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Sample records for management area san

  1. San Francisco, San Pablo Bay Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-244-022 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- (San Francisco, San Pablo Bay Area) Photographed through the Space Shuttle Endeavour's flight deck windows, the heavily populated bay area is featured in this 70mm frame. The relatively low altitude of Endeavour's orbit (115 nautical miles) and the use of a 250mm lens on the Hasselblad camera allowed for capturing detail in features such as the Berkeley Marina (frame center). The region's topography is well depicted with the lowland areas heavily populated and the hills much more sparsely covered. The Oakland Hills in the right lower center appear to be re-vegetated after a devastating fire. The Golden Gate Recreation Area in the upper left also shows heavy vegetation. The three bridges across the main part of the bay and their connecting roads are prominent. Cultural features such as Golden Gate Park and the Presidio contrast with the gray of the city.

  2. California, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay area (37.5N, 122.0W) of California from the Santa Cruz in the south to Point Reyes in the north with the rich agriculture region of the central San Joaquin Valley in the foreground.

  3. Incorporating genetic sampling in long-term monitoring and adaptive management in the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, Amy G.

    2017-06-02

    Habitat and species conservation plans usually rely on monitoring to assess progress towards conservation goals. Southern California, USA, is a hotspot of biodiversity and home to many federally endangered and threatened species. Here, several regional multi-species conservation plans have been implemented to balance development and conservation goals, including in San Diego County. In the San Diego County Management Strategic Plan Area (MSPA), a monitoring framework for the preserve system has been developed with a focus on species monitoring, vegetation monitoring, threats monitoring and abiotic monitoring. Genetic sampling over time (genetic monitoring) has proven useful in gathering species presence and abundance data and detecting population trends, particularly related to species and threats monitoring objectives. This report reviews genetic concepts and techniques of genetics that relate to monitoring goals and outlines components of a genetic monitoring scheme that could be applied in San Diego or in other monitoring frameworks throughout the Nation.

  4. Hydrology, description of computer models, and evaluation of selected water-management alternatives in the San Bernardino area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danskin, Wesley R.; McPherson, Kelly R.; Woolfenden, Linda R.

    2006-01-01

    The San Bernardino area of southern California has complex water-management issues. As an aid to local water managers, this report provides an integrated analysis of the surface-water and ground-water systems, documents ground-water flow and constrained optimization models, and provides seven examples using the models to better understand and manage water resources of the area. As an aid to investigators and water managers in other areas, this report provides an expanded description of constrained optimization techniques and how to use them to better understand the local hydrogeology and to evaluate inter-related water-management problems. In this report, the hydrology of the San Bernardino area, defined as the Bunker Hill and Lytle Creek basins, is described and quantified for calendar years 1945-98. The major components of the surface-water system are identified, and a routing diagram of flow through these components is provided. Annual surface-water inflow and outflow for the area are tabulated using gaged measurements and estimated values derived from linear-regression equations. Average inflow for the 54-year period (1945-98) was 146,452 acre-feet per year; average outflow was 67,931 acre-feet per year. The probability of exceedance for annual surface-water inflow is calculated using a Log Pearson Type III analysis. Cumulative surface-water inflow and outflow and ground-water-level measurements indicate that the relation between the surface-water system and the ground-water system changed in about 1951, in about 1979, and again in about 1992. Higher ground-water levels prior to 1951 and between 1979 and 1992 induced ground-water discharge to Warm Creek. This discharge was quantified using streamflow measurements and can be estimated for other time periods using ground-water levels from a monitoring well (1S/4W-3Q1) and a logarithmic-regression equation. Annual wastewater discharge from the area is tabulated for the major sewage and power-plant facilities. More...

  5. SAN JOAQUIN ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Capstick, Donald O.

    1984-01-01

    The San Joaquin Roadless Area is composed of three noncontiguous areas on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada in Madera County, California. The results of geologic, geochemical, and mining-activity and production surveys in the central part of the area indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic-mineral or energy resources in the area. Sand, gravel, and pumice exist in the area but occurrences are small and isolated and farther from major markets than similar deposits outside the roadless area. Rocks in the area are exhibited in exposures of unaltered and nonmineralized granitic and metavolcanic rock along the steep western wall of the glacially carved valley of the Middle Fork of the San Joaquin River. Drainage in the area consists of seeps along fractures in the cliff or small cascading streams, a hydraulic setting not favorable for the development of placer deposits. No mines or prospect workings were found in the roadless area. Alteration zones within the granitic and metamorphic rock that crop out within the area are small, isolated, and consist only of limonitic staining and bleached quartzose rock.

  6. Assessing vulnerable and expanding vegetation stands and species in the San Francisco Bay Area for conservation management under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morueta-Holme, N.; Heller, N. E.; McLaughlin, B.; Weiss, S. B.; Ackerly, D.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of suitable climatic areas for species and vegetation types is expected to shift due to ongoing climate change. While the pace at which current distributions will shift is hard to quantify, predictions of where climatically suitable areas will be in the future can allow us to map 1) areas currently occupied by a species or vegetation type unlikely to persist through the end of this century (vulnerable stands), 2) areas likely to do better in the future and serve as nuclei for population expansion (expanding stands), and 3) areas likely to act as climate refugia (persisting stands). We quantified the vulnerability of 27 individual plant species and 27 vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area as well as the conservation importance, vulnerability, and resilience of selected management sites for climate change resilient conservation. To this end, we developed California-wide models of species and vegetation distributions using climate data from the 2014 California Basin Characterization Model at a 270 m resolution, projected to 18 different end-of century climate change scenarios. Combining these distribution models with high resolution maps of current vegetation, we were able to map projected vulnerable, expanding, and persisting stands within the Bay Area. We show that vegetation and species are expected to shift considerably within the study region over the next decades; although we also identify refugia potentially able to offset some of the negative impacts of climate change. We discuss the implications for managers that wish to incorporate climate change in conservation decisions, in particular related to choosing species for restoration, identifying areas to collect seeds for restoration, and preparing for expected major vegetation changes. Our evaluation of individual management sites highlights the need for stronger coordination of efforts across sites to prioritize monitoring and protection of species whose ranges are contracting

  7. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  8. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  9. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  10. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  11. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  12. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This cloud free color infrared view of San Francisco and Bay Area, CA (38.0N, 122.5W) is unusual because the city is normally concealed from view by clouds and fog. Gray tones represent urban areas and the red toned areas are vegetated. Within the city, parks easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city as enclaves of color. The trace of the San Andreas fault shows as a straight valley running across the San Francisco peninsula.

  13. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-89-053 (28 April-6 May 1991) --- A 70mm, infrared frame of the city of San Francisco, taken on a clear day. The gray areas represent urban regions, and the red areas are vegetated. Within the city of San Francisco, parks like Golden Gate park and the Presidio at the base of the Golden Gate Bridge easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city. Major thoroughfares and bridges (Golden Gate and Bay Bridges) are seen as are other landmarks such as Candlestick Park and Alcatraz. The trace of the San Andreas faults show as a straight valley running northerly along the San Francisco peninsula. Good detail is visible in the turbid waters of San Francisco Bay.

  14. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-26

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco. Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02606

  15. California, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-04-14

    STS001-12-305 (12-14 April 1981) --- California, San Francisco Bay photographed by a crew member on the space shuttle Columbia (STS-1). The coast is seen from near Santa Cruz northward to Point Reyes. The great valley is in the foreground. Photo credit: NASA

  16. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-03-118 (June 1973) --- An infrared photograph of the San Francisco Bay, California area, taken from the Skylab 1/2 space station in Earth orbit. THE PICTURE SHOULD BE HELD WITH THE CLOUDS AND PACIFIC OCEAN ON THE LEFT. This photograph was taken by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter of the space station. Type 2443 film was used. Note the thickly populated and highly developed area around the bay. Among the cities visible in this photograph are San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley and San Jose. This view extends eastward to show a portion of the San Joaquin Valley. The S190-A experiment is part of the Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). Photo credit: NASA

  17. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-151-181A (28 April-6 May 1991) --- Large format (five-inch) frame of the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Area of northern California. Stratus clouds at 35,000 feet and cumulus clouds at about 15,000 feet are seen over the Pacific Coast, obscuring the Golden Gate Bridge.

  18. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.

    Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.

    Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.

    Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is

  19. Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 26. March 1943. SHOWING AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 26. March 1943. SHOWING AREA B, BUILDINGS 901-919; PART OF BUILDINGS 949 AND 950 ARE SHOWN IN UPPER LIFT CORNER OF DRAWING - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-26

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen. Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged. Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible. Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02605

  1. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  2. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  3. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  4. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  5. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-152-100 (5-14 June 1991) --- Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of San Francisco Bay, development and physiographic features in the immediate vicinity of the bay are well displayed. The photograph clearly shows the eastern part of the city, including the Embarcadero, the Bay Bridge, which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, and Candlestick Park, San Mateo, and Dumbarton Bridges, cross the southern portion of the bay. Vari-colored salt ponds also rim the southern Bay near Moffett Field. Highway 280 runs along the San Andreas fault south of the city. On the eastern margin of the bay are Berkeley the Sacramento River and the Haywood and Calaveras faults.

  6. 75 FR 19422 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San... as the Airport Mesa/Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure order prohibits recreational shooting and target practice. The use of firearms will continue to...

  7. 77 FR 68813 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San.../Carrizo Creek shooting area located in eastern San Diego County, California. The closure order prohibits recreational shooting and target practice. The use of firearms will continue to be allowed for...

  8. San Francisco Bay Area Cargo Forecast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Though sugar manufacturers face competition from non-nutritive sweetners, high fructose corn syrups , and foreign suppliers, the Hawaiian-San...approach, provides background on recent levels of trade, and presents the baseline, high , and low forecasts for 1985, 1990, 2000 and 2020. The major...cargo sectors is cargo that would be carried by high technology ships such as Ro/Ro vessels and barge carriers. In recent years, these vessel designs

  9. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  10. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  11. The green areas of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    O.M. Ramos-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Green areas, also known as green infrastructure or urban vegetation, are vital to urbanites for their critical roles in mitigating urban heat island effects and climate change and for their provision of multiple ecosystem services and aesthetics. Here, I provide a high spatial resolution snapshot of the green cover distribution of the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, by...

  12. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  13. 3D Geologic Model of the San Diego Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, W. R.; Cromwell, G.; Glockhoff, C.; Martin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Prior geologic studies of the San Diego area, including northern Baja California, Mexico, focused on site investigations, characterization of rock formations, or earthquake hazards. No comprehensive, quantitative model characterizing the three-dimensional (3D) geology of the entire area has been developed. The lack of such a model limits understanding of large-scale processes, such as development of ancient landforms, and groundwater movement and availability. To evaluate these regional processes, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to better understand the geologic structure of the San Diego area. A cornerstone of this study is the installation and analysis of 77 wells at 12 multiple-depth monitoring-well sites. Geologic information from these wells was combined with lithologic data from 81 oil exploration wells and municipal and private water wells, gravity and seismic interpretations, and paleontological interpretations. These data were analyzed in conjunction with geologic maps and digital elevation models to develop a 3D geologic model of the San Diego area, in particular of the San Diego embayment. Existing interpretations of regional surficial geology, faulting, and tectonic history provided the framework for this model, which was refined by independent evaluation of subsurface geology. Geologic formations were simplified into five sedimentary units (Quaternary, Plio-Pleistocene, Oligocene, Eocene and Cretaceous ages), and one basal crystalline unit (primarily Cretaceous and Jurassic). Complex fault systems are represented in the model by ten fault strands that maintain overall displacement. The 3D geologic model corroborates existing geologic concepts of the San Diego area, refines the extent of subsurface geology, and allows users to holistically evaluate subsurface structures and regional hydrogeology.

  14. San Francisco Bay Area Fault Observations Displayed in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, H.; Hernandez, M.; Nayak, P.; Zapata, I.; Schumaker, D.

    2006-12-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the San Francisco Bay Area has a 62% probability of experiencing a major earthquake in the next 30 years. The Hayward fault and the San Andreas fault are the two main faults in the Bay Area that are capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 6.7 or larger - a size that could profoundly affect many of the 7 million people who live in the Bay Area. The Hayward fault has a 27% probability of producing a major earthquake in next 30 years, and the San Andreas fault has a 21% probability. Our research group, which is part of the SF-ROCKS high school outreach program, studied the Hayward and San Andreas faults. The goal of our project was to observe these faults at various locations, measure the effects of creep, and to present the data in Google Earth, a freeware tool for the public to easily view and interact with these and other seismic-hazard data. We examined the Hayward and San Andreas faults (as mapped by USGS scientists) in Google Earth to identify various sites where we could possibly find evidence of fault creep. We next visited these sites in the field where we mapped the location using a hand- held Global Positioning System, identified and photographed fault evidence, and measured offset features with a ruler or tape measure. Fault evidence included en echelon shears in pavement, warped buildings, and offset features such as sidewalks. Fault creep offset measurements range from 1.5 19 cm. We also identified possible evidence of fault creep along the San Andreas fault in South San Francisco where it had not been previously described. In Google Earth, we plotted our field sites, linked photographs showing evidence of faulting, and included detailed captions to explain the photographs. We will design a webpage containing the data in a Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file format for display in Google Earth. Any interested person needs only to download the free version of Google Earth software and visit our

  15. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  16. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.938 Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  17. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California.

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California, which include Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties. Data were collected as part...

  18. Forest area and timber resources of the San Joaquin area, California.

    Treesearch

    Charles L. Bolsinger

    1978-01-01

    This report presents statistics on forest area and timber volume and a description of the recent and future timber situations in Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Tulare, and Tuolumne Counties, California.

  19. Protected area management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Prato, Tony; Wang, Yeqiao

    2014-01-01

    Designated protected areas are diverse in scope and purpose and have expanded from Yellowstone National Park in the United States, the world’s first national park, to 157,897 parks and protected areas distributed globally. Most are publicly owned and serve multiple needs that reflect regional or national cultures. With ever-increasing threats to the integrity of protected areas, managers are turning to flexible management practices such as scenario planning and adaptive management.

  20. Ecological Impact of LAN: San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craine, Eric Richard; Craine, Brian L.

    2015-08-01

    The San Pedro River in Southeastern Arizona is home to nearly 45% of the 900 total species of birds in the United States; millions of songbirds migrate though this unique flyway every year. As the last undammed river in the Southwest, it has been called one of the “last great places” in the US. Human activity has had striking and highly visible impacts on the San Pedro River. As a result, and to help preserve and conserve the area, much of the region has been designated the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA). Attention has been directed to impacts of population, water depletion, and border fence barriers on the riparian environment. To date, there has been little recognition that light at night (LAN), evolving with the increased local population, could have moderating influences on the area. STEM Laboratory has pioneered techniques of coordinated airborne and ground based measurements of light at night, and has undertaken a program of characterizing LAN in this region. We conducted the first aerial baseline surveys of sky brightness in 2012. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) shapefiles allow comparison and correlation of various biological databases with the LAN data. The goal is to better understand how increased dissemination of night time lighting impacts the distributions, behavior, and life cycles of biota on this ecosystem. We discuss the baseline measurements, current data collection programs, and some of the implications for specific biological systems.

  1. CHAMA-SOUTHERN SAN JUAN MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Maurice R.; Lindquist, Alec E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Chama-southern San Juan Mountains Wilderness study area in Colorado revealed demonstrated coal resources in an area of substantiated coal resource potential and areas of probable resource potential for petroleum and metals including molydenum, copper, zinc, lead, and silver. The coal deposit that underlies the northwestern part of the study area at its westernmost extension requires further study for a more accurate determination of the coal resources that underlie the area. Drilling also is required to determine depth, magnitude, and tenor of the postulated porphyry deposit containing copper and molybdenum in the northernmost part of the study area. Geophysical surveys and detailed geologic mapping in advance of drilling are needed in the areas delineated as having potential for oil and gas resources.

  2. Gravity survey in the San Luis Valley area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaca, J. Robert; Karig, Daniel E.

    1965-01-01

    During the summers of 1963 and 1964, a regional gravity survey covering 6,000 square miles of the San Luis Valley and surrounding areas was made to determine subsurface basement configurations and to guide future crustal studies. The San Luis Valley, a large intermontane basin, is a segment of the Rio Grande trough, a reef system characterized by volcanism, normal faulting, and tilted fault blocks. The gravity data, accurate to about 0.5 mgal, were reduced to complete-Bouguer anomaly values. The Bouguer-anomaly gravity map delineates a series of en-echelon gravity highs in the central and western San Luis Valley. These gravity highs are interpreted as horsts of Precambrian rock buried by basin fill. A series of en-echelon gravity lows along the eastern edge of the Valley is interpreted as a graben filled with sedimentary and igneous rock estimated to be up to 30,000 ft thick. The relatively high regional gravity over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains suggests that these mountains are locally uncompensated. A subcircular gravity low in the Bonanza area is interpreted as an indication of low-density volcanic rocks within a caldera structure.

  3. The Central San Joaquin Valley Area Health Education Center

    PubMed Central

    Rosinski, Edwin F.

    1978-01-01

    With federal financial support, an area health education center was established in the central San Joaquin Valley of California. The center is a cooperative health sciences education and health care program organized by the University of California and some of the educational and health care institutions of the valley. The center's goals include providing and improving primary health care education, and improving the distribution of health personnel. These goals are achieved through the cooperative development of a number of independent and interdependent activities. An extensive evaluation of the Area Health Education Center has shown that it is a highly effective program. PMID:664636

  4. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San... connecting waters in California are a Regulated Navigation Area. (b) Definitions. “Liquefied hazardous...

  9. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  10. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  11. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  12. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas....980 Pacific Ocean; around San Nicolas Island, Calif., naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicolas Island, Calif., extending about 3 miles seaward from the...

  13. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That portion of San Diego Bay southerly of Ballast Point, exclusive of the southwesterly portion of the restricted...

  14. 33 CFR 334.860 - San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval Amphibious Base; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Bay, Calif., Naval..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.860 San Diego... Middle San Diego Bay in an area extending from the northern and eastern boundary of the Naval Amphibious...

  15. LOWER SAN FRANCISCO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CONTIGUOUS ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    The Lower San Francisco study area consists of about 40 sq mi, in a strip between 1 and 6 mi wide, along a 20-30 mi stretch of the San Francisco River in Arizona and New Mexico. The study area and contiguous roadless areas were examined for mineral potential and found to have an area of probable mineral-resource potential for base- or precious-metal deposits in middle to upper Tertiary volcanic rocks. The entire area has a largely unassessable potential for base-metal deposits related to igneous intrusives of Laramide age, like those in the nearby Morenci mining district, Arizona. The contiguous roadless area has an area of probable mineral-resource potential for molybdenum or copper deposits related to intrusive igneous rocks in the core of a dacitic volcano of Oligocene age. An area in the west part of the study area has a probable geothermal-resource potential.

  16. 33 CFR 334.980 - Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, around San... REGULATIONS § 334.980 Pacific Ocean, around San Nicholas Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area—(1) Perimeter (restricted). The waters of the Pacific Ocean around San Nicholas Island, Calif...

  17. A Framework for Managing Inter-Site Storage Area Networks using Grid Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben; McCall, Fritz; Smorul, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies are studying mechanisms for installing and managing Storage Area Networks (SANs) that span multiple independent collaborating institutions using Storage Area Network Routers (SAN Routers). We present a framework for managing inter-site distributed SANs that uses Grid Technologies to balance the competing needs to control local resources, share information, delegate administrative access, and manage the complex trust relationships between the participating sites.

  18. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s.Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area.Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late summer

  19. Managing Diversity: The City of San Diego Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannwald, William

    1999-01-01

    Considers how libraries can build and manage a work force that is sensitive to and mirrors the increasingly diverse population they serve. Defines diversity; describes the experiences of the city of San Diego (California) in developing its "Diversity Commitment" and the involvement of the public library in the program; and provides…

  20. SPUR: Moving San Diego, California Schools toward Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a report, slide show, and brochure to promote awareness of the hazards of toxic pest control for school pest management personnel in the San Diego Unified School District is discussed. The future plans of the coalition are proposed. (CW)

  1. The San Francisco Joint Institutional Transportation Systems Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira; LaPointe, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Transportation systems management (TSM) programs are discussed, particularly the 1977 program of the University of California, San Francisco, which led to traffic reduction and improved vehicle flow. The city's implementation plan for a similar TSM program for 14 educational institutions and hospitals is described. (MLW)

  2. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  3. 3D Model of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    James E. Faulds

    2013-12-31

    The San Emidio geothermal system is characterized by a left-step in a west-dipping normal fault system that bounds the western side of the Lake Range. The 3D geologic model consists of 5 geologic units and 55 faults. Overlying Jurrassic-Triassic metasedimentary basement is a ~500 m-1000 m thick section of the Miocene lower Pyramid sequence, pre- syn-extensional Quaternary sedimentary rocks and post-extensional Quaternary rocks. 15-30º eastward dip of the stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Both geothermal production and injection are concentrated north of the step over in an area of closely spaced west dipping normal faults.

  4. Evolution of San Francisco Bay Area urban trails.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Bree

    2011-01-01

    The Family and Child Guidance Clinic of the Native American Health Center (NAHC) has developed strong working relationships with San Francisco Bay Area system partners in order to serve the mental health needs of American Indian/Alaska Native children and families. NAHC worked relentlessly with stakeholders to pave the Urban Trails that urban Indigenous community members utilize to access culturally competent care. These Urban Trails have been grounded in a community-based system of care model and cultural framework that links substance abuse and mental health through a holistic approach congruent with Indigenous values and traditions. This article describes how NAHC has partnered with community members and organizational stakeholders to develop and sustain an effective holistic system for serving urban Indigenous people.

  5. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  6. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  7. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  8. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area. All...

  9. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  10. 33 CFR 334.921 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. 334.921 Section 334.921 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....921 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. All waters...

  11. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  12. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  13. 33 CFR 334.938 - Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Correctional Institution, Terminal Island, San Pedro Bay, California; restricted area. 334.938 Section 334.938 Navigation and..., California; restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of San Pedro Bay on the east side of Reservation...

  14. Tables of basic data to accompany report on geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California, with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, A.A.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1954-01-01

    This appendix presents a part of the basic data collected by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District in the ground-water investigation of the San Bernardino area, California.

  15. Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

  16. Resistance Management for San Jose Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Buzzetti, K; Chorbadjian, R A; Nauen, R

    2015-12-01

    The San Jose scale Diaspidiotus perniciosus Comstock is one of the most important pests of deciduous fruit trees. The major cause of recent outbreaks in apple orchards is thought to be the development of insecticide resistance, specifically organophosphates. The first report was given in North America, and now, in Chile. In the present study, San Jose scale populations collected from two central regions of Chile were checked for their susceptibility to different mode of action insecticides in order to establish alternatives to manage this pest. No evidence of cross resistance between organophosphates insecticides and acetamiprid, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor, or thiacloprid was found. Baselines of LC50-LC95 for different life stages of San Jose scale are given, as reference to future studies of resistance monitoring. The systemic activity of acetamiprid, spirotetramat, and thiacloprid was higher than the contact residue effect of these compounds. For sulfoxaflor, both values were similar. Program treatments including one or more of these compounds are compared in efficacy and impact on resistance ratio values. In order to preserve new insecticides as an important tool to control San Jose scale, resistance management programs should be implemented, considering insecticide mode of action classes alternated or mixed.

  17. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  18. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  19. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  20. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  1. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  2. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  3. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  4. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1) East...

  5. 33 CFR 334.950 - Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.950 Pacific Ocean at San Clemente Island, California; Navy shore bombardment areas. (a) The danger zones. (1) The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area beginning at China Point Light...

  6. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  7. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  8. Deployment of the National Transparent Optical Network around the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, K.; Haigh, R.; Armstrong, G.

    1996-06-01

    We report on the deployment and initial operation of the National Transparent Optical Network, an experimental WDM network testbed around the San Francisco Bay Area, during the Optical Fiber Conference (OFC`96) held in San Jose, CA. The deployment aspects of the physical plant, optical and SONET layers are examined along with a discussion of broadband applications which utilized the network during the OFC`96 demonstration. The network features dense WDM technology, transparent optical routing technology using acousto- optic tunable filter based switches, and network modules with add/drop, multicast, and wavelength translation capabilities. The physical layer consisted of over 300 km of Sprint and Pacific Bell conventional single mode fiber which was amplified with I I optical amplifiers deployed in pre-amp, post-amp, and line amp configurations. An out-of-band control network provided datacom channels from remote equipment sites to the SONET network manager deployed at the San Jose Convention Center for the conference. Data transport over five wavelengths was achieved in the 1550 nm window using a variety of signal formats including analog and digital signal transmission on different wavelengths on the same fiber. The network operated throughout the week of OFC`96 and is still in operation today.

  9. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.

    1982-07-01

    The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.

  10. Mineral resources of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.

  11. Occupation and adult gliomas in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Geetha; Felini, Martha; Carozza, Susan E; Miike, Rei; Chew, Terri; Wrensch, Margaret

    2003-06-01

    The etiology of gliomas is not well understood. Some jobs might involve sustained and elevated exposures to carcinogens. This study compares lifetime job histories of 879 glioma cases diagnosed between August 1991 to April 1994 and May 1997 to August 1999 in the San Francisco Bay Area and 864 controls. Logistic analyses compared longest and ever held occupations of 1 year or more for all astrocytic and nonastrocytic cases and controls overall with adjustment for age, gender, and ethnicity and separately for men and women. Two-fold or higher or statistically significant elevated odds ratios were found overall and in men among those with longest held occupations, as firefighters, physicians, material moving equipment operators, and janitors; such elevated odds ratios were also observed for longest-held occupations among male motor vehicle operators and personal service workers and female messengers, legal/social service workers, electronic equipment operators, painters, and food processors. Odds ratios of 0.50 or less, but not statistically significant, were found for those with longest held jobs as writers/journalists, biological scientists, paper workers, mechanics, chemists, and photographers/photoprocessors. This study supports previously observed occupational associations and is one of the few studies with sufficient numbers to separately analyze occupations by gender.

  12. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1983-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban drainage basins in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin and Houston. Studies were completed in the Fort Worth metropolitan area at the end of the 1977 water year, and in the Dallas metropolitan area at the end of the 1979 water year. The study in the San Antonio area was completed at the end of the 1981 water year.The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, expanded the existing streamflow network in the San Antonio metropolitan area in May 1968 to begin urban hydrology studies in this area. In September 1968, the program was further expanded to include the collection of water-quality data. The Texas Department of Water Resources ended its participation in the project in 1979, and the city of San Antonio funded the program through the 1981 water year.The operation and maintenance of stations 08178000, San Antonio River at San Antonio; 08178700, Salado Creek (upper station) at San Antonio; and 08178800, Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio are funded by the city of San Antonio and the U.S Geological Survey.The operation and maintenance and collection of water-quality data at station 08178720, Lorence Creek at Thousand Oaks Blvd., San Antonio, station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio, are funded by the Edwards Underground Water District in cooperation with the Texas Department of Hater Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. Station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio will provide hydrologic data on similar and adjacent watersheds. The West Elm watershed is still predominately rural but is undergoing extensive urbanization in some areas. The East Elm watershed is relatively stable and undeveloped.The objectives of the San Antonio urban hydrology study are:To provide data showing the effects of various stages

  13. High-resolution marine seismic reflection data from the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Hart, Patrick; Bruns, Terry R.; Marlow, Michael S.; Sliter, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired high-resolution, marine seismic-reflection profile data across submerged portions of known and inferred upper crustal fault zones throughout the greater San Francisco Bay area. Surveys were conducted oversouth San Francisco Bay in the vicinity of the San Bruno shoal (roughly between the San Francisco and Oakland airports), over the offshore extension of the San Andreas fault system west of the Golden Gate, over the Hayward fault to Rodgers Creek fault step-over in San Pablo Bay, and over the Kirby Hills fault where it crosses the western Sacramento Delta. Reconnaissance profiles were acquired elsewhere throughout the San Francisco and San Pablo Bays. These data were acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey, Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team, under the auspices of the Central California/San Francisco Bay Earthquake Hazards Project. Analysis and interpretation of some of these profiles has been published by Marlow and others (1996, 1999). Further analysis and interpretation of these data are available in a USGS. Professional Paper Crustal Structure of the Coastal and Marine San Francisco Bay Region, T. Parsons, editor, http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/prof-paper/pp1658/ [link added 2012 mfd].

  14. 78 FR 67300 - Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; Restricted Anchorage Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations: Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas... follows: Sec. 110.220 Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The...

  15. 78 FR 70005 - Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... unchanged. San Nicolas Island is wholly owned by the United States and operated by the U.S. Navy as part of... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Naval Base Ventura County, San Nicolas Island, California; Restricted Area AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking...

  16. Mineral resources of the Castle Peaks Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.W.; Frisken, James G.; Jachens, Robert C.; Gese, Diann D.

    1986-01-01

    The Castle Peaks Wilderness Study Area (CDCA266) comprises approximately 45,000 acres in the northern New York Mountains, San Bernardino County, California. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 39,303 acres of the wilderness study area were studied. The area was investigated during 1982-1985 using combined geologic, geochemical, and geophysical methods. are considered preliminarily suitable for wilderness deignation. There are no mineral reserves or identified resources in the study area. Fluorspar, occurring in sparse veins, has moderate resource potential, as do silver and lead in fault zones, and gold and silver in sparse, high-grade veins and fault breccia. Each area of moderate resource potential encompasses less than one square mile. These same commodities have low resource potential in similar occurrences throughout much of the study area. In addition, there is low resource potential for gold in placer deposits, uranium in altered breccia and gouge, and rare-earth elements in pegmatite dikes. There is no resource potential for oil and gas resources over most of the study area, but the potential is unknown along its western margin. In this report, the area studied is referred to"the wilderness study area", or simply "the study area."

  17. Tap water isotopes reveal the San Francisco Bay Area's plumbing and responses to a major drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Chau, T. H.; Mancuso, C. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Dufour, A.; Chesson, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. The demands for and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between population centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources and infrastructure. To better understand these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters from the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns across 21 months during 2013-2015. San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-known water management strategies and its water resources were dramatically affected by the 2012-2105 drought. Consistent with known water management strategies and previous reports of tap water isotope values, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ2H and δ18O values of tap waters, indicative of complex water transport systems and municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ2H and δ18O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of measured tap water data grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Water management responses to the drought, such as source switching, bringing in new sources, and conservation, could be observed within the isotope data from each of

  18. Geologic map database of the El Mirage Lake area, San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.

    2000-01-01

    This geologic map database for the El Mirage Lake area describes geologic materials for the dry lake, parts of the adjacent Shadow Mountains and Adobe Mountain, and much of the piedmont extending south from the lake upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. This area lies within the western Mojave Desert of San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties, southeastern California. The area is traversed by a few paved highways that service the community of El Mirage, and by numerous dirt roads that lead to outlying properties. An off-highway vehicle area established by the Bureau of Land Management encompasses the dry lake and much of the land north and east of the lake. The physiography of the area consists of the dry lake, flanking mud and sand flats and alluvial piedmonts, and a few sharp craggy mountains. This digital geologic map database, intended for use at 1:24,000-scale, describes and portrays the rock units and surficial deposits of the El Mirage Lake area. The map database was prepared to aid in a water-resource assessment of the area by providing surface geologic information with which deepergroundwater-bearing units may be understood. The area mapped covers the Shadow Mountains SE and parts of the Shadow Mountains, Adobe Mountain, and El Mirage 7.5-minute quadrangles. The map includes detailed geology of surface and bedrock deposits, which represent a significant update from previous bedrock geologic maps by Dibblee (1960) and Troxel and Gunderson (1970), and the surficial geologic map of Ponti and Burke (1980); it incorporates a fringe of the detailed bedrock mapping in the Shadow Mountains by Martin (1992). The map data were assembled as a digital database using ARC/INFO to enable wider applications than traditional paper-product geologic maps and to provide for efficient meshing with other digital data bases prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project.

  19. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Modesto Area, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogeologic characterization was done to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic setting near Modesto by maximizing the use of existing data and building on previous work in the region. A substantial amount of new lithologic and hydrologic data are available that allow a more complete and updated characterization of the aquifer system. In this report, geologic units are described, a database of well characteristics and lithology is developed and used to update the regional stratigraphy, a water budget is estimated for water year 2000, a three-dimensional spatial correlation map of aquifer texture is created, and recommendations for future data collection are summarized. The general physiography of the study area is reflected in the soils. The oldest soils, which have low permeability, exist in terrace deposits, in the interfan areas between the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, at the distal end of the fans, and along the San Joaquin River floodplain. The youngest soils have high permeability and generally have been forming on the recently deposited alluvium along the major stream channels. Geologic materials exposed or penetrated by wells in the Modesto area range from pre-Cretaceous rocks to recent alluvium; however, water-bearing materials are mostly Late Tertiary and Quaternary in age. A database containing information from more than 3,500 drillers'logs was constructed to organize information on well characteristics and subsurface lithology in the study area. The database was used in conjunction with a limited number of geophysical logs and county soil maps to define the stratigraphic framework of the study area. Sequences of red paleosols were identified in the database and used as stratigraphic boundaries. Associated with these paleosols are very coarse grained incised valley-fill deposits. Some geophysical well logs and other sparse well information suggest the presence of one of these incised valley-fill deposits along and adjacent to the

  20. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....; restricted area. 334.870 Section 334.870 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.870 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area. (a) Restricted area at Bravo Pier, Naval Air Station—(1) The area. The water of...

  1. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....; restricted area. 334.870 Section 334.870 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.870 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area. (a) Restricted area at Bravo Pier, Naval Air Station—(1) The area. The water of...

  2. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto; Harmsen, Lynn

    1980-01-01

    Hydrologic investigations of urban drainage basins in Texas were begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1954. These studies are now in progress in Austin, Dallas, Dallas County, Fort Worth, Houston, and San Antonio.The Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, expanded the existing gaging-station network in the San Antonio metropolitan area in May 1968 to begin urban hydrology studies in this area. In September 1968, the program was further expanded to include the collection of water-quality data.The operation and maintenance of stations 08178000, San Antonio River at San Antonio; 08178700, Salado Creek (upper station) at San Antonio; and 08178800, Salado Creek (lower station) at San Antonio are funded by the San Antonio River Authority in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. The operation and maintenance and collection of water-quality data at station 08178640, West Elm Creek at San Antonio, and station 08178645, East Elm Creek at San Antonio are funded by the Edwards Underground Water District in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey. These stations will provide hydrologic data on similar and adjacent drainage basins. One drainage basin is undergoing extensive urbanization while the other is undeveloped. The objective of the San Antonio urban-hydrology study are: To provide data showing the effects of various stages of urbanization on flood discharge and runoff. To provide water-quality data on surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes, during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of utilization.

  3. 75 FR 41819 - Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Reorganization/Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 61 San Juan, Puerto Rico, Area...), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the following Order: Whereas, the Puerto Rico Trade... (proposed Sites 14, 15 and 16) in the San Juan, Puerto Rico, area within and adjacent to the San Juan...

  4. Geologic and hydrologic features of the San Bernardino area, California - with special reference to underflow across the San Jacinto fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Garrett, Arthur A.

    1963-01-01

    This is the second in a series of interpretive reports on subsurface outflow from the ground-water basins of San Bernardino County, Calif., prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Bernardino County Flood Control District. One principal purpose of the study was to estimate the ground-water outflow from the Bunker Hill basin to the Rialto-Colton basin across the San Jacinto fault, which, except locally, forms a nearly impermeable boundary between the two basins. In addition, the report deals qualitatively with the geology, the fault barriers that divide the area into several ground-water basins, the physical nature and degree of imperviousness of the barriers, the occurrence and movement of ground water and fluctuations of water level in the basins, and the chemical quality of surface and ground waters in the San Bernardino area. The report includes a geologic map and sections, water-level-contour maps and profiles, and hydrographs of selected well. The Santa Ana River, the principal stream, flows generally westward across the area. Channels of the river and its tributaries overlie a large irregular structural depression filled with alluvial deposits ranging in age from late Tertiary to Recent and forming a valley bounded on the north by the San Gabriel Mountains, on the east by the San Bernardino Mountains, and on the south by an irregular group of hills. Large alluvial fans underlie most of the area, but its landforms also include alluvial benches and terraces near the mountains, stream channels, and elongate hills, ridges, and scarps along the trace of the San Jacinto fault, which strikes northwestward across the valley about in the center of the area. This fault and others divide the area into ground-water basins, which include the Bunker Hill, Rialto-Colton, upper and lower Lytle and Chino basins. The water-bearing deposits include the following units: the younger alluvium. of Recent age, which occupies principally the backfilled

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  6. Map Showing Susceptibility to Earthquake-Induced Landsliding, San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santiago, Marilyn; Larsen, Matthew C.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of slope angle and rock type using a geographic information system indicates that about 68 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area has low to no susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides. This is at least partly due to the fact that 45 percent of the San Juan metropolitan area is constructed on slopes of 3 degrees or less, which are too gentle for landslides to occur. The areas with the highest susceptibility to earthquake-induced landslides account for 6 percent of the surface area. Almost one-quarter (24 percent) of the San Juan metropolitan area is moderately susceptible to earthquake-induced landslides. These areas are mainly in the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area, where housing development pressures are currently high because of land availability and the esthetics of greenery and hillside views. The combination of new development and moderate earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility indicate that the southern portions of the San Juan metropolitan area are be at greatest risk.

  7. 33 CFR 167.406 - Off San Francisco: Area to be avoided.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... avoided. 167.406 Section 167.406 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.406 Off San Francisco: Area to be avoided. A circular area to be avoided, with a radius of half of a nautical mile, is centered upon geographic...

  8. Community Mobilization Project: A Strategic Plan for American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Indian Nations, Inc., Oakland, CA.

    The Community Mobilization Project was a 3-year, grassroots strategic planning process by American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area. As a result of Bureau of Indian Affairs policies that relocated reservation Indians to the Bay Area in the 1950s-70s, over 40,000 American Indians now live in the 10-county area. However, the Indian population…

  9. Long-period building response to earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, A.H.; Aagaard, B.T.; Heaton, T.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study of modeled, long-period building responses to ground-motion simulations of earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Area. The earthquakes include the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, a magnitude 7.8 simulation of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, and two hypothetical magnitude 7.8 northern San Andreas fault earthquakes with hypocenters north and south of San Francisco. We use the simulated ground motions to excite nonlinear models of 20-story, steel, welded moment-resisting frame (MRF) buildings. We consider MRF buildings designed with two different strengths and modeled with either ductile or brittle welds. Using peak interstory drift ratio (IDR) as a performance measure, the stiffer, higher strength building models outperform the equivalent more flexible, lower strength designs. The hypothetical magnitude 7.8 earthquake with hypocenter north of San Francisco produces the most severe ground motions. In this simulation, the responses of the more flexible, lower strength building model with brittle welds exceed an IDR of 2.5% (that is, threaten life safety) on 54% of the urban area, compared to 4.6% of the urban area for the stiffer, higher strength building with ductile welds. We also use the simulated ground motions to predict the maximum isolator displacement of base-isolated buildings with linear, single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models. For two existing 3-sec isolator systems near San Francisco, the design maximum displacement is 0.5 m, and our simulations predict isolator displacements for this type of system in excess of 0.5 m in many urban areas. This article demonstrates that a large, 1906-like earthquake could cause significant damage to long-period buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  10. 75 FR 24409 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... EPA Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California. While all documents in the docket are... that the State of California has already submitted attainment demonstrations for these four areas that... in California, including the four areas subject to today's action as well as Western Mojave Desert...

  11. Increased Risk of Adverse Outcomes in Newborns in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braveman, Paula; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To determine whether lack of medical insurance was associated with adverse health outcomes, this study examined hospital data on newborns in California's San Francisco Bay Area. The study also sought to determine which ethnic groups were most at risk. Computerized data on all civilian acute-care hospitalizations in the study area were obtained for…

  12. A Comparison of Sunspot and Umbral Area from the San Fernando Obervatory and SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A.; Choudhary, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    Sunspot area is an important and basic datum for determining the level of solar activity. We report on a study of spot total and umbral areas determined from images obtained by the San Fernando Observatory (CSUN) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft. This research has been supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

  13. Increasing Hydrogen Ion Activity of Water in Two Reservoirs Supplying the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, J. G.

    1981-10-01

    The hydrogen ion activity (H+) of water in two Sierra Nevada reservoirs (Pardee and Hetch Hetchy) that supply the San Francisco Bay area has been increasing with time over the period 1954-1979. This conclusion is based on weekly measurements ofpH at the two reservoirs and is supported by measurements of alkalinity which decreased at Pardee over the period 1944-1979. Based on linear models, the rate of the increasing (H+) was the same at both reservoirs, and (H+) varied concomitantly from year to year, suggesting a common, general cause. Mean monthly variation in (H+) corresponded to mean monthly variation in atmospheric pollution from a nine-county area around San Francisco Bay. The most likely cause of the increasing (H+) of reservoir waters is NOx from automobile exhausts primarily from the San Francisco Bay area.

  14. Geology of the Cedar Mesa-Boundary Butte area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, Robert B.

    1965-01-01

    The Cedar Mesa-Boundary Butte area lies within the Colorado Plateau and includes about 650 square miles in southern San Juan County, Utah. Altitudes ranges from 3,890 feet on the westward-flowing San Juan River, the major and only perennial stream, to more than 6,400 feet on Cedar Mesa in the northwest. Bare rocks, high mesas, sheer cliffs, and deep canyons characterize the area. Comb Ridge, a prominent hogback of eastward-dipping rocks, trends north through the middle part of the area and is the most conspicuous topographic feature. The only permanent settlements are Bluff in the east and Mexican Hat in the west, both on the San Juan River.

  15. Management: Area Support Responsibilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Georgia: All counties north of Bleckley, Bryan, Dodge, Effingham, Evans, Jones, Lamarr, Meriwether , Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Tattnall, Telfair, Troup...the actual cost of materials). b. Area of responsibility. Table C–2 provides installation taskings by installation, State, and county . These taskings...responsibility Devens RFTA FORSCOM CT: All counties ME: All counties MA: All counties NH: All counties RI: All counties VT: All counties Fort Belvoir, VA

  16. Optimal pumping strategies for managing shallow, poorquality groundwater, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, P.; Wagner, B.; Belitz, K.

    1995-01-01

    Continued agricultural productivity in the western San Joaquin Valley, California, is threatened by the presence of shallow, poor-quality groundwater that can cause soil salinization. We evaluate the management alternative of using groundwater pumping to control the altitude of the water table and provide irrigation water requirements. A transient, three-dimensional, groundwater flow model was linked with nonlinear optimization to simulate management alternatives for the groundwater flow system. Optimal pumping strategies have been determined that substantially reduce the area subject to a shallow water table and bare-soil evaporation (that is, areas with a water table within 2.1 m of land surface) and the rate of drainflow to on-farm drainage systems. Optimal pumping strategies are constrained by the existing distribution of wells between the semiconfined and confined zones of the aquifer, by the distribution of sediment types (and associated hydraulic conductivities) in the western valley, and by the historical distribution of pumping throughout the western valley.

  17. Interpretation of an aerial radiometric survey of the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area and vicinity, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitkin, James A.; Duval, Joseph S.

    1981-01-01

    The aerial radiometric data for the San Gorgonio Wilderness Area show slight correlation with mapped geology and contain no information of economic significance. Precambrian and modified Precambrian crystalline rocks have more eTh compared to Mesozoic plutonic rocks and one rock unit mapped as a pluton has slightly more K. These rocks have essentially uniform ratios of eU/eTh and eU/K despite their different origins. The ratios and also show that part of the granodiorite of Manzanita Springs could be somewhat deficient in eTh and K. It is concluded that the mapped radioelement distributions are within reasonable limits for the rock types involved, and there is no immediate evidence on any anomalous concentrations of radioactive minerals within the Wilderness Area

  18. Creating Safe Growth Strategies for the San Francisco Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from a technical assistance project with the Association of Bay Area Governments to develop strategies to ensure that growth in the region is resilient to hazards such as earthquakes and sea level rise, but also affordable and transit accessible.

  19. 33 CFR 167.401 - Off San Francisco: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a)(1) A precautionary area is established bounded to the west by an arc of a circle with a radius of... precautionary area is bounded to the east by a line connecting the following geographic positions: Latitude Longitude 37°42.70′ N 122°34.60′ W. 37°45.90′ N 122°38.00′ W. 37°50.30′ N 122°38.00′ W (b) A pilot...

  20. San Francisco Bay Area Endangered Species Litigation - Center for Biological Diversity v. EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Center for Biological Diversity have agreed to a revised settlement agreement that amends a 2010 court order for effects determinations on 11 endangered or threatened (listed) species in the San Francisco Bay area. Find out about the new order.

  1. The State of Latino Education in the San Francisco Bay Area: A Crisis in Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Mario

    A study examined educational attainment among Latino students in the six-county San Francisco Bay Area. California's Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program results for 1998-99 were used to assess student achievement in reading and mathematics for grades 4, 7, and 10. Data were also collected on enrollment, dropout rates, percentage of…

  2. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  3. Hypoallergenic breads. Wheat content of products available in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Lietze, A; Rowe, A H; Rowe, A

    1967-12-01

    Substantial amounts of soluble wheat antigens have been found in breads sold as "wheat-free" in the San Francisco Bay Area. Physicians with patients on a wheat-free diet are urged to exercise careful supervision over their patients' choice of such breads.

  4. Reach: A Multicultural Education Resource Handbook for the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Vivian; Tricamo, Terese

    The guide will help elementary and secondary school teachers to identify resources for multicultural education in the San Francisco Bay Area. Over 250 entries are included about American Indians, Mexican Americans, Chinese and Japanese Americans, Greek Americans, Jews, and Afro Americans, the groups most thoroughly represented. Almost every entry…

  5. Flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, Cochise County, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth Makings

    2005-01-01

    The flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA) consists of 618 taxa from 92 families, including a new species of Eriogonum and four new State records. The vegetation communities include Chihuahuan Desertscrub, cottonwood-willow riparian corridors, mesquite terraces, sacaton grasslands, rocky outcrops, and cienegas. Species...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1010 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of Hunters Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the shore of the San Francisco Naval Shipyard and the following lines: Beginning at a point on the northerly shore of the Shipyard bearing 292°40′, 950 yards, from Hunters Point Light; thence 35°27′,...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1010 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of Hunters Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334... the shore of the San Francisco Naval Shipyard and the following lines: Beginning at a point on the northerly shore of the Shipyard bearing 292°40′, 950 yards, from Hunters Point Light; thence 35°27′,...

  8. Slip rates on San Francisco Bay area faults from anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Andrews, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term slip rates on major faults in the San Francisco Bay area are predicted by modeling the anelastic deformation of the continental lithosphere in response to regional relative plate motion. The model developed by Bird and Kong [1994] is used to simulate lithospheric deformation according to a Coulomb frictional rheology of the upper crust and a dislocation creep rheology at depth. The focus of this study is the long-term motion of faults in a region extending from the creeping section of the San Andreas fault to the south up to the latitude of Cape Mendocino to the north. Boundary conditions are specified by the relative motion between the Pacific plate and the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley microplate [Argus and Gordon, 2000]. Rheologic-frictional parameters are specified as independent variables, and prediction errors are calculated with respect to geologic estimates of slip rates and maximum compressive stress directions. The model that best explains the region-wide observations is one in which the coefficient of friction on all of the major faults is less than 0.15, with the coefficient of friction for the San Andreas fault being approximately 0.09, consistent with previous inferences of San Andreas fault friction. Prediction error increases with lower fault friction on the San Andreas, indicating a lower bound of ??SAF > 0.08. Discrepancies with respect to previous slip rate estimates include a higher than expected slip rate along the peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault and a slightly lower than expected slip rate along the San Gregorio fault.

  9. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  10. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a..., Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California, will conduct target practice in the area at intervals...

  14. BAREPP: Earthquake preparedness for the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    The threat of major and damaging earthquakes in California is a fact. How people respond to that threat is a concern shared by many local, state, federal, volunteer and private sector organizations. The Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project (BAREPP) promotes comprehensive earthquake preparedness actions by these organizations and provides technical and planning assistance for a variety of programs.

  15. 33 CFR 167.401 - Off San Francisco: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... geographical positions: Latitude Longitude 37°42.70′ N 122°34.60′ W. 37°50.30′ N 122°38.00′ W. (2) The precautionary area is bounded to the east by a line connecting the following geographic positions:...

  16. Maps of the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley, San Diego County, California, showing geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.

    1985-01-01

    In November 1984, 84 wells and 1 spring in the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley were inventoried by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Depth to water in 38 wells ranged from 1.3 to 38 ft and 23 wells had depths to water less than 10 feet. Dissolved solids concentration of water from 29 wells and 1 spring sampled in autumn 1983 and spring 1984 ranged from 574 to 2,370 mgs/L. Groundwater with a dissolved solids concentration less than 1,000 mgs/L was generally restricted to the eastern part of the aquifer. The total volume of alluvial fill in the Bonsall area is 113,000 acre-feet; the amount of groundwater storage available in the alluvial aquifer is 18,000 acre-feet. The alluvial aquifer is, in part, surrounded and underlain by colluvium and weathered crystalline rock that add some additional groundwater storage capacity to the system. Data in this report are presented on five maps showing well locations , thickness of alluvial fill, water level contours in November 1983 and hydrographs of selected wells, groundwater quality in spring 1960 and graphs showing changes in dissolved solids concentrations of water from selected wells with time, and groundwater quality in spring 1984. This report is part of a larger cooperative project between the Rainbow Municipal Irrigation District and the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of the larger project is to develop an appropriate groundwater management plan for the Bonsall area of the San Luis Rey River valley. (USGS)

  17. External impacts of an intraurban air transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, J. Y.; Gebman, J. R.; Kirkwood, T. F.; Mcclure, P. T.; Stucker, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects are studied of an intraurban V/STOL commuter system on the economic, social, and physical environment of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area was chosen mainly for a case study; the real intent of the analysis is to develop methods by which the effects of such a system could be evaluated for any community. Aspects of the community life affected include: income and employment, benefits and costs, noise, air pollution, and road congestion.

  18. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  19. The role of tidal marsh restoration in fish management in the San Francisco Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbold, Bruce; Baltz, Donald; Brown, Larry R.; Grossinger, Robin; Kimmerer, Wim J.; Lehman, Peggy W.; Moyle, Peter B.; Nobriga, Matthew L.; Simenstad, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011). Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha) and the Bay Delta Conservation Plan (26,305 ha). In the lower estuary, tidal marsh has proven its value to a wide array of species that live within it (Palaima 2012). In the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta), one important function ascribed to restoration of freshwater tidal marshes is that they make large contributions to the food web of fish in open waters (BDCP 2013). The Ecosystem Restoration Program ascribed a suite of ecological functions to tidal marsh restoration, including habitat and food web benefits to native fish (CDFW 2010). This background was the basis for a symposium, Tidal Marshes and Native Fishes in the Delta: Will Restoration Make a Difference? held at the University of California, Davis, on June 10, 2013. This paper summarizes conclusions the authors drew from the symposium.

  20. Mineral resources of the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study Areas, including Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Dickerson, R.P.; Barton, H.W.; McCafferty, A.E.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Koyuncu, H.; Lee, K.; Duval, J.S. ); Munts, S.R.; Benjamin, D.A.; Close, T.J.; Lipton, D.A.; Neumann, T.R.; Willet, S.L. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the San Rafael Swell Wilderness Study areas, which includes the Muddy Creek, Crack Canyon, San Rafael Reef, Mexican Mountain, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas, in Emery County, south-central Utah. Within and near the Crack Canyon Wilderness Study Area are identified subeconomic uranium and vanadium resources. Within the Carmel Formation are inferred subeconomic resources of gypsum in the Muddy Creek, San Rafael Reef, and Sids Mountain Wilderness Study Areas. Other commodities evaluated include geothermal energy, gypsum, limestone, oil and gas, sand and gravel, sandstone, semiprecious gemstones, sulfur petrified wood, and tar sand.

  1. 78 FR 53477 - Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's San Pedro Project Office in Sierra Vista, AZ AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the relocation of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) San Pedro Project Office...

  2. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National...) to establish management direction for the land and resources within Chimney Rock National Monument... establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument) requires preparation of a management plan. The...

  3. System designed for issuing landslide alerts in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, D.

    1987-01-01

    A system for forecasting landslides during major storms has been developed for the San Francisco Bay area by the U.S Geological Survey and was successfully tested during heavy storms in the bay area during February 1986. Based on the forecasts provided by the USGS, the National Weather Service (NWS) included landslide warnings in its regular weather forecasts or in special weather statements transmitted to local radio and television stations and other news media. USGS scientists said the landslide forecasting and warning system for the San Francisco Bay area can be used as a prototype in developing similar systems for other parts of the Nation susceptible to landsliding. Studies show damage from landslides in the United States averages an estimated $1.5 billion per year. 

  4. Vermont management in focal areas

    Treesearch

    Judy Rosovsky; Bruce L. Parker; Luke Curtis

    1991-01-01

    Following the 1979 outbreak of gypsy moths Lymantria dispar L. in Vermont, state personnel began monitoring a number of focal areas for signs of increase in gypsy moth populations. In 1986 data from this early warning system indicated an incipient outbreak. We took advantage of this increase to test an experimental management technique. Would...

  5. Near-Surface Structure of the Peninsula Segment of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, C.; Catchings, R.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Grove, K.; Prentice, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is a section of the fault that has the potential to produce the next large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, yet the slip history of the peninsula segment is relatively unknown. In most places, the surface location of the SAF has been determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features and from mapping surface ruptures associated with the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake. To more precisely locate traces of the SAF along the San Francisco peninsula in the subsurface, we acquired a high-resolution seismic imaging survey, using both seismic refraction and reflection profiling, south of Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir near Woodside, California in June 2012. We acquired coincident P- and S-wave data using a 60-channel seismograph system connected via cable to 40-Hz vertical-component and 4-Hz horizontal-component geophones, with spacing at 1-m intervals along a 60-m-long transect across the SAF. Seismic sources (shots) were generated by hammer impacts on a steel plate or aluminum block at each geophone location. All shots were recorded on all channels. This survey design permitted simultaneous acquisition of reflection and refraction data such that both refraction tomography and reflection images were developed. Analysis of the P- and S-wave data, using refraction tomography, shows abrupt variations in the P-wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocities, including the 1,500 m/s velocity contour that outlines the top to groundwater and images of Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. P-wave velocities range from about 700 m/s at the surface to more than 4000 m/s at 20-m depth. S-wave velocities range from about 300 m/s at the surface to about 800 m/s at 20-m depth. The combined data indicate that the near-surface trace of the SAF dips steeply to the southwest in the upper few tens of meters. Variations in the velocity images also suggest the possibility of two additional near-surface fault traces within about 25 m of the

  6. Benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information System - San Francisco Bay Area Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Johnson, L. E.; White, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in monitoring and prediction of precipitation and severe storms can provide significant benefits for water resource managers, allowing them to mitigate flood damage risks, capture additional water supplies and offset drought impacts, and enhance ecosystem services. A case study for the San Francisco Bay area provides the context for quantification of the benefits of an Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) system. The AQPI builds off more than a decade of NOAA research and applications of advanced precipitation sensors, data assimilation, numerical models of storms and storm runoff, and systems integration for real-time operations. An AQPI would dovetail with the current National Weather Service forecast operations to provide higher resolution monitoring of rainfall events and longer lead time forecasts. A regional resource accounting approach has been developed to quantify the incremental benefits assignable to the AQPI system; these benefits total to $35 M/yr in the 9 county Bay region. Depending on the jurisdiction large benefits for flood damage avoidance may accrue for locations having dense development in flood plains. In other locations forecst=based reservoir operations can increase reservoir storage for water supplies. Ecosystem services benefits for fisheries may be obtained from increased reservoir storage and downstream releases. Benefits in the transporation sectors are associated with increased safety and avoided delays. Compared to AQPI system implementation and O&M costs over a 10 year operations period, a benefit - cost (B/C) ratio is computed which ranges between 2.8 to 4. It is important to acknowledge that many of the benefits are dependent on appropriate and adequate response by the hazards and water resources management agencies and citizens.

  7. Geologic Map of the San Luis Hills Area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a digital image of the U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1906, 'Geologic map of the San Luis Hills area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado,' which was published in 1989 by Thompson and Machette, scale 1:50,000 but has been unavailable in a digital version. The map area represents the southwestern portion of the Alamosa 30' x 60' quadrangle, which is currently being remapped by the U.S. Geological Survey. The northern and eastern margins of the San Luis Hills area have been remapped at greater detail and thus small portions of the map area have been updated. The northern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1392, the northeastern portion is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1124, and the eastern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1074. The most significant changes to the 1989 map area are recognition of Lake Alamosa and its deposits (Alamosa Formation), remapping of bedrock in the northeastern San Luis Hills, and redating of volcanic units in the San Luis Hills. Although unpublished, new 40Ar/39Ar ages for volcanic units in the Conejos and Hinsdale Formations add precision to the previous K/Ar-dated rocks, but do not change the basic chronology of the units. The digital version of this map was prepared by Theodore R. Brandt by scanning the original map at 300 pixels per inch, prior to creating the press-quality (96 Mb) and standard (5 Mb) .pdf files.

  8. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.

  9. Top-down methane emissions estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area from 1990 to 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Fairley, David; Fischer, Marc L.

    2015-01-30

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that is now included in both California State and San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) bottom-up emission inventories as part of California's effort to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions. Here we provide a top-down estimate of methane (CH4) emissions from the SFBA by combining atmospheric measurements with the comparatively better estimated emission inventory for carbon monoxide (CO). Local enhancements of CH4 and CO are estimated using measurements from 14 air quality sites in the SFBA combined together with global background measurements. Mean annual CH4 emissions are estimated from the product of Bay Area Air Qualitymore » Management District (BAAQMD) emission inventory CO and the slope of ambient local CH4 to CO. The resulting top-down estimates of CH4 emissions are found to decrease slightly from 1990 to 2012, with a mean value of 240 ± 60 GgCH4 yr⁻¹ (at 95% confidence) in the most recent (2009–2012) period, and correspond to reasonably a constant factor of 1.5–2.0 (at 95% confidence) times larger than the BAAQMD CH4 emission inventory. However, we note that uncertainty in these emission estimates is dominated by the variation in CH4:CO enhancement ratios across the observing sites and we expect the estimates could represent a lower-limit on CH4 emissions because BAAQMD monitoring sites focus on urban air quality and may be biased toward CO rather than CH4 sources.« less

  10. Geologic structure of the Yucaipa area inferred from gravity data, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Langenheim, V.E.; Morita, Andrew; Danskin, Wesley R.

    2016-09-30

    In the spring of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District, began working on a gravity survey in the Yucaipa area to explore the three-dimensional shape of the sedimentary fill (alluvial deposits) and the surface of the underlying crystalline basement rocks. As water use has increased in pace with rapid urbanization, water managers have need for better information about the subsurface geometry and the boundaries of groundwater subbasins in the Yucaipa area. The large density contrast between alluvial deposits and the crystalline basement complex permits using modeling of gravity data to estimate the thickness of alluvial deposits. The bottom of the alluvial deposits is considered to be the top of crystalline basement rocks. The gravity data, integrated with geologic information from surface outcrops and 51 subsurface borings (15 of which penetrated basement rock), indicated a complex basin configuration where steep slopes coincide with mapped faults―such as the Crafton Hills Fault and the eastern section of the Banning Fault―and concealed ridges separate hydrologically defined subbasins.Gravity measurements and well logs were the primary data sets used to define the thickness and structure of the groundwater basin. Gravity measurements were collected at 256 new locations along profiles that totaled approximately 104.6 km (65 mi) in length; these data supplemented previously collected gravity measurements. Gravity data were reduced to isostatic anomalies and separated into an anomaly field representing the valley fill. The ‘valley-fill-deposits gravity anomaly’ was converted to thickness by using an assumed, depth-varying density contrast between the alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock.To help visualize the basin geometry, an animation of the elevation of the top of the basement-rocks was prepared. The animation “flies over” the Yucaipa groundwater basin, viewing the land surface

  11. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, Eric; Angell, Christopher; Chodash, Perry

    2011-10-01

    We observed fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area beginning approximately 1 week after the earthquake. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. Soon after the observation of fallout in rainwater, we also observed low levels of Fukushima fallout in plant and food specimens collected in the the San Francisco area. This work was supported in part by the US Dept. of Homeland Security and by a Nuclear Non-Proliferation International Safeguards Graduate Fellowship (PAC) from the US Dept. of Energy.

  12. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  13. Observations of Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Accident in San Francisco Bay Area Rainwater

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Eric B.; Angell, Christopher T.; Chodash, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    We have observed fallout from the recent Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in samples of rainwater collected in the San Francisco Bay area. Gamma ray spectra measured from these samples show clear evidence of fission products – 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels we have measured for these isotopes are very low and pose no health risk to the public. PMID:21957447

  14. Look before you build; geologic studies for safer land development in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair-Tyler, Martha

    1995-01-01

    This Circular provides a general description of the types of geologic hazards that exist throughout the United States. In nontechnical language this book describes how geologic information can be incorporated in the land-use development process and contains useful discussion of several examples from the San Francisco Bay area and elsewhere in the United States of how geologic information is already being used in the development process by some cities and counties.

  15. Chemistry and isotopic composition of ground water along a section near the Newmark area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Danskin, Wesley R.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic analyses and flow-meter measurements in pumped wells were used to determine the source, movement, and age of ground water along a section of the valley-fill aquifer from the San Jacinto Fault to the base of the San Bernardino Mountains near the Newmark area in the Bunker Hill Basin of southern California. Water samples were collected from four multiple-depth well sites, from different depths within three production wells, and from two nearby streams; these samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen (delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium), tritium, and carbon-14. Within the production wells, variations in vertical flowrate with depth were recorded during pumped conditions using a standard spinner tool. Where saturated, the upper 200 feet of unconsolidated deposits contributed as much as 60 percent of the well discharge; deposits at depths greater than 700 feet contributed less than 10 percent. Chemical analyses indicate that three general zones of ground-water quality are present along a north-south section--an oxygenated zone near the base of the San Bernardino Mountains, an oxygen-depleted zone near the San Jacinto Fault, and a deeper zone characterized by concentrations of fluoride greater than 1 mg/L and by a general water-quality composition similar to that of base flow in East Twin Creek. The presence of tritium in water from wells along the section indicates that post-1952 recharge has moved rapidly through the valley-fill aquifer to depths as great as 800 feet. Carbon-14 data indicate that the maximum age of ground water, sampled at depths ranging from 600 to 1,000 feet, is less than 5,000 years before present. Ground water along the study section is much younger than ground water from similar depths in other nearby basins. Delta oxygen-18 and delta deuterium data indicate that as much as 25 percent of the discharge from some wells near the base of the San Bernardino Mountains is

  16. Hydrogeology of Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area, McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Brod, R.C.; Stone, W.J.

    1981-11-06

    The Ambrosia Lake-San Mateo area is located about 10 mi north of Grants, New Mexico, in the heart of the Grants uranium region, which spans the southern edge of the San Juan Basin. The climate is semiarid and local streams are ephemeral, except where discharge from mines or tailings ponds has made them perennial. Ground water is thus the main source of water in the area. Major aquifers include alluvium, sandstones of the Mesaverde Group, sandstones of the Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Bluff Sandstone, Todilto Limestone, Chinle Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Glorieta Sandstone. Although shallow unconfined ground water flows southwesterly, deeper, confined ground water flows toward the northeast and east. Ground water in the area generally has a total-dissolved-solids content of 400 to 2000 mg/L; waters in the notheast are more saline (2000 to 5000 mg/L). Because the uranium occurs in a regional artesian aquifer (Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation), extensive dewatering is required: approximately 164 mgd. A new state law brings mine dewatering under the jurisdiction of the State Engineer and permits use of excess uranium-mine water. Private or municipal wells presently provide adequate supplies of water for most domestic and stock purposes.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of the industrial cogeneration potential in five San Francisco Bay Area counties. Consultant report

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, C. Jr.; Rodden, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates of the industrial cogeneration potential in five San Francisco Bay Area counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, Santa Clara, San Mateo, and San Francisco are developed. The estimates are developed using survey techniques including mailed questionaires and on-site visits. The following technical and economic feasibility criteria were used in screening potential industrial cogenerators; a heat demand rate criterion of 15,000 pounds of steam per hour and annual heat load factor of 0.60, which was determined by an after-tax return on investment requirement of 16%. Using these screening criteria, a survey was conducted at 75 industrial sites in the five county area, questionaires were received for 34 projects, and site visits were performed at 12 facilities. Based upon the above economic criteria there were 584 MW of viable cogeneration potential identified, about three quarters of which were found in oil refineries, chemical plants, or paper, plastic, or wallboard firms. The total industrial cogeneration capacity estimated for the five county area was 1334 MW. Extrapolating from this sample, this estimate involves a number of approximations and assumptions, and does not consider industrial growth in future years.

  18. Avian Monitoring and Risk Assessment at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Tom, J.; Neumann, N.; Erickson, W. P.; Strickland, M. D.; Bourassa, M.; Bay, K. J.; Sernka, K. J.

    2005-08-01

    The primary objective of this study at the San Gorgonio Wind Resource Area was to estimate and compare bird utilization, fatality rates, and the risk index among factors including bird taxonomic groups, wind turbine and reference areas, wind turbine sizes and types, and geographic locations. The key questions addressed to meet this objective include: (1) Are there any differences in the level of bird activity, called ''utilization rate'' or ''use'', with the operating wind plant and within the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (2) Are there any differences in the rate of bird fatalities (or avian fatality) within the operating wind plant or the surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; (3) Does bird use, fatality rates, or bird risk index vary according to the geographic location, type and size of wind turbine, and/or type of bird within the operating wind plant and surrounding undeveloped areas (reference area)?; and (4) How do raptor fatality rates at San Gorgonio compare to other wind projects with comparable data?

  19. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  20. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  1. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of...

  2. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of fishing...

  3. 50 CFR 665.798 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.798 Section 665.798 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....798 Management area. The western Pacific Pelagic fishery management area includes all areas of fishing...

  4. Contrasts in compliant fault zone properties inferred from geodetic measurements in the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materna, Kathryn; Bürgmann, Roland

    2016-09-01

    In crustal fault zones, regions of damaged rock characterized by reduced elastic shear modulus can influence patterns of near-field interseismic deformation. In order to study these compliant fault zones (CFZs) and how they might develop over the lifetimes of faults, we compare two fault segments with contrasting fault age and lithology along the San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area. New geodetic measurements of the interseismic velocity fields at each location are used to constrain fault zone parameters through a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. At Black Mountain, in the Santa Cruz Mountains of the San Francisco Peninsula, we do not find evidence for a compliant fault zone; instead, we find that the geodetic data are more consistent with a model of a single fault in a homogeneous elastic half-space. At Lake San Andreas, a younger fault segment 35 km farther north, we find evidence for a compliant fault zone about 3.4 +1.1/-1.4 km wide, containing a shear modulus of about 40% of the shear modulus of the surrounding rock. We also find that the best fitting CFZ model at this location, unlike the best fitting homogeneous half-space model, has a locking depth that agrees well with the observed depth of microseismicity. Based on differences in fault age, cumulative displacement, and lithology between Black Mountain and Lake San Andreas, we infer that lithology plays an important and, in this case, perhaps a dominant role in the accumulation of fault zone damage structures and the development of CFZs over the lifetime of a fault.

  5. Lessons for Integrated Water Resources Management from the San Pedro HELP Basin on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, A.; Goodrich, D.; Varady, R.; Richter, H.

    2007-12-01

    The San Pedro Basin sits within an intermountain ecotone with the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts to the west and east and the Rocky Mountain and Sierra Madre Mountain habitats to the north and south. The headwaters of the basin originate in northern Sonora and flow north into southeast Arizona. As the region's only remaining perennial stream, the San Pedro River serves as an international flyway for over 400 bird species. It is one of the western hemisphere's most ecologically diverse areas with some 20 different biotic communities, and "possesses one of the richest assemblages of land mammal species in the world." Large mining, military, and municipal entities are major users of the same groundwater resources that maintain perennial flow in the San Pedro. This presentation describes empirical evidence of the positive impacts on watershed management of scientists and policy researchers working closely with water managers and elected officials in a functioning HELP basin. We posit that when hydrologists help watershed groups understand the processes controlling water quality and quantity, and when managers and stakeholders connect these processes to social, economic and legal issues then transboundary cooperation in policymaking and water management is most effective. The distinctive physical and socioeconomic characteristics of the basin as well as differences in institutional regulations, water law issues, and their local implementations in Arizona and Sonora are discussed. We illustrate how stakeholders and scientific researchers in both countries strive to balance ecosystem needs with human demands to create new, integrated basin management. Finally, we describe how the accomplishments of the San Pedro collaborative process, including the use of environmental-conflict-resolution tools, have contributed to the UNESCO HELP (Hydrology for the Environment, Life, and Policy) agenda.

  6. Particulate Matter Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Train Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newsome, L.; Macias, S.; Romero, N.; Lockett, N.; Polar, J.; Madrigal, C.; Lopez, F.; Sanchez, R.; Webster, D.; Torio, M.; Rios, V.; Marks-Block, T.; Toli, F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a general effort to assess air quality in different regions of the San Francisco Bay Area, we collected Particulate Matter (PM) data within passenger train cars along multiple commuter train lines simultaneously during the summer and fall of 2012. We visited numerous Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system stations, including those along the Fremont, Pittsburg and SF/Daly City lines. In conducting this study we used a Dustrak 8530 aerosol sensor equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to measure PM size 2.5 μm concentrations every second. Of all the BART stations we visited, average PM concentration levels at the Embarcadero station in San Francisco were the highest during multiple visits, with a value of 104.95 μg/m3. We also noted that high levels of PM 2.5 were released when the cloth seats on the trains were struck, which resulted in significant, temporary increases of hazardous PM levels of up to 3000 μg/m3! Embarcadero station's high PM concentration correlates to past research in other underground train stations throughout the world, where PM produced through the abrasive interaction of train wheels and tracks or brake pads becomes trapped. Compared to levels measured at outdoor stations (average of 8.52μg/m3) and other underground stations, levels detected at the Embarcadero station are particularly alarming. We believe this is due to the fact that this station is located at one end of a long, underground and underwater transbay tunnel that connects the East San Francisco Bay area to San Francisco to the west. To reduce PM exposure risk to BART employees and passengers, we suggest increasing and/or installing filtration and ventilation systems, which should substantially reduce PM concentrations at Embarcadero station.

  7. 75 FR 28055 - General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, CA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... National Park Service General Management Plan; Joshua Tree National Park; San Bernardino and Riverside... Management Plan (GMP) for Joshua Tree National Park, California. The new GMP will update the overall..., Joshua Tree National Park, Joshua, 74485 National Park Drive, Twentynine Palms, California...

  8. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  9. Asymmetric deformation across the San Francisco Bay Area faults from GPS observations in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, N.; Romanowicz, B.

    2011-02-01

    We show that geodetic data from the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network indicate asymmetric motion across the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), resulting from a strong contrast in rigidity across the fault, as determined previously from seismological data. Assuming asymmetric motion across the fault, we determine the location and size of the maximum strain rate in the region. We find that, compared to the determination using a symmetric model of deformation, it is shifted eastward and its value increases from ˜0.4 μstrain/yr to ˜0.65 μstrain/yr. Such strain rate amplitudes are consistent with previous geodetic slip rate estimates. We confirm that the geological units located east of SAF are entrained by the motion of the Pacific Plate and that the San Andreas fault (SAF) is the real rheological limit between the Pacific and North-American Plates. The asymmetry of rheology constrained in this study implies the strain rate maximum in SFBA is likely located between SAF and the Hayward fault system. This also has implications for hazards in the northern SFBA, in particular on the Rodgers creek fault.

  10. Earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area (1970-2003)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.; Wong, Florence L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.0 in the greater San Francisco Bay area. Twenty-two earthquakes magnitude 5.0 and greater are indicated on the map and listed chronologically in an accompanying table. The data are compiled from records from 1970-2003. The bathymetry was generated from a digital version of NOAA maps and hydrogeographic data for San Francisco Bay. Elevation data are from the USGS National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from seven Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes. Fault data are reproduced with permission from the California Geological Survey. The earthquake data are from the Northern California Earthquake Catalog.

  11. Hydrologic data for urban studies in the San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan area, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez, Roberto

    1981-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data collected during the 1978 water year for the San Antonio metropolitan area. The information will be useful in determining the effects of various stages of ubanization on flood discharge and runoff and in determining chemical constituents in surface-water runoff from floods of various magnitudes during all seasons of the year from areas with different types of urban development. Detailed rainfall-runoff computations are presented for several storm periods during the 1978 water years. (USGS)

  12. State of Arizona; Proposed Approval of Second 10-Year SO2 Maintenance Plan for San Manuel Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing to approve the second 10-year maintenance plan for the San Manuel area in Arizona for the 1971 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS or “standards”) for sulfur dioxide (SO2).

  13. InSAR deformation time series for an agricultural area in the San Luis Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J. A.; Knight, R.; Zebker, H. A.; Schreüder, W. A.; Shanker, P.; Lauknes, T. R.

    2009-05-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV) is an 8000 km2 region in southern Colorado that is home to a thriving agricultural economy. This valley is currently in a period of extreme drought, with county and state regulators struggling to develop appropriate management policies for both the surface water and the ground water. In 1998 the state of Colorado commissioned the Rio Grande Decision Support System to refine the hydogeologic characterization of the system, including the development of a MODFLOW finite difference model of groundwater flow. The main challenge in the SLV is acquiring sufficient data to characterize the spatially heterogeneous, time-varying behavior of the groundwater system. Here we apply the small baseline subset analysis (SBAS) interferometric radar (InSAR) technique to provide such data. InSAR techniques yield the deformation of Earth's surface at fine spatial resolution occurring between two satellite overflights, and SBAS permits solution for a time series of deformation maps. The measured deformation can be related to changes in the water table in underlying confined aquifers. The ability to map these changes, over time, in the SLV will provide critical information about the groundwater system. Historically, InSAR measurements have been difficult to make in agricultural areas. The change in cm-scale crop structure with time leads to signal decorrelation and the loss of useful information about surface deformation. The recently-developed SBAS method allows stable deformation estimates at certain ground points in an otherwise decorrelated time series of data. We applied this approach to data collected by the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites over the western SLV from track 98 frame 2853 for the years 1992-2001. We used the Generic SAR (GSAR) SBAS software developed by Norut to produce time series deformation measurements for many positions across the entire SLV. We find that the 2000 km2 area captured in track 98 frame 2853 shows very high

  14. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  15. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  16. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  17. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the...

  18. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the...

  19. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The fishery management area for the regulation of fishing for HMS has the following...

  20. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Management area. The Mariana coral reef management area consists of the U.S. EEZ around Guam and the offshore...

  1. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  2. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  3. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  4. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  5. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  6. Maps Showing Ground-Water Conditions in the San Francisco Peaks Area, Coconino County, Arizona - 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Cynthia L.; Bills, Donald J.

    1981-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The San Francisco Peaks area includes about 2,300 mi2, of which about 500 mi2 is in the Navajo Indian Reservation, in north-central Arizona. Ground-water development has been slight except for the public-supply wells for Flagstaff and domestic wells in Fort Valley, Pitman Valley, and the area west of Elden Mountain. The public water supply for Flagstaff is primarily from Upper Lake Mary but is supplemented by ground water from wells near Woody Mountain and Lower Lake Mary and from wells and springs in the Inner Basin. In 1978 about 2,000 acre-ft of ground water was withdrawn for public, industrial, domestic, and stock supplies in the San Francisco Peaks area. The hydrologic data on which these maps are based are available, for the most part, in computer-printout form and may be consulted at the Arizona Department of Water Resources, 99 East Virginia, Phoenix, and at U.S. Geological Survey offices in: Federal Building, 301 West Congress Street, Tucson; Valley Center, Suite 1880, Phoenix; and 2255 North Gemini Drive, Building 3, Flagstaff. Material from which copies can be made at private expense is available at the Tucson, Phoenix, and Flagstaff offices of the U.S. Geological Survey. Only the springs for which discharge data are available are shown on the maps, and only selected wells are shown in areas of high well density.

  7. A geophysical study of the hydrogeology of the Carrizo plain area, San Luis Obispo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.W. )

    1991-02-01

    This investigation was conducted to attempt to locate structural geologic features and variations in aquifer characteristics in an area within the Carrizo plain, San Luis Obispo County, California. The investigation included a review of the established geologic knowledge for the region, followed by field studies. The field studies included surface magnetometer surveys, thermal borehole logging, and a piezometric level survey. Existing borehole electric logs were obtained. The conclusions of the investigation were then derived from a collective interpretation. The investigation concluded that a fault appears to extend beneath the valley fill in the northwestern part of the area, and that a subsurface basaltic dike is apparently located in the southeastern part of the area. Evaluations indicate that the valley has a deep aquifer overlain by a confining clay-rich layer in the central part of the area. Areal and depth-related variations in water quality are probably influenced by the presence of evaporites near Soda Lake and in the region near the San Andreas fault.

  8. Monitoring the subsurface hydrologic response to shallow landsliding in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Foster, K. A.; Knepprath, N.; Reid, M. E.; Schmidt, K. M.; Whitman, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Intense or prolonged rainfall triggers shallow landslides in steeplands of the San Francisco Bay Area each year. These landslides cause damage to built infrastructure and housing, and in some cases, lead to fatalities. Although our ability to forecast and map the distribution of rainfall has improved (e.g., NEXRAD, SMART-R), our ability to estimate landslide susceptibility is limited by a lack of information about the subsurface response to rainfall. In particular, the role of antecedent soil moisture content in setting the timing of shallow landslide failures remains unconstrained. Advances in instrumentation and telemetry have substantially reduced the cost of such monitoring, making it feasible to set up and maintain networks of such instruments in areas with a documented history of shallow landslides. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a pilot project to establish a series of shallow landslide monitoring stations in the San Francisco Bay area. The goal of this project is to obtain a long-term (multi-year) record of subsurface hydrologic conditions that occur from winter storms. Three monitoring sites are now installed in key landslide prone regions of the Bay Area (East Bay Hills, Marin County, and San Francisco Peninsula Hills) each consisting of a rain gage and multiple nests of soil-moisture sensors, matric-potential sensors, and piezometers. The sites were selected with similar characteristics in mind consisting of: (1) convergent bedrock hollow topographic settings located near ridge tops, (2) underlying sandstone bedrock substrates, (3) similar topographic gradients (~30°), (4) vegetative assemblages of grasses with minor chaparral, and (5) a documented history of landsliding in the vicinity of each site. These characteristics are representative of shallow-landslide-prone regions of the San Francisco Bay Area and also provide some constraint on the ability to compare and contrast subsurface response across different regions. Data streams from

  9. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hole, J.A.; Brocher, T.M.; Klemperer, S.L.; Parsons, T.; Benz, H.M.; Furlong, K.P.

    2000-01-01

    Seismic travel times from the northern California earthquake catalogue and from the 1991 Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment (BASIX) refraction survey were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area. Nonlinear tomography was used to simultaneously invert for both velocity and hypocenters. The new hypocenter inversion algorithm uses finite difference travel times and is an extension of an existing velocity tomography algorithm. Numerous inversions were performed with different parameters to test the reliability of the resulting velocity model. Most hypocenters were relocated 12 km under the Sacramento River Delta, 6 km beneath Livermore Valley, 5 km beneath the Santa Clara Valley, and 4 km beneath eastern San Pablo Bay. The Great Valley Sequence east of San Francisco Bay is 4-6 km thick. A relatively high velocity body exists in the upper 10 km beneath the Sonoma volcanic field, but no evidence for a large intrusion or magma chamber exists in the crust under The Geysers or the Clear Lake volcanic center. Lateral velocity contrasts indicate that the major strike-slip faults extend subvertically beneath their surface locations through most of the crust. Strong lateral velocity contrasts of 0.3-0.6 km/s are observed across the San Andreas Fault in the middle crust and across the Hayward, Rogers Creek, Calaveras, and Greenville Faults at shallow depth. Weaker velocity contrasts (0.1-0.3 km/s) exist across the San Andreas, Hayward, and Rogers Creek Faults at all other depths. Low spatial resolution evidence in the lower crust suggests that the top of high-velocity mafic rocks gets deeper from west to east and may be offset under the major faults. The data suggest that the major strike-slip faults extend subvertically through the middle and perhaps the lower crust and juxtapose differing lithology due to accumulated strike-slip motion. The extent and physical properties of the major geologic units as

  10. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, J. A.; Brocher, T. M.; Klemperer, S. L.; Parsons, T.; Benz, H. M.; Furlong, K. P.

    2000-06-01

    Seismic travel times from the northern California earthquake catalogue and from the 1991 Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment (BASIX) refraction survey were used to obtain a three-dimensional model of the seismic velocity structure of the San Francisco Bay area. Nonlinear tomography was used to simultaneously invert for both velocity and hypocenters. The new hypocenter inversion algorithm uses finite difference travel times and is an extension of an existing velocity tomography algorithm. Numerous inversions were performed with different parameters to test the reliability of the resulting velocity model. Most hypocenters were relocated <2 km from their catalogue locations. Large lateral velocity variations at shallow (<4 km) depth correlate with known surface geology, including low-velocity Cenozoic sedimentary basins, high-velocity Cenozoic volcanic rocks, and outcrop patterns of the major Mesozoic geologic terranes. Salinian arc rocks have higher velocities than the Franciscan melange, which in turn are faster than Great Valley Sequence forearc rocks. The thickess of low-velocity sediment is defined, including >12 km under the Sacramento River Delta, 6 km beneath Livermore Valley, 5 km beneath the Santa Clara Valley, and 4 km beneath eastern San Pablo Bay. The Great Valley Sequence east of San Francisco Bay is 4-6 km thick. A relatively high velocity body exists in the upper 10 km beneath the Sonoma volcanic field, but no evidence for a large intrusion or magma chamber exists in the crust under The Geysers or the Clear Lake volcanic center. Lateral velocity contrasts indicate that the major strike-slip faults extend sub vertically beneath their surface locations through most of the crust. Strong lateral velocity contrasts of 0.3-0.6 km/s are observed across the San Andreas Fault in the middle crust and across the Hayward, Rogers Creek, Calaveras, and Greenville Faults at shallow depth. Weaker velocity contrasts (0.1-0.3 km/s) exist across the San Andreas, Hayward

  11. Database of well and areal data, South San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, D.A.; Fio, J.L.; Metzger, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    A database was developed to organize and manage data compiled for a regional assessment of geohydrologic and water-quality conditions in the south San Francisco Bay and Peninsula area in California. Available data provided by local, State, and Federal agencies and private consultants was utilized in the assessment. The database consists of geographicinformation system data layers and related tables and American Standard Code for Information Interchange files. Documentation of the database is necessary to avoid misinterpretation of the data and to make users aware of potential errors and limitations. Most of the data compiled were collected from wells and boreholes (collectively referred to as wells in this report). This point-specific data, including construction, water-level, waterquality, pumping test, and lithologic data, are contained in tables and files that are related to a geographic information system data layer that contains the locations of the wells. There are 1,014 wells in the data layer and the related tables contain 35,845 water-level measurements (from 293 of the wells) and 9,292 water-quality samples (from 394 of the wells). Calculation of hydraulic heads and gradients from the water levels can be affected adversely by errors in the determination of the altitude of land surface at the well. Cation and anion balance computations performed on 396 of the water-quality samples indicate high cation and anion balance errors for 51 (13 percent) of the samples. Well drillers' reports were interpreted for 762 of the wells, and digital representations of the lithology of the formations are contained in files following the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The usefulness of drillers' descriptions of the formation lithology is affected by the detail and thoroughness of the drillers' descriptions, as well as the knowledge, experience, and vocabulary of the individual who described the drill cuttings. Additional data layers were created that

  12. When it happens again: impact of future San Francisco Bay area earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoback, M.; Boatwright, J.; Kornfield, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Rojahn, C.

    2005-12-01

    San Francisco Bay area earthquakes, like major floods and hurricanes, have the potential for massive damage to dense urban population centers concentrated in vulnerable zones-along active faults, in coastal regions, and along major river arteries. The recent destruction of Hurricane Katrina does have precedent in the destruction following the 1906 "San Francisco" earthquake and fire in which more than 3000 people were killed and 225,000 were left homeless in San Francisco alone, a city of 400,000 at the time. Analysis of a comprehensive set of damage reports from the magnitude (M) 7.9 1906 earthquake indicates a region of ~ 18,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Modified Mercalli Intensity of VIII or more - motions capable of damaging even modern, well-built structures; more than 60,000 km2 was subjected to shaking of Intensity VII or greater - the threshold for damage to masonry and poorly designed structures. By comparison, Katrina's hurricane force winds and intense rainfall impacted an area of ~100,000 km2 on the Gulf Coast. Thus, the anticipated effects of a future major Bay Area quake to lives, property, and infrastructure are comparable in scale to Katrina. Secondary hazards (levee failure and flooding in the case of Katrina and fire following the 1906 earthquake) greatly compounded the devastation in both disasters. A recent USGS-led study concluded there is a 62% chance of one or more damaging (M6.7 or greater) earthquakes striking the greater San Francisco Bay area over the next 30 years. The USGS prepared HAZUS loss estimates for the 10 most likely forecast earthquakes which range in size from a M6.7 event on a blind thrust to the largest anticipated event, a M7.9 repeat of the 1906 earthquake. The largest economic loss is expected for a repeat of the 1906 quake. Losses in the Bay region for this event are nearly double those predicted for a M6.9 rupture of the entire Hayward Fault in the East Bay. However, because of high density of population along the

  13. Nitrogen and Sediment Inputs to the San Pedro River Riparian Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M.; Huth, A. K.; Hamblen, J.; Villinski, J.; Grimm, N.; Lewis, D.; Schade, J.

    2002-05-01

    The San Pedro River in southern Arizona is the last undammed major river in the Western U.S. The riparian habitat along the upper San Pedro is under pressure due to competing water use by nearby agriculture and municipal demands. Numerous nongovernmental organizations and government agencies are cooperating to investigate the functioning of the riparian area, including water and nutrient cycling. The multi-institutional NSF Science and Technology Center for Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas (SAHRA) is using two 500-m study sites along the upper San Pedro River (one gaining and one losing-intermittent) to investigate nutrient and sediment fluxes. Sampling of over 80 shallow piezometers installed in the stream, in gravel bars and in riparian terraces (among cottonwoods and willows) showed nitrate levels were highest in the riparian terrace and gravel bars throughout the year. Nitrate levels in shallow stream piezometers were lower and more variable. Seasonal algal blooms were correlated with decreases in nitrate and organic nitrogen in the stream channel. Intensive sampling during a 300 cfs flood (July 17-18, 2001) in the intermittant-losing reach showed significant increases in nitrate levels during the storm, apparently from the gravel bars and riparian terrace. Hydrograph separation indicated a substantial fraction of the water in the river had been in contact with the river banks. During storm events, substantial sediment transport occurs, as well as scour and fill. As much of the nitrogen cycling in microbially controlled, sediment scour and fill is being monitored concomitantly with respiration measurements in a meander point bar in the losing-intermittant reach. By focusing on key processes in the shallow stream sediments, gravel bars and riparian terraces, we are establishing linkages between the different zones of the riparian area in order to characterize nitrogen uptake capacity of the riparian system.

  14. Heavy Metals Concentration Levels in Soils throughout the East San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, K.; Ramirez, N.; Diaz, J.; Cuff, K.; Adarkwah, N.

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that soils near structures made of pressure treated wood created before 2003 often contain high levels of arsenic, which was widely used in the processing of such wood. One such study, conducted by student scientists affiliated with the SF ROCKS program at San Francisco State University, found high levels of arsenic in soils collected from several children's play areas in San Francisco (Negrete, et al., 2006). Due to the known health risks associated with high concentrations of arsenic, and given a general lack of data related to soils of the East San Francisco Bay Area, the current study was initiated to determine whether or not dangerously high levels of arsenic exist in soils near public schools and playgrounds located in Richmond and Oakland, California. Soil samples were collected from approximately 100 locations in and around such areas, and analyzed for arsenic and a variety of other heavy metals concentration levels using an ICP spectrometer. Preliminary results demonstrate arsenic levels that exceed the EPA's 0.4 ppm action limit in 27 of the 100 sites from which samples were collected. Also, strong correlations between arsenic and various metals in the soil were found, such as arsenic with chromium (0.7022) and nickel (0.6588). Additionally, dangerously high levels of arsenic and lead were found in soils collected along the shores of a small lake fed by Leona Creek on the campus of Mills College in the Oakland foothills, approximately 2 kilometers downstream from a former iron sulphide mine. This occurrence constitutes evidence that the owner of the mine has not complied with recent orders from a local regulatory agency to make sure that mine effluents are safe.

  15. Bottom-up, decision support system development : a wetlandsalinity management application in California's San Joaquin Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2006-05-10

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin ofCalifornia's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratorywildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during theannual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetland contain saltwhich, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdownperiod, negatively impacts downstream agricultural riparian waterdiverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinityto the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-pointsources, now addresses return flows from seasonally managed wetlands.Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means ofmatching wetland return flows to the assimilative capacity of the SanJoaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring anddecision support systems to implement this concept have failed forreasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed inthe context of more general challenges facing the successfulimplementation of environmental monitoring, modelling and decisionsupport systems. The paper then provides details of a current researchand development project which will ultimately provide wetland managerswith the means of matching salt exports with the available assimilativecapacity of the San Joaquin River, when fully implemented. Manipulationof the traditional wetland drawdown comes at a potential cost to thesustainability of optimal wetland moist soil plant habitat in thesewetlands - hence the project provides appropriate data and a feedback andresponse mechanism for wetland managers to balance improvements to SanJoaquin River quality with internally-generated information on the healthof the wetland resource. The author concludes the paper by arguing thatthe architecture of the current project decision support system, whencoupled with recent advances in environmental data acquisition, dataprocessing and information dissemination technology, holds significantpromise

  16. Recharge to and discharge from the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio area, Texas, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, D.S.; Patton, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer is the sole source of public water supply for more than 1 million people in the San Antonio area and supplies large quantities of water for agriculture, industry, and the military. The dissolutioned, faulted limestone aquifer is the major source of water for Bexar, Comal, Hays, Medina, and Uvalde Counties. The annual compilation of estimates of ground-water recharge to and discharge from the Edwards aquifer is part of a continuing program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation wilh the Edwards Underground Water District (EUWD).

  17. San Bernardino Valley College Strategic Enrollment Management Plan: Recruitment and Retention, 2000-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, David T., Ed.

    The San Bernardino Valley College (California) Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM) Plan was developed to specifically increase student enrollment and to improve retention over 2000-2002, and thereafter. Presents the SEM plan in two parts: recruitment and retention. The date, description, action, person responsible, date needed, date completed,…

  18. 78 FR 48046 - Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2013-0666] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Kuoni Destination Management Fireworks; San Diego... Fireworks Display on August 6, 2013. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of... Guard's ability to protect the public from the potential hazards associated with fireworks...

  19. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system, speed and flexibility, are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. The aircraft intraurban system is a technically feasible alternative to ground transportation systems. Although requiring some subsidy, it becomes socially viable where substantial commuter traffic exists at ranges of 10 to 15 mi or more and where topographic features constrain ground travel. The general problem areas of community noise, air traffic congestion, ground transportation interface, pollution, and safety appear to have workable solutions.

  20. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system-speed and flexibility-are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. This study attempts to determine if the aircraft can contribute toward solving the transportation problems of major metropolitan areas and be economically viable in such an environment.

  1. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1989-99.

    PubMed Central

    Passaro, D. J.; Smitht, D. S.; Hett, E. C.; Reingold, A. L.; Daily, P.; van Beneden, C. A.; Vugia, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections in the San Francisco Bay Area, population-based active surveillance for laboratory-confirmed iGAS was conducted by the California Emerging Infections Program in three California counties. From January 1989 to December 1999, 1415 cases of iGAS were identified. Mean iGAS incidence was 4.06/100,000 person-years and case fatality ratio was 13%, with no linear trends over time. Incidence was lowest in adolescents, was higher in men than women (4.4 vs. 3.2/100,000 person-years), and was higher in African-Americans (6.7) than in non-Hispanic (4.1) or Hispanic (3.4) Whites, Asians (2.2) or Native Americans (17/100,000 person-years). Injecting drug use was the riskiest underlying condition and was associated with the highest attributable risk. Cases were associated with several underlying conditions, but 23% occurred in previously healthy persons. From 1989-1999, iGAS infections in the San Francisco Bay Area became neither more common nor more deadly. PMID:12558329

  2. Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Nathan C.; Salkeld, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    In California, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is transmitted by western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus). Cases of HGA are infrequent in California but do occur annually. We investigated nymphal and adult western black-legged tick populations in 20 recreational areas in California's San Francisco Bay Area (Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma counties). Overall, prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in adult ticks was 0.8% (11/1,465), and in nymphal ticks was 4.2% (24/568), though presence was patchy and prevalence varied locally. We detected significant sequence variation in our quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)–positive samples. This included four sequences that grouped within a clade that contains clinical human and veterinary isolates as well as four others that grouped with sequences from PCR-positive lizards from northern California. Tick populations in our study sites harbor genetically diverse strains of A. phagocytophilum, which may influence potential risk in the region. PMID:27139447

  3. Immigration status and use of health services among Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Hessol, Nancy A

    2009-08-01

    To assess the relationship between immigration status and use of health services among Latina women. From 2001 to 2004, information on immigration status and use of health services was collected from 710 Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area. The dependent variable was use of health services during the previous 12 months, which we defined as use of preventive health, dental, urgent care, and emergency services. The primary independent variable was self-reported immigration status, which we categorized as undocumented immigrant, documented immigrant, or citizen. More than half of the women were undocumented immigrants, one quarter were documented immigrants, and 18% were citizens. Forty percent of women were uninsured, one third had no preventive health visits in the previous year, and 58% had not used dental services. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, undocumented Latinas were 60% less likely and documented Latinas were 46% less likely to have dental visits in the previous year, relative to citizens. Health insurance status was independently associated with all four health service outcomes. Uninsured women were less likely to use preventive health, dental, or urgent care services compared with privately insured women. In addition, publicly insured women were less likely to use dental care and more likely to use emergency care than privately insured women. Immigration and health insurance status were associated with use of preventive and nonpreventive services among Latina women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Clinical and policy efforts must address the barriers to care that affect Latina immigrants, particularly undocumented women.

  4. A self-modifying cellular automaton model of historical urbanization in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, K.C.; Hoppen, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a cellular automaton (CA) simulation model developed to predict urban growth as part of a project for estimating the regional and broader impact of urbanization on the San Francisco Bay area's climate. The rules of the model are more complex than those of a typical CA and involve the use of multiple data sources, including topography, road networks, and existing settlement distributions, and their modification over time. In addition, the control parameters of the model are allowed to self-modify: that is, the CA adapts itself to the circumstances it generates, in particular, during periods of rapid growth or stagnation. In addition, the model was written to allow the accumulation of probabilistic estimates based on Monte Carlo methods. Calibration of the model has been accomplished by the use of historical maps to compare model predictions of urbanization, based solely upon the distribution in year 1900, with observed data for years 1940, 1954, 1962, 1974, and 1990. The complexity of this model has made calibration a particularly demanding step. Lessons learned about the methods, measures, and strategies developed to calibrate the model may be of use in other environmental modeling contexts. With the calibration complete, the model is being used to generate a set of future scenarios for the San Francisco Bay area along with their probabilities based on the Monte Carlo version of the model. Animated dynamic mapping of the simulations will be used to allow visualization of the impact of future urban growth.

  5. Vulnerable assessment by sea level rise in San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, C. J.; Suzuki, T.; Itoigawa, E.; Park, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The San Francisco South Bay Area in California is home to approximately seven million people that consist of nine counties and the prosperous core area of IT technology industry in the West Coast of America, well known as Silicon Valley. Sea level rising due to Global Warming is becoming the main issue in this area. Furthermore, the extreme weather events including flash flooding are observing more frequently. Urban infrastructures are faced vulnerable at risk of long-term flooding. Sea level rise by global warming in this area is estimated that it could rise by up to 16 inches (40 cm) by mid of this century and 55 inches (140 cm) by the end of this century. By the impact of 55 inches of sea level rise, there could be 62 billion dollars loss and 270,000 people could be faced at risk of flooding. Nevertheless, urban areas are expecting to extend approximately 5,063.71 km2 by 2020 and 6,098.20 km2 by year 2050. Thus, the land use legislation need to be discussed following that the 213,000 acres that could be vulnerable to flooding by the end of this century. Adaptation strategies should be considered from various aspects including policy, empirical observations and academic approaches. In this paper, for promoting further discussions, vulnerable areas and its characteristics by flooding is assessed and the finding potential urban growth areas for urban rezoning is implemented using Geographic Information System.

  6. Ground-water storage in the Johnson Valley area, San Bernardino, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1978-01-01

    The Mojave Water Agency includes several desert basins where ground water in storage is many times as great as the average annual recharge. The Johnson Valley area in San Bernardino County, Calif., was evaluated for (1) the quantity of ground water in storage, (2) the chemical quality of the ground water, and (3) the potential for storage of recharge water in the unsaturated zone. Johnson Valley contains about 250,000 acre-feet of water in storage, of which about half can be considered recoverable. About 250,000 acre-feet of void space in the unsaturated alluvium is available for storage of imported water, but not all of the recharged water could be recovered. The quality of the water in storage is satisfactory for public consumption, although water from some areas has high floride concentrations and should be mixed with water of low fluoride concentration. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Mineral resource potential map of the lower San Francisco Wilderness study area and contiguous roadless area, Greenlee County, Arizona and Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratte, James C.; Hassemer, Jerry R.; Martin, Ronny A.; Lane, Michael

    1982-01-01

    The Lower San Francisco Wilderness Study Area consists of a narrow strip 1-2 mi (2-3 km) wide between the rims of the San Francisco River canyon. The wilderness study area has a moderately high potential for geothermal resources, a low to moderate potential for base metal or precious metal resources in middle to upper Tertiary volcanic rocks, essentially no oil, gas, or coal potential, and a largely unassessable potential for metal deposits related to Laramide igneous intrusions in pre-Tertiary or lower Tertiary rocks that underlie the area. The contiguous roadless area, which borders the New Mexico half of the wilderness study area, mainly on the north side of the San Francisco River, has a low to moderate potential for molybdenum or copper deposits related to intrusive igneous rocks in the core of a volcano of dacitic composition at Goat Basin.

  8. Adaptive Management Methods to Protect the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Water Resource

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California's water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  9. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern California resource areas.

    Treesearch

    Bruce Hiserote; Joel Moen; Charles L. Bolsinger

    1986-01-01

    This report is one of five that provide timber resource statistics for 57 of the 58 counties in California (San Francisco is excluded). This report presents statistics from a 1982-84 inventory of the timber resources of Alpine, Amador, Calaveras, Fresno, Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Kings, Los Angeles, Madera, Mariposa, Merced, Mono, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San...

  10. Heavy metals in produce from urban farms in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Kohrman, Hannah; Chamberlain, C Page

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) concentrations were analysed in 96 samples of produce from seven urban farms, three suburban farms and three grocery stores in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2011-2012. Cd concentrations were highest in urban chard (0.043 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in urban, suburban and grocery squash (0.003 mg kg(-1)). Pb concentrations were highest in urban kale (0.080 mg kg(-1)) and lowest in grocery squash (0.008 mg kg(-1)). The mean heavy metal concentrations for Cd and Pb in all produce types were well below the maximum limits as set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Individual concentrations of Cd and Pb were below the limits of detection in 26 of 192 analyses. Cd and Pb concentrations in produce from urban farms were not significantly different from produce grown in suburban farms or grocery stores. It was concluded that produce from urban community farms in San Francisco, at least for the farms studied, is safe for human consumption.

  11. A Pilot Study of Retail ‘Vape Shops’ in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Burbank, Andrea D; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of electronic cigarettes or vape devices is increasing, and products are evolving rapidly. This study assessed retail vape shops in the San Francisco Bay Area to describe store characteristics, products offered, advertisements and health claims, as well as employees’ perceptions of their customers’ demographics, and practices to support smoking cessation. METHODS We conducted store audits of shops that exclusively sell vape devices with physical addresses in San Francisco and Alameda counties (n=23, response rate 72%) and interviewed vape shop owners/employees. RESULTS While all stores carried second and third generation vape devices, 83% of stores did not carry first generation devices. Employees estimated the majority of their customers bought devices for smoking cessation or to replace tobacco, and a small minority purchased for first-time recreational use. Employees most frequently recommended dosing nicotine based on usual cigarette consumption, adjusting doses based on “throat hit” or cravings, use of a second or third generation e-cigarette, and encouraged customers to experiment and customize to “whatever works for you” as smoking cessation advice. CONCLUSIONS Vape shops report a significant number of their customers are interested in smoking cessation, and employees are giving smoking cessation advice. A subpopulation of customers includes some nicotine novices. Studies of vape shops should include both observations and interviews with employees in order to detect important informal practices that may differ from posted signs or printed advertising. These practices include cessation counseling, product claims, and custom discount prices or bargaining. PMID:28393129

  12. Application of an area of review variance methodology to the San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Norman, S.; Warner, D.L.; Koederitz, L.F.; Laudon, R.C.

    1995-12-01

    When the Underground Injection Control (UIC) Regulations were promulgated in 1980, existing Class II Injection wells operating at the time were excluded from Area of Review (AOR) requirements. EPA has expressed its intent to revise the regulations to include the requirement for AOR`s for such wells, but it is expected that oil and gas producing states will be allowed to adopt a variance strategy for these wells. An AOR variance methodology has been developed under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The general concept of the variance methodology is a systematic evaluation of basic variance criteria that were agreed to by a Federal Advisory Committee. These criteria include absence of USDWs, lack of positive flow potential from the petroleum reservoir into the overlying USDWs, mitigating geological factors, and other evidence. The AOR variance methodology has been applied to oilfields in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. This paper details results of these analyses, particularly with respect to the opportunity for variance for injection fields in the San Juan Basin.

  13. Urban land use mapping by machine processing of ERTS-1 multispectral data: A San Francisco Bay area example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellefsen, R.; Swain, P. H.; Wray, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The study is reported to develop computer produced urban land use maps using multispectral scanner data from a satellite is reported. Data processing is discussed along with the results of the San Francisco Bay area, which was chosen as the test area.

  14. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending from...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly shore of upper San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning at a point on shore bearing 17° 800 yards, from “Tree” at Molate Point thence 270°,...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1090 - San Francisco Bay in vicinity of the NSC Fuel Department, Point Molate restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND... restricted area. (a) The area. Bounded by the easterly shore of upper San Francisco Bay and the following lines: Beginning at a point on shore bearing 17° 800 yards, from “Tree” at Molate Point thence 270°,...

  1. Yuma District Resource Management Plan, Yuma, La Paz, and Mohave Counties, Arizona and San Bernardino, Riverside and Imperial Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    Implementation of a resource management plan is proposed for 1.2 million acres within the 2.7-million-acre Yuma District, located in Yuma, La Paz, and Mohave counties, Arizona and San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial counties, California. Under the preferred alternative, wildlife habitat would be a priority consideration on approximately 247,740 acre, and nine special management areas would be designated. A portion of the Cactus Plain and the Chemehuevi/Needles wilderness study areas would be recommended for wilderness designation. Two areas totaling 31,360 acres would be designated as special management areas, and another six areas totaling 155,705 acres would be managed to protect their natural values. Livestock grazing would be authorized at 3998 animal unit months on four allotments. Approximately 55,490 acres of federal lands would be available for disposal and 31,220 acres would be acquired. Nine utility corridors and nine communication sites would be designated. Existing recreational facilities would be maintained, with additional facilities provided when warranted. Along Parker Strip, only floodproofed day-use facilities would be allowed within the 100-year flood plain. Off-road vehicle (ORV) use designations would be made on 640 acres and ORV use in the remainder of the district would be limited to existing roads and trails. Continuous occupancy of mobile home sites would be restricted to one five-month period in a single year. Permanent residential use would be phased out.

  2. Ground-water outflow, San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area, upper Santa Ana Valley, Southern California, 1927 through 1968

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutcher, L.C.; Fenzel, F.W.

    1972-01-01

    The San Timoteo-Smiley Heights area is in the upper Santa Ana Valley, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, Calif., where the Yucaipa and San Timoteo-Beaumont ground-water basins border Bunker .Hill basin on the south between the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The area is broken by numerous faults, the topography is rough, and in a large part of the area few wells had been drilled prior to 196S. The alluvial deposits, which constitute the aquifers in the area, range in thickness from 0 where they lap onto exposed bedrock hills to about 1,000 feet. Beneath the southern part of the area near the San Jacinto fault the total thickness of alluvial and lacustrine deposits may be as much as 6,000 feet. The purpose of this study was to estimate ground-water outflow by an indirect method not involving balancing of the hydrologic budget. For this purpose it was necessary to estimate the permeability of the aquifer materials, the average annual hydraulic gradient, and the cross-sectional area through which the flow occurs; these values were estimated for five segments along a line of section between the San Jacinto fault and Crafton Hills. To provide data for the outflow estimates, several miles of reflection and refraction seismic traverses were made along and across the outflow section. Nineteen deep and shallow test holes were drilled; one of the deep test holes and several existing wells were pumped to obtain data on aquifer permeability. The estimated average permeabilities of the aquifer materials range from 5 gallons per day per square foot for the lower part of the San Timoteo beds of Frick (1921) and 40 gallons per day per square foot for the older alluvium to 220 gallons per day per square foot for the upper part of the San Timoteo beds. The estimated outflow in 1927 was 8,150 acre-feet. By 1967 the estimated total outflow was 5,350 acre-feet, a reduction of approximately 34 percent. During the 12-year period 1956 through 1967, however, the annual outflow

  3. Quality of ground water in agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edelmann, Patrick; Buckles, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ground water in the principal agricultural areas of the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado was evaluated using chemical analyses of water collected from 57 wells completed in the unconfined aquifer and from 25 wells completed in the confined aquifer. Ground water in both aquifers generally contains dissolved-solids concentrations of less than 500 milligrams per liter. In most areas, calcium is the principal cation in the ground water. Nitrite plus nitrate concentrations expressed as nitrogen, are generally less than 1 milligram per liter. However, the quality of ground water in certain areas may pose health and agricultural hazards. Water in the unconfined aquifer near Center contains high nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations. The highest measured concentration in this area was 33 milligrams per liter. Water containing more than 1 milligram per liter of nitrite as nitrogen, or 10 milligrams per liter nitrate, as nitrogen, poses a potential health hazard for infants and should not be used for drinking. In addition, dissolved-solids concentration in the ground water in some areas is greater than 500 milligrams per liter and, if used for irrigation may reduce crop yields. (USGS)

  4. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  5. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  6. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD...

  7. 43 CFR 4710.3 - Management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management areas. 4710.3 Section 4710.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING...

  8. Seismic-reflection evidence that the hayward fault extends into the lower crust of the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    1998-01-01

    This article presents deep seismic-reflection data from an experiment across San Francisco Peninsula in 1995 using large (125 to 500 kg) explosive sources. Shot gathers show a mostly nonreflective upper crust in both the Franciscan and Salinian terranes (juxtaposed across the San Andreas fault), an onset of weak lower-crustal reflectivity beginning at about 6-sec two-way travel time (TWTT) and bright southwest-dipping reflections between 11 and 13 sec TWTT. Previous studies have shown that the Moho in this area is no deeper than 25 km (~8 to 9 sec TWTT). Three-dimensional reflection travel-time modeling of the 11 to 13 sec events from the shot gathers indicates that the bright events may be explained by reflectors 15 to 20 km into the upper mantle, northeast of the San Andreas fault. However, upper mantle reflections from these depths were not observed on marine-reflection profiles collected in San Francisco Bay, nor were they reported from a refraction profile on San Francisco Peninsula. The most consistent interpretation of these events from 2D raytracing and 3D travel-time modeling is that they are out-of-plane reflections from a high-angle (dipping ~70??to the southwest) impedance contrast in the lower crust that corresponds with the surface trace of the Hayward fault. These results suggest that the Hayward fault truncates the horizontal detachment fault suggested to be active beneath San Francisco Bay.

  9. Applied geointegration to hydrocarbon exploration in the San Pedro-Machango Area, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, A.; Navarro, A.; Osorio, R.; Corvo, F.; Arismendi, J.

    1996-08-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration has nowadays a diversity of technological resources to capture, merge and interpret information from diverse sources. To accomplish this, the integration of geodata for modeling was done through the use of new technologies like Remote Sensing and Geographical Systems of Information and applied to the San Pedro-Machango area, located in the Serrania de Trujillo, west of Costa Bolivar (onshore), eastern Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. The main purpose of this work was to optimize the design of an exploration program in harmony with environmental conservation procedures. Starting with satellital and radar images that incorporated geophysical, geological and environmental information, they then were analyzed and merged to improve the lithological, structural and tectonic interpretation, generating an integrated model that allowed better project design. The use of a system that combines information of geographical, geodetical, geophysical and geological origins with satellital and radar images produced up to date cartography and refined results of image interpretation.

  10. Hydrochemical data for the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maclay, R.W.; Rettman, P.L.; Small, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents hydrochemical data that was collected as part of the investigations of the Edwards aquifer in the San Antonio area, Te xas, during 1970-78 and indicates other sources of available data. The report includes the results of chemical analyses of 159 water samples from 123 well s and springs; tritium analyses for 242 water samples from 120 wells and springs; isotope and redox-potential analyses of 31 water samples from wells, springs, and streams; and calculated dissolved carbonate, partial C02 pressures, and saturation indices of selected minerals in 98 water samples from 81 wells, springs, and streams. The water types and hydrochemical facies are given for six zones of the aquifer.

  11. Trauma Affecting Asian-Pacific Islanders in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Jindal, Charulata; Efird, Jimmy T.

    2017-01-01

    Trauma is a transgenerational process that overwhelms the community and the ability of family members to cope with life stressors. An anthropologist trained in ethnographic methods observed three focus groups from a non-profit agency providing trauma and mental health services to Asian Americans living in the San Francisco Bay Area of United States. Supplemental information also was collected from staff interviews and notes. Many of the clients were immigrants, refugees, or adult children of these groups. This report consisted of authentic observations and rich qualitative information to characterize the impact of trauma on refugees and immigrants. Observations suggest that collective trauma, direct or indirect, can impede the success and survivability of a population, even after many generations. PMID:28895918

  12. Estimating methane emissions from biological and fossil-fuel sources in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongeun; Cui, Xinguang; Blake, Donald R.; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Stephen A.; Andrews, Arlyn; Guha, Abhinav; Martien, Philip; Bambha, Ray P.; LaFranchi, Brian; Michelsen, Hope A.; Clements, Craig B.; Glaize, Pierre; Fischer, Marc L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first sector-specific analysis of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) using CH4 and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements from six sites during September - December 2015. We apply a hierarchical Bayesian inversion to separate the biological from fossil-fuel (natural gas and petroleum) sources using the measurements of CH4 and selected VOCs, a source-specific 1 km CH4 emission model, and an atmospheric transport model. We estimate that SFBA CH4 emissions are 166-289 Gg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence), 1.3-2.3 times higher than a recent inventory with much of the underestimation from landfill. Including the VOCs, 82 ± 27% of total posterior median CH4 emissions are biological and 17 ± 3% fossil fuel, where landfill and natural gas dominate the biological and fossil-fuel CH4 of prior emissions, respectively.

  13. Climate change, heat, and mortality in the tropical urban area of San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo A.; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M.; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Martínez, Odalys; Taboas, Mariela; Bocanegra, Arelis; Méndez-Tejeda, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat episodes are becoming more common worldwide, including in tropical areas of Australia, India, and Puerto Rico. Higher frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat episodes are triggering public health issues in most mid-latitude and continental cities. With urbanization, land use and land cover have affected local climate directly and indirectly encouraging the Urban Heat Island effect with potential impacts on heat-related morbidity and mortality among urban populations. However, this association is not completely understood in tropical islands such as Puerto Rico. The present study examines the effects of heat in two municipalities (San Juan and Bayamón) within the San Juan metropolitan area on overall and cause-specific mortality among the population between 2009 and 2013. The number of daily deaths attributed to selected causes (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, pneumonia, and kidney disease) coded and classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases was analyzed. The relations between elevated air surface temperatures on cause-specific mortality were modeled. Separate Poisson regression models were fitted to explain the total number of deaths as a function of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, while adjusting for seasonal patterns. Results show a significant increase in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Stroke (relative risk = 16.80, 95% CI 6.81-41.4) and cardiovascular diseases (relative risk = 16.63, 95% CI 10.47-26.42) were the primary causes of death most associated with elevated summer temperatures. Better understanding of how these heat events affect the health of the population will provide a useful tool for decision makers to address and mitigate the effects of the increasing temperatures on public health. The enhanced temperature forecast may be a crucial component in decision

  14. Climate change, heat, and mortality in the tropical urban area of San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo A; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Martínez, Odalys; Taboas, Mariela; Bocanegra, Arelis; Méndez-Tejeda, Rafael

    2016-12-15

    Extreme heat episodes are becoming more common worldwide, including in tropical areas of Australia, India, and Puerto Rico. Higher frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat episodes are triggering public health issues in most mid-latitude and continental cities. With urbanization, land use and land cover have affected local climate directly and indirectly encouraging the Urban Heat Island effect with potential impacts on heat-related morbidity and mortality among urban populations. However, this association is not completely understood in tropical islands such as Puerto Rico. The present study examines the effects of heat in two municipalities (San Juan and Bayamón) within the San Juan metropolitan area on overall and cause-specific mortality among the population between 2009 and 2013. The number of daily deaths attributed to selected causes (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, pneumonia, and kidney disease) coded and classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases was analyzed. The relations between elevated air surface temperatures on cause-specific mortality were modeled. Separate Poisson regression models were fitted to explain the total number of deaths as a function of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, while adjusting for seasonal patterns. Results show a significant increase in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Stroke (relative risk = 16.80, 95% CI 6.81-41.4) and cardiovascular diseases (relative risk = 16.63, 95% CI 10.47-26.42) were the primary causes of death most associated with elevated summer temperatures. Better understanding of how these heat events affect the health of the population will provide a useful tool for decision makers to address and mitigate the effects of the increasing temperatures on public health. The enhanced temperature forecast may be a crucial component in decision

  15. Flood of January 1982 in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, J.C.; Chin, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    A major winter storm originating over the Pacific Ocean moved through central California in early January 1982. As much as 16 inches of rain fell in Marin County and 25 inches in the mountains bordering Santa Cruz County. The storm of January 3-5, 1982 had a stable atmospheric structure, and the layer of moist maritime air was confined to altitudes between 50 and 700 ft; this phenomenon caused the rain to fall most heavily along the lower slopes of the coastal mountains. As a result of antecedent rainfall, streamflow in the San Francisco Bay area exceeded normal from the end of October to the end of December 1981. For most streams, the January 1982 flood was the largest since the flood of December 1955, but it was not significantly large in comparison with historic peak-flow data. Damages associated with the storm were substantial, but flooding from stream runoff was not the major problem. Greater than normal antecedent rainfall, together with the prolonged heavy rain, liquified the supersaturated soil cover and caused numerous slope failures and debris flows on steep, unstable slopes. The median recurrence interval of the 1982 peak for 66 streamflow-gaging stations in the San Francisco Bay area is 10 years; for the 1955 flood, the median recurrence interval for 16 stations is 11 years. Streams with highest unit peak runoff were in the Santa Cruz Mountains and North Bay subareas. Median recurrence intervals of flood volumes for durations of 1, 3, and 8 consecutive days during the January 1982 flood are 18, 11, and 8; these recurrence intervals are comparable to those of the December 1955 flood, which are 13 , 16, and 14 years. (USGS)

  16. Impacts of vehicles on natural terrain at seven sites in the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Nakata, J.K.; Shipley, S.; Prestegaard, K.

    1978-01-01

    The impacts of off-road vehicles on vegetation and soil were investigated at seven representative sites in the San Francisco Bay area. Plant cover of grass and chaparral (with shrubs to 4 m tall) have been stripped by the two- and four-wheel vehicles in use. Impacts on loamy soils include increased surface strength (as much as 275 bars), increased bulk density (averaging 18%) to depths of 90 cm or more, reduction of soil moisture by an average 43% to 30 cm depths, greatly reduced infiltration, extension of the diurnal temperature range by as much as 12??C, and reduction of organic carbon by an average 33% in exposed soils. Very sandy soils respond similarly to vehicular use except that moisture is increased and surface strength of beach sand is decreased. These physical and chemical impacts reduce the land's capability of restoring its vegetative cover, which in turn adversely affects animal populations. Both the loss of plant cover and the physical changes caused by vehicles promote erosion. Measured soil and substrate losses from vehicular use zones range from 7 to 1180 kg/m2. The estimated erosion rate of the Chabot Park site exceeds the rate of erosion considered a serious problem by a factor 30, it exceeds United States Soil Conservation Service tolerance values by a factor of 46, and it exceeds average San Francisco Bay area erosion rates by a factor of 17. The resulting soil losses are effectively permanent. Neither the increased sediment yield nor the increased runoff is accomodated on the sites of use, and both are causing adverse effects to neighboring properties. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  17. 78 FR 25299 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the San Pedro Riparian National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Intent To Prepare a Resource Management Plan for the San Pedro... of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976...

  18. Conjunctive management of groundwater and surface water resources in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1992-01-01

    The San Joaquin-Tulare Conjunctive Use Model (SANTUCM) was developed to evaluate possible long-term scenarios for long term management of drainage and drainage related problems in the western San Joaquin Valley of California. The unique aspect of the conjunctive use model is its coupling of a surface water delivery operations model with a regional groundwater model. A salinity model has been added to utilize surface water model output and allow assessment of compliance with State Water Resources Control Board water quality objectives for the San Joaquin River. The results of scenario runs, performed to data, using the SANTUCM model show table lowering and consequent drainage reduction can be achieved through a combination of source control, land retirement and regional groundwater pumping. The model also shows that water transfers within the existing distribution system are technically feasible and might allow additional releases to be made from Friant Dam for water quality maintenance in the San Joaquin River. However, upstream of Mendota Pool, considerable stream losses to the aquifer are anticipated, amounting to as much as 70% of in-stream flow.

  19. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  20. Air Quality Benefits of Ship Fuel Regulations in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, L.; Harley, R. A.; Fairley, D.; Martien, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important emission source of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning July 1, 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of low-sulfur marine fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle composition data from 4 urban sites and 2 more remote sites (Point Reyes and Pinnacles) from the IMPROVE network. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a useful and specific tracer for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in primary aerosol emissions from ships. The results indicate a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change, and a 13 to 38% decrease in SO2 concentration, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We inferred from emission factors documented in the literature that marine vessel contributions to primary fine particulate matter mass in the Bay Area, prior to the fuel change, were on the order of 1 to 5%.

  1. Slip and Dilation Tendency Analysis of the San Emidio Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Critically stressed fault segments have a relatively high likelihood of acting as fluid flow conduits (Sibson, 1994). As such, the tendency of a fault segment to slip (slip tendency; Ts; Morris et al., 1996) or to dilate (dilation tendency; Td; Ferrill et al., 1999) provides an indication of which faults or fault segments within a geothermal system are critically stressed and therefore likely to transmit geothermal fluids. The slip tendency of a surface is defined by the ratio of shear stress to normal stress on that surface: Ts = τ / σn (Morris et al., 1996). Dilation tendency is defined by the stress acting normal to a given surface: Td = (σ1-σn) / (σ1-σ3) (Ferrill et al., 1999). Slip and dilation were calculated using 3DStress (Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by ambient stress conditions. Values range from a maximum of 1, a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions to zero, a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate. Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the focus study areas at, McGinness Hills, Neal Hot Springs, Patua, Salt Wells, San Emidio, and Tuscarora on fault traces. As dip is not well constrained or unknown for many faults mapped in within these we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip tendency or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum tendency of each fault to slip or dilate. The resulting along-fault and fault-to-fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault-to-fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson-Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes

  2. Burning questions for managers: Fuels management practices in riparian areas

    Treesearch

    Kristen E. Meyer; Kathleen A. Dwire; Patricia A. Champ; Sandra E. Ryan; Gregg M. Riegel; Timothy A. Burton

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation treatment projects for fuel reduction in riparian areas can pose distinct challenges to resource managers. Riparian areas are protected by administrative regulations, many of which are largely custodial and restrict active management. Like uplands, however, riparian areas have been affected by fire suppression, land use, and multiple types of disturbance....

  3. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  5. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  6. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  7. Riparian area management: themes and recommendations

    Treesearch

    David J. Welsch; James W. Hornbeck; Elon S. Verry; Andrew Dolloff; John G. Greis

    2000-01-01

    The end results of most of our management actions are reflected by the health of our rivers, streams, and lakes." Michael Dombeck, Chief, USDA Forest ServiceIn this final chapter [of Riparian Management in Forests of the Continental Eastern United States], we consider the overriding themes of riparian area management and list...

  8. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222 Management...

  9. Developing management strategies for riparian areas.

    Treesearch

    D.E. Hibbs; S. Chan

    2001-01-01

    This talk outlines four principles that are critical to successful management of a riparian area. First, given problems both with defining historic conditions and with returning to them, attaining management goals based on restoration of ecological processes and functions will be far more successful. Second, the management goals for any stream reach must be placed in a...

  10. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222 Management...

  11. Source, Distribution, and Management of Arsenic in Water from Wells, Eastern San Joaquin Ground-Water Subbasin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Metzger, Loren F.; Halford, Keith J.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Bennett, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1974 and 2001 water from as many as one-third of wells in the Eastern San Joaquin Ground Water Subbasin, about 80 miles east of San Francisco, had arsenic concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic of 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L). Water from some wells had arsenic concentrations greater than 60 ug/L. The sources of arsenic in the study area include (1) weathering of arsenic bearing minerals, (2) desorption of arsenic associated with iron and manganese oxide coatings on the surfaces of mineral grains at pH's greater than 7.6, and (3) release of arsenic through reductive dissolution of iron and manganese oxide coatings in the absence of oxygen. Reductive dissolution is responsible for arsenic concentrations greater than the MCL. The distribution of arsenic varied areally and with depth. Concentrations were lower near ground-water recharge areas along the foothills of the Sierra Nevada; whereas, concentrations were higher in deeper wells at the downgradient end of long flow paths near the margin of the San Joaquin Delta (fig. 1). Management opportunities to control high arsenic concentrations are present because water from the surface discharge of wells is a mixture of water from the different depths penetrated by wells. On the basis of well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data collected as part of this study, the screened interval of a public-supply well having arsenic concentrations that occasionally exceed the MCL was modified to reduce arsenic concentrations in the surface discharge of the well. Arsenic concentrations from the modified well were about 7 ug/L. Simulations of ground-water flow to the well showed that although upward movement of high-arsenic water from depth within the aquifer occurred, arsenic concentrations from the well are expected to remain below the MCL.

  12. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1181 - San Francisco Bay Region, California-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary in the interests of safety. (c) Regulated Navigation Areas—(1) San Francisco Bay RNA. (i) The... along the shoreline to the point of beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (ii) The San Francisco Bay RNA consists of... beginning. Datum: NAD 83 (2) North Ship Channel RNA. The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters...

  17. Source Apportionment of Elemental Carbon Across the San Francisco Bay Area Using Combined Radiocarbon and Chemical Mass Balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Fairley, D.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area is impacted by ambient particulate matter (PM) from a variety of sources including motor vehicles, biomass burning, off-road vehicles, industry, and meat cooking. Ambient PM, especially fine PM (diameter less than 2.5μm, PM2.5), is known to negatively impact health. Elemental Carbon (EC) is one of the major constituents of PM2.5. It not only negatively affects health but is also a powerful short-lived climate forcer. The State of California and Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD) have made efforts in regulating contribution of EC from diesel trucks and wood burning, respectively. These and other efforts have assisted in significantly reducing the annual average PM2.5 concentrations approximately 30% since 2005 and 70% since 1990. Despite these improvements, to better determine the relative contribution of contemporary vs. fossil carbon, radiocarbon source apportionment of EC was conducted on PM2.5 collected in the Bay Area. Measurements of the abundance of 14C in the EC fractions are used to quantify the relative contributions of fossil carbon (fossil fuel combustion, including motor vehicle exhaust) and contemporary carbon (biomass combustion and meat cooking). This comprehensive study included seven sites in the Bay Area and 12 months of sampling starting November 2011 through October 2012. The samples were composited to represent winter (November-February) and non-winter (March-October). In addition to radiocarbon analysis, Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) analysis using bulk PM2.5 composition and selected trace gases was used to understand the split among gasoline, natural gas, and diesel exhaust. Preliminary apportionment of the seven sites shows roughly equal contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning/cooking for both winter and non-winter samples. There is evidence that the diesel contribution to EC, in particular, has decreased substantially over the last decade.

  18. Operational Management of Area Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, George W.

    Three phases leading to the automation of the mechanical building systems on the Harvard campus are described. The systems allow a single operator to monitor and control all the mechanical systems, plus fire, flood, and security alarms, for all buildings in a large area of the campus. (JT)

  19. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from the San Francisco Bay area of northern California.

    PubMed

    York, M K; Gibbs, L; Perdreau-Remington, F; Brooks, G F

    1999-06-01

    During 1994 and 1995, 157 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from patients with invasive disease were consecutively collected in the San Francisco Bay area to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards by the disk method and by broth microdilution. For comparison of susceptibility patterns, an additional 149 strains were randomly collected from patients with pharyngitis. For San Francisco County, 32% of the isolates from invasive-disease-related specimens but only 9% of the isolates from throat cultures from the same period were resistant to erythromycin (P = 0.0007). Alameda County and Contra Costa County had rates of resistance of San Francisco County Hospital had a statistically higher rate of erythromycin resistance (39%) among the strains from serious infections compared to those from other counties (P = <0. 0003). For tetracycline, high rates of resistance were observed in San Francisco County for both isolates from patients with invasive disease (34%) and pharyngitis (21%) in the same period. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, two clones, one at the San Francisco County Hospital and a second in the entire area, were identified. The latter clone exhibited resistance to bacitracin. Of 146 strains that were tested by microdilution, all were susceptible to penicillin. Clindamycin resistance was not seen among the erythromycin-susceptible strains, but two of the 39 erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to clindamycin. An additional 34 strains showed resistance to clindamycin when exposed to an erythromycin disk in the double-disk diffusion test, suggesting that the mechanism of erythromycin resistance is due to an erm gene. This study demonstrates a high rate of resistance to macrolides and tetracycline among S. pyogenes isolates

  20. Convolutional Neural Network Classification of Hyperspectral Imagery in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, D.; Clark, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have found success in classifying classical 2-dimensional imagery and recently hyperspectral image data. Unlike other neural network topologies, CNN learn features from the data in the form of convolutional kernels. These trained kernels isolate the class-specific discriminating features from the data and are subsequently used to classify the data. In this study, CNN architecture was developed, trained and applied to classify land cover from three-season, simulated Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) imagery covering a 30,000 km2area of the San Francisco Bay Area in year 2015. For comparison, Random Forests (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers were also trained with the same image and reference data. Further, the analysis of the CNN inner data product visualizations were provided to show insight into significant features that exist in the multi-temporal hyperspectral data and how important these features are for classification accuracy. Overall accuracies with unbalanced vs. balanced reference data were 89.8%/75.5% for CNN, 91.0%/74.0% for SVM, and 84.2%/65.8% for RF. In general, all classification methods perform well when generating land cover maps at a broad scale. However, there were some obvious misclassifications with the RF classified maps in local areas while the CNN and SVM maps disagree on harder to classify areas. Visualization methods were developed to show the distinguishing characteristics between the classes across the dimension of the convolution defined within this topology. A novel feature impact/importance metric is provided as a means to determine how important a learned feature is with respect to the classification task. We conclude that the classifier is a good candidate for hyperspectral classification applications because of the interpretability of these visualizations and relatively high classification accuracy. Keywords: Hyperspectral Imagery, Convolutional Neural Networks, Support

  1. Geologic model of San Andres reservoir, Roberts Unit CO sub 2 Phase III area, Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, J.V. Jr. )

    1992-04-01

    Roberts unit is a mature San Andres waterflood project located in Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas. Texaco, as operator, has evaluated the reservoir for CO{sub 2} flooding, and a four-phased CO{sub 2} project has been designed for the unit. A critical aspect of CO{sub 2} flood design is the development of geologic reservoir management, such as flood monitoring and evaluation of infill drilling. The geologic reservoir model established for the southeastern part of the unit (the CO{sub 2} Phase III area) is an example of this design. The reservoir consists of stacked carbonate depositional sequences. The cyclic nature of these depositional sequences is reflected in both core-defined lithofacies and porosity log character. Sequences consist of basal mudstones, restricted-shelf skeletal wackestones, open-shelf skeletal wackestones and packstones, solution and brecciated zones, and peloidal packstone caps. Intertidal mudstones and wackestones occur at the top of the reservoir and in the overlying reservoir seal. Porosity distribution is controlled by diagenetic events, but these events are closely related to depositional facies. Reservoir geometry and reservoir quality are interpreted from study of carbonate lithofacies, porosity and permeability relationships, and injection characteristics. Depositional sequences are subdivided into layers (flow units) for use in reservoir simulation. Log normalization, core description, porosity interpretation, reservoir mapping, three-dimensional modeling, and joint effort between project geologists and engineers contributed to development of the reservoir model.

  2. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  3. Geology and ore deposits of the South Silverton mining area, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varnes, David J.

    1963-01-01

    The South Silverton mining area is immediately southeast of the town of Silverton, San Juan County, in southwestern Colorado (fig. 1). The town of Silverton itself lies in a relatively flat and open reach of the Animas Valley, called Bakers Park, in the western part of the San Juan Mountains. (See figs. 2 and 8.) The roughly circular area of the geologic map map (pl. 1) includes about 18½ square miles of the mountainous country southeast of Silverton. It is bounded on the west and north by the Animas River, on the east by Cunningham Creek, and on the south by Mountaineer Creek and Deer Park Creek. Altitudes range from 9,125 feet above sea level in the canyon of the Animas, at the southwest corner of the area, to 13,451 feet on Kendall Peak, 2¾ miles to the northeast.Within this area nearly a dozen horn-like peaks and sharp ridges separated by deep glacial cirques rise to altitudes of 13,000 feet or more. (See figs. 3, 7, 10, and 24.) Exposures are excellent along the crests and upper flanks of the ridges, but the bedrock along the lower parts of the valley walls and floors of the cirques is largely concealed by accumulations of talus. The timbered slopes along the south side of the Animas Valley are extensively covered with glacial moraine. Several of the high basins within the cirques hold ponds or small lakes; the largest is Silver Lake (fig. 23).Roads skirt the northern and eastern edges of the area but none give good access into the interior. Silverton is adjacent to U.S. Highway 550, which passes over the mountains by way of Red Mountain Pass from Ouray, 24 miles to the north, to Durango, 53 miles to the south. The community is also served by the narrow-gage line of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad that follows the Animas River upstream from Durango. A gravel road, State Highway 110, follows the Animas River upstream, eastward from Silverton. From this highway a side road branches off to Cunningham Gulch as far as the Highland Mary mill, and

  4. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  5. San Juan National Forest Land Management Planning Support System (LMPSS) requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The role of remote sensing data as it relates to a three-component land management planning system (geographic information, data base management, and planning model) can be understood only when user requirements are known. Personnel at the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado were interviewed to determine data needs for managing and monitoring timber, rangelands, wildlife, fisheries, soils, water, geology and recreation facilities. While all the information required for land management planning cannot be obtained using remote sensing techniques, valuable information can be provided for the geographic information system. A wide range of sensors such as small and large format cameras, synthetic aperture radar, and LANDSAT data should be utilized. Because of the detail and accuracy required, high altitude color infrared photography should serve as the baseline data base and be supplemented and updated with data from the other sensors.

  6. Geological evaluation of San Diego Norte Pilot Project, Zuata area, Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    De Rojas, I.

    1987-10-01

    The San Diego Norte Pilot Project consists of twelve inclined wells (7 producing wells 300 m (984 ft) apart, plus 5 observation wells) drilled from a cluster, to study the production and compaction behavior under steam soak (huff and puff) of the Tertiary heavy crude oil reservoirs of the Zuata area. This area is located within the Orinoco Heavy Oil belt of Venezuela. A geological model was needed as a base for the reservoir studies and to understand the geological setting. This model was constructed from extensive log information, seismic lines, well samples, and cores. The reservoir sands are friable with an average porosity of 34% and permeabilities ranging from 1 to 7 ..mu..m/sup 2/ (1 to 7 darcys). The sands were deposited in meander belts that stacked up forming multistory bodies. Point bars and channel fills account for 80-90% of the total sand. These sands are internally heterogeneous, sinuous and elongated, and larger than the 1 km/sup 2/ area covered by the project. The topmost two productive sands, which together average 22 m (72 ft), show the best porosities and permeabilities and are isolated by thick clays that make them suitable for selective steam injection. In the project, the oil has a density of about 1.0 g/cm/sup 3/ (10/sup 0/ API) and fills all the sands down to the oil-water contact. The depth of this contact is controlled by regional faults. Based on core compressibility tests, compaction is expected to be the principal production mechanism that could increase the expected primary recovery of 4 to 12% by huff and puff steam injection, leading to a possible recovery of 0.64 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ (4 million bbl) in six years with four cycles of steam injection. 16 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Quality of urban runoff, Tecolote Creek drainage area, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, James G.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of storm runoff from a 9.2-square-mile urbanized watershed, Tecolote Creek, San Diego County, Calif., was studied during nine storms from September 1976 through May 1977. Specific conductance reached 2,100 micromhos and total residue concentrations reached 2,770 milligrams per liter. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in 95% of the samples exceeded 50 milligrams per liter, a concentration that may be sufficient to cause severe oxygen depletion in areas of the receiving water, Mission Bay. Lead concentrations in all samples exceeded concentrations thought to affect some aquatic organisms. Median total nitrogen and total orthophosphorus concentrations were far in excess of concentrations known to cause nuisance growth of algae in lakes. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations greatly exceeded recommended levels for primary contact recreation water. Concentrations of pesticides--heptachlor, malathion, chlordane, DDT, diazinon, and dieldrin--frequently exceeded the recommended maximums for marine or freshwater aquatic systems. Total loads of selected constituents are calculated and may be used to estimate the impact of runoff on the receiving water. (USGS)

  8. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A.; Bates, Michael N.; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007–2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. PMID:27188942

  9. Sexual behavior of foreign backpackers in the Khao San Road area, Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Kaehler, Nils; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Kyi, Ye Paing; Adhikari, Bipin; Sibunruang, Suda; Jearraksuwan, Suwimol; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Tantawichien, Terapong

    2013-07-04

    Travelers play a role in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV because of having unprotected sex. We studied the incidence of casual sex among foreign backpack tourists in the Khao San Road area of Bangkok, Thailand. We also evaluated their attitudes about sexual health and their actual practices. A cross sectional study was conducted using a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. The target population was backpackers aged > or =18 years, from Europe, North America and Australia. In total, 415 questionnaires were filled out and analyzed. Sixty-four percent of participants were male, the overall median age was 27 years and the mean duration of stay was 14.6 days. One hundred seven respondents (25%) had casual sex while staying in Thailand; of these, 55% always used condoms. The selection of sex partner influenced the use of condoms. The highest rate of condom use was among backpackers who had sex with sex workers (63%), while those who had sex with their travel partners had the lowest rate of condom use (35.6%). One-fourth of backpackers in our study had casual sex during their trip. Their attitudes towards safe sex practices were not ideal. Methods to change attitudes and behavior about unprotected sex need to be explored in this population.

  10. Measurements of gamma radiation levels and spectra in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, B. T.; Brozek, K. P.; Angell, C. T.; Norman, E. B.

    2011-10-01

    Much of the radiation received by an average person is emitted by naturally-occurring radioactive isotopes from the thorium, actinium, and uranium decay series, or potassium. In this study, we have measured gamma radiation levels at various locations in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UC Berkeley campus from spectra taken using an ORTEC NOMAD portable data acquisition system and a large-volume coaxial HPGe detector. We have identified a large number of gamma rays originating from natural sources. The most noticeable isotopes are 214Bi, 40K, and 208Tl. We have observed variations in counting rates by factors of two to five between different locations due to differences in local conditions - such as building, concrete, grass, and soil compositions. In addition, in a number of outdoor locations, we have observed 604-, 662-, and 795-keV gamma rays from 134,137Cs, which we attribute to fallout from the recent Fukushima reactor accident. The implications of these results will be discussed. This work was supported in part by a grant from the U. S. Dept. of Homeland Security.

  11. Spatial correlation of shear-wave velocity in the San Francisco Bay Area sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Ground motions recorded within sedimentary basins are variable over short distances. One important cause of the variability is that local soil properties are variable at all scales. Regional hazard maps developed for predicting site effects are generally derived from maps of surficial geology; however, recent studies have shown that mapped geologic units do not correlate well with the average shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 m, Vs(30). We model the horizontal variability of near-surface soil shear-wave velocity in the San Francisco Bay Area to estimate values in unsampled locations in order to account for site effects in a continuous manner. Previous geostatistical studies of soil properties have shown horizontal correlations at the scale of meters to tens of meters while the vertical correlations are on the order of centimeters. In this paper we analyze shear-wave velocity data over regional distances and find that surface shear-wave velocity is correlated at horizontal distances up to 4 km based on data from seismic cone penetration tests and the spectral analysis of surface waves. We propose a method to map site effects by using geostatistical methods based on the shear-wave velocity correlation structure within a sedimentary basin. If used in conjunction with densely spaced shear-wave velocity profiles in regions of high seismic risk, geostatistical methods can produce reliable continuous maps of site effects. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral health status of special athletes in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Beltrán, E D; Malvitz, D M; Perlman, S P

    1998-05-01

    A standardized oral health screening protocol was developed for assessing the oral health status of athletes participating in annual Special Olympics events at sites across the country. This paper reports on results at the San Francisco Bay Area Special Olympics event, where 385 athletes participated in the oral health screening. Trained dental screeners determined the presence or absence of edentulism, untreated decay, filled teeth, missing teeth, tooth injury, fluorosis, and gingival signs, as well as treatment urgency. The frequency of mouth cleaning, having a mouth guard, use of tobacco, and presence or absence of pain were self-reported. Overall, child athletes 9-20 years of age had more untreated decay and substantially more missing permanent teeth than 9-20-year-old children represented in the 1986-87 National Institute of Dental Research Survey of U.S. School Children. Prevalence of missing teeth among adult athletes compared favorably with data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. Approximately one-third of child and adult athletes were determined to need dental care. Continued use of a standardized screening protocol could allow state-specific data to be available on the oral health status of this population; trends could be tracked; and needs could be identified, with strategies developed to meet those needs.

  13. Distribution of nitrate in the unsaturated zone, Highland-East Highlands area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, John M.; Bradford, Wesley L.

    1980-01-01

    Nitrogen in the unsaturated soil zone in the Highland-East Highlands area of San Bernardino County, Calif., has been suspected as the source of nitrate in water from wells. Plans to recharge the local aquifers with imported surface water would raise the water table and intercept that nitrogen. This study was made to describe the distribution of inorganic nitrogen and other chemical constituents and nitrogen-using bacteria in the unsaturated zone, to relate nitrogen occurrences, in a general way, to present and historical land use, and to attempt to predict nitrogen concentrations in ground water after recharge. Some generalized correlations between nitrogen occurrence and land use were observed. In 11 of 13 test holes, the maximum nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations occurred within 10 feet of the surface, suggesting that the major source of nitrogen is from the surface at these sites. Test holes were ranked according to maximum NO3--N in the top 10 feet, total NO3--N in the top 10 feet, and total NO3--N in the top 40 feet. In all three rankings, the top seven test holes were the same--five in or near present or historical agricultural areas (primarily citrus groves), one in a feedlot, and one adjacent to an abandoned sewage-treatment plant. Two test holes in historically uninhabited areas ranked lowest. The control test hole in an uninhabited area ranked high in geometric mean of ammonium-nitrogen concentration (NH4+-N), suggesting that present in freshly weathered granite. The geometric means of NH4+-N concentrations in six of eight citrus-related test holes were significantly lower than in the control hole, suggesting that irrigation in citrus groves may have created conditions favoring nitrification of the primary NH4+-N. Rank correlation analyses between various measurements in test holes showed that high NO3--N concentrations tend to occur with high specific conductance and chloride concentrations in soil extracts. If recharge is carried out as planned

  14. Surface Geometry and Geomorphology of the Rodgers Creek Fault, San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Rodgers Creek fault, part of the right-lateral San Andreas fault system in the San Francisco Bay area, is geometrically segmented by bends on multiple scales. North of Sonoma Mountain, along the northern half of the fault, sections of the fault trace trend approximately parallel to the direction of relative plate motion (~N34°W) and display a right-stepping pattern across releasing double bends. Within the releasing bends, the fault trends >5° oblique to plate motion and shows geomorphic evidence of extension. The largest right bend, ~1 km at Santa Rosa, corresponds to the lowest elevations along the fault. To the south, the fault makes a broad restraining double bend around the southwest flank of Sonoma Mountain and trends up to ~13° compressively oblique to plate motion. Long-term uplift (Sonoma Mountain) east of the bend suggests a reduction in slip on the fault to the south. The restraining bend corresponds to the north end of a pronounced aseismic region along the fault that may represent a spatial change in the mode of strain accommodation. Aerial photo analysis (1:6 k) of well-preserved geomorphology at the south end of the Rodgers Creek fault, where the fault makes another left bend with respect to plate motion, reveals a section that is undergoing progressive inversion from localized transtension (at a right bend) to transpression. This inversion is manifest as a northwest- lengthening zone of uplift within the fault zone. The youngest push-ups appear to be overprinting a relict pull-apart and sag pond. This and possibly older sag deposits along the margin of the uplift may mark former positions of a releasing geometry in the fault trace, presently located directly north of the uplift front. Geometric and overprinting relations suggest that the main trace of the fault rotates and translates through the passing bends. This mode of fault-bend migration contrasts with a previously proposed model in which new transverse structures develop progressively

  15. Summary of hydrologic data for the San Gabriel River basin and Edwards Aquifer, Georgetown area, Texas, water year 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, William E.; Land, Larry F.

    1992-01-01

    The Edwards aquifer is the principal source of freshwater for municipal, domestic, and industrial users in the Georgetown area.  Other sources of freshwater are Lake Georgetown and the streams draining the San Gabriel River basin.  Lake Georgetown, located on the North Fork San Gabriel River west of Georgetown, is a freshwater supply for some municipalities in the area.  Water in the San Gabriel River basin also suppliesa variety of needs east of Georgetown.  Because of the importance of the Edwards aquifer and the surface waters as a source of freshwater in the area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Georgetown, established a local streamflow and ground-water monitoring network in principal streams and teh Edwards aquifer, and conducted surveys of the network in water years 1987, 1988, and 1990.  The study area was centered on Georgetown and emcompassed an area of about 150 mi2 (fig. 1).

  16. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of tap water reveal structure of the San Francisco Bay Area's water system and adjustments during a major drought.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Brett J; Jameel, Yusuf; Chau, Thuan H; Mancuso, Christy J; Bowen, Gabriel J; Dufour, Alexis; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2017-08-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. Water demands and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between urban centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources. To assess if stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios could increase the understanding of these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters across the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns spanning 21 months during 2013-2015. The San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-characterized water management strategies and the 2012-2105 California Drought dramatically affected its water resources. Consistent with known water management strategies and previously collected isotope data, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of tap waters within the Bay Area. This is indicative of complex water transport systems and varying municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of the isotope data collected in this study grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Various management responses to the drought, such as

  17. Preliminary Report on the White Canyon Area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William Edward Barnes; Trites, A.F.; Beroni, E.P.; Feeger, J.A.

    1952-01-01

    The White Canyon area in San Juan County, Utah, contains known deposits of copper-uranium ore and is currently being mapped and studied by the Geological Survey. To date, approximately 75 square miles, or about 20 percent of the area, has been mapped on a scale 1 inch=1 mile. The White Canyon area is underlain by more than 2,000 feet of sedimentary rocks, Carboniferous to Jurassic(?) in age. The area is on the flank of the Elk Ridge anticline, and the strata have a regional dip of 1 deg to 2 deg SW. The Shinarump conglomerate of Late Triassic age is the principal ore-bearing formation. The Shinarump consists of lenticular beds of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, clay, and siltstone, and ranges in thickness from a feather edge to as much as 75 feet. Locally the sandstones contain silicified and carbonized wood and fragments of charcoal. These vegetal remains are especially common in channel-fill deposits. Jointing is prominent in the western part of the area, and apparently affects all formations. Adjacent to the joints some of the redbeds in the sequence are bleached. Deposits of copper-uranium minerals have been found in the Moenkopi, Shinarump, and Chinle formations, but the only production of ore has been from the Shinarump conglomerate. The largest concentration of these minerals is in the lower third of the Shinarump, and the deposits seem to be controlled in part by ancient channel fills and in part by fractures. Locally precipitation of the copper and uranium minerals apparently has been aided by charcoal and clays. Visible uranium minerals include both hard and soft pitchblende and secondary hydrosulfates, phosphates, and silicates. In addition, unidentified uranium compounds are present in carbonized wood and charcoal, and in veinlets of hydrocarbons. Base-metal sulfides have been identified in all prospects that extend beyond the oxidized zone. Secondary copper minerals in the oxidized zone include the hydrous sulfates and carbonates, and possibly

  18. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  19. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  20. 50 CFR 665.222 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management area. 665.222 Section 665.222 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.222...

  1. 50 CFR 665.422 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management area. 665.422 Section 665.422 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries § 665.422...

  2. 50 CFR 660.703 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management area. 660.703 Section 660.703 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries §...

  3. Tectonic framework of the Parkfield-Cholame area, central San Andreas fault zone, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.D.; Ross, D.C.; Irwin, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping of the NW-trending San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ) in the southern Diablo Range reveals details of this structurally complex region. Movement on the fault juxtaposes dissimilar tectonic terranes. The region on the NE side is characterized by complexly folded and faulted rocks of the Franciscan assemblage, the Coast Range ophiolite, and sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley sequence and younger formations. The region on the SW side is characterized by crystalline basement rocks of the Salinia terrane overlain by slightly deformed Pliocene and Pleistocene gravel and Miocene and Pliocene sedimentary rocks. The active trace of the SAFZ is along the SW side of a belt of melange that separates the Salinia terrane from the terranes to the NE. The active main trace is notable for a right step over of about 1 km in the southern part of the area and a 5/sup 0/ left bend in the northern part of the area. The melange consists of highly sheared and deformed rocks of late Cenozoic units, and exotic blocks of granite, gabbro, and marble. Deformation of Late Cretaceous and younger rocks east of the SAFZ varies with their age as follows: 1) Late Cretaceous rocks are strongly deformed and overlain by late Cenozoic rocks with angular unconformity, 2) early(.) and middle Miocene rocks are the most complexly folded, 3) late Miocene and early Pliocene strata are less complexly deformed, and 4) Pliocene and Pleistocene rocks the least deformed. Folding resulted from north-south compression across the SAFZ since early (.) Miocene time.

  4. A heat vulnerability index to improve urban public health management in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J; Rodríguez, Ernesto

    2017-02-17

    Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data. Land surface temperature was assessed using images from the Thermal Infrared Sensor flown on Landsat 8. Social determinants (e.g., age, unemployment, education and social isolation, and health insurance coverage) were analyzed by census tract. The data were examined in the context of land cover maps generated using products from the Puerto Rico Terrestrial Gap Analysis Project (USDA Forest Service). All variables were set in order to transform the indicators expressed in different units into indices between 0 and 1, and the HVI was calculated as sum of score. The tract with highest index was considered to be the most vulnerable and the lowest to be the least vulnerable. Five vulnerability classes were mapped (very high, high, moderate, low, and very low). The hottest and the most vulnerable tracts corresponded to highly built areas, including the Luis Munoz International Airport, seaports, parking lots, and high-density residential areas. Several variables contributed to increased vulnerability, including higher rates of the population living alone, disabilities, advanced age, and lack of health insurance coverage. Coolest areas corresponded to vegetated landscapes and urban water bodies. The urban HVI map will be useful to health officers, emergency preparedness personnel, the National Weather Service, and San Juan residents, as it helps to prepare for and to mitigate

  5. A heat vulnerability index to improve urban public health management in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Lázaro, Pablo; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Otis, Daniel; McCarthy, Matthew J.; Rodríguez, Ernesto

    2017-02-01

    Increased frequency and length of high heat episodes are leading to more cardiovascular issues and asthmatic responses among the population of San Juan, the capital of the island of Puerto Rico, USA. An urban heat island effect, which leads to foci of higher temperatures in some urban areas, can raise heat-related mortality. The objective of this research is to map the risk of high temperature in particular locations by creating heat maps of the city of San Juan. The heat vulnerability index (HVI) maps were developed using images collected by satellite-based remote sensing combined with census data. Land surface temperature was assessed using images from the Thermal Infrared Sensor flown on Landsat 8. Social determinants (e.g., age, unemployment, education and social isolation, and health insurance coverage) were analyzed by census tract. The data were examined in the context of land cover maps generated using products from the Puerto Rico Terrestrial Gap Analysis Project (USDA Forest Service). All variables were set in order to transform the indicators expressed in different units into indices between 0 and 1, and the HVI was calculated as sum of score. The tract with highest index was considered to be the most vulnerable and the lowest to be the least vulnerable. Five vulnerability classes were mapped (very high, high, moderate, low, and very low). The hottest and the most vulnerable tracts corresponded to highly built areas, including the Luis Munoz International Airport, seaports, parking lots, and high-density residential areas. Several variables contributed to increased vulnerability, including higher rates of the population living alone, disabilities, advanced age, and lack of health insurance coverage. Coolest areas corresponded to vegetated landscapes and urban water bodies. The urban HVI map will be useful to health officers, emergency preparedness personnel, the National Weather Service, and San Juan residents, as it helps to prepare for and to mitigate

  6. The School Health Innovative Programs: integrating school health and managed care in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Taras, H; Nader, P; Swiger, H; Fontanesi, J

    1998-01-01

    Managed care organizations (MCOs) are being recruited to support school health services delivered in school clinics. Schools without clinics already provide numerous health services and could provide more if they had support from managed care organizations. This article describes the first two years of a San Diego-based collaborative consisting of MCOs, school districts, and other health care agencies. By establishing trust, developing overriding principles, and creating an interagency communication infrastructure, this collaborative has encouraged shared management of many student health issues. Because the agreements apply to all schools, programs can reduce high rates of absenteeism district-wide and avoid unnecessary doctor appointments for common health problems. These collaborative agreements are designed to be financially self-sustaining. However, data collection, the logistics of obtaining parental consent, and getting health professionals to communicate with each other in new ways remain to be significant challenges.

  7. Concentrations of organic contaminants detected during managed flow conditions, San Joaquin River and Old River, California, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants were determined in water samples collected at six surface-water sites located along the San Joaquin and Old Rivers during April through June 2001. Water samples were collected, coincident with salmon smolt caging studies conducted by researchers from the Bodega Marine Laboratory at the University of California at Davis to characterize exposure of the salmon smolt to organic contaminants. Sampling occurred prior to, during, and following the implementation of managed streamflow conditions on the San Joaquin and Old Rivers as part of the Vernalis Adaptive Management Plan. Thirteen pesticides were detected in water samples collected during this study, and at least five pesticides were detected in each sample. The total number of pesticide detections varied little between river systems and between sites, but the maximum concentrations of most pesticides occurred in San Joaquin River samples. The total number of pesticides detected varied little over the three time periods. However, during the period of managed streamflow, the fewest number of pesticides were detected at their absolute maximum concentration. Nine wastewater compounds were detected during this study. Suspended-sediment concentrations were similar for the San Joaquin and Old Rivers except during the period of managed streamflow conditions, when suspended-sediment concentration was higher at sites on the San Joaquin River than at sites on the Old River. Values for water parameters (pH, specific conductance, and hardness) were lowest during the period of managed flows.

  8. Carnotite resources of the Spud Patch area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Henry

    1953-01-01

    The Spud Patch area comprises about 8 square in T. 43 M., R. 18 and 19 W., San Miguel County, Colo., and is about 4 miles northeast of Egnar, Colo. Claims of the United States Vanadium Co. and the Vanadium Corp. of America cover about half the area. Claims of other owners, public land, and patented agricultural land, comprise the remainder of the area. The area is about 38 miles from the Government mill at Montecello, Utah, and 55 miles from the Vanadium Corp. of America mill at Naturita, Colo. Between 1940 and 1951, the Spud Patch area yielded about 24,000 short tons of carnotite ore that probably averaged 0.21 percent U3O8 and 2.2 percent V2O5. The deposits are in a broad sandstone lens near the top of the Salt Wash member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Although the deposits mined have been mainly impregnations of sandstone by carnotite and gray vanadium-bearing clay minerals, some of the richer deposits found by Geological Survey drilling have a finely disseminated black uranium mineral but no carnotite. The deposits commonly are thin irregular tabular layers, which locally thicken to form elongate masses called "rolls". These rolls have a dominant northeasterly trend. Geologic features found to be most useful as guides to ore are listed. From November 1949 to May 1952, the U.S. Geological Survey drilled 415 diamond-drill holes totaling 67,215 feet in the Spud Patch area. The purpose of this drilling was to find deposits that would make new mines and to appraise the reserves in the unexplored area. As a result of Geological Survey drilling, indicated and inferred reserves computed at the cutoff of 1 foot or more thick and 0.10 percent U3O8 or 1.0 percent V2O5 total 20,500 short tons, averaging 0.28 percent U3O8 and 2.1 percent V2O5. These reserves and those computed at a lower grade cutoff of 0.05 percent U3O8 or 0.50 percent V2O5 and the pounds of contained metal are summarized in table 1. Potential reserves, whose existence is based on geologic evidence

  9. Managing ecotourism visitation in protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.; Lindberg, Kreg; Wood, Megan Epler; Engeldrum, David

    1998-01-01

    Ecotourism management seeks to integrate and balance several potentially conflicting objectives: protection of natural and cultural resources, provision of recreation opportunities and generation of economic benefits. In the absence of effective planning and management, ecotourism can lead to significant negative impacts on vegetation, soil, water, wildlife, historic resources, cultures, and visitor experiences. This chapter reviews visitor-related natural resource and experience impacts associated with ecotourism within protected areas. The influence of factors that control the nature and extent of impacts are also reviewed, including type and amount of use, the variable resistance and resilience of environmental attributes such as vegetation and soil types, and the role of management in shaping visitation, resources and facilities to support visitation while minimizing associated impacts. Implications for managing the effects of protected area visitation are highlighted, including carrying capacity decision frameworks and selecting management strategies and tactics.

  10. Mines, prospects, mining claims, and sample localities of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area and vicinity, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Thomas D.

    1981-01-01

    In conjunction with studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a mineral survey in 1979 of known mines, prospect workings, and mineralized zones in the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area, San Juan County, Utah.  This map is a supplement to the Mineral Resources of the Dark Canyon Instant Study Area (Weitz and Light, 1981)., and depicts the locations of mines, prospects, mining claims and sample localities for the area examined by the U.S. Bureau of Mines.

  11. The impact of the San Diego wildfires on a general mental health population residing in evacuation areas.

    PubMed

    Tally, Steven; Levack, Ashley; Sarkin, Andrew J; Gilmer, Todd; Groessl, Erik J

    2013-09-01

    San Diego County Mental Health system clients completed a questionnaire after the October 2007 wildfires. As compared to those not in an evacuation area, those residing in an evacuation area reported significantly more impact of the fires. Clients who evacuated were most affected, followed by those in an evacuation area who did not evacuate. Evacuation strongly impacted client-reported emotional effects of the fire, confusion about whether to evacuate, and ability to obtain medications. Gender and clinical diagnosis interacted with evacuation status for some fire impact variables. Loss of control and disruption of routine are discussed as possibly related factors.

  12. Recognition of body image and food behavior factors among middle school students in San Francisco area.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the recognition of body image and food behavior factors according to the BMI. The subjects of this study were 242 7th grade students resided in San Francisco area. The degree of recognition for self-estimated physique of subjects by gender and by race showed no significant differences by gender but significant differences by race, showing that 20.0% was considered as underweight in Asian and 7.5% was considered as underweight in White students. This showed the same tendency as actual physique status (BMI). Also, the ratio of being recognized as more than overweight was 17.3% in Asian, 23.3% in Hispanic, and 13.4% in White students. In case of female students, the ratio of dieting experience was 63.3%, and 49.3% of White students and 63.3% of Hispanic students experienced dieting. In case of students answered not healthy, their body weight were significantly higher than those answered as healthy, and the BMI was also over 19, showing significant differences. Thus cases that answered as not healthy had greater body weight and BMI. Also it showed that frequent dieting experience is related to higher height and weight. The analysis of food behavior factors perceived by body shape showed that the group perceived itself as overweight consumed more 'fast food' but had low scores in 'vegetables' intake, with frequent intake of 'soda' and tendency to 'overeat'. Also, the tendency for 'balanced life' was significantly lower and for skipping breakfast was significantly higher, suggesting problematic food behavior.

  13. Prior history of allergies and pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Holly, Elizabeth A; Eberle, Carey A; Bracci, Paige M

    2003-09-01

    Data from a large population-based case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed to examine the association between pancreatic cancer and history of allergic conditions. Pancreatic cancer cases (n = 532) had to be 21-85 years of age and were identified using rapid case ascertainment. Random digit dialing and Health Care Financing Administration lists (age, > or = 65 years) were used to obtain 1,701 controls who were frequency-matched to cases by sex and age within 5 years. In-person interviews were conducted and detailed allergy history data were obtained for all participants. Prior history of any allergy was associated with a reduced risk estimate for pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.95). Inverse associations were observed for common allergens, including house dust (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.94), cats (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.85), plants (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.96), and mold (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.75), and for all allergic symptoms, although some confidence intervals included unity. Trends were observed for decreased risks associated with increasing number of allergies (p = 0.0006) and severity of allergic symptoms (p = 0.003). These results provide support for the plausibility that immune function in relation to allergies may play a role in the etiology of pancreatic cancer.

  14. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  15. Acquired Color Vision Defects and Hexane Exposure: A Study of San Francisco Bay Area Automotive Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Stella; Eisen, Ellen A; Bates, Michael N; Liu, Sa; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Hammond, S Katharine

    2016-06-01

    Occupational exposure to solvents, including n-hexane, has been associated with acquired color vision defects. Blue-yellow defects are most common and may be due to neurotoxicity or retinal damage. Acetone may potentiate the neurotoxicity of n-hexane. We present results on nonhexane solvent and hexane exposure and color vision from a cross-sectional study of 835 automotive repair workers in the San Francisco Bay Area, California (2007-2013). Cumulative exposure was estimated from self-reported work history, and color vision was assessed using the Lanthony desaturated D-15 panel test. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for color vision defects. Acquired color vision defects were present in 29% of participants, of which 70% were blue-yellow. Elevated prevalence ratios were found for nonhexane solvent exposure, with a maximum of 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 2.00) for blue-yellow. Among participants aged ≤50 years, the prevalence ratio for blue-yellow defects was 2.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 4.56) in the highest quartile of nonhexane solvent exposure and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.72) in the highest category of exposure to hexane with acetone coexposure. Cumulative exposures to hexane and nonhexane solvents in the highest exposure categories were associated with elevated prevalence ratios for color vision defects in younger participants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Voice disorders in the Metropolitan Area of San Juan, Puerto Rico: profiles of occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Reyes, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 28,000,000 workers in the United States experience voice problems everyday. In general, voice problems are very common, but they are more frequent among certain occupational groups. Descriptive cross-sectional study. We analyzed 129 available records of voice-disordered cases reported during the period of 2000-2005 from the Corporación del Fondo del Seguro del Estado in the Metropolitan Areas of Puerto Rico of Bayamón, San Juan, and Carolina. The following variables were studied: sex, age, occupation, possible job hazards, diagnosis, and type of treatment. Measures of central tendency, including percentage frequencies, were used. The findings revealed that 81% of all the cases of voice disorders available during the study period were females. The average age at diagnosis for different voice disorders was 42 years (± 10 years). Vocal problems were reported with a higher frequency by teachers at the elementary and high school levels (72%). The most common complaints were job-related voice overuse (30%) and excessive dust at the workplace. The most frequent medical diagnoses related to voice disorders were rhynopharyngitis (27%), several types of laryngitis (21%), and laryngopharyngitis (10%). The most frequent treatment modality for laryngeal disease and voice problems was the prescription of medication. The most relevant factor of voice disorders for professional voice users is the vocal overload during their job. It is advisable to implement voice disorder-prevention programs for teachers because of the high rate of vocal dysfunction among these professionals. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of SAXS and SANS in evaluation of porosity, pore size distribution and surface area of coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radlinski, A.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hinde, A.L.; Hainbuchner, M.; Rauch, H.; Baron, M.; Lin, J.S.; Fan, L.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques for determining the porosity, pore size distribution and internal specific surface area in coals. The method is noninvasive, fast, inexpensive and does not require complex sample preparation. It uses coal grains of about 0.8 mm size mounted in standard pellets as used for petrographic studies. Assuming spherical pore geometry, the scattering data are converted into the pore size distribution in the size range 1 nm (10 A??) to 20 ??m (200,000 A??) in diameter, accounting for both open and closed pores. FTIR as well as SAXS and SANS data for seven samples of oriented whole coals and corresponding pellets with vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values in the range 0.55% to 5.15% are presented and analyzed. Our results demonstrate that pellets adequately represent the average microstructure of coal samples. The scattering data have been used to calculate the maximum surface area available for methane adsorption. Total porosity as percentage of sample volume is calculated and compared with worldwide trends. By demonstrating the applicability of SAXS and SANS techniques to determine the porosity, pore size distribution and surface area in coals, we provide a new and efficient tool, which can be used for any type of coal sample, from a thin slice to a representative sample of a thick seam. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation of water-table response to management alternatives, central part of the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, K.R.; Phillips, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of selenium in agricultural drainwater in the central pan of the western San Joaquin Valley, California, has focused concern on alternatives other than agricultural drains for managing shallow, poor-quality ground water. A transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to assess the response of the water table to various management alternatives. The modeled area is 551 square miles and includes the semiconfined and confined zones above and below the Corcoran Clay Member of the Tulare Formation of Pleistocene age. The model was calibrated using hydrologic data from 1972 to 1988 and was able to reproduce the average change in water-table altitude to within 4 percent. The calibrated model was extended to forecast to the year 2040 for various management alternatives including maintenance of present practices, land retirement, reduced recharge, increased ground-water pumping, combinations of these alternatives, and five alternatives proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The model indicates that if current rates of recharge and pumping (as determined from an analysis of 1980 water-budget data) are maintained, the total area subject to bare-soil evaporation will increase by more than 50 percent and drainflow will increase by 20 percent. Model results indicate that retirement of land will result in a water-table decline beneath the area retired, but the effect on adjacent areas will be small to negligible. The effects of reducing recharge or increasing ground-water pumping vary with the magnitude of the change relative to average conditions and the size of the area managed. The area of land subject to bare-soil evaporation and the amount of drainflow in the model area can be reduced by more than 40 and 50 percent, respectively, if (1) recharge is reduced by 40 percent (about 0.3 foot per year) in areas that currently use only surface water, and by 15 percent (an average of about O. 1 foot per year) in the

  19. Collaboration in the San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Medical Response System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    a Navy veteran who always emphasized education and did quiet , hard work. For a guy with a GED, he seemed to know a lot of stuff. xviii THIS...synonymous with MMST. 18 5. Increase regional MMTF capability to be self -sufficient during the 72- hour deployment outside of its operational area. 6...He believes that the self -managing teams, strike forces, and the like are examples of flexibility. Flexibility needs protection as well as

  20. Real-time management of water quality in the San Joaquin River Basin, California.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Karkoski, J.

    1997-09-01

    In the San Joaquin River Basin, California, a realtime water quality forecasting model was developed to help improve the management of saline agricultural and wetland drainage to meet water quality objectives. Predicted salt loads from the water quality forecasting model, SJRIODAY, were consistently within +- 11 percent of actual, within +- 14 percent for seven-day forecasts, and with in +- 26 percent for 14-day forecasts for the 16-month trial period. When the 48 days dominated by rainfall/runoff events were eliminated from the data set, the error bar decreased to +- 9 percent for the model and +- 11 percent and +- 17 percent for the seven-day and 14-day forecasts, respectively. Constraints on the use of the model for salinity management on the San Joaquin River include the number of entities that control or influence water quality and the lack of a centralized authority to direct their activities. The lack of real-time monitoring sensors for other primary constituents of concern, such as selenium and boron, limits the application of the model to salinity at the present time. A case study describes wetland drainage releases scheduled to coincide with high river flows and significant river assimilative capacity for salt loads.

  1. Real-time management of water quality in the San Joaquin River Basin, California.

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Karkoski, J.

    1997-09-01

    In the San Joaquin River Basin, California, a realtime water quality forecasting model was developed to help improve the management of saline agricultural and wetland drainage to meet water quality objectives. Predicted salt loads from the water quality forecasting model, SJRIODAY, were consistently within +- 11 percent of actual, within +- 14 percent for seven-day forecasts, and with in +- 26 percent for 14-day forecasts for the 16-month trial period. When the 48 days dominated by rainfall/runoff events were eliminated from the data set, the error bar decreased to +- 9 percent for the model and +- 11 percent and +- 17 percent for the seven-day and 14-day forecasts, respectively. Constraints on the use of the model for salinity management on the San Joaquin River include the number of entities that control or influence water quality and the lack of a centralized authority to direct their activities. The lack of real-time monitoring sensors for other primary constituents of concern, such as selenium and boron, limits the application of the model to salinity at the present time. A case study describes wetland drainage releases scheduled to coincide with high river flows and significant river assimilative capacity for salt loads.

  2. Infrared survey of the Pisgah Crater area, San Bernardino County, California - a geologic interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gawarecki, Stephen J.

    1968-01-01

    The infrared survey of the Pisgah Crater Area, San Bernardino County, California was primarily undertaken to establish parameters by which rock types, structures, and textures peculiar to this locale could be recognized or differentiated. A secondary purpose was to provide an adequate evaluation and calibration of airborne and ground-based instruments used in the survey. Pisgah Crater and its vicinity was chosen as one of the fundamental test sites for the NASA remote sensing program because of its relatively fresh basaltic flows and pyroclastics. Its typical exposure of basalt also made it a possible lunar analogue. A fundamental test site for the purpose of the program is defined as a readily accessible area for which the topography, geology, hydrology, soils, vegetation and other features are relatively well known. All remote sensor instrument teams, i.e. infrared, radar, microwave, and photography, were obligated to use the fundamental test sites for instrument evaluation and to establish terrain identification procedures. Pisgah Crater, nearby Sunshine Cone, and their associated lava flows are in the southern Mojave Desert about 40 miles east-southeast of Barstow, California. (See fig. 1.) U. S. Highway 66 skirts .the northern part of the area and provides access via asphalt-paved and dirt roads to the Crater and to the perimeters of the flows. Pisgah Crater, which is a pumiceous cone, is owned and occasionally quarried by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. The remaining part of the area to the south is within the boundary of the Marine Corps Base, Twentynine Palms, California and is currently being used as a gunnery, and bombing range. The proximate area to east, west, and north of Pisgah Crater is public domain. Originally, an area totaling 10 square miles was outlined for detailed study. (See plate 1.) This included an 8 mile long strip extending south- east from and including Pisgah Crater to Lavic Dry Lake, and a 2 mile strip aligned to include a

  3. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  4. Mineral resource potential map of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Study Area, Graham and Greenlee counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Donlad H.; Klein, Douglas P.; Lawrence, Viki A.; Lane, Michael

    1982-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Study Area (AZ-040-022/023/024) is low (fig. 2). Although favorable geologic environments for placer gold deposits and manganese vein deposits are present in the study area, the probability of discovering economically exploitable deposits of these metals is low, and not encouraging. Even more speculative is the study area's porphyry copper potential which is based solely on the possibility of favorable host terranes underlying the study area at depth. The study area does contain substantial deposits of pumice, but their economic significance is probably minor. A part of the study area has been previously designated a Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA).

  5. Preliminary report on the White Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William E.; Trites, Albert F.; Beroni, Ernest P.; Feeger, John A.

    1952-01-01

    The White Canyon area, in the central part of San Juan County, Utah, consists of approximately two 15-minute quadrangles. Approximately 75 square miles have been mapped by the Geological Survey on a scale of 1 inch equals 1 mile, using a combined aerial photography-plane table method. Structure contours were drawn on top of the Organ Rock member of the Cutler formation. Parts of the Gonway and North Point claims, 1/4 mile east of the Happy Jack mine, were mapped in detail. The principal objectives of the investigations were: (1) to establish ore guides; (2) to select areas favorable for exploration; and (3) to map the general geology and to determine the regional relationships of the uranium deposits. The White Canyon area is comprised of sedimentary rocks of Carboniferous to Jurassic age, more than 2,000 feet thick, having a regional dip of 1° to 2° SW. The nearest igneous rocks are in the Henry Mountains about 7 miles west of the northern part of the area; The Shinarump conglomerate of the late Triassic age, the principal ore horizon in the White Canyon area, consists of lenticular beds of sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, conglomerate, clay, and siltstone. The Shinarump conglomerate, absent in places, is as much as 75 feet thick. The sandstones locally contain molds of logs and fragments of altered volcanic ash. Some of the logs have been replaced by copper and uranium minerals and iron oxides. The clay and siltstone underlie and are interbedded with the sandstone, and are most common in channels that cut into the underlying Moenkopi formation. The Shinarump conglomerate contains reworked Moenkopi siltstone fragments, clay balls, carbonized wood, and pebbles of quarts, quartzite, and chert. Jointing is prominent in the Western part of the mapped area. The three most prominent joint trends are due east, N. 65°-75° W., and N. 65°-75° E. All joints have vertical dips. The red beds are bleached along some joints, especially those that trend N. 65°-75° W

  6. Comparison of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Satellites for Forest Alliance Classification in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to assess multi-temporal, Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) satellite imagery for improved forest class mapping relative to multispectral satellites. The study area was the western San Francisco Bay Area, California and forest alliances (e.g., forest communities defined by dominant or co-dominant trees) were defined using the U.S. National Vegetation Classification System. Simulated 30-m HyspIRI, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery were processed from image data acquired by NASA's AVIRIS airborne sensor in year 2015, with summer and multi-temporal (spring, summer, fall) data analyzed separately. HyspIRI reflectance was used to generate a suite of hyperspectral metrics that targeted key spectral features related to chemical and structural properties. The Random Forests classifier was applied to the simulated images and overall accuracies (OA) were compared to those from real Landsat 8 images. For each image group, broad land cover (e.g., Needle-leaf Trees, Broad-leaf Trees, Annual agriculture, Herbaceous, Built-up) was classified first, followed by a finer-detail forest alliance classification for pixels mapped as closed-canopy forest. There were 5 needle-leaf tree alliances and 16 broad-leaf tree alliances, including 7 Quercus (oak) alliance types. No forest alliance classification exceeded 50% OA, indicating that there was broad spectral similarity among alliances, most of which were not spectrally pure but rather a mix of tree species. In general, needle-leaf (Pine, Redwood, Douglas Fir) alliances had better class accuracies than broad-leaf alliances (Oaks, Madrone, Bay Laurel, Buckeye, etc). Multi-temporal data classifications all had 5-6% greater OA than with comparable summer data. For simulated data, HyspIRI metrics had 4-5% greater OA than Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery and 3-4% greater OA than HyspIRI reflectance. Finally, HyspIRI metrics had 8% greater OA than real Landsat 8 imagery. In conclusion, forest

  7. Damage asymmetry from hydro-geomorphic signals along the trifurcation area of the San- Jacinto Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsler, N.; Rockwell, T. K.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    An important earthquake research topic is the question of whether there are geological controls on rupture propagation direction. A persistent preferred propagation direction should produce asymmetric damage structure that is recorded in the volume of rock surrounding a fault, and there may be geomorphic manifestations on active faults that can be recognized and analyzed in a quantitative fashion. The San-Jacinto Fault (SJF) is one of the most active faults in southern California, with well expressed geomorphology, a fast geologic slip rate, and a strong GPS strain signal. We use standard morphometric analysis to detect the damage asymmetry across a part of the SJF in the trifurcation area where the Clark, Coyote-Creek and Buck-Ridge segments meet. The analysis is done at two scales: 1. Small scale DEM with 30m per pixel resolution derived from SRTM data. 2. Large scale DEM with 1m per pixel resolution derived from LIDAR data, covering the fault at ~1 km width. The geomorphic analysis is done using the GIS software ArcMap and the TauDEM tool box. We compare several morphometric parameters (drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, bifurcation ratio, ruggedness number, hypsometric integral) for drainages on both sides of the fault. North of the trifurcation point, the north-east side of the fault is more damaged, in agreement with Dor el at (2006) and Lewis et al (2005), but south of the trifurcation the situation is reversed. A number of factors can affect the results of the morphometric analysis, including the proximity of several fault strands, a restraining bend on the main strand, and different lithologies on the two sides of the fault. The current results are not conclusive since the morphometric analysis depends on various additional factors, such as different slopes, rates of erosion, vegetation, etc., that were only partially accounted for. Nevertheless, these preliminary results on reversed damage asymmetry suggest that large earthquakes on the

  8. Progress report on the Happy Jack mine, Which Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trites, Albert F.; Chew, Randall T.

    1954-01-01

    The Happy Jack mine is in the White Canyon area, San Juan county, Utah. Production is from high-grade uranium deposits in the Shinarump conglomerate of the Triassic age. In this area the Shinarump beds range from about 16 to 40 feet in thickness and the lower part of these beds fills an east-trending channel this is note than 750 feet wide and 10 feet deep. The Shinarump conglomerate consists of beds of coarse- to fine-grained quartzose sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and claystone. Carbonized wood is abundant in these beds, and in the field it was classified as mineral charcoal and coal. Intra-Shinarump channels, cross-stratification, current lineation, and slumping and compaction structures have been recognized in the mine. Steeply dipping fractures have dominant trends in four directions -- N 65°W, N 60°E, N 85°E, and due north. Uranium occurs as bedded deposits, as replacement bodies in accumulations of "trash", and as replacements of larger fragments of wood. An "ore shoot" is formed where the three types of uranium deposits occur together; these ore shoots appear to be elongate masses with sharp boundaries. Uranium minerals include uraninite, sooty pitchblende(?), and the sulfate--betazippeite, johannite, and uranopilite. Associated with the uraninite are the sulfide minerals covellite, bornite, chalcopyritw, and pyrite. Galena and sphalerite have been found in close association with uranium minerals. The gaunge minerals include: limonite and hematite present in most of the sandstone beds throughout the deposit, jarosite that impregnates much of the sandstone in the outer parts of the mine workings, gypsum that fills many of the fractures, and barite that impregnates the sandstone in at least one part of the mine. Secondary copper minerals, mainly copper sulfates, occur throughout the mine, but most abundant near the adits in the outermost 30 feet of the workings. The minerals comprising the bulk of the country rock include quartz, feldspar, and clay

  9. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the

  10. Distribution and Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adults Living in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cynthia M.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Guzmán, Manuel; Suárez, Erick

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated correlates of the metabolic syndrome among adults living in Puerto Rico, a Hispanic subpopulation disproportionately affected by diabetes. Methods A probability cluster design was used to select a sample of households of the San Juan Metropolitan Area in Puerto Rico. A total of 858 persons aged 21–79 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and spot urine. Logistic regression was employed to assess correlates of the metabolic syndrome. Results Of 368 (42.9%) of adults who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, elevated fasting glucose (49.8%), abdominal obesity (48.6%), and reduced HDL cholesterol (45.8%) were the most prevalent diagnostic criteria. In a multivariable logistic model that simultaneously adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors, older age, high school educational attainment or less, no alcohol intake, and lack of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity remained significantly (p<0.05) associated to the metabolic syndrome. However, the associations for male gender, some college education, and current smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day had borderline significance. Further controlling for inflammatory markers slightly attenuated the strength of most of these associations but remained significantly (p<0.05) associated to the metabolic syndrome with only a few exceptions. Middle and upper tertiles of hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and PAI-1 and an elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio were also associated (p<0.05) with the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Enhancing public education regarding modifiable risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and providing optimal medical management of individual metabolic disturbances among those at risk through preventive lifestyle changes should be placed as a public health priority for Puerto Rico. PMID:23038883

  11. The Adjustment of Native American Students to Public Schools in the East San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molohon, Kathryn Theresa

    Adjustment of American Indians to a major urban institution, exemplified by public schools, and adaptations to urban life in general were examined, using data collected between 1965 and 1969, and focusing on intensive observations of 24 randomly-selected American Indian students (19 high school, 5 elementary) attending East San Francisco Bay Area…

  12. Detecting areas disturbed by mining activities through Landsat images, San Luis Potosi City, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Vera, M.-A.

    2009-04-01

    Mining history in San Luis Potosí (Mexico) goes back to more than four centuries, and the accumulation of mining waste poses an important problem to ecological risk prevention. Epithermal deposits are the most common in this region and the impact of mining exploitation must be evaluated to propose sustainable development of the natural resources, which have a strong contribution of the national economy. The state San Luis Potosi is situated in the central part of Mexico between parallels 21°11' and 24°34' of north latitude and 98°23' and 102°14' of west longitude, 424 km northeast from Mexico City. Today is a sprawling city with more than half a million residents. The aim of this study was to analyse land cover and vegetation changes between 1972 and 2000 in San Luis Potosi Valley, using satellite image data. Since large changes in land cover and vegetation are taking place in the Valley and there is a lack of good data, such as maps, statistics and aerial photographs, it was appropriate to use satellite data for assessment of land cover and vegetation to estimate the environmental impact of the mining industry. Field data samples were used to evaluate the change results obtained with the multispectral satellite images. The results show that land cover change in the San Luis Potosi Valley has occurred in the past decade as a result of both natural forces and human activities, which have in turn impacted on the regional sustainable development of the mining resources.

  13. Effect of channelization of Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels in the San Juan metropolitan area, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padilla, Ingrid

    1991-01-01

    Channelization and concrete lining of the Rio Puerto Nuevo and its tributaries in the San Juan Metropolitan area has been proposed to control flooding in low lying areas adjacent to the stream. Concern about the effect of these channel modifications on the ground-water system prompted the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to conduct an investigation of surface-water and ground-water interactions in the Rio Puerto Nuevo basin in 1988. A principal objective of this investigation was to determine the potential effect of channelization of the Rio Puerto Nuevo on ground-water levels.

  14. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  15. Wed. May 13, Hayward, Calif. -- EPA Administrator McCarthy joins San Francisco Bay Area agencies to celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Wednesday, May 13, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Bay Area agencies to celebrate the nation's largest local government collaborative for solar power and launch the nation's first federal solar partnership. Administ

  16. Monitoring and modeling conditions for regional shallow landslide initiation in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Godt, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Intense winter storms in the San Francisco Bay area (SFBA) of California often trigger widespread landsliding, including debris flows that originate as shallow (<3 m) landslides. The strongest storms result in the loss of lives and millions of dollars in damage. Whereas precipitation-based rainfall intensity-duration landslide initiation thresholds are available for the SFBA, antecedent soil moisture conditions also play a major role in determining the likelihood for landslide generation from a given storm. Previous research has demonstrated that antecedent triggering conditions can be obtained using pre-storm precipitation thresholds (e.g., 250-400 mm of seasonal pre-storm rainfall). However, these types of thresholds do not account for the often cyclic pattern of wetting and drying that can occur early in the winter storm season (i.e. October - December), and which may skew the applicability of precipitation-only based thresholds. To account for these cyclic and constantly evolving soil moisture conditions, we have pursued methods to measure soil moisture directly and integrate these measurements into predictive analyses. During the past three years, the USGS installed a series of four subsurface hydrology monitoring stations in shallow landslide-prone locations of the SFBA to establish a soil-moisture-based antecedent threshold. In addition to soil moisture sensors, the monitoring stations are each equipped with piezometers to record positive pore water pressure that is likely required for shallow landslide initiation and a rain gauge to compare storm intensities with existing precipitation-based thresholds. Each monitoring station is located on a natural, grassy hillslope typically composed of silty sands, underlain by sandstone, sloping at approximately 30°, and with a depth to bedrock of approximately 1 meter - conditions typical of debris flow generation in the SFBA. Our observations reveal that various locations respond differently to seasonal

  17. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  18. Multi-Scale Structure and Earthquake Properties in the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zion, Y.

    2014-12-01

    I review multi-scale multi-signal seismological results on structure and earthquake properties within and around the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) in southern California. The results are based on data of the southern California and ANZA networks covering scales from a few km to over 100 km, additional near-fault seismometers and linear arrays with instrument spacing 25-50 m that cross the SJFZ at several locations, and a dense rectangular array with >1100 vertical-component nodes separated by 10-30 m centered on the fault. The structural studies utilize earthquake data to image the seismogenic sections and ambient noise to image the shallower structures. The earthquake studies use waveform inversions and additional time domain and spectral methods. We observe pronounced damage regions with low seismic velocities and anomalous Vp/Vs ratios around the fault, and clear velocity contrasts across various sections. The damage zones and velocity contrasts produce fault zone trapped and head waves at various locations, along with time delays, anisotropy and other signals. The damage zones follow a flower-shape with depth; in places with velocity contrast they are offset to the stiffer side at depth as expected for bimaterial ruptures with persistent propagation direction. Analysis of PGV and PGA indicates clear persistent directivity at given fault sections and overall motion amplification within several km around the fault. Clear temporal changes of velocities, probably involving primarily the shallow material, are observed in response to seasonal, earthquake and other loadings. Full source tensor properties of M>4 earthquakes in the complex trifurcation area include statistically-robust small isotropic component, likely reflecting dynamic generation of rock damage in the source volumes. The dense fault zone instruments record seismic "noise" at frequencies >200 Hz that can be used for imaging and monitoring the shallow material with high space and time details, and

  19. Slicing up the San Francisco Bay Area: Block kinematics and fault slip rates from GPS-derived surface velocities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    d'Alessio, M. A.; Johanson, I.A.; Burgmann, R.; Schmidt, D.A.; Murray, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of surface deformation allow us to determine the kinematics of faults in the San Francisco Bay Area. We present the Bay Area velocity unification (BA??VU??, "bay view"), a compilation of over 200 horizontal surface velocities computed from campaign-style and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1993 to 2003. We interpret this interseismic velocity field using a three-dimensional block model to determine the relative contributions of block motion, elastic strain accumulation, and shallow aseismic creep. The total relative motion between the Pacific plate and the rigid Sierra Nevada/Great Valley (SNGV) microplate is 37.9 ?? 0.6 mm yr-1 directed toward N30.4??W ?? 0.8?? at San Francisco (??2??). Fault slip rates from our preferred model are typically within the error bounds of geologic estimates but provide a better fit to geodetic data (notable right-lateral slip rates in mm yr-1: San Gregorio fault, 2.4 ?? 1.0; West Napa fault, 4.0 ?? 3.0; zone of faulting along the eastern margin of the Coast Range, 5.4 ?? 1.0; and Mount Diablo thrust, 3.9 ?? 1.0 of reverse slip and 4.0 ?? 0.2 of right-lateral strike slip). Slip on the northern Calaveras is partitioned between both the West Napa and Concord/ Green Valley fault systems. The total convergence across the Bay Area is negligible. Poles of rotation for Bay Area blocks progress systematically from the North America-Pacific to North America-SNGV poles. The resulting present-day relative motion cannot explain the strike of most Bay Area faults, but fault strike does loosely correlate with inferred plate motions at the time each fault initiated. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Ambient Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Observations in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Fixed-site Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, P. T.; Guha, A.; Bower, J.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan area's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with the Governor's Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 2016 Clean Air Plan will lay out the agency's vision and actions to put the region on a path forward towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The 2016 Plan has three overarching objectives: 1) develop a multi-pollutant emissions control strategy, (2) reduce population exposure to harmful air pollutants, especially in vulnerable communities, and (3) protect climate through a comprehensive Regional Climate Protection Strategy. To accomplish one of 2016 Plan's control measures (SL3 - Greenhouse Gas Monitoring and Measurement Network), the Air District has set up a long-term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain well-mixed GHG enhancements from local sources. CO2 and CH4are being measured continuously at the fixed-sites, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data trends from the first year of operation of the fixed-site monitoring network including monthly and seasonal patterns, diurnal variations and regional enhancements at individual sites above background concentrations. We also locate an isotopic methane instrument (Picarro, G132-i) for a short duration (a week) at each of the

  1. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Source Detection and Attribution in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Mobile Measurement Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J.; Martien, P. T.; Perkins, I.; Randall, S.; Stevenson, E.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan area's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with the Governor's Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 2016 Clean Air Plan will lay out the agency's vision and actions to put the region on a path forward towards achieving the 2050 goal while also reducing air pollution and related health impacts. The 2016 Plan has three overarching objectives: 1) develop a multi-pollutant emissions control strategy, (2) reduce population exposure to harmful air pollutants, especially in vulnerable communities, and (3) protect climate through a comprehensive Regional Climate Protection Strategy. To accomplish one of 2016 Plan's control measures (SL3 - Greenhouse Gas Monitoring and Measurement Network), the Air District has fabricated a mobile measurement platform i.e. a GHG research van to perform targeted CH4 emissions hotspot detection and source attribution. The van is equipped with analyzers capable of measuring CH4, CO2 and N2O in ambient plumes at fast sampling rates. The coincident measurement of source tracers like isotopic methane (13C - CH4), CO and ethane (C2H6) provide the capability to distinguish between biogenic, combustion-based and fossil-based fugitive methane sources, respectively. The GHG research van is a comprehensive mobile tool to perform tracer-based GHG source identification and apportionment. We report observation-based source-specific tracer-to-tracer emission ratios from a region-wide survey of well-known area sources like landfills, wastewater treatment facilities and dairies, and compare those with similar ratios in the Air District's GHG inventory. We also investigate plumes from potentially under-inventoried sources like anaerobic digesters, composting operations, active and plugged oil and gas wells, and a natural gas storage

  2. Local Area Network Management: An Unresolved Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of management issues involved with local area networks (LAN) among information organizations focuses on a project at the University of North Texas that was designed to investigate problems associated with LAN. Topics discussed include purchasing decisions for hardware and software, and integration among various groups of users. (Eight…

  3. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  4. Habitat changes: Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frisina, M.R.; Keigley, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In 1984, a rest-rotation grazing system was established on the Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area (MHWMA) in southwest Montana. The area is a mixture of wet and dry meadow types, grass/shrublands, and forest. Prior to implementing the grazing system, photo-monitoring points were established on the MHWMA at locations were cattle concentrate were grazing. The area consists of a three pasture rest-rotation system incorporating 20,000 acres. Photo essays revealed changes in riparian, lowland, and upland sites within the grazing system. In addition, gross changes in the amount of willow present were documented.

  5. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Treesearch

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  6. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George Luther; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  7. Risk Behaviors among Asian Women Who Work at Massage Parlors in San Francisco: Perspectives from Masseuses and Owners/Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Oh, Hyun Joo; Wong, Serena; Nguyen, Hongmai

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive, cultural, and contextual factors that influence HIV-related risk behaviors among Asian women who engage in sex work at massage parlors in San Francisco. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted for Vietnamese and Thai masseuses and massage parlor owners/managers. Economic pressure as well as…

  8. Risk Behaviors among Asian Women Who Work at Massage Parlors in San Francisco: Perspectives from Masseuses and Owners/Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Oh, Hyun Joo; Wong, Serena; Nguyen, Hongmai

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive, cultural, and contextual factors that influence HIV-related risk behaviors among Asian women who engage in sex work at massage parlors in San Francisco. Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted for Vietnamese and Thai masseuses and massage parlor owners/managers. Economic pressure as well as…

  9. InSAR data produce specific storage estimates for an agricultural area in the San Luis Valley, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, J.; Knight, R. J.; Zebker, H. A.; Schreuder, W.; Agram, P. S.; Lauknes, T.

    2010-12-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV) is an 8000 km2 region in southern Colorado that is home to a thriving agricultural economy. This valley is currently in a period of extreme drought, with county and state regulators struggling to develop appropriate management policies in order to sustain water levels in the confined aquifer system. The water level from 1970 - 2000 remains a key, but poorly known, component for characterization. Some relevant data, such as water levels measured in wells, were collected during this period and incorporated into a groundwater flow model. However, data with finer spatial and temporal resolution would be very valuable in understanding the behavior and therefore the management of the system. Spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data provide maps of the deformation of the Earth’s surface at a spatial resolution of 50 m; these data are acquired approximately once per month. The deformation measured by InSAR can be related to water levels in the confined aquifer system. However, changes in cm-scale crop structure in agricultural areas lead to signal decorrelation over long periods of time, resulting in low quality data. Here we apply the recently developed small baseline subset (SBAS) analysis to InSAR data collected by the European Space Agency’s ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites over the western SLV for the years 1992-2001. The SBAS measurements show high levels of InSAR correlation, denoting high quality data, in areas between the center pivot irrigation circles, where the lack of water results in little surface vegetation. By using SBAS analysis, we are able to estimate the magnitude of the seasonal deformation and compare it with hydraulic head measurements in nearby wells. We directly compare, at three well locations, specific storage parameters estimated from InSAR data to those estimated using traditional pump test techniques. The InSAR and pump test estimated parameters are: 3.4 x10-5 ft-1 vs. 1.7 x 10-5 ft-1, 2.2 x 10

  10. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers' grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and sociocultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers.

  11. Summary of hydrologic data for the San Gabriel River basin and Edwards Aquifer, Georgetown area, Texas, water year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.; Dorsey, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present a summary of the hydrologic data collected from the streams draining the San Gabriel River basin and from the Edwards aquifer during the 1988 water year (October 1987–September 1988). A secondary purpose is to add perspective to the 1988 data by including data from the previous 2 years (1986 and 1987) when available. The scope of the report is limited to the Georgetown area (fig. 1) and to data collected by the Geological Survey.

  12. Interactions between Cool Roofs and Urban Irrigation: Do Cooling Strategies Reduce Water Consumption in the San Francisco Bay Area?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahmani, P.; Jones, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    California has experienced progressive drought since 2012, with 2012-2014 constituting a nearly 10,000-year drought event, resulting in a suite of policies with the goal of reducing water consumption. At the same time, climate warming effects of accelerated urbanization along with projected global climate change raise an urgent need for sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies to cool urban climates. In this study, for the first time, we assess the overarching benefits of cooling strategies on urban water consumption. We employ a satellite-supported regional climate-modeling framework over the San Francisco Bay Area to assess the effects of cool roofs on urban irrigation, a topic of increasing importance as it accounts for a significant fraction of urban water use particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. We use a suit of climatological simulations at high (1.5 km) spatial resolution, based on a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Urban Canopy Model (UCM) modeling framework, reinforced with remotely sensed observations of Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF), leaf area index (LAI), and albedo. Our analysis shows that widespread incorporation of cool roofs would result in a mean daytime cooling of about 0.7° C, which in turn results in roughly 4% reduction in irrigation water, largely due to decreases in surface evapotranspiration rates. We further investigate the critical interactions between cool roofs, wind, and sea-breeze patterns as well as fog formation, a dominant weather pattern in San Francisco Bay area.

  13. Compilation of a biogenic hydrocarbon emissions inventory for evaluating ozone-control strategies in the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Moreland, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The body of information presented is directed to planners and engineers concerned with developing ozone control strategies. A biogenic hydrocarbon emissions inventory for the San Francisco Bay Area has been prepared for use in determining the degree of hydrocarbon emissions control needed to attain the ozone standard. Remote sensing imagery was used to characterize the regional vegetation distribution, and a Delphi survey of scientists familiar with biogenic emissions was used to provide biogenic hydrocarbon emission factors. For a hypothetical 24-hour period of twelve hours of darkness and twelve hours of light, biogenic sources in the nine-county Bay Area were estimated to produce about 4.5 x 10/sup 5/ kg (500 tons) of total non-methane hydrocarbons; the uncertainty of this estimate was calculated to be +- 50%. The biogenic emissions were found to represent about 33% of the man-made and natural hydrocarbon emissions in the region. The magnitude of the biogenic emissions inventory is not the key factor from which the contribution of biogenic sources to urban ozone production can be discerned. Photochemical dispersion modeling of the total (man-made plus natural) hydrocarbon emissions inventory is recommended as a tool to help understand the contribution of biogenic sources to excessive amounts of the ozone standard in the San Francisco Bay Area.

  14. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  15. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  16. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  17. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  18. Emergency Management. Functional Area Qualification Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    TS DOE– STD –1177-2004 January 2004 DOE STANDARD EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 DOE- STD -1177-2004 i This document has been reproduced directly from...Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605–6000. DOE- STD -1177-2004 ii APPROVAL The Federal Technical Capability Panel consists of senior U.S

  19. TECHNICAL INTEGRATION ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOCUS AREAS

    SciTech Connect

    Carey R. Butler

    2001-10-01

    This contract involved a team of companies led by WPI (formerly the Waste Policy Institute). In addition to WPI, the team included four subcontractors--TRW (formerly BDM Federal), SAIC, Energetics, and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The team of companies functioned as a ''seamless team'' assembled to support the Environmental Management Program Focus Areas. Staff resources were applied in the following offices: Richland, Washington, Idaho Falls, Idaho, Morgantown, West Virginia, Grand Forks, North Dakota, Aiken, South Carolina, Gaithersburg, Maryland, and Blacksburg, Virginia. These locations represented a mixture of site support offices at the field focus area locations and central staff to support across the focus areas. The management of this dispersed resource base relied on electronic communication links to allow the team to function as a ''virtual office'' to address tasks with the best qualified staff matched to the task assignments. A variety of tasks were assigned and successfully completed throughout the life of the contract that involved program planning and analysis, program execution, program information management and communication and data transmission.

  20. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating each...

  1. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  2. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Service and Vessel Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The VTS...

  3. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Service and Vessel Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The VTS...

  4. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Service and Vessel Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The VTS...

  5. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Service and Vessel Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The VTS...

  6. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Service and Vessel Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The VTS...

  7. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd...

  8. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd...

  9. Pre-earthquake assessment and recovery planning for the regional transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    In May 1995, ABAG began a cooperative project with Caltrans District 4 to perform a vulnerability analysis of the regional transportation system in the San Francisco Bay Area. This assessment will be used for pre-earthquake planning to speed the recovery process for the transportation system, including both freeways and local roads. The project is using geographic information system (GIS) technology and computer simulation models to assist in the vulnerability analyses, assessment of hazard mitigation strategies, and pre-earthquake planning activities. It is expected that this project will result in improving post-earthquake short-term emergency response as well as in shortening the time for long-term recovery. In addition, this innovative and timely approach should be applicable to other large metropolitan areas of the state, as well as to other metropolitan areas in the nation.

  10. Broadband Waveform Modeling to Evaluate the USGS Seismic Velocity Model for the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

  11. Remote sensing of tetraoxygen (O4) levels in San Salvador urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti Arroyo, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we report on levels of O4 in San Salvador (El Salvador) measured by Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS).We measured the O4differential Slant Column Density (dSCD in mol2cm-5 of O4) in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a fitting window from 340 nm to 370 nm. The measurements were taken during a campaign which included the days of November 26th , 27th and 30th in 2011 at different elevation angles, namely, 30, 10, 30 and 90. Diurnal average values of O4 dSCD which ranges between 5x1042 mol2cm-5 and 6x1043 mol2cm-5 are observed. On November 26th lower values of O4 dSCD were obtained in comparison to the other two days. Since the atmospheric O4 profile is well known and nearly constant in the first kilometers in the atmosphere for this could be considered a surprisingly result. However, the meteorological conditions in San Salvador influenced by the presence of a cold front which affected in different ways the three days, allow, to some extent, a plausible explanation of these results by considering the role of the aerosol distribution and his impact in the atmospheric photon paths leading to an apparent decreasing of the O4 levels. The role of the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere of San Salvador and it influence in the obtained O4 dSCD results and it diurnal behavior will be extensively discussed in this investigation.

  12. Sedimentologic evidence for structural and topographic evolution following the onset of strike slip, E San Francisco Bay area, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Buising, A.V. )

    1992-01-01

    Mid- to Upper Miocene continental (Orinda and Mulholland Fms.) and shallow marine (Neroly Fm.) strata in the Upper San Leandro Reservoir watershed (SLR) area east of San Francisco Bay preserve important information on structural and landscape evolution during the early phases of strike slip along the Pacific-North American plate boundary. The SLR area lies between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults, major strands of the San Andreas Fault system, and is bisected by the NW-striking Cull Creek Fault (CCF). Geologic mapping delineates five completely intercalated lithofacies in the Mulholland Fm. at SLR. The conglomerate-dominated, sandstone-dominated, and interbedded conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone facies represent fluvial channel and floodplain deposits; the sandstone + mudstone facies represent lacustrine-deltaic and shallow lacustrine deposits; the shale facies records open lacustrine deposition. Sparse unidirectional paleocurrent indicators show southerly and easterly transport west of the CCF and both westerly and easterly transport east of the CCF. Conglomerate-rich and sand-rich facies tracts are juxtaposed along the CCF. Clast assemblages in Mulholland conglomerates include abundant chart, graywacke, blueschist, and vein quartz, suggesting derivation from a Franciscan-dominated source terrane. Clast assemblages in the gradationally underlying and interfingering Neroly Fm. suggest that it shared the same source terrane; this is atypical for the primarily andesitic (Sierra-derived) Neroly. Fluvial deposits are volumetrically dominant in the Mulholland Fm. at SLR; open-lacustrine shales occur in stratigraphically isolated lenses ranging from > 1 km to < 100 m along strike. This suggests numerous small lakes on a broad drainage plain rather than the single large lake envisioned by previous workers.

  13. Modeling pesticide diuron loading from the San Joaquin watershed into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using SWAT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantitative information on pesticide loading into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta waterways of northern California is critical for water resource management in the region, and potentially useful for biological weed control planning. The San Joaquin watershed, an agriculturally intensive area, is a...

  14. Depths of channels in the area of the San Juan Basin Regional Uranium Study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    During December 1977 and January 1978 about 280 measurements were made of the depths of channels (arroyos) more than 6 feet deep in the San Juan Basin area. More than half of the measurements were made at sites where channel depths had been previously measured Between 1964 and 1969. Some channels in the western part of the basin had Been re-measured in 1969 and in 1971. The principal areas Being dissected by arroyos are near highlands along the margins of the Basin and in uplands in the northeastern part of the Basin. The most severe dissection by arroyos and the deepest arroyos--commonly Between 40 and 60 feet deep--are in the southeastern part of the Basin. Dissection By arroyos is least in the central part of the Basin near the Chaco River where most arroyos are less than 10 feet deep. Elsewhere, moderate dissection predominates with most arroyos Between 12 and 40 feet deep. Comparison of measurements made from 1964-71 with those made in 1977-78 shows that more channels in the western San Juan Basin were filling than were downcutting. Downcutting or filling was generally less than 2 feet. About two-fifths of the sites measured showed less than half a foot of downcutting or filling. Maximum downcutting was 4 feet along the Rio San Jose in the southeastern part of the basin. Maximum filling of 7 feet was along the Chaco River at the Chaco Canyon National Monument. Along ii other streams elsewhere in the western part of the basin, channels were filled 3 to 4.5 feet. The few measurements made in the southeastern San Juan Basin indicate that since 1964 downcutting has predominated over filling. Large floods during the summer of 1977 caused some change in channel depths in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin. Some of the channels appeared to have been filled during the years prior to the cutting that occurred from the 1977 floods. At other places, flood flows aggraded (filled) channels. The rate of erosion and arroyo formation in the entire San Juan Basin is

  15. Estimation of a water budget for 1972-2000 for the Grasslands Area, central part of the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brush, Charles F.; Belitz, Kenneth; Phillips, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    Equitable implementation of regulations restricting discharges from agricultural drains into the San Joaquin River requires a greater understanding of the influence of extreme precipitation events on the ground-water flow system. As part of a larger investigation, this study estimated ground-water recharge and ground-water pumpage, two important components of the water budget in the Grasslands drainage area in the central part of the western San Joaquin Valley, California, for the water years 1972 through 2000. These estimates will be used as inputs to a numerical simulation model of the regional ground-water flow system in the continuing investigation. Crop-acreage and surface-water delivery data were compiled for 14 water districts and 6 other areas comprising approximately 97 percent of the 600-square-mile study area. Little ground-water pumpage data exists for the study area. A climate-based approach was employed to estimate annual water-table recharge flux and ground-water pumpage for 11 water-budget areas. Ground-water pumpage was estimated from the residual irrigation demand after crop consumption of surface water. Estimated recharge flux to the water table for the entire study area averaged 0.8 ft/yr, and estimated ground-water pumpage per unit area for the entire study area averaged 0.5 ft/yr. Increased discharges from agricultural drains in the late 1990s may have been due partly to 4 years of high recharge from precipitation over the 6-year period from 1993 to 1998. Knowledge of the ratio of annual crop water demand to annual potential evapotranspiration, expressed as an aggregate crop coefficient, Kd, will facilitate estimation of annual water-budget components in future studies. Annual aggregate crop coefficients, calculated each year for the entire study area, were nearly constant at 0.59 from 1983 to 2000, and reasonably constant at 0.53 prior to 1983. The overall trend suggests continuous reductions in recharge from irrigation over time. This

  16. S Plant Aggregate Area management study report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial investigation (RI) and (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of condition to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the S plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-Practice investigations.

  17. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Calif.; restricted area. (a) Restricted area at Bravo Pier, Naval Air Station—(1) The area. The water of... restricted area except that no transit will be allowed within 100 feet of the ammunition pier (Bravo Pier...

  18. Creep on the faults of the northern San Francisco Bay Area documented by PS- InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funning, G. J.; Burgmann, R.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Fumagalli, A.

    2006-12-01

    Pacific-North America relative motion is accommodated north of San Francisco on a series of sub-parallel strike-slip faults. These structures are believed to pose an active seismic hazard in the northern San Francisco Bay Area. However, compared with the contiguous structures further south, little is known of the behaviour of these faults in the North Bay -- for instance, how much of the deformation may be accommodated aseismically by creep. In order to address this question, we apply the Permanent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique to a 30 ERS-SAR image dataset covering the North Bay area acquired in the interval 1992-2001. In our preliminary analysis, over 70,000 permanent scatterers have been identified, broadly distributed across an area 100 km square. A plate boundary-perpendicular profile of line-of-sight velocities across the region shows that our observations are largely consistent with measurements made with GPS. On a local scale, a step in the line-of-sight velocities of the order of 1 mm/yr measured from detrended cross- fault profiles across the Rodgers Creek fault in the Santa Rosa area suggests that the fault is creeping in that location. If the line-of-sight velocities are projected into the orientation of the fault and pure right-lateral motion is assumed, this corresponds to a surface creep rate of approximately 4 mm/yr. A similar step in velocities can be identified as the fault continues to the northwest, suggesting that the fault continues to creep until its northern termination. This creep rate is similar to that seen for the northern Hawyard fault to the south (3-6 mm/yr), a structure believed to be the continuation of the Rodgers Creek fault. In addition to fault creep, we also see evidence for relatively rapid (6 mm/yr and greater) subsidence to the south and southwest of Santa Rosa. One area of subsidence, around Rohnert Park, correlates very well with Pleistocene floodplain deposits, and may represent mud settling; another, an elongate

  19. Association of earthquakes and faults in the San Francisco Bay area using Bayesian inference

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.; Bakun, W.H.; Perkins, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference provides a method to use seismic intensity data or instrumental locations, together with geologic and seismologic data, to make quantitative estimates of the probabilities that specific past earthquakes are associated with specific faults. Probability density functions are constructed for the location of each earthquake, and these are combined with prior probabilities through Bayes' theorem to estimate the probability that an earthquake is associated with a specific fault. Results using this method are presented here for large, preinstrumental, historical earthquakes and for recent earthquakes with instrumental locations in the San Francisco Bay region. The probabilities for individual earthquakes can be summed to construct a probabilistic frequency-magnitude relationship for a fault segment. Other applications of the technique include the estimation of the probability of background earthquakes, that is, earthquakes not associated with known or considered faults, and the estimation of the fraction of the total seismic moment associated with earthquakes less than the characteristic magnitude. Results for the San Francisco Bay region suggest that potentially damaging earthquakes with magnitudes less than the characteristic magnitudes should be expected. Comparisons of earthquake locations and the surface traces of active faults as determined from geologic data show significant disparities, indicating that a complete understanding of the relationship between earthquakes and faults remains elusive.

  20. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...). All unauthorized vessels entering the restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct... from transiting the area. However, they shall proceed through the area by the most direct route without... the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (d) Restricted area at the...

  1. The most recent large earthquake on the Rodgers Creek fault, San Francisco bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hecker, S.; Pantosti, D.; Schwartz, D.P.; Hamilton, J.C.; Reidy, L.M.; Powers, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) is a principal component of the San Andreas fault system north of San Francisco. No evidence appears in the historical record of a large earthquake on the RCF, implying that the most recent earthquake (MRE) occurred before 1824, when a Franciscan mission was built near the fault at Sonoma, and probably before 1776, when a mission and presidio were built in San Francisco. The first appearance of nonnative pollen in the stratigraphic record at the Triangle G Ranch study site on the south-central reach of the RCF confirms that the MRE occurred before local settlement and the beginning of livestock grazing. Chronological modeling of earthquake age using radiocarbon-dated charcoal from near the top of a faulted alluvial sequence at the site indicates that the MRE occurred no earlier than A.D. 1690 and most likely occurred after A.D. 1715. With these age constraints, we know that the elapsed time since the MRE on the RCF is more than 181 years and less than 315 years and is probably between 229 and 290 years. This elapsed time is similar to published recurrence-interval estimates of 131 to 370 years (preferred value of 230 years) and 136 to 345 years (mean of 205 years), calculated from geologic data and a regional earthquake model, respectively. Importantly, then, the elapsed time may have reached or exceeded the average recurrence time for the fault. The age of the MRE on the RCF is similar to the age of prehistoric surface rupture on the northern and southern sections of the Hayward fault to the south. This suggests possible rupture scenarios that involve simultaneous rupture of the Rodgers Creek and Hayward faults. A buried channel is offset 2.2 (+ 1.2, - 0.8) m along one side of a pressure ridge at the Triangle G Ranch site. This provides a minimum estimate of right-lateral slip during the MRE at this location. Total slip at the site may be similar to, but is probably greater than, the 2 (+ 0.3, - 0.2) m measured previously at the

  2. Local and regional governments and age-friendly communities: a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which cities, county departments of adult and aging services, county transportation authorities, and public transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area have in place age-friendly policies, programs, and infrastructure in the areas of community design, housing, transportation, health care and supportive services, and opportunities for community engagement. The most common age-friendly features include those that target alternative forms of mobility (for example, incentives for mixed-use neighborhoods and changes to improve the accessibility of public transit), while the least common policies and programs are those that aim to help older adults continue driving, such as driver education programs, driver assessment programs, and slow-moving vehicle ordinances. The article concludes with policy and research implications of these findings.

  3. Walking, Bicycling, and Urban Landscapes: Evidence From the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Cervero, Robert; Duncan, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Some claim that cardependent cities contribute to obesity by discouraging walking and bicycling. In this article, we use household activity data from the San Francisco region to study the links between urban environments and nonmotorized travel. We used factor analysis to represent the urban design and land-use diversity dimensions of built environments. Combining factor scores with control variables, like steep terrain, that gauge impediments to walking and bicycling, we estimated discrete-choice models. Builtenvironment factors exerted far weaker, although not inconsequential, influences on walking and bicycling than control variables. Stronger evidence on the importance of urban landscapes in shaping foot and bicycle travel is needed if the urban planning and public health professions are to forge an effective alliance against cardependent sprawl. PMID:12948966

  4. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (5) No vessel or craft of any size shall lie-to or anchor in the restricted area at any time other than a...

  5. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (5) No vessel or craft of any size shall lie-to or anchor in the restricted area at any time other than a...

  6. Hydrologic data for the San Juan and Animas River valleys in the Farmington, Aztec, Bloomfield, and Cedar Hill areas, San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAda, D.P.; Shelton, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    In July 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a three-year study in San Juan County, New Mexico, to determine the concentrations of chemical constituents in the groundwater in the San Juan and Animas River valleys and to determine the direction and rate of groundwater flow and its relation to river stage. The study was conducted in cooperation with the San Juan County Commission and the New Mexico Oil Conservation Division. The data that was collected during the first 1-1/2 yr of the study is completed. The report includes well records for 51 wells and water levels from 23 wells, hydrographs from four observation wells and one river stage site, and available chemical analyses from 50 wells and 14 surface water sites. Water samples from six wells and one surface-water site were analyzed for purgeable organic chemicals; none were detected. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Carbajales-Dale, Patricia; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity influences pathogen ecology by affecting vector abundance and the reservoir host communities. We investigated spatial patterns of disease risk for two human pathogens in the Borrelia genus–B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi–that are transmitted by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. We collected ticks (349 nymphs, 273 adults) at 20 sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence and density of infected nymphs varied widely across sites and habitat type, though nymphal western black-legged ticks were more frequently found, and were more abundant in coast live oak forest and desert/semi-desert scrub (dominated by California sagebrush) habitats. We observed Borrelia infections in ticks at all sites where we able to collect >10 ticks. The recently recognized human pathogen, B. miyamotoi, was observed at a higher prevalence (13/349 nymphs = 3.7%, 95% CI = 2.0–6.3; 5/273 adults = 1.8%, 95% CI = 0.6–4.2) than recent studies from nearby locations (Alameda County, east of the San Francisco Bay), demonstrating that tick-borne disease risk and ecology can vary substantially at small geographic scales, with consequences for public health and disease diagnosis. PMID:26288371

  8. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  9. Site Management and Monitoring Plan (SMMP) for the Los Angeles/Long Beach, Newport and San Diego Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites, CA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This SMMP is intended to provide management and monitoring strategies for disposal in the Los Angeles/Long Beach (LA-2), Newport (LA-3) and San Diego (LA-5) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites in California.

  10. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1993-94, with supplemental data, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, C.L.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Wilson, R.M.; Shineman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior formed an interbureau task group to prepare a plan for investigating water- quality problems on irrigation projects sponsored by the Department of the Interior. The San Juan River area in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Investigators collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at more than 50 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Sample sites included (1) sites located within Department of the Interior irrigation project service areas, or areas that receive drainage from irrigation projects; (2) reference sites for comparison with irrigation project sites; and (3) sites located within the reach of the San Juan River from Navajo Dam to 10 miles downstream from the dam. The types of habitat sampled included the main stem of the San Juan River, backwater areas adjacent to the San Juan River, tributaries to the San Juan River, ponds, seeps, irrigation-delivery canals, irrigation-drainage canals, a stock tank, and shallow ground water. The types of media sampled included water, bottom sediment, soil, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. Semipermeable-membrane devices were used as a surrogate medium to sample both air and water in some instances. Sample measurements included concentrations of major ions, trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon compounds, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. This report presents tables of physical, chemical, and biological data collected for the U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program. Additionally, supplemental physical, chemical, and biological data collected in association with the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project are presented.

  11. Interpretation of Schlumberger DC resistivity data from Gibson Dome-Lockhart Basin study area, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    A Schlumberger dc resistivity survey of the Gibson Dome-Lockhart Basin area, San Juan County, Utah, has revealed the following electrical characteristics of the area: (1) the area between the northern part of Davis Canyon and Gibson Dome is electrically quite uniform and resistive at the depth of the Pennsylvanian evaporite deposits, (2) there is a deep conductive anomaly at Horsehead Rock, and (3) there are several shallow and deep electrical anomalies in the vicinity of the Lockhart fault system. No adverse indicators were found for nuclear waste repository siting south of Indian Creek, but additional soundings should be made to increase data density and to extend the survey area southward. The Lockhart fault system appears to have triggered salt dissolution or flow outside the limits of Lockhart Basin; further geophysical work and drilling will be required to understand the origin of the Lockhart Basin structure and its present state of activity. This problem is important because geologic processes that lead to enlargement of the Lockhart Basin structure or to development of similar structures would threaten the integrity of a repository in the Gibson Dome area.

  12. ASF RADARSAT data reveal rates and mechanisms of contemporary surface deformation in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novali, F.; Funning, G. J.; Burgmann, R.; Ferretti, A.; Giannico, C.

    2006-12-01

    Since 2001, regular RADARSAT image acquisitions have been made over the San Francisco Bay Area and archived at the Alaska SAR Facility. The high frequency of these acquisitions (orbital repeat interval of 24 days), the large number of scenes acquired, and the wide distribution of man-made structures across the target region that coherently scatter incident radar make this an excellent dataset to demonstrate the capabilities of Permanent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) analysis. Our target scene (standard beam mode 3, ascending) has an archive of 46 images, acquired in 2001-2006. We find over 1 million permanent scatterers (PS) in the target area, sufficient to identify a wide range of deformation behaviours, from the 100 km scale (strain accumulation on the major faults of the San Andreas Fault Zone) down to the 10 m scale (subsidence of individual buildings). On Treasure Island, for example, we find a good density of PS, apparently dividing the island into two areas, an 'unstable' area in the NW corner of the island, and a 'stable' area comprising the rest of the island. By comparing the data with another PS-InSAR dataset, constructed from 49 descending track images acquired by the ERS satellites, it is possible to decompose the measured deformation into its horizontal and vertical components. We find that the unstable portion of the island is, on average, subsiding at a rate of 8 mm/yr and moving additionally westwards at 2 mm/yr with respect to the stable area, most likely due to mud settling given that the island is composed of reclaimed land. Using similar analysis, we can demonstrate that the slow moving landslides in the Berkeley Hills are moving westwards at rates between 8 and 25 mm/yr, in keeping with published estimates. We will also present the results of a number of other case studies from around the Bay Area (e.g. SFO airport, the Santa Clara Valley, the Hayward fault) showing what can be inferred about the rates and

  13. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  14. Mineral resource potential map of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Oliver, Howard W.; Wagini, Alexander; Campbell, Harry W.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects indicate that the Sugaloaf Roadless Area contains subeconomic graphite and magnesian marble resources. Parts of the area have a low potential for the occurrence of additional low-grade graphite resources, but there is no potential for additional magnesian marble resources within the roadless area. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rocks are found in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area. The roadless area has no identified energy mineral resources, but parts of the area have a low to moderate potential for low-grade uranium resources. There are no identified metallic mineral resources within the area, and there is no evidence of a potential for the occurrence of such resources. No previously unknown mineral occurrence was located during this study.

  15. Civilizing the Conversation? Using Surveys to Inform Water Management and Science in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, E.; Phillips Chappelle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Improving ecosystem outcomes in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a complex, high-stakes water resource management challenge. The Delta is a major hub for water supply conveyance and a valued ecological resource. Yet long-term declines in native fish populations have resulted in severe legal constraints on water exports and fueled growing public debates about the roles and responsibilities of flow modification and other sources of ecosystem stress. Meanwhile, scientific uncertainty, and the inability of the scientific community to effectively communicate what *is* known, has frustrated policymakers and encouraged 'combat science' - the commissioning and use of competing scientific opinions in the courtroom. This paper summarizes results from a study designed to inform the policy process through the use of confidential surveys of scientific researchers (those publishing in peer-reviewed journals, n=122) and engaged stakeholders and policymakers (n=240). The surveys, conducted in mid-2012, sought respondents' views on the sources of ecosystem stress and priority ecosystem management actions. The scientist survey is an example of the growing use of expert elicitation to address gaps in the scientific literature, particularly where there is uncertainty about priorities for decisionmaking (e.g., Cvitanovic et al. 2013, J. of Env. Mgmt; McDaniels et al. 2012, Risk Analysis). The stakeholder survey is a useful complement, enabling the identification of areas of consensus and divergence among stakeholder groups and between these groups and scientific experts. The results suggest such surveys are a promising tool for addressing complex water management problems. We found surprisingly high agreement among scientists on the relative roles of stressors and the most promising management actions; they emphasized restoring more natural processes through habitat and flow actions within the watershed, consistent with 'reconciliation ecology' approaches (Rosenzweig 2003

  16. San Diego Declaration on Climate Change and Fire Management: Ramifications for fuels management

    Treesearch

    Brian P. Oswald

    2007-01-01

    Climate plays a central role in shaping fire regimes over long time scales and in generating short-term weather that drives fire events. Recent research suggests that the increasing numbers of large and severe wildfires, lengthened wildfire seasons, and increased area burned are, in part, related to shifts in climate. The historical fire regimes in many ecosystems have...

  17. San Bernardino 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS area, California: data report (abbreviated)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.B.

    1981-08-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of ground wate and stream/surface sediment reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) San Bernardino 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle. Surface sediment samples were collected at 1539 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers (five square miles). Surface water samples were collected at 39 of these sites. Ground water samples were collected at 392 sites. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Key data from stream water sites (also on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water quality measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity) and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V). Uranium concentrations above detection limits in the sediment ranged from 1.0 to 137 ppM, with a mean of 4.2 ppM. Uranium concentrations above detection limits in the ground water samples ranged from 0.03 to 93.9 ppB, with a mean of 7.6 ppB.

  18. Distribution of leached radioactive material in the Legin Group Area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Allen S.

    1950-01-01

    Radioactivity anomalies, which are small in magnitude, and probably are not caused by extensions of known uranium-vanadium ore bodies, were detected during the gamma-ray logging of diamond-drill holes in the Legin group of claims, southwest San Miguel County, Colo. The positions of these anomalies are at the top surfaces of mudstone strata within, and at the base of, the ore-bearing sandstone of the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation. The distribution of these anomalies suggests that ground water has leached radioactive material from the ore bodies and has carried it down dip and laterally along the top surfaces of underlying impermeable mudstone strata for distance as great as 300 feet. The anomalies are probably caused by radon and its daughter elements. Preliminary tests indicate that radon in quantities up to 10-7 curies per liter may be present in ground water flowing along sandstone-mudstone contacts under carnotite ore bodies. In comparison, the radium content of the same water is less than 10-10 curies per liter. Further substantiation of the relationship between ore bodies, the movement of water, and the radon-caused anomalies may greatly increase the scope of gamma-ray logs of drill holes as an aid to prospecting.

  19. Bedrock aquifers in the northern San Rafael Swell area, Utah, with special emphasis on the Navajo Sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, J.W.; Patterson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of bedrock aquifers in the northern San Rafael Swell area, Utah (fig. 1), with special emphasis on the Navajo Sandstone of Triassic(?) and Jurassic age. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. Fieldwork was done mainly during March 1979-July 1980, with supplemental testing and observations during August-December 1980.The principal objectives of this study were to determine: (1) Well yields of the bedrock formations, (2) the capability of formations to yield, over the long term, water chemically suitable for presently (1980) known uses, and (3) effects of withdrawals from wells on the surface-water supply in the Colorado River Basin.

  20. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary; ,

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  1. Environmental and indoor study of Radon concentration in San Joaquin area, Querétaro, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsarenko, A.; Hernandez Silva, G.; Hinojo Alonso, N. A.; Yutsis, V.; Grimalsky, V.; Koshevaya, S.; Martínez Reyes, J.

    2012-04-01

    Highly contaminated zone with a maximum over 57,000 Bq/m3 was discovered in low-populated area "Agua de Venados" during the 2009-2011 soil Radon survey in San Joaquin, Querétaro state, Mexico. Indoor Radon monitoring accomplished in 2 different époques in a nearby 4 dwellings have shown increased Radon contamination in 1 of the 4 building (up to 300 Bq/m3) during a raining season and a highly elevated indoor level (over 400 Bq/m3) already in 3 buildings during a dry season. Averaged diurnal indoor Radon variations are in a correlation with atmosphere pressure and air humidity and are independent on air temperature. The daily interval 5-10 a.m. was estimated as a maximum risky period in terms of Radon contamination hazard for inhabitants in mentioned zone.

  2. Spatial patterns of fishing effort off San Diego: implications for zonal management and ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Parnell, P Ed; Dayton, Paul K; Fisher, Rachelle A; Loarie, Cina C; Darrow, Ryan D

    2010-12-01

    The essence of ecosystem-based management is managing human practices to conserve the ecosystem. Ecologists focus on understanding the ecosystem, but there are fundamental information gaps including patterns of human exploitation. In particular, the spatial distribution of fishing effort must be known at the scales needed for ecologically relevant management. Fishing is a primary impact on coastal ecosystems, yet catch distribution at scales relevant to habitats and processes are not well known for many fisheries. Here we utilized photographic time series, logbook records, and angler surveys to estimate the intensity and spatial pattern of commercial and recreational fishing. Effort was clearly aggregated for most types of fishing, the motivating factors for effort distribution varied among areas, and effort was coupled or uncoupled to habitat depending on the area and type of fishing. We estimated that approximately 60% and approximately 74% of private recreational and recreational charter vessel fishing effort, respectively, were concentrated into two small areas that also included approximately 78% of commercial sea urchin effort. Exploitation and effort were considerably greater in one kelp forest, which has important implications for patterns of kelp persistence, productivity, and ecosystem function. Areas subject to the greatest recreational fishing pressure appeared to have lower diversity. Our results indicate that fine-scale patterns of fishing effort and exploitation have profound consequences for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. 'Ecosystem-based management of nearshore ecosystems depends on an understanding of the fine-scale patterns of exploitation.

  3. Surface water environment in the area of the San Juan Basin regional uranium study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busby, Mark William

    1979-01-01

    Streamflows in the lowland areas of the San Juan Basin are highly variable, responding to short-duration, high-intensity thunderstorms occurring in the late spring and summer. The thunderstorms can cause floods of large magnitude, but of localized extent. Most streams of the lowlands are ephemeral or intermittent. Streams of the high mountain areas are much less variable. Most of their flow is from snowmelt, which results in low-intensity flood peaks with long, gradual recessions. Most large mountain streams are perennial. Small ephemeral lakes and ponds in the low-lying areas have little effect on flood flows. Larger reservoirs in the basin have varying effects on flows of rivers, ranging from complete flow control to minor regulation. The streams of the low-lying areas are high in dissolved solids content. Sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate are the predominant ions. The quality of the water varies during a single-flow event and season-ally. Streams in the mountains are low in dissolved solids content. Radiochemical constituents are fairly low in most of the natural streamflow, but concentrations are higher than in streams outside of the basin.

  4. Predicted effects of a proposed water-resources management plan in the lower San Luis Rey River Valley, California, using digital ground-water flow models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skrivan, James A.

    1976-01-01

    A proposed plan for water-resource management in the lower San Luis Rey River valley, Calif. has been evaluated using digital models of ground-water flow. Two projections of water-level changes and salt balance in 1977 were made. The first projection used 1972 climatic and pumping conditions. The second projection used these same conditions plus a plan of recharging and pumping various areas of the aquifer. The predicted salt balance in 1977 under the proposed plan improved for the Pala, Bonsall, and Mission basins when compared to the predicted 1977 salt balance using 1972 pumpage alone. The plan did not affect the predicted salt balance for the Pauma basin. Under the plan, water levels decreased in the Pala basin and water levels increased in the Bonsall and Mission basins. In addition, an area of potential water logging exists in the Mission basin. The plan did not affect water levels for the Pauma basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Impacts of southern pine beetles in special management areas

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Clarke

    1995-01-01

    Southern pine beetles have had great impacts on wilderness and other special management areas. Infestations have spread and affected adjacent [and, and they have disrupted the intended uses and goals desired for these areas. Coping with SPB in special management areas requires advance planning and management, then the use of new and integrated techniques for SPB risk...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1152 - San Pedro Bay, California-Regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... American Datum 1983 (NAD 83)). (b) Deviations. The Captain of the Port of Los Angeles-Long Beach or his or... Navigation Area (RNA) consists of the water area enclosed by the Los Angeles-Long Beach breakwater and a line... 118°14.90′ W 33°42.50′ N 118°15.10′ W (ii) The Long Beach Pilot Area: Latitude Longitude 33°43.40′ N...

  11. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego... Shark Fest Swim, consisting of 600 swimmers swimming a predetermined course. The sponsor will provide 26...; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a...

  12. Carnotite resources in the Charles T. area and vicinity, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Alfred Lerner

    1950-01-01

    Between November 1947 and September 1949, the United States Geological Survey, at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission, conducted an exploratory drilling program in the Charles T. area and vicinity. The purpose of the exploration was to discover new carnotite deposits to support milling operations on the Colorado Plateau, and to appraise the uranium and vanadium resources of the area explored.

  13. Carnotite resources of the upper group area, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles Francis

    1951-01-01

    No additional diamond drilling by the Geological Survey is planned in the Upper group area.  Several specific localities, principally in the central part of the area, are recommended for further exploration by jackhammer and wagon drilling by lessees and operators.

  14. Method of estimating natural recharge to the Edwards Aquifer in the San Antonio area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puente, Celso

    1978-01-01

    The principal errors in the estimates of annual recharge are related to errors in estimating runoff in ungaged areas, which represent about 30 percent of the infiltration area. The estimated long-term average annual recharge in each basin, however, is probably representative of the actual recharge because the averaging procedure tends to cancel out the major errors.

  15. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Fleck, Robert J.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Allen, James R.; Deino, Alan L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10–8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8–2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ± 0.06 and 9.13 ± 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the Rodgers Creek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek–Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and

  16. Particulate Matter 2.5 and Black Carbon concentrations in underground San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A.; Williams, N.; Quartey, R.; Quintana, M.; Bell, B.; Biswas, N.; Hunter, S.; Marks-Block, T.; Yu, X.

    2013-12-01

    A previous Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 study within Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train stations found that concentrations of PM 2.5 at San Francisco's (SF) Embarcadero station were significantly high relative to within the rail system. To follow up on that study, PM 2.5 data was collected within other underground BART stations and the streets surrounding them using the DustTrak Aerosol monitor that measures concentrations every second. In addition, black carbon (BC) data was collected using a microAeth aerosol monitor that also measures concentrations every minute. During each day that measurements were made along three different train routes originating from West Oakland BART station: 1) toward the San Francisco Civic Center station: en route to the Lake Merritt station in Oakland; and toward the Downtown Berkeley station. All of these stations are located underground, and at each one the DustTrak instrument was taken from the train to the ticket level, and on each route data was collected outside of the stations. Black carbon (BC) concentrations were recorded only on the San Francisco route. The highest PM 2.5 concentrations were recorded at SF underground stations, particularly at Embarcadero where concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m3 at train level. These values were much greater than those obtained outside the station, which ranged between 10-20 μg/m3. Other stations along the route to Civic Center had values ranging from 30-64 μg/m3, higher than stations along the route to the Downtown Berkeley station (17-42 μg/m3 ) and the Lake Merritt station (10-38 μg/m3). PM concentrations outside of stations were lower, ranging from 14-33 μg/m3 and 8-27 μg/m3 outside 12th Street Oakland City Center and Lake Merritt stations respectively. Additionally, PM concentration was directly related to depth at all stations. For example, one day at Embarcadero the highest concentrations from train to middle to top level were 119, 84, and 59 μg/m3 respectively. We believe the

  17. Modeling of Dust Levels Associated with Potential Utility-Scale Solar Development in the San Luis Valley-Taos Plateau Study Area

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. -S.; Kotamarthi, R.; Hartmann, H. M.; Patton, T.; Finster, M.

    2016-07-01

    The San Luis Valley (SLV)–Taos Plateau study area in south-central Colorado and north-central New Mexico is a large alpine valley surrounded by mountains with an area of approximately 6,263,000 acres (25,345 km2) (Figure ES.1-1). This area receives ample sunshine throughout the year, making it an ideal location for solar energy generation, and there are currently five photovoltaic facilities operating on private lands in the SLV, ranging in capacity from 1 to 30 megawatt (MW). In 2012 the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) launched its Solar Energy Program, which included the identification of four solar energy zones (SEZs) in the SLV totaling 16,308 acres (66 km2), as well as over 50,000 (202 km2) acres of other BLM-administered lands potentially available for application for solar development. The SEZ areas, named Antonito Southeast, De Tilla Gulch, Fourmile East, and Los Mogotes East, were defined by the BLM as areas well-suited for utility-scale (i.e., larger than 20 MW) production of solar energy where solar energy development would be prioritized (BLM 2012). Nonetheless, it was recognized that solar development in the SEZs would result in some unavoidable adverse impacts, and so the BLM initiated a solar regional mitigation strategy (SRMS) study for three of the SEZs (BLM and Argonne 2016). The SRMS is designed to identify residual impacts of solar development in the SEZs (that is, those that cannot be avoided or minimized onsite), identify those residual impacts that warrant compensatory mitigation when considering the regional status and trends of the resources, identify appropriate regional compensatory mitigation locations and actions to address those residual impacts, and recommend appropriate fees to implement those compensatory mitigation measures.

  18. Effects of switching to lower sulfur marine fuel oil on air quality in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Fairley, David; Kleeman, Michael J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-09-17

    Ocean-going vessels burning high-sulfur heavy fuel oil are an important source of air pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. Beginning in July 2009, an emission control area was put into effect at ports and along the California coastline, requiring use of lower sulfur fuels in place of heavy fuel oil in main engines of ships. To assess impacts of the fuel changes on air quality at the Port of Oakland and in the surrounding San Francisco Bay area, we analyzed speciated fine particle concentration data from four urban sites and two more remote sites. Measured changes in concentrations of vanadium, a specific marker for heavy fuel oil combustion, are related to overall changes in aerosol emissions from ships. We found a substantial reduction in vanadium concentrations after the fuel change and a 28-72% decrease in SO2 concentrations, with the SO2 decrease varying depending on proximity to shipping lanes. We estimate that the changes in ship fuel reduced ambient PM2.5 mass concentrations at urban sites in the Bay area by about 3.1 ± 0.6% or 0.28 ± 0.05 μg/m(3). The largest contributing factor to lower PM mass concentrations was reductions in particulate sulfate. Absolute sulfate reductions were fairly consistent across sites, whereas trace metal reductions were largest at a monitoring site in West Oakland near the port.

  19. Land rent and housing policy: a case study of the San Francisco Bay area rental housing market.

    PubMed

    Barton, Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    In the San Francisco Bay Area, where residential rent is among the highest in the United States, an analysis of data from several sources demonstrates that high rent cannot be accounted for by higher quality, higher operating costs, or higher construction costs. At least one-third of the total rent paid is land rent. Despite increases in real incomes, very-low-income tenants in the Bay Area today have less income remaining after payment of rent than tenants did in 1960. High land rent is a long-term feature of the Bay Area rental market that results mostly from its geography, the density of its urban centers, and a strong economy, rather than from regulatory barriers to new multifamily construction. Deregulation is not a sufficient response to the effects of land rent on low-income tenants. Government should subsidize non-profit housing organizations, particularly land trusts that remove residential land from the market. Taxes on land rent would be a particularly appropriate funding source.

  20. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Elastic stress interaction between faulting and volcanism in the Olacapato-San Antonio de Los Cobres area (Puna plateau, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonali, F. L.; Corazzato, C.; Tibaldi, A.

    2012-06-01

    We describe the relationships between Plio-Quaternary tectonics, palaeoseismicity and volcanism along the NW-trending Calama-Olacapato-El Toro (COT) lineament that crosses the Andean chain and the Puna Plateau and continues within the eastern Cordillera at about 24° S. We studied in detail the area from the Chile-Argentina border to a few km east of the San Antonio del Los Cobres village. Satellite and field data revealed the presence of seven Quaternary NW-striking normal left-lateral fault segments in the southeastern part of the studied area and of a Plio-Quaternary N-S-striking graben structure in the northwestern part. The NW-striking Chorrillos fault (CF) segment shows the youngest motions, of late Pleistocene age, being marked by several fault scarps, sag ponds and offset Quaternary deposits and landforms. Offset lavas of 0.78 ± 0.1 Ma to 0.2 ± 0.08 Ma indicate fault kinematics characterised by a pitch angle of 20° to 27° SE, a total net displacement of 31 to 63.8 m, and a slip-rate of 0.16 to 0.08 mm/yr. This fault segment is 32 km long and terminates to the northwest near a set of ESE-dipping thrust faults affecting Tertiary strata, while to the southeast it terminates 10 km further from San Antonio. In the westernmost part of the examined area, in Chile at altitudes > 4000 m, recent N-S-striking normal fault scarps depict the 5-km-wide and 10-km-long graben structure. Locally, fault pitches indicate left-lateral normal kinematics. These faults affect deposits up to ignimbrites of Plio-Quaternary age. Scarp heights are from a few metres to 24 m. Despite that this area is located along the trace of the COT strike-slip fault system, which is reported as a continuous structure from Chile to Argentina in the literature, no evidence of NW-striking Plio-Quaternary strike-slip structures is present here. A series of numerical models were also developed in an elastic half-space with uniform isotropic elastic properties using the Coulomb 3.1 code. We studied

  2. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  3. Geologic Investigations Spurred by Analog Testing at the 7504 Cone-Sp Mountain Area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Needham, D. H.; Evans, C. A.; Skinner, J. A.; Feng, W.

    2015-12-01

    The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, has been used as an analog mission development site for NASA since 1998. This area consists of basaltic cinder cones, lava flows and maar craters that have been active since mid-Miocene, with the youngest events occurring within the last 10,000 years. The area has been used because its geologic and topographic resemblance to lunar and Martian terrains provides an ideal venue for testing hardware and science operations practices that might be employed on planetary surfaces, as well as training astronauts in field geology. Analog operations have often led to insights that spurred new scientific investigations. Most recently, an investigation of the 7504 cone was initiated due to perceptions that Apollo-style traverse plans executed during the Desert RATS 2010 mission had characterized the area incorrectly, leading to concerns that the Apollo traverse planning process was scientifically flawed. This investigation revealed a complex history of fissure eruptions of lava and cinders, cinder cone development, a cone-fill-and-spill episode, extensive rheomorphic lava flow initiation and emplacement, and cone sector collapse that led to a final lava flow. This history was not discernible on pre-RATS mission photogeology, although independent analysis of RATS 2010 data and samples develped a "75% complete solution" that validated the pre-RATS mission planning and Apollo traverse planning and execution. The study also pointed out that the development of scientific knowledge with time in a given field area is not linear, but may follow a functional form that rises steeply in the early period of an investigation but flattens out in the later period, asymptotically approaching a theoretical "complete knowledge" point that probably cannot be achieved. This implies that future human missions must be prepared to shift geographic areas of investigation regularly if significant science returns are to be forthcoming.

  4. Geologic Investigations Spurred by Analog Testing at the 7504 Cone-SP Mountain Area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2015-01-01

    The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, AZ, has been used as an analog mission development site for NASA since 1998. This area consists of basaltic cinder cones, lava flows and maar craters that have been active since mid-Miocene, with the youngest events occurring within the last 10,000 years. The area has been used because its geologic and topographic resemblance to lunar and Martian terrains provides an ideal venue for testing hardware and science operations practices that might be employed on planetary surfaces, as well as training astronauts in field geology. Analog operations have often led to insights that spurred new scientific investigations. Most recently, an investigation of the 7504 cone was initiated due to perceptions that Apollo-style traverse plans executed during the Desert RATS 2010 mission had characterized the area incorrectly, leading to concerns that the Apollo traverse planning process was scientifically flawed. This investigation revealed a complex history of fissure eruptions of lava and cinders, cinder cone development, a cone-fill-and-spill episode, extensive rheomorphic lava flow initiation and emplacement, and cone sector collapse that led to a final lava flow. This history was not discernible on pre-RATS mission photogeology, although independent analysis of RATS 2010 data and samples develped a "75% complete solution" that validated the pre-RATS mission planning and Apollo traverse planning and execution. The study also pointed out that the development of scientific knowledge with time in a given field area is not linear, but may follow a functional form that rises steeply in the early period of an investigation but flattens out in the later period, asymptotically approaching a theoretical "complete knowledge" point that probably cannot be achieved. This implies that future human missions must be prepared to shift geographic areas of investigation regularly if significant science returns are to be forthcoming.

  5. State-owned wildlife management areas in New England

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Glass; Ronald J. Glass

    1989-01-01

    State-owned wildlife management areas play an important role in enhancing wildlife populations and providing opportunities for wildlife-related recreational activities. In the six New England States there are 271 wildlife management areas with a total area exceeding 268,000 acres. A variety of wildlife species benefit from habitat improvement activities on these areas...

  6. The Impacts of California's San Francisco Bay Area Gap on Precipitation Observed in the Sierra Nevada during Hmt and Calwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Neiman, P. J.; Creamean, J.; Coleman, T.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov) conducts research on the meteorological and microphysical processes contributing to orographically enhanced precipitation. Some of HMT's precipitation research has been focused on a shallow rainfall process driven by collision-coalescence that often is undetected by the National Weather Service's operational scanning radar network, especially in the Western U.S., but that can produce rain rates that are capable of creating floods. Originally it was believed that this shallow rainfall process would occur more prevalently over the coastal mountain ranges than over the Sierra Nevada, since the higher mountains of the Sierra would force deeper atmospheric ascent and produce deeper precipitating cloud systems that extend well above the melting level. This notion was disproved when it was recently discovered that a site in the northern Sierra had nearly as large of a contribution to seasonal rainfall from this shallow rainfall process, on average, as did a habitually wet site in the coast range of Sonoma County north of San Francisco. This work examines this apparent paradox using observations collected during HMT and CalWater field campaigns. In particular, a case study from CalWater is used to highlight the interaction between a landfalling atmospheric river (AR) and the Sierra Barrier Jet (SBJ). The gap in coastal terrain associated with the San Francisco Bay area is shown to allow unprocessed, moisture-enhanced flow in the AR to reach the northern Sierra site, where the SBJ provides a lifting mechanism to create enhanced orographic precipitation as compared to a site in the southern Sierra, where AR-associated dynamics are weaker and AR flow is modified by upstream coastal terrain.

  7. Predicting the evolution of the extensional step-over in the San Pablo bay area with work optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeck, J.; Cooke, M. L.; Madden, E. H.

    2015-12-01

    Field data and numerical modeling indicate that the releasing stepover in the San Pablo Bay area, between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek fault, presently seems to lack a strike-slip transfer fault. Analysis of gravity data suggests that only one high-angle normal fault may exist within the step, near the northern tip of the Hayward fault. To investigate a possible evolution of this fault system, we simulate this stepover with the numerical modeling tool Growth by Optimization of Work (GROW). GROW predicts the evolution of a fracture network by analyzing the gain in efficiency, or change in external work, produced by fracture propagation and interaction. We load the San Pablo Bay stepover models with dextral velocity and normal compression that reflects a range of seismogenic depths. The GROW analysis with overlapping starting fault segments separated by 5 km predicts that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults propagate toward one another following a gently curved path. The curved path of the fault segment representing the Hayward fault disagrees with the observed planar fault trace, which suggests that this fault may precede the southern propagation of the Rogers Creek fault. We explore various starting configurations that represent the potential geometry at the onset of interaction between the faults, such as different lengths of the two branches of the southern Rogers Creek fault. Throughout the development of this stepover, we analyze the evolution of external work, and change in external work (ΔWext) due to fault growth, interaction and linkage. Additionally, we use the distribution ΔWext at each increment of fault growth to produce probability density functions (PDFs). These PDFs describe fault propagation path forecasts that are defined by 90% confidence envelopes. The propagation forecasts facilitate analysis of the impact of anisotropy and heterogeneity on propagation path.

  8. Riding the storm--landslide danger in the San Francisco Bay Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Movie Synopsis: --A catastrophic 1982 rainstorm triggered 18,000 landslides in the Bay Area, claiming 25 lives and causing $66 million in property damage. --The combination of steep slopes, weak rocks, and intense winter storms make Bay Area uplands an ideal setting for landslides. --Landslides include both swift, potentially deadly debris flows and slower, but destructive deepseated slides. --Learn what USGS scientists have discovered about landslide dynamics and which slopes are most susceptible to sliding. --Hear the devastating stories of Bay Area residents affected by landslides and learn to recognize the danger signs.

  9. 78 FR 1760 - Determination of Attainment for the San Francisco Bay Area Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the 2006 Fine Particle Standard; California; Determination Regarding Applicability of Clean Air Act... 2006 24-hour fine particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination... nonattainment area\\1\\ has attained the 2006 24-hour NAAQS \\2\\ for fine particles (generally referring to...

  10. Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) and Ill-Health Attributable to Residential Wood Combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, Z.; Fairley, D.; Smith, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Residential wood combustion is recognized as a major source of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially during the winter heating season. Both indoor and outdoor exposure to air pollution from residential wood combustion negatively impact human health, causing premature deaths and ill-health. Previous research has described the regional impact of wood smoke on air quality. Here, we estimate by county the proportion of ambient (outdoor) PM2.5 air pollution attributable to residential wood combustion in the San Francisco Bay Area. We also explore the implications of residential wood burning emissions for human health in the San Francisco Bay Area, reporting the burden of disease associated with this emission source by county. We also describe differences between counties in wood burning behavior, air pollution levels, and human health effects. The results of this research have relevance for air quality regulation and source abatement prioritization in the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond.

  11. Foreign Language Folio. A Guide to Cultural Resources and Field Trip Opportunities in the San Francisco Bay Area for Teachers and Students of Foreign Languages, 1983-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Tony, Ed.; O'Connor, Roger, Ed.

    A listing of San Francisco area cultural resources and opportunities of use to foreign language teachers is presented. Included are the following: museums and galleries, schools, art sources, churches, clubs, cultural centers and organizations, publications and publishing companies, restaurants, food stores and markets, travel and tourism,…

  12. Elastic stress interaction between faulting and volcanism in the Olacapato-San Antonio de Los Cobres area (NW Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonali, F. L.; Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Lanza, F.; Cavallo, A.; Nardin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the relationships between Plio-Quaternary tectonics, palaeoseismicity and volcanism along the NW-trending Calama-Olacapato-El Toro (COT) lineament that crosses the Andean chain and the Puna Plateau and continues within the eastern Cordillera at about 24° S. Field and satellite data have been collected from the Chile-Argentina border to a few km east of the San Antonio del Los Cobres village. These data revealed the presence of seven Quaternary NW-striking normal left-lateral fault segments in the southeastern part of the studied area and of a Plio-Quaternary N-S-striking graben structure in the northwestern part. The NW-striking Chorrillos fault (CF) segment shows the youngest motions, of late Pleistocene age, being marked by several fault scarps, sag-ponds and offset Quaternary deposits and landforms. Offset lavas of 0.78±0.1 Ma to 0.2±0.08 Ma indicate fault kinematics characterized by a pitch angle of 20° to 27° SE, a total net displacement that ranges from 31 to 63.8 m, and a slip-rate of 0.16 to 0.08 mm/yr. This fault segment is 32 km long and terminates to the northwest near a set of ESE-dipping thrust faults affecting Tertiary strata, while to the southeast it terminates 10 km further from San Antonio. In the westernmost part of the examined area, in Chile at altitudes of 4000 m, recent N-S-striking normal fault scarps depict the 5-km-wide and 10-km-long graben structure. Locally, fault pitches indicate left-lateral normal kinematics. These faults affect deposits up to ignimbrites of Plio-Quaternary age. Scarp heights are from a few metres to 24 m. Despite this area is located along the trace of the COT strike-slip fault system, which is reported as a continuous structure from Chile to Argentina in the literature, no evidence of NW-striking Plio-Quaternary strike-slip structures is present here. A series of numerical models were developed in an elastic half-space with uniform isotropic elastic properties using the

  13. Preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area northeast of Victorville, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Black Mountain area is in the Mojave Desert about 20 km northeast of Victorville, California. The geology of this area is of interest primarily for its excellent exposures of the early Mesozoic Fairview Valley Formation, a sequence of weakly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks including a thick, commercially important unit of limestone conglomerate that has been mined for cement at Black Mountain Quarry for several decades. Recent geochronologic work has shown that the Fairview Valley Formation is probably of Early Jurassic age. This preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area depicts the stratigraphic and structural relations of the Fairview Valley Formation and the associated rocks, most notably the overlying Sidewinder Volcanics of Early(?), Middle, and Late(?) Jurassic age. The map is based on new field studies by the author designed to clarify details of the stratigraphy and structure unresolved by previous investigations. The map is considered preliminary because the ages of some geologic units critical for a satisfactory understanding of the stratigraphic and structural framework remain unknown. The map area also includes a segment of the Helendale Fault, one of several faults of known or inferred late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement that make up the Eastern California Shear Zone. The fault is marked by aligned northeast-facing scarps in Pleistocene or older alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock units. Relations in the map area suggest that right-lateral displacement on the Helendale Fault probably does not exceed 2 km, a conclusion compatible with previous estimates of displacement on this fault based on relations both within and outside the Black Mountain area.

  14. Natural and management influences on freshwater inflows and salinity in the San Francisco Estuary at monthly to interannual scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Noah

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the processes controlling the physics, chemistry, and biology of the San Francisco Estuary and their relation to climate variability is complicated by the combined influence on freshwater inflows of natural variability and upstream management. To distinguish these influences, alterations of estuarine inflow due to major reservoirs and freshwater pumping in the watershed were inferred from available data. Effects on salinity were estimated by using reconstructed estuarine inflows corresponding to differing levels of impairment to drive a numerical salinity model. Both natural and management inflow and salinity signals show strong interannual variability. Management effects raise salinities during the wet season, with maximum influence in spring. While year-to-year variations in all signals are very large, natural interannual variability can greatly exceed the range of management effects on salinity in the estuary.

  15. Direct, immunological and molecular techniques for a fasciolosis survey in a rural area of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Silvana; Cabrera, Marta Graciela; Cucher, Marcela Alejandra; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Malandrini, Jorge Bruno; Kamenetzky, Laura; Alazraqui, Marcio; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Pantano, María Laura; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor

    2013-10-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonosis caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, prevalent in cattle, that is actually emerging as a cause of disease in humans. The goal of this work was to describe the characteristics of fasciolosis in arroyo El Juncal region, La Toma, San Luis province, Argentina. In order to get this objective, a transversal, quantitative study was carried out by a fieldwork that allowed the collection of data, human, animal, and environmental samples. The materials were processed by direct, immunological and/or molecular diagnostic techniques. According to the geographical characteristics and in presence of all the definitive and intermediate hosts, reservoirs, and sources of infection, it was possible to describe the persistence of fasciolosis in the area. The prevalence was 11.90 % in humans (by serology), 5.26 % in cattle (by coprological analysis) and 61.76 % in snails (by PCR). The situation that was found for this area indicates that any measure of intervention for the control of this zoonosis should be adopted by multidisciplinary teams.

  16. Measuring the effectiveness of the episodic control program Spare the Air in the San Francisco Bay Area

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.G.; Hinman, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Episodic control programs that ask the public to voluntarily reduce activities that pollute on days when ozone excesses are predicted are now operating in many parts of the country. The activities include driving, using consumer products that contain reactive organic compounds and lawn and garden equipment with small gasoline engines like lawn mowers and leaf blowers. The effectiveness of these programs as public education tools, their impact in changing behavior and their potential as control tools needs to be assessed. In the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area the Spare the Air program has been operating for five years. The program has a strong employer component as well as a program directed at the general public. During the 1996 ozone season, the Bay Area AQMD, in cooperation with the business community, used several methods to assess awareness and behavior change on Spare the Air days. This included telephone public opinion surveys, a pilot program that offered free transit for employees at 8 companies with measurement feedback from the companies, a telecommuting web page that measured participation, a special carpool matching program and a broad based Capture the Credit initiative by business. This paper describes these initiatives, their results and the next steps anticipated for the 1997 program.

  17. Serum Biomarkers of Polyfluoroalkyl Compound Exposure in Young Girls in Greater Cincinnati and the San Francisco Bay Area, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pinney, Susan M.; Biro, Frank M.; Windham, Gayle; Herrick, Robert L.; Yaghjyan, Lusine; Calafat, Antonia M.; Succop, Paul; Sucharew, Heidi; Ball, Kathleen M.; Kato, Kayoko; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Bornschein, Robert

    2013-01-01

    PFC serum concentrations were measured in 6–8 year-old girls in Greater Cincinnati (GC) (N=353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) (N=351). PFOA median concentration was lower in the SFBA than GC (5.8 vs. 7.3 ng/mL). In GC, 48/51 girls living in one area had PFOA concentrations above the NHANES 95th percentile for children 12–19 years (8.4 ng/mL), median 22.0 ng/mL. The duration of being breast fed was associated with higher serum PFOA at both sites and with higher PFOS, PFHxS and Me-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations in GC. Correlations of the PFC analytes with each other suggest that a source upriver from GC may have contributed to exposures through drinking water, and water treatment with granular activated carbon filtration resulted in less exposure for SWO girls compared to those in NKY. PFOA has been characterized as a drinking water contaminant, and water treatment systems effective in removing PFCs will reduce body burdens. PMID:24095703

  18. Nevada Test 1999 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 radioactive waste management sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yvonne Townsend

    2000-05-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels, whereas radon concentrations are not above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the alluvial aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorology data indicate that 1999 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 3.9 inches at the Area 3 RWMS (61 percent of average) and 3.8 inches at the Area 5 RWMS (75 percent of average). Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 1999 rainfall infiltrated less than one foot before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium data indicate very slow migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were insignificant. All 1999 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing as expected at isolating buried waste.

  19. Geology and water quality at selected locations in the San Antonio area, Texas, Progress Report, 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1970-01-01

    Mapping of the surface geology will continue in areas where waste waters may be recharging the aquifer. Water-quality data will be collected at additional sites, and some sites will be resampled where pollution may be occurring or where more background data are needed.

  20. Equations for predicting diameter, height, crown width, and leaf area of San Joaquin Valley street trees

    Treesearch

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Although the modeling of energy-use reduction, air pollution uptake, rainfall interception, and microclimate modification associated with urban trees depends on data relating diameter at breast height (dbh) , crown height, crown diameter, and leaf area to tree age or dbh, scant information is available for common municipal tree species . I n this study , tree height ,...

  1. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture in Arid Areas: Lessons Learned in the San Joaquin Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conventional wisdom is that drainage is required to sustain irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. However, disposal of saline drainage water is a problem throughout the world that is challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The presence of elements besides salt in the drainage w...

  2. Mineral resources of the Whipple Mountains and Whipple Mountains Addition Wilderness Study Areas, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Sherman P.; Raines, Gary L.; Diggles, Michael F.; Howard, Keith A.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hoover, Donald B.; Ridenour, James; Moyle, Phillip R.; Willett, Spencee L.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 85,100 acres of the Whipple Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-312) and 1,380 acres of the Whipple Mountains Addition Wilderness Study Area (AZ-050-010) were evaluated for identified mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the Whipple Mountains and Whipple Mountains Addition Wilderness Study Areas are referred to as simply "the study area." Most of the mines and prospects with identified resources in the Whipple Mountains Wilderness Study Area are within areas designated as having mineral resource potential. The area in and around the Turk Silver mine and the Lucky Green group and the area near the northwest boundary of the study area have high mineral resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, gold, and silver. An area along the west boundary of the study area has moderate resource potential for copper lead, zinc, gold, and silver. An area in the east adjacent to the Whipple Mountains Addition Wilderness Study Area has moderate resource potential for copper, gold, and silver resources. One area on the north boundary and one on the southeast boundary of the study area have low mineral resource potential for copper, lead, zinc, gold, and silver. Two areas, one on the north boundary and one inside the east boundary of the study area, have moderate resource potential for manganese. A small area inside the south boundary of the study area has high resource potential for decorative building stone, and the entire study area has low resource potential for sand and gravel and other rock products suitable for construction. Two areas in the eastern part of the study area have low resource potential for uranium. There is no resource potential for oil and gas or geothermal resources in the Whipple Mountains Wilderness Study Area. Sites within the Whipple Mountains Wilderness Study Area with identified resources of copper, gold, silver, manganese and (or

  3. Geology and Mineral Resources of the East Mojave National Scenic Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.

    2007-01-01

    From our evaluations that largely used model-based criteria, we conclude that much of the East Mojave National Scenic Area (EMNSA) contains significant indications of epigenetic mineralization of various types. Economically significant concentrations of many metals may possibly remain to be discovered in many parts of the EMNSA (see also Wetzel and others, 1992). We have discussed specific types of metallic deposits that are known to be present in the EMNSA. Some mountain ranges that have widespread occurrences are the Providence Mountains, Clark Mountain Range, Ivanpah Mountains, and New York Mountains; the area of Hackberry Mountain is included in a tract that is judged to be favorable for the discovery of epithermal, volcanic-hosted gold deposits (pl. 2). These ranges make up a broad, roughly north-south-trending region in the central part of the EMNSA. Much less endowed with known occurrences of all of the various types of deposits considered above are the Granite Mountains, the central parts of the Piute Range, the Fenner Valley area, the general area of Cima Dome, the Cima volcanic field, and areas west to Soda Lake. We have attempted to make some judgments concerning the gravel-covered areas in the EMNSA (pl. 3), including the areal extent of bedrock apparently covered only by thin veneers of gravel. But few data are available to us for the overwhelming bulk of the covered areas. The presence of any mineralization, the type of mineralization, and the extent and intensity of mineralization in the covered areas is essentially unknown. The likelihood is high, however, that those areas in the EMNSA covered only by a thin cap of gravels could host mineralization similar to that known in the adjoining mountain ranges. Most buried epigenetic-mineral deposits do not respond to standard geophysical methods, particularly at the coarse spacing of the data-collection points available for our evaluation. Restricting judgments concerning the presence of undiscovered metal

  4. Adaptive management areas: achieving the promise, avoiding the peril.

    Treesearch

    George H. Stankey; Bruce. Shindler

    1997-01-01

    Ten Adaptive Management Areas (AMAs) were created in compliance with the Northwest Forest Plan. Although the essence of adaptive management is to treat management as an experiment and to "learn how to learn," several barriers affect the successful implementation of AMAs. Four propositions are identified that address these potential barriers: (1) area...

  5. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C.; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers’ grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and socio-cultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers. PMID:26800243

  6. Civil Service College in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samii, Farhad

    1978-01-01

    The Civil Service College in San Francisco provides preentry level training, inservice training, and promotional training for public employment. The free classes are open to the general public and cover five curriculum areas: supervision and management, clerical and secretarial, communication, community service, and technical. (MB)

  7. Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle; Orlando, James L.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

  8. Geology and water resources of the Spanish Valley area, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1971-01-01

    This water-resources investigation was initiated in order to provide an estimate of the average annual water yield of the Mill Creek-Pack Creek drainage basin, the parts of that total yield available as surface water and ground water, the amount of ground water that might be recovered for beneficial use, and the effect of this use on the usable ground-water storage within the valley fill in Spanish and Moab Valleys. Detailed information has been sought which is basic to the establishment of sound policies for the development and management of water resources. The investigation was carried out as part of water-resources investigations in Utah with the Utah Division of Water Rights, Department of Natural Resources. Fieldwork was done during the period July 1967-November 1969.

  9. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The waters within an area beginning at 32°42′55.0″ N, 117°11′30.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′57.0″ N, 117°11′22.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′56.0″ N, 117°11′19.0″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′49.0″ N, 117°11′08.5″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′44.5″ N, 117°11′06.5″ W...

  10. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The waters within an area beginning at 32°42′55.0″ N, 117°11′30.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′57.0″ N, 117°11′22.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′56.0″ N, 117°11′19.0″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′49.0″ N, 117°11′08.5″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′44.5″ N, 117°11′06.5″ W...

  11. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The waters within an area beginning at 32°42′55.0″ N, 117°11′30.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′57.0″ N, 117°11′22.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′56.0″ N, 117°11′19.0″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′49.0″ N, 117°11′08.5″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′44.5″ N, 117°11′06.5″ W...

  12. 33 CFR 334.870 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32°41′17″ 117°13′58″ (2) The regulations. (i) No vessel shall anchor within the restricted area at... Island about 0.2 nautical miles bayward and basically outlined as follows: Station Latitude Longitude 1 32°41′51.3″ N 117°13′34.0″ W 2 32°41′51.3″ N 117°13′46.6″ W 3 32°41′43.3″ N 117°13′50.0″ W 4...

  13. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  14. Reinterpretation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events, Mountain Pass area, northeastern San Bernardino County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, M.A. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed mapping, stratigraphic structural analysis in the Mountain Pass area has resulted in a reinterpretation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic events in the area. Mesozoic events are characterized by north vergent folds and thrust faults followed by east vergent thrusting. Folding created two synclines and an anticline which were than cut at different stratigraphic levels by subsequent thrust faults. Thrusting created composite tectono-stratigraphic sections containing autochthonous, para-autothonous, and allochthonous sections. Normal faults cutting these composite sections including North, Kokoweef, White Line, and Piute fault must be post-thrusting, not pre-thrusting as in previous interpretations. Detailed study of these faults results in differentiation of at least three orders of faults and suggest they represent Cenozoic extension correlated with regional extensional events between 11 and 19 my. Mesozoic stratigraphy reflects regional orogenic uplift, magmatic activity, and thrusting. Inclusion of Kaibab clasts in the Chinle, Kaibab and Chinle clasts in the Aztec, and Chinle, Aztec, and previously deposited Delfonte Volcanics clasts in the younger members of the Delfonte Volcanics suggest regional uplift prior to the thrusting of Cambrian Bonanza King over Delfonte Volcanics by the Mescal Thrust fault. The absence of clasts younger than Kaibab argues against pre-thrusting activity for the Kokoweef fault.

  15. Seasonal Water Resources Management and Probabilistic Operations Forecast in the San Juan Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, L.; Zagona, E. A.; Rajagopalan, B.; Grantz, K.; Miller, W. P.; Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    within the NWS Community Hydrologic Prediction System (CHPS) to produce an ensemble streamflow forecast. The ensemble traces are used to drive the MTOM with the initial conditions of the water resources system and the operating rules, to provide ensembles of water resources management and operation metrics. We applied this integrated approach to forecasting in the San Juan River Basin (SJRB) using a portion of the Colorado River MTOM. The management objectives in the basin include water supply for irrigation, tribal water rights, environmental flows, and flood control. The spring streamflow ensembles were issued at four different lead times on the first of each month from January - April, and are incorporated into the MTOM for the period 2002-2010. Ensembles of operational performance metrics for the SJRB such as Navajo Reservoir releases, end of water year storage, environmental flows and water supply for irrigation were computed and their skills evaluated against variables obtained in a baseline simulation using historical streamflow. Preliminary results indicate that thus obtained probabilistic forecasts may produce increased skill especially at long lead time (e.g., on Jan and Feb 1st). The probabilistic information for water management variables provide risks of system vulnerabilities and thus enables risk-based efficient planning and operations.

  16. Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Rico Hot Springs Area and Lemon Hot Springs, Dolores and San Miguel Counties, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,215,000 South boundary: approximately 4,160,000 West boundary: approximately 216,000 East boundary: approximately 245,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs have geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. In addition, the explorationists discovered a very young Climax-style molybdenum porphyry system northeast of Rico, and drilling intersected thermal waters at depth. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Structural data collected by Flint Geothermal 2. Point information 3. Mines and prospects from the USGS MRDS dataset 4. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 5. Air photo lineaments 6. Areas covered by travertine 7. Groundwater geochemistry 8. Land ownership in the Rico area 9. Georeferenced geologic map of the Rico Quadrangle, by Pratt et al. 10. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  17. Geoelectric structure of the Gila-San Francisco Wilderness Area, Graham and Greenlee counties, Arizona from audio-magnetotelluric data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, D.P.; Baer, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction data using distant field sources, mostly of natural origin, in the frequency range of 4.5-27,000 Hz are analyzed to depict the geoelectric structure in an area of volcanic-rock cover located in southeastern Arizona between the Morenci and Safford porphyry copper deposits. The data for each station consist of scalar electromagnetic measurements at descrete frequencies for two-orthogonal magnetic and electric field pairs. Observations spaced about 5-km apart indicate resistivities in the range of 100-700 ohm-m for the unweathered Tertiary volcanic rocks to a depth of 200 to 500 m. Beneath this zone the data indicate resistivities in the range of 10-100 ohm-m that suggest the existence of an older volcanic rock unit. The less resistive unit appears to be displaced upward beneath Turtle Mountain, an area bounded to the northeast and southwest by mapped Basin and Range faults, and bounded to the southeast by an unmapped fault of older origin that trends northeast. Lateral changes in the resistivity of the two main geoelectric layers result in lowered resistivity in an area of known hot-springs near the confluence of the Gila and San Francisco Rivers, as well as along a north-south trending zone located on the east flank of Turtle Mountain, about 5-km (3-mi) west-northwest of the hot springs. This second anomaly is at a probable depth of 400-500 m and is interpreted to indicate a buried fault or fracture zone.

  18. APPLYING THE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES CONCEPT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO BASIN, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper San Pedro River flows intermittently north from Sonora, Mexico into southeastern Arizona and is one of the last few large unimpounded rivers in the American Southwest. The remaining perennial reaches support a desert riparian ecosystem that is a rare remnant of what ...

  19. APPLYING THE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES CONCEPT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE UPPER SAN PEDRO BASIN, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper San Pedro River flows intermittently north from Sonora, Mexico into southeastern Arizona and is one of the last few large unimpounded rivers in the American Southwest. The remaining perennial reaches support a desert riparian ecosystem that is a rare remnant of what ...

  20. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  1. The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. Methods In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to contextualize aspects of organizational response and performance, we recruited two types of key informants: public health professionals who were involved with the epidemiology and surveillance response for each jurisdiction, as well as the health officer or his/her designee responsible for H1N1 response activities. Information about the organization, data sources for situation awareness, decision-making, and issues related to surge capacity, continuity of operations, and sustainability were collected during the key informant interviews. Content and interpretive analyses were conducted using ATLAS.ti software. Results The study found that disease investigations were important in the first months of the pandemic, often requiring additional staff support and sometimes forcing other public health activities to be put on hold. We also found that while the Incident Command System (ICS) was used by all participating agencies to manage the response, the manner in which it was implemented and utilized varied. Each local health department (LHD) in the study collected epidemiologic data from a variety of sources

  2. The epidemiology and surveillance response to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) among local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Enanoria, Wayne T A; Crawley, Adam W; Tseng, Winston; Furnish, Jasmine; Balido, Jeannie; Aragón, Tomás J

    2013-03-27

    Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. Very little is known about how these functions are conducted at the local level. The purpose of the Epidemiology Networks in Action (EpiNet) Study was to describe the epidemiology and surveillance response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) by city and county health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The study also documented lessons learned from the response in order to strengthen future public health preparedness and response planning efforts in the region. In order to characterize the epidemiology and surveillance response, we conducted key informant interviews with public health professionals from twelve local health departments in the San Francisco Bay Area. In order to contextualize aspects of organizational response and performance, we recruited two types of key informants: public health professionals who were involved with the epidemiology and surveillance response for each jurisdiction, as well as the health officer or his/her designee responsible for H1N1 response activities. Information about the organization, data sources for situation awareness, decision-making, and issues related to surge capacity, continuity of operations, and sustainability were collected during the key informant interviews. Content and interpretive analyses were conducted using ATLAS.ti software. The study found that disease investigations were important in the first months of the pandemic, often requiring additional staff support and sometimes forcing other public health activities to be put on hold. We also found that while the Incident Command System (ICS) was used by all participating agencies to manage the response, the manner in which it was implemented and utilized varied. Each local health department (LHD) in the study collected epidemiologic data from a variety of sources, but only case reports

  3. Multi-criteria decision analysis in conservation planning: Designing conservation area networks in San Diego County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Garrick Richard

    To limit biodiversity loss caused by human activity, conservation planning must protect biodiversity while considering socio-economic cost criteria. This research aimed to determine the effects of socio-economic criteria and spatial configurations on the development of CANs for three species with different distribution patterns, while simultaneously attempting to address the uncertainty and sensitivity of CANs produced by ConsNet. The socio-economic factors and spatial criteria included the cost of land, population density, agricultural output value, area, average cluster area, number of clusters, shape, and perimeter. Three sensitive mammal species with different distribution patterns were selected and included the Bobcat, Ringtail, and a custom created mammal distribution. Forty problems and the corresponding number of CANs were formulated and computed by running each predicted presence species model with and without the four different socioeconomic threshold groups at two different resolutions. Thirty-two percent less area was conserved after considering multiple socio-economic constraints and spatial configurations in comparison to CANs that did not consider multiple socio-economic constraints and spatial configurations. Without including socio-economic costs, ConsNet's ALL_CELLS heuristic solution was the highest ranking CAN. After considering multiple socio-economic costs, the number one ranking CAN was no longer the ALL_CELLS heuristic solution, but a spatially different meta-heuristic solution. The effects of multiple constraints and objectives on the design of CANs with different distribution patterns did not vary significantly across the criteria. The CANs produced by ConsNet appeared to demonstrate some uncertainty surrounding particular criteria, but did not demonstrate substantial uncertainty across all criteria used to rank the CANs. Similarly, the range of socio-economic criteria thresholds did not have a substantial impact. ConsNet was very

  4. Nitrogen deposition and sensitive ecosystems: a case study from the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2001-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition from urban smog can greatly affect local ecosystems. This paper examines a complex situation in the Santa Clara Valley, CA where N-deposition from existing, new, and proposed developments threatens an ecosystem supporting numerous rare, threatened, and endangered species. Grasslands on nutrient-poor serpentinitic soils are being invaded by nutrient-demanding introduced annual grasses, driven by dry N-deposition of about 10 kg ha-1 yr-1. These grass invasions threaten the native biodiversity of the serpentinitic grasslands, including the federally-protected Bay checkerspot butterfly. Additional NOx and NH3 sources planned for the region include a 600 MW natural gas fired power plant, industrial parks that may eventually draw 20,000 to 50,000 additional cars per day, 25,000 housing units, and associated highway improvements. Ongoing mitigation proposals include purchase and long-term management of hundreds of hectares of habitat. The situation is a model for understanding N-deposition from a scientific and policy viewpoint. Fundamental biogeochemical questions include: 1) What are the relative contributions of NOx and NH3 to increased N-deposition? NH3 slip from power plant NOx scrubbers can release more reactive nitrogen than is removed as NOx, and modern automobiles release NH3 in addition to NOx. 2) How are N-emissions transported, chemically modified, and deposited on the local ecosystems, and are these processes adequately captured in regulatory models? How do point sources differ from line sources such as a heavily traveled freeway? 3) What are the effects of chronic N-deposition on the ecosystem, and is there a critical load or a steady cumulative effect? 4) What are the effects of management such as fire, grazing, mowing on N-cycling and plant composition? Policy issues include: 1) What are the incremental impacts of individual projects relative to high background deposition, 2) What margin of safety should be built into modeling and

  5. Magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas, San Luis Obispo County, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.; Denton, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    A magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas was created as part of a cooperative research and development agreement with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and is intended to promote further understanding of the areal geology and structure by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, mineral and water resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on magnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals can be related to either lithologic or structural boundaries. Magnetic susceptibility measurements from the area indicate that bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense magnetic anomalies, but such generalizations must be applied with caution because some sedimentary units also can produce measurable magnetic anomalies. Remanent magnetization does not appear to be a significant source for magnetic anomalies because it is an order of magnitude less than the induced magnetization. The map is a mosaic of three separate surveys collected by (1) fixed-wing aircraft at a nominal height of 305 m, (2) by boat with the sensor at sea level, and (3) by helicopter. The helicopter survey was flown by New-Sense Geophysics in October 2009 along flight lines spaced 150-m apart and at a nominal terrain clearance of 50 to 100 m. Tie lines were flown 1,500-m apart. Data were adjusted for lag error and diurnal field variations. Further processing included microleveling using the tie lines and subtraction of the reference field defined by International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2005 extrapolated to August 1, 2008.

  6. Prediction of gastrointestinal disease with over-the-counter diarrheal remedy sales records in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Kirian, Michelle L; Weintraub, June M

    2010-07-20

    Water utilities continue to be interested in implementing syndromic surveillance for the enhanced detection of waterborne disease outbreaks. The authors evaluated the ability of sales of over-the-counter diarrheal remedies available from the National Retail Data Monitor to predict endemic and epidemic gastrointestinal disease in the San Francisco Bay Area. Time series models were fit to weekly diarrheal remedy sales and diarrheal illness case counts. Cross-correlations between the pre-whitened residual series were calculated. Diarrheal remedy sales model residuals were regressed on the number of weekly outbreaks and outbreak-associated cases. Diarrheal remedy sales models were used to auto-forecast one week-ahead sales. The sensitivity and specificity of signals, generated by observed diarrheal remedy sales exceeding the upper 95% forecast confidence interval, in predicting weekly outbreaks were calculated. No significant correlations were identified between weekly diarrheal remedy sales and diarrhea illness case counts, outbreak counts, or the number of outbreak-associated cases. Signals generated by forecasting with the diarrheal remedy sales model did not coincide with outbreak weeks more reliably than signals chosen randomly. This work does not support the implementation of syndromic surveillance for gastrointestinal disease with data available though the National Retail Data Monitor.

  7. Prediction of gastrointestinal disease with over-the-counter diarrheal remedy sales records in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Water utilities continue to be interested in implementing syndromic surveillance for the enhanced detection of waterborne disease outbreaks. The authors evaluated the ability of sales of over-the-counter diarrheal remedies available from the National Retail Data Monitor to predict endemic and epidemic gastrointestinal disease in the San Francisco Bay Area. Methods Time series models were fit to weekly diarrheal remedy sales and diarrheal illness case counts. Cross-correlations between the pre-whitened residual series were calculated. Diarrheal remedy sales model residuals were regressed on the number of weekly outbreaks and outbreak-associated cases. Diarrheal remedy sales models were used to auto-forecast one week-ahead sales. The sensitivity and specificity of signals, generated by observed diarrheal remedy sales exceeding the upper 95% forecast confidence interval, in predicting weekly outbreaks were calculated. Results No significant correlations were identified between weekly diarrheal remedy sales and diarrhea illness case counts, outbreak counts, or the number of outbreak-associated cases. Signals generated by forecasting with the diarrheal remedy sales model did not coincide with outbreak weeks more reliably than signals chosen randomly. Conclusions This work does not support the implementation of syndromic surveillance for gastrointestinal disease with data available though the National Retail Data Monitor. PMID:20646311

  8. Well-response model of the confined area, Bunker Hill ground-water basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durbin, Timothy J.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1978-01-01

    The Bunker Hill ground-water basin, in the vicinity of San Bernardino, Calif., is being artificially recharged with imported water. Current and future artificial recharge of the basin may cause the potentiometric surface in an area of confined ground water to rise above land surface and water to flow from uncapped and unplugged wells. This could cause damage to structures where the soil becomes waterlogged and where buried wells begin to flow beneath the structures. A well-response model was used to generate a series of water-level hydrographs representing the response of the ground-water basin to six possible combinations of conditions for each well; one pumping rate, two artificial-recharge rate, and three natural-recharge rates. Inflow to the ground-water basin exceeds outflow for all tested combinations. According to model predictions, the accumulation of stored ground water resulting from the excess of inflow is sufficient to cause the water level in the selected wells to rise above land surface for all but one of the combinations of conditions tested. Water levels in wells are predicted to rise above the land surface as early as 1981 for the combination with the greatest excess of inflow. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. [Bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Araya, Viviana; Gallo, Leslie; Quesada, Carlos; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    In the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat's milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. Nevertheless, in Costa Rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat's milk and fresh cheese distributed in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for Public Health. A total of 25 raw goat's milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. The study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (Staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp). High results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. Total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the Costa Rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. All cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. S. aureus counts were low and both Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed.

  10. Processes affecting the distribution of selenium in shallow ground water of agricultural areas, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deverel, S.J.; Fujii, Roger

    1987-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the processes affecting the chemistry of shallow groundwater associated with agricultural drainage systems in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. The study was prompted by a need for an understanding of selenium mobility in areas having high selenium concentrations in shallow groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected along transects in three artificially drained fields where the age of the drainage system varied (15, 6, and 1.5 years). Selenium concentrations in the drainage water also varied (430, 58, and 3700 mg/L, respectively). Isotopic enrichment and chemical composition of the groundwater samples indicate that saline- and selenium- enriched water has evolved as a result of evaporation of groundwater. This evaporated, isotopically enriched water is being displaced by more recent, less saline irrigation water percolating through the root zone. This placement seems to be a process in which sodium chloride and sodium sulfate water is being replaced by more dilute calcium sulfate and calcium bicarbonate water. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Processes affecting the distribution of selenium in shallow groundwater of agricultural areas, western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deverel, S.J.; Fujii, R.

    1988-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the processes affecting the chemistry of shallow groundwater associated with agricultural drainage systems in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. The study was prompted by a need for an understanding of selenium mobility in areas having high selenium concentrations in shallow groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected along transects in three artificially drained fields where the age of the drainage system varied (15, 6, and 1.5 years). Selenium concentrations in the drain water also varied (430, 58, and 3700 μg/L, respectively). Isotopic enrichment and chemical composition of the groundwater samples indicate that saline- and selenium-enriched water has evolved as a result of evaporation or transpiration of groundwater. This evaporated, isotopically enriched water is being displaced by more recent, less saline irrigation water percolating through the root zone. This displacement seems to be a process whereby sodium chloride and sodium sulfate water is being replaced by more dilute calcium sulfate and calcium bicarbonate water.

  12. Health Cobenefits and Transportation-Related Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Methods. Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose–response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Results: Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32 466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Conclusions: Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates. PMID:23409903

  13. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  14. Health cobenefits and transportation-related reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Maizlish, Neil; Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David

    2013-04-01

    We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose-response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32,466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates.

  15. Geology of 1. 7 GA ( ) Baldwin gneiss in the Baldwin Lake type area, San Bernardino Mountains, southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, A.P. . Dept. of Geology); Ehlig, P.L. . Dept. of Geology); Wooden, J.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Precambrian gneisses in the San Bernardino Mountains were first identified and described in the vicinity of Baldwin Lake by Guillou (1953). Five lithologic units mappable at 1:24,000 scale are recognized: biotite [+-] muscovite quartzofeldspathic gneiss, amphibolite, pyroxene metagabbro, augen gneiss, and biotite [+-] muscovite granitic gneiss. Baldwin gneiss with this L < S tectonite fabric is unconformably overlain by latest Proterozoic, upright, greenschist/hornfels facies quartzite (Big Bear Group). North and northeast of Baldwin Lake, the gneissic fabric is rotated toward the northwest, subparallel to the Doble fault. Along this fault, Baldwin gneiss is structurally underlain by overturned Paleozoic quartzite and marble (Zabriskie Quartzite and Carrara Formation). Regional relations suggest that the Doble fault is a northeast-directed basement thrust fault of pre-Late Cretaceous age, and may be contemporaneous with late Paleozoic deformation and metamorphism of Paleozoic rocks further west in the range. Field relations suggest that Baldwin gneiss in its type area largely retains Proterozoic fabrics and mineral assemblages, despite marginal Phanerozoic reworking. Silver (1971) reported a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1,730 Ma for Baldwin augen ( ) gneiss, from an unknown locality, and Miller and Morton (1980) reported Late Cretaceous mica K-Ar ages from a sample of augen gneiss. Preliminary Pb isotopic ratios in galena, feldspar and whole rock samples of Baldwin gneiss, and feldspars in Mesozoic plutons suggest isotopic affinity to the Mojave crustal province of Wooden and Miller (1990).

  16. Evaluation of the transfer of soil arsenic to maize crops in suburban areas of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Castor, J M; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Alfaro-Barbosa, J M; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Pérez-Maldonado, I N; Caballero-Quintero, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-11-01

    The presence of arsenic (As) in agricultural food products is a matter of concern because it can cause adverse health effects at low concentrations. Agricultural-product intake constitutes a principal source for As exposure in humans. In this study, the contribution of the chemical-soil parameters in As accumulation and translocation in the maize crop from a mining area of San Luis Potosi was evaluated. The total arsenic concentration and arsenic speciation were determined by HG-AFS and IC-HG-AFS, respectively. The data analysis was conducted by cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The soil pH presented a negative correlation with the accumulated As in each maize plant part, and parameters such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) presented a higher correlation with the As translocation in maize. Thus, the metabolic stress in maize may induce organic acid exudation leading a higher As bioavailability. A high As inorganic/organic ratio in edible maize plant tissues suggests a substantial risk of poisoning by this metalloid. Careful attention to the chemical changes in the rhizosphere of the agricultural zones that can affect As transfer through the food chain could reduce the As-intoxication risk of maize consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lead Concentration Levels in Waters from Public Drinking Fountains in the East San Francisco Bay Area, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, B.; Lawrence, D.; Lawrence, T.; Lewis-Velasco, W.; Lockett, N.; Swamy, S.; Tyner, N.; Quach, C.

    2008-12-01

    Many East San Francisco Bay Area public parks are heavily populated by parents and their children and generally experience high levels of pedestrian traffic during the day, particularly during summer months. Consequently, if ever any of these visitors become thirsty they are likely to drink from the many public water fountains that exist. As most of the parks were established long before lead-related legislation was put in place, and their associated plumbing systems are very old, we decided to collect samples from a variety of locations to determine their lead concentration levels. Our rationale was that the public is generally not well informed about possible lead contamination related to a seemingly innocent source, namely drinking water fountains at parks, or about and the potential hazards related to lead consumption, and that our research could serve as a means of helping to increase public understanding of this important issue. This is especially important given that many young children populate parks during summer months and, according to the EPA, lead consumption in infants and young children is known to cause physical and mental development problems. With this situation in mind, our team collected multiple samples from water fountains in five different East Bay parks: Piedmont, San Antonio, Dracena, Mosswood, and Lake Merritt. Later these samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. Preliminary results indicate that lead concentration levels in waters issuing from fountains in all of the parks we collected samples from exceed the 15 ppb action limit set by the EPA for in-home tap water. Samples collected from the park in Piedmont yielded values as high as 35 ppb, greater than twice the EPA limit. Given these results, it is with most pressing urgency that we continue this study, and that we publicize our results as soon as possible so that the communities using these parks can decide for themselves whether or not to take the risks associated with

  18. 2002 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-06-01

    Environmental, subsidence, and meteorological monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)(refer to Figure 1). These monitoring data include radiation exposure, air, groundwater,meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota data. Although some of these media (radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are reported in detail in other Bechtel Nevada (BN) reports (Annual Site Environmental Report [ASER], the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants [NESHAP] report, and the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report), they are also summarized in this report to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and environmental compliance. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure at and around the RWMSs is not above background levels. Air monitoring data indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS has not been affected by the facility. Meteorological data indicate that 2002 was a dry year: rainfall totaled 26 mm (1.0 in) at the Area 3 RWMS and 38 mm (1.5 in) at the Area 5 RWMS. Vadose zone monitoring data indicate that 2002 rainfall infiltrated less than 30 cm (1 ft) before being returned to the atmosphere by evaporation. Soil-gas tritium monitoring data indicate slow subsurface migration, and tritium concentrations in biota were lower than in previous years. Special investigations conducted in 2002 included: a comparison between waste cover water contents measured by neutron probe and coring; and a comparison of four methods for measuring radon concentrations in air. All 2002 monitoring data indicate that the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are performing within expectations of the model and parameter assumptions for the facility Performance Assessments (PAs).

  19. An analysis of human-induced land transformations in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirtland, David A.; Gaydos, L.J.; Clarke, Keith; DeCola, Lee; Acevedo, William; Bell, Cindy

    1994-01-01

    Part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Global Change Research Program involvesstudying the area from the Pacific Ocean to the Sierra foothills to enhance understanding ofthe role that human activities play in global change. The study investigates the ways thathumans transform the land and the effects that changing the landscape may have on regionaland global systems. To accomplish this research, scientists are compiling records ofhistorical transformations in the region's land cover over the last 140 years, developing asimulation model to predict land cover change, and assembling a digital data set to analyzeand describe land transformations. The historical data regarding urban growth focusattention on the significant change the region underwent from 1850 to 1990. Animation isused to visualize a time series of the change in land cover. The historical change is beingused to calibrate a prototype cellular automata model, developed to predict changes in urbanland cover 100 years into the future. Future urban growth scenarios will be developed foranalyzing possible human-induced impacts on land cover at a regional scale. These data aidin documenting and understanding human-induced land transformations from both historical andpredictive perspectives. A descriptive analysis of the region is used to investigate therelationships among data characteristic of the region. These data consist of multilayertopography, climate, vegetation, and population data for a 256-km2 region of centralCalifornia. A variety of multivariate analysis tools are used to integrate the data inraster format from map contours, interpolated climate observations, satellite observations,and population estimates.

  20. An analysis of human-induced land transformations in the San Francisco Bay/Sacramento area

    SciTech Connect

    Kirtland, D.; DeCola, L. ); Gaydos, L.; Acevedo, W. ); Clarke, K. . Dept. of Geology and Geography); Bell, C. )

    1994-06-01

    Part of the US Geological Survey's Global Change Research Program involves studying the area from the Pacific Ocean to the Sierra foothills to enhance understanding of the role that human activities play in global change. The study investigates the ways that humans transform the land and the effects that changing the landscape may have on regional and global systems. To accomplish this research, scientists are compiling records of historical transformations in the region's land cover over the last 140 years, developing a simulation model to predict land cover change, and assembling a digital data set to analyze and describe land transformations. The historical data regarding urban growth focus attention on the significant change the region underwent from 1850 to 1990. The historical change is being used to calibrate a prototype cellular automata model, developed to predict changes in urban land cover 100 years into the future. These data aid in documenting and understanding human-induced land transformations from both historical and predictive perspectives. A descriptive analysis of the region is used to investigate the relationships among data characteristic of the region. These data consist of multilayer topography, climate, vegetation, and population data for a 256-km[sup 2] region of central California. A variety of multivariate analysis tools are used to integrate the data in raster format from map contours, interpolated climate observations, satellite observations, and population estimates.

  1. Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1983-01-01

    The area having moderate potential for base-metal resources forms a small zone in the eastern part of the recommended wilderness (A5-187). Within this zone, evidence provided by stream-sediment geochemistry suggests that crystalline bedrocks in several drainages contain concentrations of metallic elements. Because the terrain is inaccessible and covered with dense brush, most of the bedrock in the specific drainages containing the geochemical anomalies could not be examined. Thus, although we infer that mineral occurrences exist in the drainage basins, we have little data on which to base an estimate of their extent and quality. Locally, the crystalline rocks probably contain hydrothermal veins or disseminated occurrences where lead, copper, molybdenum, tin, cobalt, bismuth, and arsenic have been concentrated. However, the geochemical anomalies for these metals are small, and the stream drainages also are relatively small. Therefore, the inferred occurrences of metallic minerals probably are small scale, scattered, and low grade. There is only low probability that the inferred mineral occurrences are large scale.

  2. Fault-related carbonate breccia dykes in the La Chilca area, Eastern Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro de Machuca, Brígida; Perucca, Laura P.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonate fault breccia dykes in the Cerro La Chilca area, Eastern Precordillera, west-central Argentina, provide clues on the probable mechanism of both fault movement and dyke injection. Breccia dykes intrude Upper Carboniferous sedimentary rocks and Triassic La Flecha Trachyte Formation. The timing of breccia dyke emplacement is constrained by cross cutting relationships with the uppermost Triassic unit and conformable contacts with the Early Miocene sedimentary rocks. This study supports a tectonic-hydrothermal origin for these breccia dykes; fragmentation and subsequent hydraulic injection of fluidized breccia are the more important processes in the breccia dyke development. Brecciation can be triggered by seismic activity which acts as a catalyst. The escape of fluidized material can be attributed to hydrostatic pressure and the direction of movement of the material establishes the direction of least pressure. Previous studies have shown that cross-strike structures have had an important role in the evolution of this Andean segment since at least Triassic times. These structures represent pre-existing crustal fabrics that could have controlled the emplacement of the dykes. The dykes, which are composed mostly of carbonate fault breccia, were injected upward along WNW fractures.

  3. U.S. EPA honors San Francisco Bay Area firm Hybrid Coating Technologies with Green Chemistry Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recognized Hybrid Coating Technologies of Daly City, Calif. with a Presidential Green Chemistry Award for developing a safer, plant-based polyurethane for use on floors, furniture and in

  4. Chemical and bacteriological quality of water at selected sites in the San Antonio area, Texas, August 1968-January 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, R.D.; Blakey, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Urban development on or adjacent to the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer is causing concern about the possible pollution of ground water in the aquifer, which is the principal source of water supply for the San Antonio area. Water-quality data for many wells and springs and for selected sites on streams that cross the recharge zone of the aquifer are being collected to provide background information and to detect any current pollution of ground water in the area. Water from the Edwards aquifer is very hard and of the calcium bicarbonate type. The concentrations of dissolved solids in samples from wells and springs ranged from about 200 to 470 mg/1 (milligrams per liter); the chloride and sulfate concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 62 mg/1 and from 0.0 to 65 mg/1, respectively. The nitrate and phosphate contents of the ground water ranged from 0.0 to 15 mg/1 and from 0.00 to 0. 37 mg/1. The concentrations of these and other constituents show that the chemical quality of water in the Edwards aquifer has not been degraded significantly by domestic, industrial, or agricultural effluents. However, variations in the number of coliforms, the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate, and the presence of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci in samples from some wells show that fecal pollution is reaching the aquifer. Most of these wells, which are located in or just downdip from the recharge zone, are poorly sealed or inadequately cased. The areal variation in the locations of these wells indicates that pollution of ground water in the aquifer is very localized. Prllution results principally from runoff from the land surface and from effluent from septic tanks which enters the aquifer through fractures in the recharge zone or which infiltrates through the thin soil into poorly sealed or inadequately cased wells in or adjacent to the recharge zone. Trace amounts of several pesticides have been detected in samples from two wells in the San Antonio area. Field

  5. Geology and Mineral Resources of the East Mojave National Scenic Area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.

    2007-01-01

    The rocks of the East Mojave National Scenic Area (EMNSA) record a history of dynamic geologic events that span more than 1,800 million years (m.y.). These geologic events contributed significantly to development of the spectacular vistas and panoramas present in the area today. The oldest rocks underlie much of the northern part of the EMNSA. These rocks were subjected to extreme pressures and temperatures deep in the Earth's crust about 1,700 million years ago (Ma). They were subsequently intruded by granitic magmas from about 1,695 to 1,650 Ma, by additional granitic magmas at about 1,400 Ma and, later, at about 1,100 Ma, by iron-rich magmas that crystallized to form dark igneous rocks termed diabase. Unusual potassium- and magnesium-rich rocks, emplaced at about 1,400 Ma, crop out in a few places within and near the EMNSA. Their distinctive composition results from very small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite that was highly enriched in incompatible trace elements. At Mountain Pass, just outside the northeast boundary of the EMNSA, the potassium- and magnesium-rich rocks are accompanied by a rare type of carbonatite, an igneous rock composed of carbonate minerals, that contains high-grade rare earth element mineralization. Subsequent to these igneous-dominated events, sedimentary strata began to be deposited at about 1,000 Ma; mostly sandstone and shale were deposited initially in marine and, less commonly, in continental environments along the west edge of the core of the North American continent. Sedimentation eventually culminated in the widespread deposition of thick marine limestones from about 400 to about 245 Ma. These limestones represent a continental-shelf environment where shallow-water limestone formed to the east and deeper water limestone formed to the west. The end of the formation of these sedimentary deposits probably was caused by uplift of the shelf, which marked the beginning of a long period of tectonic upheaval. At about 170

  6. Rainfall Estimation and Performance Characterization Using an X-band Dual-Polarization Radar in the San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, R.; Chen, H.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay area is home to over 5 million people. In February 2016, the area also hosted the NFL Super bowl, bringing additional people and focusing national attention to the region. Based on the El Nino forecast, public officials expressed concern for heavy rainfall and flooding with the potential for threats to public safety, costly flood damage to infrastructure, negative impacts to water quality (e.g., combined sewer overflows) and major disruptions in transportation. Mitigation of the negative impacts listed above requires accurate precipitation monitoring (quantitative precipitation estimation-QPE) and prediction (including radar nowcasting). The proximity to terrain and maritime conditions as well as the siting of existing NEXRAD radars are all challenges in providing accurate, short-term near surface rainfall estimates in the Bay area urban region. As part of a collaborative effort between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory, Colorado State University (CSU), and Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD), an X-band dual-polarization radar was deployed in Santa Clara Valley in February of 2016 to provide support for the National Weather Service during the Super Bowl and NOAA's El Nino Rapid Response field campaign. This high-resolution radar was deployed on the roof of one of the buildings at the Penitencia Water Treatment Plant. The main goal was to provide detailed precipitation information for use in weather forecasting and assists the water district in their ability to predict rainfall and streamflow with real-time rainfall data over Santa Clara County especially during a potentially large El Nino year. The following figure shows the radar's coverage map, as well as sample reflectivity observations on March 06, 2016, at 00:04UTC. This paper presents results from a pilot study from February, 2016 to May, 2016 demonstrating the use of X-band weather radar for quantitative precipitation

  7. Biostratigraphy of the San Joaquin Formation in borrow-source area B-17, Kettleman Hills landfill, North Dome, Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Fisk, Lanny H.; Maloney, David F.; Haasl, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The stratigraphic occurrences and interpreted biostratigraphy of invertebrate fossil taxa in the upper San Joaquin Formation and lower-most Tulare Formation encountered at the Chemical Waste Management Kettleman Hills waste disposal facility on the North Dome of the Kettleman Hills, Kings County, California are documented. Significant new findings include (1) a detailed biostratigraphy of the upper San Joaquin Formation; (2) the first fossil occurrence of Modiolus neglectus; (3) distinguishing Ostrea sequens from Myrakeena veatchii (Ostrea vespertina of authors) in the Central Valley of California; (4) differentiating two taxa previously attributed to Pteropurpura festivus; (5) finding a stratigraphic succession between Caesia coalingensis (lower in the section) and Catilon iniquus (higher in the section); and (6) recognizing Pliocene-age fossils from around Santa Barbara. In addition, the presence of the bivalves Anodonta and Gonidea in the San Joaquin Formation, both restricted to fresh water and common in the Tulare Formation, confirm periods of fresh water or very close fresh-water environments during deposition of the San Joaquin Formation.

  8. DNA methylation changes in Mexican children exposed to arsenic from two historic mining areas in San Luis potosí.

    PubMed

    Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Carrizales-Yánez, Leticia; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Rosso-Camacho, Fernando; Motta, Valeria; Tarantini, Letizia; Bollati, Valentina

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic is a carcinogen and epimutagen that threatens the health of exposed populations worldwide. In this study, we examined the methylation status of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) and their association with levels of urinary arsenic in 84 Mexican children between 6 and 12 years old from two historic mining areas in the State of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Urinary arsenic levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and DNA methylation analysis was performed in peripheral blood leukocytes by bisulfite-pyrosequencing. The geometric mean of urinary arsenic was 26.44 µg/g Cr (range 1.93-139.35). No significant differences in urinary arsenic or methylation patterns due to gender were observed. A positive correlation was found between urinary arsenic and the mean percentage of methylated cytosines in Alu sequences (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.532, P < 0.001), and a trend of LINE-1 hypomethylation was also observed (Spearman correlation coefficient r = -0.232, P = 0.038) after adjustment for sex and age. A linear regression model showed an association with log-normalized urinary arsenic for Alu (β = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.67; 1.43, P < 0.001) and LINE-1 (β = -0.703, 95% CI: -1.36; -0.38, P = 0.038). Despite the low-level arsenic exposure, a subtle epigenetic imbalance measured as DNA methylation was detected in the leukocytes of Mexican children living in two historic mining areas. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:717-723, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The burden of liver cancer in Asians and Pacific Islanders in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, 1990 through 2004

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ellen T.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Gomez, Scarlett L.; Le, Gem M.; Clarke, Christina A.; So, Samuel K. S.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2009-01-01

    Background No previous U.S. study has examined time trends in the incidence rate of liver cancer in the high-risk Asian/Pacific Islander population. We evaluated liver cancer incidence trends in Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese males and females in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area of California between 1990 and 2004. Methods Populations at risk were estimated using the cohort component demographic method. Annual percentage changes (APCs) in age-adjusted incidence rates of primary liver cancer among Asians/Pacific Islanders in the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry were calculated using joinpoint regression analysis. Results The incidence rate of liver cancer between 1990 and 2004 did not change significantly in Asian/Pacific Islander males or females overall. However, the incidence rate declined, albeit statistically non-significantly, in Chinese males (APC =−1.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) =−3.4%, 0.3%], Japanese males (APC = −4.9%, 95% CI =−10.7%, 1.2%), and Japanese females (APC =−3.6%, 95% CI =−8.9%, 2.0%). Incidence rates remained consistently high for Vietnamese, Korean, and Filipino males and females. Trends in the incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma were comparable to those for liver cancer. While disparities in liver cancer incidence between Asians/Pacific Islanders and other racial/ethnic groups diminished between 1990–1994 and 2000–2004, those among Asian subgroups increased. Conclusions Liver cancer continues to affect Asian/Pacific Islander Americans disproportionately, with consistently high incidence rates in most subgroups. Culturally targeted prevention methods are needed to reduce the high rates of liver cancer in this growing population in the U.S. PMID:17385214

  10. Probabilistic seismic hazard in the San Francisco Bay area based on a simplified viscoelastic cycle model of fault interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Schwartz, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    We construct a viscoelastic cycle model of plate boundary deformation that includes the effect of time-dependent interseismic strain accumulation, coseismic strain release, and viscoelastic relaxation of the substrate beneath the seismogenic crust. For a given fault system, time-averaged stress changes at any point (not on a fault) are constrained to zero; that is, kinematic consistency is enforced for the fault system. The dates of last rupture, mean recurrence times, and the slip distributions of the (assumed) repeating ruptures are key inputs into the viscoelastic cycle model. This simple formulation allows construction of stress evolution at all points in the plate boundary zone for purposes of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Stress evolution is combined with a Coulomb failure stress threshold at representative points on the fault segments to estimate the times of their respective future ruptures. In our PSHA we consider uncertainties in a four-dimensional parameter space: the rupture peridocities, slip distributions, time of last earthquake (for prehistoric ruptures) and Coulomb failure stress thresholds. We apply this methodology to the San Francisco Bay region using a recently determined fault chronology of area faults. Assuming single-segment rupture scenarios, we find that fature rupture probabilities of area faults in the coming decades are the highest for the southern Hayward, Rodgers Creek, and northern Calaveras faults. This conclusion is qualitatively similar to that of Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, but the probabilities derived here are significantly higher. Given that fault rupture probabilities are highly model-dependent, no single model should be used to assess to time-dependent rupture probabilities. We suggest that several models, including the present one, be used in a comprehensive PSHA methodology, as was done by Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities.

  11. A fast method for searching for repeating earthquakes, applied to the northern San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakibay Senobari, N.; Funning, G.

    2016-12-01

    Repeating earthquakes (REs) are the regular or semi-regular failures of the same patch on a fault, producing near-identical waveforms at a given station. Sequences of REs are commonly interpreted as slip on small locked patches surrounded by large areas of fault that are creeping (Nadeau and McEvilly, 1999). Detecting them, therefore, places important constraints on the extent of fault creep at depth. In addition, the magnitude and recurrence interval of these RE sequences can be related to the creep rate and used as constraints on slip models. In this study we search for REs in northern California fault systems upon which creep is suspected, but not well constrained, including the Rodgers Creek, Maacama, Bartlett Springs, Concord-Green Valley, West Napa and Greenville faults, targeting events recorded at stations where the instrument was not changed for 10 years or more. A pair of events can be identified as REs based on a high cross-correlation coefficient (CCC) between their waveforms. Thus a fundamental step in RE searches is calculating the CCC for all event waveform pairs recorded at common stations. This becomes computationally expensive for large data sets. To expedite our search, we use a fast and accurate similarity search algorithm developed by the computer science community (Mueen et al., 2015; Zhu et al., 2016). Our initial tests on a data set including 1500 waveforms suggest it is around 40 times faster than the algorithm that we used previously (Shakibay Senobari and Funning, AGU Fall Meeting 2014). We search for event pairs with CCC>0.85 and cluster them based on their similarity. A second, location based filter, based on the differential S-P times for each event pair at 5 or more stations, is used as an independent check. We consider a cluster of events a RE sequence if the source location separation distance for each pair is less than the estimated circular size of the source (e.g. Chen et al., 2008); these are gathered into an RE catalogue. In

  12. Gaseous Elemental Mercury and Total and Leached Mercury in Building Materials from the Former Hg-Mining Area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Rappuoli, Daniele; Cabassi, Jacopo; Tassi, Franco

    2017-04-15

    Mercury has a strong environmental impact since both its organic and inorganic forms are toxic, and it represents a pollutant of global concern. Liquid Hg is highly volatile and can be released during natural and anthropogenic processes in the hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. In this study, the distribution of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) and the total and leached mercury concentrations on paint, plaster, roof tiles, concrete, metals, dust and wood structures were determined in the main buildings and structures of the former Hg-mining area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Siena, Central Italy). The mining complex (divided into seven units) covers a surface of about 65 ha and contains mining structures and managers' and workers' buildings. Nine surveys of GEM measurements were carried out from July 2011 to August 2015 for the buildings and structures located in Units 2, 3 and 6, the latter being the area where liquid mercury was produced. Measurements were also performed in February, April, July, September and December 2016 in the edifices and mining structures of Unit 6. GEM concentrations showed a strong variability in time and space mostly depending on ambient temperature and the operational activities that were carried out in each building. The Unit 2 surveys carried out in the hotter period (from June to September) showed GEM concentrations up to 27,500 ng·m(-3), while in Unit 6, they were on average much higher, and occasionally, they saturated the GEM measurement device (>50,000 ng·m(-3)). Concentrations of total (in mg·kg(-1)) and leached (in μg·L(-1)) mercury measured in different building materials (up to 46,580 mg·kg(-1) and 4470 mg·L(-1), respectively) were highly variable, being related to the edifice or mining structure from which they were collected. The results obtained in this study are of relevant interest for operational cleanings to be carried out during reclamation activities.

  13. Decision analysis framing study; in-valley drainage management strategies for the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presser, Theresa S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy; Coleman, James

    2010-01-01

    Constraints on drainage management in the western San Joaquin Valley and implications of proposed approaches to management were recently evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS found that a significant amount of data for relevant technical issues was available and that a structured, analytical decision support tool could help optimize combinations of specific in-valley drainage management strategies, address uncertainties, and document underlying data analysis for future use. To follow-up on USGS's technical analysis and to help define a scientific basis for decisionmaking in implementing in-valley drainage management strategies, this report describes the first step (that is, a framing study) in a Decision Analysis process. In general, a Decision Analysis process includes four steps: (1) problem framing to establish the scope of the decision problem(s) and a set of fundamental objectives to evaluate potential solutions, (2) generation of strategies to address identified decision problem(s), (3) identification of uncertainties and their relationships, and (4) construction of a decision support model. Participation in such a systematic approach can help to promote consensus and to build a record of qualified supporting data for planning and implementation. In December 2008, a Decision Analysis framing study was initiated with a series of meetings designed to obtain preliminary input from key stakeholder groups on the scope of decisions relevant to drainage management that were of interest to them, and on the fundamental objectives each group considered relevant to those decisions. Two key findings of this framing study are: (1) participating stakeholders have many drainage management objectives in common; and (2) understanding the links between drainage management and water management is necessary both for sound science-based decisionmaking and for resolving stakeholder differences about the value of proposed drainage management solutions. Citing

  14. Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas of southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Fausto; Rosado, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities. Management effectiveness was evaluated by answers of managers of the protected areas to questionnaires adapted to the socio-economic and environmental characteristics of the region. Questions were classified into six elements of evaluation: context, planning, inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes as recommended by IUCN. Results were classified into four levels: unsatisfactory, slightly satisfactory, satisfactory and very satisfactory. The PANE areas and private reserves showed higher management effectiveness levels (satisfactory and very satisfactory) than ABVP areas, where slightly satisfactory and unsatisfactory levels prevailed. Resources availability was found as the main reason behind this difference. The extension, age and province of location were found irrelevant. Outputs, inputs and processes require main efforts to improve management effectiveness. Improving planning and input in the PANE areas and inputs and outcomes on ABVP areas is necessary to obtain a similar result in all areas.

  15. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Case Study: San Francisco Bay Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A major interagency, regional planning effort led to the development of the Long-Term Management Strategy and other planning programs in the San Francisco Bay area. These programs incorporate beneficial uses of dredged material into local projects.

  16. Evaluating Management of Protected Areas: Integrating Planning and Evaluation

    PubMed

    Hockings

    1998-05-01

    / An approach to evaluating the effectiveness of management of protected areas is proposed. This approach has been used in developing an evaluation strategy for the Fraser Island World Heritage Area in Australia. The main component of the strategy is built upon the desired outcomes specified in the management plan for the area and thus provides a basis for assessing the extent to which the plan's objectives are being achieved. A series of monitoring programs have been proposed to enable this assessment. Examples of monitoring programs developed as part of the evaluation strategy are presented. A second component of the strategy monitors the implementation of the management plan. A management information system has been developed to record and report on the extent to which the specific actions specified in the management plan have been implemented. The strategy is discussed in relation to seven objectives set for the evaluation program in its design phase.KEY WORDS: Planning; Evaluation; Monitoring; Management; Protected areas

  17. Investigation of aerosol particle size distributions in the San Diego Bay area by means of multiband transmissometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Arie N.; van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Moerman, Marcel M.; Cohen, Leo H.

    2006-08-01

    The presence of atmospheric aerosols along the line of sight of infrared and electro-optical sensors greatly determines the range performance of these devices. On the one hand the aerosol particles scatter background (including sun) radiance into the field of view of the sensor, on the other hand they contribute to the atmospheric contrast reduction of the target. Proper knowledge of aerosol characteristics such as composition, concentration and size distribution is of vital importance for the prediction of their scattering and extinction characteristics. It is however found to be very difficult to collect accurate information on the particle size distribution (PSD) of aerosols. One of the reasons is the variation of the PSD along the path, which is likely to occur in a coastal area such as the San Diego Bay. One way to overcome these problems is the use of a multi-band transmissometer, as was done in previous measurement campaigns in the Baltic Sea [1] and in the Persian Gulf area [2]. The TNO seven-band optical/IR transmissometer system, providing path averaged transmission data for the intervening atmosphere, is operating at wavelengths between 0.4 and 14 μm,. In this spectral band, scattering in light hazy conditions is dominated by particles with a diameter of less than 4 μm. In order to simulate the transmission losses by scattering in various spectral bands a special calculation tool has been developed. This tool, described in this paper, allows detailed investigation of the possibilities of the retrieval of the PSD from multi-band transmission data. The slope in the plots of the transmission versus wavelength is directly related to the slope of the (log-normal) PSD plots (known as Junge exponent). The average transmission in a selected number of spectral bands is directly correlated to the average particle concentration (known as Junge coefficient). The principle of the methodology is illustrated with data collected during a measurement campaign, carried

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Distribution of Hazardous Air Pollutants in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Windham, Gayle C.; Zhang, Lixia; Gunier, Robert; Croen, Lisa A.; Grether, Judith K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore possible associations between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and environmental exposures, we linked the California autism surveillance system to estimated hazardous air pollutant (HAP) concentrations compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Methods Subjects included 284 children with ASD and 657 controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay area. We assigned exposure level by census tract of birth residence for 19 chemicals we identified as potential neurotoxicants, developmental toxicants, and/or endocrine disruptors from the 1996 HAPs database. Because concentrations of many of these were highly correlated, we combined the chemicals into mechanistic and structural groups, calculating summary index scores. We calculated ASD risk in the upper quartiles of these group scores or individual chemical concentrations compared with below the median, adjusting for demographic factors. Results The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were elevated by 50% in the top quartile of chlorinated solvents and heavy metals [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.1–2.1], but not for aromatic solvents. Adjusting for these three groups simultaneously led to decreased risks for the solvents and increased risk for metals (AORs for metals: fourth quartile = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–3.0; third quartile = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.2–3.1). The individual compounds that contributed most to these associations included mercury, cadmium, nickel, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. Conclusions Our results suggest a potential association between autism and estimated metal concentrations, and possibly solvents, in ambient air around the birth residence, requiring confirmation and more refined exposure assessment in future studies. PMID:16966102

  19. Autism spectrum disorders in relation to distribution of hazardous air pollutants in the san francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Windham, Gayle C; Zhang, Lixia; Gunier, Robert; Croen, Lisa A; Grether, Judith K

    2006-09-01

    To explore possible associations between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and environmental exposures, we linked the California autism surveillance system to estimated hazardous air pollutant (HAP) concentrations compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Subjects included 284 children with ASD and 657 controls, born in 1994 in the San Francisco Bay area. We assigned exposure level by census tract of birth residence for 19 chemicals we identified as potential neurotoxicants, developmental toxicants, and/or endocrine disruptors from the 1996 HAPs database. Because concentrations of many of these were highly correlated, we combined the chemicals into mechanistic and structural groups, calculating summary index scores. We calculated ASD risk in the upper quartiles of these group scores or individual chemical concentrations compared with below the median, adjusting for demographic factors. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were elevated by 50% in the top quartile of chlorinated solvents and heavy metals [95% confidence intervals (CIs) , 1.1-2.1], but not for aromatic solvents. Adjusting for these three groups simultaneously led to decreased risks for the solvents and increased risk for metals (AORs for metals: fourth quartile = 1.7 ; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0 ; third quartile = 1.95 ; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1) . The individual compounds that contributed most to these associations included mercury, cadmium, nickel, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. Our results suggest a potential association between autism and estimated metal concentrations, and possibly solvents, in ambient air around the birth residence, requiring confirmation and more refined exposure assessment in future studies.

  20. Obesity and survival in population-based patients with pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Holly, Elizabeth A; Bracci, Paige M

    2012-12-01

    Obesity has been consistently associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality. However, studies of obesity and overall survival in patients with pancreatic cancer are notably lacking, especially in population-based studies. Active and passive follow-up were used to determine vital status and survival for 510 pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed from 1995 to 1999 in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area. Survival rates were computed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in multivariable Cox proportional hazards models as measures of the association between pre-diagnostic obesity and pancreatic cancer survival. An elevated hazard ratio of 1.3 (95 % CI, 0.91-1.81) was observed for obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] compared with normal range BMI (<25) patients. Associations between BMI and overall survival did not statistically significantly vary by known prognostic and risk factors (all p-interaction ≥0.18), yet elevated HRs consistently were observed for obese compared with normal BMI patients [localized disease at diagnosis (HR, 3.1), surgical resection (HR, 1.6), ever smokers (HR, 1.6), diabetics (HR, 3.3)]. Poor survival was observed among men, older patients, more recent and current smokers, whereas improved survival was observed for Asian/Pacific Islanders. Our results in general provide limited support for an association between pre-diagnostic obesity and decreased survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Patterns of reduced survival associated with obesity in some patient subgroups could be due to chance and require assessment in larger pooled studies.

  1. Broadband Deformation in the San Francisco Bay Area Measured at Mini-PBO Stations: Implications for PBO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, M. H.; Johnston, M. J.; Linde, A.; Roeloffs, E. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Rousset, S.; Bürgmann, R.; Romanowicz, B.; Sacks, S. I.; Silver, P. G.

    2003-12-01

    We report on 5 borehole stations installed in the San Francisco Bay area with strainmeters, seismometers, pore pressure monitors, tilt sensors, GPS, and high-frequency 24-bit recording systems. These ``Mini-PBO" stations are part of an NSF-funded project to develop a pilot system for the study of transient plate boundary deformation from fractions of seconds to years in central California. We are currently resolving interaction problems, such as electical grounding, that are typically encountered during the hookup of such complex systems, and are in the initial stages of assessing the data quality of the instrumentation. The tensor strainmeters use the CIW hydraulic system to measure the volume change in 3 sensing volumes that form 120-degree sectors of an annulus, allowing the 3-component horizontal strain tensor to be determined. The tensor strainmeters, pore pressure monitors, and tiltmeters appear to reliably measure tidal strain, and local and teleseismic earthquake deformation. We will present studies of noise spectra and tidal calibration to better assess the performance of the strainmeters. We plan to add pre-amplifiers to the 3-component 2-Hz velocity borehole seismic packages to improve the signal at some of the stations where the microseismic noise peak around 0.1 Hz currently is not evident. The GPS antennas are mounted at the top of the borehole casings in an experimental approach to achieve inexpensive yet stable monuments. We will present noise studies that compare their stability with more conventional monuments. The lessons learned from the analysis and integration of the different data types produced by the Mini-PBO project should pave the way for users of the more extensive data sets that will be acquired through the dense instrumentation deployments planned under PBO.

  2. A Trial of the Efficacy and Cost of Water Delivery Systems in San Francisco Bay Area Middle Schools, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grummon, Anna H.; Hampton, Karla E.; Oliva, Ariana; McCulloch, Charles E.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction US legislation requires that schools offer free drinking water where meals are served. However, little information is available about what types of water delivery systems schools should install to meet such requirements. The study objective was to examine the efficacy and cost of 2 water delivery systems (water dispensers and bottleless water coolers) in increasing students’ lunchtime intake of water in low-income middle schools. Methods In 2013, twelve middle schools in the San Francisco Bay Area participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial in which they received 6 weeks of promotional activities, received provision of cups, and were assigned to 1 of 2 cafeteria water delivery systems: water dispensers or bottleless water coolers (or schools served as a control). Student surveys (n = 595) and observations examined the interventions’ effect on students’ beverage intake and staff surveys and public data assessed intervention cost. Results Analysis occurred from 2013 through 2015. Mixed-effects logistic regression, accounting for clustering and adjustment for student sociodemographic characteristics, demonstrated a significant increase in the odds of students drinking water in schools with promotion plus water dispensers and cups (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–6.7; P = .004) compared with schools with traditional drinking fountains and no cups or promotion. The cost of dispenser and bottleless water cooler programs was similar ($0.04 per student per day). Conclusion Instead of relying on traditional drinking fountains, schools should consider installing water sources, such as plastic dispensers with cups, as a low-cost, effective means for increasing students’ water intake. PMID:27390074

  3. A Trial of the Efficacy and Cost of Water Delivery Systems in San Francisco Bay Area Middle Schools, 2013.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha I; Grummon, Anna H; Hampton, Karla E; Oliva, Ariana; McCulloch, Charles E; Brindis, Claire D

    2016-07-07

    US legislation requires that schools offer free drinking water where meals are served. However, little information is available about what types of water delivery systems schools should install to meet such requirements. The study objective was to examine the efficacy and cost of 2 water delivery systems (water dispensers and bottleless water coolers) in increasing students' lunchtime intake of water in low-income middle schools. In 2013, twelve middle schools in the San Francisco Bay Area participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial in which they received 6 weeks of promotional activities, received provision of cups, and were assigned to 1 of 2 cafeteria water delivery systems: water dispensers or bottleless water coolers (or schools served as a control). Student surveys (n = 595) and observations examined the interventions' effect on students' beverage intake and staff surveys and public data assessed intervention cost. Analysis occurred from 2013 through 2015. Mixed-effects logistic regression, accounting for clustering and adjustment for student sociodemographic characteristics, demonstrated a significant increase in the odds of students drinking water in schools with promotion plus water dispensers and cups (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-6.7; P = .004) compared with schools with traditional drinking fountains and no cups or promotion. The cost of dispenser and bottleless water cooler programs was similar ($0.04 per student per day). Instead of relying on traditional drinking fountains, schools should consider installing water sources, such as plastic dispensers with cups, as a low-cost, effective means for increasing students' water intake.

  4. Correlates of the Metabolic Syndrome Among a Sample of Women in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Suárez, Erick; Beauchamp, Giovanna; Romaguera, Josefina; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome is an interaction of risk factors that may lead to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Methods Given the need for data in Puerto Rico, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between demographic, lifestyles, and reproductive characteristics and the metabolic syndrome among a sample of women (N = 564) in the San Juan Metropolitan Area. The metabolic syndrome was defined based on the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. Results In multivariate logistic regression models, women aged 40–59 and 60–79 years were 3.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70, 5.40] and 7.05 (95% CI, 3.69, 13.49) times more likely, respectively, to have the metabolic syndrome as compared to those aged 21–39 years. A dose–response relationship was also observed between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity reduced the odds for metabolic syndrome [prevalence odds ratios (POR) = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41, 1.01]; however, this association was marginally significant (P = 0.05). Among reproductive characteristics, only women who had a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) were 2.14 (95% CI, 1.02, 4.51) times more likely to have metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies, increased age and BMI, physical inactivity, and GDM are associated with the metabolic syndrome in this population. This information is relevant for the development of preventive interventions for the metabolic syndrome. PMID:20156074

  5. Maps Showing Ground-Water Conditions in the San Simon Wash Area, Papago Indian Reservation, Arizona - 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollet, Kenneth J.

    1981-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The San Simon Wash area includes about 2,300 mi2 in the Papago Indian Reservation in south-central Arizona and is characterized by low mountains separated by broad alluvial basins. Most of the basins and mountains trend north and slightly northwest. The basins are underlain by a thick sequence of basin-fill deposits. The mountains are composed of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks, and thin alluvial deposits are present in the narrow mountain valleys and on pediments. The climate is semiarid, and the precipitation pattern is characterized by two distinct types of storms--local summer thunderstorms and regional winter storms. In most of the area the average annual precipitation ranges from 5 to 10 in.; in the Baboquivari Mountains, however, the average annual precipitation is 20 in. (Sellers and Hill, 1974, p. 7). Owing to the small amount of precipitation and the abundant sunshine, the evaporation rate is about 8 to 10 times the average rainfall (Heindl and others, 1962). Storm runoff occurs mainly as sheetflow and floods of short duration. Although some runoff is diverted to catchment tanks for use by livestock, runoff is not known to be diverted for irrigation or public-supply uses. Ground-water development has been slight compared with that in many areas in Arizona. In 1979 about 2,700 acre-ft of ground water was withdrawn, of which 2,200 acre-ft was used for irrigation at Papago Farms, and 500 acre-ft was used for public and livestock supplies. The hydrologic data on which these maps are based are available, for the most part, in computer-printout form and may be consulted at the Arizona Department of Water Resources, 99 East Virginia, Phoenix, and at U.S. Geological Survey offices in: Federal Building, 301 West Congress Street, Tucson, and Valley Center, Suite 1880, Phoenix. Material from which copies can be made at private expense is available at the Tucson and Phoenix offices of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  6. Management Requirements of the 3COM Ethernet Local Area Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Management Information System . With the introduction of new technology comes the requirement to administer the network. This paper describes LAN services available on the network, management philosophies for the LAN services, and areas of LAN administration considered important to the successful operation and maintenance of a LAN. LAN administration problems identified by users are also addressed. Keywords included; Local area network (LAN); Lan management; Lan administration; 3COM ETHERNET LAN.

  7. Survey of SLAC lands for San Francisco garter snake

    SciTech Connect

    Seib, R.L.; Papenfuss, T.J.

    1981-11-01

    The San Francisco garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia) is protected under the endangered species act by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the California Department of Fish and Game. The snake is restricted to the San Francisco peninsula and all known populations are in San Mateo County. In southeastern San Mateo County and northwestern Santa Clara County T. s. tetrataenia intergrades with T. s. infernalis. The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) lands are located in this area of intergradation. SLAC contracted Robert Seib and Ted Papenfuss to survey SLAC lands during September and early November 1981, to determine the possibility of occurrence of the San Francisco garter snake on their lands. Results of this investigation and management recommendations are presented here.

  8. Incorporating green-area user groups in urban ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Folke, Carl

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example cityregion, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21.

  9. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Island Areas with the inner boundary a line coterminous with the seaward boundaries of the above atolls, reefs and islands PRIA and the outer boundary a line drawn in such a manner that each point on it is 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured, or is coterminous...

  10. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Island Areas with the inner boundary a line coterminous with the seaward boundaries of the above atolls, reefs and islands PRIA and the outer boundary a line drawn in such a manner that each point on it is 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured, or is coterminous...

  11. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Island Areas with the inner boundary a line coterminous with the seaward boundaries of the above atolls, reefs and islands PRIA and the outer boundary a line drawn in such a manner that each point on it is 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured, or is coterminous...

  12. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Island Areas with the inner boundary a line coterminous with the seaward boundaries of the above atolls, reefs and islands PRIA and the outer boundary a line drawn in such a manner that each point on it is 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured, or is coterminous...

  13. 50 CFR 665.598 - Management area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Island Areas with the inner boundary a line coterminous with the seaward boundaries of the above atolls, reefs and islands PRIA and the outer boundary a line drawn in such a manner that each point on it is 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured, or is coterminous...

  14. Modernizing Training Options for Natural Areas Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedl, Sarah E.; Ober, Holly K.; Stein, Taylor V.; Andreu, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent shift in desires among working professionals from traditional learning environments to distance education has emerged due to reductions in travel and training budgets. To accommodate this, the Natural Areas Training Academy replaced traditionally formatted workshops with a hybrid approach. Surveys of participants before and after this…

  15. Improving southwestern riparian areas through watershed management

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. DeBano; Larry J. Schmidt

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews opportunities and watershed restoration techniques available for rehabilitating and enhancing riparian ecosystems in southwest environments. As such, it is intended to serve as a state-of-the-art report on riparian hydrology and improvement in both naturally occurring and man-made riparian areas throughout the Southwest.

  16. Best management practices for riparian areas

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Phillips; Lloyd W. Swift; Charles R. Blinn

    2000-01-01

    Forest streams, lakes, and other water bodies create unique conditions along their margins that control and influence transfers of energy, nutrients, and sediments between aquatic and terrestrial systems. These riparian areas are among the most critical features of the landscape because they contain a rich diversity of plants and animals and help to maintain water...

  17. Modernizing Training Options for Natural Areas Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedl, Sarah E.; Ober, Holly K.; Stein, Taylor V.; Andreu, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    A recent shift in desires among working professionals from traditional learning environments to distance education has emerged due to reductions in travel and training budgets. To accommodate this, the Natural Areas Training Academy replaced traditionally formatted workshops with a hybrid approach. Surveys of participants before and after this…

  18. Methylmercury production and export from a restored tidal marsh: Crissy Field, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Ward, K.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M. C.; Agee, J.; Kieu, L.; Kakouros, E.

    2009-12-01

    Well-mixed surface water in the restored salt marsh at Crissy Field, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, was found to have high aqueous methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations (>1 ng MeHg / L), despite its sandy substrate and low sediment total mercury (THg) concentrations. We sought to determine a) the extent to which the marsh was a source or a sink of MeHg to San Francisco Bay, b) where and when MeHg is produced within the marsh, and c) the extent to which MeHg concentrations in sediment and water varied with extended multi-week flooding events, impoundments caused by periodic sediment accumulation in the narrow inlet. Because Crissy Marsh is small in size, has a single inlet slough channel, and has a tidally-dominated water budget, we had a unique opportunity to construct a THg and MeHg flux budget for this single well-constrained wetland. A 24-hour sampling event was conducted over a full diurnal tidal cycle during August 2008. Particulate and filter-passing (0.45μm) THg and MeHg concentrations were assessed, in addition to concentrations of chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids. These measurements were coupled to water flux calculations from a USGS-derived hydrodynamic model based on tidal prism relationships at this site. The resulting Hg load calculations demonstrated that for this 24-hour period, the marsh was a net source of dissolved MeHg to the bay and a net sink of particulate THg from the bay. To determine where and when Hg was being methylated within the marsh environment, sediment percent (%) MeHg (a surrogate measure of MeHg production efficiency) was examined for 2 years along 8 transects, seasonally and across three marsh elevations (subtidal, low-intertidal, and high-intertidal). The low-intertidal zone (cordgrass-dominated) had higher sediment %MeHg than the other two elevations. Sediment %MeHg was also higher during summer than during winter, highest at the sediment surface (0-2cm), correlated with sediment organic content, and elevated

  19. Home ranges of raccoon dogs in managed and natural areas

    PubMed Central

    Süld, Karmen; Saarma, Urmas; Valdmann, Harri

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of space use is central to understand animals’ role in ecosystems. The raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides is considered as one of the most influential alien mesopredator species in Europe, having the potential to cause loss of local biodiversity and act as a vector for zoonotic diseases. We collared 12 animals to study their home range and habitat use in two areas with different management regimes in Estonia: in a protected natural area and in an intensively managed area. From May to October raccoon dogs inhabiting the natural area had considerably smaller home ranges compared to the managed area, 193.3ha±37.3SD and 391.9ha±292.9SD, respectively. This result contradicts somewhat earlier findings in other European raccoon dog populations, where the home range sizes in natural areas in summer and autumn period have usually been larger compared to managed areas. In both study areas raccoon dogs preferred watersides, where amphibians and other semi-aquatic prey are abundant, to other habitats available in their home ranges. We also studied movements of a raccoon dog pair in the managed study area in winter period. Due to mild weather conditions during the study period, raccoon dogs changed their resting sites quite often, covering a relatively large 599 ha area from November 2012 to January 2013, indicating the absence of usual winter lethargy during the mild winters. PMID:28273085

  20. Volcanic hazard management in dispersed volcanism areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alicia; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Traditional volcanic hazard methodologies were developed mainly to deal with the big stratovolcanoes. In such type of volcanoes, the hazard map is an important tool for decision-makers not only during a volcanic crisis but also for territorial planning. According to the past and recent eruptions of a volcano, all possible volcanic hazards are modelled and included in the hazard map. Combining the hazard map with the Event Tree the impact area can be zoned and defining the likely eruptive scenarios that will be used during a real volcanic crisis. But in areas of disperse volcanism is very complex to apply the same volcanic hazard methodologies. The event tree do not take into account unknown vents, because the spatial concepts included in it are only related with the distance reached by volcanic hazards. The volcanic hazard simulation is also difficult because the vent scatter modifies the results. The volcanic susceptibility try to solve this problem, calculating the most likely areas to have an eruption, but the differences between low and large values obtained are often very small. In these conditions the traditional hazard map effectiveness could be questioned, making necessary a change in the concept of hazard map. Instead to delimit the potential impact areas, the hazard map should show the expected behaviour of the volcanic activity and how the differences in the landscape and internal geo-structures could condition such behaviour. This approach has been carried out in La Palma (Canary Islands), combining the concept of long-term hazard map with the short-term volcanic scenario to show the expected volcanic activity behaviour. The objective is the decision-makers understand how a volcanic crisis could be and what kind of mitigation measurement and strategy could be used.