

  20. Automatic recognition system of aquatic organisms by classical and fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauffer, M.; Genty, F.; Margueron, S.; Collette, J. L.; Pihan, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    Blooming of algae and more generally phytoplankton in water ponds or marine environments can lead to hyper eutrophication and lethal consequences on other organisms. The selective recognition of invading species is investigated by automatic recognition algorithms of optical and fluorescence imaging. On one hand, morphological characteristics of algae of microscopic imaging are treated. The image processing lead to the identification the genus of aquatic organisms and compared to a morphologic data base. On the other hand, fluorescence images allow an automatic recognition based on multispectral data that identify locally the ratio of different photosynthetic pigments and gives a unique finger print of algae. It is shown that the combination of both methods are useful in the recognition of aquatic organisms.

  1. Understanding Aquaporin Transport System in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.), an Aquatic Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Shivaraj, S. M.; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Bhat, Javaid A.; Sonah, Humira; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are a class of integral membrane proteins involved in the transport of water and many other small solutes. The AQPs have been extensively studied in many land species obtaining water and nutrients from the soil, but their distribution and evolution have never been investigated in aquatic plant species, where solute assimilation is mostly through the leaves. In this regard, identification of AQPs in the genome of Zostera marina L. (eelgrass), an aquatic ecological model species could reveal important differences underlying solute uptake between land and aquatic species. In the present study, genome-wide analysis led to the identification of 25 AQPs belonging to four subfamilies, plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) in eelgrass. As in other monocots, the XIP subfamily was found to be absent from the eelgrass genome. Further classification of subfamilies revealed a unique distribution pattern, namely the loss of the NIP2 (NIP-III) subgroup, which is known for silicon (Si) transport activity and ubiquitously present in monocot species. This finding has great importance, since the eelgrass population stability in natural niche is reported to be associated with Si concentrations in water. In addition, analysis of available RNA-seq data showed evidence of expression in 24 out of the 25 AQPs across four different tissues such as root, vegetative tissue, male flower and female flower. In contrast to land plants, higher expression of PIPs was observed in shoot compared to root tissues. This is likely explained by the unique plant architecture of eelgrass where most of the nutrients and water are absorbed by shoot rather than root tissues. Similarly, higher expression of the TIP1 and TIP5 families was observed specifically in male flowers suggesting a role in pollen maturation. This genome-wide analysis of AQP distribution, evolution

  2. Conservation and management of fisheries and aquatic communities in Great Lakes connecting channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Farrell, John M.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Stepien, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    The North American Laurentian Great Lakes are linked by a unique series of riverine and lacustrine waters known as the Great Lakes connecting channels that are as integral to the basin's ecology and economies as the lakes themselves. The St. Marys River (SMR) is the northernmost channel and flows from Lake Superior to Lake Huron. Waters from the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) empty from Lake Huron via the St. Clair–Detroit River system (SCDRS, also known as the Huron–Erie Corridor) into Lake Erie. The SCDRS is composed of the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. The Niagara River (NR) serves as the outflow from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario. The NR above Niagara Falls is bisected by Grand Island and contains several other islands and man-made embayments whereas the NR below the falls is more linear. The outflow from Lake Ontario, representing the natural outlet of all the Great Lakes, is the St. Lawrence River (SLR) which empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Skin, soft tissue and systemic bacterial infections following aquatic injuries and exposures.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H; Lopez, Fred A

    2015-03-01

    : Bacterial infections following aquatic injuries occur commonly in fishermen and vacationers after freshwater and saltwater exposures. Internet search engines were queried with the key words to describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic and treatment strategies and outcomes of both the superficial and the deeper invasive infections caused by more common, newly emerging and unusual aquatic bacterial pathogens. Main findings included the following: (1) aquatic injuries often result in gram-negative polymicrobial infections with marine bacteria; (2) most marine bacteria are resistant to 1st- and 2nd-generation penicillins and cephalosporins; (3) nontuberculous, mycobacterial infections should be considered in late-onset, culture-negative and antibiotic-resistant marine infections; (4) superficial marine infections and pre-existing wounds exposed to seawater may result in deeply invasive infections and sepsis in immunocompromised patients. With the exception of minor marine wounds demonstrating localized cellulitis, most other marine infections and all gram-negative and mycobacterial marine infections will require therapy with antibiotic combinations.

  4. Guidelines to Avoid Biocontamination of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Forward Contamination Concerns, Environmental Management and Scientific Stewardship of Icy analogue environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Hobbie, J.; et al.

    2007-12-01

    For more than a decade, scientists and space mission planners have recognized the importance of collaborative information exchange with the Antarctic research community to address their many shared exploration challenges, from drilling methods, remote sample collection, and data interpretation, to concerns about cross contamination that could adversely impact both the environment and interpretation of scientific data. Another shared concern exists in the regulatory realm; both the Antarctic and outer space environments are subject to separate international treaties that impose regulatory controls and oversight with serious implications for exploration planning. In recent years, both communities have faced the need to adjust their regulatory controls in light of fast-paced advances in scientific understanding of extreme environments, particularly related to potential microbial life. Both communities have sought and received advice from the National Research Council (NRC) through studies that suggested ways to update their respective oversight and regulatory systems while allowing for continued scientific exploration. A recently completed NRC study "Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship" provided a suite of recommendations to address1) 'cleanliness' levels necessary for equipment and devices used in exploration of subglacial aquatic environments, as well as 2) the scientific basis for contamination standards, and 3) the steps for defining an overall exploration strategy conducive to sound environmental management and scientific stewardship. This talk will present the findings of the recent multinational NRC study, which is likely to translate into useful information for analogue studies that proceed to test techniques and capabilities for exploring an Europan ocean, other icy celestial locations, and related science targets on Earth. As the science and exploration of subglacial environments grows beyond its

  5. Intelligent Management System: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes the Intelligent Management System (IMS) project, which is part of the factory of the Future project in the Robotics Institute of Carnegie-Mellon University. IMS is a long term project concerned with applying artificial intelligence techniques in aiding professionals and managers in their day to day tasks. This report discusses both the long term goals of IMS, and current research. It describes research in the modeling of organizations, constraint-based job-shop scheduling, organization simulation, user interfaces, and system architecture. Examples of working systems are provided.

  6. Redundancy management of inertial systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckern, R. A.; Musoff, H.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews developments in failure detection and isolation techniques applicable to gimballed and strapdown systems. It examines basic redundancy management goals of improved reliability, performance and logistic costs, and explores mechanizations available for both input and output data handling. The meaning of redundant system reliability in terms of available coverage, system MTBF, and mission time is presented and the practical hardware performance limitations of failure detection and isolation techniques are explored. Simulation results are presented illustrating implementation coverages attainable considering IMU performance models and mission detection threshold requirements. The implications of a complete GN&C redundancy management method on inertial techniques are also explored.

  7. Managing Risk in Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaoli, Marilyn M.; And Others

    Stanford University's use of a risk assessment methodology to improve the management of systems development projects is discussed. After examining the concepts of hazard, peril, and risk as they relate to the system development process, three ways to assess risk are covered: size, structure, and technology. The overall objective for Stanford…

  8. Campus Telephone Systems: Managing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Issues facing a college or university that seeks to change its telephone system are raised in seven chapters. Major topics addressed by this resource guide are: telephone deregulation and changes in the telephone industry, the new technology available, how to manage a system, consultants, financing options, and institutional case studies. Specific…

  9. Managing Risk in Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaoli, Marilyn M.; And Others

    Stanford University's use of a risk assessment methodology to improve the management of systems development projects is discussed. After examining the concepts of hazard, peril, and risk as they relate to the system development process, three ways to assess risk are covered: size, structure, and technology. The overall objective for Stanford…

  10. Campus Telephone Systems: Managing Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Issues facing a college or university that seeks to change its telephone system are raised in seven chapters. Major topics addressed by this resource guide are: telephone deregulation and changes in the telephone industry, the new technology available, how to manage a system, consultants, financing options, and institutional case studies. Specific…

  11. XCPU2 process management system

    SciTech Connect

    Ionkov, Latchesar; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Xcpu2 is a new process management system that allows the users to specify custom file system for a running job. Most cluster management systems enforce single software distribution running on all nodes. Xcpu2 allows programs running on the cluster to work in environment identical to the user's desktop, using the same versions of the libraries and tools the user installed locally, and accessing the configuration file in the same places they are located on the desktop. Xcpu2 builds on our earlier work with the Xcpu system. Like Xcpu, Xcpu2's process management interface is represented as a set of files exported by a 9P file server. It supports heterogeneous clusters and multiple head nodes. Unlike Xcpu, it uses pull instead of push model. In this paper we describe the Xcpu2 clustering model, its operation and how the per-job filesystem configuration can be used to solve some of the common problems when running a cluster.

  12. DKIST facility management system integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Charles R.; Phelps, LeEllen

    2016-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Observatory is under construction at Haleakalā, Maui, Hawai'i. When complete, the DKIST will be the largest solar telescope in the world. The Facility Management System (FMS) is a subsystem of the high-level Facility Control System (FCS) and directly controls the Facility Thermal System (FTS). The FMS receives operational mode information from the FCS while making process data available to the FCS and includes hardware and software to integrate and control all aspects of the FTS including the Carousel Cooling System, the Telescope Chamber Environmental Control Systems, and the Temperature Monitoring System. In addition it will integrate the Power Energy Management System and several service systems such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), the Domestic Water Distribution System, and the Vacuum System. All of these subsystems must operate in coordination to provide the best possible observing conditions and overall building management. Further, the FMS must actively react to varying weather conditions and observational requirements. The physical impact of the facility must not interfere with neighboring installations while operating in a very environmentally and culturally sensitive area. The FMS system will be comprised of five Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs). We present a pre-build overview of the functional plan to integrate all of the FMS subsystems.

  13. A Multi-Pumping Flow System for In Situ Measurements of Dissolved Manganese in Aquatic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, David; Prien, Ralf D.; Dellwig, Olaf; Waniek, Joanna J.; Schuffenhauer, Ingo; Donath, Jan; Krüger, Siegfried; Pallentin, Malte; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2016-01-01

    A METals In Situ analyzer (METIS) has been used to determine dissolved manganese (II) concentrations in the subhalocline waters of the Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea). High-resolution in situ measurements of total dissolved Mn were obtained in near real-time by spectrophotometry using 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). PAN is a complexing agent of dissolved Mn and forms a wine-red complex with a maximum absorbance at a wavelength of 562 nm. Results are presented together with ancillary temperature, salinity, and dissolved O2 data. Lab calibration of the analyzer was performed in a pressure testing tank. A detection limit of 77 nM was obtained. For validation purposes, discrete water samples were taken by using a pump-CTD system. Dissolved Mn in these samples was determined by an independent laboratory based method (inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, ICP-OES). Mn measurements from both METIS and ICP-OES analysis were in good agreement. The results showed that the in situ analysis of dissolved Mn is a powerful technique reducing dependencies on heavy and expensive equipment (pump-CTD system, ICP-OES) and is also cost and time effective. PMID:27916898

  14. A Multi-Pumping Flow System for In Situ Measurements of Dissolved Manganese in Aquatic Systems.

    PubMed

    Meyer, David; Prien, Ralf D; Dellwig, Olaf; Waniek, Joanna J; Schuffenhauer, Ingo; Donath, Jan; Krüger, Siegfried; Pallentin, Malte; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2016-11-30

    A METals In Situ analyzer (METIS) has been used to determine dissolved manganese (II) concentrations in the subhalocline waters of the Gotland Deep (central Baltic Sea). High-resolution in situ measurements of total dissolved Mn were obtained in near real-time by spectrophotometry using 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). PAN is a complexing agent of dissolved Mn and forms a wine-red complex with a maximum absorbance at a wavelength of 562 nm. Results are presented together with ancillary temperature, salinity, and dissolved O 2 data. Lab calibration of the analyzer was performed in a pressure testing tank. A detection limit of 77 nM was obtained. For validation purposes, discrete water samples were taken by using a pump-CTD system. Dissolved Mn in these samples was determined by an independent laboratory based method (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, ICP-OES). Mn measurements from both METIS and ICP-OES analysis were in good agreement. The results showed that the in situ analysis of dissolved Mn is a powerful technique reducing dependencies on heavy and expensive equipment (pump-CTD system, ICP-OES) and is also cost and time effective.

  15. System Engineering and Management,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-11

    UJ3 CC O — UJ so: o UJUJ CEO z o< ZK — 3 CC CO UJ CO UJ< z — > OH z — UJ-J < Z3 <o 3Q xz < Q zcoz <oo >-HO H- CO CO III...SAFETY ANALYSIS • DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS 1. ANTHROPOMETRIC FACTORS 2. HUMAN SENSORY FACTORS 3. PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS 4. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS C...TRAINING EQUIPMENT; SERVICES; FACILITIES PECULIAR SUPPORT EQUIPMENT ORGANIZATIONAL ; INTERMEDIATE; DEPOT SYSTEM TEST AND EVALUATION

  16. Removal of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter and Heavy Metals in a River-Sea System: Role of Aquatic Microgel Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, R. F.; Lee, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) polymers are complex and poorly understood mixture of organic macromolecules in environment system. Portions of these polymers spontaneously form microgels that play key roles in many biogeochemical reactions, including mediating aggregation processes, element cycling, and pollutant mobility. However, the detailed interaction of microgels-heterogeneous materials in aquatic systems is still lacking. Insight into the interaction between surrounding materials and microgels from different types of aquatic DOC polymers are extremely important, as it is crucial in determining the fate and transport of these materials. Here, we use riverine and marine DOC polymers to examine their aggregation behavior, and to evaluate the roles of microgel formation in scavenging of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and heavy metals in a river-sea system. Our results indicate that riverine and marine microgels did not exhibit too much difference in size ( 3-5 μm) and self-assembly curve; however, the assembly effectiveness ([microgel]/DOC) of marine samples was much higher than riverine. Instead of concentration of DOC, other factors such as types and sources of DOC polymers may control the microgel abundance in aquatic environments. After filtering water samples (microgels removed), the CDOM and selected metals (Cu, Ni, Mn) in the filtrate were quantified. CDOM and metals were concurrently removed to an extent via DOC polymer re-aggregation, which also suggested that the microgels had the sequestering capability in CDOM and metals. This finding provides an alternative route for CDOM and heavy metals removal from the water column. As such the process of re-aggregation into microgels should then be considered besides traditional phase partitioning in the assessment of the ecological risk and fate of pollutant.

  17. Resource Management for Distributed Parallel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, B. Clifford; Rao, Santosh

    1993-01-01

    Multiprocessor systems should exist in the the larger context of distributed systems, allowing multiprocessor resources to be shared by those that need them. Unfortunately, typical multiprocessor resource management techniques do not scale to large networks. The Prospero Resource Manager (PRM) is a scalable resource allocation system that supports the allocation of processing resources in large networks and multiprocessor systems. To manage resources in such distributed parallel systems, PRM employs three types of managers: system managers, job managers, and node managers. There exist multiple independent instances of each type of manager, reducing bottlenecks. The complexity of each manager is further reduced because each is designed to utilize information at an appropriate level of abstraction.

  18. Resource Management for Distributed Parallel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, B. Clifford; Rao, Santosh

    1993-01-01

    Multiprocessor systems should exist in the the larger context of distributed systems, allowing multiprocessor resources to be shared by those that need them. Unfortunately, typical multiprocessor resource management techniques do not scale to large networks. The Prospero Resource Manager (PRM) is a scalable resource allocation system that supports the allocation of processing resources in large networks and multiprocessor systems. To manage resources in such distributed parallel systems, PRM employs three types of managers: system managers, job managers, and node managers. There exist multiple independent instances of each type of manager, reducing bottlenecks. The complexity of each manager is further reduced because each is designed to utilize information at an appropriate level of abstraction.

  19. Intentional systems management: managing forests for biodiversity.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; B.R. Lippke; J. Sessions

    1999-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity provides for economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Intentional management is designed to manage conflicts among groups with conflicting interests. Our goal was to ascertain if intentional management and principles of conservation of biodiversity could be combined into upland and riparian forest management strategies that would...

  20. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  1. Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, R.J.; Sheely, K.B.; Brown, J.B.; Horton, R.D.; Strittmatter, R.; Manatt, D.R.

    1994-04-01

    The requirements for the management of information at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its Department of Safeguards are rapidly changing. Historically, the Department of Safeguards has had the requirement to process large volumes of conventional safeguards information. An information management system is currently in place that adequately handles the IAEA`s conventional safeguards data needs. In the post-Iraq environment, however, there is a growing need to expand the IAEA information management capability to include unconventional forms of information. These data include environmental sampling results, photographs, video film, lists of machine tools, and open-source materials such as unclassified publications. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has responded to this information management need by implementing the Safeguards Information Management Systems (SIMS) initiative. SIMS was created by the DOE to anticipate and respond to IAEA information management needs through a multilaboratory initiative that will utilize an integrated approach to develop and deploy technology in a timely and cost-effective manner. The DOE will use the SIMS initiative to coordinate US information management activities that support the IAEA Department of Safeguards.

  2. Input management of production systems.

    PubMed

    Odum, E P

    1989-01-13

    Nonpoint sources of pollution, which are largely responsible for stressing regional and global life-supporting atmosphere, soil, and water, can only be reduced (and ultimately controlled) by input management that involves increasing the efficiency of production systems and reducing the inputs of environmentally damaging materials. Input management requires a major change, an about-face, in the approach to management of agriculture, power plants, and industries because the focus is on waste reduction and recycling rather than on waste disposal. For large-scale ecosystem-level situations a top-down hierarchical approach is suggested and illustrated by recent research in agroecology and landscape ecology.

  3. 14 CFR 1212.705 - System manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false System manager. 1212.705 Section 1212.705... Authority and Responsibilities § 1212.705 System manager. (a) Each system manager is responsible for the following with regard to the system of records over which the system manager has cognizance: (1) Overall...

  4. 14 CFR 1212.704 - System manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false System manager. 1212.704 Section 1212.704... Authority and Responsibilities § 1212.704 System manager. (a) Each system manager is responsible for the following with regard to the system of records over which the system manager has cognizance: (1) Overall...

  5. 14 CFR 1212.704 - System manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true System manager. 1212.704 Section 1212.704... Authority and Responsibilities § 1212.704 System manager. (a) Each system manager is responsible for the following with regard to the system of records over which the system manager has cognizance: (1) Overall...

  6. 14 CFR 1212.704 - System manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false System manager. 1212.704 Section 1212.704... Authority and Responsibilities § 1212.704 System manager. (a) Each system manager is responsible for the following with regard to the system of records over which the system manager has cognizance: (1) Overall...

  7. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Aquatic conditions

    Treesearch

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  9. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Data management system evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Hardware and software products and technologies that are available for implementation in the early space station data management system (DMS) design are expected to have limited capabilities in such areas as system performance, capacity, and throughput. With the anticipated growth in operations and payload user requirements during the space station's operational phase, a knowledge base of technological advancements and their possible incorporation into the DMS design will be maintained. System growth and technologies insertion issues for DMS design and development are addressed.

  11. Data management system evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Hardware and software products and technologies that are available for implementation in the early space station data management system (DMS) design are expected to have limited capabilities in such areas as system performance, capacity, and throughput. With the anticipated growth in operations and payload user requirements during the space station's operational phase, a knowledge base of technological advancements and their possible incorporation into the DMS design will be maintained. System growth and technologies insertion issues for DMS design and development are addressed.

  12. Contingency Base Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    CB-EMS is the latest implementation of DSOM (Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance), which was previously patented by PNNL. CB-EMS WAS specifically designed for contingency bases for the US Army. It is a software package that is designed to monitor energy consumption at an Army contingency base to alert the camp manager when the systems are wasting energy. It's main feature that separates it from DSOM is it's ability to add systems using a plug and play menu system.

  13. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  14. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    DOEpatents

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-01-31

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  15. Inflammatory responses and potencies of various lipopolysaccharides from bacteria and cyanobacteria in aquatic environments and water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Tajima, Satoshi; Nomura, Masahiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory substances derived from indigenous bacteria in aquatic environments or water systems are of great concern. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), one of the major inflammatory substances in water, are usually identified using Limurus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay on the basis of their endotoxic activity, but endotoxin levels do not accurately represent their inflammatory potency in humans. In this investigation, the cellular endotoxin contents of pure-cultured bacteria/cyanobacteria, which are frequently detected in water sources and distribution systems, and of indigenous bacteria in a river and in biologically activated carbon (BAC) effluent, were investigated. The indigenous bacteria showed the highest endotoxin contents exceeding 10(-3)EU/cell. The LPSs were then purified from those samples, and their inflammatory potencies were examined using a human monocytic cell line. The LPSs from Acinetobacter lwoffii culture, the river water, and the BAC effluent sample revealed a unique cytokine secretion pattern; they induced both IL-8 and TNF-α more strongly than the other tested bacterial LPSs. These results suggest that natural bacterial/cyanobacterial flora in aquatic environments and water distribution systems have the potential to induce relatively strong inflammatory responses in humans; therefore, further accumulation of data on water quality from the perspective of not just endotoxins but inflammatory potency is needed.

  16. Management Information and Library Management Systems: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Shelagh; Rowley, Jennifer

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the facilities for management information in library management systems. Highlights include the relationship between transaction processing systems, management information systems, and decision support systems; a review of previous work; enquiries and standard reports relating to library operations; report generators; and…

  17. The SMAP Dictionary Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kevin A.; Swan, Christoper A.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Dictionary Management System is a web-based tool to develop and store a mission dictionary. A mission dictionary defines the interface between a ground system and a spacecraft. In recent years, mission dictionaries have grown in size and scope, making it difficult for engineers across multiple disciplines to coordinate the dictionary development effort. The Dictionary Management Systemaddresses these issues by placing all dictionary information in one place, taking advantage of the efficiencies inherent in co-locating what were once disparate dictionary development efforts.

  18. The SMAP Dictionary Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kevin A.; Swan, Christoper A.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Dictionary Management System is a web-based tool to develop and store a mission dictionary. A mission dictionary defines the interface between a ground system and a spacecraft. In recent years, mission dictionaries have grown in size and scope, making it difficult for engineers across multiple disciplines to coordinate the dictionary development effort. The Dictionary Management Systemaddresses these issues by placing all dictionary information in one place, taking advantage of the efficiencies inherent in co-locating what were once disparate dictionary development efforts.

  19. The Cheetah Data Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F. ); Word, G.B. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-03-01

    Cheetah is a data management system based on the C programming language. The premise of Cheetah is that the banks' of FORTRAN based systems should be structures' as defined by the C language. Cheetah is a system to mange these structures, while preserving the use of the C language in its native form. For C structures managed by Cheetah, the user can use Cheetah utilities such as reading and writing, in a machine independent form, both binary and text files to disk or over a network. Files written by Cheetah also contain a dictionary describing in detail the data contained in the file. Such information is intended to be used by interactive programs for presenting the contents of the file. Such information is intended to be used by interactive programs for presenting the contents of file. Cheetah has been ported to many different operating systems with no operating system dependent switches.

  20. Is there a need for a '100 questions exercise' to enhance fisheries and aquatic conservation, policy, management and research? Lessons from a global 100 questions exercise on conservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Danylchuk, A J; Kaiser, M J; Rudd, M A

    2010-06-01

    Recent global and regional exercises have been undertaken to identify 100 questions of relevance to policy makers that, if answered, would improve decision making and conservation actions. These were intentionally broad, but all included themes and questions of relevance to aquatic and fisheries professionals (e.g. exploitation, habitat alteration, effectiveness of protected areas, migratory connectivity and environmental effects of aquaculture). Here, the content of the global 100 question exercise relevant to aquatic and fisheries issues is summarized and a critical analysis is provided. Many of the questions addressed in apparently unrelated themes and topics (e.g. terrestrial, agriculture and energy policy) have potential relevance to fisheries and aquatic habitats, which underlines the connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic realms. Given the intimate link between aquatic environmental problems and human activities (including culture and economics), greater understanding of the human dimension is required to inform decision making. Stakeholder perspectives need to be included as a core component of the fisheries management triangle (i.e. managing fish, habitat and people). The benefits and risks of conducting a global 100 questions exercise with an exclusive focus on questions of relevance to fisheries and aquatic practitioners are also considered. There is no question that evidence-based approaches to conservation are essential for addressing the many threats that face aquatic ecosystems and reverse the imperilment trends among ichthyofauna. It is still unclear, however, as to the extent to which 100 questions exercises will help to achieve conservation and management targets for aquatic resources. A global 100 questions exercise that focused on fisheries and aquatic issues would certainly help to generate interest and awareness sufficient to justify such an exercise.

  1. Management issues in systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Aster, Robert; Bilardo, Vincent; Forsberg, Kevin; Mooz, Hal; Polaski, Lou; Wade, Ron

    1993-01-01

    When applied to a system, the doctrine of successive refinement is a divide-and-conquer strategy. Complex systems are sucessively divided into pieces that are less complex, until they are simple enough to be conquered. This decomposition results in several structures for describing the product system and the producing system. These structures play important roles in systems engineering and project management. Many of the remaining sections in this chapter are devoted to describing some of these key structures. Structures that describe the product system include, but are not limited to, the requirements tree, system architecture and certain symbolic information such as system drawings, schematics, and data bases. The structures that describe the producing system include the project's work breakdown, schedules, cost accounts and organization.

  2. Fractionation of mercury isotopes by photo-oxidation in aquatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Bergquist, B. A.; Blum, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury is a globally distributed pollutant that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs, even in remote locations. The recent discovery of both large mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) has made the promise of tracing this neurotoxin through the environment by using its isotopes very exciting. So far, the only process demonstrated experimentally to produce large MIF for Hg (similar in magnitude to the MIF observed in natural samples such as fish) is photochemical reduction (Bergquist and Blum, 2007). During photo-reduction, MIF of the odd isotopes was observed with the odd isotopes (199Hg, 201Hg) being preferentially enriched in the aqueous phase. Bergquist and Blum, 2007, suggested that the cause of MIF was the magnetic isotope effect (MIE), which is purely a kinetic phenomenon involving radical pair intermediates. Radical pairs with odd isotopes, which have non-zero nuclear spin and magnetic moments, can undergo spin conversion faster than radical pairs with non-magnetic even isotopes. This allows the odd and even isotopes to be preferentially enriched in different reaction products. MIE is a complex phenomenon that is dependent on several factors including hyperfine coupling, life-time of the radical pair, coupling strength of the radical pair, spin-orbital coupling, diffusion factors, and the solvent cage (space) in which the reaction occurs. Only under rare circumstances will all the factors be suitable for the expression of MIE in natural reactions. The goal of this study was to conduct aqueous photo-oxidation reactions to investigate whether this redox pathway expresses MIF (in the form of MIE) similar to the photo-reduction pathway. In natural systems, net photo-reduction of Hg (II) species results in the release of Hg(0) vapor to the atmosphere. However this net photo-reduction is a combination of both photo-reduction and photo-oxidation. In their experiments, Bergquist and Blum 2007, only investigated the aqueous photo

  3. Uptake of 210Po by aquatic plants of a fresh water ecosystem around the uranium mill tailings management facility of Jaduguda, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K; Puranik, V D

    2013-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the uptake of Polonium-210 ((210)Po) by aquatic plants growing in a fresh water ecosystem around the tailings management facility of the uranium industry of Jaduguda, India. Evaluation of the activity concentration of (210)Po in aquatic plants, the concentration ratio of (210)Po from substrate to plants and the relationship of (210)Po with other stable elements were major objectives of the investigation. Based on the habitat, three types of plant were collected and analyzed for (210)Po activity estimation. Along with aquatic plants, effluent, surface water and bottom sediment were also collected and analyzed for (210)Po activity content. From the acid solution (210)Po was electrodeposited on brightly polished silver discs and counted for alpha activity in an alpha counter. The highest (210)Po activity concentration (4884 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight) was found in filamentous algae from residual water of the tailings pond. For sediment-rooted plants, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.91, p < 0.0001) was observed between plant and sediment activity concentration of (210)Po. For all of the three different groups of plants studied, highly significant correlations were observed between activity concentration of (210)Po and Cu with the significance level variation between 0.00-0.05 (both for linear and log transformed data).

  4. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  5. A systems engineering management approach to resource management applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a program management response to the following question: How can the traditional practice of systems engineering management, including requirements specification, be adapted, enhanced, or modified to build future planning and scheduling systems for effective operations? The systems engineering management process, as traditionally practiced, is examined. Extensible resource management systems are discussed. It is concluded that extensible systems are a partial solution to problems presented by requirements that are incomplete, partially immeasurable, and often dynamic. There are positive indications that resource management systems have been characterized and modeled sufficiently to allow their implementation as extensible systems.

  6. Establishing reference conditions for streams and measuring ecological responses to management actions using aquatic invertebrate biological assessments

    Treesearch

    David Herbst

    2004-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project provided the first comprehensive status report on the condition and history of natural resources of this mountain region (Centers for Water and Wildland Resources 1996). The report concluded that aquatic habitats were the most altered and impaired ecosystems, after exposure of Sierra watersheds to 150 years of landscape changes...

  7. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian, and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington: series description.

    Treesearch

    Bernard L. Kovalchik; Rodrick R. Clausnitzer

    2004-01-01

    This is a classification of aquatic, wetland, and riparian series and plant associations found within the Colville, Okanogan, and Wenatchee National Forests. It is based on the potential vegetation occurring on lake and pond margins, wetland fens and bogs, and fluvial surfaces along streams and rivers within Forest Service lands. Data used in the classification were...

  8. The Impact of On-Site Educational Outreach on Recreational Users' Perceptions of Aquatic Invasive Species and Their Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Ryan L.; Cleckner, Lisa B.; DePillo, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) present a great challenge to ecosystems around the globe, and controlling AIS becomes increasingly difficult when the potential vectors are related to recreational activities. An approach combining education and outreach efforts to control AIS may be the best course of action. A survey was designed to measure public…

  9. The Effect of Shoreline Recreational Angling Activities on Aquatic and Riparian Habitat Within an Urban Environment: Implications for Conservation and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Toole, Amanda C.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2009-08-01

    There is growing concern that recreational shoreline angling activity may negatively impact littoral and riparian habitats independent of any direct or indirect influences of fish harvest or fishing mortality through mechanisms such as disturbance (e.g., trampling, erosion) and pollution (e.g., littering). We sampled a suite of aquatic and terrestrial variables (i.e., water quality, aquatic and terrestrial macrophytes, soil compaction, anthropogenic refuse) at 14 high shoreline angling-activity sites (identified by way of interviews with conservation officers and angling clubs) within an urban area (Ottawa, Canada). For each high angling-activity site, a nearby corresponding low angling-activity site was sampled for comparison. We found that the percentage of barren area and soil compaction were greater in areas of high angling activity compared with areas that experienced relatively low angling activity. In addition, terrestrial and aquatic macrophyte density, height, and diversity were lower at high angling-activity sites. Angling- and non-angling-related litter was present in large quantities at each of the high angling-activity sites, and comparatively little litter was found at low angling-activity sites. Collectively, these findings indicate that shoreline angling does alter the riparian environment, contributing to pollution and environmental degradation in areas of high angling intensity. With growing interest in providing urban angling opportunities and in response to increasing interest in developing protected areas and parks, a better understanding of the ecologic impacts of shoreline angling is necessary to address multiuser conflicts, to develop angler outreach and educational materials, and to optimize management of angling effort to maintain ecologic integrity of riparian and aquatic ecosystems.

  10. The effect of shoreline recreational angling activities on aquatic and riparian habitat within an urban environment: implications for conservation and management.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Amanda C; Hanson, Kyle C; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-08-01

    There is growing concern that recreational shoreline angling activity may negatively impact littoral and riparian habitats independent of any direct or indirect influences of fish harvest or fishing mortality through mechanisms such as disturbance (e.g., trampling, erosion) and pollution (e.g., littering). We sampled a suite of aquatic and terrestrial variables (i.e., water quality, aquatic and terrestrial macrophytes, soil compaction, anthropogenic refuse) at 14 high shoreline angling-activity sites (identified by way of interviews with conservation officers and angling clubs) within an urban area (Ottawa, Canada). For each high angling-activity site, a nearby corresponding low angling-activity site was sampled for comparison. We found that the percentage of barren area and soil compaction were greater in areas of high angling activity compared with areas that experienced relatively low angling activity. In addition, terrestrial and aquatic macrophyte density, height, and diversity were lower at high angling-activity sites. Angling- and non-angling-related litter was present in large quantities at each of the high angling-activity sites, and comparatively little litter was found at low angling-activity sites. Collectively, these findings indicate that shoreline angling does alter the riparian environment, contributing to pollution and environmental degradation in areas of high angling intensity. With growing interest in providing urban angling opportunities and in response to increasing interest in developing protected areas and parks, a better understanding of the ecologic impacts of shoreline angling is necessary to address multiuser conflicts, to develop angler outreach and educational materials, and to optimize management of angling effort to maintain ecologic integrity of riparian and aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Increasing water temperature and disease risks in aquatic systems: climate change increases the risk of some, but not all, diseases.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, Anssi; Rintamäki, Päivi; Jokela, Jukka; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2010-11-01

    Global warming may impose severe risks for aquatic animal health if increasing water temperature leads to an increase in the incidence of parasitic diseases. Essentially, this could take place through a temperature-driven effect on the epidemiology of the disease. For example, higher temperature may boost the rate of disease spread through positive effects on parasite fitness in a weakened host. Increased temperature may also lengthen the transmission season leading to higher total prevalence of infection and more widespread epidemics. However, to date, general understanding of these relationships is limited due to scarcity of long-term empirical data. Here, we present one of the first long-term multi-pathogen data sets on the occurrence of pathogenic bacterial and parasitic infections in relation to increasing temperatures in aquatic systems. We analyse a time-series of disease dynamics on two fish farms in northern Finland from 1986 to 2006. We first demonstrate that the annual mean water temperature increased significantly on both farms over the study period and that the increase was most pronounced in the late summer (July-September). Second, we show that the prevalence of infection (i.e. proportion of fish tanks infected each year) increased with temperature. Interestingly, this pattern was observed in some of the diseases (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Flavobacterium columnare), whereas in the other diseases, the pattern was the opposite (Ichthyobodo necator) or absent (Chilodonella spp.). These results demonstrate the effect of increasing water temperature on aquatic disease dynamics, but also emphasise the importance of the biology of each disease, as well as the role of local conditions, in determining the direction and magnitude of these effects.

  12. Investigating the role of dissolved and droplet oil in aquatic toxicity using dispersed and passive dosing systems.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron D; Butler, Josh D; Letinski, Daniel J; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of the aquatic toxicity of oil is needed to support hazard assessment and inform spill response. Natural processes and mitigation strategies involving dispersant use can result in exposures to both dissolved and droplet oil that are not typically differentiated when oil exposures are characterized in toxicity tests. Thus, the impact of droplets on aquatic toxicity is largely uncharacterized. To improve the understanding of the role of droplets, acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Americamysis bahia were performed with Endicott crude oil in low-energy mixing systems with and without Corexit 9500 dispersant. Exposures were also prepared by placing crude oil in silicone tubing and passively dosing test media to provide dissolved oil exposures without droplets. A framework is described for characterizing dissolved phase exposures using both mechanistic modeling and passive sampling measurements. The approach is then illustrated by application to data from the present study. Expression of toxicity in terms of toxic units calculated from modeled dissolved oil concentrations or passive sampling measurements showed similar dose responses between exposure systems and organisms, despite the gradient in droplet oil. These results indicate that droplets do not appreciably contribute to toxicity for the 2 species investigated and further support hazard evaluation of dispersed oil on the basis of dissolved exposure metrics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1020-1028. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. A probabilistic model for silver bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and assessment of human health risks.

    PubMed

    Warila, J; Batterman, S; Passino-Reader, D R

    2001-02-01

    Silver (Ag) is discharged in wastewater effluents and is also a component in a proposed secondary water disinfectant. A steady-state model was developed to simulate bioaccumulation in aquatic biota and assess ecological and human health risks. Trophic levels included phytoplankton, invertebrates, brown trout, and common carp. Uptake routes included water, food, or sediment. Based on an extensive review of the literature, distributions were derived for most inputs for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios represented ranges of dilution and turbidity. Compared with the limited field data available, median estimates of Ag in carp (0.07-2.1 micrograms/g dry weight) were 0.5 to 9 times measured values, and all measurements were within the predicted interquartile range. Median Ag concentrations in biota were ranked invertebrates > phytoplankton > trout > carp. Biotic concentrations were highest for conditions of low dilution and low turbidity. Critical variables included Ag assimilation efficiency, specific feeding rate, and the phytoplankton bioconcentration factor. Bioaccumulation of Ag seems unlikely to result in toxicity to aquatic biota and humans consuming fish. Although the highest predicted Ag concentrations in water (> 200 ng/L) may pose chronic risks to early survival and development of salmonids and risks of argyria to subsistence fishers, these results occur under highly conservative conditions.

  14. Analysis of nitrogen saturation potential in Rocky Mountain tundra and forest: implications for aquatic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Parton, William J.

    1994-01-01

    We employed grass and forest versions of the CENTURY model under a range of N deposition values (0.02–1.60 g N m−2 y−1) to explore the possibility that high observed lake and stream N was due to terrestrial N saturation of alpine tundra and subalpine forest in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Model results suggest that N is limiting to subalpine forest productivity, but that excess leachate from alpine tundra is sufficient to account for the current observed stream N. Tundra leachate, combined with N leached from exposed rock surfaces, produce high N loads in aquatic ecosystems above treeline in the Colorado Front Range. A combination of terrestrial leaching, large N inputs from snowmelt, high watershed gradients, rapid hydrologic flushing and lake turnover times, and possibly other nutrient limitations of aquatic organisms constrain high elevation lakes and streams from assimilating even small increases in atmospheric N. CENTURY model simulations further suggest that, while increased N deposition will worsen the situation, nitrogen saturation is an ongoing phenomenon.

  15. Modeling organic chemical fate in aquatic systems: Significance of bioaccumulation and relevant time-space scales

    SciTech Connect

    Thomann, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    The importance of aquatic food chain bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in contributing to human dose is derived. It is shown that for chemicals with log octanol water partition coefficients greater than about 3, the role of food chain transfer to fish consumed by humans becomes the more dominant route over drinking water. Modeling of aquatic food chain bioaccumulation then becomes necessary to accurately estimate dose of such chemicals to humans. The relevant time and space scales for groundwater and surface water also indicate a division of organic chemicals at a log octanol water partition coefficient of about 3. For chemicals greater than that level, groundwater transport is minimal, while for chemicals with log octanol water coefficients of less than about 3, detention times are long relative to surface water and biodegradation processes become more significant. An illustration is given of modeling the groundwater transport of two organic chemicals (BCEE and benzene) and a metal (chromium) at a Superfund site. The model indicates that after 10 years only a relatively small fraction of the chemicals had traveled in the groundwater about 300 m to the point of release from the site to surface water. On the other hand, steady state in the adjacent stream and lake is reached rapidly over a distance of 2000 m, illustrating the difference in spatial and temporal scales for the groundwater and surface water. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Off-site impacts of wildfires on aquatic systems - Biomarker responses of the mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Silva, Vera; Campos, Isabel; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Pereira, Patrícia; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Gonçalves, Fernando; Abrantes, Nelson

    2017-03-01

    The number of wildfires has markedly increased in Mediterranean Europe, including in Portugal. Wildfires are environmentally concerning, not only due to the loss of biodiversity and forest area, but also as a consequence of environmental contamination by specific compounds including metals and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs). These contaminants, mostly bound to ashes, can reach downstream water bodies, namely through surface runoff, being ultimately dispersed by vast areas and contacting with aquatic biota. Being toxicologically noteworthy, the potential toxic outcomes of the input of such chemicals across the aquatic compartment must be characterized. In this context, the present study used a biomarker-based approach to find early-warning signals of toxicity triggered by the exposure of the mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to affected aqueous runoff and stream water samples collected from a forest burnt area. The chemical analysis revealed concerning levels of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in both runoff and stream water samples. Biological responses elicited by the collected samples showed the occurrence of pro-oxidative modifications, specifically driven by enzymatic forms involved in the metabolism of glutathione. Despite these effects, no further signs of involvement of metals and PAHs were elicited in terms of neurotoxicity. The overall set of data implicates chemicals resulting from wildfires in clear deleterious effects in exposed fish.

  17. A probabilistic model for silver bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and assessment of human health risks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warila, James; Batterman, Stuart; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    2001-01-01

    Silver (Ag) is discharged in wastewater effluents and is also a component in a proposed secondary water disinfectant. A steady-state model was developed to simulate bioaccumulation in aquatic biota and assess ecological and human health risks. Trophic levels included phytoplankton, invertebrates, brown trout, and common carp. Uptake routes included water, food, or sediment. Based on an extensive review of the literature, distributions were derived for most inputs for use in Monte Carlo simulations. Three scenarios represented ranges of dilution and turbidity. Compared with the limited field data available, median estimates of Ag in carp (0.07-2.1 Iμg/g dry weight) were 0.5 to 9 times measured values, and all measurements were within the predicted interquartile range. Median Ag concentrations in biota were ranked invertebrates > phytoplankton > trout > carp. Biotic concentrations were highest for conditions of low dilution and low turbidity. Critical variables included Ag assimilation eficiency, specific feeding rate, and the phytoplankton bioconcentration factor. Bioaccumulation of Ag seems unlikely to result in txicity to aquatic biota and humans consuming fish. Although the highest predicted Ag concentrations in water (>200 ng/L) may pose chronic risks to early survival and development of salmonids and risks of argyria to subsistence fishers, these results occur under highly conservative conditions.

  18. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  19. Atomizer for thermal management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, Charles L. (Inventor); Weiler, Jeff (Inventor); Palmer, Randal T. (Inventor); Appel, Philip W. (Inventor); Knight, Paul A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An atomizer for thermal management system for efficiently thermally managing one or more heat producing devices. The atomizer for thermal management system includes a housing having a coolant passage and a dispensing end, an orifice within the dispensing end, and an actuator manipulating a plunger within the housing. The plunger includes a head that is sealable within a recessed portion of the orifice to open or close the orifice. The coolant passes through the coolant passage into the orifice for spraying upon a heat producing device. The actuator may reciprocate so that the coolant spray emitted through the orifice is pulsating. The pulsing frequency may be increased to increase cooling or decreased to decrease cooling of the heat producing device.

  20. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of ;good; quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.