Science.gov

Sample records for management evolution special

  1. A purview of waste management evolution: Special emphasis on USA

    SciTech Connect

    Kollikkathara, Naushad Feng, Huan; Stern, Eric

    2009-02-15

    The generation of waste in urban regions over time is seen to impact the balance of anthropogenic and natural resources. Various national and international initiatives to manage urban solid waste are in place and has thus have evolved at present to form an assortment of different subcomponents involving environmental, administrative, regulatory, scientific, market, technology, and socio-economic factors, which has increasing bearing on the US due to its volume and nature of discards. This paper draws together the various aspects of municipal solid waste (MSW) management as it evolved, particularly in the American society through reviewing works and findings. In many parts of the country, waste management at present, primarily involves landfilling, incineration with and without energy recovery, recycling and composting. Legislation, nature of wastes and market trends continue to redefine management operations and its responsibilities and impacts. Complexities are added to it by the nature of urban development as well. New studies and concepts like 3Rs, cradle-to-cradle, industrial ecology, and integrated waste management are adding new dimensions for solving waste problems towards achieving sustainable resource use. Local initiatives, both public and private are in the forefront of adopting alternate waste management procedures. The assistance from various government and private bodies, supporting shifts in waste management approaches, have immense value, as according to the new paradigms, nothing goes to waste.

  2. A purview of waste management evolution: special emphasis on USA.

    PubMed

    Kollikkathara, Naushad; Feng, Huan; Stern, Eric

    2009-02-01

    The generation of waste in urban regions over time is seen to impact the balance of anthropogenic and natural resources. Various national and international initiatives to manage urban solid waste are in place and has thus have evolved at present to form an assortment of different subcomponents involving environmental, administrative, regulatory, scientific, market, technology, and socio-economic factors, which has increasing bearing on the US due to its volume and nature of discards. This paper draws together the various aspects of municipal solid waste (MSW) management as it evolved, particularly in the American society through reviewing works and findings. In many parts of the country, waste management at present, primarily involves landfilling, incineration with and without energy recovery, recycling and composting. Legislation, nature of wastes and market trends continue to redefine management operations and its responsibilities and impacts. Complexities are added to it by the nature of urban development as well. New studies and concepts like 3Rs, cradle-to-cradle, industrial ecology, and integrated waste management are adding new dimensions for solving waste problems towards achieving sustainable resource use. Local initiatives, both public and private are in the forefront of adopting alternate waste management procedures. The assistance from various government and private bodies, supporting shifts in waste management approaches, have immense value, as according to the new paradigms, nothing goes to waste.

  3. [Biological evolution and specialization].

    PubMed

    Luo, Weizhen; Wang, Deli

    2003-12-01

    There were some disputes about the concept and mechanism of biological evolution. This paper tried to give more explanations on the key concepts. The biological adaptability was distinguished into two different concepts: biological evolution and specialization. The former was defined as the process of biologically gradual evolvement, and the latter was considered as the process of species formation at horizontal development. Moreover, a new conceptual framework was applied to the popular biological theories known by people, and the previous research results or discoveries were explained over again.

  4. Benefits of Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) specialized training on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Istrate, Melania G; Harrison, Tyler R; Valero, Ricard; Morgan, Susan E; Páez, Gloria; Zhou, Quan; Rébék-Nagy, Gábor; Manyalich, Martí

    2015-04-01

    Training on organ donation and transplantation is relevant for transplantation improvement. This study aimed at investigating the perceived benefits of Transplant Procurement Management training programs on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation. An online survey was developed in 5 languages (Spanish, English, Italian, French, and Portuguese) and its link was emailed to 6839 individuals. They were asked to forward it to other professionals in organ donation and transplantation. The link was also shared on Facebook and at relevant congresses. Two research questions on the perceived influence of specialized training programs were identified. A total of 1102 participants (16.1%) took the survey; 87% reported participating in Transplant Procurement Management training programs, of which 95% selected Transplant Procurement Management courses as the most influential training they had participated in. For research question one, 98% reported influence on knowledge (score 4.5 [out of 5]), 93% on technical (4.2) and communication skills (4.1), 89% on attitude toward organ donation and transplantation (4.1), 92% on motivation to work (4.2), 91% on desire to innovate (4.0), 87% and 79% on ability to change organ donation and trans plantation practices (3.9) and policies (3.5). For research question 2, main and interaction effects for position at the time of training and type of training were reported. Transplant Procurement Management training programs had positive perceived effects.

  5. Convergent evolution in plant specialized metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pichersky, Eran; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2011-01-01

    Plants synthesize a multitude of compounds that contribute to adaptation to their ecological niches. Such compounds serve as attractants of other living organisms beneficial to the plants or as defense against other biotic as well as abiotic agents. Selection for increased fitness, a never-ending process, has resulted in each plant lineage synthesizing a distinct set of specialized metabolites appropriate for its environment. The total number of specialized metabolites found in the plant kingdom far exceeds the capacity of any one plant genome to encode the necessary enzymes, and just as a plant lineage acquires the ability to make new specialized compounds during evolution, it also loses the ability to make others. Although the ability of plants to make novel, specialized metabolites continues to evolve, there are also many examples in which different plants have independently evolved the ability to make compounds already present in other plant lineages or to make different compounds that fulfill the same role-both are examples of convergent evolution. Here, we discuss many examples of convergent evolution in specialized metabolism. There are many genetic and biochemical mechanisms that can give rise to convergent evolution, and we conclude that, overall, convergent evolution in plant specialized metabolism is surprisingly common.

  6. The Evolution of Special Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education in Malaysia across four chronological stages: before and during the early colonial period (before 1900), pre-independence (1900-1957), post-independence (1957-1990) and modern Malaysia (1990 to the present), through document analysis. By placing current issues and trends within a historical…

  7. The Evolution of Special Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education in Malaysia across four chronological stages: before and during the early colonial period (before 1900), pre-independence (1900-1957), post-independence (1957-1990) and modern Malaysia (1990 to the present), through document analysis. By placing current issues and trends within a historical…

  8. Visual specialization and brain evolution in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, R A

    1998-01-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the evolution of species differences in brain size, but no consensus has emerged. One unresolved question is whether brain size differences are a result of neural specializations or of biological constraints affecting the whole brain. Here I show that, among primates, brain size variation is associated with visual specialization. Primates with large brains for their body size have relatively expanded visual brain areas, including the primary visual cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus. Within the visual system, it is, in particular, one functionally specialized pathway upon which selection has acted: evolutionary changes in the number of neurons in parvocellular, but not magnocellular, layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus are correlated with changes in both brain size and ecological variables (diet and social group size). Given the known functions of the parvocellular pathway, these results suggest that the relatively large brains of frugivorous species are products of selection on the ability to perceive and select fruits using specific visual cues such as colour. The separate correlation between group size and visual brain evolution, on the other hand, may indicate the visual basis of social information processing in the primate brain. PMID:9821360

  9. [Metalworking industry management evolution].

    PubMed

    Mattucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the evolution drivers of the management systems in the metalworking industry, mainly characterized as "automotive", starting with the "mass production" model, followed for the development of Italian industry in the '50. Through the socio-economic changes of the '90/10, the metalworking plants were deeply restructured with the introduction of computers in the production systems, and then with the first global benchmarks such as the "lean production", towards the needed operational flexibility to respond to the market dynamics. Plants change radically, company networks become real, ICT services are fundamental elements for the integration. These trends help visualizing a new "Factory of the Future" for the years 2020/30, where the competition will be based on the socio-economical, technological and environmental factors included in the "Competitive Sustainable Manufacturing" paradigm.

  10. Integration managers: special leaders for special times.

    PubMed

    Ashkenas, R N; Francis, S C

    2000-01-01

    Although the integration of an acquired company with the parent organization is a delicate and complicated process, traditionally no one has ever been responsible for that process--for charting how the two companies will combine their operations, for seeing to it that the integration project meets its deadlines and performance targets, and for educating the new people about the parent company and vice versa. Some enlightened companies have recognized this gap and have appointed a guide--the integration manager--to shepherd everyone through the rocky territory that two organizations must cross before they can function effectively together. The authors have interviewed a number of these leaders in depth, as well as some of the people with whom they've worked. They've determined that integration managers help the merger process in four principal ways: they speed it up, create a structure for it, forge social connections between the two organizations, and help engineer short-term successes. In this article, the authors detail five acquisitions--at TI, General Cable, Meritor Automotive, Lucent, and Johnson & Johnson--and discuss the role that integration managers played in each. They describe exactly what sort of person should do this job. The integration manager must be able to jump into complex situations quickly, relate to many levels of authority smoothly, and bridge gaps in culture and perception. The ever-changing organizations of the Internet age will need leaders with similar skills. In fact, the authors contend, the integration manager should be considered a prototype for the leader of the future.

  11. Joint evolution of specialization and dispersal in structured metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tuomas; Parvinen, Kalle

    2011-04-21

    We study the joint evolution of dispersal and specialization concerning resource usage in a mechanistically underpinned structured discrete-time metapopulation model. We show that dispersal significantly affects the evolution of specialization and that specialization is a key factor that determines the possibility of evolutionary branching in dispersal propensity. Allowing both dispersal propensity and specialization to evolve as a consequence of natural selection is necessary in order to understand the evolutionary dynamics. The joint evolution of dispersal and specialization forms a natural evolutionary path leading to the coexistence of generalists and specialists. We show that in this process, the number of different patch types and the resource distribution are essential.

  12. Special Operations Officer Talent Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Israel; the Mediterranean Sea , the Baltic Sea , the Black Sea , the Sea of Azov , and parts of the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans.28...rights on land and sea , security concerns, and diplomatic relations.2 U.S. special operations forces (SOF) provide strategic-level capabilities...partners in an ever-more complex and dynamic environment.”18 Army Special Forces and Navy Sea , Air, Land (SEAL) officers train for years and execute

  13. A Scientific Approach to Teaching about Evolution and Special Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson that addresses the scientific aspects of the evolution versus special creation controversy by having students gather evidence from the fossil record and analyze that evidence using critical-thinking skills. Contains 13 references. (WRM)

  14. A Scientific Approach to Teaching about Evolution and Special Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson that addresses the scientific aspects of the evolution versus special creation controversy by having students gather evidence from the fossil record and analyze that evidence using critical-thinking skills. Contains 13 references. (WRM)

  15. Managing Special and Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Steve G.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a guide to special and inclusive education and provides a comprehensive overview of this complex field. Author Stephen Rayner examines context, policy, and practice, and shows how to successfully navigate the managerial challenges involved, while contributing to the way forward through leadership in a diverse field. The author…

  16. Evolution of functional specialization and division of labor.

    PubMed

    Rueffler, Claus; Hermisson, Joachim; Wagner, Günter P

    2012-02-07

    Division of labor among functionally specialized modules occurs at all levels of biological organization in both animals and plants. Well-known examples include the evolution of specialized enzymes after gene duplication, the evolution of specialized cell types, limb diversification in arthropods, and the evolution of specialized colony members in many taxa of marine invertebrates and social insects. Here, we identify conditions favoring the evolution of division of labor by means of a general mathematical model. Our starting point is the assumption that modules contribute to two different biological tasks and that the potential of modules to contribute to these tasks is traded off. Our results are phrased in terms of properties of performance functions that map the phenotype of modules to measures of performance. We show that division of labor is favored by three factors: positional effects that predispose modules for one of the tasks, accelerating performance functions, and synergistic interactions between modules. If modules can be lost or damaged, selection for robustness can counteract selection for functional specialization. To illustrate our theory we apply it to the evolution of specialized enzymes coded by duplicated genes.

  17. Special Population Planner for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-17

    The SPP is a tool for use by emergency management agencies in creating plans for possible events requiring their attention. It incorporates extensive data including those on special needs populations so that this segment of the population will be considered in general plans.

  18. Evolution of specialization in resource utilization in structured metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tuomas; Geritz, Stefan; Parvinen, Kalle; Gyllenberg, Mats

    2008-07-01

    We study the evolution of resource utilization in a structured discrete-time metapopulation model with an infinite number of patches, prone to local catastrophes. The consumer faces a trade-off in the abilities to consume two resources available in different amounts in each patch. We analyse how the evolution of specialization in the utilization of the resources is affected by different ecological factors: migration, local growth, local catastrophes, forms of the trade-off and distribution of the resources in the patches. Our modelling approach offers a natural way to include more than two patch types into the models. This has not been usually possible in the previous spatially heterogeneous models focusing on the evolution of specialization.

  19. [Special surfaces for the management of pressure].

    PubMed

    Palma, Manuel Rodríguez; Casanova, Pablo López

    2007-09-01

    Summary Bedsores (UPPs) should be viewed as a multifaceted problem, but the direct relationship which exists between these lesions and the pressure which is exercised between the surface one rests on and a zone having a prominent bone bears significant weight. Therefore, the following are some basic measures which can prevent bedsores: mobility posture changes, local protection and the use of special surfaces for the management of pressure.

  20. Special event planning for the emergency manager.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Peter T

    2009-11-01

    In the domain of emergency management and homeland security there is a lack of a formal planning process at the local level when it comes to special event planning. The unique nature of special event planning demands an understanding of the planning process for both traditional and non-traditional planning partners. This understanding will make certain that local governments apply due diligence when planning for the safety of the public. This paper offers a practical roadmap for planning at the local level. It will address those 'special events' that are beyond routine local events but not of a sufficient scale to be granted National Special Security Event status. Due to the infrequency of 'special events' in most communities, it is imperative that deliberate planning takes place. Upon conclusion, the reader will be able to construct a planning process tailored to the needs of their community, guide both traditional and non-traditional planning partners through the planning process, determine priorities, explore alternatives, plan for contingencies, conduct a confirmation brief, facilitate operations and assemble an after-action report and improvement plan.

  1. Evolution of climatic niche specialization: a phylogenetic analysis in amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Bonetti, Maria Fernanda; Wiens, John J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of climatic niche specialization has important implications for many topics in ecology, evolution and conservation. The climatic niche reflects the set of temperature and precipitation conditions where a species can occur. Thus, specialization to a limited set of climatic conditions can be important for understanding patterns of biogeography, species richness, community structure, allopatric speciation, spread of invasive species and responses to climate change. Nevertheless, the factors that determine climatic niche width (level of specialization) remain poorly explored. Here, we test whether species that occur in more extreme climates are more highly specialized for those conditions, and whether there are trade-offs between niche widths on different climatic niche axes (e.g. do species that tolerate a broad range of temperatures tolerate only a limited range of precipitation regimes?). We test these hypotheses in amphibians, using phylogenetic comparative methods and global-scale datasets, including 2712 species with both climatic and phylogenetic data. Our results do not support either hypothesis. Rather than finding narrower niches in more extreme environments, niches tend to be narrower on one end of a climatic gradient but wider on the other. We also find that temperature and precipitation niche breadths are positively related, rather than showing trade-offs. Finally, our results suggest that most amphibian species occur in relatively warm and dry environments and have relatively narrow climatic niche widths on both of these axes. Thus, they may be especially imperilled by anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25274369

  2. Platform Management System (PMS) evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilley, Mike; Hartley, Jonathan

    1990-01-01

    In fiscal year 1988 a study was begun to define the platform management system (PMS) functions required for the mature platform operations era. The objectives of the task include: (1) defining how to increase the operational productivity of the platform by providing enhanced capability for responding to changing events, (2) influencing the initial PMS design by identifying required 'hooks and scars', and (3) evaluation potential automation techniques that are appropriate given predicted onboard computing resources. Initial platform operations scenarios were defined. The focus was on PMS-related functions where operations enhancements are likely to occur. Operations productivity was defined in terms of scientific productivity of the platform as well as the level of automation of the ground system. The Platform Operations Productivity Enhancement Report was completed earlier this year documenting system enhancements to increase science productivity and ground system automation. Using the baseline PMS defined in the PMS Definition Document as a starting point, the resulting PMS-specific enhancements were molded into a sequence of progressively more sophisticated operations management capabilities. This sequence of upgrades to the PMS has been documented in a PMS Evolution Plan. The plan includes enhancements in the areas of resources scheduling, resource modeling, system and payload anomaly management, and transaction sequence interpretation. A plan for migration of functions from the ground portion of the PMS to the flight portion is also included. The impacts of this plan on the platform are now being documented to ensure that the required 'hooks and scars' are included in the baseline system. Future plans include a prototype of some of the PMS enhancements to address the feasibility of and techniques for implementing these enhancements in the onboard computing environment.

  3. Caste evolution and ecology: a special worker for novel prey

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Scott; Franks, Nigel R

    2005-01-01

    Individual specialization underpins the division of labour within ant societies, but only in a small minority do morphological specialists, or physical castes, exist in the workforce. The genetic conditions that allow such castes to evolve are well understood, but the ecological pressures that select for them are not. We provide compelling evidence that the task of transporting novel prey selected for an exaggerated transport caste, or ‘submajor’, in the army ant Eciton burchellii. This species is the only Eciton that preys upon large arthropods as well as ants, the ancestral prey type, and by comparing load-transport among Eciton species and within E. burchellii, we show that this mixed diet significantly constrains transport efficiency. Crucially, however, we also show that E. burchellii submajors are highly specialized on transporting non-ant prey, and we demonstrate experientially that it is specifically this prey type that constrains prey-transport efficiency. Our study also suggests that phylogenetic constraints associated with the Eciton lifestyle intensified selection for the exaggerated submajor of E. burchellii. Thus, we propose that a novel task may only select for a special caste when phylogenetic constraints preclude the evolution of alternative solutions. This identifies a new and potentially general scenario for the evolution of physical castes. PMID:16188606

  4. Evolution of specialization under non-equilibrium population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tuomas; Parvinen, Kalle

    2013-03-21

    We analyze the evolution of specialization in resource utilization in a mechanistically underpinned discrete-time model using the adaptive dynamics approach. We assume two nutritionally equivalent resources that in the absence of consumers grow sigmoidally towards a resource-specific carrying capacity. The consumers use resources according to the law of mass-action with rates involving trade-off. The resulting discrete-time model for the consumer population has over-compensatory dynamics. We illuminate the way non-equilibrium population dynamics affect the evolutionary dynamics of the resource consumption rates, and show that evolution to the trimorphic coexistence of a generalist and two specialists is possible due to asynchronous non-equilibrium population dynamics of the specialists. In addition, various forms of cyclic evolutionary dynamics are possible. Furthermore, evolutionary suicide may occur even without Allee effects and demographic stochasticity.

  5. Evolution of climatic niche specialization: a phylogenetic analysis in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Maria Fernanda; Wiens, John J

    2014-11-22

    The evolution of climatic niche specialization has important implications for many topics in ecology, evolution and conservation. The climatic niche reflects the set of temperature and precipitation conditions where a species can occur. Thus, specialization to a limited set of climatic conditions can be important for understanding patterns of biogeography, species richness, community structure, allopatric speciation, spread of invasive species and responses to climate change. Nevertheless, the factors that determine climatic niche width (level of specialization) remain poorly explored. Here, we test whether species that occur in more extreme climates are more highly specialized for those conditions, and whether there are trade-offs between niche widths on different climatic niche axes (e.g. do species that tolerate a broad range of temperatures tolerate only a limited range of precipitation regimes?). We test these hypotheses in amphibians, using phylogenetic comparative methods and global-scale datasets, including 2712 species with both climatic and phylogenetic data. Our results do not support either hypothesis. Rather than finding narrower niches in more extreme environments, niches tend to be narrower on one end of a climatic gradient but wider on the other. We also find that temperature and precipitation niche breadths are positively related, rather than showing trade-offs. Finally, our results suggest that most amphibian species occur in relatively warm and dry environments and have relatively narrow climatic niche widths on both of these axes. Thus, they may be especially imperilled by anthropogenic climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Evolution of Self-Organized Task Specialization in Robot Swarms.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Eliseo; Turgut, Ali Emre; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Dorigo, Marco; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Division of labor is ubiquitous in biological systems, as evidenced by various forms of complex task specialization observed in both animal societies and multicellular organisms. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which division of labor first evolved remains enigmatic, as it requires the simultaneous co-occurrence of several complex traits to achieve the required degree of coordination. Recently, evolutionary swarm robotics has emerged as an excellent test bed to study the evolution of coordinated group-level behavior. Here we use this framework for the first time to study the evolutionary origin of behavioral task specialization among groups of identical robots. The scenario we study involves an advanced form of division of labor, common in insect societies and known as "task partitioning", whereby two sets of tasks have to be carried out in sequence by different individuals. Our results show that task partitioning is favored whenever the environment has features that, when exploited, reduce switching costs and increase the net efficiency of the group, and that an optimal mix of task specialists is achieved most readily when the behavioral repertoires aimed at carrying out the different subtasks are available as pre-adapted building blocks. Nevertheless, we also show for the first time that self-organized task specialization could be evolved entirely from scratch, starting only from basic, low-level behavioral primitives, using a nature-inspired evolutionary method known as Grammatical Evolution. Remarkably, division of labor was achieved merely by selecting on overall group performance, and without providing any prior information on how the global object retrieval task was best divided into smaller subtasks. We discuss the potential of our method for engineering adaptively behaving robot swarms and interpret our results in relation to the likely path that nature took to evolve complex sociality and task specialization.

  7. Evolution of Self-Organized Task Specialization in Robot Swarms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Eliseo; Turgut, Ali Emre; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Dorigo, Marco; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Division of labor is ubiquitous in biological systems, as evidenced by various forms of complex task specialization observed in both animal societies and multicellular organisms. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which division of labor first evolved remains enigmatic, as it requires the simultaneous co-occurrence of several complex traits to achieve the required degree of coordination. Recently, evolutionary swarm robotics has emerged as an excellent test bed to study the evolution of coordinated group-level behavior. Here we use this framework for the first time to study the evolutionary origin of behavioral task specialization among groups of identical robots. The scenario we study involves an advanced form of division of labor, common in insect societies and known as “task partitioning”, whereby two sets of tasks have to be carried out in sequence by different individuals. Our results show that task partitioning is favored whenever the environment has features that, when exploited, reduce switching costs and increase the net efficiency of the group, and that an optimal mix of task specialists is achieved most readily when the behavioral repertoires aimed at carrying out the different subtasks are available as pre-adapted building blocks. Nevertheless, we also show for the first time that self-organized task specialization could be evolved entirely from scratch, starting only from basic, low-level behavioral primitives, using a nature-inspired evolutionary method known as Grammatical Evolution. Remarkably, division of labor was achieved merely by selecting on overall group performance, and without providing any prior information on how the global object retrieval task was best divided into smaller subtasks. We discuss the potential of our method for engineering adaptively behaving robot swarms and interpret our results in relation to the likely path that nature took to evolve complex sociality and task specialization. PMID:26247819

  8. SPECIAL MINING MANAGEMENT ZONE - CLEAR CREEK, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, Karen; Esparza, Leon E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys, a substantiated resource potential for sediment-hosted cobalt-copper-gold-silver deposits has been identified in the Elkhorn and upper Garden Creek areas of the Special Mining Management Zone - Clear Creek, Idaho. Areas of favorable host rock, but with less strong evidence of mineralization, were classified as having probable resource potential for the same kind of deposit. A probable resource potential for porphyry-type copper-molybdenum deposits is assigned to areas along Clear Creek and upper Squaw Gulch based on the presence of extensive stockwork fracturing and alteration of the nonporphyritic granite, introduced disseminated magnetite, and the close proximity of known Tertiary plutons. The nature of the geologic terrain makes the occurrence of organic fuels on geothermal resources extremely unlikely.

  9. Impacts of southern pine beetles in special management areas

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Clarke

    1995-01-01

    Southern pine beetles have had great impacts on wilderness and other special management areas. Infestations have spread and affected adjacent [and, and they have disrupted the intended uses and goals desired for these areas. Coping with SPB in special management areas requires advance planning and management, then the use of new and integrated techniques for SPB risk...

  10. The evolution of information management

    SciTech Connect

    Moak, E.; Reding, T.

    1993-12-01

    Historical problems faced by records managers and data managers are described. Differences between the two roles are delineated. Future impacts of new technology on the two groups are discussed. Coordination efforts that could be made are outlined.

  11. Evolution of Elections Management in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, A. S.; Mdegella, O. M.; Lubawa, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the evolution of elections management in Tanzania with a focus on technological advancement in administering registration of voters. The paper provides the merits that permanent voters register has brought over the thumb practice. It traces the management of elections during colonialism, after independence…

  12. Molecular networks and the evolution of human cognitive specializations.

    PubMed

    Fontenot, Miles; Konopka, Genevieve

    2014-12-01

    Inroads into elucidating the origins of human cognitive specializations have taken many forms, including genetic, genomic, anatomical, and behavioral assays that typically compare humans to non-human primates. While the integration of all of these approaches is essential for ultimately understanding human cognition, here, we review the usefulness of coexpression network analysis for specifically addressing this question. An increasing number of studies have incorporated coexpression networks into brain expression studies comparing species, disease versus control tissue, brain regions, or developmental time periods. A clearer picture has emerged of the key genes driving brain evolution, as well as the developmental and regional contributions of gene expression patterns important for normal brain development and those misregulated in cognitive diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pollination efficiency and the evolution of specialized deceptive pollination systems.

    PubMed

    Scopece, Giovanni; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Johnson, Steven D; Schiestl, Florian P

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate causes of evolution of highly specialized pollination systems are little understood. We investigated the relationship between specialization and pollination efficiency, defined as the proportion of pollinated flowers relative to those that experienced pollen removal, using orchids with different pollination strategies as a model system. Rewarding orchids showed the highest pollination efficiency. Sexually deceptive orchids had comparably high pollination efficiency, but food-deceptive orchids had significantly lower efficiency. Values for pollinator sharing (a measure of the degree of generalization in pollination systems) showed the reverse pattern, in that groups with high pollination efficiency had low values of pollinator sharing. Low pollinator sharing may thus be the basis for efficient pollination. Population genetic data indicated that both food- and sexually deceptive species have higher degrees of among-population gene flow than do rewarding orchids. Thus, the shift from food to sexual deception may be driven by selection for more efficient pollination, without compromising the high levels of gene flow that are characteristic of deceptive species.

  14. Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zanno, Lindsay E.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting key ecological parameters, such as diet, of extinct organisms without the benefit of direct observation or explicit fossil evidence poses a formidable challenge for paleobiological studies. To date, dietary categorizations of extinct taxa are largely generated by means of modern analogs; however, for many species the method is subject to considerable ambiguity. Here we present a refined approach for assessing trophic habits in fossil taxa and apply the method to coelurosaurian dinosaurs—a clade for which diet is particularly controversial. Our findings detect 21 morphological features that exhibit statistically significant correlations with extrinsic fossil evidence of coelurosaurian herbivory, such as stomach contents and a gastric mill. These traits represent quantitative, extrinsically founded proxies for identifying herbivorous ecomorphology in fossils and are robust despite uncertainty in phylogenetic relationships among major coelurosaurian subclades. The distribution of these features suggests that herbivory was widespread among coelurosaurians, with six major subclades displaying morphological evidence of the diet, and that contrary to previous thought, hypercarnivory was relatively rare and potentially secondarily derived. Given the potential for repeated, independent evolution of herbivory in Coelurosauria, we also test for repetitive patterns in the appearance of herbivorous traits within sublineages using rank concordance analysis. We find evidence for a common succession of increasing specialization to herbivory in the subclades Ornithomimosauria and Oviraptorosauria, perhaps underlain by intrinsic functional and/or developmental constraints, as well as evidence indicating that the early evolution of a beak in coelurosaurians correlates with an herbivorous diet. PMID:21173263

  15. Managing Decisions on Changes in the Virtual Enterprise Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen-Silva, Marcus Vinicius; Rabelo, Ricardo José

    VE evolution deals with problems that happen during the VE operation and that put on risk planned results. This requires the application of problem-solving mechanisms to guarantee the construction of a new but feasible VE plan. Grounded on Project Management and Decision Support Systems foundations, this paper proposes a distributed collaborative decision support system to manage the VE evolution. Its main rationale is that VE’s members are autonomous and hence that all the affected partners should discuss about the necessary changes on the current VE’s plan. In the proposed approach, this discussion is guided by a decision protocol, and the impact of decisions can be evaluated. Results of a first prototype implementation are presented and discussed, with a special focus on the part which regulates the argumentation, voting and comparison of possible solutions.

  16. Data management system evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Hardware and software products and technologies that are available for implementation in the early space station data management system (DMS) design are expected to have limited capabilities in such areas as system performance, capacity, and throughput. With the anticipated growth in operations and payload user requirements during the space station's operational phase, a knowledge base of technological advancements and their possible incorporation into the DMS design will be maintained. System growth and technologies insertion issues for DMS design and development are addressed.

  17. Data management system evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Hardware and software products and technologies that are available for implementation in the early space station data management system (DMS) design are expected to have limited capabilities in such areas as system performance, capacity, and throughput. With the anticipated growth in operations and payload user requirements during the space station's operational phase, a knowledge base of technological advancements and their possible incorporation into the DMS design will be maintained. System growth and technologies insertion issues for DMS design and development are addressed.

  18. Managing the Conflict between Evolution and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Lee; Doster, Elizabeth; Jackson, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the conflict of creation versus evolution in education and challenges biology teachers in building a learning environment. Investigates the beliefs and ways of managing conflict of conservative Christians who were science teachers, future science teachers, science teacher educators, and scientists. Warns teachers against using strong…

  19. 50 CFR 648.85 - Special management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special management programs. 648.85 Section 648.85 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and...

  20. 50 CFR 648.85 - Special management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special management programs. 648.85 Section 648.85 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and...

  1. 50 CFR 648.85 - Special management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special management programs. 648.85 Section 648.85 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and...

  2. 50 CFR 648.85 - Special management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special management programs. 648.85 Section 648.85 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and...

  3. 50 CFR 648.85 - Special management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special management programs. 648.85 Section 648.85 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and...

  4. Data Management System (DMS) Evolution Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    The all encompassing goal for the Data Management System (DMS) Evolution Analysis task is to develop an advocacy for ensuring that growth and technology insertion issues are properly and adequately addressed during DMS requirements specification, design, and development. The most efficient methods of addressing those issues are via planned and graceful evolution, technology transparency, and system growth margins. It is necessary that provisions, such as those previously mentioned, are made to accommodate advanced missions requirements (e.g., Human Space Exploration Programs) in addition to evolving Space Station Freedom operations and user requirements .

  5. Managing Special Library Collections. A Bibliography and Oregon Union List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser-Molatore, Marcia, Comp.

    Limited to books, this bibliography and union catalog list of the library holdings of 27 Oregon academic, public, government, and special libraries is a selection of resource materials intended to be representative of the concerns of librarians responsible for the management of special libraries and information centers. Organized by subject and…

  6. Evolution of the Installation Management Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE EVOLUTION OF THE INSTALLATION MANAGEMENT COMMAND by Ms. Betty J. Sumpter...Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 MAR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Strategy Research

  7. Managing the Risks of School District Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlonghi, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    A school district's risk manager must provide the leadership in risk management for district special events. Tables list the following: (1) seven reasons for event failures, and preventive measures to take; (2) risk analysis checklist; and (3) event planning outline. (MLF)

  8. Teacher Manageability: Do Special and Regular Educators Agree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of special educators' (N=65) and elementary and secondary school teachers' (N=44) ratings of behavior problems (in terms of manageability) revealed no significant differences between the groups. Both groups rated social withdrawal, inattention, and work organization behavioral clusters as most difficult to manage. (Author/CB)

  9. Detecting and managing fisheries-induced evolution.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Merilä, Juha

    2007-12-01

    Exploitation of fish populations can induce evolutionary responses in life histories. For example, fisheries targeting large individuals are expected to select for early maturation at smaller sizes, leading to reduced fecundity and thus also reduced fisheries yield. These predicted phenotypic shifts have been observed in several fish stocks, but disentangling the environmental and genetic causes behind them has proved difficult. Here, we review recent studies investigating phenotypic shifts in exploited populations and strategies for minimizing fisheries-induced evolution. Responses to selective harvesting will depend on species-specific life-history traits, and on community-level and environmental processes. Therefore, the detection of fisheries-induced evolution and successful fish stock management requires routine population monitoring, and a good understanding of genetics, relevant ecological processes and changing environmental conditions.

  10. Special considerations for managing food allergies.

    PubMed

    Hays, Tiffani

    2012-01-01

    When caring for patients with severe, multiple food allergies, special considerations are necessary for achieving the best quality of care. The most important consideration is to confirm all food allergies so that the patient does not unnecessarily restrict foods. Retest or challenge any foods with a questionable diagnosis. Second, because strict allergen avoidance remains the appropriate treatment for food allergy, provide the patient and family with adequate education about allergen avoidance and include plans for reintroduction of foods during follow-up care. Following a strict allergen avoidance diet often places the patient at nutrition risk. Another consideration includes conducting a complete nutrition assessment and monitoring for nutrient deficiencies on an ongoing basis. Food substitutions and hypoallergenic formulas and supplements are often required to meet the patient's needs. Last, consider evaluating medication ingredients as causes of persistent symptoms in extremely sensitive food allergic patients. Including the above considerations will result in food allergic patients enjoying the safest variety of foods and reaching their full growth potential.

  11. Trophic specialization influences the rate of environmental niche evolution in damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

    PubMed Central

    Litsios, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Forest, Félix; Lexer, Christian; Pearman, Peter B.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Salamin, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The rate of environmental niche evolution describes the capability of species to explore the available environmental space and is known to vary among species owing to lineage-specific factors. Trophic specialization is a main force driving species evolution and is responsible for classical examples of adaptive radiations in fishes. We investigate the effect of trophic specialization on the rate of environmental niche evolution in the damselfish, Pomacentridae, which is an important family of tropical reef fishes. First, phylogenetic niche conservatism is not detected in the family using a standard test of phylogenetic signal, and we demonstrate that the environmental niches of damselfishes that differ in trophic specialization are not equivalent while they still overlap at their mean values. Second, we estimate the relative rates of niche evolution on the phylogenetic tree and show the heterogeneity among rates of environmental niche evolution of the three trophic groups. We suggest that behavioural characteristics related to trophic specialization can constrain the evolution of the environmental niche and lead to conserved niches in specialist lineages. Our results show the extent of influence of several traits on the evolution of the environmental niche and shed new light on the evolution of damselfishes, which is a key lineage in current efforts to conserve biodiversity in coral reefs. PMID:22719034

  12. Trophic specialization influences the rate of environmental niche evolution in damselfishes (Pomacentridae).

    PubMed

    Litsios, Glenn; Pellissier, Loïc; Forest, Félix; Lexer, Christian; Pearman, Peter B; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Salamin, Nicolas

    2012-09-22

    The rate of environmental niche evolution describes the capability of species to explore the available environmental space and is known to vary among species owing to lineage-specific factors. Trophic specialization is a main force driving species evolution and is responsible for classical examples of adaptive radiations in fishes. We investigate the effect of trophic specialization on the rate of environmental niche evolution in the damselfish, Pomacentridae, which is an important family of tropical reef fishes. First, phylogenetic niche conservatism is not detected in the family using a standard test of phylogenetic signal, and we demonstrate that the environmental niches of damselfishes that differ in trophic specialization are not equivalent while they still overlap at their mean values. Second, we estimate the relative rates of niche evolution on the phylogenetic tree and show the heterogeneity among rates of environmental niche evolution of the three trophic groups. We suggest that behavioural characteristics related to trophic specialization can constrain the evolution of the environmental niche and lead to conserved niches in specialist lineages. Our results show the extent of influence of several traits on the evolution of the environmental niche and shed new light on the evolution of damselfishes, which is a key lineage in current efforts to conserve biodiversity in coral reefs.

  13. Evaluation method for determining management priorities for special case waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kudera, D.E.; Wickland, C.E.

    1990-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program (TSP) began the Special Case Waste (SCW) Inventory and Characterization Project in April 1989. The collection of data has been completed and a final draft report, Department of Energy Special Case Radioactive Waste Inventory and Characterization Data Report (DOE/LLW-96), was submitted in May 1990. A second final draft report, Supplemental Data Report to the Department of Energy Special Case Radioactive Waste Inventory and Characterization Data Report (DOE/LLW-95), containing additional and more detailed data and graphical presentations, was completed in July 1990. These two reports contain details on the special case waste categories and summaries of the total volumes and curies associated with each category of waste. It is anticipated that some version or combination of these two reports will be included in the final version of this report, which will describe an evaluation method for determining management priorities for special case waste. Preliminary analysis of the inventory data indicates that approximately 1,000,000 m{sup 3} of special case waste exist in the DOE system with possible insufficient treatment/storage/disposal capability or capacity. To help DOE prioritize the actions required to manage this large volume of special case waste, an evaluation method is required.

  14. Managing the evolution of herbicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jeffrey A; Tranel, Patrick J; Hager, Aaron G; Schutte, Brian; Wu, Chenxi; Chatham, Laura A; Davis, Adam S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and managing the evolutionary responses of pests and pathogens to control efforts is essential to human health and survival. Herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds undermine agricultural sustainability, productivity and profitability, yet the epidemiology of resistance evolution - particularly at landscape scales - is poorly understood. We studied glyphosate resistance in a major agricultural weed, Amaranthus tuberculatus (common waterhemp), using landscape, weed and management data from 105 central Illinois grain farms, including over 500 site-years of herbicide application records. Glyphosate-resistant (GR) A. tuberculatus occurrence was greatest in fields with frequent glyphosate applications, high annual rates of herbicide mechanism of action (MOA) turnover and few MOAs field(-1) year(-1) . Combining herbicide MOAs at the time of application by herbicide mixing reduced the likelihood of GR A. tuberculatus. These findings illustrate the importance of examining large-scale evolutionary processes at relevant spatial scales. Although measures such as herbicide mixing may delay GR or other HR weed traits, they are unlikely to prevent them. Long-term weed management will require truly diversified management practices that minimize selection for herbicide resistance traits. © 2015 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Special Curriculum: General Management Training Institute. FY 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Chicago, IL. Regional Training Center.

    The document describes the special curriculum course offerings for the General Management Training Institute. It contains a general information sheet, a curriculum calendar for 1976, and course descriptions for the following courses: administrative officer seminar, analyzing managerial key results areas and formulating objectives, creative problem…

  16. A hierarchical model of the evolution of human brain specializations

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, H. Clark

    2012-01-01

    The study of information-processing adaptations in the brain is controversial, in part because of disputes about the form such adaptations might take. Many psychologists assume that adaptations come in two kinds, specialized and general-purpose. Specialized mechanisms are typically thought of as innate, domain-specific, and isolated from other brain systems, whereas generalized mechanisms are developmentally plastic, domain-general, and interactive. However, if brain mechanisms evolve through processes of descent with modification, they are likely to be heterogeneous, rather than coming in just two kinds. They are likely to be hierarchically organized, with some design features widely shared across brain systems and others specific to particular processes. Also, they are likely to be largely developmentally plastic and interactive with other brain systems, rather than canalized and isolated. This article presents a hierarchical model of brain specialization, reviewing evidence for the model from evolutionary developmental biology, genetics, brain mapping, and comparative studies. Implications for the search for uniquely human traits are discussed, along with ways in which conventional views of modularity in psychology may need to be revised. PMID:22723350

  17. A hierarchical model of the evolution of human brain specializations.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H Clark

    2012-06-26

    The study of information-processing adaptations in the brain is controversial, in part because of disputes about the form such adaptations might take. Many psychologists assume that adaptations come in two kinds, specialized and general-purpose. Specialized mechanisms are typically thought of as innate, domain-specific, and isolated from other brain systems, whereas generalized mechanisms are developmentally plastic, domain-general, and interactive. However, if brain mechanisms evolve through processes of descent with modification, they are likely to be heterogeneous, rather than coming in just two kinds. They are likely to be hierarchically organized, with some design features widely shared across brain systems and others specific to particular processes. Also, they are likely to be largely developmentally plastic and interactive with other brain systems, rather than canalized and isolated. This article presents a hierarchical model of brain specialization, reviewing evidence for the model from evolutionary developmental biology, genetics, brain mapping, and comparative studies. Implications for the search for uniquely human traits are discussed, along with ways in which conventional views of modularity in psychology may need to be revised.

  18. Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens T; Crandall, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    Background The Thecostraca are arguably the most morphologically and biologically variable group within the Crustacea, including both suspension feeders (Cirripedia: Thoracica and Acrothoracica) and parasitic forms (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala, Ascothoracida and Facetotecta). Similarities between the metamorphosis found in the Facetotecta and Rhizocephala suggests a common evolutionary origin, but until now no comprehensive study has looked at the basic evolution of these thecostracan groups. Results To this end, we collected DNA sequences from three nuclear genes [18S rRNA (2,305), 28S rRNA (2,402), Histone H3 (328)] and 41 larval characters in seven facetotectans, five ascothoracidans, three acrothoracicans, 25 rhizocephalans and 39 thoracicans (ingroup) and 12 Malacostraca and 10 Copepoda (outgroup). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed the Facetotecta, Ascothoracida and Cirripedia each as monophyletic. The better resolved and highly supported DNA maximum likelihood and morphological-DNA Bayesian analysis trees depicted the main phylogenetic relationships within the Thecostraca as (Facetotecta, (Ascothoracida, (Acrothoracica, (Rhizocephala, Thoracica)))). Conclusion Our analyses indicate a convergent evolution of the very similar and highly reduced slug-shaped stages found during metamorphosis of both the Rhizocephala and the Facetotecta. This provides a remarkable case of convergent evolution and implies that the advanced endoparasitic mode of life known from the Rhizocephala and strongly indicated for the Facetotecta had no common origin. Future analyses are needed to determine whether the most recent common ancestor of the Thecostraca was free-living or some primitive form of ectoparasite. PMID:19374762

  19. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the evolution of specialization in anemonefishes.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J K; Lougheed, S C; Bateman, B; McPhee, L K; Boag, P T

    1999-01-01

    Anemonefishes (genera: Amphiprion and Premnas; family Pomacentridae) are a group of 28 species of coral reef fishes that are found in obligate symbiosis with large tropical sea anemones. A phylogenetic hypothesis based on morphological analyses of this group suggests that the ancestral anemonefish was a generalist with similar morphology to other pomacentrids, and that it gave rise to other anemonefish species that were more specialized for living with particular species of host anemones. To test this hypothesis we constructed a molecular phylogeny for the anemonefishes by sequencing 1140 base pairs of the cytochrome b gene and 522 base pairs of the 16S rRNA gene for six species of anemonefishes (representatives of all subgenera and species complexes) and two other pomacentrid species. Three methods of phylogenetic analysis all strongly supported the conclusion that anemonefishes are a monophyletic group. The molecular phylogeny differs from the tree based on morphological data in that the two species of specialized anemonefishes (Premnas biaculeatus and Amphiprion ocellaris) were assigned to a basal position within the clade, and the extreme host generalist (Amphiprion clarkii) to a more derived position. Thus, the initial anemonefish ancestors were probably host specialists and subsequent speciation events led to a combination of generalist and specialist groups. Further phylogenetic studies of additional anemonefish species are required to substantiate this hypothesis. PMID:10331288

  20. Evolution of host specialization in gut microbes: the bee gut as a model

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Waldan K; Moran, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of eukaryotes often give up generalist lifestyles to specialize to particular hosts. The eusocial honey bees and bumble bees harbor two such specialized gut symbionts, Snodgrassella alvi and Gilliamella apicola. Not only are these microorganisms specific to bees, but different strains of these bacteria tend to assort according to host species. By using in-vivo microbial transplant experiments, we show that the observed specificity is, at least in part, due to evolved physiological barriers that limit compatibility between a host and a potential gut colonizer. How and why such specialization occurs is largely unstudied for gut microbes, despite strong evidence that it is a general feature in many gut communities. Here, we discuss the potential factors that favor the evolution of host specialization, and the parallels that can be drawn with parasites and other symbiont systems. We also address the potential of the bee gut as a model for exploring gut community evolution. PMID:26011669

  1. The seahorse genome and the evolution of its specialized morphology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiang; Fan, Shaohua; Zhang, Yanhong; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Huixian; Yang, Yulan; Lee, Alison P; Woltering, Joost M; Ravi, Vydianathan; Gunter, Helen M; Luo, Wei; Gao, Zexia; Lim, Zhi Wei; Qin, Geng; Schneider, Ralf F; Wang, Xin; Xiong, Peiwen; Li, Gang; Wang, Kai; Min, Jiumeng; Zhang, Chi; Qiu, Ying; Bai, Jie; He, Weiming; Bian, Chao; Zhang, Xinhui; Shan, Dai; Qu, Hongyue; Sun, Ying; Gao, Qiang; Huang, Liangmin; Shi, Qiong; Meyer, Axel; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2016-12-14

    Seahorses have a specialized morphology that includes a toothless tubular mouth, a body covered with bony plates, a male brood pouch, and the absence of caudal and pelvic fins. Here we report the sequencing and de novo assembly of the genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Comparative genomic analysis identifies higher protein and nucleotide evolutionary rates in H. comes compared with other teleost fish genomes. We identified an astacin metalloprotease gene family that has undergone expansion and is highly expressed in the male brood pouch. We also find that the H. comes genome lacks enamel matrix protein-coding proline/glutamine-rich secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein genes, which might have led to the loss of mineralized teeth. tbx4, a regulator of hindlimb development, is also not found in H. comes genome. Knockout of tbx4 in zebrafish showed a 'pelvic fin-loss' phenotype similar to that of seahorses.

  2. Mud management, special slurries improve deepwater cementing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, J.; Faul, R.

    1997-10-20

    Successful deepwater cementing requires improved mud-management techniques to reduce fluid loss, shorten slurry transition times, and make mud and cement slurry weights compatible with formation pore pressure and fracture gradients. If any one of these conditions is not met, the cementing job is less likely to be successful. Previous attempts to drill in deep water have had a low success rate, and failures have cost operators an average $2 million/well. By using new mud-management techniques and specially designed cement mixtures, operators in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are effectively setting conductor casing in deepwater conditions and are greatly improving the success rate in cementing deepwater wells. Recent case histories in the GOM describe these new techniques and the advantages of using a specially formulated, lightweight, foamed cement slurry to avoid cement-sheath damage caused by shallow-water flow.

  3. Special Session 2: Cosmic Evolution of Groups and Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L. P.

    2015-03-01

    During the past decade observations across the electromagnetic spectrum have led to broad progress in the understanding of galaxy clusters and their far more abundant smaller siblings, groups. From the X-rays, where Chandra and XMM have illuminated old phenomena such as cooling cores and discovered new ones such as shocks, cold fronts, bubbles and cavities, through rich collections of optical data (including vast and growing arrays of redshifts), to the imaging of AGN outbursts of various ages through radio observations, our access to cluster and group measurements has leaped forward, while parallel advances in theory and modeling have kept pace. This Special Session offered a survey of progress to this point, an assessment of outstanding problems, and a multiwavelength overview of the uses of the next generation of observatories. Holding the symposium in conjuction with the XXVIIIth General Assembly provided the significant advantage of involving not only a specialist audience, but also interacting with a broad cross-section of the world astronomical community.

  4. Quality assurance management plan (QAPP) special analytical support (SAS)

    SciTech Connect

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-05-20

    It is the policy of Special Analytical Support (SAS) that the analytical aspects of all environmental data generated and processed in the laboratory, subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Department of Energy or other project specific requirements, be of known and acceptable quality. It is the intention of this QAPP to establish and assure that an effective quality controlled management system is maintained in order to meet the quality requirements of the intended use(s) of the data.

  5. Case management for special populations. Moving beyond categorical distinctions.

    PubMed

    Falik, M; Lipson, D; Lewis-Idema, D; Ulmer, C; Kaplan, K; Robinson, G; Hickey, E; Veiga, R

    1993-01-01

    Case management has evolved as a flexible, pragmatic, and compassionate strategy for improving client access and care continuity within fragmented systems of health and social services. The first-generation case management programs have been designed for various settings that serve different "target" populations with varying social, medical, and psychological needs. This proliferation of categorical case management programs is a mixed blessing. While a categorical focus reflects both historical and public financing priorities, it creates a potentially duplicative and inefficient system in an era of limited resources. As the federal government assumes a more substantial role in supporting case management, greater attention is being given to accountability--demonstrating value-added benefits and identifying best practices for structuring case management. The essential first step is reaching agreement on two critical dimensions of case management, major goals and essential services. This article, based on a review of the literature, examines the extent to which seemingly disparate programs for special populations share common attributes, and thus present opportunities for structuring client-focused rather than categorical case management programs. The authors seek to stimulate a dialogue that would lead to specification of common goals and essential services, and a cross-cutting framework for designing client-focused case management programs.

  6. Polygenic evolution of a sugar specialization tradeoff in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Roop, Jeremy I.; Chang, Kyu Chul; Brem, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of novel traits can involve many mutations scattered throughout the genome1,2. Detecting and validating such a suite of alleles, particularly if they arose long ago, remains a key challenge in evolutionary genetics1-3. Here we dissect an evolutionary tradeoff of unprecedented genetic complexity between long-diverged species. When cultured in 1% glucose medium supplemented with galactose, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not S. bayanus or other Saccharomyces species, delayed commitment to galactose metabolism until glucose was exhausted. Promoters of seven galactose (GAL) metabolic genes from S. cerevisiae, when introduced together into S. bayanus, largely recapitulated the delay phenotype in 1% glucose-galactose medium, and most had partial effects when tested in isolation. Variation in GAL coding regions also contributed to the delay when tested individually in 1% glucose-galactose medium. When combined, S. cerevisiae GAL coding regions gave rise to profound growth defects in the S. bayanus background. In medium containing 2.5% glucose supplemented with galactose, wild-type S. cerevisiae repressed GAL gene expression and had a robust growth advantage relative to S. bayanus; transgenesis of S. cerevisiae GAL promoter alleles or GAL coding regions was sufficient for partial reconstruction of these phenotypes. S. cerevisiae GAL genes thus encode a regulatory program of slow induction and avid repression, and a fitness detriment during the glucose-galactose transition but a benefit when glucose is in excess. Together, these results make clear that genetic mapping of complex phenotypes is within reach, even in deeply diverged species. PMID:26863195

  7. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Moghe, Gaurav D.; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks. PMID:26276843

  8. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moghe, Gaurav D; Last, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks.

  9. Safe medication management in specialized home healthcare - an observational study.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Marléne; Flink, Maria; Ekstedt, Mirjam

    2017-08-24

    Medication management is a complex, error-prone process. The aim of this study was to explore what constitutes the complexity of the medication management process (MMP) in specialized home healthcare and how healthcare professionals handle this complexity. The study is theoretically based in resilience engineering. Data were collected during the MMP at three specialized home healthcare units in Sweden using two strategies: observation of workplaces and shadowing RNs in everyday work, including interviews. Transcribed material was analysed using grounded theory. The MMP in home healthcare was dynamic and complex with unclear boundaries of responsibilities, inadequate information systems and fluctuating work conditions. Healthcare professionals adapted their everyday clinical work by sharing responsibility and simultaneously being authoritative and preserving patients' active participation, autonomy and integrity. To promote a safe MMP, healthcare professionals constantly re-prioritized goals, handled gaps in communication and information transmission at a distance by creating new bridging solutions. Trade-offs and workarounds were necessary elements, but also posed a threat to patient safety, as these interim solutions were not systematically evaluated or devised learning strategies. To manage a safe medication process in home healthcare, healthcare professionals need to adapt to fluctuating conditions and create bridging strategies through multiple parallel activities distributed over time, space and actors. The healthcare professionals' strategies could be integrated in continuous learning, while preserving boundaries of safety, instead of being more or less interim solutions. Patients' and family caregivers' as active partners in the MMP may be an underestimated resource for a resilient home healthcare.

  10. Consanguineous mating, specialization, and the environment: how multiple variable interactions affect the evolution of dioecy.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jordan P; Maxwell, Glenn D; Freeman, D Carl

    2013-06-01

    The evolution of dioecy in plants is usually modeled as a consequence of self-fertilization. While increased seed and pollen production and dispersal patterns of specialized unisexuals have been examined, mating among relatives and interaction effects have been largely ignored. Here, we examine multiple variables simultaneously providing a more ecologically realistic set of conditions favoring the evolution of dioecy. • We developed two complementary models to explore the evolution of dioecious plants. In both models, we examined the effects of inbreeding, compensation, and specialization on unisexual invasibility and were able to directly measure the influence of related matings on such a system. • Our results support previous studies indicating dispersal specialization, consanguineous mating, and inbreeding depression facilitate the evolution of dioecy. However, our results suggest that it is the interaction effect of multiple forces acting simultaneously that allows for unisexual invasion at thresholds and frequencies witnessed in nature. Additionally, our results suggest that subdioecious populations often result, and depending on population conditions, dioecy evolves at different rates, lending importance to the ecological and life history conditions of the species. • Mating among relatives significantly enhances the invasibility of a unisexual mutant into a hermaphroditic population and lowers the levels of inbreeding depression required for invasion than previously reported conditions for unisexual invasion especially, if we consider multiple pressures simultaneously.

  11. Technology for Space Station Evolution: the Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the data management system (DMS) for the space station evolution are presented. Topics covered include DMS architecture and implementation approach; and an overview of the runtime object database.

  12. Special Issue: Evolutionary perspectives on salmonid conservation and management

    PubMed Central

    Waples, Robin S; Hendry, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of Evolutionary Applications comprises 15 papers that illustrate how evolutionary principles can inform the conservation and management of salmonid fishes. Several papers address the past evolutionary history of salmonids to gain insights into their likely plastic and genetic responses to future environmental change. The remaining papers consider potential evolutionary responses to climate warming, biological invasions, artificial propagation, habitat alteration, and harvesting. All of these papers consider how such influences might alter selective regimes, which should then favour plastic or genetic responses. Some of the papers then go on to document such responses, at least some of which are genetically based and adaptive. Despite the different approaches and target species, all of the papers argue for the importance of evolutionary considerations in the conservation and management of salmonids. PMID:25567625

  13. Managing natural resources for sustainable development. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, S.; Irving, E.; Long, N.; Pinkelman, J.

    1987-01-01

    The report presents an overview of A.I.D. efforts, which encompass a wide range of environmental issues and support environmental training, research, and institutional development. The report's opening section details A.I.D.'s efforts to enlist host-country support for environmental programs, with specific emphasis on improving natural resource management (especially in Africa), encouraging policy change, strengthening the private sector's environmental role, and preparing environmental profiles of host countries and helping them develop conservation strategies. The ensuing sections recount A.I.D. efforts in particular topics of environmental concern (biological diversity and environmental health and safety), critical ecological areas (coastal areas and forests and fragile lands), and specific country programs (reforestation in Haiti). A brief history of the evolution of the Agency's environmental strategy since 1976 is included.

  14. Evaluation of Specialized Medication Packaging Combined With Medication Therapy Management

    PubMed Central

    Zillich, Alan J.; Jaynes, Heather A. W.; Snyder, Margie E.; Harrison, Jeff; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; de Moor, Carl; French, Dustin D.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the effect of a program combing specialized medication packaging and telephonic medication therapy management on medication adherence, health care utilization, and costs among Medicaid patients. Research Design A retrospective cohort design compared Medicaid participants who voluntarily enrolled in the program (n = 1007) compared with those who did not (n = 13,614). Main outcome measures were medication adherence at 12 months, hospital admissions and emergency department visits at 6 and 12 months, and total paid claim costs at 6 and 12 months. Multivariate regression models were used to adjust for the effect of age, sex, race, comorbidities, and 12-month preenrollment health care utilization. Results Measures of medication adherence were significantly improved in the program cohort compared with the usual care cohort. At 6 months, adjusted all-cause hospitalization was marginally less in the program cohort compared with the usual care cohort [odds ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–1.0, P = 0.05]. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 cohorts for any of the other adjusted utilization endpoints at 6 or 12 months. Adjusted total cost at 6 and 12 months were higher in the program cohort (6-month cost ratio = 1.76, 95% CI, 1.65–1.89; 12-month cost ratio = 1.84, 95% CI, 1.72–1.97), primarily because of an increase in prescription costs. Emergency department visits and hospitalization costs did not differ between groups. Conclusions The program improved measures of medication adherence, but the effect on health care utilization and nonpharmacy costs at 6 and 12 months was not different from the usual care group. Reasons for these findings may reflect differences in the delivery of the specialized packaging and the medication therapy management program, health care behaviors in this Medicaid cohort, unadjusted confounding, or time required for the benefit of the intervention to manifest

  15. Post Information Age Positioning for Special Librarians: Is Knowledge Management the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abram, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Argues that special librarians are not fact keepers but "catalysts in the knowledge continuum." Examines special librarians, the information business, and knowledge management; the knowledge continuum (data, information, knowledge, behavior) and strategies for successful "transformational librarianship": organizing information,…

  16. The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, Grover J.

    2012-06-01

    In 2010, the University of Rhode Island (URI) secured $2,000,000 from the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources (OER) to support research studies for the identification of preferred sites for offshore renewable energy development in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. This research will provide the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) with sound technical information to assist in the siting of wind turbines in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. CRMC is the state agency with jurisdiction over development, preservation and restoration of Rhode Island’s coasts out to the three-mile limit, and is the state’s authority for federal consistency. With technical support from URI, CRMC is currently leading the implementation of the Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP) with the purpose of developing policies and standards to guide the development of offshore renewable energy. The justification behind renewable energy development in Rhode Island includes diversifying the energy sources supplying electricity consumed in the state, stabilizing long-term energy prices, enhancing environmental quality – including the reduction of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions – reducing the state’s reliance on fossil fuels, and creating jobs in Rhode Island in the renewable energy sector.

  17. The Evolution of the Information Systems Manager.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    low recogntion and interpersonal relation needs that would support generalizations such as those listed above. Woodruff undertook a similiar study of...professionals. This information will be compe id to -- I ontrasted with similiar data obtained frca previou5 ,*u-.es of more Junior data 9...longer true for the more senior people. The project manager, the ADP department head, the computer center manager and director, and other similiar

  18. TQM (Total Quality Management) SPARC (Special Process Action Review Committees) Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    improvement; Logistics information; Process analysis; Quality control; Quality assurance; Total Quality Management ; Statistical processes; Management Planning and control; Management training; Management information systems.... Quality Management (TQM). It includes concepts and definitions, checklists, sample formats, and assessment criteria. Keywords: Continuous process...This document describes the techniques used to support and guide the Special Process Action Review Committees for accomplishing their goals for Total

  19. Sockeye salmon evolution, ecology, and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann

    2007-01-01

    This collection of articles and photographs gives managers a good idea of recent research into what the sockeye salmon is and does, covering such topics as the vulnerability and value of sockeye salmon ecotypes, their homing ability, using new technologies to monitor reproduction, DNA and a founder event in the Lake Clark sockeye salmon, marine-derived nutrients, the exploitation of large prey, dynamic lake spawning migrations by females, variability of sockeye salmon residence, expression profiling using cDNA microarray technology, learning from stable isotropic records of native otolith hatcheries, the amount of data needed to manage sockeye salmon and estimating salmon "escapement." 

  20. Specialized Genetic Recombination Systems in Bacteria: Their Involvement in Gene Expression and Evolution,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    I AA-M98 873 WALTER EED ARMY INST OF RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC F/ 6 6 /13 I SPECIALIZED GENETIC RECOMBINATION SYSTEMS IN BACTERIA? THI R IM--ETC(U) 1980 D...YEO EOT5 EIDCV7E Bacteria: Their Involvement in Gene Expression _______________ and Evolution. 6 . PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(.)G S...undifferentiated organisms that reproduce by asexual fission, a process characterized by the doubling of the cellular 81 2 09 11) 6 136 contents followed by

  1. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Nicolas J; Wilson, Carol A; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2012-12-07

    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings, along with comparative analyses of floral traits (colours and scents), shed light on particular phenotypic changes that might have fuelled the parallel evolution of these extraordinary pollination strategies. Collectively, our results provide the first substantive insights into how pollination sexual deception might have evolved in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and demonstrate that even the most extreme cases of pollinator specialization can reverse to more generalized interactions, breaking 'Cope's rule of specialization'.

  2. Optimal management of hepatitis B virus infection - EASL Special Conference.

    PubMed

    Lampertico, Pietro; Maini, Mala; Papatheodoridis, George

    2015-11-01

    There have been great strides in the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but considerable challenges remain. The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) convened a special conference focusing on all clinical aspects of the management of this disease. Immigration patterns are having a huge effect on the incidence, prevalence and genotype predominance of HBV in many European countries. In recent years there has been significant progress in our understanding of the virology and immunopathology of HBV, particularly the identification of the entry receptor for HBV conferring its hepatotropism, sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide, and a better understanding of the regulation of the covalently closed circular DNA form of HBV - the major barrier to cure. However, more fundamental scientific research is needed. Serum biomarkers and transient elastography offer equivalent performance in the grading of disease stage and progression and monitoring of treatment. Occult HBV infection is often overlooked, but has many important implications for e.g., immuno-suppression, liver transplantation and the progression and severity of liver diseases from other causes. Hepatitis B e antigen positive immunotolerant patients, who are a significant source of horizontal and vertical transmission, are at risk for developing active chronic hepatitis B, but current treatment options are ineffective. Pegylated interferon therapy, given for a finite duration, offers sustained off-treatment responses in a minority of patients. Nucleos(t)ide analogues suppress the virus, improve liver histological lesions, reverse cirrhosis in the majority of cases, and improve survival, but 'cure' cannot be achieved. There is also a pressing need for novel HBV/hepatitis D virus co-infection therapies. Novel therapeutic strategies, e.g. immunomodulation, RNA interference and viral entry inhibition have demonstrated promising early results.

  3. Evolution of Specialization of Cassida rubiginosa on Cirsium arvense (Compositae, Cardueae).

    PubMed

    Cripps, Michael G; Jackman, Sarah D; Roquet, Cristina; van Koten, Chikako; Rostás, Michael; Bourdôt, Graeme W; Susanna, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The majority of herbivorous insects are specialized feeders restricted to a plant family, genus, or species. The evolution of specialized insect-plant interactions is generally considered to be a result of trade-offs in fitness between possible hosts. Through the course of natural selection, host plants that maximize insect fitness should result in optimal, specialized, insect-plant associations. However, the extent to which insects are tracking plant phylogeny or key plant traits that act as herbivore resistance or acceptance characters is uncertain. Thus, with regard to the evolution of host plant specialization, we tested if insect performance is explained by phylogenetic relatedness of potential host plants, or key plant traits that are not phylogenetically related. We tested the survival (naive first instar to adult) of the oligophagous leaf-feeding beetle, Cassida rubiginosa, on 16 selected representatives of the Cardueae tribe (thistles and knapweeds), including some of the worst weeds in temperate grasslands of the world in terms of the economic impacts caused by lost productivity. Leaf traits (specific leaf area, leaf pubescence, flavonoid concentration, carbon and nitrogen content) were measured as explanatory variables and tested in relation to survival of the beetle, and the phylogenetic signal of the traits were examined. The survival of C. rubiginosa decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the known primary host plant, C. arvense, suggesting that specialization is a conserved character, and that insect host range, to a large degree is constrained by evolutionary history. The only trait measured that clearly offered some explanatory value for the survival of C. rubiginosa was specific leaf area. This trait was not phylogenetically dependant, and when combined with phylogenetic distance from C. arvense gave the best model explaining C. rubiginosa survival. We conclude that the specialization of the beetle is explained by a combination of

  4. Evolution of Specialization of Cassida rubiginosa on Cirsium arvense (Compositae, Cardueae)

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Michael G.; Jackman, Sarah D.; Roquet, Cristina; van Koten, Chikako; Rostás, Michael; Bourdôt, Graeme W.; Susanna, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The majority of herbivorous insects are specialized feeders restricted to a plant family, genus, or species. The evolution of specialized insect–plant interactions is generally considered to be a result of trade-offs in fitness between possible hosts. Through the course of natural selection, host plants that maximize insect fitness should result in optimal, specialized, insect–plant associations. However, the extent to which insects are tracking plant phylogeny or key plant traits that act as herbivore resistance or acceptance characters is uncertain. Thus, with regard to the evolution of host plant specialization, we tested if insect performance is explained by phylogenetic relatedness of potential host plants, or key plant traits that are not phylogenetically related. We tested the survival (naive first instar to adult) of the oligophagous leaf-feeding beetle, Cassida rubiginosa, on 16 selected representatives of the Cardueae tribe (thistles and knapweeds), including some of the worst weeds in temperate grasslands of the world in terms of the economic impacts caused by lost productivity. Leaf traits (specific leaf area, leaf pubescence, flavonoid concentration, carbon and nitrogen content) were measured as explanatory variables and tested in relation to survival of the beetle, and the phylogenetic signal of the traits were examined. The survival of C. rubiginosa decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the known primary host plant, C. arvense, suggesting that specialization is a conserved character, and that insect host range, to a large degree is constrained by evolutionary history. The only trait measured that clearly offered some explanatory value for the survival of C. rubiginosa was specific leaf area. This trait was not phylogenetically dependant, and when combined with phylogenetic distance from C. arvense gave the best model explaining C. rubiginosa survival. We conclude that the specialization of the beetle is explained by a combination

  5. Managing special populations among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Marquess, Jonathan G

    2011-12-01

    Glycemic goals and the therapies used to achieve them must be individualized for each patient based on several factors, one of the more important being coexisting conditions such as renal disease, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. The potential to lower hemoglobin A(1c) and the possible long-term benefits of diabetes treatments must be balanced with safety issues, adverse effects, tolerability, ease of use, long-term adherence, and expense. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Diabetes Association have addressed these concerns by developing treatment guidelines to maximize efficacy and safety in the majority of patients with type 2 diabetes. Other organizations, including the American Medical Directors Association and the American Geriatric Society, have also published guidelines for diabetes management for patients in long-term care facilities. This review discusses the safety profiles of antidiabetic drugs, and the special treatment needs with respect to these drugs for patients with diabetes and comorbidities such as renal disease, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.

  6. 22 CFR 41.54 - Intracompany transferees (executives, managers, and specialized knowledge employees).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and specialized knowledge employees). 41.54 Section 41.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS... Media Visas § 41.54 Intracompany transferees (executives, managers, and specialized knowledge employees... specialized knowledge throughout that year; or (3) The alien is destined to render services in such a capacity...

  7. 22 CFR 41.54 - Intracompany transferees (executives, managers, and specialized knowledge employees).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and specialized knowledge employees). 41.54 Section 41.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS... Media Visas § 41.54 Intracompany transferees (executives, managers, and specialized knowledge employees... specialized knowledge throughout that year; or (3) The alien is destined to render services in such a capacity...

  8. 22 CFR 41.54 - Intracompany transferees (executives, managers, and specialized knowledge employees).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and specialized knowledge employees). 41.54 Section 41.54 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS... Media Visas § 41.54 Intracompany transferees (executives, managers, and specialized knowledge employees... specialized knowledge throughout that year; or (3) The alien is destined to render services in such a capacity...

  9. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  10. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  11. Evolution, molecular epidemiology and perspectives on the research of taeniid parasites with special emphasis on Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Fleury, Agnès; García-Varela, Martín; Sciutto, Edda; Larralde, Carlos; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-04-01

    Human cysticercosis is known since old historical times in Greece and China; however, human infections by tapeworms have accompanied human beings for more that hundred thousand years. The disease is tightly bound to poverty and lack of hygiene, and has been eradicated in developed countries, but continues being a public health problem in developing countries of Latin-American, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is also remerging in a number of non endemic countries. It is considered a neglected disease. Here we revise a number of key scientific contributions on taeniid biology that open new avenues for more effective approaches to the control of cysticercosis. The evolution of flatworms and class Cestoda is analyzed, with special emphasis on the emergence of taeniid parasites and the colonization of the human species by tapeworms. The complex molecular host-parasite interplay in this relationship as result of co-evolution between two distantly related organisms. The relevant host and parasite's factors, in the prospect of identifying species-specific molecular markers useful in epidemiological studies carried out in endemic countries. The new possibilities arising with the characterization of the genomes for several species of tapeworms, including a deeper understanding of these organisms, as well as improved tools for diagnosis, vaccination and drug treatment. The need to revise the current control and management strategies for this tropical neglected disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 34248 - Equestrian Stables at Meadowood Special Recreation Management Area, VA; Information Sharing Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Equestrian Stables at Meadowood Special Recreation Management Area, VA; Information Sharing Meeting AGENCY... equestrian stables at Meadowood Special Recreation Management Area (SRMA), located in Lorton, VA, and collect...

  13. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited

    PubMed Central

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Wilson, Carol A.; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A.; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings, along with comparative analyses of floral traits (colours and scents), shed light on particular phenotypic changes that might have fuelled the parallel evolution of these extraordinary pollination strategies. Collectively, our results provide the first substantive insights into how pollination sexual deception might have evolved in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and demonstrate that even the most extreme cases of pollinator specialization can reverse to more generalized interactions, breaking ‘Cope's rule of specialization’. PMID:23055065

  14. Cranial morphology of Javanese Homo erectus: new evidence for continuous evolution, specialization, and terminal extinction.

    PubMed

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Aziz, Fachroel; Indriati, Etty; Jacob, Teuku; Kurniawan, Iwan; Baba, Hisao

    2008-10-01

    Our current knowledge of the evolution of Homo during the early to middle Pleistocene is far from complete. This is not only because of the small number of fossil samples available, but also due to the scarcity of standardized datasets which are reliable in terms of landmark identification, interobserver error, and other distorting factors. This study aims to accurately describe the cranial morphological changes of H. erectus in Java using a standardized set of measurements taken by the authors from 18 adult crania from Sangiran, Trinil, Sambungmacan, and Ngandong. The identification of some obscure landmarks was aided by the use of micro-CT imaging. While recent studies tend to emphasize evolutionary conservatism in Javanese H. erectus, our results reinforce the theory that chronologically later groups experienced distinct morphological changes in a number of cranial traits. Some of these changes, particularly those related to brain size expansion, are similar to those observed for the genus Homo as a whole, whereas others are apparently unique specializations restricted to Javanese H. erectus. Such morphological specializations in Java include previously undescribed anteroposterior lengthening of the midcranial base and an anterior shift of the posterior temporal muscle, which might have influenced the morphology of the angular torus and supramastoid sulcus. Analyses of morphological variation indicate that the three crania from Sambungmacan variously fill the morphological gap between the chronologically earlier (Bapang-AG, Bapang Formation above the Grenzbank zone in Sangiran) and later (Ngandong) morphotypes of Java. At least one of the Bapang-AG crania, Sangiran 17, also exhibits a few characteristics which potentially indicate evolution toward the Ngandong condition. These strongly suggest the continuous, gradual morphological evolution of Javanese H. erectus from the Bapang-AG to Ngandong periods. The development of some unique features in later Javanese H

  15. Rapid evolution of smell and taste receptor genes during host specialization in Drosophila sechellia

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Carolyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the genetic basis of host specialization in insects is limited to basic information on the number and location of genetic factors underlying changes in conspicuous phenotypes. We know nothing about general patterns of molecular evolution that may accompany host specialization but are not traceable to a single prominent phenotypic change. Here, I describe changes in the entire repertoire of 136 olfactory receptor (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) genes of the recently specialized vinegar fly Drosophila sechellia. I find that D. sechellia is losing Or and Gr genes nearly 10 times faster than its generalist sibling Drosophila simulans. Moreover, those D. sechellia receptors that remain intact have fixed amino acid replacement mutations at a higher rate relative to silent mutations than have their D. simulans orthologs. Comparison of these patterns with those observed in a random sample of genes indicates that the changes at Or and Gr loci are likely to reflect positive selection and/or relaxed constraint associated with the altered ecological niche of this fly. PMID:17360391

  16. Mantle cell lymphoma-management in evolution.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Saurabh; Kahl, Brad S

    2015-03-01

    The management of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has been an area of rapid change in recent years. These changes have improved the prognosis for a disease that has had historically poor outcomes. There are several treatment options for the patient with newly diagnosed MCL, with younger, fit patients often receiving intensive treatment, while less intensive strategies have been used for older, less fit patients. The past few years has also seen the arrival of several novel agents used in the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) disease. These targeted therapies combine relatively high response rates with a favorable side-effect profile making them ideal agents for use in this patient population.

  17. Evolution of nutritional management of acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Golden, Michael H

    2010-08-01

    Wasting, kwashiorkor and stunting are not usually due to either protein or energy deficiency. Treatment based upon this concept results in high mortality rates, and failure of treated children to return physiologically to normal. They become relatively obese with insufficient lean tissue. Preventive strategies have also failed. Wasting and stunting are primarily due to deficiency of type II nutrients and kwashiorkor probably due to deficiency of several type I nutrients that confer resistance to oxidative stress. Modern dietary treatments are based upon the F75 formula whilst the child is sick without an appetite, followed by F100 for rapid gain of weight. Derivative, ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) allow treatment of large numbers of children at home, are preferred by mothers and dramatically improve coverage. Children are indentified by screening in the community and treated before complications arise, using simple protocols. Successful treatment of the sick children with severe malnutrition not only depends upon these products, but appropriate management of complications. The physiology of the malnourished child is completely different from the normal child and many drugs and treatments that are safe in children with normal physiology are fatal for the malnourished child. In particular, the diagnosis and management of diarrhea and dehydration is different in the malnourished child. Giving standard treatment frequently leads to circulatory overload and death from heart failure. The challenge now is to find successful local ways to prevent malnutrition and achieve nutritional security. Until prevention works, we have to rely on fortified foods for treatment and convalescence from illness.

  18. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-3 - Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Laboratory management and operation. 970.1504-1-3 Section 970.1504-1-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-3 Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation. (a) For the management...

  19. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-3 - Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Laboratory management and operation. 970.1504-1-3 Section 970.1504-1-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-3 Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation. (a) For the management...

  20. Evolution in management of otogenic brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Szyfter, Witold; Kruk-Zagajewska, Aleksandra; Borucki, Lukasz; Bartochowska, Anna

    2012-04-01

    To present the therapeutic results related with treating 103 patients with cerebral abscesses of otogenic origin during 3 various time frames (1953-1977, 1978-1989, and 1990-2011). A total of 103 patients with cerebral abscess of otogenic origin. Diagnostics and treatment. Analysis of mortality rates, abscess location and its basis, coexisting complications, neurological condition at admittance, bacteriological tests, and presentation of the results of abscess treatment with the use of neuronavigation. Mortality rates dropped systematically from the initial value of 35% observed between 1953 and 1977, to 14% between 1978 and 1989, and finally reached 3% between 1990 and 2011. Abscesses were mainly located within the temporal lobe. They predominantly resulted from chronic inflammation of the middle ear. A wide panel of complications was associated with them. Strong concurrence between results of cultures taken from the ear and the abscess was noted. Cerebral abscesses remain one of the most severe complications related with inflammation of the middle ear. Both the operative methods and the postoperative care evolved (introduction of surgical microscope, new generation of antibiotics), the preoperative diagnostics facilitating the diagnosis and localization of the abscess progressed; nonetheless, the principles underlying the operative treatment remained unchanged. Neuronavigation constitutes a very important and supportive element in the management of otogenic brain abscesses.

  1. Model Special Education Manpower Information and Management System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Cynthia

    The Massachusetts Special Education Manpower Planning Project is described. Relying on cooperative planning, the project developed a system to provide information on manpower planning, a system to link other agencies with the project, and annual statements of state special education training priorities. The project also collaborated with six other…

  2. The Evolution of Host Specialization in the Vertebrate Gut Symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri

    SciTech Connect

    Frese, Steven A.; Benson, Andrew K.; Tannock, Gerald W.; Loach, Diane M.; Kim, Jaehyoung; Zhang, Min; Oh, Phaik Lyn; Heng, Nicholas C. K.; Patil, Prabhu; Juge, Nathalie; MacKenzie, Donald A.; Pearson, Bruce M.; Lapidus, Alla L.; Dalin, Eileen; Tice, Hope; Goltsman, Eugene; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Walter, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has provided mechanistic insight into the important contributions of the gut microbiota to vertebrate biology, but questions remain about the evolutionary processes that have shaped this symbiosis. In the present study, we showed in experiments with gnotobiotic mice that the evolution of Lactobacillus reuteri with rodents resulted in the emergence of host specialization. To identify genomic events marking adaptations to the murine host, we compared the genome of the rodent isolate L. reuteri 100-23 with that of the human isolate L. reuteri F275, and we identified hundreds of genes that were specific to each strain. In order to differentiate true host-specific genome content from strain-level differences, comparative genome hybridizations were performed to query 57 L. reuteri strains originating from six different vertebrate hosts in combination with genome sequence comparisons of nine strains encompassing five phylogenetic lineages of the species. This approach revealed that rodent strains, although showing a high degree of genomic plasticity, possessed a specific genome inventory that was rare or absent in strains from other vertebrate hosts. The distinct genome content of L. reuteri lineages reflected the niche characteristics in the gastrointestinal tracts of their respective hosts, and inactivation of seven out of eight representative rodent-specific genes in L. reuteri 100-23 resulted in impaired ecological performance in the gut of mice. The comparative genomic analyses suggested fundamentally different trends of genome evolution in rodent and human L. reuteri populations, with the former possessing a large and adaptable pan-genome while the latter being subjected to a process of reductive evolution. In conclusion, this study provided experimental evidence and a molecular basis for the evolution of host specificity in a vertebrate gut symbiont, and it identified genomic events that have shaped this process.

  3. Evolution or revolution? Adapting to complexity in wound management.

    PubMed

    Harding, Keith; Gray, David; Timmons, John; Hurd, Theresa

    2007-06-01

    Wound clinics are seeing an increase in the number of 'complex' wounds, which arise as the result of the interaction between multiple coexisting systemic pathologies, environmental factors and local wound factors. These complex wounds require an approach to diagnosis and management that can encapsulate all these factors. Unified wound assessment approaches such as HEIDI (History, Examination, Investigations, Diagnosis and management plan), wound bed preparation and applied wound management systems are essential to reach a definitive diagnosis and to ensure that management is agreed between the various clinical specialities that may be involved. A series of case histories is presented that illustrate the benefits of a unified approach to wound management. Results of a study into the cost-effectiveness of an improved foam dressing are presented, and the problems of demonstrating the ability to make long-term savings through short-term expenditure are discussed.

  4. Replicated evolution of trophic specializations in an endemic cichlid fish lineage from Lake Tanganyika

    PubMed Central

    Rüber, Lukas; Verheyen, Erik; Meyer, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The current phylogenetic hypothesis for the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes of the tribe Eretmodini is based solely on morphology and suggests that more complex trophic morphologies derived only once from a less specialized ancestral condition. A molecular phylogeny of eretmodine cichlids based on partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and control-region sequences was used to reconstruct the evolutionary sequence of trophic adaptations and to test alternative models of morphological divergence. The six mitochondrial lineages found disagree with the current taxonomy and the morphology-based phylogeny. Mitochondrial lineages with similar trophic morphologies are not grouped monophyletically but are typically more closely related to lineages with different trophic phenotypes currently assigned to other genera. Our results indicate multiple independent origins of similar trophic specializations in these cichlids. A pattern of repeated divergent morphological evolution becomes apparent when the phylogeography of the mitochondrial haplotypes is analyzed in the context of the geological and paleoclimatological history of Lake Tanganyika. In more than one instance within Lake Tanganyika, similar morphological divergence of dentitional traits occurred in sympatric species pairs. Possibly, resource-based divergent selective regimes led to resource partitioning and brought about similar trophic morphologies independently and repeatedly. PMID:10468591

  5. Independent evolution of the specialized pharyngeal jaw apparatus in cichlid and labrid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Kohji; Miya, Masaki; Azuma, Yoichiro; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2007-01-01

    Background Fishes in the families Cichlidae and Labridae provide good probable examples of vertebrate adaptive radiations. Their spectacular trophic radiations have been widely assumed to be due to structural key innovation in pharyngeal jaw apparatus (PJA), but this idea has never been tested based on a reliable phylogeny. For the first step of evaluating the hypothesis, we investigated the phylogenetic positions of the components of the suborder Labroidei (including Pomacentridae and Embiotocidae in addition to Cichlidae and Labridae) within the Percomorpha, the most diversified (> 15,000 spp) crown clade of teleosts. We examined those based on 78 whole mitochondrial genome sequences (including 12 newly determined sequences) through partitioned Bayesian analyses with concatenated sequences (13,933 bp). Results The resultant phylogenies indicated that the Labridae and the remaining three labroid families have diverged basally within the Percomorpha, and monophyly of the suborder was confidently rejected by statistical tests using Bayes factors. Conclusion The resultant phylogenies indicated that the specified PJA evolved independently at least twice, once in Labridae and once in the common ancestor of the remaining three labroid families (including the Cichlidae). Because the independent evolution of pharyngeal jaws appears to have been followed by trophic radiations, we consider that our result supports, from the aspect of historical repeatability, the idea that the evolution of the specialized PJA provided these lineages with the morphological potential for their spectacular trophic radiations. The present result will provide a new framework for the study of functional morphology and genetic basis of their PJA. PMID:17263894

  6. Evolution of placental specializations in viviparous African and South American lizards.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Alexander F; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2003-09-01

    Phylogenetic information offers an important resource in analyses of reproductive diversity, including interpretations of fetal membrane evolution. In this paper, we draw upon ongoing studies of South American and African lizards to consider the value of combining phylogenetic and reproductive evidence in the construction of evolutionary interpretations. South American lizards of the genus Mabuya exhibit several reproductive specializations that are convergent on those of eutherian mammals, including viviparity, long gestation periods, ovulation of tiny eggs, and placental supply of the nutrients for development. Studies of placental morphology and development indicate that New World Mabuya share several other derived features, including chorionic areolae and a "Type IV" epitheliochorial placenta with a villous, mesometrial placentome. Some characteristics of these lizards are shared by two African skinks, M. ivensii and Eumecia anchietae, including minuscule eggs, placentotrophy, an absorptive chorioallantois, and features of the yolk sac. Available evidence is consistent with two explanations: (1) placentotrophy originated in Africa, predating a trans-Atlantic colonization by Mabuya of the New World; and (2) placentotrophy arose two or three separate times among these closely related skinks. As illustrated by analysis of these animals, not only can data on fetal membrane morphology yield phylogenetic information, but phylogenetic evidence in turn provides a valuable way to reconstruct the evolution of fetal membranes in a biogeographic context. When appropriately interpreted, morphological and phylogenetic evidence can be combined to yield robust evolutionary conclusions that avoid the pitfalls of circular reasoning. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications.

  8. Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Pat

    Designed for middle school students, this award winning, six-day teaching unit helped students learn about the concepts of specialization, interdependence, efficiency, and profit. At the onset of the lesson the students were already familiar with the concepts of scarcity, goods, services, profits, supply, demand, and opportunity costs. The unit's…

  9. Aquatic Plants: Management and Control. Special Circular 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, R. G.; And Others

    This publication, produced by the Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension Service, is a non-technical guide to chemical control of aquatic vegetation. The purpose of this circular is to aid the land owner or manager in managing ponds, streams, and other water bodies for desired uses by managing the vegetation in, on, and around the water. Among the…

  10. Aquatic Plants: Management and Control. Special Circular 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingard, R. G.; And Others

    This publication, produced by the Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension Service, is a non-technical guide to chemical control of aquatic vegetation. The purpose of this circular is to aid the land owner or manager in managing ponds, streams, and other water bodies for desired uses by managing the vegetation in, on, and around the water. Among the…

  11. Preparing Students for Jobs: Managing and Writing for Specialized Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, Derry

    In this paper, two magazine courses offered at Colorado State University as part of the Technical-Business Journalism concentration are described in terms of course content, class assignments, and course objectives. The course entitled "Writing for Specialized Audiences" assumes that the majority of magazines published today are edited for readers…

  12. Management Models and Cost Analysis for Regional Special Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Eugene T.

    The implementation of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) has placed an enormous financial burden on local districts. In order to create special education programs that combine cost effectiveness and high quality, a regional model has been developed. The Therapeutic Residential Experience for Emotional Stability (TREES) in…

  13. Optimizing Special Educator Wellness and Job Performance through Stress Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Brandis M.; Houchins, David; Varjas, Kris

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the stressors common to many K-12 teachers, such as high-stakes testing, a lack of autonomy, and high mental and emotional demands, special educators also address the unique needs of their students, team-teach, and maintain caseload responsibilities (Emery & Vandenberg, 2010). Many who enter the profession are fulfilled by the…

  14. Optimizing Special Educator Wellness and Job Performance through Stress Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Brandis M.; Houchins, David; Varjas, Kris

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the stressors common to many K-12 teachers, such as high-stakes testing, a lack of autonomy, and high mental and emotional demands, special educators also address the unique needs of their students, team-teach, and maintain caseload responsibilities (Emery & Vandenberg, 2010). Many who enter the profession are fulfilled by the…

  15. The Special Educator's Toolkit: Everything You Need to Organize, Manage, and Monitor Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Overwhelmed special educators: Reduce your stress and support student success with this practical toolkit for whole-classroom organization. A lifesaver for special educators in any K-12 setting, this book-and-CD set will help teachers expertly manage everything, from schedules and paperwork to student supports and behavior plans. Cindy Golden, a…

  16. Self-Management Skills: An Important Link to Successful Special Education Postsecondary Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the process of teaching the self-management strategies, self-determination, and self-monitoring to chronically misbehaved students from the perspective of a secondary special education teacher. The investigation used a purposeful sample to select an urban high school setting and a tenured special education…

  17. Self-Management Skills: An Important Link to Successful Special Education Postsecondary Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated the process of teaching the self-management strategies, self-determination, and self-monitoring to chronically misbehaved students from the perspective of a secondary special education teacher. The investigation used a purposeful sample to select an urban high school setting and a tenured special education…

  18. The Special Educator's Toolkit: Everything You Need to Organize, Manage, and Monitor Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Overwhelmed special educators: Reduce your stress and support student success with this practical toolkit for whole-classroom organization. A lifesaver for special educators in any K-12 setting, this book-and-CD set will help teachers expertly manage everything, from schedules and paperwork to student supports and behavior plans. Cindy Golden, a…

  19. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Classroom Management: Implications for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Regina M.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Special education teachers' skills with classroom organization and behavior management affect the emergence and persistence of behavior problems as well as the success of inclusive practice for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Adequate special education teacher preparation and strong classroom organization and behavior…

  20. The Market Forces? The Effects of Local Management of Schools on Special Educational Needs Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reviews approaches taken by local education authorities to the funding and organization for special education needs under school-based management. Examines two case studies and concludes that responsibility for special needs students increasingly is becoming that of the school alone. (CFR)

  1. 50 CFR 622.16 - Notice regarding South Atlantic special management zones (SMZs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice regarding South Atlantic special... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General Provisions § 622.16 Notice regarding South Atlantic special management... restrictions in South Atlantic SMZs that apply to snapper-grouper and coastal migratory pelagic fisheries...

  2. 50 CFR 622.16 - Notice regarding South Atlantic special management zones (SMZs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice regarding South Atlantic special... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC General Provisions § 622.16 Notice regarding South Atlantic special management... restrictions in South Atlantic SMZs that apply to snapper-grouper and coastal migratory pelagic fisheries...

  3. The Evolution of Special Education in Iowa: As Told through the Voices of Those Who Created It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Jeff; Stumme, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a historical perspective of the evolution of special education in Iowa through the voices of the people who created the system of support for individuals with disabilities. In addition to the interviews, extensive historical literature reviews were conducted. One hundred and thirty individuals were…

  4. Emergence and subsequent functional specialization of kindlins during evolution of cell adhesiveness

    PubMed Central

    Meller, Julia; Rogozin, Igor B.; Poliakov, Eugenia; Meller, Nahum; Bedanov-Pack, Mark; Plow, Edward F.; Qin, Jun; Podrez, Eugene A.; Byzova, Tatiana V.

    2015-01-01

    Kindlins are integrin-interacting proteins essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesiveness. In this study, we focused on the evolutionary origin and functional specialization of kindlins as a part of the evolutionary adaptation of cell adhesive machinery. Database searches revealed that many members of the integrin machinery (including talin and integrins) existed before kindlin emergence in evolution. Among the analyzed species, all metazoan lineages—but none of the premetazoans—had at least one kindlin-encoding gene, whereas talin was present in several premetazoan lineages. Kindlin appears to originate from a duplication of the sequence encoding the N-terminal fragment of talin (the talin head domain) with a subsequent insertion of the PH domain of separate origin. Sequence analysis identified a member of the actin filament–associated protein 1 (AFAP1) superfamily as the most likely origin of the kindlin PH domain. The functional divergence between kindlin paralogues was assessed using the sequence swap (chimera) approach. Comparison of kindlin 2 (K2)/kindlin 3 (K3) chimeras revealed that the F2 subdomain, in particular its C-terminal part, is crucial for the differential functional properties of K2 and K3. The presence of this segment enables K2 but not K3 to localize to focal adhesions. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal part of the F2 subdomain of K3 suggests that insertion of a variable glycine-rich sequence in vertebrates contributed to the loss of constitutive K3 targeting to focal adhesions. Thus emergence and subsequent functional specialization of kindlins allowed multicellular organisms to develop additional tissue-specific adaptations of cell adhesiveness. PMID:25540429

  5. Emergence and subsequent functional specialization of kindlins during evolution of cell adhesiveness.

    PubMed

    Meller, Julia; Rogozin, Igor B; Poliakov, Eugenia; Meller, Nahum; Bedanov-Pack, Mark; Plow, Edward F; Qin, Jun; Podrez, Eugene A; Byzova, Tatiana V

    2015-02-15

    Kindlins are integrin-interacting proteins essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesiveness. In this study, we focused on the evolutionary origin and functional specialization of kindlins as a part of the evolutionary adaptation of cell adhesive machinery. Database searches revealed that many members of the integrin machinery (including talin and integrins) existed before kindlin emergence in evolution. Among the analyzed species, all metazoan lineages—but none of the premetazoans—had at least one kindlin-encoding gene, whereas talin was present in several premetazoan lineages. Kindlin appears to originate from a duplication of the sequence encoding the N-terminal fragment of talin (the talin head domain) with a subsequent insertion of the PH domain of separate origin. Sequence analysis identified a member of the actin filament-associated protein 1 (AFAP1) superfamily as the most likely origin of the kindlin PH domain. The functional divergence between kindlin paralogues was assessed using the sequence swap (chimera) approach. Comparison of kindlin 2 (K2)/kindlin 3 (K3) chimeras revealed that the F2 subdomain, in particular its C-terminal part, is crucial for the differential functional properties of K2 and K3. The presence of this segment enables K2 but not K3 to localize to focal adhesions. Sequence analysis of the C-terminal part of the F2 subdomain of K3 suggests that insertion of a variable glycine-rich sequence in vertebrates contributed to the loss of constitutive K3 targeting to focal adhesions. Thus emergence and subsequent functional specialization of kindlins allowed multicellular organisms to develop additional tissue-specific adaptations of cell adhesiveness.

  6. Pain management in the special operations environment: regional anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Calkins, M D; Kuzma, P J; Larkin, T M; Green, D L

    2001-03-01

    Pain relief is an essential component of combat casualty care. For the injured soldier, analgesia is not only a matter of comfort. Alleviating pain may allow the soldier to remain quiet when noise discipline is at a premium. It may also allow that person to continue to move, thus avoiding detection and potentially permitting the mission to carry on. Regional anesthetics provide an alternative to systemic medications and thus may avoid a clouded sensorium, limit narcotic administration, and provide superior pain relief. Standard local anesthetics and newer agents with potential field applicability are discussed along with their side effect profiles. Simple nerve block techniques that can be used by Army Special Forces medics, Navy SEAL and Reconnaissance corpsmen, and Air Force pararescuemen in the far forward environment are described step by step. The advantages of these regional anesthetic methods should make their use a must for every special operations medical care provider.

  7. Tools and Equipment for Managing Special Care Patients Anywhere.

    PubMed

    Levy, Harvey; Rotenberg, Lena R

    2016-07-01

    This article describes many of the tools and equipment used by dental professionals to successfully treat special care patients in a variety of settings. Such equipment can be used in the dental office, operating room, hospital, surgical center, nursing home, private home, institution, hospice, and even in the field without electricity. Equipment discussed includes seating, laughing gas and sedation systems, body wraps and mouth props, lighting, radiographic exposure and imaging systems, dental isolation devices, and other tools the authors use.

  8. Optimizing Global Force Management for Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN OPERATIONS RESEARCH from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE...Department of Operations Research iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT In light of increasing Special Operations Forces (SOF) mission...on to me about life and the Army Operations Research community. This thesis would also not be possible without the help of the dedicated staff of

  9. On the evolution of specialization with a mechanistic underpinning in structured metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Tuomas; Parvinen, Kalle

    2008-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of specialization in resource utilization in a discrete-time metapopulation model using the adaptive dynamics approach. The local dynamics in the metapopulation are based on the Beverton-Holt model with mechanistic underpinnings. The consumer faces a trade-off in the abilities to consume two resources that are spatially heterogeneously distributed to patches that are prone to local catastrophes. We explore the factors favoring the spread of generalist or specialist strategies. Increasing fecundity or decreasing catastrophe probability favors the spread of the generalist strategy and increasing environmental heterogeneity enlarges the parameter domain where the evolutionary branching is possible. When there are no catastrophes, increasing emigration diminishes the parameter domain where the evolutionary branching may occur. Otherwise, the effect of emigration on evolutionary dynamics is non-monotonous: both small and large values of emigration probability favor the spread of the specialist strategies whereas the parameter domain where evolutionary branching may occur is largest when the emigration probability has intermediate values. We compare how different forms of spatial heterogeneity and different models of local growth affect the evolutionary dynamics. We show that even small changes in the resource dynamics may have outstanding evolutionary effects to the consumers.

  10. Evolution of vertebrate viviparity and specializations for fetal nutrition: A quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Daniel G

    2015-08-01

    Phylogenetic analyses indicate that viviparity (live-bearing reproduction) has originated independently in more than 150 vertebrate lineages, including a minimum of 115 clades of extant squamate reptiles. Other evolutionary origins of viviparity include 13 origins among bony fishes, nine among chondrichthyans, eight in amphibians, one in Paleozoic placoderms, six among extinct reptiles, and one in mammals. The origins of viviparity range geologically from the mid-Paleozoic through the Mesozoic to the Pleistocene. Substantial matrotrophy (maternal provision of nutrients to embryos during pregnancy) has arisen at least 33 times in these viviparous clades, with most (26) of these origins having occurred among fishes and amphibians. Convergent evolution in patterns of matrotrophy is widespread, as reflected by multiple independent origins of placentotrophy, histotrophy, oophagy, and embryophagy. Specializations for nutrient transfer to embryos are discontinuously distributed, reflecting the roles of phylogenetic inertia, exaptation (preadaptation), and constraint. Ancestral features that function in gas exchange and nutrition repeatedly and convergently have been co-opted for nutrient transfer, often through minor modification of their components and changes in the timing of their expression (heterochrony). Studies on functional and evolutionary morphology continue to play a central role in our attempts to understand viviparity and mechanisms of fetal nutrition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Youth sport specialization: how to manage competition and training?

    PubMed

    Capranica, Laura; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L

    2011-12-01

    A prevailing theory (and practical application) is that elite performance requires early childhood skill development and training across various domains, including sport. Debate continues whether children specializing early (ie, training/competition in a single sport) have true advantage compared with those who sample various sports early and specialize in a single sport later (adolescence). Retrospective data and case studies suggest either model yields elite status depending upon the sport category (ie, situational: ball games, martial arts, fencing; quantitative: track and field, swimming, skiing; or qualitative: gymnastics, diving, figure skating). However, potential risks of early specialization include greater attrition and adverse physical/emotional health outcomes. With the advent of the IOC Youth Olympic Games, increased emphasis on global youth competition has unknown implications but also represents a potential platform for investigation. Modification of youth competition formats should be based upon multidisciplinary research on psychophysiological responses, and technical-tactical behaviors during competition. The assumption that a simple scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of technical/tactical skills of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Relatively little evidence exists regarding the long-term effects of rigorous training and competitive schedules on children in specific sports. It is clear that more prospective studies are needed to understand the training dose that optimally develops adaptations in youth without inducing dropout, overtraining syndrome, and/or injury. Such an approach should be sport specific as well as gender based. Until such evidence exists, coaches and sport administrators will continue to rely upon their sport-specific dogma to influence programmatic development of our most vulnerable population.

  12. Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks: Approach and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meike, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The Data Management System network is a complex and important part of manned space platforms. Its efficient operation is vital to crew, subsystems and experiments. AI is being considered to aid in the initial design of the network and to augment the management of its operation. The Intelligent Resource Management for Local Area Networks (IRMA-LAN) project is concerned with the application of AI techniques to network configuration and management. A network simulation was constructed employing real time process scheduling for realistic loads, and utilizing the IEEE 802.4 token passing scheme. This simulation is an integral part of the construction of the IRMA-LAN system. From it, a causal model is being constructed for use in prediction and deep reasoning about the system configuration. An AI network design advisor is being added to help in the design of an efficient network. The AI portion of the system is planned to evolve into a dynamic network management aid. The approach, the integrated simulation, project evolution, and some initial results are described.

  13. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  14. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  15. Evolution of shuttle avionics redundancy management/fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boykin, J. C.; Thibodeau, J. R.; Schneider, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    The challenge of providing redundancy management (RM) and fault tolerance to meet the Shuttle Program requirements of fail operational/fail safe for the avionics systems was complicated by the critical program constraints of weight, cost, and schedule. The basic and sometimes false effectivity of less than pure RM designs is addressed. Evolution of the multiple input selection filter (the heart of the RM function) is discussed with emphasis on the subtle interactions of the flight control system that were found to be potentially catastrophic. Several other general RM development problems are discussed, with particular emphasis on the inertial measurement unit RM, indicative of the complexity of managing that three string system and its critical interfaces with the guidance and control systems.

  16. The Evolution of Groundwater Management Paradigms in Kansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to trace the evolution of key water-related laws and management practices in Kansas, from the enactment of the Kansas Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1945 to the present, in order to highlight the state's efforts to create a more sustainable water future and in hopes that others will benefit from Kansas' experience. The 1945 Act provides the basic framework of water law (prior appropriation) in Kansas. Progression of groundwater management in the state encompasses local ground-water management districts (GMDs) and their water-management programs, minimum-streamflow and TMDL standards, water-use reporting and water metering programs, use of modified safe-yield policies in some GMDs, the subbasin water-resources-management program, the integrated resource planning/Aquifer Storage and Recovery project of the City of Wichita, the Central Kansas Water Bank, enhanced aquifer subunits management, and various water conservation programs. While these have all contributed to the slowing down of declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and in associated ecosystems, they have not yet succeeded in halting those declines. Based on the assumption that the different management approaches have to operate easily within the prevailing water rights and law framework to succeed, a number of steps are suggested here that may help further halt the declines of the High Plains aquifer. These include eliminating the "use it or lose it" maxim in the prior-appropriation framework, broadening the definition of "beneficial use," regulating domestic and other "exempt" wells, encouraging voluntary "sharing the shortage" agreements, and determining to what extent water rights may be regulated in the public interest without a compensable "taking." Further necessary measures include determining to what extent water-rights holders might be subjected to reasonable dictates without having the security of their rights altered.

  17. 42 CFR 438.706 - Special rules for temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 438.706 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) There is continued egregious behavior by the MCO, including but not limited to behavior that is... terminate temporary management until it determines that the MCO can ensure that the sanctioned behavior will...

  18. 42 CFR 438.706 - Special rules for temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 438.706 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) There is continued egregious behavior by the MCO, including but not limited to behavior that is... terminate temporary management until it determines that the MCO can ensure that the sanctioned behavior will...

  19. 42 CFR 438.706 - Special rules for temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 438.706 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...) There is continued egregious behavior by the MCO, including but not limited to behavior that is... terminate temporary management until it determines that the MCO can ensure that the sanctioned behavior will...

  20. Special features in managing European Training Networks (ETN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Daniela; Eisenhauer, Anton; Drossou-Berendes, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    The Marie Skłodowska-Curie European Training Networks (ETN) within Horizon 2020, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, aim to train a new generation of creative and innovative early-stage researchers with focus on both scientific excellence and researchers' career development extending the traditional academic research training, and providing researchers with tools to develop scientific expertise and transferable skills needed to establish career perspectives in academia as well as non-academia. This profile is different from what we know from "typical" collaborative projects, and project consortia face specific challenges with regard to international recruitment, joint organization of network activities, financial regulations, etc. The poster will give an overview of the main ETN features emphasizing special requirements and needs, and identifying main challenges, which may rise.

  1. 25 CFR 1200.17 - What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds? 1200.17 Section 1200.17 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.17 What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans...

  2. 25 CFR 1200.17 - What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds? 1200.17 Section 1200.17 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE... Withdrawing Tribal Funds From Trust § 1200.17 What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans...

  3. Depth vs. Breadth: Talent Management for Special Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    development is significantly greater than the contribution of education and training.”19 Morrison and Hock argue strongly that a developmental sequence of...18 Ibid., 257. 19 Douglas T. Hall, Career Development in Organizations , Jossey-Bass Management Series (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1986... developing trust, which takes time. (3) The third year is a game changer A third year in a key job can make the whole organization better. Even when

  4. A theoretical examination of the relative importance of evolution management and drug development for managing resistance.

    PubMed

    McClure, Nathan S; Day, Troy

    2014-12-22

    Drug resistance is a serious public health problem that threatens to thwart our ability to treat many infectious diseases. Repeatedly, the introduction of new drugs has been followed by the evolution of resistance. In principle, there are two complementary ways to address this problem: (i) enhancing drug development and (ii) slowing the evolution of drug resistance through evolutionary management. Although these two strategies are not mutually exclusive, it is nevertheless worthwhile considering whether one might be inherently more effective than the other. We present a simple mathematical model that explores how interventions aimed at these two approaches affect the availability of effective drugs. Our results identify an interesting feature of evolution management that, all else equal, tends to make it more effective than enhancing drug development. Thus, although enhancing drug development will necessarily be a central part of addressing the problem of resistance, our results lend support to the idea that evolution management is probably a very significant component of the solution as well.

  5. A theoretical examination of the relative importance of evolution management and drug development for managing resistance

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Nathan S.; Day, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a serious public health problem that threatens to thwart our ability to treat many infectious diseases. Repeatedly, the introduction of new drugs has been followed by the evolution of resistance. In principle, there are two complementary ways to address this problem: (i) enhancing drug development and (ii) slowing the evolution of drug resistance through evolutionary management. Although these two strategies are not mutually exclusive, it is nevertheless worthwhile considering whether one might be inherently more effective than the other. We present a simple mathematical model that explores how interventions aimed at these two approaches affect the availability of effective drugs. Our results identify an interesting feature of evolution management that, all else equal, tends to make it more effective than enhancing drug development. Thus, although enhancing drug development will necessarily be a central part of addressing the problem of resistance, our results lend support to the idea that evolution management is probably a very significant component of the solution as well. PMID:25377456

  6. The three-dimensional matrix -- An evolution in project management

    SciTech Connect

    Glidewell, D.

    1996-09-01

    In the Functional Department Dimension, functional departments such as project management, design, and construction would be maintained to maximize consistency among project teams, evenly allocate training opportunities, and facilitate the crossfeeding of lessons learned and innovative ideas. Functional departments were also determined to be the surest way of complying uniformly with all project control systems required by the Department of Energy (Sandia`s primary external customer). The Technical Discipline dimension was maintained to enhance communication within the technical disciplines, such as electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, etc., and to evenly allocate technical training opportunities, reduce technical obsolescence, and enhance design standards. The third dimension, the Project Dimension, represents the next step in the project management evolution at Sandia, and together with Functional Department and Technical Discipline Dimensions constitutes the three-dimensional matrix. It is this Project Dimension that will be explored thoroughly in this paper, including a discussion of the specific roles and responsibilities of both management and the project team.

  7. Special Report Management Challenges at the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    With an annual appropriation of approximately $24 billion, the Department of Energy (Department) is a multi-faceted agency that encompasses a broad range of national security, scientific, and environmental activities. Since the passage of the Department of Energy Organization Act in 1977, the Department has shifted its emphasis and priorities over time as the energy and security needs of the Nation have changed. In recent years, the Department has refocused its efforts in areas such as energy efficiency and conservation, environmental cleanup, nuclear nonproliferation, and weapons stewardship. In order to accomplish its mission, the Department employs approximately 110,000 Federal and contractor personnel and manages assets valued at more than $134 billion, including a complex of national laboratories.

  8. Special biological issues in the management of women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Jayashri; Gavrilidis, Emmy; Hayes, Emily; Heaton, Victoria; Worsley, Roisin

    2012-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating and pervasive mental illness with devastating effects on psychological, cognitive and social wellbeing, and for which current treatment options are far from ideal. Gender differences and the influence of the female reproductive life cycle on the onset, course and symptoms of schizophrenia and the discovery of estrogen's remarkable psychoprotective properties in animal models led to the proposal of the 'estrogen protection hypothesis' of schizophrenia. This has fueled the recent successful investigation of estradiol as a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent in the management of schizophrenia in women. This review explains the scientific rationale behind the estrogen hypothesis and how it can be clinically utilized to address concerns unique to the care of women with schizophrenia.

  9. 42 CFR 21.51 - Appointment of officers having specialized training or experience in administration and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or experience in administration and management. 21.51 Section 21.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH... Appointment of officers having specialized training or experience in administration and management. The... specialized training or experience in administration and management relating to the functions of the...

  10. For the patient - evolution in the management of vascular trauma.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, David V

    2017-08-31

    There has been an evolution in the diagnosis and management of vascular trauma over the past 100 years. The primary stimulus to these changes has been the increased volume of patients with cervical, truncal, and peripheral vascular injuries during military conflicts and in civilian life.Patients with "hard" signs of a vascular injury are taken to surgery emergently with a few exceptions to be described. In contrast, patients with "soft" signs of a vascular injury undergo a careful physical examination including measurement of vascular index to determine if radiologic imaging is necessary. CT arteriography has become the most commonly utilized method of imaging while duplex ultrasonography is used in some centers.Nonoperative management is now common for nonocclusive injuries diagnosed on CT arteriography. Proximal tourniquets are commonly used to control exsanguinating hemorrhage from injuries to extremities, while balloons can be used to control hemorrhage from difficult to expose areas at operation. Temporary intraluminal shunts are now used in 3-9% of arterial injuries. Operative techniques of repair have been refined and contribute to the excellent results noted in modern trauma centers.

  11. Evolution of CMS Workload Management Towards Multicore Job Support

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Hernández, J. M.; Khan, F. A.; Letts, J.; Majewski, K.; Rodrigues, A. M.; McCrea, A.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-23

    The successful exploitation of multicore processor architectures is a key element of the LHC distributed computing system in the coming era of the LHC Run 2. High-pileup complex-collision events represent a challenge for the traditional sequential programming in terms of memory and processing time budget. The CMS data production and processing framework is introducing the parallel execution of the reconstruction and simulation algorithms to overcome these limitations. CMS plans to execute multicore jobs while still supporting singlecore processing for other tasks difficult to parallelize, such as user analysis. The CMS strategy for job management thus aims at integrating single and multicore job scheduling across the Grid. This is accomplished by employing multicore pilots with internal dynamic partitioning of the allocated resources, capable of running payloads of various core counts simultaneously. An extensive test programme has been conducted to enable multicore scheduling with the various local batch systems available at CMS sites, with the focus on the Tier-0 and Tier-1s, responsible during 2015 of the prompt data reconstruction. Scale tests have been run to analyse the performance of this scheduling strategy and ensure an efficient use of the distributed resources. This paper presents the evolution of the CMS job management and resource provisioning systems in order to support this hybrid scheduling model, as well as its deployment and performance tests, which will enable CMS to transition to a multicore production model for the second LHC run.

  12. Evolution of CMS workload management towards multicore job support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Hernández, J. M.; Khan, F. A.; Letts, J.; Majewski, K.; Rodrigues, A. M.; McCrea, A.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-01

    The successful exploitation of multicore processor architectures is a key element of the LHC distributed computing system in the coming era of the LHC Run 2. High-pileup complex-collision events represent a challenge for the traditional sequential programming in terms of memory and processing time budget. The CMS data production and processing framework is introducing the parallel execution of the reconstruction and simulation algorithms to overcome these limitations. CMS plans to execute multicore jobs while still supporting singlecore processing for other tasks difficult to parallelize, such as user analysis. The CMS strategy for job management thus aims at integrating single and multicore job scheduling across the Grid. This is accomplished by employing multicore pilots with internal dynamic partitioning of the allocated resources, capable of running payloads of various core counts simultaneously. An extensive test programme has been conducted to enable multicore scheduling with the various local batch systems available at CMS sites, with the focus on the Tier-0 and Tier-1s, responsible during 2015 of the prompt data reconstruction. Scale tests have been run to analyse the performance of this scheduling strategy and ensure an efficient use of the distributed resources. This paper presents the evolution of the CMS job management and resource provisioning systems in order to support this hybrid scheduling model, as well as its deployment and performance tests, which will enable CMS to transition to a multicore production model for the second LHC run.

  13. Analysis of Alternative Management Information Systems Appropriate for Special Education Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Harry J.; And Others

    The report covers three interrelated studies which pertain to the utilization of computer based management information systems in reporting special education data to the state and federal governments. Two of the studies reflect certain aspects of actual computer use by California school districts and county offices of education, and the third…

  14. Developing and Implementing a Stress Management Program for Special Educators in a Juvenile Detention Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Joan R.

    This paper describes a practicum designed to increase the stress management skills of 10 special educators working in a juvenile detention center. Teachers at the juvenile detention center were taking an inordinate amount of sick leave and engaging in behaviors that were counter-productive to their delivery of educational services to detained…

  15. A Guide for the Management of Special Education Programs. 6.0 BCP Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    The sixth document in an eight-part series on a task-based management system for special education programs presents the Behavioral Characteristics Progression, a listing of 1,800 behavioral characteristics of mentally and behaviorally handicapped pupils which have been grouped into 45 categories of behavior called behavior strands. Behavior…

  16. Special Education Management System Project Document. 2. Santa Cruz BCP Observation Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Presented in booklet and chart form is the Behavioral Characteristics Progression (BCP), part of the Santa Cruz Special Education Management Project, consisting of 2400 observable traits grouped into 50 behavioral strands. The BCP is seen to be a nonstandardized criterion referenced tool which replaces conventional age and disability labels with…

  17. Organizational Change within State Education Agencies: Impact on Management and Leadership in Special Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Judy A.

    This report analyzes data from a survey of the 50 states and the District of Columbia designed to study changes in organizational structure within state education agencies (SEAs) and the impact of those changes on management and leadership in special education. completed forms were received from 48 SEAs or a 94 percent return rate. The report…

  18. Effective Management of Special Education Programs. A Handbook for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.; And Others

    This book is intended to guide school administrators through the day-to-day supervision of the special education program and to serve as a resource for handling problem situations that may arise. The first of the book's six chapters provides basic information on program management, including standards of compliance with state and federal…

  19. 76 FR 63252 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... validity and propriety of the use of all new information, data, and potential analyses being noticed today... identified in this notice be found? Most of the information that EPA is noticing today, including the... Management System: Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals...

  20. Analysis of Alternative Management Information Systems Appropriate for Special Education Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Harry J.; And Others

    The report covers three interrelated studies which pertain to the utilization of computer based management information systems in reporting special education data to the state and federal governments. Two of the studies reflect certain aspects of actual computer use by California school districts and county offices of education, and the third…

  1. 75 FR 51434 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes; Disposal of Coal Combustion Residuals From... electronic public docket, EPA's e-mail system is not an ``anonymous access'' system. If you send an e-mail comment directly to the Docket without going through EPA's electronic public docket, EPA's e-mail system...

  2. The Development and Evolution of Division of Labor and Foraging Specialization in a Social Insect (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Page, Robert E.; Scheiner, Ricarda; Erber, Joachim; Amdam, Gro V.

    2008-01-01

    How does complex social behavior evolve? What are the developmental building blocks of division of labor and specialization, the hallmarks of insect societies? Studies have revealed the developmental origins in the evolution of division of labor and specialization in foraging worker honeybees, the hallmarks of complex insect societies. Selective breeding for a single social trait, the amount of surplus pollen stored in the nest (pollen hoarding) revealed a phenotypic architecture of correlated traits at multiple levels of biological organization in facultatively sterile female worker honeybees. Verification of this phenotypic architecture in “wild-type” bees provided strong support for a “pollen foraging syndrome” that involves increased senso-motor responses, motor activity, associative learning, reproductive status, and rates of behavioral development, as well as foraging behavior. This set of traits guided further research into reproductive regulatory systems that were co-opted by natural selection during the evolution of social behavior. Division of labor, characterized by changes in the tasks performed by bees, as they age, is controlled by hormones linked to ovary development. Foraging specialization on nectar and pollen results also from different reproductive states of bees where nectar foragers engage in prereproductive behavior, foraging for nectar for self-maintenance, while pollen foragers perform foraging tasks associated with reproduction and maternal care, collecting protein. PMID:16860670

  3. Clinical and hormonal aspects in breast cancer with special reference to malignant evolutive push.

    PubMed

    Kiricuta, I; Frenkel, Z; Munteanu, S

    1975-01-01

    It is tried to differentiate between various stages of malignant evolutive push and normal mammary tumors to establish an individual therapeutic procedure. Besides mammography and thermometry, investigations of urinary excretions of estrogenic and androgenic steriods are qualified for this purpose. Patients with malignant evolutive push showed an increased excretion of estrogens which reached its highest levels in patients suffering from inflammatory mammary carcinomas. The excretion of 17-ketosteroids shows a behaviour vice versa. Altogether mammary tumors with malignant evolutive push are characterized by a state of absolute and relative hyperestrogenity respectively. This phenomenon preferably depends on the clinical stage of the disease than on the age of the patients.

  4. Administrative co-management: the case of special-use forest conservation in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    KimDung, Nguyen; Bush, Simon; Mol, Arthur P J

    2013-03-01

    Special-use forests (SUFs) are nature protected areas in Vietnam used to conserve nature and its biodiversity. While the Vietnamese government has managed to increase the size and number of SUFs, biodiversity within these areas continues to decline. To improve protection of these SUFs, co-management has been advocated in Vietnam. Successfully implementing co-management requires decentralization of authority and a certain extent of public involvement in management activities. This paper assesses how and to what extent the governance of Vietnam's SUFs have taken up the challenge of shifting from conventional government-based management to co-management. Current practices of (co-) management were investigated in 105 of the 143 SUFs. The results show that the type of co-management varies little between different categories of SUFs. Nevertheless, a national 'style' of Vietnamese co-management could be identified, labelled 'administrative' co-management; fostering interaction between a variety of actors, but final decision-making power on management remaining strongly in the hands of the provincial government.

  5. Administrative Co-management: The Case of Special-Use Forest Conservation in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KimDung, Nguyen; Bush, Simon; Mol, Arthur P. J.

    2013-03-01

    Special-use forests (SUFs) are nature protected areas in Vietnam used to conserve nature and its biodiversity. While the Vietnamese government has managed to increase the size and number of SUFs, biodiversity within these areas continues to decline. To improve protection of these SUFs, co-management has been advocated in Vietnam. Successfully implementing co-management requires decentralization of authority and a certain extent of public involvement in management activities. This paper assesses how and to what extent the governance of Vietnam's SUFs have taken up the challenge of shifting from conventional government-based management to co-management. Current practices of (co-) management were investigated in 105 of the 143 SUFs. The results show that the type of co-management varies little between different categories of SUFs. Nevertheless, a national `style' of Vietnamese co-management could be identified, labelled `administrative' co-management; fostering interaction between a variety of actors, but final decision-making power on management remaining strongly in the hands of the provincial government.

  6. Outcomes of a weight management clinic for children with special needs.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Meredith L Dreyer; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Beck, Amy R; Maliszewski, Genevieve; Best, Cora M; Gerling, Janelle K; Summar, Shelly

    2014-05-01

    Rates of obesity are elevated among children with special needs (e.g., autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, or developmental disabilities). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary tailored intervention to treat obesity among youth with special needs. Seventy-six children aged 2 to 19 years participated in a multidisciplinary weight management clinic adapted for children with special needs. A description of the patients presenting for specialized clinical services is provided, and the impact of the intervention on child body mass index (BMI) and food variety was examined for a subset (n = 30) of children. Descriptive statistics of the patient population at baseline were calculated and a series of t tests, correlations, and analysis of variance models examined change in BMI z-scores (BMIz) and diet variety. Factors related to treatment outcomes were also explored. BMIz decreased significantly by the 6-month follow-up (M = 2.43 to M = 2.36, p < .01). There were significant increases in the variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains that children ate (t(16) = 3.18, p < .01; t(16) = 2.63, p = .02; t(16) = 2.37, p = .03, respectively). A multidisciplinary clinic-based intervention was effective in reducing BMIz over a 6-month period and increasing the variety of foods that children were eating. These results have implications for providing tailored weight management interventions for youth with obesity and special needs.

  7. Quantifiably secure power grid operation, management, and evolution :

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Genetha Anne.; Watson, Jean-Paul; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Gramacy, Robert B.

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes findings and results of the Quantifiably Secure Power Grid Operation, Management, and Evolution LDRD. The focus of the LDRD was to develop decisionsupport technologies to enable rational and quantifiable risk management for two key grid operational timescales: scheduling (day-ahead) and planning (month-to-year-ahead). Risk or resiliency metrics are foundational in this effort. The 2003 Northeast Blackout investigative report stressed the criticality of enforceable metrics for system resiliency the grids ability to satisfy demands subject to perturbation. However, we neither have well-defined risk metrics for addressing the pervasive uncertainties in a renewable energy era, nor decision-support tools for their enforcement, which severely impacts efforts to rationally improve grid security. For day-ahead unit commitment, decision-support tools must account for topological security constraints, loss-of-load (economic) costs, and supply and demand variability especially given high renewables penetration. For long-term planning, transmission and generation expansion must ensure realized demand is satisfied for various projected technological, climate, and growth scenarios. The decision-support tools investigated in this project paid particular attention to tailoriented risk metrics for explicitly addressing high-consequence events. Historically, decisionsupport tools for the grid consider expected cost minimization, largely ignoring risk and instead penalizing loss-of-load through artificial parameters. The technical focus of this work was the development of scalable solvers for enforcing risk metrics. Advanced stochastic programming solvers were developed to address generation and transmission expansion and unit commitment, minimizing cost subject to pre-specified risk thresholds. Particular attention was paid to renewables where security critically depends on production and demand prediction accuracy. To address this

  8. 78 FR 39314 - Notice of Availability of the Decision Record for the Delta River Special Recreation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ....AL0000] Notice of Availability of the Decision Record for the Delta River Special Recreation Management... of the Decision Record (DR) for the Delta River Special Recreation Management Area and East Alaska..., Glennallen, AK 99588 or by calling 907-822-3217. The Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Delta...

  9. 25 CFR 1200.17 - What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds? 1200.17 Section 1200.17 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT...

  10. 25 CFR 1200.17 - What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds? 1200.17 Section 1200.17 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT...

  11. 25 CFR 1200.17 - What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What special criteria will be used to evaluate management plans for judgment or settlement funds? 1200.17 Section 1200.17 Indians OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL TRUSTEE FOR AMERICAN INDIANS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AMERICAN INDIAN TRUST FUND MANAGEMENT REFORM ACT...

  12. Syncope management unit: evolution of the concept and practice implementation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Win K; Traub, Stephen J; Decker, Wyatt W

    2013-01-01

    Syncope, a clinical syndrome, has many potential causes. The prognosis of a patient experiencing syncope varies from benign outcome to increased risk of mortality or sudden death, determined by the etiology of syncope and the presence of underlying disease. Because a definitive diagnosis often cannot be established immediately, hospital admission is frequently recommended as the "default" approach to ensure patient's safety and an expedited evaluation. Hospital care is costly while no studies have shown that clinical outcomes are improved by the in-patient practice approach. The syncope unit is an evolving practice model based on the hypothesis that a multidisciplinary team of physicians and allied staff with expertise in syncope management, working together and equipped with standard clinical tools could improve clinical outcomes. Preliminary data have demonstrated that a specialized syncope unit can improve diagnosis in a timely manner, reduce hospital admission and decrease the use of unnecessary diagnostic tests. In this review, models of syncope units in the emergency department, hospital and outpatient clinics from different practices in different countries are discussed. Similarities and differences of these syncope units are compared. Outcomes and endpoints from these studies are summarized. Developing a syncope unit with a standardized protocol applicable to most practice settings would be an ultimate goal for clinicians and investigators who have interest, expertise, and commitment to improve care for this large patient population.

  13. Effects of drainage salinity evolution on irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Iddo

    2003-12-01

    A soil physics theory of solute movement through a drained saturated zone underlying agricultural land is introduced into a long-term economic analysis of farm-level irrigation management; this is an alternative to the immediate, homogeneous blending assumption employed in previous studies as a base for calculating changes in drainage salinity over time. Using data from California, the effect of drainage salinity evolution is analyzed through a year-by-year profit optimization under the requirement of on-farm drainage disposal. Paths of optimal land allocation among crop production with fresh surface water, saline drainage reuse and evaporation ponds appear to depend on the relative profitability of the first two; that of reuse is affected by the trend of drainage salinity. Tile spacing and environmental regulations associated with evaporation ponds affect the timing of evaporation pond construction. The system converges into a solution involving both drainage-disposal activities; this solution includes an outlet for salts and is therefore sustainable. Following this strategy, the system is asymptotically approaching a steady state that possesses both hydrological and salt balances. Economic implications associated with land retirement programs in California are discussed.

  14. Effectively managing partnership evolution: a case study from Chicago.

    PubMed

    Tishuk, Brian S

    Given the continued proliferation of public/ private partnerships as vehicles for sharing best practices, lessons learned and actionable information, the keys to their success become more important to identify. Effective partnerships enhance the resilience of their respective members, which, in turn, improves community resilience. Thus, identifying the attributes of a successful partnership should be a high priority for those looking to foster collaboration between the public and private sectors. This paper will illustrate with two case studies how successful partnerships creatively leverage opportunities and manage the evolution of public/private relationships, while always seeking to institutionalise these collaborative efforts. The first will discuss briefly the development of the most important national partnership within the financial sector. The other focuses on a public/private task force in Chicago, composed of public safety agencies and representatives of critical infrastructure, which owes its existence to an unexpected research project and that needed to be restructured in light of experience. The manner in which the task force formed and evolved yields many lessons for partnerships interested in remaining relevant and effective.

  15. Different genetic algorithms and the evolution of specialization: a study with groups of simulated neural robots.

    PubMed

    Ferrauto, Tomassino; Parisi, Domenico; Di Stefano, Gabriele; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that live in groups, from microbial symbionts to social insects and schooling fish, exhibit a number of highly efficient cooperative behaviors, often based on role taking and specialization. These behaviors are relevant not only for the biologist but also for the engineer interested in decentralized collective robotics. We address these phenomena by carrying out experiments with groups of two simulated robots controlled by neural networks whose connection weights are evolved by using genetic algorithms. These algorithms and controllers are well suited to autonomously find solutions for decentralized collective robotic tasks based on principles of self-organization. The article first presents a taxonomy of role-taking and specialization mechanisms related to evolved neural network controllers. Then it introduces two cooperation tasks, which can be accomplished by either role taking or specialization, and uses these tasks to compare four different genetic algorithms to evaluate their capacity to evolve a suitable behavioral strategy, which depends on the task demands. Interestingly, only one of the four algorithms, which appears to have more biological plausibility, is capable of evolving role taking or specialization when they are needed. The results are relevant for both collective robotics and biology, as they can provide useful hints on the different processes that can lead to the emergence of specialization in robots and organisms.

  16. Evolution of hospital industrial engineering: from scientific management to total quality management.

    PubMed

    Sahney, V K

    1993-01-01

    Industrial engineering applications in the hospital industry first began in 1910. This paper traces the evolution of hospital industrial engineering in five distinct phases. For each of the major phases, this paper presents the contributions made by industrial engineers. Many of the techniques advocated by industrial engineers are now being taught to hospital employees as hospitals introduce total quality management (TQM) within the health-care industry. TQM introduction has meant a new role for industrial engineers, as that of a teacher, coach, and a facilitator. This new role holds much promise for the improvement of quality and productivity in health care.

  17. From Bosnia to Baghdad: The Evolution of US Army Special Forces From 1995-2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    1st SFG (A) provided an LCE to the Malaysian Battle Group of MND-SW and the 5th SFG (A) provided an LCE to the Egyptian Battalion of Multinational...soldiers mavericks , resistant to the concepts of discipline and teamwork within the Army. Likewise, some Special Forces soldiers avoided

  18. Collaboration in Special Education: Its History, Evolution, and Critical Factors Necessary for Successful Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration in education is seen as a legal mandate, best practice in teacher practice, and necessary for the inclusion of children with special needs. Over the years, there have been a number of evolutionary incarnations of the collaborative model, each possessing various ingredients identified as important, if not essential, components of a…

  19. Evolution of specialization: a phylogenetic study of host range in the red milkweed beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus).

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2011-06-01

    Specialization is common in most lineages of insect herbivores, one of the most diverse groups of organisms on earth. To address how and why specialization is maintained over evolutionary time, we hypothesized that plant defense and other ecological attributes of potential host plants would predict the performance of a specialist root-feeding herbivore (the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus). Using a comparative phylogenetic and functional trait approach, we assessed the determinants of insect host range across 18 species of Asclepias. Larval survivorship decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the true host, Asclepias syriaca, suggesting that adaptation to plant traits drives specialization. Among several root traits measured, only cardenolides (toxic defense chemicals) correlated with larval survival, and cardenolides also explained the phylogenetic distance effect in phylogenetically controlled multiple regression analyses. Additionally, milkweed species having a known association with other Tetraopes beetles were better hosts than species lacking Tetraopes herbivores, and milkweeds with specific leaf area values (a trait related to leaf function and habitat affiliation) similar to those of A. syriaca were better hosts than species having divergent values. We thus conclude that phylogenetic distance is an integrated measure of phenotypic and ecological attributes of Asclepias species, especially defensive cardenolides, which can be used to explain specialization and constraints on host shifts over evolutionary time.

  20. Specialization of the DNA-Cleaving Activity of a Group I Ribozyme Through In Vitro Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Joyce; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    In an earlier study, an in vitro evolution procedure was applied to a large population of variants of the Tetrahymena group 1 ribozyme to obtain individuals with a 10(exp 5)-fold improved ability to cleave a target single-stranded DNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions. The evolved ribozymes also showed a twofold improvement, compared to the wild-type, in their ability to cleave a single-stranded RNA substrate. Here, we report continuation of the in vitro evolution process using a new selection strategy to achieve both enhanced DNA and diminished RNA-cleavage activity. Our strategy combines a positive selection for DNA cleavage with a negative selection against RNA binding. After 36 "generations" of in vitro evolution, the evolved population showed an approx. 100-fold increase in the ratio of DNA to RNA-cleavage activity. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment confirmed the selective advantage of two covarying mutations within the catalytic core of ribozyme that are largely responsible for this modified behavior. The population of ribozymes has now undergone a total of 63 successive generations of evolution, resulting in an average 28 mutations relative to the wild-type that are responsible for the altered phenotype.

  1. Caring for children with special healthcare needs in the managed care environment.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle R; Diehl-Svrjcek, Beth; Dunbar, Linda J

    2006-01-01

    Dramatic medical and technological advances over the past 15 years have resulted in the survival into adulthood of children with chronic health conditions. As this population subset has increased, the demand of caring for these children in the managed care arena has become challenging from a clinical, fiscal, and member satisfaction perspective. A disease management program was designed for children, ages birth through age 18, identified as having special needs at the time of birth or at any point throughout childhood related to disease processes such as diabetes, sickle cell disease, genetic aberrations, or the multiple complications of extreme prematurity. Components of the program included identification of the population, coordinated risk assessment, and ongoing case management interventions. Most important, outcome indicators were tracked to demonstrate program effectiveness. The formulation and function of a dedicated disease management database is also discussed.

  2. Guest editorial. Introduction to the special section: 4G Health--the long-term evolution of m-Health.

    PubMed

    Istepanaian, Robert S H; Zhang, Y-T

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the seminal term and concept of "m-health" were first defined and introduced in this transactions as "mobile computing, medical sensor, and communications technologies for healthcare." Since that special section, the m-health concept has become one of the key technological domains that reflected the key advances in remote healthcare and e-health systems. The m-health is currently bringing together major academic research and industry disciplines worldwide to achieve innovative solutions in the areas of healthcare delivery and technology sectors. From the wireless communications perspective, the current decade is expected to bring the introduction of new wireless standards and network systems with true mobile broadband and fast internet access healthcare services. These will be developed around what is currently called the fourth-generation (4G) mobile communication systems. In this editorial paper, we will introduce the new and novel concept of 4G health that represents the long-term evolution of m-health since the introduction of the concept in 2004. The special section also presents a snapshot of the recent advances in these areas and addresses some of the challenges and future implementation issues from the evolved m-health perspective. It will also present some of the concepts that can go beyond the traditional "m-health ecosystem" of the existing systems. The contributions presented in this special section represent some of these developments and illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of this important and emerging healthcare delivery concept.

  3. Nonlinear effects in evolution - an ab initio study: A model in which the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Daryl G

    2016-07-21

    An ab initio approach was used to study the molecular-level interactions that connect gene-mutation to changes in an organism׳s phenotype. The study provides new insights into the evolutionary process and presents a simplification whereby changes in phenotypic properties may be studied in terms of the binding affinities of the chemical interactions affected by mutation, rather than by correlation to the genes. The study also reports the role that nonlinear effects play in the progression of organs, and how those effects relate to the classical theory of evolution. Results indicate that the classical theory of evolution occurs as a special case within the ab initio model - a case having two attributes. The first attribute: proteins and promoter regions are not shared among organs. The second attribute: continuous limiting behavior exists in the physical properties of organs as well as in the binding affinity of the associated chemical interactions, with respect to displacements in the chemical properties of proteins and promoter regions induced by mutation. Outside of the special case, second-order coupling contributions are significant and nonlinear effects play an important role, a result corroborated by analyses of published activity levels in binding and transactivation assays. Further, gradations in the state of perfection of an organ may be small or large depending on the type of mutation, and not necessarily closely-separated as maintained by the classical theory. Results also indicate that organs progress with varying degrees of interdependence, the likelihood of successful mutation decreases with increasing complexity of the affected chemical system, and differences between the ab initio model and the classical theory increase with increasing complexity of the organism. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Why is Madagascar special? The extraordinarily slow evolution of pelican spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae).

    PubMed

    Wood, Hannah M; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Griswold, Charles E; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-02-01

    Although Madagascar is an ancient fragment of Gondwana, the majority of taxa studied thus far appear to have reached the island through dispersal from Cenozoic times. Ancient lineages may have experienced a different history compared to more recent Cenozoic arrivals, as such lineages would have encountered geoclimatic shifts over an extended time period. The motivation for this study was to unravel the signature of diversification in an ancient lineage by comparing an area known for major geoclimatic upheavals (Madagascar) versus other areas where the environment has been relatively stable. Archaeid spiders are an ancient paleoendemic group with unusual predatory behaviors and spectacular trophic morphology that likely have been on Madagascar since its isolation. We examined disparities between Madagascan archaeids and their non-Madagascan relatives regarding timing of divergence, rates of trait evolution, and distribution patterns. Results reveal an increased rate of adaptive trait diversification in Madagascan archaeids. Furthermore, geoclimatic events in Madagascar over long periods of time may have facilitated high species richness due to montane refugia and stability, rainforest refugia, and also ecogeographic shifts, allowing for the accumulation of adaptive traits. This research suggests that time alone, coupled with more ancient geoclimatic events allowed for the different patterns in Madagascar. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Advances in plant virus evolution: Translating evolutionary insights into better disease management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Revolutionary theoretical concepts derived from experimental evolution have reached the realm of plant viruses, and their empirical demonstration is opening new avenues for disease management. From a populational standpoint, plant viruses and viroids constitute dynamic spectra of variants. The frequ...

  6. Preferences, specialization, and management attitudes of trout anglers fishing in Tennessee tailwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, C.P.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to manage several trout fisheries in Tennessee have been stymied by conflicts between management agencies and angler groups. To assist in preventing such conflicts in the future, we examined attitudes and motivations of trout anglers who fished eight tailwater fisheries in Tennessee during 2001-2002. Using a stratified random sampling design, anglers were contacted and interviewed on site (n = 2,643). Those anglers who agreed to complete a questionnaire (n = 1,942) were mailed a 10-page survey. Response rate to the mail survey was 55% after excluding surveys that were undeliverable. Angler subgroups were created using hierarchical cluster analyses of 14 variables related to experience, resource use, investment, and centrality of fishing to their lifestyle. Five subgroups of minimally to highly specialized anglers were identified, and nonhierarchical cluster analysis determined the size of each group (n = 178-369 anglers/group). Subgroups differed in the importance they attached to harvesting trout and catching trophy trout. The most disparate mean ratings among subgroups were for the motive of "obtaining fish to eat." Specialized anglers placed greater importance on catching a trophy fish, experiencing the catch, developing their skills, releasing fish, and restrictive regulations than did less-specialized anglers. Mean ratings for most of nine fishing regulations presented to anglers differed among tailwaters; however, bait restrictions and closed seasons received little support across all rivers. The Caney Fork, Clinch, and Hiwassee rivers had the most uniform distributions of anglers among the five subgroups and thus had a relatively high potential for conflicts over management decisions. The fisheries on the Elk, South Fork Holston, and Watauga rivers were dominated by the most specialized subgroups, indicating that the majority of anglers on those rivers would accept restrictive regulations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  7. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  8. Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1978-01-01

    Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

  9. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-03-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radioligical Terrorism Consequence Management.

  10. Evolution of the Karyopherin-β Family of Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Factors; Ancient Origins and Continued Specialization

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Amanda J.; Dacks, Joel B.; Field, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Macromolecular transport across the nuclear envelope (NE) is achieved through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and requires karyopherin-βs (KAP-βs), a family of soluble receptors, for recognition of embedded transport signals within cargo. We recently demonstrated, through proteomic analysis of trypanosomes, that NPC architecture is likely highly conserved across the Eukaryota, which in turn suggests conservation of the transport mechanisms. To determine if KAP-β diversity was similarly established early in eukaryotic evolution or if it was subsequently layered onto a conserved NPC, we chose to identify KAP-β sequences in a diverse range of eukaryotes and to investigate their evolutionary history. Results Thirty six predicted proteomes were scanned for candidate KAP-β family members. These resulting sequences were resolved into fifteen KAP-β subfamilies which, due to broad supergroup representation, were most likely represented in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Candidate members of each KAP-β subfamily were found in all eukaryotic supergroups, except XPO6, which is absent from Archaeplastida. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed the likely evolutionary relationships between these different subfamilies. Many species contain more than one representative of each KAP-β subfamily; many duplications are apparently taxon-specific but others result from duplications occurring earlier in eukaryotic history. Conclusions At least fifteen KAP-β subfamilies were established early in eukaryote evolution and likely before the LECA. In addition we identified expansions at multiple stages within eukaryote evolution, including a multicellular plant-specific KAP-β, together with frequent secondary losses. Taken with evidence for early establishment of NPC architecture, these data demonstrate that multiple pathways for nucleocytoplasmic transport were established prior to the radiation of modern eukaryotes but that selective pressure continues to sculpt

  11. The evolution of surgery in the management of neck metastases

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S; Chiesa, F; Lyubaev, V; Aidarbekova, A; Brzhezovskiy, V

    2006-01-01

    Summary In spite of advancement in science, molecular medicine and target therapies, surgical treatment of metastases using different techniques, from selective neck dissection to extended radical neck dissections, form a major part in the management of neck metastases. This is due to the fact that, so far, there is no treatment more effective for resectable neck metastases, than surgery. Since most head and neck cancer patients die due to loco-regional progression of disease, and a very large majority of them do not live long enough to develop distant metastases, the status of neck lymph nodes remains the single most important prognostic factor, in these cases. In the 100 years since George Washington Crile described Radical Neck Dissection, we now have a much better understanding of the biological and clinical behaviour of neck metastases. This has ultimately led to the conservative approaches of selective neck dissections depending on the primary site of the tumour, type of tumour and the characteristic features of the metastases themselves. A search of the literature on neck lymph nodes and neck dissections, on the internet and in old publications, not available in the electronic media, has been carried out. Using this as the basis, we arranged, in sequence, the dates of various landmarks in the treatment of head and neck cancer related to neck dissections to emphasize the overall process of evolution of neck dissection thereby showing how the field of head and neck surgery has travelled a long way from radical neck dissection to its modifications and further to selective neck dissections and sentinel node biopsies. The present understanding of the patterns of neck metastases enables us not only to adequately treat the neck metastases, but also to diagnose metastases from unknown primaries. Therefore, depending on the site of the primary tumour, it is now easy to predict the most probable route of metastatic spread and vice versa. This has enabled us to adopt

  12. Tectonics, orbital forcing, global climate change, and human evolution in Africa: introduction to the African paleoclimate special volume.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Mark A; Christensen, Beth

    2007-11-01

    The late Cenozoic climate of Africa is a critical component for understanding human evolution. African climate is controlled by major tectonic changes, global climate transitions, and local variations in orbital forcing. We introduce the special African Paleoclimate Issue of the Journal of Human Evolution by providing a background for and synthesis of the latest work relating to the environmental context for human evolution. Records presented in this special issue suggest that the regional tectonics, appearance of C(4) plants in East Africa, and late Cenozoic global cooling combined to produce a long-term drying trend in East Africa. Of particular importance is the uplift associated with the East African Rift Valley formation, which altered wind flow patterns from a more zonal to more meridinal direction. Results in this volume suggest a marked difference in the climate history of southern and eastern Africa, though both are clearly influenced by the major global climate thresholds crossed in the last 3 million years. Papers in this volume present lake, speleothem, and marine paleoclimate records showing that the East African long-term drying trend is punctuated by episodes of short, alternating periods of extreme wetness and aridity. These periods of extreme climate variability are characterized by the precession-forced appearance and disappearance of large, deep lakes in the East African Rift Valley and paralleled by low and high wind-driven dust loads reaching the adjacent ocean basins. Dating of these records show that over the last 3 million years such periods only occur at the times of major global climatic transitions, such as the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (2.7-2.5 Ma), intensification of the Walker Circulation (1.9-1.7 Ma), and the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution (1-0.7 Ma). Authors in this volume suggest this onset occurs as high latitude forcing in both Hemispheres compresses the Intertropical Convergence Zone so that East Africa

  13. [Designing a software for drug management in special situations at a hospital's drug administration service].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Cuervo, Marina; Muñoz García, María; Gómez de Salazar López de Silanes, María Esther; Bermejo Vicedo, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    to describe the features of a computer program for management of drugs in special situations (off-label and compassionate use) in a Department of Hospital Pharmacy (PD). To describe the methodology followed for its implementation in the Medical Services. To evaluate their use after 2 years of practice. the design was carried out by pharmacists of the PD. The stages of the process were: selection of a software development company, establishment of a working group, selection of a development platform, design of an interactive Viewer, definition of functionality and data processing, creation of databases, connection, installation and configuration, application testing and improvements development. A directed sequential strategy was used for implementation in the Medical Services. The program's utility and experience of use were evaluated after 2 years. a multidisciplinary working group was formed and developed Pk_Usos®. The program works in web environment with a common viewer for all users enabling real time checking of the request files' status and that adapts to the management of medications in special situations procedure. Pk_Usos® was introduced first in the Oncology Department, with 15 oncologists as users of the program. 343 patients had 384 treatment requests managed, of which 363 are authorized throughout two years. PK_Usos® is the first software designed for the management of drugs in special situations in the PD. It is a dynamic and efficient tool for all professionals involved in the process by optimization of times. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Contract Management Process and Mentorship Analysis of United States Special Operations Command’s (USSOCOM) Special Operations Acquisition and Logistics Directorate of Procurement (SOAL-K)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Contract Management Process and Mentorship Analysis of...0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE December 2009 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional...editing were invaluable to the content and completion of our MBA project. The authors would also like to thank the leadership of the Special Operations

  15. Dietary specialization during the evolution of Western Eurasian hominoids and the extinction of European Great Apes.

    PubMed

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place.

  16. Colloquium paper: adaptive specializations, social exchange, and the evolution of human intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cosmides, Leda; Barrett, H Clark; Tooby, John

    2010-05-11

    Blank-slate theories of human intelligence propose that reasoning is carried out by general-purpose operations applied uniformly across contents. An evolutionary approach implies a radically different model of human intelligence. The task demands of different adaptive problems select for functionally specialized problem-solving strategies, unleashing massive increases in problem-solving power for ancestrally recurrent adaptive problems. Because exchange can evolve only if cooperators can detect cheaters, we hypothesized that the human mind would be equipped with a neurocognitive system specialized for reasoning about social exchange. Whereas humans perform poorly when asked to detect violations of most conditional rules, we predicted and found a dramatic spike in performance when the rule specifies an exchange and violations correspond to cheating. According to critics, people's uncanny accuracy at detecting violations of social exchange rules does not reflect a cheater detection mechanism, but extends instead to all rules regulating when actions are permitted (deontic conditionals). Here we report experimental tests that falsify these theories by demonstrating that deontic rules as a class do not elicit the search for violations. We show that the cheater detection system functions with pinpoint accuracy, searching for violations of social exchange rules only when these are likely to reveal the presence of someone who intends to cheat. It does not search for violations of social exchange rules when these are accidental, when they do not benefit the violator, or when the situation would make cheating difficult.

  17. Dietary Specialization during the Evolution of Western Eurasian Hominoids and the Extinction of European Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Alba, David M.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Given the central adaptive role of diet, paleodietary inference is essential for understanding the relationship between evolutionary and paleoenvironmental change. Here we rely on dental microwear analysis to investigate the role of dietary specialization in the diversification and extinction of Miocene hominoids from Western Eurasian between 14 and 7 Ma. New microwear results for five extinct taxa are analyzed together with previous data for other Western Eurasian genera. Except Pierolapithecus (that resembles hard-object feeders) and Oreopithecus (a soft-frugivore probably foraging opportunistically on other foods), most of the extinct taxa lack clear extant dietary analogues. They display some degee of sclerocarpy, which is most clearly expressed in Griphopithecus and Ouranopithecus (adapted to more open and arid environments), whereas Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus and, especially, Hispanopithecus species apparently relied more strongly on soft-frugivory. Thus, contrasting with the prevailing sclerocarpic condition at the beginning of the Eurasian hominoid radiation, soft- and mixed-frugivory coexisted with hard-object feeding in the Late Miocene. Therefore, despite a climatic trend towards cooling and increased seasonality, a progressive dietary diversification would have occurred (probably due to competitive exclusion and increased environmental heterogeneity), although strict folivory did not evolve. Overall, our analyses support the view that the same dietary specializations that enabled Western Eurasian hominoids to face progressive climatic deterioration were the main factor ultimately leading to their extinction when more drastic paleoenvironmental changes took place. PMID:24848272

  18. Evolution of Mhc Class i Complex Region with Special Reference to Fragmentary Line Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tateno, Yoshio; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2008-03-01

    We reviewed the origin and evolution of the two pairs of immune genes, (MHC-B and MHC-C) and (MICA and MICB) in man, chimpanzee and rhesus monkey based mainly on our previous work. Since those genes were well known to have been subject to strong natural selection in evolution, they themselves were not suitable for our study. We thus took another approach to use fragmented and nonfunctional LINEs that had coevolved with the two pairs in the same genomic fragments. Our results showed that MHC-B and MHC-C duplicated about 22 Mry (million years) ago, and MICA and MICB duplicated about 14 Myr ago. Interestingly, rhesus monkey was found not to have either pair but many repeats similar to MHC-B. Therefore, we estimated the divergence time of the monkey, and found that it diverged out from a common ancestor of man and chimpanzee about 30 Myr ago. The divergence time was consistent with the duplication times of the two pairs of immune genes. Based on our results we would predict that orangutan and gorilla also have the two pairs, because the both primate species are considered to have diverged less than 14 Myr ago.

  19. A Review of Enrollment Management: Issues and Strategies. Management/Marketing Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ed; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations from a project undertaken by the Maricopa County Community College District (MCCCD) to determine reasons for a decline in business course enrollments and develop strategies to increase enrollments in management and marketing programs throughout the district. Following background information on the…

  20. At-Risk Children and Otitis Media with Effusion: Management Issues for the Early Childhood Special Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Lynn P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the implications of otitis media with effusion (OME) for children with disabilities who are already at risk for speech, language, and learning difficulties. The results of a survey of 189 early childhood special educators on management of young children with OME and the role of the early childhood special educator are…

  1. At-Risk Children and Otitis Media with Effusion: Management Issues for the Early Childhood Special Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Lynn P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the implications of otitis media with effusion (OME) for children with disabilities who are already at risk for speech, language, and learning difficulties. The results of a survey of 189 early childhood special educators on management of young children with OME and the role of the early childhood special educator are…

  2. Genetic changes accompanying the evolution of host specialization in Drosophila sechellia.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Ian; Jones, Corbin D

    2009-02-01

    Changes in host specialization contribute to the diversification of phytophagous insects. When shifting to a new host, insects evolve new physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations. Our understanding of the genetic changes responsible for these adaptations is limited. For instance, we do not know how often host shifts involve gain-of-function vs. loss-of-function alleles. Recent work suggests that some genes involved in odor recognition are lost in specialists. Here we show that genes involved in detoxification and metabolism, as well as those affecting olfaction, have reduced gene expression in Drosophila sechellia-a specialist on the fruit of Morinda citrifolia. We screened for genes that differ in expression between D. sechellia and its generalist sister species, D. simulans. We also screened for genes that are differentially expressed in D. sechellia when these flies chose their preferred host vs. when they were forced onto other food. D. sechellia increases expression of genes involved with oogenesis and fatty acid metabolism when on its host. The majority of differentially expressed genes, however, appear downregulated in D. sechellia. For several functionally related genes, this decrease in expression is associated with apparent loss-of-function alleles. For example, the D. sechellia allele of Odorant binding protein 56e (Obp56e) harbors a premature stop codon. We show that knockdown of Obp56e activity significantly reduces the avoidance response of D. melanogaster toward M. citrifolia. We argue that apparent loss-of-function alleles like Obp56e potentially contributed to the initial adaptation of D. sechellia to its host. Our results suggest that a subset of genes reduce or lose function as a consequence of host specialization, which may explain why, in general, specialist insects tend to shift to chemically similar hosts.

  3. Genetic Changes Accompanying the Evolution of Host Specialization in Drosophila sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, Ian; Jones, Corbin D.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in host specialization contribute to the diversification of phytophagous insects. When shifting to a new host, insects evolve new physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations. Our understanding of the genetic changes responsible for these adaptations is limited. For instance, we do not know how often host shifts involve gain-of-function vs. loss-of-function alleles. Recent work suggests that some genes involved in odor recognition are lost in specialists. Here we show that genes involved in detoxification and metabolism, as well as those affecting olfaction, have reduced gene expression in Drosophila sechellia—a specialist on the fruit of Morinda citrifolia. We screened for genes that differ in expression between D. sechellia and its generalist sister species, D. simulans. We also screened for genes that are differentially expressed in D. sechellia when these flies chose their preferred host vs. when they were forced onto other food. D. sechellia increases expression of genes involved with oogenesis and fatty acid metabolism when on its host. The majority of differentially expressed genes, however, appear downregulated in D. sechellia. For several functionally related genes, this decrease in expression is associated with apparent loss-of-function alleles. For example, the D. sechellia allele of Odorant binding protein 56e (Obp56e) harbors a premature stop codon. We show that knockdown of Obp56e activity significantly reduces the avoidance response of D. melanogaster toward M. citrifolia. We argue that apparent loss-of-function alleles like Obp56e potentially contributed to the initial adaptation of D. sechellia to its host. Our results suggest that a subset of genes reduce or lose function as a consequence of host specialization, which may explain why, in general, specialist insects tend to shift to chemically similar hosts. PMID:19033155

  4. Independent evolution of visual and electrosensory specializations in different lineages of mormyrid electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jennifer A; Sukhum, Kimberley V; Carlson, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    African mormyrid fishes are by far the most diverse group of osteoglossomorph (bony tongue) fishes. Mormyrids communicate using pulses of electricity, and they process electric communication signals in the midbrain exterolateral nucleus (EL). In its ancestral form, the EL is relatively small and homogenous. In two different lineages, however, the EL expanded in size and increased in cytological complexity. This evolutionary change established the perceptual ability to distinguish variation in electric pulse waveform, which plays an important role in species recognition and mate choice. However, the sensory basis of social behavior in species with a small, homogenous EL remains unknown. Using published species descriptions, we found that species in one of these lineages have relatively large eyes. Using sectioned brains, we measured the volume of a major visual region, the optic tectum (OT), and found that this same lineage also has an enlarged OT. We also found that eye size and OT size are highly correlated across species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that a reduced visual system evolved with the origins of an active electrosense, and that this one particular lineage secondarily evolved an enlarged visual system. Behavioral tests revealed that this enlargement of the visual system established increased visual acuity. Thus, our findings demonstrate that different lineages of mormyrids have evolved visual or electrosensory specializations, but that no lineages have specialized in both. This sensory divergence likely reflects fundamentally different ecologies and suggests that vision may play an especially important role in the social behavior of mormyrids that cannot detect variation in electric signal waveform. Our findings provide an example of evolutionary change in multiple sensory systems among closely related species that lays a foundation for relating ecological adaptation to evolutionary change in multisensory perception and social behavior.

  5. Insect herbivores, chemical innovation, and the evolution of habit specialization in Amazonian trees.

    PubMed

    Fine, Paul V A; Metz, Margaret R; Lokvam, John; Mesones, Italo; Zuñiga, J Milagros Ayarza; Lamarre, Greg P A; Pilco, Magno Vásquez; Baraloto, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Herbivores are often implicated in the generation of the extraordinarily diverse tropical flora. One hypothesis linking enemies to plant diversification posits that the evolution of novel defenses allows plants to escape their enemies and expand their ranges. When range expansion involves entering a new habitat type, this could accelerate defense evolution if habitats contain different assemblages of herbivores and/or divergent resource availabilities that affect plant defense allocation. We evaluated this hypothesis by investigating two sister habitat specialist ecotypes of Protium subserratum (Burseraceae), a common Amazonian tree that occurs in white-sand and terra firme forests. We collected insect herbivores feeding on the plants, assessed whether growth differences between habitats were genetically based using a reciprocal transplant experiment, and sampled multiple populations of both lineages for defense chemistry. Protium subserratum plants were attacked mainly by chrysomelid beetles and cicadellid hemipterans. Assemblages of insect herbivores were dissimilar between populations of ecotypes from different habitats, as well as from the same habitat 100 km distant. Populations from terra firme habitats grew significantly faster than white-sand populations; they were taller, produced more leaf area, and had more chlorophyll. White-sand populations expressed more dry mass of secondary compounds and accumulated more flavone glycosides and oxidized terpenes, whereas terra firme populations produced a coumaroylquinic acid that was absent from white-sand populations. We interpret these results as strong evidence that herbivores and resource availability select for divergent types and amounts of defense investment in white-sand and terra firme lineages of Protium subserratum, which may contribute to habitat-mediated speciation in these trees.

  6. Prevention and nonsurgical management of dental caries over the life course for individuals with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Ettinger, Ronald L

    2014-07-01

    Traditional approaches to caries prevention and management are unlikely to result in successful outcomes for individuals with special health care needs. Intensive prevention-oriented and minimally invasive restorative approaches have the greatest potential to address oral health disparities affecting vulnerable populations. This paper introduces readers to oral health-related issues for patients with special health care needs across the life course and outlines clinical strategies to prevent and manage caries in high-risk patients.

  7. Evolution of neuronal mechanisms for echolocation: specializations for target-range computation in bats of the genus Pteronotus.

    PubMed

    Hechavarría, Julio C; Macías, Silvio; Vater, Marianne; Mora, Emanuel C; Kössl, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Delay tuning was studied in the auditory cortex of Pteronotus quadridens. All the 136 delay-tuned units that were studied responded strongly to heteroharmonic pulse-echo pairs presented at specific delays. In the heteroharmonic pairs, the first sonar call harmonic marks the timing of pulse emission while one of the higher harmonics (second or third) indicates the timing of the echo. Delay-tuned units are organized chronotopically along a rostrocaudal axis according to their characteristic delay. There is no obvious indication of multiple cortical axes specialized in the processing of different harmonic combinations of pulse and echo. Results of this study serve for a straight comparison of cortical delay-tuning between P. quadridens and the well-studied mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii. These two species stem from the most recent and most basal nodes in the Pteronotus lineage, respectively. P. quadridens and P. parnellii use comparable heteroharmonic target-range computation strategies even though they do not use biosonar calls of a similar design. P. quadridens uses short constant-frequency (CF)/frequency-modulated (FM) echolocation calls, while P. parnellii uses long CF/FM calls. The ability to perform "heteroharmonic" target-range computations might be an ancestral neuronal specialization of the genus Pteronotus that was subjected to positive Darwinian selection in the evolution.

  8. Recurrent evolution of host-specialized races in a globally distributed parasite

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Karen D; Chapuis, Elodie; Tirard, Claire; Boulinier, Thierry; Michalakis, Yannis; Bohec, Céline Le; Maho, Yvon Le; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The outcome of coevolutionary interactions is predicted to vary across landscapes depending on local conditions and levels of gene flow, with some populations evolving more extreme specializations than others. Using a globally distributed parasite of colonial seabirds, the tick Ixodes uriae, we examined how host availability and geographic isolation influences this process. In particular, we sampled ticks from 30 populations of six different seabird host species, three in the Southern Hemisphere and three in the Northern Hemisphere. We show that parasite races have evolved independently on hosts of both hemispheres. Moreover, the degree of differentiation between tick races varied spatially within each region and suggests that the divergence of tick races is an ongoing process that has occurred multiple times across isolated areas. As I. uriae is vector to the bacterium responsible for Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, these results may have important consequence for the epidemiology of this disease. With the increased occurrence of novel interspecific interactions due to global change, these results also stress the importance of the combined effects of gene flow and selection for parasite diversification. PMID:16243689

  9. Molecular evolution and functional specialization of chalcone synthase superfamily from Phalaenopsis orchid.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying-Ying; Ming, Feng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing-Wen; Ye, Ming-Ming; Shen, Da-Leng

    2006-01-01

    Plant genomes appear to exploit the process of gene duplication as a primary means of acquiring biochemical and developmental flexibility. The best example is the gene encoding chalcone synthase (CHS, EC2.3.1.74), the first committed step in flavonoid biosynthesis. In this study, we examined the molecular evolution of three CHS family members of Phalaenopsis including a novel chs gene (phchs5), which is slowly evolved. The inferred phylogeny of the chs genes of Phalaenopsis with other two orchid plants, Bromoheadia finlaysoniana and Dendrobium hybrid, suggested that gene duplication and divergence have occurred before divergence of these three genera. Relatively quantitative RT-PCR analysis identified expression patterns of these three chs genes in different floral tissues at different developmental stages. Phchs5 was the most abundantly expressed chs gene in floral organs and it was specifically transcribed in petal and lip at the stages when anthocyanin accumulated (stage1-4). Phchs3 and phchs4 were expressed at much lower levels than phchs5. Phchs3 was expressed in pigmented tissue (including lip, petal and sepal) at middle stages (stages 2-4) and in colorless reproductive tissue at late stage (stage 5). Phchs4 was only expressed in petal at earlier stages (stage 1-3) and in lip at middle stage (stage 4). These results present new data on differentiation of gene expression among duplicate copies of chs genes in Phalaenopsis.

  10. Polygenic evolution of a sugar specialization trade-off in yeast.

    PubMed

    Roop, Jeremy I; Chang, Kyu Chul; Brem, Rachel B

    2016-02-18

    The evolution of novel traits can involve many mutations scattered throughout the genome. Detecting and validating such a suite of alleles, particularly if they arose long ago, remains a key challenge in evolutionary genetics. Here we dissect an evolutionary trade-off of unprecedented genetic complexity between long-diverged species. When cultured in 1% glucose medium supplemented with galactose, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but not S. bayanus or other Saccharomyces species, delayed commitment to galactose metabolism until glucose was exhausted. Promoters of seven galactose (GAL) metabolic genes from S. cerevisiae, when introduced together into S. bayanus, largely recapitulated the delay phenotype in 1% glucose-galactose medium, and most had partial effects when tested in isolation. Variation in GAL coding regions also contributed to the delay when tested individually in 1% glucose-galactose medium. When combined, S. cerevisiae GAL coding regions gave rise to profound growth defects in the S. bayanus background. In medium containing 2.5% glucose supplemented with galactose, wild-type S. cerevisiae repressed GAL gene expression and had a robust growth advantage relative to S. bayanus; transgenesis of S. cerevisiae GAL promoter alleles or GAL coding regions was sufficient for partial reconstruction of these phenotypes. S. cerevisiae GAL genes thus encode a regulatory program of slow induction and avid repression, and a fitness detriment during the glucose-galactose transition but a benefit when glucose is in excess. Together, these results make clear that genetic mapping of complex phenotypes is within reach, even in deeply diverged species.

  11. Development of the chondrocranium in hagfishes, with special reference to the early evolution of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Oisi, Yasuhiro; Ota, Kinya G; Fujimoto, Satoko; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2013-11-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that the modern jawless vertebrates, hagfishes and lampreys, are more closely related to each other than to the other vertebrates, constituting a monophyletic group, the cyclostomes. In terms of their developmental morphology as well, it is possible to identify an embryonic pattern in hagfish embryos that is common to cyclostomes but not shared by jawed vertebrate embryos. On the basis of this pan-cyclostome embryonic pattern, we describe the developmental sequence of the chondrocranium and associated structures in the hagfish species Eptatretus burgeri and E. atami. Our aim was to establish homologies of the skeletal elements among cyclostomes by comparison of the developmental patterns with a lamprey, Lethenteron reissneri, to characterize further the cyclostome morphotype and its diversification in early vertebrate evolution. We show that the hagfish and lamprey chondrocrania can be compared perfectly at the level of modules corresponding to the craniofacial primordia constituting the cyclostome morphotype. In the adult anatomy, however, there are many instances in which homology cannot be established at the level of single skeletal elements, mainly because of the apparently highly apomorphic nature of the hagfish cranium. Even at the craniofacial modular level, the chondrocrania of cyclostomes and those of jawed vertebrates display very few primary homologies and are therefore very difficult to compare. We also discuss the problem of the homology of a neurocranial element, the trabecula.

  12. Chromosome number evolution in Hymenophyllum (Hymenophyllaceae), with special reference to the subgenus Hymenophyllum.

    PubMed

    Hennequin, Sabine; Ebihara, Atsushi; Dubuisson, Jean-Yves; Schneider, Harald

    2010-04-01

    With about 100 species distributed worldwide, Hymenophyllum subg. Hymenophyllum is the largest subgenus of filmy ferns. It also displays morphological disparity and extreme chromosome numbers variation, with n=11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 21, 22, 26, 28, and 34. We use DNA sequences from the genes rbcL, part of accD, rps4, and the intergenic spacers rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, and trnG-trnR to infer relationships within Hymenophyllum, with a focus on this subgenus. In the subgenus Hymenophyllum, two main clades are retrieved together with several minor clades whose placement within the subgenus remains ambiguous. We then investigate the evolution of chromosome numbers in the genus and the subgenus, using a maximum likelihood approach taking into account phylogenetic uncertainty. We provide evidence that Hymenophyllum experienced descending aneuploidy during its evolutionary history, especially within the subgenus Hymenophyllum. Reduction in chromosome numbers is particularly extreme in one clade of the subgenus, with the lowest number reported for homosporous ferns. In addition, this group of species displays a high instability in its chromosome number. Both the reduction and the instability in chromosome number may coincide with the distribution of these species in either temperate areas or at high elevations.

  13. Evolution of the amygdaloid complex in vertebrates, with special reference to the anamnio-amniotic transition.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Nerea; González, Agustín

    2007-08-01

    Numerous studies over the last few years have demonstrated that the amygdaloid complex in amniotes shares basic developmental, hodological and neurochemical features. Furthermore, homologous territories of all the main amygdaloid subdivisions have been recognized among amniotes, primarily highlighted by the common expression patterns for numerous developmental genes. Thus, derivatives from the lateral pallium, ventral pallium and subpallium constitute the fundamental parts of the amygdaloid complex. With the development of new technical approaches, study of the precise neuroanatomy of the telencephalon of the anuran amphibians (anamniotes) has been possible. Current embryological, hodological and immunohistochemical evidence strongly suggests that most of the structures present in amniotes are recognizable in these anamniotes. These investigations have yielded enough results to support the notion that the organization of the anuran amygdaloid complex includes subdivisions with their origin in ventral pallial and subpallial territories; a strong relationship with the vomeronasal and olfactory systems; abundant intra-amygdaloid connections; a main output centre involved in the autonomic system; recognizable amygdaloid fibre systems; and distinct chemoarchitecture. Therefore, the new ideas regarding the amygdaloid evolution based on the recent findings in anamniotes, and especially in anurans, strongly support the notion that basic amygdaloid structures were present at least in the brain of ancestral tetrapods organized following a basic plan shared by tetrapods.

  14. The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Merritt, A. C.; Wilhelm, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we describe changes in the nature of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in commercial aviation, including its shift from cockpit to crew resource management. Validation of the impact of CRM is discussed. Limitations of CRM, including lack of cross-cultural generality are considered. An overarching framework that stresses error management to increase acceptance of CRM concepts is presented. The error management approach defines behavioral strategies taught in CRM as error countermeasures that are employed to avoid error, to trap errors committed, and to mitigate the consequences of error.

  15. The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Merritt, A. C.; Wilhelm, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we describe changes in the nature of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in commercial aviation, including its shift from cockpit to crew resource management. Validation of the impact of CRM is discussed. Limitations of CRM, including lack of cross-cultural generality are considered. An overarching framework that stresses error management to increase acceptance of CRM concepts is presented. The error management approach defines behavioral strategies taught in CRM as error countermeasures that are employed to avoid error, to trap errors committed, and to mitigate the consequences of error.

  16. The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L; Merritt, A C; Wilhelm, J A

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we describe changes in the nature of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in commercial aviation, including its shift from cockpit to crew resource management. Validation of the impact of CRM is discussed. Limitations of CRM, including lack of cross-cultural generality are considered. An overarching framework that stresses error management to increase acceptance of CRM concepts is presented. The error management approach defines behavioral strategies taught in CRM as error countermeasures that are employed to avoid error, to trap errors committed, and to mitigate the consequences of error.

  17. Special report writer: A flexible information management system. Documentation and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    A special report writer (SSR) was developed which performs multiple correlations on files containing several data hierarchies. Output reports are specified in a simple notation, readily learned by persons having limited familarity with ADP. The SRR system can be adopted by other NASA installations while the basic techniques themselves are compatible with the information management needs of a wide range of organizations. Specifically, the program lends itself to generalization and can be readily adapted for other file management purposes. Extensive details on the characteristics of the SRR program are presented along with a full explanation of the system for those contemplating its application to other data bases. The complete COBOL program and documentation are available.

  18. ADHD in school-aged youth: Management and special treatment considerations in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Weed, Elizabeth D

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is considered one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. Primary care providers are in the unique position of providing comprehensive care-routine care, well child visits, immunizations, and other healthcare needs-to a majority of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. As such, primary care providers are pivotal in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of this population. This article will address special treatment considerations to aid in the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the primary care setting, including substance use disorders and diversion, cardiac issues and stimulant medication, medication holidays and follow-up monitoring. The database of PubMed was searched using keywords that included attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, children, prevalence, medication holidays, safety, cardiovascular, cardiac, blood pressure, substance use, diversion, adverse drug reactions; inclusion dates were January 1, 2011 to September 30, 2015.

  19. Relationship between leadership styles of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital.

    PubMed

    Negussie, Nebiat; Demissie, Asresash

    2013-03-01

    Leadership style of nurse managers plays a significant role in nurses' job satisfaction. However, there is limited literature in areas related to nurses' manager leadership style. The objective of this research was thus to investigate the relationship between leadership style of nurse managers and nurses' job satisfaction in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. The study was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from January to June 2012 and used a non-experimental correlation design. All full time, non-supervisory nurses with an experience of more than one year in nursing profession were participated in the study. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version16.0 statistical software. The results were analyzed through descriptive statistics followed by the application of inferential statistics on the variables. Significance level was considered when p<0.05. A total of 175 copies of the questionnaires were returned out of 186 copies distributed to respondents. The result indicated that nurses can prefer transformational leadership style over transactional leadership style and had moderate-level intrinsic (M=2.72, SD=0.71) but low level of extrinsic job satisfaction (M=1.83, SD=0.68). Furthermore, from transactional leadership, only contingent reward was found to be statically significant and correlated with extrinsic (B=0.45, p<0.01) and intrinsic job satisfaction (B=0.32, p<0.05) while all five dimension of transformational leadership style were statistically significant and correlated with both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Nurses tended to be more satisfied with the transformational leadership than transactional leadership style. Therefore, nurses' managers should use transformational leadership style in order to increase nurses' job satisfaction.

  20. Product self-management: evolution in recycling and reuse.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Valerie M

    2003-12-01

    This paper explores the potential to make product recycling and reuse easier by shifting responsibility for product management toward the product itself. Examples range from barcode-enabled Internet sales of used products to RFID-enabled garbage trucks that identify recyclable items and provide rebates. Initial steps toward product self-management have made opportunistic use of product bar codes and Internet markets. In the United States, Internet markets are driving increased reuse of products. In the European Union, recycling and waste management policy is driving the use of radio electronics in waste management. Prospects for product self-management are assessed from both a technological and an economic perspective. The technological analysis indicates that radio-frequency tags offer some advantages over bar codes, but their application to product self-management requires considerable investment in the waste management infrastructure. This suggests that early applications of advanced product tags are most suitable for Germany and other countries where the waste management industry has already integrated information technology into its operations. The economic analysis indicates that increased reuse of products can reduce consumption of new products and materials, although on a less than one-to-one basis, simultaneously reducing costs for consumers and deriving more value from existing products.

  1. Evolution of Management Thought in the Medieval Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    The medieval times witnessed progress toward the growth of larger and more complex organizations and the application of increasingly sophisticated management techniques. Feudalism contributed the concept of decentralization. The concepts evolved by the Catholic Church can scarcely be improved on and are very much pertinent to the management of…

  2. Evolution of anatomical and physiological specialization in the compound eyes of stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Porter, Megan L; Zhang, Yunfei; Desai, Shivani; Caldwell, Roy L; Cronin, Thomas W

    2010-10-15

    Stomatopod crustaceans have complex and diverse visual systems. Among their many unique features are a specialized ommatidial region (the midband) that enables the eye to have multiple overlapping visual fields, as well as sets of spectral filters that are intercalated at two levels between tiers of photoreceptors involved in polychromatic color vision. Although the physiology and visual function of stomatopod eyes have been studied for many years, how these unique visual features originated and diversified is still an open question. In order to investigate how stomatopods have attained the current complexity in visual function, we have combined physiological and morphological information (e.g. number of midband rows, number of filters in the retina, and the spectral properties of filters) with new phylogenetic analyses of relationships among species based on nucleotide sequence data from two nuclear (18S and 28S rDNA) and two mitochondrial [16S and cytochrome oxidase I (COI)] genes. Based on our recovered phylogenetic relationships among species, we propose two new superfamilies within the Stomatopoda: Hemisquilloidea and Pseudosquillodea. Maximum likelihood ancestral state reconstructions indicate that ancestral stomatopod eyes contained six midband rows and four intrarhabdomal filters, illustrating that the visual physiological complexity originated early in stomatopod evolutionary history. While the two distal filters contain conservative sets of filter pigments, the proximal filters show more spectral diversity in filter types, particularly in midband row 2, and are involved in tuning the color vision system to the photic environment. In particular, a set of related gonodactyloid families (Gonodactylidae, Protosquillidae, Takuidae) inhabiting shallow, brightly lit coral reef waters contain the largest diversity of filter pigments, which are spectrally placed relative to the underlying photoreceptors to take advantage of the broad spectrum of light available in

  3. Hydrophobic Core Variations Provide a Structural Framework for Tyrosine Kinase Evolution and Functional Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Annie; Byrne, Dominic P.; Ferries, Samantha; Ruan, Zheng; Hanold, Laura E.; Katiyar, Samiksha; Kennedy, Eileen J.; Eyers, Patrick A.; Kannan, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a group of closely related enzymes that have evolutionarily diverged from serine/threonine kinases (STKs) to regulate pathways associated with multi-cellularity. Evolutionary divergence of PTKs from STKs has occurred through accumulation of mutations in the active site as well as in the commonly conserved hydrophobic core. While the functional significance of active site variations is well understood, relatively little is known about how hydrophobic core variations contribute to PTK evolutionary divergence. Here, using a combination of statistical sequence comparisons, molecular dynamics simulations, mutational analysis and in vitro thermostability and kinase assays, we investigate the structural and functional significance of key PTK-specific variations in the kinase core. We find that the nature of residues and interactions in the hydrophobic core of PTKs is strikingly different from other protein kinases, and PTK-specific variations in the core contribute to functional divergence by altering the stability and dynamics of the kinase domain. In particular, a functionally critical STK-conserved histidine that stabilizes the regulatory spine in STKs is selectively mutated to an alanine, serine or glutamate in PTKs, and this loss-of-function mutation is accommodated, in part, through compensatory PTK-specific interactions in the core. In particular, a PTK-conserved phenylalanine in the I-helix appears to structurally and functionally compensate for the loss of STK-histidine by interacting with the regulatory spine, which has far-reaching effects on enzyme activity, inhibitor sensing, and stability. We propose that hydrophobic core variations provide a selective advantage during PTK evolution by increasing the conformational flexibility, and therefore the allosteric potential of the kinase domain. Our studies also suggest that Tyrosine Kinase Like kinases such as RAF are intermediates in PTK evolutionary divergence inasmuch as they

  4. Sustainable natural resource management and environmental assessment in the Salt Lake (Tuz Golu) Specially Protected Area.

    PubMed

    Dengiz, Orhan; Ozcan, Hesna; Koksal, E Selim; Baskan, Oguz; Kosker, Yakup

    2010-02-01

    The Salt Lake Specially Protected Area is a unique ecosystem for both agricultural activities and natural life in Turkey. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a conceptual land use strategy and methodology, taking into account ecological factors for regional development in the Salt Lake Specially Protected Area. A detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis was done to create a comprehensive database including land use, land suitability, and environmental factors (soil, climate, water quality, fertilizing status, and heavy metal and pesticide pollution). The results of the land suitability survey for agricultural use showed that, while 62.6% of the study area soils were classified as best and relatively good, about 15% were classified as problematic and restricted lands, only 22.2% of the study area soils were not suitable for agricultural uses. However, this is not enough to derive maximum benefit with minimum degradation. Therefore, environmental factors and ecological conditions were combined to support this aim and to protect the ecosystem. Excessive irrigation practices, fertilizer and pesticide application, and incorrect management practices all accelerate salinization and degradation. In addition to this, it was found that a multi-layer GIS analysis made it easy to develop a framework for optimum land use and could increase the production yield preserving the environmental conditions. Finally, alternative management and crop patterns were undertaken to sustain this unique ecosystem, considering water, soil, climate, land use characteristics, and to provide guidance for planners or decision makers.

  5. Nurse care manager contribution to quality of care in a dual-eligible special needs plan.

    PubMed

    Roth, Carol P; Ganz, David A; Nickles, Lorraine; Martin, David; Beckman, Robin; Wenger, Neil S

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the quality of care provided to older patients with complex needs in a dual-eligible, community-based Medicare Special Needs Plan that used a nurse care manager model. Care provided by physicians was substantially supplemented by nurse care managers, as measured by Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders quality indicators. We describe selected nurse care manager activities for six geriatric conditions (falls, dementia, depression, nutrition, urinary incontinence, and end-of-life care) during provision of patient care coordination and management for patients in the highest decile of clinical complexity. We identify areas of high nurse performance (i.e., falls screening, functional assessment, behavioral interventions for dementia problems, advance care planning) and areas of potential missed opportunities (i.e., follow up for new memory problems, targeted dementia counseling, nutrition, and behavioral approaches to urinary incontinence). Increasing the collaborative interaction between nurses providing care in this model and physicians has the potential to enhance nurses' contributions to primary care for vulnerable older adults.

  6. Special Forest Products on the Green Mountain and Finger Lakes National Forests: a research-based approach to management

    Treesearch

    Marla R. Emery; Clare. Ginger

    2014-01-01

    Special forest products (SFPs) are gathered from more than 200 vascular and fungal species on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) and Finger Lakes National Forest (FLNF). This report documents those SFPs and proposes an approach to managing them in the context of legislation directing the U.S. Forest Service to institute a program of active SFP management. Based...

  7. Tubulin evolution in insects: gene duplication and subfunctionalization provide specialized isoforms in a functionally constrained gene family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    -associated proteins. CTT residues overwhelming comprise the co-evolving residues between Drosophila alpha 2 and beta 3 tubulin proteins, indicating CTT specializations can be mediated at the level of the tubulin dimer. Gene duplications post-dating separation of the insect orders are unevenly distributed, most often appearing in major alpha 1 and minor beta 2 clades. More than 40 introns are found in tubulins. Their distribution among tubulins reveals that insertion and deletion events are common, surprising given their potential for disrupting tubulin coding sequence. Compensatory evolution is found in Drosophila beta 2 tubulin cis-regulation, and reveals selective pressures acting to maintain testis expression without the use of previously identified testis cis-regulatory elements. Conclusion Tubulins have stringent structure/function relationships, indicated by strong purifying selection, the loss of many gene duplication products, alpha-beta co-evolution in the tubulin dimer, and compensatory evolution in beta 2 tubulin cis-regulation. They evolve through gene duplication, subfunctionalization in expression domain and divergence of duplication products, largely in CTT residues that mediate interactions with other proteins. This has resulted in the tissue-specific minor insect isoforms, and in particular the highly diverse α3, α4, and β2 reproductive tissue-specific tubulin isoforms, illustrating that even a highly conserved protein family can participate in the adaptive process and respond to sexual selection. PMID:20423510

  8. Specialized Nursing Practice for Chronic Disease Management in the Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In response to the increasing demand for better chronic disease management and improved health care efficiency in Ontario, nursing roles have expanded in the primary health care setting. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of specialized nurses who have a clinical role in patient care in optimizing chronic disease management among adults in the primary health care setting. Data Sources and Review Methods A literature search was performed using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database. Results were limited to randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews and were divided into 2 models: Model 1 (nurse alone versus physician alone) and Model 2 (nurse and physician versus physician alone). Effectiveness was determined by comparable outcomes between groups in Model 1, or improved outcomes or efficiency in Model 2. Results Six studies were included. In Model 1, there were no significant differences in health resource use, disease-specific measures, quality of life, or patient satisfaction. In Model 2, there was a reduction in hospitalizations and improved management of blood pressure and lipids among patients with coronary artery disease. Among patients with diabetes, there was a reduction in hemoglobin A1c but no difference in other disease-specific measures. There was a trend toward improved process measures, including medication prescribing and clinical assessments. Results related to quality of life were inconsistent, but patient satisfaction with the nurse-physician team was improved. Overall, there were more and longer visits to the nurse, and physician workload did not change. Limitations There was heterogeneity across patient populations, and in the titles, roles, and scope of practice of the specialized nurses. Conclusions Specialized nurses with

  9. Marine data management: a positive evolution from JGOFS to OCEANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avril, B.

    2003-04-01

    The JGOFS project has been highly successful in providing new insights into global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and associated elements in the oceans through a multi-national effort at the regional scale (process studies in the North Atlantic, Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific, Southern Ocean and North Pacific), global scale (carbon survey) and from long-term measurements at key ocean sites (time-series). The database thus created is very large and complex in diversity and format, and it is currently managed at the international level, thank to the efforts of the JGOFS Data Management Task Team. To be fully usable for current and future studies, the JGOFS datasets will be organised as a single database (so-called, the International JGOFS Master Dataset), in a single format and in a single location (in the World Data Centre (WDC) system, thanks to an initiative of PANGAEA / WDC-MARE; and on CDs or DVDs) before the end of the project (Dec. 2003). This should be achieved by adapting previously developed tools, especially from the US-JGOFS DMO (for the user query interface) and from ODV/PANGAEA (for the datasets visualization and metadata handling). Whilst the OCEANS project science and implementation plans are being prepared, the international oceanographic community is now hoping to benefit from the JGOFS data management experience and to elaborate beforehand the best design and practices for its data management. The draft OCEANS data management plan (international data policy and recommendations for participating international agencies and national data managers) is presented. This plan should result in the rapid and full availability of data, and its long-term preservation and accessibility, thanks to a better, integrated and fully implemented data management system.

  10. Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Implications for Environmental Management [Special Issue

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Brandt, Craig C; Christensen, Sigurd W; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Ham, Kenneth; Kszos, Lynn A; Loar, James M; McCracken, Kitty; Morris, Gail Wright; Peterson, Mark J; Ryon, Michael G; Smith, John G; Southworth, George R; Stewart, Arthur J

    2011-01-01

    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  11. An evolution in blood management: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Figueroa, Priscilla I; Gowans, Kate L; Parker, Brian M; Proctor, Andrew W; Benitez-Santana, San Miguel; Koch, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Blood management is a concept that adopts a principle of improving patient outcome by integrating all available techniques to ensure safety, availability, and appropriate allocation of blood products. This constitutes a model of multidisciplinary care where the changes in culture are system directed on the basis of evidence-based medicine. There are about 14% US hospitals where any kind of blood management program exists, although the idea remains the same but the programs vary in their execution, implementation, and ultimately providing the value to patients. In this article, we have described our experience of creating a patient-centric, cost-effective, evidence-based, and multipronged program creation with scalable results. The use of data, education, process improvement, engagement, and accountability of caregivers have resulted in sustained results and helped in creating a comprehensive blood management program.

  12. The Learning Management System Evolution. CDS Spotlight Report. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service (CDS) to better understand how higher education institutions approach learning management systems (LMSs). Information provided for this Spotlight was derived from Module 8 of the Core Data Service, which contains several questions regarding information systems and applications.…

  13. Evolution in clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Nathan C; Galland, Joel; Borsato, Emerson P

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present an overview of the clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare in support of our electronic medical record systems. Intermountain first initiated efforts in developing a centralized enterprise knowledge repository in 2001. Applications developed, areas of emphasis served, and key areas of focus are presented. We also detail historical and current areas of emphasis, in response to business needs.

  14. The Learning Management System Evolution. CDS Spotlight Report. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service (CDS) to better understand how higher education institutions approach learning management systems (LMSs). Information provided for this Spotlight was derived from Module 8 of the Core Data Service, which contains several questions regarding information systems and applications.…

  15. Insecticide resistance in vector Chagas disease: evolution, mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés

    2015-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection restricted to America. The disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to human through the feces of infected triatomine insects. Because no treatment is available for the chronic forms of the disease, vector chemical control represents the best way to reduce the incidence of the disease. Chemical control has been based principally on spraying dwellings with insecticide formulations and led to the reduction of triatomine distribution and consequent interruption of disease transmission in several areas from endemic region. However, in the last decade it has been repeatedly reported the presence triatomnes, mainly Triatoma infestans, after spraying with pyrethroid insecticides, which was associated to evolution to insecticide resistance. In this paper the evolution of insecticide resistance in triatomines is reviewed. The insecticide resistance was detected in 1970s in Rhodnius prolixus and 1990s in R. prolixus and T. infestans, but not until the 2000s resistance to pyrthroids in T. infestans associated to control failures was described in Argentina and Bolivia. The main resistance mechanisms (i.e. enhanced metabolism, altered site of action and reduced penetration) were described in the T. infestans resistant to pyrethrods. Different resistant profiles were demonstrated suggesting independent origin of the different resistant foci of Argentina and Bolivia. The deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans was showed to be controlled by semi-dominant, autosomally inherited factors. Reproductive and developmental costs were also demonstrated for the resistant T. infestans. A discussion about resistance and tolerance concepts and the persistence of T. infestans in Gran Chaco region are presented. In addition, theoretical concepts related to toxicological, evolutionary and ecological aspects of insecticide resistance are discussed in order to understand the particular scenario of pyrethroid

  16. Employer Policies and Practices to Manage and Prevent Disability: Foreword to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Shaw, William S; Main, Chris J; Pransky, Glenn; Nicholas, Michael K; Anema, Johannes R; Linton, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Employer policies and practices have been shown to impact workplace disability, but research in this area has waned in recent years despite an aging workforce, a growing prevalence of chronic health conditions, and a larger proportion of working-age adults on permanent work disability in many jurisdictions. The purpose of this article is to describe the background rationale and methodology for an invited conference designed to improve research of employer strategies to curtail work disability. Methods A multidisciplinary team of 26 international researchers with published research in employer-based disability management or related fields were invited to attend a 3-day conference in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The overall goal was to review the status of current research of workplace disability management and prevention, examine its relevance for employer decision-making, compare conceptual frameworks or theoretical perspectives, and recommend future research directions. Working groups were organized and draft manuscripts were prepared in advance. Conference activities included working group presentations and critiques, discussions with a panel of industry consultants and advisors, group interaction and debate, generation of final recommendations, and manuscript revision. Results/Conclusion Six principal domains were established with respect to future research: (a) further elucidation of the key workplace factors that buffer the disabling effects of injury and illness; (b) more innovative and feasible options for workplace intervention; (c) measurement of workplace-relevant disability outcomes; (d) a stronger theoretical framework for understanding the factors behind employer uptake and implementation; (e) a focus on special clinical populations and occupations where disability risk is most troubling; and (f) better representation of workers and employers that reflect the diverse and changing nature of work. Final comments and recommendations of the

  17. Space Station Freedom data management system growth and evolution report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Davis, G.; Grant, T. L.; Gibson, J.; Hedges, R.; Johnson, M. J.; Liu, Y. K.; Patterson-Hine, A.; Sliwa, N.; Sowizral, H.

    1992-01-01

    The Information Sciences Division at the NASA Ames Research Center has completed a 6-month study of portions of the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). This study looked at the present capabilities and future growth potential of the DMS, and the results are documented in this report. Issues have been raised that were discussed with the appropriate Johnson Space Center (JSC) management and Work Package-2 contractor organizations. Areas requiring additional study have been identified and suggestions for long-term upgrades have been proposed. This activity has allowed the Ames personnel to develop a rapport with the JSC civil service and contractor teams that does permit an independent check and balance technique for the DMS.

  18. Evolution in Clinical Knowledge Management Strategy at Intermountain Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Nathan C.; Galland, Joel; Borsato, Emerson P.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present an overview of the clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare in support of our electronic medical record systems. Intermountain first initiated efforts in developing a centralized enterprise knowledge repository in 2001. Applications developed, areas of emphasis served, and key areas of focus are presented. We also detail historical and current areas of emphasis, in response to business needs. PMID:23304309

  19. The Evolution of Information Management in Oceanographic Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reser, B.; Mesick, S.; Lobecker, E.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging technologies in data collection, processing, and telecommunication have made data management a vital and ever evolving component of scientific research and exploration. Automation and streamlining of these technologies have enabled a paradigm shift in the approach to ocean research aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer. Telepresence technologies allow the real time collaboration of at sea technicians and scientists with shore side scientists as well as near real time access to the datasets being collected. This approach has allowed for a large team of shore side experts in various fields to drive at-sea collection and exploration efforts, enabling the analysis and evaluation of as high quality data as possible. Automated and standardized data management efforts that have been integrated into this model allow for the rapid and efficient collection, processing, and archival of the information in national public archives. As new sampling and survey technologies are developed they have been, and will continue to be, adapted into the existing end-to-end information management model. Most recently this was accomplished in a collaborative effort between NOAA, NSF, WHOI, Duke, URI, and the USGS in a cruise along the Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs. This cruise successfully integrated shipboard data collection with the Sentry AUV in the search for, and exploration of, cold seep communities along the US Atlantic Margin.

  20. The Evolution of a Management Information System in an Outpatient Mental Health Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Doryn; Allen, Richard

    1979-01-01

    To promote greater accountability, supervisors in mental health facilities will be required to monitor activities of their organizations. The Outpatient Division of the Texas Research Institute of Mental Sciences has developed an administrative accounting based on management by objectives. Presents the evolution, philosophy, and format of the…

  1. Emergency medical consequence planning and management for national special security events after September 11: Boston 2004.

    PubMed

    Kade, Kristy A; Brinsfield, Kathryn H; Serino, Richard A; Savoia, Elena; Koh, Howard K

    2008-10-01

    The post-September 11 era has prompted unprecedented attention to medical preparations for national special security events (NSSE), requiring extraordinary planning and coordination among federal, state, and local agencies. For an NSSE, the US Secret Service (USSS) serves as the lead agency for all security operations and coordinates with relevant partners to provide for the safety and welfare of participants. For the 2004 Democratic National Convention (DNC), designated an NSSE, the USSS tasked the Boston Emergency Medical Services (BEMS) of the Boston Public Health Commission with the design and implementation of health services related to the Convention. In this article, we describe the planning and development of BEMS' robust 2004 DNC Medical Consequence Management Plan, addressing the following activities: public health surveillance, on-site medical care, surge capacity in the event of a mass casualty incident, and management of federal response assets. Lessons learned from enhanced medical planning for the 2004 DNC may serve as an effective model for future mass gathering events.

  2. Evolution of imaging and management systems in orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chester H; Randazzo, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Orthodontists have long been among the most progressive of the dental specialists, quick to embrace new technologies for enhancing clinical efficiencies and practice workflow. Orthodontic software innovations, whether for imaging and clinical applications or for managing the business side of a practice, have led the consistent need for more powerful computing requirements for more than 4 decades. This article recounts the history of how computers and orthodontic software have been used in America from their nascence to today and provides an outlook for the future. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic engineering, integrated pest management and the evolution of pests.

    PubMed

    Gould, F

    1988-04-01

    It is well known that pest populations can evolve resistance to pesticides. The bollworm complex (Heliothis spp.), which attacks cotton plants, is a particularly good example of a highly adaptable pest. To achieve long-term success, genetic engineering projects for the production of 'insecticidal' crop plants, including cotton, need to take account of the adaptive potential of pests. Using the bollworm complex as a model, it is possible to show how an integrated approach to pest management, involving genetic engineers, evolutionary biologists and ecologists, could lead to the development of safe and effective transgenic cultivars. Copyright © 1988. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Convergent Evolution of Health Information Management and Health Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, C. J.; Abrams, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Clearly defined boundaries are disappearing among the activities, sources, and uses of health care data and information managed by health information management (HIM) and health informatics (HI) professionals. Definitions of the professional domains and scopes of practice for HIM and HI are converging with the proliferation of information and communication technologies in health care settings. Convergence is changing both the roles that HIM and HI professionals serve in their organizations as well as the competencies necessary for training future professionals. Many of these changes suggest a blurring of roles and responsibilities with increasingly overlapping curricula, job descriptions, and research agendas. Blurred lines in a highly competitive market create confusion for students and employers. In this essay, we provide some perspective on the changing landscape and suggest a course for the future. First we review the evolving definitions of HIM and HI. We next compare the current domains and competencies, review the characteristics as well as the education and credentialing of both disciplines, and examine areas of convergence. Given the current state, we suggest a path forward to strengthen the contributions HIM and HI professionals and educators make to the evolving health care environment. PMID:25848421

  5. Employer Policies and Practices to Manage and Prevent Disability: Conclusion to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Main, Chris J; Shaw, William S

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Research of employer policies and practices to manage and prevent disability spans many disciplines and perspectives, and there are many challenges related to stakeholder collaboration, data access, and interventions. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the findings from a conference and year-long collaboration among a group of invited researchers intended to spur new research innovations in this field. Methods A multidisciplinary team of 26 international researchers with published research in employer-based disability management or related fields were invited to attend a 3-day conference in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The conference goals were to review the status of current research of workplace disability management and prevention, examine its relevance for employer decision-making, compare conceptual frameworks or theoretical perspectives, and recommend future research directions. In this paper, we summarize key points from the 6 resulting papers, compare them with an earlier 2005 conference on improving return-to-work research, and conclude with recommendations for further overarching research directions. Results/Conclusion In comparison with the 2005 conference, a greater emphasis was placed on organizational and social factors, employer roles and responsibilities, methods of implementation, non-clinical approaches, and facilitating stay-at-work as well as return-to-work. A special panel of employer consultants and representatives who were featured at the 2015 conference reinforced the importance of organizational culture, leadership style, and financial decision-making strategies at the employer level. Based on the conference proceedings, we recommend that future research in this area should strive for: (a) broader inclusion of workers and workplaces; (b) attention to multilevel influences in the workplace; (c) a focus on social as well as physical aspects of work; (d) earlier employer collaboration efforts; (e) more attention to

  6. Frequency and inheritance of non-male producing clones in Daphnia magna: evolution towards sex specialization in a cyclical parthenogen?

    PubMed

    Galimov, Y; Walser, B; Haag, C R

    2011-07-01

    In Daphnia (Cladocera, Crustacea), parthenogenetic reproduction alternates with sexual reproduction. Individuals of both sexes that belong to the same parthenogenetic line are genetically identical, and their sex is determined by the environment. Previously, non-male producing (NMP) genotypes have been described in species of the Daphnia pulex group. Such genotypes can only persist through phases of sexual reproduction if they co-occur with normal (MP) genotypes that produce both males and females, and thus the breeding system polymorphism is similar to gynodioecy (coexistence of females with hermaphrodites), which is well known in plants. Here we show that the same breeding system polymorphism also occurs in Daphnia magna, a species that has diverged from D. pulex more than 100 MY ago. Depending on the population, between 0% and 40% of D. magna females do not produce males when experimentally exposed to a concentration of the putative sex hormone methyl farnesoate that normally leads to male-only clutches. Natural broods of these NMP females never contained males, contrasting with high proportions of male offspring in MP females from the same populations. The results from a series of crossing experiments suggest that NMP is determined by a dominant allele at a single nuclear locus (or a several closely linked loci): NMP × MP crosses always yielded 50% NMP and 50% MP offspring, whereas MP × MP crosses always yielded 100% MP offspring. Based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit I-sequences, we found that NMP genotypes from different populations belong to three highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, potentially representing three independent evolutionary origins of NMP in D. magna. Thus, the evolution of NMP genotypes in cyclical parthenogens may be more common than previously thought. Moreover, MP genotypes that coexist with NMP genotypes may have responded to the presence of the latter by partially specializing on male production. Hence, these populations of D

  7. Evolutional trends in the management of tracheal and bronchial injuries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal and Bronchial injuries are potentially life threatening complications which require urgent diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. They typically occur in association with blunt and penetrating chest trauma although they are increasingly being encountered in patients following endobronchial intervention and percutaneous tracheostomy insertion. Their precise incidence is unknown. Presenting features include dyspnoea, stridor, respiratory and haemodynamic compromise, haemoptysis, surgical emphysema, pneumothorax and persistent significant airleak. There may be other additional injuries to consider in trauma patients with large airway injury. Familiarity with the diagnosis and management of large airway injuries is important for medical teams engaged in emergency medicine, thoracic surgery and medicine, anaesthesia and intensive care. Although early surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment, endobronchial manoeuvres to seal defects are receiving increasing attention particularly for patients with medical co-morbidities which may contraindicate formal surgery or transfer or where local surgical expertise is not available. PMID:28203439

  8. Evolution in the management of the total thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tad; Martin, Tomas D; Lee, W Anthony; Hess, Philip J; Klodell, Charles T; Tribble, Curtis G; Feezor, Robert J; Beaver, Thomas M

    2009-03-01

    Extensive aneurysms of the ascending, arch, and descending thoracic aorta traditionally have been managed with a 2-stage "elephant trunk" procedure. Single-stage transmediastinal repairs have also been used, because in some patients the entire repair is not completed owing to either complications during first-stage repair or magnitude of the second-stage operation. Since 2006, second-stage elephant trunks have been preferentially completed with endovascular stent grafts in anatomically appropriate patients. This study compares outcomes of 2-stage elephant trunk, single-stage, and hybrid endovascular repairs of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms. This is a single-institution retrospective cohort study of 103 patients (1992-2007) with extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms undergoing 2-stage elephant trunk repair with either surgical (OPEN) or endovascular (TEVAR) completion versus single-stage transmediastinal replacement (SS). Outcomes were analyzed with Statistica 8.0 software (Tulsa, Okla). Of 103 patients, 74 had elephant trunk procedures, 24 TEVAR-eligible and 50 OPEN, and 29 had SS. Completion rates were higher with TEVAR than OPEN (78% vs 47%; P = .01). Seven of 18 TEVARs were performed during the index hospitalization. TEVAR patients had shorter second-stage hospital stay (5.5 vs 16.5 days [P < .01]), required fewer transfusions (P < .01), and had less acute kidney injury (P = .04). There were no differences in mortality, paraplegia, or stroke. Six-month Kaplan-Meier survival estimates for OPEN, TEVAR, and SS were 64%, 78%, and 64% (P = .08). More patients complete the second stage when TEVAR is used after elephant trunk repair, with fewer hospital days and transfusions. TEVAR is feasible and safe in the hybrid management of extensive thoracic aortic aneurysms.

  9. GOMMA: a component-based infrastructure for managing and analyzing life science ontologies and their evolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ontologies are increasingly used to structure and semantically describe entities of domains, such as genes and proteins in life sciences. Their increasing size and the high frequency of updates resulting in a large set of ontology versions necessitates efficient management and analysis of this data. Results We present GOMMA, a generic infrastructure for managing and analyzing life science ontologies and their evolution. GOMMA utilizes a generic repository to uniformly and efficiently manage ontology versions and different kinds of mappings. Furthermore, it provides components for ontology matching, and determining evolutionary ontology changes. These components are used by analysis tools, such as the Ontology Evolution Explorer (OnEX) and the detection of unstable ontology regions. We introduce the component-based infrastructure and show analysis results for selected components and life science applications. GOMMA is available at http://dbs.uni-leipzig.de/GOMMA. Conclusions GOMMA provides a comprehensive and scalable infrastructure to manage large life science ontologies and analyze their evolution. Key functions include a generic storage of ontology versions and mappings, support for ontology matching and determining ontology changes. The supported features for analyzing ontology changes are helpful to assess their impact on ontology-dependent applications such as for term enrichment. GOMMA complements OnEX by providing functionalities to manage various versions of mappings between two ontologies and allows combining different match approaches. PMID:21914205

  10. Legacy systems: managing evolution through integration in a distributed and object-oriented computing environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, D.; Sauquet, D.; Fofol, I.; Tanguy, L.; Jean, F. C.; Degoulet, P.

    1995-01-01

    Legacy systems are crucial for organizations since they support key functionalities. But they become obsolete with aging and the apparition of new techniques. Managing their evolution is a key issue in software engineering. This paper presents a strategy that has been developed at Broussais University Hospital in Paris to make a legacy system devoted to the management of health care units evolve towards a new up-to-date software. A two-phase evolution pathway is described. The first phase consists in separating the interface from the data storage and application control and in using a communication channel between the individualized components. The second phase proposes to use an object-oriented DBMS in place of the homegrown system. An application example for the management of hypertensive patients is described. PMID:8563252

  11. 3rd European Evidence-based Consensus on the Diagnosis and Management of Crohn's Disease 2016: Part 2: Surgical Management and Special Situations.

    PubMed

    Gionchetti, Paolo; Dignass, Axel; Danese, Silvio; Magro Dias, Fernando José; Rogler, Gerhard; Lakatos, Péter Laszlo; Adamina, Michel; Ardizzone, Sandro; Buskens, Christianne J; Sebastian, Shaji; Laureti, Silvio; Sampietro, Gianluca M; Vucelic, Boris; van der Woude, C Janneke; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Maaser, Christian; Portela, Francisco; Vavricka, Stephan R; Gomollón, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two publications relating to the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation [ECCO] evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease [CD] and concerns the surgical management of CD as well as special situations including management of perianal CD and extraintestinal manifestations. Diagnostic approaches and medical management of CD of this ECCO Consensus are covered in the first paper [Gomollon et al JCC 2016]. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Examining the Perceptions of Secondary School General Education Administrators Regarding the Supervision and Management of Special Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation includes a report of the results of a quantitative and qualitative research project that examined the perceptions of 58 secondary general education administrators regarding the supervision and management of special education programs in their buildings. Data were gathered through an online survey that requested participants to…

  13. The Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation Education Kit V. [Ecology and Management of Special Habitats: Dune, Cave, Cliff, Bluff, and Urban.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Sally F.

    The ecology and management of special habitats is the theme of this instructional guide. It contains 24 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with dune, cave, cliff, bluff, and urban habitats in Illinois. Each activity (which is ready to be copied and given to students) includes an objective (called a mission) and…

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Short Anger Management Group for Special Education Teachers in Greece: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Tsiligiannis, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a psychoeducational group for Greek special education teachers, all but one of whom reported experiencing anger in class. An anger management program was designed, which included a short, four-session package to be given within two weeks. The results of a pretest-posttest comparison revealed reductions in…

  15. The Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation Education Kit V. [Ecology and Management of Special Habitats: Dune, Cave, Cliff, Bluff, and Urban.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Sally F.

    The ecology and management of special habitats is the theme of this instructional guide. It contains 24 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with dune, cave, cliff, bluff, and urban habitats in Illinois. Each activity (which is ready to be copied and given to students) includes an objective (called a mission) and…

  16. Toward Excellence in Secondary Special Education: A Plan for Statewide Initiatives in Oregon. Management Issues and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Andrew S.; Byrne, Andrew R.

    Management issues, guidelines, policies, and procedures for implementing a statewide plan in Oregon for improving secondary school special education and transition programs for students with mild or severe disabilities are described. An overview is given of the development of the plan, including discussion of: background events; general underlying…

  17. Examining the Perceptions of Secondary School General Education Administrators Regarding the Supervision and Management of Special Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation includes a report of the results of a quantitative and qualitative research project that examined the perceptions of 58 secondary general education administrators regarding the supervision and management of special education programs in their buildings. Data were gathered through an online survey that requested participants to…

  18. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 3: EVA/Manned Systems/Fluid Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution 16-19 Jan. 1990 in Dallas, Texas. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 3 consists of the technology discipline sections for Extravehicular Activity/Manned Systems and the Fluid Management System. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  19. Leading and Managing for Performance: An Examination of Challenges Confronting Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Alexandria, VA.

    This paper attempts to define the role of special education and special educators in current educational reform efforts and to provide direction to the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE), by reviewing current reform initiatives in the context of the past, present, and future of educating children with…

  20. Community-Based Care for the Specialized Management of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In August 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) presented a vignette to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) on a proposed targeted health care delivery model for chronic care. The proposed model was defined as multidisciplinary, ambulatory, community-based care that bridged the gap between primary and tertiary care, and was intended for individuals with a chronic disease who were at risk of a hospital admission or emergency department visit. The goals of this care model were thought to include: the prevention of emergency department visits, a reduction in hospital admissions and re-admissions, facilitation of earlier hospital discharge, a reduction or delay in long-term care admissions, and an improvement in mortality and other disease-specific patient outcomes. OHTAC approved the development of an evidence-based assessment to determine the effectiveness of specialized community based care for the management of heart failure, Type 2 diabetes and chronic wounds. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site at: www.health.gov.on.ca/ohtas to review the following reports associated with the Specialized Multidisciplinary Community-Based care series. Specialized multidisciplinary community-based care series: a summary of evidence-based analyses Community-based care for the specialized management of heart failure: an evidence-based analysis Community-based care for chronic wound management: an evidence-based analysis Please note that the evidence-based analysis of specialized community-based care for the management of diabetes titled: “Community-based care for the management of type 2 diabetes: an evidence-based analysis” has been published as part of the Diabetes Strategy Evidence Platform at this URL: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/ohtas/tech_diabetes_20091020.html Please visit the Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative Web site at: http

  1. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.

  2. Insights into the contemporary management of heart failure in specialized multidisciplinary ambulatory clinics.

    PubMed

    Abrahamyan, Lusine; Trubiani, Gina; Witteman, William; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Krahn, Murray; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    2013-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) clinics are associated with improved outcomes in randomized trials, however, there is substantial heterogeneity in the service models of HF clinics in practice. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of this clinic level heterogeneity on HF patient management in Ontario, Canada. Charts were abstracted from 9 HF clinics, chosen at random from the 34 HF clinics in operation in Ontario in 2011. From each clinic, approximately 100 patient charts were randomly selected for detailed abstraction on patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, diagnostic tests, medication use, and referrals, over a 1-year period from the first clinic visit. Significant heterogeneity was observed in patient baseline profiles, pharmacological therapies, diagnostic testing, clinic personnel, and referrals across 9 clinics. The mean age of patients was 66.1 ± 15.7 years and was significantly different between the clinics. Most patients were male (65%), and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 33%. There was significant variation in the utilization of echocardiography (42%-94%) and coronary angiography (19%-62%). Overall, approximately 88% of patients were prescribed angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, and 85% were prescribe β-blockers. The rates of referral to cardiac rehabilitation programs were overall low at 10.4% of patients, with substantial variation (1%-28%). Specialized HF clinics have wide variation in the health personnel involved and the care provided; in addition, patients treated at these HF clinics have important differences in clinical characteristics. Strategies should be considered at the appropriate level (eg, province-wide in Ontario) to standardize HF management and provide best evidence-based care to patients. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing the future: the Special Virus Leukemia Program and the acceleration of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2014-12-01

    After the end of the Second World War, cancer virus research experienced a remarkable revival, culminating in the creation in 1964 of the United States National Cancer Institute's Special Virus Leukemia Program (SVLP), an ambitious program of directed biomedical research to accelerate the development of a leukemia vaccine. Studies of cancer viruses soon became the second most highly funded area of research at the Institute, and by far the most generously funded area of biological research. Remarkably, this vast infrastructure for cancer vaccine production came into being before a human leukemia virus was shown to exist. The origins of the SVLP were rooted in as much as shifts in American society as laboratory science. The revival of cancer virus studies was a function of the success advocates and administrators achieved in associating cancer viruses with campaigns against childhood diseases such as polio and leukemia. To address the urgency borne of this new association, the SVLP's architects sought to lessen the power of peer review in favor of centralized Cold War management methods, fashioning viruses as "administrative objects" in order to accelerate the tempo of biomedical research and discovery.

  4. Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Ulmschneider

    When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

  5. Acquisition Management for System-of-Systems: Requirement Evolution and Acquisition Strategy Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    6Shinozuka, M ., Chang, S.E., “Evaluating the Disaster Resilience of Power Networks and Grids,” Springer-Verlag, edited by Okuyama , Y., Chang, S.E., 2004...Anderson, S., & Felici, M . (2001). Requirements evolution: From process to product oriented management. In Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on...Security Informatics (pp. 252–257). Beijing, China. Maier, M . W. (1998). Architecting principles for system-of-systems. Systems Engineering, 1(4), 267

  6. Managing Autism: Knowledge and Training in Autism Spectrum Disorders among Special Education Administrators in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Heather; Combes, Bertina H.; Metha, Smita Shukla

    2012-01-01

    The number of children with ASDs quadrupled between 2000-2001 and 2009-2010, from 93,000 to 378,000. More children with ASDs are being served in public school systems. Due process hearings and cases involving students with ASDs represent the most rapidly growing area of litigation in special education. Special education administrators' knowledge…

  7. Quality management tools: facilitating clinical research data integrity by utilizing specialized reports with electronic case report forms.

    PubMed

    Trocky, N M; Fontinha, M

    2005-01-01

    Data collected throughout the course of a clinical research trial must be reviewed for accuracy and completeness continually. The Oracle Clinical (OC) data management application utilized to capture clinical data facilitates data integrity through pre-programmed validations, edit and range checks, and discrepancy management modules. These functions were not enough. Coupled with the use of specially created reports in Oracle Discoverer and Integrated Review, both ad-hoc query and reporting tools, research staff have enhanced their ability to clean, analyze and report more accurate data captured within and among Case Report Forms (eCRFs) by individual study or across multiple studies.

  8. Managing risk and conflict behaviours in acute psychiatry: the dual role of constant special observation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Duncan; Bowers, Len; Ross, Jamie

    2012-06-01

      This is a report of a study of events before and after the use of constant special observation on acute psychiatric wards, and the characteristics of patients who received it.   Constant special observation is a method of preventing acutely disturbed inpatients from harming themselves or others. It has been characterized as impersonal, intrusive and non-therapeutic. The circumstances of its use and place in broader intervention strategies are not well understood.   A sample of 522 patients were recruited from 84 acute psychiatric wards in 31 hospital locations in London and surrounding areas during 2009-2010. Data were collected for the first 2 weeks of admission from patients' case notes.   Sixteen per cent of patients received constant special observation during the first 2 weeks in hospital (7% at the point of admission and 11% after admission), but with variation between hospitals. Absconding, violence and self-harm were the most common events to precede constant special observation during a shift. Other methods of containment, especially intermittent special observation, were frequently tried first. Episodes of constant special observation often involved de-escalation and extra medication. Aggression was more prominent during than before constant special observation. Attempted suicides were limited to postadmission episodes.   Constant special observation is usually used in combination with other forms of containment, irrespective of when it is initiated. Placing patients considered at risk of suicide under constant special observation on admission may have a protective effect. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Evolution of YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 insertases: three independent gene duplications followed by functional specialization in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Funes, Soledad; Kauff, Frank; van der Sluis, Eli O; Ott, Martin; Herrmann, Johannes M

    2011-01-01

    Members of the YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 protein family facilitate the insertion, folding and assembly of proteins of the inner membranes of bacteria and mitochondria and the thylakoid membrane of plastids. All homologs share a conserved hydrophobic core region comprising five transmembrane domains. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, six subgroups of the family can be distinguished which presumably arose from three independent gene duplications followed by functional specialization. During evolution of bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, subgroup-specific regions were added to the core domain to facilitate the association with ribosomes or other components contributing to the substrate spectrum of YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 proteins.

  10. Variability in Evolution and Course of Gunshot Injuries to the Neck and Impact on Management

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stephen R.; Metwalli, Zeyad A.; Yevich, Steven M.; Whigham, Cliff J.; Benndorf, Goetz

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study reports the differences in evolution and course of multiple pseudoaneurysms (PAs) and an axillary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) after penetrating vascular trauma due to shotgun injury to the head and neck. We describe the unusual case of a young man who, following penetrating shotgun injuries to the head and neck, developed multiple PAs of the common carotid, vertebral and superficial temporal arteries as well as an axillary AVF. Serial angiographic follow-up studies documented differences in time of occurrence, evolution and course of these lesions. This allowed for tailored management using endovascular (AVF, superficial temporal artery PAs) and conservative (carotid and vertebral PAs) treatment. No complication occurred and complete cure of all lesions was achieved and documented after seven months. Time of occurrence, evolution and regression of penetrating vascular injuries can differ significantly even in the same patient. Close angiographic follow-up helps not only detect a lesion with delayed occurrence, but also provides a practical basis for decision-making for optimal therapeutic management. PMID:24355155

  11. Comparing the refuge strategy for managing the evolution of insect resistance under different reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Carrière, Yves

    2009-12-07

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are used extensively worldwide to control diploid agricultural insect pests that reproduce sexually. However, future GM crops will likely soon target haplodiploid and parthenogenetic insects. As rapid pest adaptation could compromise these novel crops, strategies to manage resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests are urgently needed. Here, we developed models to characterize factors that could delay or prevent the evolution of resistance to GM crops in diploid, haplodiploid, and parthenogenetic insect pests. The standard strategy for managing resistance in diploid pests relies on refuges of non-GM host plants and GM crops that produce high toxin concentrations. Although the tenets of the standard refuge strategy apply to all pests, this strategy does not greatly delay the evolution of resistance in haplodiploid or parthenogenetic pests. Two additional factors are needed to effectively delay or prevent the evolution of resistance in such pests, large recessive or smaller non-recessive fitness costs must reduce the fitness of resistance individuals in refuges (and ideally also on GM crops), and resistant individuals must have lower fitness on GM compared to non-GM crops (incomplete resistance). Recent research indicates that the magnitude and dominance of fitness costs could be increased by using specific host-plants, natural enemies, or pathogens. Furthermore, incomplete resistance could be enhanced by engineering desirable traits into novel GM crops. Thus, the sustainability of GM crops that target haplodiploid or parthenogenetic pests will require careful consideration of the effects of reproductive mode, fitness costs, and incomplete resistance.

  12. International evolution of fat, oil and grease (FOG) waste management - A review.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Thomas; Gibbons, David; O'Dwyer, Michael; Curran, Thomas P

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, issues relating to fat, oil and grease (FOG) in sewer systems have intensified. In the media, sewer blockages caused by FOG waste deposits, commonly referred to as 'fatbergs', are becoming a reminder of the problems that FOG waste can cause when left untreated. These FOG blockages lead to sanitary sewer overflows, property flooding and contamination of water bodies with sewage. Despite these financial and environmentally detrimental effects, a homogenous FOG waste management method has not been developed internationally. However, some successful enduring FOG management programmes have been established, such as in Dublin city and in Scandinavian countries. The aim of this paper is to carry out a review on existing FOG research and management approaches. FOG management involves comprehending: (1) FOG deposition factors in the sewer, (2) FOG prevention and awareness tactics undertaken internationally and (3) potential utilisation methods for FOG waste. This review will highlight that preventing FOG from entering the sewer is the most common approach, often through simple awareness campaigns. The diverted FOG is rarely valorised to bioenergy or biomaterials, despite its potential. Thus, all facets of the FOG waste lifecycle must be identified and managed. Advancements in processes and techniques must be assessed to best determine the future evolution of FOG waste management to assist in achieving a sustainable urban environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The joint evolution of traits and habitat: ontogenetic shifts in leaf morphology and wetland specialization in Lasthenia.

    PubMed

    Forrestel, Elisabeth J; Ackerly, David D; Emery, Nancy C

    2015-11-01

    The interplay between functional traits and habitat associations drives species' evolutionary responses to environmental heterogeneity, including processes such as adaptation, ecological speciation, and niche evolution. Seasonal variation is an aspect of the environment that varies across habitats, and could result in adaptive shifts in trait values across the life cycle of a plant. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative methods to evaluate the joint evolution of plant traits and habitat associations in Lasthenia (Asteraceae), a small clade of predominantly annual plants that have differentiated into an ecologically diverse range of habitats, including seasonal ephemeral wetlands known as vernal pools. Our results support the hypothesis that there is a link between the evolution of leaf morphology and the ecohydrological niche in Lasthenia, and, in the formation of aerenchyma (air space), differentiation between vernal pool and terrestrial taxa is fine-tuned to specific stages of plant ontogeny that reflects the evolution of heterophylly. Our findings demonstrate how the relationships between traits and habitat type can vary across the development of an organism, while highlighting a carefully considered comparative approach for examining correlated trait and niche evolution in a recently diversified and ecologically diverse plant clade. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Evolution of Decision Rules Used for IT Portfolio Management: An Inductive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karhade, Prasanna P.; Shaw, Michael J.; Subramanyam, Ramanath

    IT portfolio management and the related planning decisions for IT-dependent initiatives are critical to organizational performance. Building on the logic of appropriateness theoretical framework, we define an important characteristic of decision rules used during IT portfolio planning; rule appropriateness with regards to the risk-taking criterion. We propose that rule appropriateness will be an important factor explaining the evolution of rules over time. Using an inductive learning methodology, we analyze a unique dataset of actual IT portfolio planning decisions spanning two consecutive years within one organization. We present systematic comparative analysis of the evolution of rules used in planning over two years to validate our research proposition. We find that rules that were inappropriate in the first year are being redefined to design appropriate rules for use in the second year. Our work provides empirical evidence demonstrating organizational learning and improvements in IT portfolio planning capabilities.

  15. Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christopher Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares his personal experiences beginning in early childhood with his own learning disabilities. As an adult with learning disabilities, he describes how he has learned to manage his language and memory barriers through assistive technology and outside support, and he nourishes himself through therapy or simply…

  16. Evolution in immunological methods used in research and in the clinical diagnosis and management of human allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert G

    2012-09-28

    Since the discovery of IgE in 1967, there has been an evolution in design and quality of immunological methods used to research allergic disease mechanisms, to diagnose allergic disease in the clinic, and to monitor allergic patients on various therapeutic regimens. This issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods highlights recent methodological developments in three areas: (1) understanding of the interactions between T-cells, dendritic cella and B-cells and various signaling mediators in the induction phase of sensitization, (2) developments in the definitive diagnosis of allergic disease with a focus on food allergy and eosinophil related diseases, and (3) enhancements in allergy patient management through improved methods for monitoring allergen levels in the environment and documenting changes in IgE in patients on therapeutic anti-IgE (Omalizumab). This special issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods examines each of these three areas and provides a compendium on state-of-the-art immunological methods used to assess human allergic disease.

  17. Risk management in providing specialized care for people living with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Leadebal, Oriana Deyze Correia Paiva; Medeiros, Leidyanny Barbosa de; Morais, Kalline Silva de; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the provision of actions related to managing clinical risk in managing specialized care for people living with AIDS. A cross-sectional study carried out in a reference outpatient clinic in Paraíba, with a sample of 150 adults with AIDS. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources using a structured questionnaire, analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression model to determine the association between "providing care" and "clinical risk." Actions with satisfactory provision express a biological care focus; the dimensions that most contributed to a satisfactory assessment of care provision were "clinical and laboratory evaluations" and "prevention and self-care incentivization"; 45.3% of participants were categorized into high clinical risk, 34% into average clinical risk, and 20.7% into low clinical risk; a positive association between providing care and clinical risk was found. The need to use risk classification technologies to direct the planning of local care provision became evident considering its requirements, and thus qualifying the care provided in these areas. Analisar a oferta de ações relacionadas ao manejo de risco clínico na gestão do cuidado especializado a pessoas vivendo com aids. Estudo transversal realizado em ambulatório de referência na Paraíba, com amostra de 150 adultos com aids. Os dados foram coletados por meio de fontes primárias e secundárias utilizando-se de formulário estruturado, e analisados através de estatística descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla e modelo de regressão logística para averiguar a associação entre "oferta" e "risco clínico". As ações de oferta satisfatória expressam foco biologicista do cuidado; as dimensões que mais contribuíram para o julgamento satisfatório da oferta foram "avaliação clínica e laboratorial" e "prevenção e estímulo ao autocuidado"; 45,3% dos participantes foram categorizados em risco

  18. Issues in NASA program and project management. Special Report: 1993 conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, ED (Editor); Kishiyama, Jenny S. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is the seventh in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover the 1993 Conference: perspectives in NASA program/project management; the best job in aerospace; improvements in project management at NASA; strategic planning...mapping the way to NASA's future; new NASA procurement initiatives; international cooperation; and industry, government and university partnership. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.

  19. Issues in NASA program and project management. Special report: 1995 conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the tenth in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover the 1996 Conference as follows: international partnerships; industry/interagency collaboration; technology transfer; and project management development process. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.

  20. Evolution of a Microcomputer Based Statewide Kidney Dialysis Registry Management and Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Solanchick, J. C.; Jamieson, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides a brief description of the development and application of micro-computer technology and a custom designed data base management system to the specialized needs of a small, federally funded, Renal Network Council organization. The hardware evolves from word processing equipment to a business level hard disk microcomputer. The software progression is from list processing to actuarial life table reports written in compiled BASIC. The file structure and size changes from a 160K list processing file to a 1.3 megabyte random access file.

  1. The Evolution of Distal Radius Fracture Management – A Historical Treatise

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Garcia, Rafael J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Distal radius fractures have been a common affliction for millennia, but their treatment is a more recent development as a result of human erudition. While immobilization has served as the only available treatment for most of our history, many advances have been made in the management of distal radius fractures over the last century as the field of orthopedics has grown. Yet, the topic remains hotly contested in the literature, and research continues to focus upon it given the frequency of the injury. In this article, we chronicle the evolution of distal radius fracture treatment in hopes of providing context for the future that lies ahead. PMID:22554653

  2. Diving accident management, with special emphasis on the situation in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Taher, A

    1999-01-01

    Accident management is a concept commonly misunderstood, frequently confused with accident treatment. The situation in the Sinai and the Red Sea makes a broad definition of the term "management" necessary. Management encompasses the whole spectrum: from recognition of the need for a hyperbaric facility, establishing one, education of dive center management, instructors, boat skippers and deck hands, to actual contingency plans set according to the different geographical sites. The essential elements of communication, oxygen first aid, transportation, and actual recompression therapy or other treatments and follow-up must be included. Furthermore, a link to the international organisations involved with diving accident management is an essential and desired backup.

  3. A Special Issue of the Journal of Forestry—Tribal Forest Management: Innovations for Sustainable Forest Management

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Dockry; Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Native American forests and tribal forest management practices have sustained indigenous communities, economies, and resources for millennia. These systems provide a wealth of knowledge and successful applications of long-term environmental stewardship and integrated, sustainable forest management. Tribal forestry has received an increasing amount of attention from...

  4. Issues in NASA Program and Project Management. Special Report: 1997 Conference. Project Management Now and in the New Millennium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics Considered Include: NASA's Shared Experiences Program; Core Issues for the Future of the Agency; National Space Policy Strategic Management; ISO 9000 and NASA; New Acquisition Initiatives; Full Cost Initiative; PM Career Development; PM Project Database; NASA Fast Track Studies; Fast Track Projects; Earned Value Concept; Value-Added Metrics; Saturn Corporation Lessons Learned; Project Manager Credibility.

  5. The evolution of groundwater management paradigms in Kansas and possible new steps towards water sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sophocleous, Marios

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe purpose of this paper is to trace the evolution of key water-related laws and management practices in Kansas, from the enactment of the Kansas Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1945 to the present, in order to highlight the state's efforts to create a more sustainable water future and in hopes that others will benefit from Kansas' experience. The 1945 Act provides the basic framework of water law (prior appropriation) in Kansas. Progression of groundwater management in the state encompasses local Groundwater Management Districts (GMDs) and their water-management programs, minimum-streamflow and TMDL standards, water-use reporting and water metering programs, use of modified safe-yield policies in some GMDs, the subbasin water-resources-management program, the integrated resource planning/aquifer storage and recovery project of the city of Wichita, the Central Kansas Water Bank, enhanced aquifer subunits management, and various water conservation programs. While these have all contributed to the slowing down of declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and in associated ecosystems, they have not yet succeeded in halting those declines. Based on the assumption that the different management approaches have to operate easily within the prevailing water rights and law framework to succeed, a number of steps are suggested here that may help further diminish or reverse the declines of the High Plains aquifer. These include eliminating the "use it or lose it" maxim in the prior-appropriation framework, broadening the definition of "beneficial use," regulating domestic and other "exempt" wells, encouraging voluntary "sharing the shortage" agreements, and determining to what extent water rights may be regulated in the public interest without a compensable "taking". Further measures include establishing artificial recharge and/or aquifer storage and recovery projects wherever feasible and determining to what extent water-rights holders might be

  6. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  7. Balancing Team Integrity with Administrative Control in the Development and Management of Special Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del-Val, Patricia B.; Griffin, Carol Lee

    The paper reviews the experiences of special education administrators in Quincy (MA) Public Schools regarding compliance with P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Noted are the decentralized model of Pupil Personnel Service Teams, the administrator's role in guiding teachers to set priorities in academic and vocational…

  8. Teacher Trainees' Strategies for Managing the Behaviours of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Manisah Mohd.; Abdullah, Rozila; Majid, Rosadah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how a group of teacher trainees handled challenging behaviour by students during teaching practice. A total of 35 teacher trainees from the special education programme of a local university were chosen as respondents. A questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert-type scale was administered in this study. The data were…

  9. Planning a Needs Assessment Management System: PANAMS. Personnel Preparation for Special Education Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundschuh, Ernest

    A manual and software package explain the development and use of the Special Education Survey, an instrument intended to aid states in developing inservice training and professional preparation programs. The instrument is based on the comprehensive system of personnel development as described by Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped…

  10. Outcomes of Specialized Foster Care in a Managed Child Welfare Services Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore P.; Leavey, Joseph; Mosley, Peggy R.; White, Andrew W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic

    2004-01-01

    This study (N = 384) presents results from outcome measurement in a services network providing specialized foster care (SFC) to children in child protective service custody. A majority of participants improved on most outcomes. Global improvement was associated with increased length of stay up to two years, five months, and with younger age, fewer…

  11. Outcomes of Specialized Foster Care in a Managed Child Welfare Services Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Theodore P.; Leavey, Joseph; Mosley, Peggy R.; White, Andrew W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic

    2004-01-01

    This study (N = 384) presents results from outcome measurement in a services network providing specialized foster care (SFC) to children in child protective service custody. A majority of participants improved on most outcomes. Global improvement was associated with increased length of stay up to two years, five months, and with younger age, fewer…

  12. Delivery and Evaluation of Training for School Nutrition Administrators and Managers on Meeting Special Food and Nutrition Needs of Students in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Charlotte B.; Knight, Kathy; Hobbs, Margie; Dodd, Lacy M.; Cole, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to complete a formal evaluation of a project that provided specialized training for school nutrition (SN) administrators and managers on meeting children's special dietary needs in the school setting. Methods: The training was provided as part of the "Eating Good and Moving Like We…

  13. Delivery and Evaluation of Training for School Nutrition Administrators and Managers on Meeting Special Food and Nutrition Needs of Students in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakley, Charlotte B.; Knight, Kathy; Hobbs, Margie; Dodd, Lacy M.; Cole, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to complete a formal evaluation of a project that provided specialized training for school nutrition (SN) administrators and managers on meeting children's special dietary needs in the school setting. Methods: The training was provided as part of the "Eating Good and Moving Like We…

  14. Under the same roof: co-location of practitioners within primary care is associated with specialized chronic care management.

    PubMed

    Rumball-Smith, Juliet; Wodchis, Walter P; Koné, Anna; Kenealy, Tim; Barnsley, Jan; Ashton, Toni

    2014-09-02

    International and national bodies promote interdisciplinary care in the management of people with chronic conditions. We examine one facilitative factor in this team-based approach - the co-location of non-physician disciplines within the primary care practice. We used survey data from 330 General Practices in Ontario, Canada and New Zealand, as a part of a multinational study using The Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) surveys. Logistic and linear multivariable regression models were employed to examine the association between the number of disciplines working within the practice, and the capacity of the practice to offer specialized and preventive care for patients with chronic conditions. We found that as the number of non-physicians increased, so did the availability of special sessions/clinics for patients with diabetes (odds ratio 1.43, 1.25-1.65), hypertension (1.20, 1.03-1.39), and the elderly (1.22, 1.05-1.42). Co-location was also associated with the provision of disease management programs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and asthma; the equipment available in the centre; and the extent of nursing services. The care of people with chronic disease is the 'challenge of the century'. Co-location of practitioners may improve access to services and equipment that aid chronic disease management.

  15. Coastal saltmarsh managed realignment drives rapid breach inlet and external creek evolution, Freiston Shore (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Daniel A.; Möller, Iris; Spencer, Thomas; Smith, Geoffrey M.; Thomson, Andrew G.; Hill, Ross A.

    2014-03-01

    The creation of saltmarsh through the managed realignment of sea defences, implemented in NW Europe as a sustainable coastal defence option, represents a substantial hydrodynamic perturbation to the local coastal system. The impact of a significantly increased tidal prism on hydromorphological features was investigated at Freiston Shore, Lincolnshire UK. Local tidal conditions and inadequate drainage at this realignment trial contributed to significant channel erosion due to the establishment of water surface slopes and pooling between the newly realigned site and the adjacent intertidal zone. Very high spatial resolution aerial photography and blimp photography were used to monitor inlet evolution from breaching in August 2002 to March 2008, showing a highly non-linear response with breach channels increasing in width by up to 960% within 2.5 months. Airborne laser scanning/LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning quantified breach channel volume increases, showing a similar pattern. Breach channel evolution did not follow established tidal prism-channel width/cross-sectional area relationships that are often used to guide realignment design. Pre- and post-breach rates of external creek morphology change between 1999 and 2006 were also quantified, with intertidal creeks attached to the breach channels increasing significantly after realignment in both width and depth. This study highlights the physical processes affected by managed realignment, and the importance of understanding the causes of complex water surface slopes at multiple scales.

  16. The evolution of shortcomings in Incident Command System: Revisions have allowed critical management functions to atrophy.

    PubMed

    Stambler, Kimberly S; Barbera, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    The original Incident Command System (ICS) was created through the federally funded Firefighting Resources of Southern California Organized for Potential Emergencies (FIRESCOPE) program. Initially developed as one element of multiagency coordination for managing severe wildfires, the FIRESCOPE ICS guidance was adopted and evolved through increasingly routine wildl and firefighting. It then was modified for all hazards for the fire service. Only later, through the National Incident Management System (NIMS), was ICS officially adopted for all hazards and all responders. Over this multidecade evolution, the current NIMS ICS version became simplified in several key areas compared to the original, robust FIRESCOPE ICS. NIMS ICS is now promulgated as guidance for managing today's novel, complex, and lengthy disasters involving multidisciplinary response but experiences recurrent problems in key functions. This article examines the history of the subtle, yet critical differences in current ICS compared to the original system design, and focuses on information dissemination and intermediate, long-range and contingency planning. ICS transitions resulted in simplification and consolidation of positions and functions, without recognizing and maintaining critical position tasks necessary for managing complex, extended incidents.

  17. [Heart failure patient management: evolution, organization, application on a local scale].

    PubMed

    Racine-Morel, A; Deroche, S; Bonnin, C; Gérard, C; Matagrin, C

    2006-11-01

    Heart failure is a severe disease which prevalence and incidence are steadily growing, with high morbidity and mortality rates, and responsible for significant financial cost. This evolution requires our therapeutic approach to be modified, by favouring multidisciplinary management and including patient education. The proof of the effectiveness of these measures is brought by many studies, and therapeutic education is now recommended by the European Society of Cardiology. This new approach of management is set out according to various procedures. In Le Creusot, the therapeutic unit of heart failure management was created in September 2004 and operate on a day hospital pattern. The results are satisfactory knowing that the average duration of spells fell by 33% after one year. Further local initiatives are spreading and need shall arise to pooling equipment and personnel as well as reinforcing collaboration between public and private professionals in order to improve heart failure patients' management. In the meantime a more sustained involvement of the authorities is to be hoped.

  18. Evolution of a residue laboratory network and the management tools for monitoring its performance.

    PubMed

    Lins, E S; Conceição, E S; Mauricio, A De Q

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 the National Residue & Contaminants Control Plan (NRCCP) in Brazil has been considerably enhanced, increasing the number of samples, substances and species monitored, and also the analytical detection capability. The Brazilian laboratory network was forced to improve its quality standards in order to comply with the NRCP's own evolution. Many aspects such as the limits of quantification (LOQs), the quality management systems within the laboratories and appropriate method validation are in continuous improvement, generating new scenarios and demands. Thus, efficient management mechanisms for monitoring network performance and its adherence to the established goals and guidelines are required. Performance indicators associated to computerised information systems arise as a powerful tool to monitor the laboratories' activity, making use of different parameters to describe this activity on a day-to-day basis. One of these parameters is related to turnaround times, and this factor is highly affected by the way each laboratory organises its management system, as well as the regulatory requirements. In this paper a global view is presented of the turnaround times related to the type of analysis, laboratory, number of samples per year, type of matrix, country region and period of the year, all these data being collected from a computerised system called SISRES. This information gives a solid background to management measures aiming at the improvement of the service offered by the laboratory network.

  19. Stress Management for Special Educators: The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…

  20. Organizing a Special Education Program Utilizing the Theory Z Model of Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, David P.; And Others

    An alternative management model was implemented to increase teacher productivity in an institutional school for 185 mildly to severely mentally retarded children. The model included three components: a management structure that allowed for problem solving while still motivating staff; an inservice program for staff; and an evaluation system to…

  1. Knowledge Management in Academic Libraries: Special Tools and Processes To Support Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Examines issues of knowledge management within academic libraries and how reference librarians can become more effective as information intermediaries. Describes the common knowledge database (CKDB) developed at Rutgers University's New Brunswick campus to more fully integrate libraries on campus and to facilitate the use and management of…

  2. Introduction to the special issue on advances in clinical and health-care knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rajeev K; Feng, David Dagan; Burstein, Frada; Dwivedi, Ashish N

    2005-06-01

    Clinical and health-care knowledge management (KM) as a discipline has attracted increasing worldwide attention in recent years. The approach encompasses a plethora of interrelated themes including aspects of clinical informatics, clinical governance, artificial intelligence, privacy and security, data mining, genomic mining, information management, and organizational behavior. This paper introduces key manuscripts which detail health-care and clinical KM cases and applications.

  3. Training of Industrial Sphere Managers in a Specially Organized Education Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorshenina, Margarita; Firsova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The professional activity of industrial sphere managers has an integrated character and includes managerial, economic and production activity. Due to this the structure of readiness of industrial sphere managers for professional activity is composed of three components: subject, reflexive and technological ones. The objective of this paper…

  4. The limited potential of special ambulance services in the management of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, J M; Garner, C; Hampton, J R

    1990-01-01

    For six months a survey was made of all the patients in the Nottingham District Health Authority who died or who were brought to hospital after a cardiac arrest outside hospital. During this period just under half of the emergency ambulance shifts were covered by specially trained crews with defibrillators. During the study period the ICD coding of death certificates indicated that 894 (25%) of the 3575 deaths were due to ischaemic heart disease. During this period the ambulance service received 17,749 emergency calls, which included 445 patients who had cardiac arrests outside hospital. One hundred and forty seven of these patients were carried by ambulances equipped with defibrillators and resuscitation was attempted in 83. Seven patients survived to leave hospital. The special ambulance service was cost effective--a simple calculation suggests that the cost per life saved was approximately 2600 pounds, but it seems unlikely that special ambulance services will materially affect community fatality rates from ischaemic heart disease. PMID:2101595

  5. Maintenance manager's manual for small transit agencies. Special report 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, W.

    1988-03-01

    This publication contains information to assist operators of transit agencies providing public transportation in rural and smaller urban areas to better manage their vehicle maintenance programs. The report includes discussions of maintenance management, maintenance programs preventive maintenance, recordkeeping, selection of type of maintenance operation, in-house maintenance, and maintenance practices. Also included are appendixes giving supplementary information about tire loads; lubrication oil; mechanic hand tools; shop tools; mechanic aptitude tests; technical training resources; maintenance management training resources; and lists of manufacturers of air-conditioning systems, wheelchair lifts and wheelchair ramps.

  6. European evidence based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: special situations

    PubMed Central

    Caprilli, R; Gassull, M A; Escher, J C; Moser, G; Munkholm, P; Forbes, A; Hommes, D W; Lochs, H; Angelucci, E; Cocco, A; Vucelic, B; Hildebrand, H; Kolacek, S; Riis, L; Lukas, M; de Franchis, R; Hamilton, M; Jantschek, G; Michetti, P; O'Morain, C; Anwar, M M; Freitas, J L; Mouzas, I A; Baert, F; Mitchell, R; Hawkey, C J

    2006-01-01

    This third section of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) Consensus on the management of Crohn's disease concerns postoperative recurrence, fistulating disease, paediatrics, pregnancy, psychosomatics, extraintestinal manifestations, and alternative therapy. The first section on definitions and diagnosis reports on the aims and methods of the consensus, as well as sections on diagnosis, pathology, and classification of Crohn's disease. The second section on current management addresses treatment of active disease, maintenance of medically induced remission, and surgery of Crohn's disease. PMID:16481630

  7. The Microstructural Evolution and Special Flow Behavior of Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr During Isothermal Compression at a Low Strain Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J. Z.; Li, M. Q.; Li, H.

    2017-09-01

    The microstructural evolution and special flow behavior of Ti-5Al-2Sn-2Zr-4Mo-4Cr during isothermal compression at a strain rate of 0.0001 s-1 were investigated. The dislocation climbs in elongated α grains resulted in the formation of low-angle boundaries that transform into high-angle boundaries with greater deformation, and the elongated α grains subsequently separated into homogenous globular α grains with the penetration of the β phase. The simultaneous occurrence of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization and continuous dynamic recrystallization in the primary β grains resulted in a trimode grain distribution. The β grains surrounded by dislocations presented an equilateral-hexagonal morphology, which suggests that grain boundary sliding through dislocation climbs was the main deformation mechanism. The true stress-strain curves for 1073 and 1113 K abnormally intersect at a strain of 0.35, related to the α → β phase transformation and distinct growth of the β grain size.

  8. The evolution of case management for service members injured in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Patricia Watts; Kenny, Deborah J; Gordon, Deborah R; Benner, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    In this article we describe the nursing care needs of wounded service members (WSMs) from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the evolving role of the nurse case manager (CM). New types of injuries, in-field treatment, immediate transport to multiple care centers, and new technologies have created a new patient population of WSMs that requires new types of nursing care and knowledge. We interviewed 235 nurses, including CMs from nine military treatment facilities (MTFs) and the Veterans Administration (VA), on actual patient care experiences and new knowledge development, and 67 WSMs about their experiences of care. New military and VA nurse case management roles are essential for the effective functioning of the evolving, highly specialized, and transport-based health care system. Working effectively with WSMs required that the CM role be expanded beyond health care management to include family support, re-entry, and life coaching for the extremely altered life circumstances of WSMs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Radical evolution: the 2015 Difficult Airway Society guidelines for managing unanticipated difficult or failed tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Marshall, S D; Pandit, J J

    2016-02-01

    There is little doubt that these guidelines incorporate advances made in airway management since 2004. They will change day-to-day practice of anaesthesia, as outlined above, from pre-operative airway assessment, to integrating the WHO team briefing, to the use and provision of equipment and drugs, and the recording of information on the anaesthesia chart. They will inform the later analysis of any critical airway incidents, especially as documentation and postoperative management are addressed, and they will encourage training in a range of techniques. Taken together, not quite a revolution but certainly a very 'radical evolution'.Assessment of the utility of the new guidelines should consider if they can be used as tools to enhance knowledge and training, or in addition as a prosthesis to bridge the gap between the requirements of and our abilities during emergencies. Formal testing may reveal which aspects of their design, complex as it is, may distract from, rather than enhance, airway management during crises.All guidelines represent a standard of care or a normative approach to a clinical problem. As such, they not only help guide clinicians, but they also provide the broader community with the opportunity to improve standards, to ensure equipment is available, and that training for the skills and processes required are in place to ensure successful adoption.

  10. Role of nanotechnology in agriculture with special reference to management of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash

    2012-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising field of interdisciplinary research. It opens up a wide array of opportunities in various fields like medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics and agriculture. The potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology are enormous. These include insect pests management through the formulations of nanomaterials-based pesticides and insecticides, enhancement of agricultural productivity using bio-conjugated nanoparticles (encapsulation) for slow release of nutrients and water, nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect pest-resistant varieties and use of nanomaterials for preparation of different kind of biosensors, which would be useful in remote sensing devices required for precision farming. Traditional strategies like integrated pest management used in agriculture are insufficient, and application of chemical pesticides like DDT have adverse effects on animals and human beings apart from the decline in soil fertility. Therefore, nanotechnology would provide green and efficient alternatives for the management of insect pests in agriculture without harming the nature. This review is focused on traditional strategies used for the management of insect pests, limitations of use of chemical pesticides and potential of nanomaterials in insect pest management as modern approaches of nanotechnology.

  11. The evolution of orthopaedic nursing at the Hospital for Special Surgery: the first orthopaedic institution in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Barbara A

    2005-01-01

    The history of nursing began in London in the late 1800s with the reform of unsanitary conditions by Florence Nightingale. During the same period, the United States was bitterly fighting the Civil War. Nursing had not developed as a profession, and most of the duties performed by nurses were conducted by men. Casualties of war required rehabilitation and care. Crippled children were left to die because they were considered a burden to society. Dr. James Knight founded the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in his home on Second Avenue. This would later become a world-renowned orthopaedic institution with exceptional nursing care. A historical analysis of nursing education and practice are reviewed, along with the evolution of the first orthopaedic hospital in the United States.

  12. Eating without hands or tongue: specialization, elaboration and the evolution of prey processing mechanisms in cartilaginous fishes

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Mason N; Wilga, Cheryl D; Summers, Adam P

    2005-01-01

    The ability to separate edible from inedible portions of prey is integral to feeding. However, this is typically overlooked in favour of prey capture as a driving force in the evolution of vertebrate feeding mechanisms. In processing prey, cartilaginous fishes appear handicapped because they lack the pharyngeal jaws of most bony fishes and the muscular tongue and forelimbs of most tetrapods. We argue that the elaborate cranial muscles of some cartilaginous fishes allow complex prey processing in addition to their usual roles in prey capture. The ability to manipulate prey has evolved twice along different mechanical pathways. Batoid chondrichthyans (rays and relatives) use elaborate lower jaw muscles to process armored benthic prey, separating out energetically useless material. In contrast, megacarnivorous carcharhiniform and lamniform sharks use a diversity of upper jaw muscles to control the jaws while gouging, allowing for reduction of prey much larger than the gape. We suggest experimental methods to test these hypotheses empirically. PMID:17148206

  13. Evolution of atmospheric fronts over the ocean as observed with the special sensor microwave/imager and the Geosat altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mognard, Nelly M.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1990-01-01

    Integrated water vapor gradients and rain occurrence inferred from SSM/I are used to locate and trace the evolution of the atmospheric fronts for two midlatitude cyclones across the North Pacific. When compared to the NMC frontal locations advected to the time of the satellite pass, a good overall agreement is found between the SSM/I and the NMC locations of the fronts. The Geosat altimeter and the SSM/I overflew the two cyclones with several hours difference, locating the frontal positions at different times. The position of the occluded, warm, and cold fronts are detected along the altimeter track as well as regions of high wind speed associated with the cyclonic systems. These regions of high wind speeds associated with the fronts are also sensed by the SSM/I and, allowing for the time difference between the two satellites, are in good agreement with the Geosat measurements.

  14. Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies in Response to Problematic Behaviours of Primary School Children with Special Educational Needs: Views of Special Educational Needs Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Elizabeth; Gardner, Frances; Hansford, Lorraine; Edwards, Vanessa; Hayes, Rachel; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Children identified with special educational needs (SEN) and behavioural difficulties present extra challenges to educators and require additional supports in school. This paper presents views from special educational needs coordinators (SENCos) on various strategies used by educators to support children identified with SEN and problematic…

  15. Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies in Response to Problematic Behaviours of Primary School Children with Special Educational Needs: Views of Special Educational Needs Coordinators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Elizabeth; Gardner, Frances; Hansford, Lorraine; Edwards, Vanessa; Hayes, Rachel; Ford, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Children identified with special educational needs (SEN) and behavioural difficulties present extra challenges to educators and require additional supports in school. This paper presents views from special educational needs coordinators (SENCos) on various strategies used by educators to support children identified with SEN and problematic…

  16. On the vagal cardiac nerves, with special reference to the early evolution of the head-trunk interface.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Hyodo, Susumu; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    The vagus nerve, or the tenth cranial nerve, innervates the heart in addition to other visceral organs, including the posterior visceral arches. In amniotes, the anterior and posterior cardiac branches arise from the branchial and intestinal portions of the vagus nerve to innervate the arterial and venous poles of the heart, respectively. The evolution of this innervation pattern has yet to be elucidated, due mainly to the lack of morphological data on the vagus in basal vertebrates. To investigate this topic, we observed the vagus nerves of the lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), and mouse (Mus musculus), focusing on the embryonic patterns of the vagal branches in the venous pole. In the lamprey, no vagus branch was found in the venous pole throughout development, whereas the arterial pole was innervated by a branch from the branchial portion. In contrast, the vagus innervated the arterial and venous poles in the mouse and elephant shark. Based on the morphological patterns of these branches, the venous vagal branches of the mouse and elephant shark appear to belong to the intestinal part of the vagus, implying that the cardiac nerve pattern is conserved among crown gnathostomes. Furthermore, we found a topographical shift of the structures adjacent to the venous pole (i.e., the hypoglossal nerve and pronephros) between the extant gnathostomes and lamprey. Phylogenetically, the lamprey morphology is likely to be the ancestral condition for vertebrates, suggesting that the evolution of the venous branch occurred early in the gnathostome lineage, in parallel with the remodeling of the head-trunk interfacial domain during the acquisition of the neck. J. Morphol. 277:1146-1158, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Special article: airway management in reconstructive surgery for noma (cancrum oris).

    PubMed

    Coupe, Michael Howard; Johnson, Doug; Seigne, Patrick; Hamlin, Bill

    2013-07-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a disease of poverty and malnutrition, which predominantly affects children younger than 10 years in developing countries. Although the majority of sufferers die of sepsis at the time of the initial infection, or of subsequent starvation due to severe trismus and an inability to eat, a small minority of patients survive and require reconstructive surgery for severe facial scarring and deformity. These patients present significant problems to the anesthesiologist with regard to airway management. We present a series of 26 patients undergoing primary and subsequent reconstructive surgery, with particular focus on airway management. We show that airway management, while challenging, can be performed safely and successfully by using individualized airway plans but may require advanced techniques and equipment. Traditional tests focusing on the anterior/superior airway are helpful in assessing patients with facial deformity due to noma.

  18. What kind of memory has evolution wrought? Introductory article for the special issue of memory: adaptive memory: the emergence and nature of proximate mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    It is without question that our memory system evolved through a process of natural selection. However, basic research into the evolutionary foundations of memory has begun in earnest only recently. This is quite peculiar as the majority, perhaps even all, of memory research relates to whether memory is adaptive or not. In this Special Issue of Memory we have assembled a variety of papers that represent the cutting edge in research on the evolution of memory. These papers are centred on issues about the ultimate and proximate explanations of memory, the development of the adaptive functions of memory, as well as the positive consequences that arise from the current evolutionary form that our memory has taken. In this introductory article we briefly outline these different areas and indicate why they are vital for a more complete theory of memory. Further we argue that, by adopting a more applied stance in the area of the evolution of memory, one of the many future directions in this field could be a new branch of psychology that addresses questions in evolutionary legal psychology.

  19. WMO's activities in gender mainstreaming in geosciences, with a special focus on integrated flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaenkova, Elena; Caponi, Claudio; Alexieva, Assia; Poissonnier, Maud; Tripathi, Ramesh

    2017-04-01

    Statistics show that women represent a minority in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). They are significantly underrepresented in governance, management and international negotiations. They further comprise only a third of the global workforce at National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and only one out of five senior managers is a woman. This paper presents historical trends and statistics on the participation of women and men in all structures and activities of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It explores the root causes of women's underrepresentation in the meteorological, hydrological and climatological profession as well as analyzes its adverse effects in terms of the scarcity of role models for young female professionals and the lack of gender considerations in the provision of weather, hydrological and climate services. The paper presents WMO's approach to addressing these issues through the adoption of a WMO Gender Equality Policy, a comprehensive Gender Action Plan, targeted leadership training, a series of awareness raising campaigns, and specific recommendations on how to make weather, hydrological and climate services more gender-sensitive. As a specific example, the Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM) of WMO and the Global Water Partnership (GWP) is in the process of developing a training manual for gender mainstreaming in integrated flood management. This generic, instructive, at the same time informative training manual and facilitator's guide will strive to fill gaps in practical knowledge, decision-making and further provide assistance in gender sensitive approaches for both local policy makers and communities affected by floods. The format and contents of the manual are particularly focused on every phase of the flood management cycle, incorporating gender based needs, strategies and actions/approaches. The facilitator or training instructor is encouraged to adapt the materials with local case

  20. Care management for children with special needs: part I: the role of health plans.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Tracy M; Popalisky, Jean; Myers, Kristin; Neff, John M; Sharp, Virginia L

    2009-01-01

    This study documents screening methods and services provided by health plan case managers for high need children in a Washington State health plan. Enrollees were screened to identify 315 children who had or were at risk of developing a chronic condition and were high users of health services. From this group, 46 children/families could be contacted and needed case management. Services included assessment of physical/social needs, patient education, referral to community resources, and benefit utilization. These services were different from care coordination provided in primary care practices.

  1. Cancer carve outs, specialty networks, and disease management: a review of their evolution, effectiveness, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kurowski, B

    1998-06-25

    Specialty care programs for patients with cancer were among the first to be developed, yet they have been some of the slowest to grow or to demonstrate success. This paper reviews the evolution of cancer carve outs, disease management, and specialty networks by distinguishing purchasers from sellers on key attributes. It also describes financing and operational impediments to their growth and summarizes what little published data there is documenting the success of these programs. The paper analyzes the critical factors impeding the development of these cancer programs, and discusses the public policy changes and health services research that will need to be conducted before the performance and market influence of cancer carve outs will reach their full potential.

  2. Management of rodent viral disease outbreaks: one institutions (r)evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Abigail L

    2010-01-01

    At first blush, an outbreak of mouse hepatitis virus or epizootic diarrhea of infant mice virus in a research colony of laboratory mice may not seem like a disaster. However, irrespective of magnitude, such an outbreak at an academic institution is disruptive for researchers at all levels. It can be a disaster for the graduate student who may have just a few experiments to finish before writing the thesis or for the postdoctoral fellow who is in the lab for only 1 or 2 years. Infectious disease outbreaks also limit the ability of principal investigators to share their animals with collaborators at their home institution as well as with those at extramural sites, thereby thwarting the expectation that research materials supported by federal funds will be made readily available to colleagues. This article traces the evolution of a change in culture at a large, well-funded academic institution with over 1,800 active IACUC protocols, more than 1,000 of which include mice. During a period of less than 5 years, the institution evolved from virtual paralysis in the face of such outbreaks to the implementation of policies and practices that enable effective outbreak management and the timely resumption of research functionality. This evolution required not only support from the highest levels of leadership in the university and its school of medicine but also a huge outlay of financial resources.

  3. Specialized nursing practice for chronic disease management in the primary care setting: an evidence-based analysis.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In response to the increasing demand for better chronic disease management and improved health care efficiency in Ontario, nursing roles have expanded in the primary health care setting. To determine the effectiveness of specialized nurses who have a clinical role in patient care in optimizing chronic disease management among adults in the primary health care setting. A literature search was performed using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database. Results were limited to randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews and were divided into 2 models: Model 1 (nurse alone versus physician alone) and Model 2 (nurse and physician versus physician alone). Effectiveness was determined by comparable outcomes between groups in Model 1, or improved outcomes or efficiency in Model 2. Six studies were included. In Model 1, there were no significant differences in health resource use, disease-specific measures, quality of life, or patient satisfaction. In Model 2, there was a reduction in hospitalizations and improved management of blood pressure and lipids among patients with coronary artery disease. Among patients with diabetes, there was a reduction in hemoglobin A1c but no difference in other disease-specific measures. There was a trend toward improved process measures, including medication prescribing and clinical assessments. Results related to quality of life were inconsistent, but patient satisfaction with the nurse-physician team was improved. Overall, there were more and longer visits to the nurse, and physician workload did not change. There was heterogeneity across patient populations, and in the titles, roles, and scope of practice of the specialized nurses. Specialized nurses with an autonomous role in patient care had comparable outcomes to physicians alone (Model

  4. How many paediatric referrals to an allergist could be managed by a general practitioner with special interest?

    PubMed

    Isinkaye, Tomide; Gilbert, Sarah; Seddon, Paul; Fox, Adam T; Leech, Susan; Pollock, Ian; Smith, Helen

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a general practitioner with special interest (GPwSI) was first proposed in the 2000 National Health Service Plan, as a way of providing specialized treatment closer to the patient's home and reducing hospital waiting times. Given the patchy and inadequate provision of paediatric allergy services in the UK, the introduction of GPwSIs might reduce pressure on existing specialist services. A total of 100 consecutive referrals to a specialist paediatric allergy clinic were reviewed to assess what proportion could be managed by a GPwSI allergy service with a predefined range of facilities and expertise (accurate diagnosis and management of allergy; skin prick testing; provision of allergen avoidance advice; ability to assess suitability for desensitization). Each referral was reviewed independently by three allergy specialists. Cases were initially judged on the referral letter and then, to determine whether appropriate triage decisions could be made prospectively, cases were re-assessed with information summarized in the clinic letter. The proportion of referrals suitable for a GPwSI was calculated and their characteristics identified. At least 42% and up to 75% were suitable for management by a GPwSI in allergy based on unanimous and majority agreement, respectively. The appropriateness of 79% referrals could be identified based on the information in the referral letter. A total of 19% referrals were unsuitable for a GPwSI service because of complex or multisystem disease, need for specialist knowledge or facilities or patient's young age. At least two-fifths of paediatric allergy referrals to our hospital-based service could be dealt with in a GPwSI clinic, thereby diversifying the patient pathway, allowing specialist services to focus on complex cases and reducing waiting times for appointments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  6. Risk Management in Adventure Programs with Special Populations: Two Hidden Dangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Thomas; Gaylor, Michael S.

    The paper addresses two significant risk management considerations in conducting an adventure program in a therapeutic setting: the potential hazards of psychiatric medications and psychological emergencies. Focusing on the potential hazards of psychiatric medications, the first section discusses climatic conditions (heat, cold, and sun) and the…

  7. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  8. A Behavior Management Seminar for Special or General Education Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindelheim, Franklin D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the classroom management needs of graduate education students in one college, and develop a seminar that emerged from the research. Researchers have shown that professional development provided for graduate education students typically deals with curriculum and instructional methodologies…

  9. Behavior Management in Vocational Education Laboratories. Technical Assistance Services: Illinois Special Needs Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erekson, Thomas L.; Schultz, Robert

    This guide is intended to help vocational teachers to manage student behavior, including that of students with handicaps and behavioral problems, in vocational educational laboratories. The guide is organized into three sections. The first section explains the different types of vocational laboratories (active and passive) and what types of…

  10. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-3 - Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by..., excepting any base fee, shall normally be associated with performance at or above the target level of... appropriate for laboratories (science/technology and support) is rated at less than the target level of...

  11. A Behavior Management Seminar for Special or General Education Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindelheim, Franklin D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify the classroom management needs of graduate education students in one college, and develop a seminar that emerged from the research. Researchers have shown that professional development provided for graduate education students typically deals with curriculum and instructional methodologies…

  12. Risk Management in Adventure Programs with Special Populations: Two Hidden Dangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Thomas; Gaylor, Michael S.

    The paper addresses two significant risk management considerations in conducting an adventure program in a therapeutic setting: the potential hazards of psychiatric medications and psychological emergencies. Focusing on the potential hazards of psychiatric medications, the first section discusses climatic conditions (heat, cold, and sun) and the…

  13. ERIC Resource Management Workshops--Special Report on School System Standing Order Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, J. Nevin

    This report summarizes descriptive information on school systems and school system-related organizations that maintain complete files of ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) materials. The data reported were provided by participants in a series of regional workshops held throughout the United States on information management practices…

  14. Pathogen evolution across the agro-ecological interface: implications for disease management.

    PubMed

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Thrall, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Infectious disease is a major causal factor in the demography of human, plant and animal populations. While it is generally accepted in medical, veterinary and agricultural contexts that variation in host resistance and pathogen virulence and aggressiveness is of central importance to understanding patterns of infection, there has been remarkably little effort to directly investigate causal links between population genetic structure and disease dynamics, and even less work on factors influencing host-pathogen coevolution. The lack of empirical evidence is particularly surprising, given the potential for such variation to not only affect disease dynamics and prevalence, but also when or where new diseases or pathotypes emerge. Increasingly, this lack of knowledge has led to calls for an integrated approach to disease management, incorporating both ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we argue that plant pathogens occurring in agro-ecosystems represent one clear example where the application of evolutionary principles to disease management would be of great benefit, as well as providing model systems for advancing our ability to generalize about the long-term coevolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen systems. We suggest that this is particularly the case given that agro-ecological host-pathogen interactions represent a diversity of situations ranging from those that only involve agricultural crops through to those that also include weedy crop relatives or even unrelated native plant communities. We begin by examining some of the criteria that are important in determining involvement in agricultural pathogen evolution by noncrop plants. Throughout we use empirical examples to illustrate the fact that different processes may dominate in different systems, and suggest that consideration of life history and spatial structure are central to understanding dynamics and direction of the interaction. We then discuss the implications that such interactions have for

  15. INFORMATION: Special Report on "Management Challenges at the Department of Energy"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    Responsible for some of the Nation's most important and technically advanced missions, the Department of Energy faces an array of challenges that are more wide-ranging and complex than at any time in its history. While its origins can be largely traced to the Manhattan Project, the Department has evolved into a multi-faceted agency that encompasses a broad range of scientific, environmental, and national security activities. Since its creation under the Department of Energy Organization Act in 1977, the Department has shifted its emphasis and priorities over time as the energy and security needs of the Nation have changed. The Department has recently refocused these efforts, adding particular emphasis on the science and renewable energy components of its portfolio. In this regard, the Department has taken a lead role in the implementation and execution of the energy technology initiatives related to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act). As a means of accomplishing these initiatives, the Department received a substantial increase in its annual appropriation, rising from nearly $25 billion in 2008 to approximately $34 billion in 2009 as a result of additional funding in the Department's loan program and numerous science, energy, and national security initiatives. In addition, the Department was provided more than $36 billion in Recovery Act funding to be used over a two to three year period. Further, the Department, through existing authorities and those expanded by the Recovery Act, has been authorized to provide more than $100 billion in loan guarantees for innovative, clean energy technologies. To accomplish its vital missions, the Department employs approximately 115,000 Federal and contractor personnel and manages assets valued at more than $189 billion, including the 17 national laboratories at the heart of its science program. On an annual basis, the Office of Inspector General is required to identify what it considers to be the

  16. Reorganization of medical specialization. Beyond the law of management of health professions.

    PubMed

    Pujol, R; Conthe, P; Garcia Alegría, J

    2014-12-01

    More than 30 years after the creation of postgraduate medical training program in Spain supported by the MIR system, a thorough review of it becomes essential. This was the goal of the LOPS law enacted in 2003. The development of the LOPS is being slow and difficult to enforce, because master lines have to be achieved in order to develop the training of specialists in accordance with internationals standards and, simultaneously, with the reform that is taking place in the undergraduate education. The start up of the medical core will be the cornerstone of this project. The principles of the LOPS provide an opportunity for the training of competent physician in basic general medical practice followed by a progressive specialization supported on a solid foundation. And these principles have to prevail over corporate interests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Eculizumab in the management of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: patient selection and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ani, Fatimah; Chin-Yee, Ian; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a nonmalignant clonal disorder resulting from somatic mutation in the PIG-A gene leading to a deficiency of the membrane-anchoring molecule glycosylphosphatidylinositol. The lack of expression of two glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins involved in the regulation of the complement system renders PNH erythrocytes susceptible to complement-mediated lysis. Clinical manifestations include thromboembolic disease, chronic kidney injury, pulmonary hypertension, smooth muscle dysfunction, and chronic hemolysis. Until recently, treatment was mainly supportive with most patients suffering from significant morbidity and shortened survival compared to age-matched controls. The development of eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the terminal complement protein C5, has resulted in dramatic improvements of survival and reduction in complications. In this paper, we review some special considerations pertaining to the use of eculizumab for PNH. PMID:27536121

  18. General practitioners with a special clinical interest: a model for improving respiratory disease management.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Siân; Ryan, Dermot; Price, David; Langley, Carol; Fletcher, Monica; Everden, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Health care technology is continuously moving forward with great advances in all fields of medicine. The way in which health care is delivered has been stuck in a primary care/secondary care model, which is failing to meet patients' needs. Existing structures are inefficient because they do not maximise use of skills. A new way of delivering services is proposed using an intermediate level specialist--a general practitioner with a special clinical interest (GPSCI), to increase access at a location close to the patient while giving support to the wider primary health community. We explore how the role of GPSCI might work using the field of respiratory medicine as an exemplar. The concept is transferable to other therapeutic areas. PMID:12392127

  19. Problem Management Plus (PM+) in the management of common mental disorders in a specialized mental healthcare facility in Pakistan; study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hamdani, Syed Usman; Ahmed, Zainab; Sijbrandij, Marit; Nazir, Huma; Masood, Aqsa; Akhtar, Parveen; Amin, Hania; Bryant, Richard A; Dawson, Katie; van Ommeren, Mark; Rahman, Atif; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed Problem Management Plus (PM+), a 5-session, psychological intervention program delivered by trained non-specialist that addresses common mental disorders. The objectives of this study are to evaluate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PM+ in a specialized mental health care facility in Pakistan. A single blind individual randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be carried out in the outpatient department of a specialized mental healthcare facility in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. After informed consent, patients with high psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-12 (score >2) and functional impairment (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 score >16) will be randomised to PM+ plus treatment as usual (n = 96) or TAU only (n = 96). The primary outcome is the psychological distress, measured by levels of anxiety and depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and improvement in functioning as measured by WHODAS at 20 weeks after baseline. Secondary outcomes include improvement in symptoms of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, levels of social support and cost effectiveness evaluation. Qualitative interviews will be conducted to evaluate the process of implementing PM+ including barriers and facilitators in implementation and possibility of integration of PM+ program in specialized mental health care facilities in Pakistan. The results of this study will be helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of the approach of training non specialists, based in the specialized mental health care facilities in delivering evidence based psychological interventions in the low resource settings. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12616000381482. Registered Retrospectively on March 23, 2016.

  20. De novo synthesis vs. sequestration: negatively correlated metabolic traits and the evolution of host plant specialization in cyanogenic butterflies.

    PubMed

    Engler-Chaouat, Helene S; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2007-01-01

    Larvae of Heliconius butterflies (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) feed exclusively on cyanogenic leaves of Passiflora (passion vine). Most Heliconius manufacture cyanogenic glycosides (cyanogens) and some species sequester cyanogens from host plants. We compare ability to sequester simple monoglycoside cyclopentenyl (SMC) cyanogens and manufacture aliphatic cyanogens in 12 Heliconius species, including larvae that are specialized (single host species) and generalized (many host species). All butterflies tested higher for cyanide concentrations when reared on plants that larvae can sequester from (SMC plants) than when reared on plants that larvae do not sequester from (non-SMC plants). Specialists in the sara-sapho clade sequestered SMC cyanogens from specific host plants at seven times that of Passiflora generalists fed the same hosts. In contrast, sara-sapho clade species reared on non-SMC plants had significantly lower cyanide concentrations from de novo synthesis than generalists fed the same plants. Furthermore, cyanogen analyses indicated that Heliconius sara butterflies reared on an SMC host had a greater proportion of sequestered SMC cyanogens (95.0%) than de novo-synthesized aliphatic cyanogens (5.0%). Thus, sequestration and de novo synthesis are negatively correlated traits. Results suggest that losing the ability to synthesize cyanogens has restricted sara-sapho clade species to specific hosts containing SMC cyanogens and explains dietary restriction in this clade.

  1. Evolution of a soldier caste specialized to lay unfertilized eggs in the ant genus Crematogaster (subgenus Orthocrema).

    PubMed

    Peeters, Christian; Lin, Chung-Chi; Quinet, Yves; Martins Segundo, Glauco; Billen, Johan

    2013-05-01

    Among social Hymenoptera, only some ant genera have more than one morphological kind of non-reproductive adults. Individuals that are bigger than ordinary workers can function for defence and/or food storage. In Crematogaster (Orthocrema) smithi from Arizona, a third caste exists in addition to winged queens and workers; it is intermediate in size, weight and morphology, and individuals lay many unfertilized eggs that are mostly eaten by larvae (Heinze et al., 1995, 1999). We studied another three species belonging to the subgenus Orthocrema: Crematogaster pygmaea from Brazil, Crematogaster biroi and Crematogaster schimmeri from Taiwan. Using scanning electron microscopy and ovarian dissections, we show that 'intermediates' are a patchwork of queen-like and worker-like traits, just as in C. smithi; importantly the combinations differ across species. 'Intermediates' are numerically few in the colonies, and in C. pygmaea they are produced seasonally. Using histology we confirmed the lack of a spermatheca, thus they are not ergatoid queens. Based on the similarity of their mosaic phenotypes with those in other ant lineages, we suggest that Orthocrema 'intermediates' are a soldier caste with a specialized trophic function. This soldier caste has been reported in other Orthocrema species from Madagascar, Guinea and Costa Rica, suggesting that it is widespread in this subgenus.

  2. Why Go There? Evolution of Mobility and Spatial Cognition in Women and Men : An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2016-03-01

    Males in many non-monogamous species have larger ranges than females do, a sex difference that has been well documented for decades and seems to be an aspect of male mating competition. Until recently, parallel data for humans have been mostly anecdotal and qualitative, but this is now changing as human behavioral ecologists turn their attention to matters of individual mobility. Sex differences in spatial cognition were among the first accepted psychological sex differences and, like differences in ranging behavior, are documented for a growing set of species. This special issue is dedicated to exploring the possible adaptive links between these cognitive and ranging traits. Multiple hypotheses, at various levels of analysis, are considered. At the functional (ultimate) level, a mating-competition hypothesis suggests that range expansion may augment mating opportunities, and a fertility-and-parental-care hypothesis suggests that range contraction may facilitate offspring provisioning. At a more mechanistic (proximate) level, differences in cue availability may support or inhibit particular sex-specific navigation strategies, and spatial anxiety may usefully inhibit travel that would not justify its costs. Studies in four different cultures-Twe, Tsimane, Yucatec Maya, and Faroese-as well as an experimental study using virtual reality tools are the venue for testing these hypotheses. Our hope is to stimulate more research on the evolutionary and developmental processes responsible for this suite of linked behavioral and cognitive traits.

  3. Evolution on the move: specialization on widespread resources associated with rapid range expansion in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Bridle, Jon R; Buckley, James; Bodsworth, Edward J; Thomas, Chris D

    2014-02-07

    Generalist species and phenotypes are expected to perform best under rapid environmental change. In contrast to this view that generalists will inherit the Earth, we find that increased use of a single host plant is associated with the recent climate-driven range expansion of the UK brown argus butterfly. Field assays of female host plant preference across the UK reveal a diversity of adaptations to host plants in long-established parts of the range, whereas butterflies in recently colonized areas are more specialized, consistently preferring to lay eggs on one host plant species that is geographically widespread throughout the region of expansion, despite being locally rare. By common-garden rearing of females' offspring, we also show an increase in dispersal propensity associated with the colonization of new sites. Range expansion is therefore associated with an increase in the spatial scale of adaptation as dispersive specialists selectively spread into new regions. Major restructuring of patterns of local adaptation is likely to occur across many taxa with climate change, as lineages suited to regional colonization rather than local success emerge and expand.

  4. Special report on the audit of the management of Department of Energy construction projects

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-21

    DOE`s FY 1996 budget of $18 billion included $1.1 billion for construction projects; ensuring that these projects meet bonafide existing or future DOE needs becomes increasingly important as DOE`s missions evolve and its organization changes. In 1994 and 1995, IG issued several reports expressing concerns about the construction planning process and questioned whether planned construction was necessary to meet mission needs. The reports also pointed out that DOE did not ensure that originally identified needs were still valid several years after a project`s conception. (The problems identified were at single locations.) While DOE management did not agree with all aspects of the audit reports, it canceled or downsized several projects and initiated a number of process improvements to enhance the construction planning process. Purpose of this report is to synthesize issues from these prior reports to assist management in focusing process improvement efforts to avoid construction of unneeded or oversized facilities.

  5. Is health care a special challenge to quality management? Insights from the Danderyd Hospital case.

    PubMed

    Striem, Jörgen; Øvretveit, John; Brommels, Mats

    2003-01-01

    A 10-year quality journey of a Swedish university hospital is described in this case study based on a variety of data sources. A series of quality initiatives were implemented according to total quality management (TQM) "best practice." Many projects were successful, but still a majority of those did not meet the staff's requirement of practical relevance, and they provoked scepticism toward instruments introduced and resistance to service-related quality definitions. The hospital's incentive structures did not reward an engagement in improvement activities. The findings are interpreted as demonstrating that the programs were viewed upon as part of a "management" rather than "professional" agenda, despite the underlying philosophy of TQM. It is suggested that applying professional practice development approaches to improvement initiatives might help to overcome the barrier thus created.

  6. Modeling the bathymetry of Catahoula Lake: Specialized technology for wetland management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, T.W.; Michot, T.C.; Wells, C.

    2002-01-01

    Catahoula Lake is the largest natural freshwater lake in Louisiana, covering more than 46 square miles (120 km2) (fig. 1). The lake is a principal stopover and wintering site for hundreds of thousands of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds. Scientists from the USGS National Wetlands Research Center are applying some of the research facility's specialties?wetland plant research, aerial and ground surveys, digital mapping, and computer modeling?to facilitate wetland management at Catahoula Lake.

  7. Towards a Strategic Approach to Special Events Management in the Post-9/11 World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    terrorists planned to strike at the England-Tunisia soccer game on June 15, 1998. Backed by the former soccer goalkeeper Osama bin Laden, the terrorists...intuitive reactions to danger. Risk as analysis brings logic, reason, and scientific deliberation to bear on hazard management. When our ancient 105...essence of probability neglect.118 Breckenridge and Zimbardo argue that peoples’ reactions are more complex than a mere visceral sense of danger to

  8. Pain management procedures used by dental and maxillofacial surgeons: an investigation with special regard to odontalgia.

    PubMed

    Wirz, Stefan; Wartenberg, Hans Christian; Nadstawek, Joachim

    2005-12-22

    Little is known about the procedures used by German dental and maxillofacial surgeons treating patients suffering from chronic orofacial pain (COP). This study aimed to evaluate the ambulatory management of COP. Using a standardized questionnaire we collected data of dental and maxillofacial surgeons treating patients with COP. Therapists described variables as patients' demographics, chronic pain disorders and their aetiologies, own diagnostic and treatment principles during a period of 3 months. Although only 13.5% of the 520 addressed therapists returned completely evaluable questionnaires, 985 patients with COP could be identified. An orofacial pain syndrome named atypical odontalgia (17.0 %) was frequent. Although those patients revealed signs of chronification, pain therapists were rarely involved (12.5%). For assessing pain the use of Analogue Scales (7%) or interventional diagnostics (4.6%) was uncommon. Despite the fact that surgical procedures are cofactors of COP therapists preferred further surgery (41.9%) and neglected the prescription of analgesics (15.7%). However, most therapists self-evaluated the efficacy of their pain management as good (69.7 %). Often ambulatory dental and maxillofacial surgeons do not follow guidelines for COP management despite a high prevalence of severe orofacial pain syndromes.

  9. Review of Special Standards in Quality Management Systems Audits in Automotive Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šurinová, Yulia

    2013-12-01

    Quality management systems (QMS) in automotive industry generally have several differences in comparison with other industrial branches. Different customers have their own specific requirements, including requirements for quality audits. Audits are one of the coretools of quality management to make the PDCA (Plan - Do - Check - Act) cycle work. As a matter of fact, compliance with ISO/TS 16949:2009 requirements is a condition for supplying the automotive industry. However, there are some standards which co-exist together with the ISO 9001 based management systems and technical specification for QMS in automotive ISO/TS16949. Which are those specific standards in automotive industry and what standard to use and why - those are the questions to be answered in this paper. The aim of the paper is to review what standards are used for audits implementation in automotive industry in the Slovak Republic, and why the organizations keep following those "extra" standards even if certification for ISO/TS 16949 is required by all the car makers. The paper is structured as follows: after short introduction to the topic and related terms, presented is our methodology. . In the third section, the achieved results are discussed. And finally, the principal findings of the paper, limitations and conclusions are presented.

  10. Pain management procedures used by dental and maxillofacial surgeons: an investigation with special regard to odontalgia

    PubMed Central

    Wirz, Stefan; Wartenberg, Hans Christian; Nadstawek, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Background Little is known about the procedures used by German dental and maxillofacial surgeons treating patients suffering from chronic orofacial pain (COP). This study aimed to evaluate the ambulatory management of COP. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire we collected data of dental and maxillofacial surgeons treating patients with COP. Therapists described variables as patients' demographics, chronic pain disorders and their aetiologies, own diagnostic and treatment principles during a period of 3 months. Results Although only 13.5% of the 520 addressed therapists returned completely evaluable questionnaires, 985 patients with COP could be identified. An orofacial pain syndrome named atypical odontalgia (17.0 %) was frequent. Although those patients revealed signs of chronification, pain therapists were rarely involved (12.5%). For assessing pain the use of Analogue Scales (7%) or interventional diagnostics (4.6%) was uncommon. Despite the fact that surgical procedures are cofactors of COP therapists preferred further surgery (41.9%) and neglected the prescription of analgesics (15.7%). However, most therapists self-evaluated the efficacy of their pain management as good (69.7 %). Conclusion Often ambulatory dental and maxillofacial surgeons do not follow guidelines for COP management despite a high prevalence of severe orofacial pain syndromes. PMID:16372908

  11. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  12. Evolution, ecology and management of resistance in Helicoverpa spp. to Bt cotton in Australia.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rod

    2012-07-01

    Prior to the widespread adoption of two-gene Bt cotton (Bollgard II®) in Australia, the frequency of resistance alleles to one of the deployed proteins (Cry2Ab) was at least 0.001 in the pests targeted namely, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera. In the 7 years hence, there has been a statistically significant increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. punctigera. This paper reviews the history of deploying Bt cotton in Australia, the characteristics of the isolated Cry2Ab resistance that likely impact on resistance evolution, aspects of the efficacy of Bollgard IIχ, and the behavioural ecology of Helicoverpa spp. larvae as it pertains to resistance management. It also presents up-to-date frequencies of resistant alleles for H. punctigera and reviews the same information for H. armigera. This is followed by a discussion of current resistance management strategies. The consequences of the imminent release of a third generation product that utilizes the novel vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A are then considered. The area planted to Bt-crops is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide and many biotechnical companies intend to add Vip3A to existing products; therefore the information reviewed herein for Australia is likely to be pertinent to other situations.

  13. Expert Recommendations for First-Line Management of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in Special Subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Puente, Javier; García Del Muro, Xavier; Pinto, Álvaro; Láinez, Nuria; Esteban, Emilio; Arranz, José Ángel; Gallardo, Enrique; Méndez, María José; Maroto, Pablo; Grande, Enrique; Suárez, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    The availability of agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor or mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] pathways has provided new treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Based on the results of pivotal randomized clinical trials, specific recommendations have been established for management of these patients in first- and second-line settings. However, certain subgroups of patients may be excluded or under-represented in clinical trials, including patients with poor performance status, brain metastases, and cardiac or renal comorbidities, elderly patients, and those with non-clear cell histology. For these subpopulations, management recommendations have emerged from expanded access programs (EAPs), small phase II studies, retrospective analysis of clinical data, and expert opinion. This paper describes recommendations from an expert panel for the treatment of metastatic RCC in these subpopulations. The efficacy of targeted agents appears to be inferior in these patient subgroups relative to the general RCC population. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and mTOR inhibitors can be administered safely to elderly patients and those with poor performance status, although dose and schedule modifications are often needed, and close monitoring and management of adverse events is essential. In addition to local surgical treatment and radiotherapy for brain metastases, systemic treatment with a TKI should be offered as part of multidisciplinary care.While there are currently no data from randomized trials, sunitinib has the greatest body of evidence, and it should be considered the first choice in patients with a good prognosis. Patients with an acute cardiac event within the previous 6 months, New York Heart Association grade III heart failure, or uncontrolled high blood pressure should not be treated with TKIs. In patients with mild or moderate renal failure, there are no contraindications to TKI treatment. TKIs can be

  14. Evolution of Mammalian Opn5 as a Specialized UV-absorbing Pigment by a Single Amino Acid Mutation*

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Yumoto, Akane; Gotoh, Hitoshi; Tomonari, Sayuri; Sakai, Kazumi; Fujita, Hirofumi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Noji, Sumihare; Nakamura, Katsuki; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Opn5 is one of the recently identified opsin groups that is responsible for nonvisual photoreception in animals. We previously showed that a chicken homolog of mammalian Opn5 (Opn5m) is a Gi-coupled UV sensor having molecular properties typical of bistable pigments. Here we demonstrated that mammalian Opn5m evolved to be a more specialized photosensor by losing one of the characteristics of bistable pigments, direct binding of all-trans-retinal. We first confirmed that Opn5m proteins in zebrafish, Xenopus tropicalis, mouse, and human are also UV-sensitive pigments. Then we found that only mammalian Opn5m proteins lack the ability to directly bind all-trans-retinal. Mutational analysis showed that these characteristics were acquired by a single amino acid replacement at position 168. By comparing the expression patterns of Opn5m between mammals and chicken, we found that, like chicken Opn5m, mammalian Opn5m was localized in the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer of the retina. However, the mouse and primate (common marmoset) opsins were distributed not in the posterior hypothalamus (including the region along the third ventricle) where chicken Opn5m is localized, but in the preoptic hypothalamus. Interestingly, RPE65, an essential enzyme for forming 11-cis-retinal in the visual cycle is expressed near the preoptic hypothalamus of the mouse and common marmoset brain but not near the region of the chicken brain where chicken Opn5m is expressed. Therefore, mammalian Opn5m may work exclusively as a short wavelength sensor in the brain as well as in the retina with the assistance of an 11-cis-retinal-supplying system. PMID:24403072

  15. Evolution of Sulfur Binding by Hemoglobin in Siboglinidae (Annelida) with Special Reference to Bone-Eating Worms, Osedax.

    PubMed

    Waits, Damien S; Santos, Scott R; Thornhill, Daniel J; Li, Yuanning; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2016-05-01

    Most members of Siboglinidae (Annelida) harbor endosymbiotic bacteria that allow them to thrive in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents, methane seeps, and whale bones. These symbioses are enabled by specialized hemoglobins (Hbs) that are able to bind hydrogen sulfide for transportation to their chemosynthetic endosymbionts. Sulfur-binding capabilities are hypothesized to be due to cysteine residues at key positions in both vascular and coelomic Hbs, especially in the A2 and B2 chains. Members of the genus Osedax, which live on whale bones, do not have chemosynthetic endosymbionts, but instead harbor heterotrophic bacteria capable of breaking down complex organic compounds. Although sulfur-binding capabilities are important in other siboglinids, we questioned whether Osedax retained these cysteine residues and the potential ability to bind hydrogen sulfide. To answer these questions, we used high-throughput DNA sequencing to isolate and analyze Hb sequences from 8 siboglinid lineages. For Osedax mucofloris, we recovered three (A1, A2, and B1) Hb chains, but the B2 chain was not identified. Hb sequences from gene subfamilies A2 and B2 were translated and aligned to determine conservation of cysteine residues at previously identified key positions. Hb linker sequences were also compared to determine similarity between Osedax and siboglinids/sulfur-tolerant annelids. For O. mucofloris, our results found conserved cysteines within the Hb A2 chain. This finding suggests that Hb in O. mucofloris has retained some capacity to bind hydrogen sulfide, likely due to the need to detoxify this chemical compound that is abundantly produced within whale bones.

  16. Topographic specializations in the retinal ganglion cell layer correlate with lateralized visual behavior, ecology, and evolution in cockatoos.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, João Paulo; Collin, Shaun P; Hart, Nathan S

    2014-10-15

    Cockatoos are a unique avian group inhabiting a diversity of arboreal and terrestrial microhabitats. Most species display strong lateralized visual behaviors using their left eye/foot to assist with food manipulation during foraging. In this study, we used retinal wholemounts and stereological methods to investigate whether the topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells in cockatoos reflects their lateralized behaviors and microhabitat diversity. We found that all species studied possess a horizontal visual streak and a shallow central fovea that afford increased spatial resolution in the lateral visual field. Arboreal cockatoos have a well-defined dorsotemporal area, in contrast to terrestrial cockatoos, in which this specialization is inconspicuous or absent. Terrestrial cockatoos also have a triangular extension of increased ganglion cell density directed toward the dorsotemporal retinal periphery. Both the dorsotemporal area and the triangular extension enhance spatial resolution in the frontal and inferior visual fields, which potentially assists with binocular coordination during foraging. We found significantly higher ganglion cell densities in the left (52,000-72,000 cells/mm2) compared with the right (42,500-50,000 cells/mm2) perifoveal region of species that have strong left eye-left foot lateralized behaviors. In contrast, cockatoo species that show no lateralized behaviors have equivalent retinal ganglion cell densities in both left and right perifoveal regions (42,500-52,500 cells/mm2). Retinal ganglion cell peak densities in the dorsotemporal area showed no significant difference between left and right eyes for any species, suggesting that cockatoos use both eyes to extract information in the binocular visual field, independent of the degree of lateralization.

  17. Perspective in the Evolution of Human MicroRNAs:Copy Number Expansion and Acquisition of Target Gene Specialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Tomita, M.; Kanai, A.

    A novel class of small, noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) wasrecently identified, and up to 20\\ regulated by the members of this class of RNA. miRNAs regulate their target genes by imperfect binding to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the gene transcript, and computational predictions of the binding between miRNAs and target gene transcripts have been performed in order to determine which genes are regulated by these RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis has also been used as a powerful tool to predict miRNA target genes. Much emphasis has therefore been placed on studying the phylogenetic conservation and evolution of this novel type of gene regulator, although there still is much that is not known. Here, we propose a hypothesis of how human miRNAs optimized their gene regulation by adjusting their transcript levels, and how they evolved through specific selection of their target genes. We analyzed the correlation between the conservation of miRNAs among species and three features: the number of transcripts, the formation of duplicates, and the number of target genes. The number of miRNA transcripts and the formation of duplicates increased as the conservation rate increased. In contrast, the number of target genes decreased as the conservation rate increased. Therefore, we propose that miRNAs gradually gain an ability to regulate specific target genes when such regulation has a positive effect on the organism. As its pool of target genes is refined, the ability of an miRNA to regulate the genes may be stabilized by an increase in the miRNA transcript number and the formation of duplicates.

  18. Evolution and Relation of Students' Homework Management Strategies and Their Parents' Help in Homework During the Transition to High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Rollande; Rousseau, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the evolution and the relation between students' homework management strategies, their parents' help in homework and school and homework achievement across the transition to high school. Data were drawn on 101 student-parent dyads who participated in a two-year longitudinal study. Findings indicate parent…

  19. 75 FR 35127 - Hazardous and Solid Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Special Wastes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is proposing to regulate for the first time, coal combustion residuals (CCRs) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to address the risks from the disposal of CCRs generated from the combustion of coal at electric utilities and independent power producers. However, the Agency is considering two options in this proposal and, thus, is proposing two alternative regulations. Under the first proposal, EPA would reverse its August 1993 and May 2000 Bevill Regulatory Determinations regarding coal combustion residuals (CCRs) and list these residuals as special wastes subject to regulation under subtitle C of RCRA, when they are destined for disposal in landfills or surface impoundments. Under the second proposal, EPA would leave the Bevill determination in place and regulate disposal of such materials under subtitle D of RCRA by issuing national minimum criteria. Under both alternatives EPA is proposing to establish dam safety requirements to address the structural integrity of surface impoundments to prevent catastrophic releases. EPA is not proposing to change the May 2000 Regulatory Determination for beneficially used CCRs, which are currently exempt from the hazardous waste regulations under Section 3001(b)(3)(A) of RCRA. However, EPA is clarifying this determination and seeking comment on potential refinements for certain beneficial uses. EPA is also not proposing to address the placement of CCRs in mines, or non-minefill uses of CCRs at coal mine sites in this action.

  20. The unique challenge of managing an undergraduate Get-Away-Special experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Spute, Mark K.; Williams, Memorie K.

    1992-01-01

    A group of Bringham Young University (BYU) undergraduate students has undertaken an experiment to design and build a normal incidence soft x ray robotics telescope for solar observations. The design phase of this, GOLDHELOX project, has now been completed and final construction and modifications are in progress. The design and manufacture of the payload is under the direction of team leaders and a system's integrator. A goal of this project is educating and furnishing experiences in space engineering and physics for undergraduate students. Our main source of funding is NASA and the BYU Colleges of Physical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering and Technology. This project is possible because of the NASA Get-Away Special (GAS) program. The only feasible alternative is using an expensive sounding rocket. We estimate the sun tracking and guidance package alone would cost upwards of a million dollars -- at least ten times our entire budget. Because of the GAS program, we simplified the construction, operation, and programming of the instruments with resulting savings in weight, cost, and time spent.

  1. Attitudes in the management of patients with dementia: comparison in doctors with and without special training.

    PubMed

    Liu, J Y W; Lai, C; Dai, D; Ting, S; Choi, K

    2013-03-01

    To explore by postal survey the different attitudes towards management of patients with dementia in physicians with and without dementia training. A questionnaire was sent to 7669 members of the Hong Kong Medical Association, which represents 61% of all locally registered medical practitioners. In all, 448 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 6%). Among these, there were 34 questionnaires with missing data or the respondents indicated that they were either retired or not in practice. Therefore, only 414 questionnaires were used in analysis. Among these, 82 (20%) had received dementia training, 310 (75%) had not, and 22 (5%) did not indicate their choice. Twelve statements were used to explore various attitudes about dementia care. Exploratory factor analysis showed that there were 2 strong factors: confidence and negative views. The mean scores of these 2 factors were significantly different in physicians with and without dementia training. With respect to management of patients with dementia, dementia-trained physicians had significantly greater confidence (mean [standard deviation (SD)] = 5.21 [1.34]) than those who were non-trained (mean [SD] = 3.57 [1.40]; p < 0.001). Conversely, non-trained physicians had significantly stronger negative views (mean [SD] = 3.89 [1.24]) on dementia care than those who were trained (mean [SD] = 3.12 [1.36]; p < 0.001). These findings suggest that providing a certain level of dementia care training for physicians is an effective way to improve confidence in managing patients with dementia, and thereby decrease possible negative attitudes towards such care.

  2. Nuclear waste management and the use of the sea. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This report reviews the current situation on nuclear-waste-disposal policies in the United States and elsewhere and relates these policies to implications for the oceans. The report describes the worldwide inventory of radioactive waste, the varying types of radioactive wastes, international and domestic laws governing radioactive waste disposal, scientific analysis of marine radioactivity, and possible U.S. proposals on ocean disposal of nuclear waste. Detailed appendices describe nuclear and health physics, waste management strategies of other nations, prior U.S. dumping of radioactive wastes, signatories to the London Dumping Convention, specific case histories, among others.

  3. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tribe Fabeae comprises about 380 legume species, including some of the most ancient and important crops like lentil, pea, and broad bean. Breeding efforts in legume crops rely on a detailed knowledge of closest wild relatives and geographic origin. Relationships within the tribe, however, are incompletely known and previous molecular results conflicted with the traditional morphology-based classification. Here we analyse the systematics, biogeography, and character evolution in the tribe based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Results Phylogenetic analyses including c. 70% of the species in the tribe show that the genera Vicia and Lathyrus in their current circumscription are not monophyletic: Pisum and Vavilovia are nested in Lathyrus, the genus Lens is nested in Vicia. A small, well-supported clade including Vicia hirsuta, V. sylvatica, and some Mediterranean endemics, is the sister group to all remaining species in the tribe. Fabeae originated in the East Mediterranean region in the Miocene (23–16 million years ago (Ma)) and spread at least 39 times into Eurasia, seven times to the Americas, twice to tropical Africa and four times to Macaronesia. Broad bean (V. faba) and its sister V. paucijuga originated in Asia and might be sister to V. oroboides. Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris) is of Mediterranean origin and together with eight very close relatives forms a clade that is nested in the core Vicia, where it evolved c. 14 Ma. The Pisum clade is nested in Lathyrus in a grade with the Mediterranean L. gloeosperma, L. neurolobus, and L. nissolia. The extinct Azorean endemic V. dennesiana belongs in section Cracca and is nested among Mediterranean species. According to our ancestral character state reconstruction results, ancestors of Fabeae had a basic chromosome number of 2n=14, an annual life form, and evenly hairy, dorsiventrally compressed styles. Conclusions Fabeae evolved in the Eastern Mediterranean in the middle Miocene and spread

  4. Evaluation of specialized medication packaging combined with medication therapy management: adherence, outcomes, and costs among Medicaid patients.

    PubMed

    Zillich, Alan J; Jaynes, Heather A W; Snyder, Margie E; Harrison, Jeff; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; de Moor, Carl; French, Dustin D

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a program combing specialized medication packaging and telephonic medication therapy management on medication adherence, health care utilization, and costs among Medicaid patients. A retrospective cohort design compared Medicaid participants who voluntarily enrolled in the program (n = 1007) compared with those who did not (n = 13,614). Main outcome measures were medication adherence at 12 months, hospital admissions and emergency department visits at 6 and 12 months, and total paid claim costs at 6 and 12 months. Multivariate regression models were used to adjust for the effect of age, sex, race, comorbidities, and 12-month preenrollment health care utilization. Measures of medication adherence were significantly improved in the program cohort compared with the usual care cohort. At 6 months, adjusted all-cause hospitalization was marginally less in the program cohort compared with the usual care cohort [odds ratio = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.0, P = 0.05]. No statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 cohorts for any of the other adjusted utilization endpoints at 6 or 12 months. Adjusted total cost at 6 and 12 months were higher in the program cohort (6-month cost ratio = 1.76, 95% CI,1.65-1.89; 12-month cost ratio = 1.84, 95% CI,1.72-1.97), primarily because of an increase in prescription costs. Emergency department visits and hospitalization costs did not differ between groups. : The program improved measures of medication adherence, but the effect on health care utilization and nonpharmacy costs at 6 and 12 months was not different from the usual care group. Reasons for these findings may reflect differences in the delivery of the specialized packaging and the medication therapy management program, health care behaviors in this Medicaid cohort, unadjusted confounding, or time required for the benefit of the intervention to manifest.

  5. Managing Chronic Pain in Special Populations with Emphasis on Pediatric, Geriatric, and Drug Abuser Populations

    PubMed Central

    Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Young, Erin E.; Starkweather, Angela R.; Guite, Jessica W.; Russell, Beth S.; Manworren, Renee C.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Chronic pain represents a significant health and societal concern. In the adult population chronic pain can lead to loss of productivity, earning potential, and decreased quality of life. Research has typically focused on otherwise healthy adults with chronic pain conditions; however there appear to be distinct groups with increased vulnerability for the emergence of chronic pain. These groups may be defined by developmental status and/or life circumstances that increase the risk of injury or for which treatment of pain is less effective. Within the pediatric, geriatric, and drug abuser populations, chronic pain also represents a significant health issue, which can lead to increased absenteeism during school age years, as well as decreased quality of life and increased risk of additional adverse health conditions later in life. Currently, little is known about the mechanisms that encourage the development of chronic pain in these groups, and, consequently, pediatric, geriatric, and substance abuse patients represent challenging cohorts to manage. We focus on known anatomic, physiologic, and genetic mechanisms underlying chronic pain in these populations, and highlight the need for a multimodal approach from multiple healthcare professionals for management of chronic pain in those with the most risk. PMID:26614727

  6. Cervical spine injuries in children, part II: management and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Easter, Joshua S; Barkin, Roger; Rosen, Carlo L; Ban, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    The diagnosis and management of cervical spine injury is more complex in children than in adults. Part I of this series stressed the importance of tailoring the evaluation of cervical spine injuries based on age, mechanism of injury, and physical examination findings. Part II will discuss the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as the management of pediatric cervical spine injuries in the emergency department. Children have several common variations in their anatomy, such as pseudosubluxation of C2-C3, widening of the atlantodens interval, and ossification centers, that can appear concerning on imaging but are normal. Physicians should be alert for signs or symptoms of atlantorotary subluxation and spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality when treating children with spinal cord injury, as these conditions have significant morbidity. MRI can identify injuries to the spinal cord that are not apparent with other modalities, and should be used when a child presents with a neurologic deficit but normal X-ray study or CT scan. With knowledge of these variations in pediatric anatomy, emergency physicians can appropriately identify injuries to the cervical spine and determine when further imaging is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [A web information system for enhancing management and improving special care services provided to dependent persons].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Bermejo, J A; Hernández-Capel, D M; Belmonte-Ureña, L J; Roca-Piera, J

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring the quality of services provided in centres where dependent persons are seen by specialist services, by improving and enhancing how information -salary, control of tasks, patients' records, etc.- is shared between staff and carers. A web information system has been developed and experimentally deployed to accomplish this. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by assessing how confident the employees were with it rather than relying on statistical data. It was experimentally deployed since January 2009 in Asociación de Personas con Discapacidad "El Saliente" that manages several day centres in Almeria, for dependent persons over 65 years old, particularly those affected by Alzheimer' disease. Incidence data was collected during the experimental period. A total of 84% of the employees thought that the system helped to manage documents, administrative duties, etc., and 92.4% said they could attend to really important tasks because the system was responsible for alerting them of every task, such as medication timetables, checking all patients were present (to prevent an Alzheimer affected person leaving the centre) etc. During this period the incidences reported were reduced by about a 30%, although data is still partially representative. As the life expectancy of the population gets longer, these centres will increase. Providing systems such as the one presented here would be of great help for administrative duties (sensitive data protection...) as well as ensuring high quality care and attention.

  8. Treatment adherence and illness self-management: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Howren, M Bryant; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S

    2016-12-01

    The current issue is devoted broadly to research on treatment adherence and chronic illness self-management behavior. As the prevalence of chronic illness increases, the pervasive problem of treatment nonadherence is increasingly viewed as having a major impact on treatment outcomes, public health and healthcare costs, making this issue particularly timely. Sixteen articles spanning an array of topics are presented; articles include empirical studies, statistical simulations, systematic reviews, and theoretical commentaries. Studies conducted with diverse patient populations (e.g., chronic headache, diabetes, end-stage renal disease, HIV, hypertension, severe obesity), samples (e.g., adolescents, ethnic/racial minorities, low-income adults, parents, spousal dyads), and designs (e.g., cross-sectional, longitudinal assessment, randomized controlled trial), are represented. This issue highlights psychosocial factors associated with nonadherence, promising interventions to promote adherence, and state-of-the art methods for the study of illness self-management. We hope these articles engender even more high quality, methodologically rigorous research in this important subfield of behavioral medicine.

  9. The outpatient management and special considerations of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shannon M; Dutta, Eryn; Hankins, Gary D V

    2014-12-01

    With 50-90% of pregnant women experiencing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), the burden of illness can become quite significant if symptoms are under-treated and/or under-diagnosed, thus allowing for progression of the disease. The majority of these women will necessitate at least one visit with a provider to specifically address NVP, and up to 10% or greater will require pharmacotherapy after failure of conservative measures to adequately control symptoms. As a result, initiation of prompt and effective treatment in the outpatient setting is ideal. Once NVP is diagnosed and treatment is started, it is crucial to track symptoms in order to assess for a decrease in or resolution of symptoms as well as an escalation in symptoms requiring additional therapy. Of note, co-existing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Helicobacter pylori infection, and psychosocial factors may have a negative impact on the management of NVP. Ultimately, every woman has her own perception of disease severity and desire for treatment. It is critical that both the provider and patient be proactive in the diagnosis and management of NVP.

  10. Nuclear waste management and the use of the sea. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This report reviews the current situation on nuclear waste disposal policies in the United States and elsewhere and relates these policies to implications for the oceans. The report does not comment on nuclear power as an energy source. In a comprehensive background information section, the report describes the worldwide inventory of radioactive waste, the varying types of radioactive wastes, international and domestic laws governing radioactive waste disposal, scientific analysis of marine radioactivity, and possible U.S. proposals on ocean disposal of nuclear waste. Detailed appendices describe nuclear and health physics, waste management strategies of other nations, prior U.S. dumping of radioactive wastes, signatories to the London Dumping Convention, specific case histories, among others.

  11. The impact of acute management on the occurrence of medical complications during the specialized spinal cord injury acute hospitalization following motor-complete cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Richard-Denis, Andréane; Erhmann Feldman, Debbie; Thompson, Cynthia; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2017-07-19

    Determine the impact of early admission and complete perioperative management in a specialized spinal cord injury (SCI) trauma center (SCI-center) on the occurrence of medical complications following tetraplegia. A retrospective comparative cohort study of prospectively collected data involving 116 individuals was conducted. Group 1 (N=87) was early managed in a SCI-center promptly after the trauma, whereas Group 2 (N=29) was surgically and preoperatively managed in a non-specialized (NS) center before being transferred to the SCI-center. Bivariate comparisons and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the type of acute care facility and the occurrence of medical complications. Length of stay (LOS) in acute care was also compared. Single Level-1 trauma center. Individuals with acute traumatic motor-complete cervical SCI. Not applicable Outcome measures: The occurrence of complications during the SCI-center stay. There was a similar rate of complications between the two groups. However, the LOS was greater in Group 2 (p=0.04). High cervical injuries (C1-C4) showed an important tendency to increase the likelihood of developing a complication, while high cervical injuries and increased trauma severity increased the odds of developing respiratory complications. Although complication rates were similar in non-specialized and specialized centers, peri-operative management in a non-specialized center required a longer length of stay. Prompt transfer to a SCI-center may optimize the care trajectory by favoring earlier transfer to rehabilitation.

  12. Pathogen evolution across the agro-ecological interface: implications for disease management

    PubMed Central

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Thrall, Peter H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Infectious disease is a major causal factor in the demography of human, plant and animal populations. While it is generally accepted in medical, veterinary and agricultural contexts that variation in host resistance and pathogen virulence and aggressiveness is of central importance to understanding patterns of infection, there has been remarkably little effort to directly investigate causal links between population genetic structure and disease dynamics, and even less work on factors influencing host–pathogen coevolution. The lack of empirical evidence is particularly surprising, given the potential for such variation to not only affect disease dynamics and prevalence, but also when or where new diseases or pathotypes emerge. Increasingly, this lack of knowledge has led to calls for an integrated approach to disease management, incorporating both ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we argue that plant pathogens occurring in agro-ecosystems represent one clear example where the application of evolutionary principles to disease management would be of great benefit, as well as providing model systems for advancing our ability to generalize about the long-term coevolutionary dynamics of host–pathogen systems. We suggest that this is particularly the case given that agro-ecological host–pathogen interactions represent a diversity of situations ranging from those that only involve agricultural crops through to those that also include weedy crop relatives or even unrelated native plant communities. We begin by examining some of the criteria that are important in determining involvement in agricultural pathogen evolution by noncrop plants. Throughout we use empirical examples to illustrate the fact that different processes may dominate in different systems, and suggest that consideration of life history and spatial structure are central to understanding dynamics and direction of the interaction. We then discuss the implications that such

  13. Technology-based interventions for the treatment and recovery management of substance use disorders: a JSAT special issue.

    PubMed

    Marsch, Lisa A; Carroll, Kathleen M; Kiluk, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    A growing line of research has highlighted the promising role that interactive web and mobile technologies may play in improving the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and reach of efforts to assess, prevent, treat, and support the recovery management of substance use disorders and other risk behavior. Manuscripts in this special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment focus on the application of technology to the delivery of interventions for the treatment and recovery management of substance use disorders. These manuscripts are intended to highlight the diversity and current state of the science of empirically-supported innovations in this area of intervention delivery. The included manuscripts range from experimental evaluations of a variety of types of technology-based interventions (brief interventions, behavior therapy, medication adherence tools, and HIV prevention interventions) and technology platforms (mobile, Web, videoconferencing, and telephone-based interactive voice response), for an array of populations (adults, adolescents, criminal justice populations, and post-partum women), in a number of different settings (addiction specialty treatment programs, schools, emergency rooms, and criminal justice settings). They additionally reflect a variety of experimental research designs, including those focused on the design, development, and clinical evaluation of these technology-based therapeutic tools, as well as research focused on models for their successful implementation and sustained use.

  14. Headache profile at a medical institution with a specialized center for headache management.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Héctor; Peña, Diana; Pedraza, Wanda; Rodríguez, Martha; Suárez, Erick; Pérez, Cynthia M

    2003-01-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of headache to determine the distribution of antimigraine medication use by specialty of treating physician and the cost of the treatment of headache, among suffers by type of employee (health professionals vs. others). The services of a Headache Center are usually offered to the employees of the hospital in which the Center is localized; however, the number and related outcomes of employees who use the Center services versus those who use primary care facilities remain unknown in Puerto Rico. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 350 out of 415 (84.3%) employees of one of the private hospital in San Juan, Puerto Rico regarding their management of headache. The data collected included age, gender, occupation, headache intensity and frequency, type of treating physician and medication use. Contingency tables were used to describe statistical associations among categorical variables. Pearson's chi square test or Fisher's exact test was used to assess significance. Nearly 75% of employees suffers headaches on a regular basis. Among these, 25% classified the headache as severe, 20.3% had 5 or more attacks per month, 62.1% reported that productivity was affected and 85% lost 1-2 days of work per month due to headache attacks. Approximately 20% visit a physician when they suffer a headache, and more than one-third visits a specialist. Only 2.34% of the employees used antimigraine medications (triptans). The use of triptans was more common among those employees attending a specialist for headache treatment than those attending primary care physicians (p < 0.05). A similar finding was observed for employees attending a neurologist versus other physicians (p < 0.05). These results indicate that headache attacks are prevalent and affect productivity and the cost for this institution was near dollars 4,400.00 per month. Despite the frequency and intensity of headache, less than one-fourth seek medical evaluation

  15. Dimethyl fumarate in the management of multiple sclerosis: appropriate patient selection and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Prosperini, Luca; Pontecorvo, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF), also known as gastroresistant DMF, is the most recently approved oral disease-modifying treatment (DMT) for relapsing multiple sclerosis. Two randomized clinical trials (Determination of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Fumarate in Relapsing-Remitting MS [DEFINE] and Comparator and an Oral Fumarate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis [CONFIRM]) demonstrated significant efficacy in reducing relapse rate and radiological signs of disease activity, as seen on magnetic resonance imaging. The DEFINE study also indicated a significant effect of DMF on disability worsening, while the low incidence of confirmed disability worsening in the CONFIRM trial rendered an insignificant reduction among the DMF-treated groups when compared to placebo. DMF also demonstrated a good safety profile and acceptable tolerability, since the most common side effects (gastrointestinal events and flushing reactions) are usually transient and mild to moderate in severity. Here, we discuss the place in therapy of DMF for individuals with relapsing multiple sclerosis, providing a tentative therapeutic algorithm to manage newly diagnosed patients and those who do not adequately respond to self-injectable DMTs. Literature data supporting the potential role of DMF as a first-line therapy are presented. The possibility of using DMF as switching treatment or even as an add-on strategy in patients with breakthrough disease despite self-injectable DMTs will also be discussed. Lastly, we argue about the role of DMF as an exit strategy from natalizumab-treated patients who are considered at risk for developing multifocal progressive leukoencephalopathy.

  16. Management of type-2 diabetes with anti-platelet therapies: special reference to aspirin.

    PubMed

    Rao, Gundu H R

    2011-01-01

    Adult onset diabetes currently affects 380 million individuals worldwide and is expected to affect 380 million by 2025. Major defects contributing to this complex disease are insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. More than 80% of patients professing to type-2 diabetes are insulin resistant. Recent studies have shown that the Indian subcontinent ranks very high in the occurrence of Diabetes and Coronary artery disease (1, 2, 3). Patients with Type 2 diabetes carry an equivalent cardiovascular risk to that of a non-diabetic individual who has already experienced a coronary event. The risk of coronary artery disease in any given population seems to be 2-3 times higher in diabetics than non-diabetics. Inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulation are the four processes, whose interplay determines the development of cardiovascular disease. In this article, we provide a brief overview on platelet physiology, vascular dysfunction, platelet hyper-function, and the role of platelet related clinical complications in diabetes mellitus and what is know about the management of this complex disease with anti-platelet drugs such as aspirin and Clopidogrel.

  17. Surgical Management of Penile and Preputial Neoplasms in Equine with Special Reference to Partial Phallectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mosbah, Esam; Abou Alsoud, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Penile and preputial neoplasia in horses occurs infrequently and represents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The present study was carried out on a total number of 21 equids (14 stallions and 7 donkeys) suffered from different penile and preputial neoplasia. Diagnosis of neoplasms was based up on history of the case, clinical examination as well as histopathological evaluation. Animals with penile and preputial neoplasms were underwent local excision and partial phallectomy with a slightly modified version of the techniques described by William's. The diagnosed neoplasms were penile and preputial squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; n = 15); sarcoid (n = 4); a-fibrosarcoma; and a melanoma. Local excision was curative in all cases except 5 stallions with SCCs. These stallions had extensive damage of the glans penis, free part of the penis and the inner lamina of the internal fold of the prepuce, and they underwent a partial phallectomy with successful outcome. Follow-up information was obtained by visit and telephone inquiries. In conclusion, penile and preputial neoplasms are commonly encountered in elderly male horses and SCCs are the most common type affecting male external genitalia. Partial phallectomy is effective for management of equine neoplasia if they are confined to the glans and body of the penis and there is no proximal spread or involvement to regional lymph nodes. PMID:26464915

  18. Management of haemophilic pseudotumours with special emphasis on radiotherapy and arterial embolization.

    PubMed

    Espandar, R; Heidari, P; Rodriguez-Merchan, E C

    2009-03-01

    The haemophilic pseudotumour is an expanding destructive haematoma, which is associated with a considerable amount of morbidity in haemophilic patients. Its prevention is paramount. In fact, this goal can be achieved by primary prophylaxis to avoid muscle haematomas and by adequate and long-term haematological treatment of muscle haematomas in case they appear. At the moment, surgical excision of pseudotumour is the preferred treatment by many authors. However, there are instances that surgical extraction of the lesion is not feasible. In such situations, radiotherapy and arterial embolization should be considered either alone or as an adjunct to surgery. Conservative management using a combination of radiotherapy and replacement therapy should be considered for treating haemophilic bone pseudotumours, which are located in the skull or in the distal parts of the limbs, especially in conditions where some impediments to surgical excision exist. In fact, the radiation should be delivered to the lesion site in small fragments of 2 Gy or less to a total dosage of 6-23.5 Gy, which is the most recommended radiation dosage, at the moment. Therapeutic arterial embolization of haemophilic pseudotumours should be considered in lesions of large size, especially in pseudotumours of pelvic region, as it may effectively reduce its size and decrease the risk of bleeding complications during surgery. Nevertheless, in view of its temporary effect, embolization may better be performed, as a preparatory procedure, at best about 2 weeks prior to surgery. This time lapse will allow for mass shrinkage but is insufficient for vessel restoration.

  19. Evolution of dark-dark soliton pairs in a dispersion managed erbium-doped fiber ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, B. H.; Yang, L. Z.; Wang, J. F.; Yang, L.

    2013-07-01

    The evolution of dark-dark soliton pairs is numerically investigated in a dispersion managed erbium-doped fiber ring laser. It is found that the fluctuation of the background, the sideband intensity of the optical spectrum, the distance and the width of dark-dark soliton pairs are related to the orientation of the polarization controllers and the pump power of the fiber ring laser. The evolution of dark-dark soliton pairs is caused by the modulation instability and the balance between gain and loss in the fiber ring laser.

  20. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 2: Data Management System/Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution 16-19 Jan. 1990. The purpose of the workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 2 consists of the technology discipline sections for the Data Management System and the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the invited papers.

  1. Evolution of the management approach for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Y P; Chau, A K T; Chiu, C S W; Yung, T C; Lun, K S; Cheung, Y F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To review the evolution of the management approach for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) in the past two decades and to assess its impact on patient outcomes. Design and patients: Retrospective review of the management and outcomes of 94 patients (55 male patients) with PAIVS diagnosed between July 1980 and August 2003. Settings: Tertiary paediatric cardiac centre. Results: Seven patients died before interventions. Of the remaining 87 patients who underwent intervention at a median age of 9 days (from 1 day to 2 years), 12 had right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction (RVOTR), 42 had closed pulmonary valvotomy (CPV), and 15 had laser assisted valvotomy with balloon valvoplasty. A systemic–pulmonary shunt was inserted in 18 patients, six of whom had subsequent RVOTR (n  =  4) or laser assisted valvotomy (n  =  2). Since 1990, catheter intervention accounted for 38% (17 of 45) of the right ventricular outflow procedures. The mean (SEM) freedom from reintervention was 93 (7)%, 71 (12)%, and 57 (13)% after RVOTR, 75 (7)%, 40 (8)%, and 14 (6)% after CPV, and 54 (13)%, 24 (12)%, and 16 (10)% after laser assisted valvotomy at one month, six months, and one year, respectively (RVOTR versus CPV, p < 0.001; RVOTR versus laser assisted valvotomy, p  =  0.001). Low cardiac output syndrome was significantly less common after catheter intervention than after RVOTR (0% v 44%, p  =  0.003) or CPV (0% v 29%, p  =  0.01). The overall mean (SEM) survival was 77 (5)% and 70 (5)% at one and five years, respectively, and the overall mortality was 33% (29 of 87). There were no significant differences in survival between the three groups. Conclusions: Multiple interventions are often required in the treatment algorithm of PAIVS. The shift towards increased use of the transcatheter approach has reduced the occurrence of postprocedural low cardiac output syndrome. PMID:15831657

  2. Introduction to a special section: Ecology, culture, and management of Burbot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Madenjian, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    The Burbot Lota lota is the only truly freshwater member of the cod family (Gadidae) and one of only two species of freshwater fish that have a circumpolar range (McPhail and Lindsey 1970; McPhail and Paragamian 2000). Two subspecies of Lota lota have been documented: Lota lota maculosa, which is found exclusively in North America from south of Great Slave Lake in Canada to the southern limit of its range; and Lota lota lota, which is found over the remainder of the species’ Nearctic range and its entire Eurasian range (Hubbs and Schultz 1941; Van Houdt et al. 2003). However, many recent authorities (e.g., Scott and Crossman 1973) do not designate subspecies. Burbot occupy the widest range of depths of all fishes found in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (i.e., from small streams to at least 300 m in Lake Superior; Boyer et al. 1989). Worldwide, many Burbot populations are threatened or endangered or have been extirpated (reviewed by Stapanian et al. 2010). Due in part to its unpopularity as a sport and commercial fish in much of its range, the species is often ignored in fish management and conservation programs (McPhail and Paragamian 2000; Stapanian et al. 2008, 2010). Even basic information on Burbot ecology, particularly its early life history and spawning habitats and sites, is lacking. This lack of information is particularly troubling because Burbot are an indicator of the health of coldwater systems (Stapanian et al. 2010). Efforts to rehabilitate or restore imperiled populations include culturing early life stages. Burbot larvae are difficult to culture for a variety of reasons, including their delicate body structure, small size at hatch, and live-feed requirement for at least 5 weeks following alimentary tract development.

  3. Current cardiovascular risk management patterns with special focus on lipid lowering in daily practice in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jaussi, Andres; Noll, Georg; Meier, Bernhard; Darioli, Roger

    2010-06-01

    There may be a considerable gap between LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP) goal values recommended by the guidelines and results achieved in daily practice. Prospective cross-sectional survey of cardiovascular disease risk profiles and management with focus on lipid lowering and BP lowering in clinical practice. In phase 1, the cardiovascular risk of patients with known lipid profile visiting their general practitioner was anonymously assessed in accordance to the PROCAM-score. In phase 2, high-risk patients who did not achieve LDL-C goal less than 2.6 mmol/l in phase 1 could be further documented. Six hundred thirty-five general practitioners collected the data of 23 892 patients with known lipid profile. Forty percent were high-risk patients (diabetes mellitus or coronary heart disease or PROCAM-score >20%), compared with 27% estimated by the physicians. Goal attainment rate was almost double for BP than for LDL-C in high-risk patients (62 vs. 37%). Both goals were attained by 25%. LDL-C values in phase 1 and 2 were available for 3097 high-risk patients not at LDL-C goal in phase 1; 32% of patients achieved LDL-C goal of less than 2.6 mmol/l after a mean of 17 weeks. The most successful strategies for LDL-C reduction were implemented in only 22% of the high-risk patients. Although patients at high cardiovascular risk were treated more intensively than low or medium risk patients, the majority remained insufficiently controlled, which is an incentive for intensified medical education. Adequate implementation of Swiss and International guidelines would expectedly contribute to improved achievement of LDL-C and BP goal values in daily practice.

  4. Report by a special panel of the American Nuclear Society: Protection and management of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bengelsdorf, H.

    1996-07-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) established an independent and prestigious panel several months ago to take the matter up where the US National Academy of Science (NAS) left off. The challenge was to look at the broader issue of what to do with civil plutonium, as well as excess weapons material. In terms of approach, the report focused on several short- and long-term issues. The short-term focus was on the disposition of excess weapons plutonium, while the longer-range issue concerned the disposition of the plutonium being produced in the civil nuclear fuel cycle. For the short term, the ANS panel strongly endorsed the concept that all plutonium scheduled for release from the US and Russian weapons stocks should be converted to a form that is intensively radioactive in order to protect the plutonium from theft of seizure (the spent fuel standard). However, since the conversion will at best take several years to complete, the panel has concluded that immediate emphasis should be placed on the assurance that all unconverted materials are protected as securely as when they were part of the active weapon stockpiles. More importantly, the panel also recommended prompt implementation of the so-called reactor option for disposing of surplus US and Russian weapons plutonium. The longer-term issues covered by the panel were those posed by the growing stocks of both separated plutonium and spent fuel generated in the world`s civil nuclear power programs. These issues included what fuel cycle policies should be prudently pursued in light of proliferation risks and likely future energy needs, what steps should be taken in regard to the increase in the demand for nuclear power in the future, and how civil plutonium in its various forms should be protected and managed to minimize proliferation. Overall, the panel concluded that plutonium is an energy resource that should be used and not a waste material to be disposed of.

  5. Evolution of ATLAS conditions data and its management for LHC Run-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhler, Michael; Borodin, Mikhail; Formica, Andrea; Gallas, Elizabeth; Radescu, Voica

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS detector at the LHC consists of several sub-detector systems. Both data taking and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation rely on an accurate description of the detector conditions from every subsystem, such as calibration constants, different scenarios of pile-up and noise conditions, size and position of the beam spot, etc. In order to guarantee database availability for critical online applications during data-taking, two database systems, one for online access and another one for all other database access, have been implemented. The long shutdown period has provided the opportunity to review and improve the Run-1 system: revise workflows, include new and innovative monitoring and maintenance tools and implement a new database instance for Run-2 conditions data. The detector conditions are organized by tag identification strings and managed independently by the different sub-detector experts. The individual tags are then collected and associated into a global conditions tag, assuring synchronization of various sub-detector improvements. Furthermore, a new concept was introduced to maintain conditions over all different data run periods into a single tag, by using Interval of Validity (IOV) dependent detector conditions for the MC database as well. This allows on the fly preservation of past conditions for data and MC and assures their sustainability with software evolution. This paper presents an overview of the commissioning of the new database instance, improved tools and workflows, and summarizes the actions taken during the Run-2 commissioning phase in the beginning of 2015.

  6. Analysis of the therapeutic evolution in the management of airway infantile hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Vivas-Colmenares, Grecia V; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Fernandez-Hurtado, Miguel Angel; Garcia-Casillas, Maria Antonia; Matute de Cardenas, Jose Antonio

    2016-02-08

    To analyze the evolution in the management of airway infantile hemangioma (AIH) and to report the results from 3 pediatric tertiary care institutions. A retrospective study of patients with diagnosis of AIH and treated in 3 pediatric tertiary care institutions from 1996 to 2014 was performed. Twenty-three patients with diagnosis of AIH were identified. Mean age at diagnosis was 6 mo (range, 1-27). Single therapy was indicated in 16 patients and 7 patients received combined therapy. Two therapeutic groups were identified: Group A included 14 patients who were treated with steroids, interferon, laser therapy and/or surgery; group B included 9 patients treated with oral propranolol. In group A, oral corticosteroids were used in 9 patients with a good response in 3 cases (no requiring other therapeutic option), the other patients required additional treatment options. Cushing syndrome was observed in 3 patients. One patient died of a fulminant sepsis. Open surgical excision and endoscopic therapy were performed in 11 patients (in 5 of them as a single treatment) with a response rate of 54.5%. Stridor persisted in 2 cases, and one patient died during the clinical course of bronchial aspiration. In group B, oral propranolol was used in 9 patients (in 8 of them as a single treatment) with a response rate of 100%, with an mean treatment duration of 7 mo (range, 5-10); complications were not observed. Our experience and the medical literature support the use of propranolol as a first line of treatment in AIH.

  7. Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Field, C.B.; Barros, V.; Stocker, T.F.

    2012-07-01

    This Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) has been jointly coordinated by Working Groups I (WGI) and II (WGII) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The report focuses on the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events, the impacts of such events, and the strategies to manage the associated risks. This Special Report, in particular, contributes to frame the challenge of dealing with extreme weather and climate events as an issue in decision making under uncertainty, analyzing response in the context of risk management. The report consists of nine chapters, covering risk management; observed and projected changes in extreme weather and climate events; exposure and vulnerability to as well as losses resulting from such events; adaptation options from the local to the international scale; the role of sustainable development in modulating risks; and insights from specific case studies. (LN)

  8. Process-induced damage evolution and management in resin transfer molding of composite panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Yean-Der

    2000-10-01

    Woven fiber composites made by resin transfer molding process are currently used as the primary and secondary load bearing structures in automotive and aircraft industries. A variety of defects could be evolved during the injection stage and the curing stage of the process. Improper injection conditions or unsound tool design would result in process induced damage in the form of dry spots, incomplete filling, or displacement of the fiber. In the curing stage, the process parameters of heating and cooling rates, and the temperature level at each element of the curing cycle have direct effects on the development of internal residual stresses, and shape distortion due to warpage. The work in this dissertation aims at developing numerical models to predict, characterize, and minimize process-induced damage during both the injection stage and curing stage in RTM process for woven-fiber composites. A control volume technique based on the finite difference method is used to characterize the flow behavior in resin transfer molding (RTM) of composite structures. Resin flow through fiber mats is modeled as a two-phase flow through porous media. Experimental results on flow behavior of EPON 826 epoxy resin into irregular mold cavity with fiberglass mats agree well with the present numerical simulation. Parametric analysis of several case studies using developed model illustrates the effectiveness of the flow model in investigating the flow pattern, mold filling time, dry spots formulation, and pressure distribution inside the mold. A numerical model describing the evolution of process-induced damage during curing in molded composite panels was developed. The effects of thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical responses of the material on the evolution of damage during resin transfer molding of the panels are quantified. The developed numerical model in conjunction with an optimization module based on Simulated Annealing (SA) scheme form a useful tool for conducting a parametric

  9. Accreditation of specialized asthma units for adults in Spain: an applicable experience for the management of difficult-to-control asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Carolina; Díaz-Campos, Rocío Magdalena; Marina, Núria; Melero, Carlos; Padilla, Alicia; Pascual, Silvia; Pinedo, Celia; Trisán, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper, developed by consensus of staff physicians of accredited asthma units for the management of severe asthma, presents information on the process and requirements for already-existing asthma units to achieve official accreditation by the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR). Three levels of specialized asthma care have been established based on available resources, which include specialized units for highly complex asthma, specialized asthma units, and basic asthma units. Regardless of the level of accreditation obtained, the distinction of “excellence” could be granted when more requirements in the areas of provision of care, technical and human resources, training in asthma, and teaching and research activities were met at each level. The Spanish experience in the process of accreditation of specialized asthma units, particularly for the care of patients with difficult-to-control asthma, may be applicable to other health care settings. PMID:28533690

  10. Nutrition Management of School Age Children with Special Needs: A Resource Manual for School Personnel, Families, and Health Professionals. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsley, Janet W.; Allen, Elizabeth R.; Daniel, Patricia White

    This guide is intended to help school personnel facilitate the management of special diets and nutrition education in the school curriculum in accordance with requirements of the National School Lunch Act, the Child Nutrition Act, the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. After the introduction,…

  11. Special Library and Information Centre Managers: Their Continuing Professional Development. Report of a Research Study Undertaken in 1985. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne; Grosser, Kerry

    This report summarizes a 1985 study during which 85 special library/information center managers from Melbourne, Australia, were interviewed to ascertain their continuing professional development activities, needs, and aspirations. Major areas of investigation included the extent and nature of organizational support for continuing professional…

  12. Anger Management Using a Cognitive-Behavioural Approach for Children with Special Education Needs: A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Betty P. V.; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the use of a cognitive-behavioural approach to anger management in children with special needs in community settings. Eighteen experimental studies involving a total of 408 children were located. The participants were mainly of high school age, with an IQ above 80, and with behavioural or emotional disorders. A moderate effect…

  13. Anger Management Using a Cognitive-Behavioural Approach for Children with Special Education Needs: A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Betty P. V.; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the use of a cognitive-behavioural approach to anger management in children with special needs in community settings. Eighteen experimental studies involving a total of 408 children were located. The participants were mainly of high school age, with an IQ above 80, and with behavioural or emotional disorders. A moderate effect…

  14. Impact of a Newly Implemented Burn Protocol on Surgically Managed Partial Thickness Burns at a Specialized Burns Center in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tay, Khwee-Soon Vincent; Chong, Si-Jack; Tan, Bien-Keem

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a newly implemented protocol for superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns which involves early surgery and rapid coverage with biosynthetic dressing in a specialized national burns center in Singapore. Consecutive patients with 5% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns injury admitted to the Burns Centre at the Singapore General Hospital between August and December 2014 for surgery within 48 hours of injury were prospectively recruited into the study to form the protocol group. Comparable historical cases from the year 2013 retrieved from the burns center audit database were used to form the historical control group. Demographics (age, sex), type and depth of burns, %TBSA burnt, number of operative sessions, and length of stay were recorded for each patient of both cohorts. Thirty-nine burns patients managed under the new protocol were compared with historical control (n = 39) comparable in age and extensiveness of burns. A significantly shorter length of stay (P < 0.05) per TBSA burns was observed in the new protocol group (0.74 day/%TBSA) versus historical control (1.55 day/%TBSA). Fewer operative sessions were needed under the new protocol for burns 10% or greater TBSA burns (P < 0.05). The authors report their promising experience with a newly implemented protocol for surgically managed burns patients which involves early surgery and appropriate use of biosynthetic dressing on superficial to mid-dermal partial thickness burns. Clinically, shorter lengths of stay, fewer operative sessions, and decreased need for skin grafting of burns patient were observed.

  15. Possible predictors of discontinuation of specialized dental treatment among children and adolescents with dental behaviour management problems.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Annika; Broberg, Anders G; Bodin, Lennart; Berggren, Ulf; Arnrup, Kristina

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to identify potential predictors of non-attendance among children and adolescents with dental behaviour management problems (DBMP). A group of 179 patients, 7.5-19 yr of age, was grouped into 56 'non-attenders' (discontinued treatment, missed appointments, or >or= 20% cancellations) and 123 'attenders'. In addition to data from an introductory interview and dental recordings, baseline data from psychometric measures of fear and other personal and parental characteristics were included in logistic regression analyses and tree-based modelling. The non-attenders had higher scores on impulsivity and sociability and lower socio-economic status (SES) than the attenders, and they lived more often in single-parent families. Logistic regression analyses and tree-based modelling point to SES and parental anxiety as important predictors for non-attendance within this group of children and adolescents. To predict, and possibly to prevent, non-attendance among children and adolescents referred for specialized dental care because of DBMP, we must consider their lives and family situations as well as their personal characteristics and oral health status. Further research should focus on whether the observed associations between non-attendance and factors such as personal characteristics, family and psychosocial factors, and previous dental experiences, also hold for those who remain in regular dental care.

  16. Avoidance of fisheries-induced evolution: management implications for catch selectivity and limit reference points.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2009-08-01

    I examined how the fitness (r) associated with early- and late-maturing genotypes varies with fishing mortality (F) and age-/size-specific probability of capture. Life-history data on Newfoundland's northern Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) allowed for the estimation of r for individuals maturing at 4 and 7 year in the absence of fishing. Catch selectivity data associated with four types of fishing gear (trap, gillnet, handline, otter trawl) were then incorporated to examine how r varied with gear type and with F. The resulting fitness functions were then used to estimate the F above which selection would favour early (4 year) rather than delayed (7 year) maturity. This evolutionarily-sensitive threshold, F evol, identifies a limit reference point somewhat similar to those used to define overfishing (e.g., F msy, F 0.1). Over-exploitation of northern cod resulted in fishing mortalities considerably greater than those required to effect evolutionary change. Selection for early maturity is reduced by the dome-shaped selectivities characteristic of fixed gears such as handlines (the greater the leptokurtosis, the lower the probability of a selection response) and enhanced by the knife-edged selectivities of bottom trawls. Strategies to minimize genetic change are consistent with traditional management objectives (e.g., yield maximization, population increase). Compliance with harvest control rules guided by evolutionarily-sensitive limit reference points, which may be achieved by adherence to traditional reference points such as F msy and F 0.1, should be sufficient to minimize the probability of fisheries-induced evolution for commercially exploited species.

  17. Avoidance of fisheries-induced evolution: management implications for catch selectivity and limit reference points

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2009-01-01

    I examined how the fitness (r) associated with early- and late-maturing genotypes varies with fishing mortality (F) and age-/size-specific probability of capture. Life-history data on Newfoundland's northern Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) allowed for the estimation of r for individuals maturing at 4 and 7 year in the absence of fishing. Catch selectivity data associated with four types of fishing gear (trap, gillnet, handline, otter trawl) were then incorporated to examine how r varied with gear type and with F. The resulting fitness functions were then used to estimate the F above which selection would favour early (4 year) rather than delayed (7 year) maturity. This evolutionarily-sensitive threshold, Fevol, identifies a limit reference point somewhat similar to those used to define overfishing (e.g., Fmsy, F0.1). Over-exploitation of northern cod resulted in fishing mortalities considerably greater than those required to effect evolutionary change. Selection for early maturity is reduced by the dome-shaped selectivities characteristic of fixed gears such as handlines (the greater the leptokurtosis, the lower the probability of a selection response) and enhanced by the knife-edged selectivities of bottom trawls. Strategies to minimize genetic change are consistent with traditional management objectives (e.g., yield maximization, population increase). Compliance with harvest control rules guided by evolutionarily-sensitive limit reference points, which may be achieved by adherence to traditional reference points such as Fmsy and F0.1, should be sufficient to minimize the probability of fisheries-induced evolution for commercially exploited species. PMID:25567884

  18. Analysis of the therapeutic evolution in the management of airway infantile hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Vivas-Colmenares, Grecia V; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Fernandez-Hurtado, Miguel Angel; Garcia-Casillas, Maria Antonia; Matute de Cardenas, Jose Antonio

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the evolution in the management of airway infantile hemangioma (AIH) and to report the results from 3 pediatric tertiary care institutions. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with diagnosis of AIH and treated in 3 pediatric tertiary care institutions from 1996 to 2014 was performed. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with diagnosis of AIH were identified. Mean age at diagnosis was 6 mo (range, 1-27). Single therapy was indicated in 16 patients and 7 patients received combined therapy. Two therapeutic groups were identified: Group A included 14 patients who were treated with steroids, interferon, laser therapy and/or surgery; group B included 9 patients treated with oral propranolol. In group A, oral corticosteroids were used in 9 patients with a good response in 3 cases (no requiring other therapeutic option), the other patients required additional treatment options. Cushing syndrome was observed in 3 patients. One patient died of a fulminant sepsis. Open surgical excision and endoscopic therapy were performed in 11 patients (in 5 of them as a single treatment) with a response rate of 54.5%. Stridor persisted in 2 cases, and one patient died during the clinical course of bronchial aspiration. In group B, oral propranolol was used in 9 patients (in 8 of them as a single treatment) with a response rate of 100%, with an mean treatment duration of 7 mo (range, 5-10); complications were not observed. CONCLUSION: Our experience and the medical literature support the use of propranolol as a first line of treatment in AIH. PMID:26862508

  19. Simulating mesoscale coastal evolution for decadal coastal management: A new framework integrating multiple, complementary modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Maanen, Barend; Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; Barkwith, Andrew; Bonaldo, Davide; Burningham, Helene; Brad Murray, A.; Payo, Andres; Sutherland, James; Thornhill, Gillian; Townend, Ian H.; van der Wegen, Mick; Walkden, Mike J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and shoreline management increasingly needs to consider morphological change occurring at decadal to centennial timescales, especially that related to climate change and sea-level rise. This requires the development of morphological models operating at a mesoscale, defined by time and length scales of the order 101 to 102 years and 101 to 102 km. So-called 'reduced complexity' models that represent critical processes at scales not much smaller than the primary scale of interest, and are regulated by capturing the critical feedbacks that govern landform behaviour, are proving effective as a means of exploring emergent coastal behaviour at a landscape scale. Such models tend to be computationally efficient and are thus easily applied within a probabilistic framework. At the same time, reductionist models, built upon a more detailed description of hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes, are capable of application at increasingly broad spatial and temporal scales. More qualitative modelling approaches are also emerging that can guide the development and deployment of quantitative models, and these can be supplemented by varied data-driven modelling approaches that can achieve new explanatory insights from observational datasets. Such disparate approaches have hitherto been pursued largely in isolation by mutually exclusive modelling communities. Brought together, they have the potential to facilitate a step change in our ability to simulate the evolution of coastal morphology at scales that are most relevant to managing erosion and flood risk. Here, we advocate and outline a new integrated modelling framework that deploys coupled mesoscale reduced complexity models, reductionist coastal area models, data-driven approaches, and qualitative conceptual models. Integration of these heterogeneous approaches gives rise to model compositions that can potentially resolve decadal- to centennial-scale behaviour of diverse coupled open coast, estuary and inner

  20. Why can't I manage my digital images like MP3s? The evolution and intent of multimedia metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrum, Abby; Howison, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the deceptively simple question: Why can't digital images be managed in the simple and effective manner in which digital music files are managed? We make the case that the answer is different treatments of metadata in different domains with different goals. A central difference between the two formats stems from the fact that digital music metadata lookup services are collaborative and automate the movement from a digital file to the appropriate metadata, while image metadata services do not. To understand why this difference exists we examine the divergent evolution of metadata standards for digital music and digital images and observed that the processes differ in interesting ways according to their intent. Specifically music metadata was developed primarily for personal file management and community resource sharing, while the focus of image metadata has largely been on information retrieval. We argue that lessons from MP3 metadata can assist individuals facing their growing personal image management challenges. Our focus therefore is not on metadata for cultural heritage institutions or the publishing industry, it is limited to the personal libraries growing on our hard-drives. This bottom-up approach to file management combined with p2p distribution radically altered the music landscape. Might such an approach have a similar impact on image publishing? This paper outlines plans for improving the personal management of digital images-doing image metadata and file management the MP3 way-and considers the likelihood of success.

  1. Why can't I manage my digital images like MP3s? The evolution and intent of multimedia metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrum, Abby; Howison, James

    2004-12-01

    This paper considers the deceptively simple question: Why can"t digital images be managed in the simple and effective manner in which digital music files are managed? We make the case that the answer is different treatments of metadata in different domains with different goals. A central difference between the two formats stems from the fact that digital music metadata lookup services are collaborative and automate the movement from a digital file to the appropriate metadata, while image metadata services do not. To understand why this difference exists we examine the divergent evolution of metadata standards for digital music and digital images and observed that the processes differ in interesting ways according to their intent. Specifically music metadata was developed primarily for personal file management and community resource sharing, while the focus of image metadata has largely been on information retrieval. We argue that lessons from MP3 metadata can assist individuals facing their growing personal image management challenges. Our focus therefore is not on metadata for cultural heritage institutions or the publishing industry, it is limited to the personal libraries growing on our hard-drives. This bottom-up approach to file management combined with p2p distribution radically altered the music landscape. Might such an approach have a similar impact on image publishing? This paper outlines plans for improving the personal management of digital images-doing image metadata and file management the MP3 way-and considers the likelihood of success.

  2. Analysis of spatial and temporal evolution of vegetation cover in the Spanish Central Pyrenees: role of human management.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Lasanta, Teodoro; Romo, Alfredo

    2004-12-01

    A vegetation cover increase has been identified at global scales using satellite images and vegetation indices. This fact is usually explained by global climatic change processes such as CO(2) and temperature increases. Nevertheless, although these causes can be important, the role of socioeconomic transformations must be considered in some places, since in several areas of Northern Hemisphere an important change in management practices has been detected. Rural depopulation and land abandonment have reactivated the natural vegetation regeneration processes. This work analyses the vegetation evolution in the central Spanish Pyrenees from 1982 to 2000. The analysis has been done by using calibrated-NDVI temporal series from NOAA-AVHRR images. A positive and significant trend in NDVI data has been identified from 1982 to 2000 coinciding with a temperature increase in the study area. However, the spatial differences in magnitude and the sign of NDVI trends are significant. The role of land management changes in the 20th century is considered as a hypothesis to explain the spatial differences in NDVI trends. The role of land-cover and human land-uses on this process has been analyzed. The highest increment of NDVI is detected in lands affected by abandonment and human extensification. The importance of management changes in vegetation growth is discussed, and we indicate that although climate has great importance in vegetal evolution, land-management changes can not be neglected in our study area.

  3. Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Vegetation Cover in the Spanish Central Pyrenees: Role of Human Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Lasanta, Teodoro; Romo, Alfredo

    2004-12-01

    A vegetation cover increase has been identified at global scales using satellite images and vegetation indices. This fact is usually explained by global climatic change processes such as CO2 and temperature increases. Nevertheless, although these causes can be important, the role of socioeconomic transformations must be considered in some places, since in several areas of Northern Hemisphere an important change in management practices has been detected. Rural depopulation and land abandonment have reactivated the natural vegetation regeneration processes. This work analyses the vegetation evolution in the central Spanish Pyrenees from 1982 to 2000. The analysis has been done by using calibrated-NDVI temporal series from NOAA-AVHRR images. A positive and significant trend in NDVI data has been identified from 1982 to 2000 coinciding with a temperature increase in the study area. However, the spatial differences in magnitude and the sign of NDVI trends are significant. The role of land management changes in the 20th century is considered as a hypothesis to explain the spatial differences in NDVI trends. The role of land-cover and human land-uses on this process has been analyzed. The highest increment of NDVI is detected in lands affected by abandonment and human extensification. The importance of management changes in vegetation growth is discussed, and we indicate that although climate has great importance in vegetal evolution, land-management changes can not be neglected in our study area.

  4. Evolution of diabetes management in the 21st century: the contribution of quality of life measurement in Asians.

    PubMed

    Goh, Shereen Giap Kah; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Khalid, Bin Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex and chronic disease with multiple complications leading to increased mortality and poor quality of life. Current studies have shown that lowering glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) confers protection against microvascular complications. However, with more intensive glucose control to achieve HbA1c of less than 6.5%, there seems to be a significant increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular events. The current recommendation worldwide is for "tailoring" of DM management to risk and also quality of Life (QOL) which is a crucial component in determining the success or failure of DM management. In Asia, DM has become a health crisis but there is a lack of QOL assessment tool that is specific for Asians with wide spectrum of ethnicity, languages, religions and socio-economic differences. In this review, we discuss the evolution of DM management over the decade and the issues pertaining to QOL among people living with diabetes in Asia.

  5. 44 CFR 60.12 - Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in special hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plain management... MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Requirements for State Flood Plain Management Regulations § 60.12 Flood plain management criteria for State-owned properties in...

  6. Clinical management of resistance evolution in a bacterial infection: A case study.

    PubMed

    Woods, Robert J; Read, Andrew F

    2015-10-10

    We report the case of a patient with a chronic bacterial infection that could not be cured. Drug treatment became progressively less effective due to antibiotic resistance, and the patient died, in effect from overwhelming evolution. Even though the evolution of drug resistance was recognized as a major threat, and the fundamentals of drug resistance evolution are well understood, it was impossible to make evidence-based decisions about the evolutionary risks associated with the various treatment options. We present this case to illustrate the urgent need for translational research in the evolutionary medicine of antibiotic resistance. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  7. Evaluation of Impaired Driving Assessments and Special Management Reviews in Reducing Impaired Driving Fatal Crashes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James; Auld-Owens, Amy; Snowden, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991, State Impaired-Driving Assessments (IDAs) and Special Management Reviews (SMRs) have been conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to serve as a mechanism to assess the impaired-driving problem in the State, document the existing system, recommend improvements, and garner both political and public support to fund and implement improvements. Did these assessments and reviews serve the States as intended and provide a catalyst to reduce impaired driving? Almost half of the priority recommendations from IDAs in seven States and 60% of the priority recommendations in SMR States were implemented. Barriers to the implementation of some recommendations are discussed. IDAs and SMRs implemented at varying times were examined using logistic regression analyses of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for the years 1990 to 2008 to determine the effect they may have triggered on impaired driving rates in fatal crashes. States receiving IDAs and SMRs were compared to similar States not receiving them. Paired comparisons of similar States (e.g. IDA-State vs. non-IDA State) did not reveal any significant differences in impaired driving rates, but IDA and SMR States as a group showed significantly greater impaired driving declines in fatal crashes compared to non-IDA and non-SMR States as a group. IDAs and SMRs appear to provide a mechanism to examine the State’s impaired-driving program by an external team of experts and reveal areas where improvement is needed and confirm strategies that appear to be effective. PMID:24406944

  8. Canadian paediatricians’ approaches to managing patients with adverse events following immunization: The role of the Special Immunization Clinic network

    PubMed Central

    Top, Karina A; Zafack, Joseline; De Serres, Gaston; Halperin, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When moderate or severe adverse events occur after vaccination, physicians and patients may have concerns about future immunizations. Similar concerns arise in patients with underlying conditions whose risk for adverse events may differ from the general population. The Special Immunization Clinic (SIC) network was established in 2013 at 13 sites in Canada to provide expertise in the clinical evaluation and vaccination of these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess referral patterns for patients with vaccine adverse events or potential vaccine contraindications among paediatricians and to assess the anticipated utilization of an SIC. METHODS: A 12-item questionnaire was distributed to paediatricians and subspecialists participating in the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program through monthly e-mail and mail contacts. RESULTS: The response rate was 24% (586 of 2490). Fifty-three percent of respondents practiced general paediatrics exclusively and 52% reported that they administer vaccines. In the previous 12 months, 26% of respondents had encountered children with challenging adverse events or potential vaccine contraindications in their practice and 29% had received referrals for such patients, including 27% of subspecialists. Overall, 69% of respondents indicated that they would be likely or very likely to refer patients to an SIC, and 34% indicated that they would have referred at least one patient to an SIC in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experience challenging adverse events following immunization or potential vaccine contraindications are encountered by paediatricians and subspecialists in all practice settings. The SIC network will be able to respond to a clinical need and support paediatricians in managing these patients. PMID:25332661

  9. Effects of landscape evolution on soil organic carbon dynamics in intensively managed agricultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Q.; Kumar, P.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a critical role in nutrient dynamics and carbon sequestration. Significant research has been done to predict changes of organic carbon and nitrogen in the soil by studying the interaction between soil, climate, and vegetation. However, an important factor in this system, the landscape evolution (LE), which interacts extensively with the soil, climate, and vegetation over a longer time scale, is usually not represented in such studies. Natural and anthropogenic drivers change the surface topography. Agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and tillage episodically disturb the system. Here we simulate this system by coupling chemically based C-N model with physically based hydro-geomorphologic model at hillslope scale to understand 1) how LE impacts C-N dynamics; 2) how SOM affects LE; 3) how farming activities modify the interaction between LE and SOM dynamics. Our results show that LE plays a dominant role in SOC both above- and below-ground. Contrary to an assumption used in many models that a vertical profile of SOC concentration decreases exponentially, we find that in many situations SOC concentration below-ground could be higher than the one at the surface in both deposition and erosion sites. Tillage mixes the SOC in top 5cm-30cm of the soil. On one hand, tillage enhances the SOC storage by increasing below ground SOC concentration; On the other hand, tillage could accelerate soil erosion, which increase SOC loss. In general, tillage causes the soil vertical profile to become more uniform. Our model also shows that tillage can change the C-N oscillation cycle and then increase the time to reach a dynamic equilibrium. The SOC measured in the field site of Intensively Managed Landscapes Critical Zone Observatory (IMLCZO) is consistent with our model results. This study not only helps us understand the natural carbon-nitrogen cycle, but also serve as an instrument to develop practical means for reducing soil erosion

  10. Exploiting CMS data popularity to model the evolution of data management for Run-2 and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacorsi, D.; Boccali, T.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Neri, M.; Magini, N.; Kuznetsov, V.; Wildish, T.

    2015-12-01

    During the LHC Run-1 data taking, all experiments collected large data volumes from proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions. The collisions data, together with massive volumes of simulated data, were replicated in multiple copies, transferred among various Tier levels, transformed/slimmed in format/content. These data were then accessed (both locally and remotely) by large groups of distributed analysis communities exploiting the WorldWide LHC Computing Grid infrastructure and services. While efficient data placement strategies - together with optimal data redistribution and deletions on demand - have become the core of static versus dynamic data management projects, little effort has so far been invested in understanding the detailed data-access patterns which surfaced in Run-1. These patterns, if understood, can be used as input to simulation of computing models at the LHC, to optimise existing systems by tuning their behaviour, and to explore next-generation CPU/storage/network co-scheduling solutions. This is of great importance, given that the scale of the computing problem will increase far faster than the resources available to the experiments, for Run-2 and beyond. Studying data-access patterns involves the validation of the quality of the monitoring data collected on the “popularity of each dataset, the analysis of the frequency and pattern of accesses to different datasets by analysis end-users, the exploration of different views of the popularity data (by physics activity, by region, by data type), the study of the evolution of Run-1 data exploitation over time, the evaluation of the impact of different data placement and distribution choices on the available network and storage resources and their impact on the computing operations. This work presents some insights from studies on the popularity data from the CMS experiment. We present the properties of a range of physics analysis activities as seen by the data popularity, and make recommendations for

  11. Widening horizons through alternative and augmentative communication systems for managing children with special health care needs in a pediatric dental setup.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navneet; Sethi, Tanvi; Grewal, Sukrit

    2015-01-01

    This study compared and evaluated the efficacy of conventional low-tech and improvised high-tech alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) software in behavior management in the dental environment and oral hygiene activities performance of children with special health care needs as well as improving their communication skills with the dentist and caretakers. A total of 60 institutionalized children with special health care needs were divided into two groups of 30 each to be exposed to low-tech AAC and high-tech AAC systems (special smiles for special children material). Assessment of knowledge as well as behavior modification achieved before and after training was carried out on the basis of pretested proformas formatted through various peer reviewed articles. Rapid and enhanced assimilation of knowledge was observed in group 2 exposed to high-tech AAC improvised software after intergroup comparison of total scores at baseline, first, second, third, sixth, and ninth month of training. Oral hygiene performance was compared using PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) index and after training results revealed highly significant change in both groups. The subjects benefitted immensely from the programme as group 1 and group 2 children demonstrated good behavior after training compared to none at baseline. On the whole, this programme had a positive motivational impact. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pain management in elderly persons who require assistance with activities of daily living: a comparison of those living at home with those in special accommodations.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Ulf; Rahm Hallberg, Ingalill; Westergren, Albert

    2004-08-01

    To describe and compare the methods of pain management used by elderly individuals with chronic pain and requiring assistance with activities of daily living, depending on whether they live alone, with someone, at home or in special accommodations. This study comprised 294 people aged 76-100 years, identified as having chronic pain and requiring assistance with activities of daily living. Pain and pain management methods were compared using the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Swedish version, and the Pain Management Inventory. Those living in special accommodations reported more pain than those living at home. Those living with someone reported more pain and interference in daily life than those living alone, despite using more pain-relief methods and having greater social support. The median number of pain-relieving methods used was 3.0 (75th-25th percentile: 5-2). Some (3.8%) did not use any method to relieve their pain. The most frequently used methods were prescribed medicine (20%), rest (20%) and distraction (15%). The methods rated most effective were using cold, exercise, hot bath/shower and consuming alcohol. Participants had only a small repertoire of pain management methods and these were mostly conventional in nature. Few non-pharmacological methods were used. The findings suggest the importance of thorough assessment, and the need to fully discuss pain management options with the elderly.

  13. [Evolution of the social autonomy scale (EAS) in schizophrenic patients depending on their management].

    PubMed

    Leguay, D; Rouillon, F; Azorin, J-M; Gasquet, I; Loze, J-Y; Arnaud, R; Dillenschneider, A

    2010-10-01

    private practitioners have less access to such arrangements for their patients. The vast majority of psychiatrists in both categories are unable to offer their patients active rehabilitation techniques: training in social skills (25%), cognitive remediation (16%), cognitive-behavioral therapies (20%), even though psychoeducation is quite widespread (44%). However, the survey demonstrated that the actual use of these methods was much lower still (2%, 1% and 2%, respectively), although the use of alternative facilities to hospitalization was quite high (day-care hospitals 9%, rest-centers 8%). In total, at the end of the study, the proportion of patients benefiting from some kind of programme to increase their level of autonomy was 41%. These results have demonstrated a link between the evolution of patients' clinical symptoms and their social autonomy. Within the findings, the items that varied most were patient's level of personal care and relations with others, whereas the ability to manage resources seems difficult to influence. Moreover, the results have shown that better development of social autonomy is significantly correlated with the prescription of second-generation antipsychotics. Regarding non-pharmacological treatment, better development of social autonomy is significantly correlated with setting up programmes to achieve this objective, including the use of active rehabilitation techniques. Overall, the survey confirmed the results of earlier work to validate the scale of social autonomy (EAS), and confirmed the robustness of its objective measurements. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  15. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  16. Evolution Under Attack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, David; Newell, Norman D.

    1974-01-01

    The article points out the growing attempts by creationists to have special creation presented with evolution in any educational discussion of the origin of life. The evolution theory is shown to be consistent with known scientific facts while the theory of special creation does not adequately account for these facts. (LS)

  17. [Evolution of the nurse's role in the management of a cardiac arrest].

    PubMed

    Loosli, Florian; Hutin, Alice; Lefort, Hugues; Carli, Pierre; Lamhaut, Lionel

    2016-11-01

    In France, there are 40 000 sudden deaths each year and the cardiac arrest survival rate is less than 10%. The arrival of extracorporeal cardio pulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) offers hope in the event of refractory cardiac arrest in prehospital care. Extending ECPR programmes requires more scientific evidence, training and an evolution of the role of paramedics.

  18. Managing Evolution and Change in Web-Based Teaching and Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the design and maintenance of computer-based teaching and learning environments and illustrates consequences of evolution and change in Web-based courses. Focuses on changes in content; format of the course; infrastructure, including hardware, systems, and software; and pedagogy, or instructional design, including knowledge modeling,…

  19. Emergence and evolution of social self-management of Parkinson's disease: study protocol for a 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Thomas, Cathi A; Habermann, Barbara; Martinez, Linda S Sprague; Terrin, Norma; Noubary, Farzad; Naumova, Elena N

    2014-05-02

    Parkinson's disease affects facial, vocal and trunk muscles. As symptoms progress, facial expression becomes masked, limiting the person's ability to communicate emotions and intentions to others. As people with the disease live and reside in their homes longer, the burden of caregiving is unmitigated by social and emotional rewards provided by an expressive individual. Little is known about how adults living with Parkinson's disease manage their social lives and how an inability to be emotionally expressive can affect social connections and health. Because social networks have been shown to be crucial to the overall well-being of people living with chronic diseases, research is needed on how expressive capacity affects life trajectories and health. The overall objective is to understand the emergence and evolution of the trajectories of the self-management of the social lives of people living with Parkinson's disease. The central hypothesis is that expressive capacity predicts systematic change in the pattern of social self-management and quality of life outcomes. The specific aims of this 3-year longitudinal study of 120 people with the disease and a maximum of 120 care partners are: 1) characterize social self-management trajectories over a 3-year period; 2) estimate the degree to which expressive nonverbal capacity predicts the trajectory; and 3) determine the moderating effect of gender on the association between expressive capacity and change in social self-management. Each participant will be assessed 14 times to detect rapid and non-linear changes in social participation and management of social activities; social network; and social comfort, general health and well-being. This project will provide evidence to guide the development of interventions for supporting social integration of those living with Parkinson's disease, thus leading to improved overall health. It focuses on the novel construct of social self-management and known factors

  20. [Emergency response management near the tracks of the public railway network: special aspects of missions connected with the German national railway system].

    PubMed

    Krämer, P; Aul, A; Vock, B; Frank, C

    2010-11-01

    Emergency response management and rescue operations concerning the railway network in Germany need special attention and implementation in several ways. The emergency response concerning the German national railway network managed by Deutsche Bahn AG is subject to various rules and regulations which have to be followed precisely. Only by following these rules and procedures is the safety of all emergency staff at the scene ensured. The German national railway network (Deutsche Bahn AG) provides its own emergency response control center, which specializes in managing its response to emergencies and dispatches an emergency response manager to the scene. This person serves as the primary Deutsche Bahn AG representative at the scene and is the only person who is allowed to earth the railway electrical power lines. This article will discuss different emergency situations concerning railway accidents and the emergency medical response to them based on a near collision with a high speed train during a rescue mission close to the railway track. Injury to personnel could only be avoided by chance and luck. The dangers and risks for rescue staff are specified. Furthermore, the article details practical guidelines for rescue operations around the German national railway track system.

  1. From Civil Protection Plan to Disaster Management. PETer evolution from GIS tool to multi-area Emergency Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Sterlacchini, Simone; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Glade, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    PETer (Protection and Emergency of the Territory) has been developed since 2006 as a tool to manage all the information available to perform a wide range of Civil Protection activities. Based on MapObjects spatial support, it was relied on capacity to manage data from different sources and at different scale, offering practical GIS-tools for a technical and practical use during crisis state. At the first stages of the development, after different assessment, critical on-field analysis and a direct proof on test area, the approach came into sight like a valid database management for the entire dataset, but quite static, not full-blown for every emergency necessity, too complicate and not enough user-friendly, considering people in charge during emergency management, the quick change of state with many parameters involved and also uncertainty, hesitation, confusion or general panic among decision makers. As a second step of research, a more down-to-earth methodology targeted to cope with the aftermath of critical events is presented here. It takes advantage of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Decision Support Systems (DSS), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to prepare, apply and coordinate Civil Protection plans. The main aim was to set up and manage contingency plans in advance; that is, to identify and prepare people in charge to take action to define the activities to be performed, to be aware of available resources and to optimize the communication system among the people involved, in order to efficiently face a prospective crisis phase. A disaster preparedness plan should anticipate the demands for a disaster relief operation and indicate the most effective way of joining those requirements. Through scientific and technical co-operation between public and private research groups, a new platform was planned and set up, in order to test the aims of the project. The application was based on a cooperative organizational structure by which

  2. Software Acquisition: Evolution, Total Quality Management, and Applications to the Army Tactical Missile System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    presents the concept of software Total Quality Management (TQM) which focuses on the entire process of software acquisition, as a partial solution to...software TQM can be applied to software acquisition. Software Development, Software Acquisition, Total Quality management (TQM), Army Tactical Missile

  3. Next Waves in the Evolution of Management Education: Non-Traded Enterprises and Spatial Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The last generation in management education identified and addressed two perceived gaps in standard degree curricula: global business and corporate ethics. The Association for Advancement of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has been instrumental in assuring these topics receive due attention. Given the current state of management education…

  4. Practice status of specialized agencies for occupational health management of small- to medium-size enterprises and the factors improving their performance: a cross-sectional survey study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saerom; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Eun-A; Eom, Huisu; Choi, Bowha; Kang, Young Joong

    2017-01-01

    We examined the current status of specialized agencies for occupational health management (SAs) and their workforce. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the current practice status of SA healthcare professionals and factors that influence their performance. To examine the current SA workforce, we analyzed data from the 2014 Survey of Current Status of SA and their Workforce from the Ministry of Employment and Labor (MOEL). Furthermore, we mailed out an original questionnaire to SA professionals to determine their current health management status and factors that affect their performance. Data from the respondents (N = 384) were analyzed. In 2014, the workforce performing health management in SAs comprised 232 physicians, 507 nurses, and 312 occupational hygienists, with no significant regional differences in the distribution of physicians and nurses. According to the findings of the questionnaire, the average daily number of worker consultations by physicians and nurses was 22.8, while the average time taken for health management ranged from 74.3 to 104.3 min, depending on the size of the firm. Most of the respondents (41.5%) answered that they were following-up on more than 80% of individuals with illnesses. Among health management tasks, performance scores of "consultations for general diseases" and "consultations for lifestyle habits" were relatively high, whereas health promotion activities at workplaces were relatively low. There was a significant correlation between the utilization of general and special health examination results and task performance. Among health management tasks, follow-up management of individuals with illnesses and consultations for disease/lifestyle habits were relatively well performed, whereas health promotion activities at workplaces were not performed well. Among factors that positively influenced SA performance at workplaces, only the utilization of health examination results had significant effects. Therefore, to accomplish

  5. The evolution of pain management in the critically ill trauma patient: Emerging concepts from the global war on terrorism.

    PubMed

    Malchow, Randall J; Black, Ian H

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of military medical care to manage polytrauma, critically ill-wounded warriors from the greater war on terrorism has been accompanied by significant changes in the diagnosis, management, and modulation of acute and chronic trauma-related pain. A paradigm shift in pain management includes early treatment of pain at the point of injury and throughout the continuum of care with a combination of standard and novel therapeutic interventions. These concepts are important for all critical care providers because they translate to most critically ill patients, including those resulting from natural disasters. Previous authors have reported a high incidence of moderate to severe pain and poor analgesia in intensive care units associated with sleep disturbances, tachycardia, pulmonary complications, increased stress response with thromboembolic incidents, and immunosuppression, increased intensive care unit and hospital stays, and needless suffering. Although opioids have traditionally been the cornerstone of acute pain management, they have potential negative effects ranging from sedation, confusion, respiratory depression, nausea, ileus, constipation, tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia as well as potential for immunosuppression. Alternatively, multimodal therapy is increasingly recognized as a critical pain management approach, especially when combined with early nutrition and ambulation, designed to improve functional recovery and decrease chronic pain conditions. Multimodal therapy encompasses a wide range of procedures and medications, including regional analgesia with continuous epidural or peripheral nerve block infusions, judicious opioids, acetaminophen, anti-inflammatory agents, anticonvulsants, ketamine, clonidine, mexiletine, antidepressants, and anxiolytics as options to treat or modulate pain at various sites of action. With a more aggressive acute pain management strategy, the military has decreased acute and chronic pain conditions, which may

  6. Online Learning: Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This special section includes "The View from the Middle" (Dick Schaaf); "Crossing the Channel" (Dawn Garrett); and "Bandwidth Basics" (Dick Schaaf). Sidebars look at bandwidth and management issues as well as courseware development. (JOW)

  7. Special Libraries Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    In "How Special Libraries Use Networks," a paper presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, David R. Bender (United States) advocates cooperation among academic, public, school, and special libraries in the areas of information management, staff services, and acquisition of technology. He…

  8. Handbook of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M., Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.

    Intended to serve as a basic reference work for students and professionals in special education, the book contains 34 author contributed chapters concerned with the conceptual foundations of special education, service delivery systems, curriculum and methods, and child and child/environmental management. Chapters have the following titles and…

  9. Handbook of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M., Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.

    Intended to serve as a basic reference work for students and professionals in special education, the book contains 34 author contributed chapters concerned with the conceptual foundations of special education, service delivery systems, curriculum and methods, and child and child/environmental management. Chapters have the following titles and…

  10. Evolution of the treatment of splenic injuries: from surgery to non-operative management.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Patrizio; Anduaga Peña, María Fernanda; Servide Staffolani, María José; Brathwaite, Collin; Axelrad, Alexander; Ceballos Esparragón, José

    2017-08-02

    The spleen is one of the most frequently injured organs in blunt abdominal trauma. In the past decades, the treatment of patients with blunt splenic injury has shifted from operative to non-operative management. The knowledge of physiology and immunology of the spleen have been the main reasons to develop techniques for splenic salvage. The advances in high-resolution imaging techniques, as well as less invasive procedures, including angiography and angioembolization, have allowed a higher rate of success in the non-operative management. Non-operative management has showed a decrease in overall mortality and morbidity. The aim of this article is to analyze the current management of splenic injury based on a literature review of the last 30 years, from we have identified 63,205 patients. This would enable the surgeons to provide the best care possible in every case. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Special Deveice as Aids in the Management of Child Self-Mutilation in the Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letts, R. M.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    1975-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team at a hospital special devices clinic designed multiple use wheelchair and car seats with unique tabletop or arm enclosures for two educable mentally retarded brothers (11 and 14-years-old) afflicted with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, a purine metabolic disorder characterized by an insatiable urge for self-mutilation. (LH)

  12. Promoting Preservation Awareness in Libraries: A Sourcebook for Academic, Public, School, and Special Collections. The Greenwood Library Management Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewes, Jeanne M., Ed.; Page, Julie A., Ed.

    This reference book explains how to create, implement, and evaluate formal and informal preservation education programs in school, public, academic, and special collections. It's seven chapters include 43 papers by contributors from a wide range of positions in librarianship and academia. Chapter 1, "Preservation Issues and the Community of…

  13. Special Deveice as Aids in the Management of Child Self-Mutilation in the Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letts, R. M.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    1975-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team at a hospital special devices clinic designed multiple use wheelchair and car seats with unique tabletop or arm enclosures for two educable mentally retarded brothers (11 and 14-years-old) afflicted with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, a purine metabolic disorder characterized by an insatiable urge for self-mutilation. (LH)

  14. [Airway management in intensive care units in Rhineland-Palatinate : Evolution over five years].

    PubMed

    Piepho, T; Härer, T; Ellermann, L; Noppens, R R

    2017-05-01

    Securing the airway in severely ill patients is associated with a high rate of complications. So far, no information exists about the equipment readily available for airway management in German intensive care units (ICUs). It is also unknown if the range of material has improved over time. In the present trial the availability of equipment for airway management in ICUs in Rhineland-Palatinate was evaluated at two different times. Using a structured questionnaire, all ICUs in the state were contacted in the years 2010 and 2015. The availability of different types of equipment for airway management, as well as the presence of a training program for airway management, was evaluated. For 2010 data from 64 ICUs were evaluated and for 2015 data sets from 63 ICUs were collected. In 2010 indirect laryngoscopes were available in eight ICUs; in 2015 these devices were directly accessible in 43 units (p < 0.0001). Extraglottic devices were available in all but one ICU in 2010 and all ICUs in 2015. Equipment for emergency surgical airway procedures was available in nearly every ICU (n = 60). The availability of capnography increased significantly from 2010 (n = 12) to 2015 (n = 56; p < 0.0001). In 2010 and 2015, frequent training with a focus on airway management was performed in 23 and 32 units, respectively (p > 0.05). Most ICUs in Rhineland-Palatinate have a broad range of equipment for airway management available, and the range has significantly improved over the time period evaluated. The availability of indirect laryngoscopes and capnometers improved significantly. However, it is remarkable that in some ICU's there is still a lack of equipment for advanced airway management.

  15. Carbon associated with clay and fine silt as an indicator for SOC evolution under different residue management regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Van Oost, Kristof; Roisin, Christian; Van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    Estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration or loss can be biased by large uncertainties deriving from temporal and spatial variability of organic carbon concentrations, even at the field level. In order to reduce these uncertainties, we used the organic carbon associated with clay and fine silt particles (stable carbon, slow pool) as an indicator for carbon changes rather than SOC in bulk soil for assessing decadal changes. We used an on-going long-term experiment in the Hesbay region in Belgium, started in 1959, with 3 contrasting management practices (3 x 6 replicates): Residue Export (RE), Farmyard manure application (FYM) and Residue Restitution (RR). After 42 years, there are no significant differences in bulk soil organic carbon concentrations between treatments (RE=9.2 gC.kg-1soil; FYM=10.4 gC.kg-1soil; RR=10.1 gC.kg-1soil). In contrast, there are significant differences (p<0.05) in stable carbon between treatments over the same time period. Moreover, we can be 99% confident that stable carbon increased between 1970 and 2012 in FYM (+19%) and RR plots (+14%). There was no significant change of stable carbon in RE plots over the same period. In 1970, no differences in stable carbon concentration were detected between management practices. Labile carbon (carbon non-associated with clay and fine silt particles) did not change significantly from 1970 to 2012 but its variability increased for plots under management. We used the Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC-26.3) to explain how sensitive and slow pools react under different management practices. For bulk soil, observed trends in SOC stocks are in line with the ones predicted. Modelled SOC stocks changes from 1962 to 2012 are -14% (RE) and +10% (FYM). We also used RothC-26.3 to understand the evolution of the sensitive and slow fractions over time. We found that RothC was not capable to simulate the interannual variability of observed SOC stocks. On the other hand, slow RothC pools are useful to

  16. Rational design of antibiotic treatment plans: a treatment strategy for managing evolution and reversing resistance.

    PubMed

    Mira, Portia M; Crona, Kristina; Greene, Devin; Meza, Juan C; Sturmfels, Bernd; Barlow, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The development of reliable methods for restoring susceptibility after antibiotic resistance arises has proven elusive. A greater understanding of the relationship between antibiotic administration and the evolution of resistance is key to overcoming this challenge. Here we present a data-driven mathematical approach for developing antibiotic treatment plans that can reverse the evolution of antibiotic resistance determinants. We have generated adaptive landscapes for 16 genotypes of the TEM β-lactamase that vary from the wild type genotype "TEM-1" through all combinations of four amino acid substitutions. We determined the growth rate of each genotype when treated with each of 15 β-lactam antibiotics. By using growth rates as a measure of fitness, we computed the probability of each amino acid substitution in each β-lactam treatment using two different models named the Correlated Probability Model (CPM) and the Equal Probability Model (EPM). We then performed an exhaustive search through the 15 treatments for substitution paths leading from each of the 16 genotypes back to the wild type TEM-1. We identified optimized treatment paths that returned the highest probabilities of selecting for reversions of amino acid substitutions and returning TEM to the wild type state. For the CPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.6 and 1.0. For the EPM model, the optimized probabilities ranged between 0.38 and 1.0. For cyclical CPM treatment plans in which the starting and ending genotype was the wild type, the probabilities were between 0.62 and 0.7. Overall this study shows that there is promise for reversing the evolution of resistance through antibiotic treatment plans.

  17. The Evolution of Public Health Emergency Management as a Field of Practice

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Shivani; Brooks, Jennifer; Bryant, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    The health impacts of recent global infectious disease outbreaks and other disasters have demonstrated the importance of strengthening public health systems to better protect communities from naturally occurring and human-caused threats. Public health emergency management (PHEM) is an emergent field of practice that draws on specific sets of knowledge, techniques, and organizing principles necessary for the effective management of complex health events. We highlight how the nascent field of PHEM has evolved in recent years. We explore this development by first examining multiple sites of intersection between the fields of public health and emergency management. We then analyze 2 of the principal pillars on which PHEM was built: organizational and programmatic (i.e., industry) standards and the incident management system. This is followed by a sketch of the key domains, or functional areas, of PHEM and their application to the emergency management cycle. We conclude with some observations about PHEM in a global context and discuss how the field might continue to evolve. PMID:28892444

  18. Environmental, health, and safety management systems and auditing programs: part I--The evolution.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Patricia B

    2003-04-01

    Early auditing began as an effort to avoid fines or other action from governmental agencies, without being based on accepted standards. However, for EHS auditing to be accepted as credible in the business world, established standards were necessary. As companies expanded globally, the need for international EHS standards grew, international standards for quality management and environmental program management have now been universally accepted (ISO, 2002). Occupational health nurses increasingly are becoming involved in efforts to help their employers or clients develop management systems to handle EHS issues--whether ISO 9000 (or the automotive equivalent, QS-9000), ISO 14000, or other models are used as the basis for the management system. Many nurses are actively involved in ISO certification efforts. As an extension of those efforts, occupational health nurses are increasingly involved in EHS audits, whether audits are conducted by third parties, by company employees, or as part of a self audit. The next column in this series will focus on strategies to improve the management of occupational health programs so the programs will stand up to rigorous EHS audits.

  19. The Evolution of Public Health Emergency Management as a Field of Practice.

    PubMed

    Rose, Dale A; Murthy, Shivani; Brooks, Jennifer; Bryant, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    The health impacts of recent global infectious disease outbreaks and other disasters have demonstrated the importance of strengthening public health systems to better protect communities from naturally occurring and human-caused threats. Public health emergency management (PHEM) is an emergent field of practice that draws on specific sets of knowledge, techniques, and organizing principles necessary for the effective management of complex health events. We highlight how the nascent field of PHEM has evolved in recent years. We explore this development by first examining multiple sites of intersection between the fields of public health and emergency management. We then analyze 2 of the principal pillars on which PHEM was built: organizational and programmatic (i.e., industry) standards and the incident management system. This is followed by a sketch of the key domains, or functional areas, of PHEM and their application to the emergency management cycle. We conclude with some observations about PHEM in a global context and discuss how the field might continue to evolve.

  20. Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning.

    PubMed

    Berkes, Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Over a period of some 20 years, different aspects of co-management (the sharing of power and responsibility between the government and local resource users) have come to the forefront. The paper focuses on a selection of these: knowledge generation, bridging organizations, social learning, and the emergence of adaptive co-management. Co-management can be considered a knowledge partnership. Different levels of organization, from local to international, have comparative advantages in the generation and mobilization of knowledge acquired at different scales. Bridging organizations provide a forum for the interaction of these different kinds of knowledge, and the coordination of other tasks that enable co-operation: accessing resources, bringing together different actors, building trust, resolving conflict, and networking. Social learning is one of these tasks, essential both for the co-operation of partners and an outcome of the co-operation of partners. It occurs most efficiently through joint problem solving and reflection within learning networks. Through successive rounds of learning and problem solving, learning networks can incorporate new knowledge to deal with problems at increasingly larger scales, with the result that maturing co-management arrangements become adaptive co-management in time.

  1. Evolution of Information Management at the GSFC Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC): 2006-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempler, Steven; Lynnes, Christopher; Vollmer, Bruce; Alcott, Gary; Berrick, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly sophisticated National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth science missions have driven their associated data and data management systems from providing simple point-to-point archiving and retrieval to performing user-responsive distributed multisensor information extraction. To fully maximize the use of remote-sensor-generated Earth science data, NASA recognized the need for data systems that provide data access and manipulation capabilities responsive to research brought forth by advancing scientific analysis and the need to maximize the use and usability of the data. The decision by NASA to purposely evolve the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) and other information management facilities was timely and appropriate. The GES DISC evolution was focused on replacing the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) by reusing the In-house developed disk-based Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Product Archive (S4PA) data management system and migrating data to the disk archives. Transition was completed in December 2007

  2. 17 CFR 210.3-18 - Special provisions as to registered management investment companies and companies required to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... registered management investment companies and companies required to be registered as management investment companies. 210.3-18 Section 210.3-18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY...

  3. 17 CFR 210.3-18 - Special provisions as to registered management investment companies and companies required to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... registered management investment companies and companies required to be registered as management investment companies. 210.3-18 Section 210.3-18 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY...

  4. 17 CFR 210.3-18 - Special provisions as to registered management investment companies and companies required to be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 General Instructions As to... registered management investment companies and companies required to be registered as management...

  5. Good practices in health care "management experimentation models": insights from an international public-private partnership on transplantation and advanced specialized therapies.

    PubMed

    Longo, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The research analyzes good practices in health care "management experimentation models," which fall within the broader range of the integrative public-private partnerships (PPPs). Introduced by the Italian National Healthcare System in 1991, the "management experimentation models" are based on a public governance system mixed with a private management approach, a patient-centric orientation, a shared financial risk, and payment mechanisms correlated with clinical outcomes, quality, and cost-savings. This model makes public hospitals more competitive and efficient without affecting the principles of universal coverage, solidarity, and equity of access, but requires higher financial responsibility for managers and more flexibility in operations. In Italy the experience of such experimental models is limited but successful. The study adopts the case study methodology and refers to the international collaboration started in 1997 between two Italian hospitals and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC - Pennsylvania, USA) in the field of organ transplants and biomedical advanced therapies. The research allows identifying what constitutes good management practices and factors associated with higher clinical performance. Thus, it allows to understand whether and how the management experimentation model can be implemented on a broader basis, both nationwide and internationally. However, the implementation of integrative PPPs requires strategic, cultural, and managerial changes in the way in which a hospital operates; these transformations are not always sustainable. The recognition of ISMETT's good management practices is useful for competitive benchmarking among hospitals specialized in organ transplants and for its insights on the strategies concerning the governance reorganization in the hospital setting. Findings can be used in the future for analyzing the cross-country differences in productivity among well-managed public hospitals.

  6. Adhesive small bowel adhesions obstruction: Evolutions in diagnosis, management and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Catena, Fausto; Di Saverio, Salomone; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; De Simone, Belinda; Sartelli, Massimo; Van Goor, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal adhesions following abdominal surgery represent a major unsolved problem. They are the first cause of small bowel obstruction. Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation, water-soluble contrast follow-through and computed tomography scan. For patients presenting no signs of strangulation, peritonitis or severe intestinal impairment there is good evidence to support non-operative management. Open surgery is the preferred method for the surgical treatment of adhesive small bowel obstruction, in case of suspected strangulation or after failed conservative management, but laparoscopy is gaining widespread acceptance especially in selected group of patients. "Good" surgical technique and anti-adhesive barriers are the main current concepts of adhesion prevention. We discuss current knowledge in modern diagnosis and evolving strategies for management and prevention that are leading to stratified care for patients. PMID:27022449

  7. French PWRs: In-core fuel management evolution and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Rome, M. ); LeBars, M. )

    1993-01-01

    French pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel management has been carried out until now with the objective of cycle cost reduction. This paper presents the feasibility study of an 18 month cycle for 1300-MW PWRs, three-batch fuel management with 4.00% enrichment, performed by EdF in 1992; the qualifications of core calculation methodology with gadolinia integrated burnable neutron absorbers through the Gedeon critical experiment carried out in the Melusine reactor in Grenoble; and the progress in core calculational methods, which were carried out to determine core safety with the increase in cycle length to 18 months.

  8. Convergence and dissonance: evolution in private-sector approaches to disease management and care coordination.

    PubMed

    Mays, Glen P; Au, Melanie; Claxton, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Disease management (DM) approaches survived the 1990s backlash against managed care because of their potential for consumer-friendly cost containment, but purchasers have been cautious about investing heavily in them because of uncertainty about return on investment. This study examines how private-sector approaches to DM have evolved over the past two years in the midst of the movement toward consumer-driven health care. Findings indicate that these programs have become standard features of health plan design, despite a thin evidence base concerning their effectiveness. Uncertainties remain regarding how well these programs will function within benefit designs that require higher consumer cost sharing.

  9. Specializing architectures for the type 2 diabetes mellitus care use cases with a focus on process management.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Gustavo A; Blobel, Bernd; López, Diego M; Ruiz, Alonso A

    2015-01-01

    The development of software supporting inter-disciplinary systems like the type 2 diabetes mellitus care requires the deployment of methodologies designed for this type of interoperability. The GCM framework allows the architectural description of such systems and the development of software solutions based on it. A first step of the GCM methodology is the definition of a generic architecture, followed by its specialization for specific use cases. This paper describes the specialization of the generic architecture of a system, supporting Type 2 diabetes mellitus glycemic control, for a pharmacotherapy use case. It focuses on the behavioral aspect of the system, i.e. the policy domain and the definition of the rules governing the system. The design of this architecture reflects the inter-disciplinary feature of the methodology. Finally, the resulting architecture allows building adaptive, intelligent and complete systems.

  10. Federal Funding for Students with Disabilities: The Evolution of Federal Special Education Finance in the United States. New America Education Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 6.5 million students in the United States ages 3 through 21 are currently classified as requiring special education. Those students have physical, developmental, and emotional disabilities that make educational endeavors more challenging for teachers, administrators, and the students themselves. Yet historically, the needs of special…

  11. Organizational Learning, Change Process, and Evolution of Management Systems: Empirical Evidence from the Basque Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aramburu, Nekane; Saenz, Josune; Rivera, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between the organizational learning capacity of manufacturing companies in the Spanish Basque Region and their management systems. Design/methodology/approach: To this end, an ad hoc questionnaire was devised and addressed to the Chief Executive Officers of a representative…

  12. The evolution of Rare Pride: using evaluation to drive adaptive management in a biodiversity conservation organization.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Brett; Vaughan, Peter W; Butler, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Rare Pride is a social marketing program that stimulates human behavior change in order to promote biodiversity conservation in critically threatened regions in developing countries. A series of formal evaluation studies, networking strategies, and evaluative inquiries have driven a 20-year process of adaptive management that has resulted in extensive programmatic changes within Pride. This paper describes the types of evaluation that Rare used to drive adaptive management and the changes it caused in Pride's theory-of-change and programmatic structure. We argue that (a) qualitative data gathered from partners and staff through structured interviews is most effective at identifying problems with current programs and procedures, (b) networking with other organizations is the most effective strategy for learning of new management strategies, and (c) quantitative data gathered through surveys is effective at measuring program impact and quality. Adaptive management has allowed Rare to increase its Pride program from implementing about two campaigns per year in 2001 to more than 40 per year in 2009 while improving program quality and maintaining program impact.

  13. Organizational Learning, Change Process, and Evolution of Management Systems: Empirical Evidence from the Basque Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aramburu, Nekane; Saenz, Josune; Rivera, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between the organizational learning capacity of manufacturing companies in the Spanish Basque Region and their management systems. Design/methodology/approach: To this end, an ad hoc questionnaire was devised and addressed to the Chief Executive Officers of a representative…

  14. Implementation and evolution of a regional chronic disease self-management program.

    PubMed

    Liddy, Clare; Johnston, Sharon; Nash, Kate; Irving, Hannah; Davidson, Rachel

    2016-08-15

    To establish a comprehensive, community-based program to improve and sustain self-management support for individuals with chronic diseases and complement office-based strategies to support behaviour change. Health service delivery organizations. The Champlain Local Health Integration Network (LHIN), a health district in Eastern Ontario. We created Living Healthy Champlain (LHC), a regional organization providing peer leader training and coordination for the group Stanford Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP); skills training and mentorship in behaviour change approaches for health care providers; and support to organizations to integrate self-management support into routine practice. We used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the overall program's impact by exploring its reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance. A total of 232 Stanford CDSMP sessions (63 during the pilot project and 169 post-pilot) have been held at 127 locations in 24 cities across the Champlain LHIN, reaching approximately 4,000 patients. The effectiveness of the service was established through ongoing evidence reviews, a focus group and a pre-post utilization study of the pilot. LHC trained over 300 peer volunteers to provide the Stanford CDSMP sessions, 98 of whom continue to activelyhost workshops. An additional 1,327 providers have been trained in other models of self-management support, such as Health Coaching and Motivational Interviewing. Over the study period, LHC grew from a small pilot project to a regional initiative with sustainable provincial funding and was adopted by the province as a model for similar service delivery across Ontario. A community-based self-management program working in partnership with primary care can be effectively and broadly implemented in support of patients living with chronic conditions.

  15. Special Analysis of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management

    2012-09-30

    This report describes the methods and results of a special analysis (SA) of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The purpose of the SA is to determine if the approved performance assessment (PA) and composite analysis (CA) (Shott et al., 2001) remain valid. The Area 3 RWMS PA and CA were prepared as a single document and received conditional approval on October 6, 1999. A conditional Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) for the Area 3 RWMS was issued on October 20, 1999. Since preparation of the approved PA and CA, new information and additional environmental monitoring data have been used to update the PA and CA. At the same time, continual advancements in computer processors and software have allowed improvement to the PA and CA models. Annual reviews of the PA and CA required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 435.1 have documented multiple changes occurring since preparation of the PA and CA. Potentially important changes include: Development of a new and improved baseline PA and CA model implemented in the probabilistic GoldSim simulation platform. A significant increase in the waste inventory disposed at the site. Revision and updating of model parameters based on additional years of site monitoring data and new research and development results. Although changes have occurred, many important PA/CA issues remain unchanged, including the site conceptual model, important features, events, and processes, and the points of compliance. The SA is performed to document the current status of the PA/CA model and to quantitatively assess the impact of cumulative changes on the PA and CA results. The results of the SA are used to assess the validity of the approved PA/CA and make a determination if revision of the PA or CA is necessary. The SA was performed using the Area 3 RWMS, version 2.102, GoldSim model, the current baseline PA/CA model. Comparison of the maximum SA results with the PA

  16. Advancing knowledge for proactive drought planning and enhancing adaptive management for drought on rangelands: Introduction to a special issue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought is a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall that adversely affects vegetation growth and negatively impacts land managers, ranching enterprises, and pastoral systems. As an ecological driver, drought historically shaped vegetation composition, structure, diversity, and productivity of r...

  17. Some Considerations in the Education and Management of the Child with Prader-Willi Syndrome in the Special Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupi, Marsha H.; Porcella, John E.

    1987-01-01

    The paper summarizes characteristics of the child with Prader-Willi Syndrome (characterized by insatiable appetite and usually mild to moderate mental retardation). Suggestions are offered for the environmental and behavioral management of the Prader Willi student. (DB)

  18. Case management and long-term conditions: the evolution of community matrons.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Allison

    2014-07-01

    It is now 10 years since the NHS Improvement Plan described a new clinical role for nurses and introduced the concept of community matrons for long-term conditions. This included conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, dementia, neurological conditions, heart failure, stroke and people with long and enduring mental illness. Despite initial concerns and scepticism about the role, community matrons continue to work with people to provide advanced clinical nursing care, often within a case-management model. Community matrons have continued to shape and develop this role around the main aims of preventing unnecessary emergency admissions, improving quality of life and outcomes for patients, and coordinating all elements of care. This article reviews the evidence, implementation and evolvement of case management within the role of the community matron.

  19. Management of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after bariatric surgery: evolution and microvascular complications.

    PubMed

    Chuah, L L; le Roux, Carel W

    2013-03-01

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly seen as a treatment option for patient with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and severe complex obesity (SCO). There is however no consensus on how to manage this cohort preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients with T2DM having cardiac surgery benefit from glycaemic optimisation prior to surgery. National Health Service Diabetes in the United Kingdom recommends that glucose is optimised prior to all elective surgery. However, bariatric surgery such as gastric bypass (RYGB) is distinct from general surgery. Glycaemic control improves immediately after RYGB and thus all T2DM patients need a review of their glucose lowering medications postoperatively. Preoperatively most bariatric centres use a low calorie diet (LCD) which improved glycaemic control and may predisposed patients using insulin or sulphonylureas to risks of hypoglycaemia. There are no protocols and consensus among bariatric centres on how best to manage patients with T2DM preoperatively and postoperatively. Moreover patients with difficult to control T2DM are at risk of microvascular complications of diabetes. So far, there is little evidence on the impact of bariatric surgery on diabetes nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy. In conclusion, bariatric surgery improves glycaemic control; however, there are limited studies, and no guidelines on how to manage patients with T2DM pre and postoperatively. Given the increasing proportion of T2DM patients referred for bariatric surgery, there is a need to review current practice on how to manage these patients in the short term and long term with a specific focus on improving end organ damage such as retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.

  20. The Evolution of Military Officer Personnel Management Policies: A Preliminary Study with Parallels from Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    retirement. As a consequence , off icers literally served until they died in the saddle. The starkest effect of this lack of policy is revealed by...businessmen in many industries began to consider the possibility of duplicating in their own industries the pattern of Standard Oil , American Sugar...larger firms , the yearly input does appear to be on a year-group basis. We know that General Electric has a company-run management institute; in the oil

  1. High seas to high explosives: the evolution of calcaneus fracture management in the military.

    PubMed

    Balazs, George C; Polfer, Elizabeth M; Brelin, Alaina M; Gordon, Wade T

    2014-11-01

    Calcaneus fractures typically occur as a consequence of axial load. In the civilian population, this is most often because of motor vehicle accidents or falls from height. Early management of these injuries in the military population largely mirrored that of civilian surgeons. However, calcaneus fractures secondary to underfoot blasts became a significant source of morbidity and mortality in World War II. First described in the aftermath of large-scale naval battles between metal-deck ships, this "deck-slap" phenomenon is associated with high rates of concomitant injuries, infection, and amputation. We review the historical and contemporary management of calcaneus fractures by military orthopedic surgeons, as well as detailing the unique challenges faced in managing the soft-tissue component and associated injuries commonly observed in this population. Combat-related calcaneus fractures are associated with very high rates of concomitant injuries and extensive soft-tissue wounds. Despite significant research and technological advances, functional outcomes following these devastating injuries have remained unsatisfying. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Forest Management and the Evolution of Project Design in Dynamic Wildland Urban Interface Fire Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee Ranger District on the Tahoe National Forest, in the heart of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, has a rich history of human activities. Native American influences, comstock-era logging, fire suppression, development, and recreation have all shaped the natural environment into what it is today. Like much of our national forests in California, forest conditions that have developed are generally much more homogenous and less resistant to disturbance from fire, insect, and disease than they might have been without the myriad of human influences. However, in order to improve the resiliency of our forests to stand replacing disturbances like high severity fire, while managing for integrated anthropomorphic values, it is imperative that management evolve to meet those dynamic needs. Recent advances in remote sensing and GIS allow land managers more access to forest information and can inform site specific prescriptions to change site specific undesirable conditions. It is ecologically and politically complex, yet our forests deserve that microscope. This particular presentation will focus on how the Truckee Ranger District began this process of incorporating several values, generated from stakeholder collaboration, into one project's goals and how those lessons learned informed their most recent project.

  3. Evolution of a web-based, prototype Personal Health Application for diabetes self-management.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Stephanie J; Kedziora, Richard J; Vigersky, Robert A; Bursell, Sven-Erik

    2010-10-01

    Behaviors carried out by the person with diabetes (e.g., healthy eating, physical activity, judicious use of medication, glucose monitoring, coping and problem-solving, regular clinic visits, etc.) are of central importance in diabetes management. To assist with these behaviors, we developed a prototype PHA for diabetes self-management that was based on User-Centered Design principles and congruent with the anticipatory vision of Project Health Design (PHD). This article presents aspects of the prototype PHA's functionality as conceived under PHD and describes modifications to the PHA now being undertaken under new sponsorship, in response to user feedback and timing tests we have performed. In brief, the prototype Personal Health Application (PHA) receives data on the major diabetes management domains from a Personal Health Record (PHR) and analyzes and provides feedback based on clinically vetted educational content. The information is presented within "gadgets" within a portal-based website. The PHR used for the first implementation was the Common Platform developed by PHD. Key changes include a re-conceptualization of the gadgets by topic areas originally defined by the American Association of Diabetes Educators, a refocusing on low-cost approaches to diabetes monitoring and data entry, and synchronization with a new PHR, Microsoft® HealthVault™. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Resource Management in Borderlands: Evolution from Competing Interests to Common Aversions

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Belec, John; Levy, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Great enthusiasm is attached to the emergence of cross-border regions (CBRs) as a new institutional arrangement for dealing with local cross-border environmental resource management and other issues that remain too distant from national capitals and/or too expensive to be addressed in the traditional topocratic manner requiring instead local adhocratic methods. This study briefly discusses the perceived value of CBRs and necessary and sufficient conditions for the successful and sustainable development of such places. Then, assuming that necessary conditions can be met, the study investigates an intriguing hypothesis concerning the catalyzing of sustainable consensus for cross-border resource management based on a game theoretical approach that employs the use of dilemma of common aversion rather than the more traditional dilemma of competing common interests. Using this lens to investigate a series of events on the Pacific northwestern Canadian-American border in a part of the Fraser Lowland, we look for evidence of the emergence of an active and sustainable CBR to address local trans-border resource management issues. Although our micro-level scale fails to conclusively demonstrate such evidence, it does demonstrate the value of using this approach and suggests a number of avenues for further research. PMID:26154660

  5. Environmental Resource Management in Borderlands: Evolution from Competing Interests to Common Aversions.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Belec, John; Levy, Jason

    2015-07-06

    Great enthusiasm is attached to the emergence of cross-border regions (CBRs) as a new institutional arrangement for dealing with local cross-border environmental resource management and other issues that remain too distant from national capitals and/or too expensive to be addressed in the traditional topocratic manner requiring instead local adhocratic methods. This study briefly discusses the perceived value of CBRs and necessary and sufficient conditions for the successful and sustainable development of such places. Then, assuming that necessary conditions can be met, the study investigates an intriguing hypothesis concerning the catalyzing of sustainable consensus for cross-border resource management based on a game theoretical approach that employs the use of dilemma of common aversion rather than the more traditional dilemma of competing common interests. Using this lens to investigate a series of events on the Pacific northwestern Canadian-American border in a part of the Fraser Lowland, we look for evidence of the emergence of an active and sustainable CBR to address local trans-border resource management issues. Although our micro-level scale fails to conclusively demonstrate such evidence, it does demonstrate the value of using this approach and suggests a number of avenues for further research.

  6. The Evolution of Wildland Fire Management Policy in the USA: Successes and Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Caban, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires have been suppressed over the last 100 years in forest and brush landscapes. For the last three decades, fires occurrence and severity have significantly increased when compared to historical levels causing economic damage and suppression costs never experienced before in the US or globally. As the wildland fire problem evolved so did the public response through a wildland fire management policy guided by the Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management understanding of the problem. Globally it is estimated that more 350 million hectares of wildland burn annually. They oxidize approximately 3-8% of the total terrestrial net primary productivity. The economic and physical relevance of wildland fire management and protection programs is ever growing, particularly considering mounting wildfire costs and losses globally. In the US alone, from 2000 to 2013 more than 37 million hectares of wildland has been affected at a cost of over $21 billion. The increase in siege-like fires can be explained in part by increasing population, particularly in the wildland-urban interface and the accumulation of biomass fuel due to over a century of fire exclusion. Recent developments demonstrate a strong relationship between fire and weather and climate variations. How the wildland fire management policy has evolved through time? The development can be divided in three stages: the formative years between 1905 and 1911; the consolidation years from 1911 through 1968; and the modern era from 1995 to present. Each stage is characterized by a series of significant events that caused changes on how the problem was approached. For example, the establishment of the Forest Service in 1905 and the rash of large wildfires in the western USA set the base for the wildfire suppression of all wildfires in 1911. During the second stage we see the 1935 policy of suppressing all wildfires by 10-am next-day. By 1968 the policy has evolved to include the use of prescribed burning and the

  7. Corneal foreign body management at a role 1 flight line aid station: risks, benefits, and implications for Special Operations medicine.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Christopher J; Enzenauer, Robert W; Wenkel, Jack W; Henke, Jessica L; Rohrbough, Christiana K; Miller, Stephanie L; Howerton, Paul H; Schreffler, James P

    2014-01-01

    Eye injuries are common in forward areas of operations. Definitive diagnosis and care may be limited not by provider skill but rather by available equipment. The ability to treat simple trauma such as corneal foreign bodies at the Role 1 level has advantages including rapid return to duty, decreased cost of treatment, and, most important, decreased risk of delayed care. We propose the device such as a hand-held portable slit lamp should be made available for appropriate Special Operations Medical Forces (SOFMED) or aviation providers.

  8. Evidence of a specialized feeding niche in a Late Triassic ray-finned fish: evolution of multidenticulate teeth and benthic scraping in † Hemicalypterus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Sarah Z.

    2015-04-01

    Fishes have evolved to exploit multiple ecological niches. Extant fishes in both marine (e.g., rabbitfishes, surgeonfishes) and freshwater systems (e.g., haplochromine cichlids, characiforms) have evolved specialized, scoop-like, multidenticulate teeth for benthic scraping, feeding primarily on algae. Here, I report evidence of the oldest example of specialized multidenticulate dentition in a ray-finned fish, † Hemicalypterus weiri, from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of southeastern Utah (˜210-205 Ma), USA. † H. weiri is a lower actinopterygian species that is phylogenetically remote from modern fishes, and has evolved specialized teeth that converge with those of several living teleost fishes (e.g., characiforms, cichlids, acanthurids, siganids), with a likely function of these teeth being to scrape algae off a rock substrate. This finding contradicts previously held notions that fishes with multicuspid, scoop-like dentition were restricted to teleosts, and indicates that ray-finned fishes were diversifying into different trophic niches and exploring different modes of feeding earlier in their history than previously thought, fundamentally altering our perceptions of the ecological roles of fishes during the Mesozoic.

  9. Evidence of a specialized feeding niche in a Late Triassic ray-finned fish: evolution of multidenticulate teeth and benthic scraping in †Hemicalypterus.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sarah Z

    2015-04-01

    Fishes have evolved to exploit multiple ecological niches. Extant fishes in both marine (e.g., rabbitfishes, surgeonfishes) and freshwater systems (e.g., haplochromine cichlids, characiforms) have evolved specialized, scoop-like, multidenticulate teeth for benthic scraping, feeding primarily on algae. Here, I report evidence of the oldest example of specialized multidenticulate dentition in a ray-finned fish, †Hemicalypterus weiri, from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of southeastern Utah (∼210-205 Ma), USA. †H. weiri is a lower actinopterygian species that is phylogenetically remote from modern fishes, and has evolved specialized teeth that converge with those of several living teleost fishes (e.g., characiforms, cichlids, acanthurids, siganids), with a likely function of these teeth being to scrape algae off a rock substrate. This finding contradicts previously held notions that fishes with multicuspid, scoop-like dentition were restricted to teleosts, and indicates that ray-finned fishes were diversifying into different trophic niches and exploring different modes of feeding earlier in their history than previously thought, fundamentally altering our perceptions of the ecological roles of fishes during the Mesozoic.

  10. American Muslim Undergraduates' Views on Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…

  11. American Muslim Undergraduates' Views on Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…

  12. MANAGING TROUBLED WATERS: THE EVOLUTION OF THE EMAP COASTAL MONITORING PROGRAM 2001 EMAP SYMPOSIUM, APRIL 24-27, PENSACOLA BEACH, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1990, Managing Troubled Waters concluded by stating three primary conclusions and then developing specific recommendations regarding their execution. Using the decade of the 90s, we examine the evolution of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's Coast...

  13. Advances in plant virus evolution: translating evolutionary insights into better disease management.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Leal, R; Duffy, S; Xiong, Z; Hammond, R W; Elena, S F

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies in plant virus evolution are revealing that genetic structure and behavior of virus and viroid populations can explain important pathogenic properties of these agents, such as host resistance breakdown, disease severity, and host shifting, among others. Genetic variation is essential for the survival of organisms. The exploration of how these subcellular parasites generate and maintain a certain frequency of mutations at the intra- and inter-host levels is revealing novel molecular virus-plant interactions. They emphasize the role of host environment in the dynamic genetic composition of virus populations. Functional genomics has identified host factors that are transcriptionally altered after virus infections. The analyses of these data by means of systems biology approaches are uncovering critical plant genes specifically targeted by viruses during host adaptation. Also, a next-generation resequencing approach of a whole virus genome is opening new avenues to study virus recombination and the relationships between intra-host virus composition and pathogenesis. Altogether, the analyzed data indicate that systematic disruption of some specific parameters of evolving virus populations could lead to more efficient ways of disease prevention, eradication, or tolerable virus-plant coexistence.

  14. Gynecomastia Management: An Evolution and Refinement in Technique at UT Southwestern Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Steven H.; Guenther, Dax; Constantine, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Gynecomastia is a benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue. Gynecomastia can affect men at any stage of life. Traditional treatment options involved excisional surgeries with periareolar or T-shaped scars, which can leave more visible scars on the chest. The technique presented represents a technique used by the senior author, which relies on ultrasonic liposuction and pull-through technique to remove breast tissue. A retrospective chart review was performed, including all patients who were treated, from 2000 to 2013 by the senior author, for gynecomastia. A deidentified database was created to record patient characteristics, including age, height, weight, ptosis, stage of gynecomastia, and gynecomastia classification. Surgical approaches, complications, and revisions were also recorded. Our experience includes 75 patients with all grades of gynecomastia from 2000 to 2013. These cases span the evolution of our technique to include direct pull-through excision with ultrasound-assisted liposuction. The distribution of the grades I, II, III, and IV ptosis was 30.6%, 36 %, 22.6%, and 10.6% respectively. There were no complications in this series. Only one patient with grade III ptosis required revision surgery. This technique provides a safe and aesthetically pleasing way to treat gynecomastia with a low need for revision. PMID:27482482

  15. From Revolution to Evolution: 21 Years of the IRIS Data Management Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. B.; Ahern, T. K.; Trabant, C. M.; Casey, R.

    2009-12-01

    A revolution is defined as a "drastic and far-reaching change in the way of thinking and behaving", and this describes the effect that the IRIS Data Management System (DMS) has had in the framework of seismological research. The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) prototype began operation at theUniversity of Texas at Austin in 1988 and has evolved to to a fully functioning facility at the University of Washington in Seattle. The focus of this submission is to share an historical timeline of events related to the DMC, a bit of scrap-booking perhaps, centered around the business of waveform data management conducted by IRIS and it's partners. We hope to illustrate how the successful philosophy of sharing unrestricted data, openly collaborating with a global network of networks, and partnering with computer and software industry vendors that have supported our community's academic research, has enabled generations of seismologists to both curate and continually "mine" the ever-growing 45 years of digital data currently stored in the perpetual archive located in Seattle, WA. At the time that the Loma Prieta Earthquake shook and burned San Francisco on October 17, 1989, there were only 3 stations which had dial-up modems enabling what then was considered "fast access" to waveform data delivery from them back to the DMC. This was considered the first test of the DMC, since waveform data were collected and distributed within days of this event. But this was only a foretelling of things to come, since the rates of archiving and distribution have continually grown to a current 1900+ stations and a 17,000+ channel count of real-time data streaming in and out of the DMC daily, totaling 50 Terabytes of data shipped in 2009 alone. We will attempt to summarize the important technological challenges, solutions, and growth of the DMC with the goal of illustrating that "if you build it, they will come", and how this could be useful to other organizations.

  16. Giant Intracranial Aneurysms: Evolution of Management in a Contemporary Surgical Series

    PubMed Central

    Sughrue, Michael E.; Saloner, David; Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Lawton, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many significant microsurgical series of patients with giant aneurysms predate changes in practice during the endovascular era. OBJECTIVE A contemporary surgical experience is presented to examine changes in management relative to earlier reports, to establish the role of open microsurgery in the management strategy, and to quantify results for comparison with evolving endovascular therapies. METHODS During a 13-year period, 140 patients with 141 giant aneurysms were treated surgically. 100 aneurysms (71%) were located in the anterior circulation, and 41 aneurysms were located in the posterior circulation. RESULTS 108 aneurysms (77%) were completely occluded, 14 aneurysms (10%) had minimal residual aneurysm, and 16 aneurysms (11%) were incompletely occluded with reversed or diminished flow. 3 patients with calcified aneurysms were coiled after unsuccessful clipping attempts. 18 patients died in the perioperative period (surgical mortality, 13%). Bypass-related complications resulted from bypass occlusion (7 patients), aneurysm hemorrhage due to incomplete aneurysm occlusion (4 patients), or aneurysm thrombosis with perforator or branch artery occlusion (4 patients). 13 patients were worse at late follow-up (permanent neurological morbidity, 9%; mean length of follow-up, 23±1.9 months). Overall, good outcomes (GOS 5 or 4) were observed in 114 patients (81%) and 109 patients (78%) were improved or unchanged after therapy. CONCLUSION A heavy reliance on bypass techniques plus indirect giant aneurysm occlusion distinguishes this contemporary surgical experience from earlier ones, and obviates the need for hypothermic circulatory arrest. Experienced neurosurgeons can achieve excellent results with surgery as the “first-line” management approach and endovascular techniques as adjuncts to surgery. PMID:21734614

  17. The Evolution of NSF Arctic Data Management: Challenges and Lessons Learned after Two Decades of Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. A.; Serreze, M. C.; Williams, S.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Middleton, D.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation has been providing data management support to the Arctic research community through the UCAR/NCAR since late 1995. Support began during the early planning phase of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) Project and continues today with a major collaboration involving the NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL), the NCAR Computational Information Systems Laboratory (CISL), the UCAR Unidata Program, and the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), in the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information System (ACADIS). These groups have managed thousands of datasets for hundreds of Principal Investigators. The datasets, including the metadata and documentation held in the archives vary in size from less than 30 kilobytes to tens of gigabytes and represent dozens of research disciplines. The ACADIS holdings alone include more than 50 scientific disciplines as defined by the NASA/GCMD keywords. The data formats vary from simple ASCII text to proprietary complex binary and imagery. A lot has changed in the way data are collected due to improved data collection technologies, real time processing and wide bandwidth communications. There have been some changes to data management best practices especially related to metadata, flexible formatting, DOIs, and interoperability with other archives to take advantage of new technologies, software and related support capabilities. ACADIS has spent more than 7 years working these issues and implementing an agile service approach. There are some very interesting challenges that we have been confronted with and overcome during the past 20 years. However, with all those improvements there are guiding principles for the data managers that are robust and remain important even after 20 years of experience. These include the provision of evolving standards and complete metadata records to describe each dataset, International data exchange and easy access to the archived data, and the inclusion of

  18. The History and Evolution of the Trauma Program Manager/Coordinator.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Amy; Walters, Madonna; DeBoer, Mican

    2016-01-01

    The role of the trauma program manager (TPM) has evolved since the early 1980s. Duties of TPM historically included broad responsibilities such as education, data collection, system, EMS, clinical activities, research, and quality assurance. The purpose of this study was to use survey sampling to evaluate self-perceived functions and scope of work of TPMs in the United States. Results show that TPMs from higher volume centers spend more time on program administration duties whereas TPMs from lower volume centers focus more on registry and clinical duties. Across time, the role has been expanded, refined, and customized, but much role variability remains.

  19. Primary salivary gland malignancies: a review of clinicopathological evolution, molecular mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Badlani, James; Gupta, Ruta; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Smith, Joel; Luk, Peter; Clark, Jonathan

    2017-10-05

    Salivary gland cancers are a complex group of tumours with variations in location, type and grade, all of which influence their biological behaviour. The understanding of salivary gland pathology has evolved at the molecular level in the last decade leading to identification of distinct entities, development of improved methods of diagnosis as well as identifying therapeutic targets for selected high-grade tumours. This article focuses on these advances and their impact on the management of primary salivary gland cancers. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Management of early-successional communities in central hardwood forests: with special emphasis on the ecology and management of oaks, ruffed grouse, and forest songbirds.

    Treesearch

    Frank R. III Thompson; Daniel R. Dessecker

    1997-01-01

    Describes the history, ecology, and silviculture of central hardwood forests and the status and ecology of early-successional forest songbirds and ruffed grouse. Concludes with management guidelines for early-successional communities in central hardwood forests.

  1. High-throughput sample processing and sample management; the functional evolution of classical cytogenetic assay towards automation.

    PubMed

    Ramakumar, Adarsh; Subramanian, Uma; Prasanna, Pataje G S

    2015-11-01

    High-throughput individual diagnostic dose assessment is essential for medical management of radiation-exposed subjects after a mass casualty. Cytogenetic assays such as the Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) are recognized as the gold standard by international regulatory authorities. DCA is a multi-step and multi-day bioassay. DCA, as described in the IAEA manual, can be used to assess dose up to 4-6 weeks post-exposure quite accurately but throughput is still a major issue and automation is very essential. The throughput is limited, both in terms of sample preparation as well as analysis of chromosome aberrations. Thus, there is a need to design and develop novel solutions that could utilize extensive laboratory automation for sample preparation, and bioinformatics approaches for chromosome-aberration analysis to overcome throughput issues. We have transitioned the bench-based cytogenetic DCA to a coherent process performing high-throughput automated biodosimetry for individual dose assessment ensuring quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) aspects in accordance with international harmonized protocols. A Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) is designed, implemented and adapted to manage increased sample processing capacity, develop and maintain standard operating procedures (SOP) for robotic instruments, avoid data transcription errors during processing, and automate analysis of chromosome-aberrations using an image analysis platform. Our efforts described in this paper intend to bridge the current technological gaps and enhance the potential application of DCA for a dose-based stratification of subjects following a mass casualty. This paper describes one such potential integrated automated laboratory system and functional evolution of the classical DCA towards increasing critically needed throughput.

  2. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.; Yu, D.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  3. The origin and evolution of safe-yield policies in the Kansas groundwater management districts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    The management of groundwater resources in Kansas continues to evolve. Declines in the High Plains aquifer led to the establishment of groundwater management districts in the mid-1970s and reduced streamflows prompted the enactment of minimum desirable streamflow standards in the mid-1980s. Nonetheless, groundwater levels and streamflows continued to decline, although at reduced rates compared to premid-1980s rates. As a result, "safe-yield" policies were revised to take into account natural groundwater discharge in the form of stream baseflow. These policies, although a step in the right direction, are deficient in several ways. In addition to the need for more accurate recharge data, pumping-induced streamflow depletion, natural stream losses, and groundwater evapotranspiration need to be accounted for in the revised safe-yield policies. Furthermore, the choice of the 90% flow-duration statistic as a measure of baseflow needs to be reevaluated, as it significantly underestimates mean baseflow estimated from baseflow separation computer programs; moreover, baseflow estimation needs to be refined and validated. ?? 2000 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. SPECIAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION ON THE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article is the preface or editors note to the dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association for a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies," that was...

  5. Performance Management--Motivating and Developing Good Teachers? The Experiences of Teachers in a Small Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isherwood, Mary; Johnson, Heather; Brundrett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, when "Teachers--meeting the challenge of change" was published by the English Department for Education and Skills (DfES), one of the most fundamental reforms of the teaching profession was initiated--performance management. In 2005, all schools became subject to "Light Touch Validation" of their performance management…

  6. Performance Management--Motivating and Developing Good Teachers? The Experiences of Teachers in a Small Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isherwood, Mary; Johnson, Heather; Brundrett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, when "Teachers--meeting the challenge of change" was published by the English Department for Education and Skills (DfES), one of the most fundamental reforms of the teaching profession was initiated--performance management. In 2005, all schools became subject to "Light Touch Validation" of their performance management…

  7. SPECIAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL OF THE AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION ON THE PARTICULATE MATTER SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article is the preface or editors note to the dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association for a selection of scientific papers from the specialty conference entitled, "Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies," that was...

  8. State of Fire Behavior Models and their Application to Ecosystem and Smoke Management Issues: Special Session Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-24

    carbon management, and • Interactions between other desired ecosystem services (mission support, biodiversity ) and carbon sequestration 4) Fire...services (e.g., mission support, supporting biodiversity ) also need to be examined. 4) Emissions characterization. Because fire is an important land...University of California , Riverside (EPA) Research scientist (atmospheric research, pollutant emissions) Brian Lamb Washington State University

  9. The ecology, evolution, impacts and management of host-parasite interactions of marine molluscs.

    PubMed

    Coen, Loren D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2015-10-01

    Molluscs are economically and ecologically important components of aquatic ecosystems. In addition to supporting valuable aquaculture and wild-harvest industries, their populations determine the structure of benthic communities, cycling of nutrients, serve as prey resources for higher trophic levels and, in some instances, stabilize shorelines and maintain water quality. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the ecology of host-parasite interactions involving marine molluscs, with a focus on gastropods and bivalves. It considers the ecological and evolutionary impacts of molluscan parasites on their hosts and vice versa, and on the communities and ecosystems in which they are a part, as well as disease management and its ecological impacts. An increasing number of case studies show that disease can have important effects on marine molluscs, their ecological interactions and ecosystem services, at spatial scales from centimeters to thousands of kilometers and timescales ranging from hours to years. In some instances the cascading indirect effects arising from parasitic infection of molluscs extend well beyond the temporal and spatial scales at which molluscs are affected by disease. In addition to the direct effects of molluscan disease, there can be large indirect impacts on marine environments resulting from strategies, such as introduction of non-native species and selective breeding for disease resistance, put in place to manage disease. Much of our understanding of impacts of molluscan diseases on the marine environment has been derived from just a handful of intensively studied marine parasite-host systems, namely gastropod-trematode, cockle-trematode, and oyster-protistan interactions. Understanding molluscan host-parasite dynamics is of growing importance because: (1) expanding aquaculture; (2) current and future climate change; (3) movement of non-native species; and (4) coastal development are modifying molluscan disease dynamics, ultimately leading to

  10. The evolution of power management architecture for missions to the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detwiler, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Outer planet spacecraft have unique requirements that differentiate them from inner planet and Earth orbiter spacecraft. To meet these requirements, the Voyager and Galileo Power Management And Distribution (PMAD) architectures employed shunt regulation and carried on the Mariner tradition of AC power distribution to many of the user loads. Also, autonomous fault recovery was achieved by automatic responses in hardware and software recovery routines. Finally, power distribution switching was expanded to allow for removal of the most trivial load element as the nuclear source depleted itself. The design cycle has begun for a third generation spacecraft set named Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini (a saturn orbiter). In their power systems, AC power distribution, relay/fuse load switching, and fault protection will give way to the advantages of DC power and solid state load switches.

  11. Ecology, evolution, and management strategies of northern pike populations in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per; Tibblin, Petter; Koch-Schmidt, Per; Engstedt, Olof; Nilsson, Jonas; Nordahl, Oscar; Forsman, Anders

    2015-06-01

    Baltic Sea populations of the northern pike (Esox lucius) have declined since the 1990s, and they face additional challenges due to ongoing climate change. Pike in the Baltic Sea spawn either in coastal bays or in freshwater streams and wetlands. Pike recruited in freshwater have been found to make up about 50 % of coastal pike stocks and to show natal homing, thus limiting gene flow among closely located spawning sites. Due to natal homing, sub-populations appear to be locally adapted to their freshwater recruitment environments. Management actions should therefore not involve mixing of individuals originating from different sub-populations. We offer two suggestions complying with this advice: (i) productivity of extant freshwater spawning populations can be boosted by modifying wetlands such that they promote spawning and recruitment; and (ii) new sub-populations that spawn in brackish water can potentially be created by transferring fry and imprinting them on seemingly suitable spawning environments.

  12. The evolution of a health hazard assessment database management system for military weapons, equipment, and materiel.

    PubMed

    Murnyak, George R; Spencer, Clark O; Chaney, Ann E; Roberts, Welford C

    2002-04-01

    During the 1970s, the Army health hazard assessment (HHA) process developed as a medical program to minimize hazards in military materiel during the development process. The HHA Program characterizes health hazards that soldiers and civilians may encounter as they interact with military weapons and equipment. Thus, it is a resource for medical planners and advisors to use that can identify and estimate potential hazards that soldiers may encounter as they train and conduct missions. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine administers the program, which is integrated with the Army's Manpower and Personnel Integration program. As the HHA Program has matured, an electronic database has been developed to record and monitor the health hazards associated with military equipment and systems. The current database tracks the results of HHAs and provides reporting designed to assist the HHA Program manager in daily activities.

  13. Policy Windows, Policy Change, and Organizational Learning: Watersheds in the Evolution of Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Sarah; Goucher, Nancy P.; McCarthy, Dan

    2006-12-01

    Employing in-depth, elite interviews, this empirical research contributes to understanding the dynamics among policy windows, policy change, and organizational learning. First, although much of the research on agenda setting—how issues attract enough attention that action is taken to address them—has been conducted at the national scale, this work explores the subnational, regional scale. With decentralization, regional-scale environmental decision-making has become increasingly important. Second, this research highlights the role of policy windows and instances of related organizational learning identified by natural resources managers. Having practitioners identify focusing events contrasts with the more typical approach of the researcher identifying a particular focusing event or events to investigate. A focusing event is a sudden, exceptional experience that, because of how it leads to harm or exposes the prospect for great devastation, is perceived as the impetus for policy change.

  14. Policy windows, policy change, and organizational learning: watersheds in the evolution of watershed management.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Sarah; Goucher, Nancy P; McCarthy, Dan

    2006-12-01

    Employing in-depth, elite interviews, this empirical research contributes to understanding the dynamics among policy windows, policy change, and organizational learning. First, although much of the research on agenda setting-how issues attract enough attention that action is taken to address them-has been conducted at the national scale, this work explores the subnational, regional scale. With decentralization, regional-scale environmental decision-making has become increasingly important. Second, this research highlights the role of policy windows and instances of related organizational learning identified by natural resources managers. Having practitioners identify focusing events contrasts with the more typical approach of the researcher identifying a particular focusing event or events to investigate. A focusing event is a sudden, exceptional experience that, because of how it leads to harm or exposes the prospect for great devastation, is perceived as the impetus for policy change.

  15. The surgical management of the rheumatoid spine: Has the evolution of surgical intervention changed outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Robin; Haliasos, Nikolas; Vergara, Pierluigi; Anderson, Caroline; Casey, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Surgery for the rheumatoid cervical spine has been shown to stabilize the unstable spine; arrest/improve the progression of neurological deficit, help neck pain, and possibly decelerate the degenerative disease process. Operative intervention for the rheumatoid spine has significantly changed over the last 30 years. The purpose of this study was to review all cases of cervical rheumatoid spine requiring surgical intervention in a single unit over the last 30 years. A prospectively-maintained spine database was retrospectively searched for all cases of rheumatoid spine, leading to a review of indications, imaging, Ranawat and Myelopathy Disability Index measures, surgical morbidity, and survival curve analysis. A total of 224 cases were identified between 1981 and 2011. Dividing the data into three time-epochs, there has been a significant increase in the ratio of segment-saving Goel-Harms C1-C2: Occipitocervical fixation (OCF) surgery and survival has increased between 1981 and 2011 from 30% to 51%. Patients undergoing C1-C2 fixation were comparatively less myelopathic and in a better Ranawat class preoperatively, but postoperative outcome measures were well-preserved with favorable mortality rates over mean 39.6 months of follow-up. However, 11% of cases required OCF at mean 28 months post-C1-C2 fixation, largely due to instrumentation failure (80%). We present the largest series of surgically managed rheumatoid spines, revealing comparative data on OCF and C1-C2 fixation. Although survival has improved over the last 30 years, there have been changes in medical, surgical and perioperative management over that period of time too confounding the interpretation; however, the analysis presented suggests that rheumatoid patients presenting early in the disease process may benefit from C1 to C2 fixation, albeit with a proportion requiring OCF at a later time.

  16. The Evolution of Cooperation in Managed Groundwater Systems: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla Rho, J. C.; Mariethoz, G.; Rojas, R. F.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F.; Holley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Human interactions with groundwater systems often exhibit complex features that hinder the sustainable management of the resource. This leads to costly and persistent conflicts over groundwater at the catchment scale. One possible way to address these conflicts is by gaining a better understanding of how social and groundwater dynamics coevolve using agent-based models (ABM). Such models allow exploring 'bottom-up' solutions (i.e., self-organised governance systems), where the behaviour of individual agents (e.g., farmers) results in the emergence of mutual cooperation among groundwater users. There is significant empirical evidence indicating that this kind of 'bottom-up' approach may lead to more enduring and sustainable outcomes, compared to conventional 'top-down' strategies such as centralized control and water right schemes (Ostrom 1990). New modelling tools are needed to study these concepts systematically and efficiently. Our model uses a conceptual framework to study cooperation and the emergence of social norms as initially proposed by Axelrod (1986), which we adapted to groundwater management. We developed an ABM that integrates social mechanisms and the physics of subsurface flow. The model explicitly represents feedback between groundwater conditions and social dynamics, capturing the spatial structure of these interactions and the potential effects on cooperation levels in an agricultural setting. Using this model, we investigate a series of mechanisms that may trigger norms supporting cooperative strategies, which can be sustained and become stable over time. For example, farmers in a self-monitoring community can be more efficient at achieving the objective of sustainable groundwater use than government-imposed regulation. Our coupled model thus offers a platform for testing new schemes promoting cooperation and improved resource use, which can be used as a basis for policy design. Importantly, we hope to raise awareness of agent-based modelling as

  17. Implementing a Modified Version of Parent Management Training (PMT) with an intellectually disabled client in a special education setting.

    PubMed

    Schudrich, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses how an evidence-based practice was modified to treat an intellectually disabled client with oppositional behavior. Parent Management Training was modified to treat the client. A single-subject A-B design was used. Behavior improved from 1.57 (SD = .78) to 0.63 (SD = .71) episodes of negative behavior per day from baseline to intervention, and findings were significant (t = 2.83, p = .01). Follow-up with the family indicated sustained improvement one year after the intervention was discontinued. Consideration should be given to using principles of Parent Management Training to create formal plans for addressing problem behaviors across settings with intellectually disabled clients.

  18. CERT Resilience Management Model (CERT-RMM) V1.1: NIST Special Publication Crosswalk Version 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Organization for Standards (ISO) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 27000 series, COBIT , the British Standards Institution’s BS 25999...Abstract The CERT® Resilience Management Model (CERT®-RMM) allows organizations to determine how their current practices support their desired levels of...CMU/SEI-2011-TN-012). CMU/SEI-2011-TN-028 | iv CMU/SEI-2011-TN-028 | 1 1 Introduction Organizations can use the CERT® Resilience

  19. Biological and serological variability, evolution and molecular epidemiology of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) with special reference to Caribbean islands.

    PubMed

    Desbiez, C; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Lecoq, H

    2002-04-23

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Potyvirus) emerged as an important pathogen of cucurbits within the last 20 years. Its origins and mechanisms for evolution and worldwide spread represent important questions to understand plant virus emergence. Sequence analysis on a 250 nucleotide fragment including the N-terminal part of the coat protein coding region, revealed one major group of strains, and some highly divergent isolates from distinct origins. Within the major group, three subsets of strains were defined without correlation with geographic origin, year of collection or biological properties. ZYMV was first observed in Martinique and Guadeloupe in 1992 and 1994, respectively. We studied the evolution of ZYMV variability on both islands in the few years following the putative virus introduction. In Martinique, molecular divergence remained low even after 6 years, suggesting a lack of new introductions. Interactions between strains resulted in a stability of the high biological variability, while the serological diversity decreased and molecular divergence remained low. In Guadeloupe, as in Martinique in 1993, serological variability was high shortly after virus introduction. While the first introduction in Guadeloupe was independent from Martinique, the 'Martinique' type was detected in 1998, suggesting further introductions, maybe through viruliferous aphids or imported plant material.

  20. Case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in American Indians and Alaska Natives with diabetes: results from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kelly; Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William; Pratte, Katherine; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with diabetes in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart (SDPI-HH) Demonstration Project. Multidisciplinary teams implemented an intensive case management intervention among 30 health care programs serving 138 tribes. The project recruited 3373 participants, with and without current CVD, between 2006 and 2009. We examined data collected at baseline and 1 year later to determine whether improvements occurred in CVD risk factors and in Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores, aspirin use, and smoking status. A1c levels decreased an average of 0.2% (P < .001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels decreased, with the largest significant reduction in LDL cholesterol (∆ = -5.29 mg/dL; P < .001). Average Framingham CHD risk scores also decreased significantly. Aspirin therapy increased significantly, and smoking decreased. Participants with more case management visits had significantly greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and A1c values. SDPI-HH successfully translated an intensive case management intervention. Creative retention strategies and an improved understanding of organizational challenges are needed for future Indian health translational efforts.