Science.gov

Sample records for management green assessment

  1. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Green Water Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation will focus on the following points: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint are two criteria evaluating the greenness in urban development, (2) Two cases are examined and presented: water footprints in energy productions and carbon footprints in water ...

  2. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  3. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  4. Community-Based Soil Quality Assessment As a Tool for Designing an Urban Green Infrastructure Network to Manage Runoff.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, C.; Montgomery, J.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) may be the most practical approach for reducing contaminated runoff, providing ecosystem services, mitigating food deserts and creating community open spaces in urban areas. This project was funded by the USEPA's People-Prosperity-Planet (P3) program and was a partnership between a team of DePaul University undergraduates (the P3 team) and high school interns (Green Teens) and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center (GCYC). GCYC is located in a low-income African-American community on Chicago's south side characterized by high crime, abandoned buildings, lack of green space and a food desert. The overaching project goal was to develop a network of Green Teens qualified to conduct soil quality assessment using USDA-NRCS protocols in order to let them develop GI plans to minimize storm water runoff and contaminant loadings, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space. Working with a USDA-ARS soil scientist from Washington State University, the P3 team conducted soil quality assessment on 116 soil samples collected among four abandoned residential lots owned by GCYC. Analytes included infiltration, bulk density, texture, pH, conductivity, aggregate stability, available nutrients, and total and bioavailable (PBET) lead. Soil pH on all lots is greater than 8.0, are low in organic matter, have little microbial respiration activity, are enriched in available phosphorus, and have average total lead values ranging from 24-2,700 mg/kg. PBET lead was less than 40% on most lots. Regardless, these soils will need to be remediated by adding carbon-rich materials such as biosolids prior to GI installation. Students enrolled in a landscape design course at DePaul developed 3-D models representing potential GI designs for one of the vacant lots that include strategies for immobilizing heavy metals, reducing runoff, and which are tied into an educational module for neighborhood school children.

  5. Green-roof as a solution to solve stormwater management issues? Assessment on a long time period at the parcel scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, P.-A.; Petrucci, G.; de Gouvello, B.

    2014-09-01

    Experimental green-roof rainfall-runoff observations have shown a positive impact on stormwater management at the building scale; with a decrease in the peak discharge and a decrease in runoff volume. This efficiency of green-roofs varies from one rainfall event to another depending on precipitation characteristics and substrate antecedent conditions. Due to this variability, currently, green-roofs are rarely officially used as a regulation tool to manage stormwater. Indeed, regulation rules governing the connection to the stormwater network are usually based on absolute threshold values that always have to be respected: maximum areal flow-rate or minimum retention volume for example. In this context, the aim of this study is to illustrate how a green-roof could represent an alternative to solve stormwater management issues, if the regulation rules were further based on statistics. For this purpose, a modelling scheme has been established at the parcel scale to simulate the hydrological response of several roof configurations: impervious, strictly regulated (in terms of areal flow-rate or retention volume), and covered by different types of green-roof matter. Simulations were carried out on a long precipitation time period (23 years) that included a large and heterogeneous set of hydrometeorological conditions. Results obtained for the different roof configurations were compared. Based on the return period of the rainfall event, the probability to respect some regulation rules (defined from real situations) was assessed. They illustrate that green-roofs reduce stormwater runoff compared to an impervious roof surface and can guarantee the respect of the regulation rules in most of the cases. Moreover, their implementation can appear more realistic than that of other infrastructures strictly complying with regulations and demanding significant storage capacity.

  6. Risk Evaluation of Business Continuity Management by Using Green Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Chen

    IT disasters can be seen as the test of the ability in communities and firms to effectively protect their information and infrastructure, to reduce both human and property loss, and to rapidly recover. In this paper, we use a literature meta-analysis method to identify potential research directions in Green Business Continuity Management (GBCM). The concept and characteristics of GBCM are discussed. We analysis the connotation and the sources of green technology risk. An assessment index system is established from the perspectives of GBCM. A fuzzy comprehensive assessment method is introduced to assess the risks of green technology in Business Continuity Management.

  7. Management Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on management assessment. In "The Air Force ROTC (Reserve Officer Training Corps) Selection System as a Predictor of Leadership" (Orlando V. Griego, George A. Morgan, Gary D. Geroy), 102 ROTC cadets rated their own leadership characteristics and were rated by subordinates; leaders and…

  8. Using GIS in Ecological Management: Green Assessment of the Impacts of Petroleum Activities in the State of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Merem, Edmund; Robinson, Bennetta; Wesley, Joan M.; Yerramilli, Sudha; Twumasi, Yaw A.

    2010-01-01

    Geo-information technologies are valuable tools for ecological assessment in stressed environments. Visualizing natural features prone to disasters from the oil sector spatially not only helps in focusing the scope of environmental management with records of changes in affected areas, but it also furnishes information on the pace at which resource extraction affects nature. Notwithstanding the recourse to ecosystem protection, geo-spatial analysis of the impacts remains sketchy. This paper uses GIS and descriptive statistics to assess the ecological impacts of petroleum extraction activities in Texas. While the focus ranges from issues to mitigation strategies, the results point to growth in indicators of ecosystem decline. PMID:20623014

  9. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  10. Assessing the effectiveness of green infrastructure stormwater best management practices in New England at the small watershed scale.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of existing Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) and Low Impact Development and to predict the relative effectiveness of proposed stormwater management plans in maintaining the habitat and biotic integrity of streams in New ...

  11. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) at the Small Watershed Scale

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been numerous studies of the water quantity and quality functions of stormwater BMPs at the site scale, but relatively few assessments at the watershed scale. This presentation will present an overview and initial results of projects to evaluate the effectiveness of g...

  12. Tailoring Green Infrastructure Implementation Scenarios based on Stormwater Management Objectives

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure (GI) refers to stormwater management practices that mimic nature by soaking up, storing, and controlling onsite. GI practices can contribute reckonable benefits towards meeting stormwater management objectives, such as runoff peak shaving, volume reduction, f...

  13. [A review of green roof performance towards management of roof runoff].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-ping; Huang, Pei; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Gao, Chi

    2015-08-01

    Green roof has a significant influence on reducing runoff volume, delaying runoff-yielding time, reducing the peak flow and improving runoff quality. This paper addressed the related research around the world and concluded from several aspects, i.e., the definition of green roof of different types, the mechanism how green roof manages runoff quantity and quality, the ability how green roof controls roof runoff, and the influence factors of green roof toward runoff quantity and quality. Afterwards, there was a need for more future work on research of green roof toward roof runoff, i.e., vegetation selection of green roof, efficient construction model selection of green roof, the regulating characteristics of green roof on roof runoff, the value assessment of green roof on roof runoff, analysis of source-sink function of green roof on the water pollutants of roof runoff and the research on the mitigation measures of roof runoff pollution. This paper provided a guideline to develop green roofs aiming to regulating roof runoff.

  14. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector. PMID:26038896

  15. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.

  16. Toxicological assessment of green petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Herron, Deborah; Beatty, Patrick; Podhasky, Paula; Hoffman, Gary M; Swigert, James; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Green petroleum coke is primarily inorganic carbon with some entrained volatile hydrocarbon material. As part of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program, the potential for reproductive effects was assessed in a subchronic toxicity/reproductive toxicity screening test in rats (OECD 421). The repeated-dose portion of the study provided evidence for dust accumulation and inflammatory responses in rats exposed to 100 and 300 mg/m(3) but there were no effects at 30 mg/m(3). In the reproductive toxicity screen, the frequency of successful matings was reduced in the high exposure group (300 mg/m(3)) and was not significantly different from control values but was outside the historical experience of the laboratory. The postnatal observations (external macroscopic examination, body weight, and survival) did not indicate any treatment-related differences. Additional tests conducted to assess the potential hazards to aquatic (fish, invertebrates, and algae) and soil dwelling organisms (earthworms and vascular plants) showed few effects at the maximum loading rates of 1000 mg coke/L in aquatic studies and 1000 mg coke/kg soil in terrestrial studies. The only statistically significant finding was an inhibition of algal growth measured as either biomass or growth rate.

  17. Toxicological assessment of green petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Herron, Deborah; Beatty, Patrick; Podhasky, Paula; Hoffman, Gary M; Swigert, James; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Green petroleum coke is primarily inorganic carbon with some entrained volatile hydrocarbon material. As part of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program, the potential for reproductive effects was assessed in a subchronic toxicity/reproductive toxicity screening test in rats (OECD 421). The repeated-dose portion of the study provided evidence for dust accumulation and inflammatory responses in rats exposed to 100 and 300 mg/m(3) but there were no effects at 30 mg/m(3). In the reproductive toxicity screen, the frequency of successful matings was reduced in the high exposure group (300 mg/m(3)) and was not significantly different from control values but was outside the historical experience of the laboratory. The postnatal observations (external macroscopic examination, body weight, and survival) did not indicate any treatment-related differences. Additional tests conducted to assess the potential hazards to aquatic (fish, invertebrates, and algae) and soil dwelling organisms (earthworms and vascular plants) showed few effects at the maximum loading rates of 1000 mg coke/L in aquatic studies and 1000 mg coke/kg soil in terrestrial studies. The only statistically significant finding was an inhibition of algal growth measured as either biomass or growth rate. PMID:24179031

  18. Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Cregg, James J; Beckman, Eric J; Landis, Amy E

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of green design principles such as the "12 Principles of Green Chemistry," and the "12 Principles of Green Engineering" with respect to environmental impacts found using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A case study of 12 polymers is presented, seven derived from petroleum, four derived from biological sources, and one derived from both. The environmental impacts of each polymer's production are assessed using LCA methodology standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Each polymer is also assessed for its adherence to green design principles using metrics generated specifically for this paper. Metrics include atom economy, mass from renewable sources, biodegradability, percent recycled, distance of furthest feedstock, price, life cycle health hazards and life cycle energy use. A decision matrix is used to generate single value metrics for each polymer evaluating either adherence to green design principles or life-cycle environmental impacts. Results from this study show a qualified positive correlation between adherence to green design principles and a reduction of the environmental impacts of production. The qualification results from a disparity between biopolymers and petroleum polymers. While biopolymers rank highly in terms of green design, they exhibit relatively large environmental impacts from production. Biopolymers rank 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on green design metrics; however they rank in the middle of the LCA rankings. Polyolefins rank 1, 2, and 3 in the LCA rankings, whereas complex polymers, such as PET, PVC, and PC place at the bottom of both ranking systems.

  19. Management self assessment plan

    SciTech Connect

    Debban, B.L.

    1998-01-30

    Duke Engineering and Services Hanford Inc., Spent Nuclear Fuel Project is responsible for the operation of fuel storage facilities. The SNF project mission includes the safe removal, processing and transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel from 100 K Area fuel storage basins to a new Storage facility in the Hanford 200 East Area. Its mission is the modification of the 100 K area fuel storage facilities and the construction of two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building. The management self assessment plan described in this document is scheduled to begin in April of 1999 and be complete in May of 1999. The management self assessment plan describes line management preparations for declaring that line management is ready to commence operations.

  20. Incorporating green-area user groups in urban ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Folke, Carl

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example cityregion, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21.

  1. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  2. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  3. Proctor Creek's Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Health Impact Assessment (HIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development and Region 4 led a health impact assessment to evaluate a proposed green street demonstration project under consideration by the City of Atlanta Department of Watershed Management (DWM). The HIA id...

  4. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  5. Going Green: Managing a Paperless Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bonis, Susan; De Bonis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    The LMS (learning management system) at many schools for delivering, tracking and managing education relies on TEL (technology-enhanced learning), what Nichols called "pedagogy empowered by digital technology" (Nichols, 2008). It includes the "paperless classroom" in traditional (not online) classes in which faculty and students exchange…

  6. Greening Operations Management: An Online Sustainable Procurement Course for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Helen L.; Gough, Stephen; Bakker, Elmer F.; Knight, Louise A.; McBain, Darian

    2009-01-01

    In the Operations Management field, sustainable procurement has emerged as a way to green the purchasing and supply process. This paper explores issues in sustainable procurement training. The authors formed an interdisciplinary team to design, deliver and evaluate a training programme to promote and develop sustainable procurement in the United…

  7. Green Revolving Funds: An Introductory Guide to Implementation & Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indvik, Joe; Foley, Rob; Orlowski, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this introductory implementation guide is to provide practical guidance for designing, implementing, and managing a green revolving fund (GRF) at a college, university, or other institution. The GRF model is widespread in higher education, with at least 79 funds in operation in North America representing over $111 million in committed…

  8. Green roof and storm water management policies: monitoring experiments on the ENPC Blue Green Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Gires, Auguste; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building/parcel scale. Nevertheless, there is no specific policy promoting their implementation neither in Europe nor in France. Moreover they are not taken into account (and usually considered as an impervious area) in the sizing of a retention basin for instance. An interesting example is located in the heart of the Paris-East Cluster for Science and Technology (Champs-sur-Marne, France). Since 2013 a large (1 ha) wavy-form vegetated roof (called bleu green wave) is implemented. Green roof area and impervious areas are connected to a large retention basin, which has been oversized. The blue green wave represents a pioneering site where an initially amenity (decorative) design project has been transformed into a research oriented one. Several measurement campaigns have been conducted to investigate and better understand the hydrological behaviour of such a structure. Rainfall, humidity, wind velocity, water content and temperature have been particularly studied. The data collected are used for several purposes: (i) characterize the spatio-temporal variability of the green roof response, (ii) calibrate and validate a specific model simulating its hydrological behavior. Based on monitoring and modeling results, green roof performances will be quantified. It will be possible to estimate how they can reduce stormwater runoff and how these performances can vary in space and in time depending on green roof configuration, rainfall event characteristics and antecedent conditions. These quantified impacts will be related to regulation rules established by stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. In the particular case of the building of a retention basin, the integration of green roof in the sizing of the basin will be studied. This work is funded by the European Blue Green Dream project (http://bgd.org.uk/, funded by Climate

  9. Holistic Metrics for Assessment of the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Context of Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new semiquantitative green chemistry metrics, the green circle and the green matrix, have been developed for quick assessment of the greenness of a chemical reaction or process, even without performing the experiment from a protocol if enough detail is provided in it. The evaluation is based on the 12 principles of green chemistry. The…

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  11. Improving Management of Green Retrofits from a Stakeholder Perspective: A Case Study in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin; Shen, Geoffrey Qiping; Guo, Li

    2015-11-01

    Green retrofits, which improve the environment and energy efficiency of buildings, are considered a potential solution for reducing energy consumption as well as improving human health and productivity. They represent some of the riskiest, most complex, and most uncertain projects to manage. As the foundation of project management, critical success factors (CSFs) have been emphasized by previous research. However, most studies identified and prioritized CSFs independently of stakeholders. This differs from the reality, where the success of green retrofits is tightly interrelated to the stakeholders of projects. To improve the analysis from a stakeholder perspective, the present study proposed an innovative method based on a two-mode social network analysis to integrate CSF analysis with stakeholders. The results of this method can provide further understanding of the interactions between stakeholders and CSFs, and the underlying relationship among CSFs through stakeholders. A pilot study was conducted to apply the proposed method and assess the CSFs for green retrofits in China. The five most significant CSFs are identified in the management of green retrofit. Furthermore, the interrelations between stakeholders and CSFs, coefficient and clusters of CSFs are likewise discussed. PMID:26516897

  12. Improving Management of Green Retrofits from a Stakeholder Perspective: A Case Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xin; Shen, Geoffrey Qiping; Guo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Green retrofits, which improve the environment and energy efficiency of buildings, are considered a potential solution for reducing energy consumption as well as improving human health and productivity. They represent some of the riskiest, most complex, and most uncertain projects to manage. As the foundation of project management, critical success factors (CSFs) have been emphasized by previous research. However, most studies identified and prioritized CSFs independently of stakeholders. This differs from the reality, where the success of green retrofits is tightly interrelated to the stakeholders of projects. To improve the analysis from a stakeholder perspective, the present study proposed an innovative method based on a two-mode social network analysis to integrate CSF analysis with stakeholders. The results of this method can provide further understanding of the interactions between stakeholders and CSFs, and the underlying relationship among CSFs through stakeholders. A pilot study was conducted to apply the proposed method and assess the CSFs for green retrofits in China. The five most significant CSFs are identified in the management of green retrofit. Furthermore, the interrelations between stakeholders and CSFs, coefficient and clusters of CSFs are likewise discussed. PMID:26516897

  13. Improving Management of Green Retrofits from a Stakeholder Perspective: A Case Study in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin; Shen, Geoffrey Qiping; Guo, Li

    2015-10-28

    Green retrofits, which improve the environment and energy efficiency of buildings, are considered a potential solution for reducing energy consumption as well as improving human health and productivity. They represent some of the riskiest, most complex, and most uncertain projects to manage. As the foundation of project management, critical success factors (CSFs) have been emphasized by previous research. However, most studies identified and prioritized CSFs independently of stakeholders. This differs from the reality, where the success of green retrofits is tightly interrelated to the stakeholders of projects. To improve the analysis from a stakeholder perspective, the present study proposed an innovative method based on a two-mode social network analysis to integrate CSF analysis with stakeholders. The results of this method can provide further understanding of the interactions between stakeholders and CSFs, and the underlying relationship among CSFs through stakeholders. A pilot study was conducted to apply the proposed method and assess the CSFs for green retrofits in China. The five most significant CSFs are identified in the management of green retrofit. Furthermore, the interrelations between stakeholders and CSFs, coefficient and clusters of CSFs are likewise discussed.

  14. Comparative life cycle assessment of standard and green roofs.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Susana; Kennedy, Christopher; Bass, Brad; Pressnail, Kim

    2006-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the benefits, primarily from reduced energy consumption, resulting from the addition of a green roof to an eight story residential building in Madrid. Building energy use is simulated and a bottom-up LCA is conducted assuming a 50 year building life. The key property of a green roof is its low solar absorptance, which causes lower surface temperature, thereby reducing the heat flux through the roof. Savings in annual energy use are just over 1%, but summer cooling load is reduced by over 6% and reductions in peak hour cooling load in the upper floors reach 25%. By replacing the common flat roof with a green roof, environmental impacts are reduced by between 1.0 and 5.3%. Similar reductions might be achieved by using a white roof with additional insulation for winter, but more substantial reductions are achieved if common use of green roofs leads to reductions in the urban heat island.

  15. Green design assessment of electromechanical products based on group weighted-AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinwei; Zhou, MengChu; Li, Zhiwu; Xie, Huiguang

    2015-11-01

    Manufacturing industry is the backbone of a country's economy while environmental pollution is a serious problem that human beings must face today. The green design of electromechanical products based on enterprise information systems is an important method to solve the environmental problem. The question on how to design green products must be answered by excellent designers via both advanced design methods and effective assessment methods of electromechanical products. Making an objective and precise assessment of green design is one of the problems that must be solved when green design is conducted. An assessment method of green design on electromechanical products based on Group Weighted-AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is proposed in this paper, together with the characteristics of green products. The assessment steps of green design are also established. The results are illustrated via the assessment of a refrigerator design.

  16. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-03-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

  17. Configuration Management Process Assessment Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a strategy for assessing the development and effectiveness of configuration management systems within Programs, Projects, and Design Activities performed by technical organizations and their supporting development contractors. Scope: Various entities CM Systems will be assessed dependent on Project Scope (DDT&E), Support Services and Acquisition Agreements. Approach: Model based structured against assessing organizations CM requirements including best practices maturity criteria. The model is tailored to the entity being assessed dependent on their CM system. The assessment approach provides objective feedback to Engineering and Project Management of the observed CM system maturity state versus the ideal state of the configuration management processes and outcomes(system). center dot Identifies strengths and risks versus audit gotcha's (findings/observations). center dot Used "recursively and iteratively" throughout program lifecycle at select points of need. (Typical assessments timing is Post PDR/Post CDR) center dot Ideal state criteria and maturity targets are reviewed with the assessed entity prior to an assessment (Tailoring) and is dependent on the assessed phase of the CM system. center dot Supports exit success criteria for Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews. center dot Gives a comprehensive CM system assessment which ultimately supports configuration verification activities.*

  18. A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shang, Kuo-Chung; Lu, Chin-Shan; Li, Shaorui

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated crucial green supply chain management (GSCM) capability dimensions and firm performance based on electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. On the basis of a factor analysis, six green supply chain management dimensions were identified: green manufacturing and packaging, environmental participation, green marketing, green suppliers, green stock, and green eco-design. According to their factor scores in the GSCM dimensions, a cluster analysis subsequently assigned responding firms into four groups, namely, the weak GSCM oriented group, the green marketing oriented group, the green supplier oriented group, and the green stock oriented group. Differences in firm performance and GSCM dimensions among groups were examined. Results indicated that the green marketing oriented group performed best. Based on the resource-based view (RBV), the capability of the green marketing oriented group was considered to be the deployment of a collection of resources that enables it to successfully compete against rivals. The importance of green marketing as a GSCM capability and strategic asset/critical resources for electronics-related manufacturing firms to obtain a competitive edge is therefore highlighted in this study. PMID:20181423

  19. A taxonomy of green supply chain management capability among electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shang, Kuo-Chung; Lu, Chin-Shan; Li, Shaorui

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated crucial green supply chain management (GSCM) capability dimensions and firm performance based on electronics-related manufacturing firms in Taiwan. On the basis of a factor analysis, six green supply chain management dimensions were identified: green manufacturing and packaging, environmental participation, green marketing, green suppliers, green stock, and green eco-design. According to their factor scores in the GSCM dimensions, a cluster analysis subsequently assigned responding firms into four groups, namely, the weak GSCM oriented group, the green marketing oriented group, the green supplier oriented group, and the green stock oriented group. Differences in firm performance and GSCM dimensions among groups were examined. Results indicated that the green marketing oriented group performed best. Based on the resource-based view (RBV), the capability of the green marketing oriented group was considered to be the deployment of a collection of resources that enables it to successfully compete against rivals. The importance of green marketing as a GSCM capability and strategic asset/critical resources for electronics-related manufacturing firms to obtain a competitive edge is therefore highlighted in this study.

  20. Perspectives on the Use of Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management in Cleveland and Milwaukee

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is a general term referring to the management of landscapes in ways that generate human and ecosystem benefits. Many municipalities have begun to utilize green infrastructure in efforts to meet stormwater management goals. This study examines challenges to in...

  1. Environmental management system vs green specifications: how do they complement each other in the construction industry?

    PubMed

    Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Chau, C K; Poon, C S; Chun, K P

    2011-03-01

    Environmental Management System (EMS) has been one of the important tools for sustainable construction for around two decades. However, many issues concerning sustainable development have not been properly addressed, and there is a need for the introduction of green specifications to advance green performance in construction through contract management. This paper defines green specifications, identifies the reasons for adopting green specifications and highlights the environmental issues that may not be addressed by solely adopting EMS. It also presents the results of a recent survey of practitioners concerning their opinions towards green specifications and possible impacts arising from their adoption. From the results of the survey, a framework for developing green specifications is deemed valuable for the cities striving for sustainability. Interestingly, the level of acceptable changes brought about by green specifications as perceived by different industry stakeholders is found to be unrelated to whether they were from organizations implementing EMS or not.

  2. A Facilities Manager's Guide to Green Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Explains how the "green building" approach to educational facilities design creates healthy, naturally lit, attractive buildings with lower operating and life cycle costs. Tips on getting started on a green design and overcoming the barriers to the green design concept are discussed. (GR)

  3. Perspectives on the use of green infrastructure for stormwater management in Cleveland and Milwaukee.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Melissa; Koburger, Althea; Dolowitz, David P; Medearis, Dale; Nickel, Darla; Shuster, William

    2013-06-01

    Green infrastructure is a general term referring to the management of landscapes in ways that generate human and ecosystem benefits. Many municipalities have begun to utilize green infrastructure in efforts to meet stormwater management goals. This study examines challenges to integrating gray and green infrastructure for stormwater management, informed by interviews with practitioners in Cleveland, OH and Milwaukee WI. Green infrastructure in these cities is utilized under conditions of extreme fiscal austerity and its use presents opportunities to connect stormwater management with urban revitalization and economic recovery while planning for the effects of negative- or zero-population growth. In this context, specific challenges in capturing the multiple benefits of green infrastructure exist because the projects required to meet federally mandated stormwater management targets and the needs of urban redevelopment frequently differ in scale and location. PMID:23612718

  4. Perspectives on the Use of Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management in Cleveland and Milwaukee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, Melissa; Koburger, Althea; Dolowitz, David P.; Medearis, Dale; Nickel, Darla; Shuster, William

    2013-06-01

    Green infrastructure is a general term referring to the management of landscapes in ways that generate human and ecosystem benefits. Many municipalities have begun to utilize green infrastructure in efforts to meet stormwater management goals. This study examines challenges to integrating gray and green infrastructure for stormwater management, informed by interviews with practitioners in Cleveland, OH and Milwaukee WI. Green infrastructure in these cities is utilized under conditions of extreme fiscal austerity and its use presents opportunities to connect stormwater management with urban revitalization and economic recovery while planning for the effects of negative- or zero-population growth. In this context, specific challenges in capturing the multiple benefits of green infrastructure exist because the projects required to meet federally mandated stormwater management targets and the needs of urban redevelopment frequently differ in scale and location.

  5. Perspectives on the use of green infrastructure for stormwater management in Cleveland and Milwaukee.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Melissa; Koburger, Althea; Dolowitz, David P; Medearis, Dale; Nickel, Darla; Shuster, William

    2013-06-01

    Green infrastructure is a general term referring to the management of landscapes in ways that generate human and ecosystem benefits. Many municipalities have begun to utilize green infrastructure in efforts to meet stormwater management goals. This study examines challenges to integrating gray and green infrastructure for stormwater management, informed by interviews with practitioners in Cleveland, OH and Milwaukee WI. Green infrastructure in these cities is utilized under conditions of extreme fiscal austerity and its use presents opportunities to connect stormwater management with urban revitalization and economic recovery while planning for the effects of negative- or zero-population growth. In this context, specific challenges in capturing the multiple benefits of green infrastructure exist because the projects required to meet federally mandated stormwater management targets and the needs of urban redevelopment frequently differ in scale and location.

  6. Elementary Introduction to the Green Management of the Construction in Whole Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na), Wu Y. N.(Yun; Yu), Yan H. Y.(Hong; Jun), Huang Z. J.(Zhi

    Construction industries consume more energy resources than necessary. it is essential to establish a management system with all pollution problems resolved to construct green buildings. By applying the theory of whole life cycle, this paper divides the whole process of construction into four sub-phases, which will also be subdivided into more concrete working procedures. Based on this, a systematic framework is promoted for the green management of the construction, especially and creatively, considering the green aims as important as the traditional three aims-"quality aim, schedule aim and cost aim". This framework, adhering to the integration idea-"customers first, whole optimal", regards the green control and workflow as an organic whole in order to build green, sustainable and healthy architecture, and then provide a perfect guide and reference to the green management.

  7. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF GREEN CHEMISTRY VIA TRADITIONAL AND THERMODYNAMIC LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developments in Green Chemistry are expected to result in novel approaches that are more environmentally benign than traditional methods. Much of the research in green chemistry focuses on replacing toxic and hazardous substances such as solvents, catalysts and reaction media by...

  8. Caries management by risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B

    2013-02-01

    Caries disease is multifactorial. Whether caries disease will be expressed and damage dental hard tissue is dependent on the patient's own unique make-up of pathogenic risk factors and protective factors. Objectives This manuscript will review the science of managing caries disease based on assessing caries risk. Methods The caries balance/imbalance model and a practical caries risk assessment procedure for patients aged 6 years through adult will illustrate how treatment options can be based on caries risk. Results Neither the forms nor the clinical protocols are meant to imply there is currently only one correct way this can be achieved, rather are used in this manuscript as examples only. Conclusions It is important to have the forms and protocols simple and easy to understand when implementing caries management by risk assessment into clinical practice. The science of CAMBRA based on the caries balance/imbalance model was reviewed and an example protocol was presented.

  9. Environmental assessment of extensive green roofs in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Fei

    The advantages of the planted roofs are undoubtedly numerous from both the ecological and the social point of view. They act positively upon the climate of the city and its region, as well as upon the interior climate of the building beneath them. This dissertation, therefore, explores the environmental performance of the extensive green roofs in UK. The investigation was implemented in two phases: during the first phase, detailed introduction of green roofs with the emphasis on their thermal properties and behavior is provided with the support of literature review evidence. During the second phase of the study, the thermal properties of the green roof, as well as, the energy saving were examined, through two computer programs: Wufi and TAS. Two hypothetic models have been developed in these programs to evaluate thermal and energy performances of a building with a green roof, varying different parameters for the green roof or changing different internal condition for the building. The main conclusion of these analyses is that two parameters: vegetation solar absorptivity and water content of green roofs play significant role in the thermal performance of green roofs. Lower vegetation solar absorptivity and higher water content will help green roofs to further reduce the external heat flux and summer inward heat flux which consequently mitigate the urban heat island effect and summer energy consumption. On the other hand, in comparison with the traditional roofs, green roofs appear to have less heating loads but higher cooling loads when internal gain is higher. Finally, when comparing Wufi results to TAS results, both represent that featured as lower solar absorptivity and higher insulation value, green roofs do alleviate the urban heat island effect and reduce the heat flux through the roof. Nevertheless, by taking account of evaporative cooling effect of green roofs, Wufi provides a more accurate approach to simulate the performance of green roofs

  10. Risk Assessment/Management Tool

    2010-12-31

    RAMTool performs the following: • A tool to perform facility and programmatic risk assessments, produce risk registers, develop risk management plans (RMPs), link risks to improvement/risk-reduction projects, and actively manage risks • Ability to conduct risk assessments. Ease of determination of probability and consequence based on industry standard risk matrices. Complies with site risk management performance document. Provides multiple outputs/report for required risk forms. Conduct quick risk data analysis. • Performs/calculates a facility risk factormore » (RF) and a programmatic RF. Supports project and initiative prioritization and funding in order to make solid decisions on risk reduction. Assigns responsibility and accountability at a risk owner (RO) level. Monitors and tracks progress toward completing mitigation strategies. Ability to import massive amounts of data at the push of a button. Integrates development of a Risk Management Plan (RMP) Built for ease-of-use – design, built, and used by technical/management personnel. Can be customized (functions and/or reports) for further analysis« less

  11. Risk Assessment/Management Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Castillo, Jerel Nelson

    2010-12-31

    RAMTool performs the following: • A tool to perform facility and programmatic risk assessments, produce risk registers, develop risk management plans (RMPs), link risks to improvement/risk-reduction projects, and actively manage risks • Ability to conduct risk assessments. Ease of determination of probability and consequence based on industry standard risk matrices. Complies with site risk management performance document. Provides multiple outputs/report for required risk forms. Conduct quick risk data analysis. • Performs/calculates a facility risk factor (RF) and a programmatic RF. Supports project and initiative prioritization and funding in order to make solid decisions on risk reduction. Assigns responsibility and accountability at a risk owner (RO) level. Monitors and tracks progress toward completing mitigation strategies. Ability to import massive amounts of data at the push of a button. Integrates development of a Risk Management Plan (RMP) Built for ease-of-use – design, built, and used by technical/management personnel. Can be customized (functions and/or reports) for further analysis

  12. Conflict management: assessing educational needs.

    PubMed

    Eason, F R; Brown, S T

    1999-01-01

    In today's healthcare environment, the potential for conflict among healthcare providers exists as changes are occurring at a supersonic pace. The outcomes of conflict may affect patient care and are directly related to the effectiveness of the resolution. Clinical educators and staff development educators are essential in resolution if they assess strategies that are currently being used in managing conflict and then offer more effective resolution strategies. PMID:10531894

  13. Soils Investigation for Infiltration-based Green Infrastructure for Sewershed Management (Omaha NE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Report Abstract: Infiltration-based green infrastructure and related retrofits for sewershed-level rainfall and stormwater volume capture (e.g., rain gardens, cisterns, etc.) are increasingly being recognized as management options to reduce stormwater volume contribution into...

  14. Green Residential Demolitions: Case Study of Vacant Land Reuse in Storm Water Management in Cleveland

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demolition process impacts how vacant land might be reused for storm water management. For five residential demolition sites (Cleveland, Ohio), an enhanced green demolition process was observed in 2012, and soil physical and hydrologic characteristics were measured predemolit...

  15. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA

    SciTech Connect

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new eco-efficient recycling route for post-consumer waste glass was implemented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrated waste management and industrial production are crucial to green products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most of the waste glass rejects are sent back to the glass industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered co-products give more environmental gains than does avoided landfill. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy intensive recycling must be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. - Abstract: As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  16. Technology Assessment On Stressor Impacts To Green Infrastructure BMP Performance, Monitoring And Integration

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will document, benchmark and evalute state-of-the-science research and implementation on BMP performance, monitoring, and integration for green infrastructure applications, to manage wet weather flwo, storm-water-runoff stressor relief and remedial sustainable w...

  17. Technology Assessment On Stressor Impacts to Green Infrastructure BMP Performance, Monitoring, and Integration (Cincinnati, OH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster presentation will document, benchmark and evaluate state-of-the-science research and implementation on BMP performance, monitoring and integration for green infrastructure applications, to manage wet weather flow, storm-water runoff stressor relief and remedial sustai...

  18. 75 FR 77691 - Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, in Cocke, Greene, Hamblen, Jefferson... (NEPA). TVA has prepared the Douglas and Nolichucky Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan for the 3...). Under the plan adopted by the TVA Board, TVA-managed public land on Douglas and Nolichucky...

  19. Modeling the leadership attributes of top management in green innovation implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Noormaizatul Akmar; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of green innovation in the companies is the interest of the governments all over the world. This has been the main focus of the Copenhagen Protocol and Kyoto Protocol that require all governments to preserve the nature through green initiatives. This paper proposes a mathematical model on the leadership attributes of the top management in ensuring green innovation implementation in their companies' strategies to reduce operational cost. With green innovation implementation in the Government-Linked Companies (GLCs), we identify the leadership attributes are tied up to the leadership style of the top managers in the companies. Through this model we have proved that green type leadership always contributes better in cost saving, therefore it is a more efficient leadership attribute for the GLCs especially.

  20. Assessing the Culture of Fresh Produce Safety within a Leafy Green Producing Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolte, Kurt D.; Sanchez, Charles A.; Fonseca, Jorge M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2006 "Escherichia coli" outbreak in spinach prompted the implementation of unprecedented production strategies (Arizona Leafy Green Products Shipper Marketing Agreement) to minimize microbial risk in leafy greens. As the new procedures require assessments of physical intrusion and excrement in fields, outreach was initiated to educate adult…

  1. Urban Stormwater Management Model and Tools for Designing Stormwater Management of Green Infrastructure Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, H.; Chow, M. F.; Usman, F.; Sidek, L. M.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization is growing rapidly in Malaysia. Rapid urbanization has known to have several negative impacts towards hydrological cycle due to decreasing of pervious area and deterioration of water quality in stormwater runoff. One of the negative impacts of urbanization is the congestion of the stormwater drainage system and this situation leading to flash flood problem and water quality degradation. There are many urban stormwater management softwares available in the market such as Storm Water Drainage System design and analysis program (DRAINS), Urban Drainage and Sewer Model (MOUSE), InfoWorks River Simulation (InfoWork RS), Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M), Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), XP Storm Water Management Model (XPSWMM), MIKE-SWMM, Quality-Quantity Simulators (QQS), Storage, Treatment, Overflow, Runoff Model (STORM), and Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). In this paper, we are going to discuss briefly about several softwares and their functionality, accessibility, characteristics and components in the quantity analysis of the hydrological design software and compare it with MSMA Design Aid and Database. Green Infrastructure (GI) is one of the main topics that has widely been discussed all over the world. Every development in the urban area is related to GI. GI can be defined as green area build in the develop area such as forest, park, wetland or floodway. The role of GI is to improve life standard such as water filtration or flood control. Among the twenty models that have been compared to MSMA SME, ten models were selected to conduct a comprehensive review for this study. These are known to be widely accepted by water resource researchers. These ten tools are further classified into three major categories as models that address the stormwater management ability of GI in terms of quantity and quality, models that have the capability of conducting the

  2. Research on the development of green chemistry technology assessment techniques: a material reutilization case

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Kim, Sungjune; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents a methodology that enables a quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. Methods The study carries out a quantitative evaluation of a particular case of material reutilization by calculating the level of “greenness” i.e., the level of compliance with the principles of green chemistry that was achieved by implementing a green chemistry technology. Results The results indicate that the greenness level was enhanced by 42% compared to the pre-improvement level, thus demonstrating the economic feasibility of green chemistry. Conclusions The assessment technique established in this study will serve as a useful reference for setting the direction of industry-level and government-level technological R&D and for evaluating newly developed technologies, which can greatly contribute toward gaining a competitive advantage in the global market. PMID:26206363

  3. Combining analytical hierarchy process and agglomerative hierarchical clustering in search of expert consensus in green corridors development management.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Aviad; Shoshany, Maxim; Nir-Goldenberg, Sigal

    2013-07-01

    Environmental management and planning are instrumental in resolving conflicts arising between societal needs for economic development on the one hand and for open green landscapes on the other hand. Allocating green corridors between fragmented core green areas may provide a partial solution to these conflicts. Decisions regarding green corridor development require the assessment of alternative allocations based on multiple criteria evaluations. Analytical Hierarchy Process provides a methodology for both a structured and consistent extraction of such evaluations and for the search for consensus among experts regarding weights assigned to the different criteria. Implementing this methodology using 15 Israeli experts-landscape architects, regional planners, and geographers-revealed inherent differences in expert opinions in this field beyond professional divisions. The use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering allowed to identify clusters representing common decisions regarding criterion weights. Aggregating the evaluations of these clusters revealed an important dichotomy between a pragmatist approach that emphasizes the weight of statutory criteria and an ecological approach that emphasizes the role of the natural conditions in allocating green landscape corridors. PMID:23674241

  4. Combining Analytical Hierarchy Process and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering in Search of Expert Consensus in Green Corridors Development Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapira, Aviad; Shoshany, Maxim; Nir-Goldenberg, Sigal

    2013-07-01

    Environmental management and planning are instrumental in resolving conflicts arising between societal needs for economic development on the one hand and for open green landscapes on the other hand. Allocating green corridors between fragmented core green areas may provide a partial solution to these conflicts. Decisions regarding green corridor development require the assessment of alternative allocations based on multiple criteria evaluations. Analytical Hierarchy Process provides a methodology for both a structured and consistent extraction of such evaluations and for the search for consensus among experts regarding weights assigned to the different criteria. Implementing this methodology using 15 Israeli experts—landscape architects, regional planners, and geographers—revealed inherent differences in expert opinions in this field beyond professional divisions. The use of Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering allowed to identify clusters representing common decisions regarding criterion weights. Aggregating the evaluations of these clusters revealed an important dichotomy between a pragmatist approach that emphasizes the weight of statutory criteria and an ecological approach that emphasizes the role of the natural conditions in allocating green landscape corridors.

  5. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture. PMID

  6. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture.

  7. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    PubMed

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled. PMID:22093705

  8. Eco-efficient waste glass recycling: Integrated waste management and green product development through LCA.

    PubMed

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Busto, Mirko; Fantoni, Moris; Fino, Debora

    2012-05-01

    As part of the EU Life + NOVEDI project, a new eco-efficient recycling route has been implemented to maximise resources and energy recovery from post-consumer waste glass, through integrated waste management and industrial production. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to identify engineering solutions to sustainability during the development of green building products. The new process and the related LCA are framed within a meaningful case of industrial symbiosis, where multiple waste streams are utilised in a multi-output industrial process. The input is a mix of rejected waste glass from conventional container glass recycling and waste special glass such as monitor glass, bulbs and glass fibres. The green building product is a recycled foam glass (RFG) to be used in high efficiency thermally insulating and lightweight concrete. The environmental gains have been contrasted against induced impacts and improvements have been proposed. Recovered co-products, such as glass fragments/powders, plastics and metals, correspond to environmental gains that are higher than those related to landfill avoidance, whereas the latter is cancelled due to increased transportation distances. In accordance to an eco-efficiency principle, it has been highlighted that recourse to highly energy intensive recycling should be limited to waste that cannot be closed-loop recycled.

  9. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The five alternative actions range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material, to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site. Cost estimates for the five options range from about $4,300,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $9,600,000 for disposal at a distance of about 30 miles. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Green River tailings were examined: heap leaching, treatment at an existing mill, and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $1,800/lb by heap leach and $1,600/lb by conventional plant processes.

  10. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.C.; Mercier, T.J.; Brownfield, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

  11. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development. PMID:21818538

  12. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development.

  13. Priority survey between indicators and analytic hierarchy process analysis for green chemistry technology assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjune; Hong, Seokpyo; Ahn, Kilsoo; Gong, Sungyong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the indicators and proxy variables for the quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies and evaluates the relative importance of each assessment element by consulting experts from the fields of ecology, chemistry, safety, and public health. Methods The results collected were subjected to an analytic hierarchy process to obtain the weights of the indicators and the proxy variables. Results These weights may prove useful in avoiding having to resort to qualitative means in absence of weights between indicators when integrating the results of quantitative assessment by indicator. Conclusions This study points to the limitations of current quantitative assessment techniques for green chemistry technologies and seeks to present the future direction for quantitative assessment of green chemistry technologies. PMID:26206364

  14. Assessing equitable access to urban green space: the role of engineered water infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Heather E Wright; Downs, Joni A; Mihelcic, James R

    2011-08-15

    Urban green space and water features provide numerous social, environmental, and economic benefits, yet disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. This study examines the link between issues of environmental justice and urban water management to evaluate potential improvements in green space and surface water access through the revitalization of existing engineered water infrastructures, namely stormwater ponds. First, relative access to green space and water features were compared for residents of Tampa, Florida, and an inner-city community of Tampa (East Tampa). Although disparities were not found in overall accessibility between Tampa and East Tampa, inequalities were apparent when quality, diversity, and size of green spaces were considered. East Tampa residents had significantly less access to larger, more desirable spaces and water features. Second, this research explored approaches for improving accessibility to green space and natural water using three integrated stormwater management development scenarios. These scenarios highlighted the ability of enhanced water infrastructures to increase access equality at a variety of spatial scales. Ultimately, the "greening" of gray urban water infrastructures is advocated as a way to address environmental justice issues while also reconnecting residents with issues of urban water management. PMID:21728276

  15. Assessing equitable access to urban green space: the role of engineered water infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Heather E Wright; Downs, Joni A; Mihelcic, James R

    2011-08-15

    Urban green space and water features provide numerous social, environmental, and economic benefits, yet disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. This study examines the link between issues of environmental justice and urban water management to evaluate potential improvements in green space and surface water access through the revitalization of existing engineered water infrastructures, namely stormwater ponds. First, relative access to green space and water features were compared for residents of Tampa, Florida, and an inner-city community of Tampa (East Tampa). Although disparities were not found in overall accessibility between Tampa and East Tampa, inequalities were apparent when quality, diversity, and size of green spaces were considered. East Tampa residents had significantly less access to larger, more desirable spaces and water features. Second, this research explored approaches for improving accessibility to green space and natural water using three integrated stormwater management development scenarios. These scenarios highlighted the ability of enhanced water infrastructures to increase access equality at a variety of spatial scales. Ultimately, the "greening" of gray urban water infrastructures is advocated as a way to address environmental justice issues while also reconnecting residents with issues of urban water management.

  16. Evaluating Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Application of Stormwater Best Management Practices in Protecting Stream Habitat and Biotic Condition in New England

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is developing assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) applied in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) at the small watershed (HUC12 or finer) scale. Based on analysis of historical monitoring data using boosted regression tre...

  17. Assessing the Greenness of Chemical Reactions in the Laboratory Using Updated Holistic Graphic Metrics Based on the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Yunes, Santiago F.; Machado, Adelio A. S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Two graphic holistic metrics for assessing the greenness of synthesis, the "green star" and the "green circle", have been presented previously. These metrics assess the greenness by the degree of accomplishment of each of the 12 principles of green chemistry that apply to the case under evaluation. The criteria for assessment…

  18. Assessment of the hydrological impacts of green roof: From building scale to basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, P.-A.; Ramier, D.; Berthier, E.; de Gouvello, B.

    2015-05-01

    At the building scale, the use of green roof has shown a positive impact on urban runoff (decrease and slow-down in peak discharge, decrease in runoff volume). The present work aims to study whether similar effects are possible at the basin scale and what is the minimum spreading of green runoff needed to observe significant impacts. It is particularly focused on the circumstances of such impacts and how they can contribute to storm water management in urban environment. Based on observations on experimental green roofs, a conceptual model has been developed and integrated into the SWMM urban rainfall-runoff model to reproduce the hydrological behaviour of two different types of green roof. It has been combined with a method defining green roofing scenarios by estimating the maximum roof area that can be covered. This methodology has been applied on a long time series (18 years) to the Châtillon urban basin (Haut-de-Seine county, France) frequently affected by urban flooding. For comparison, the same methodology has been applied at the building scale and a complementary analysis has been conducted to study which hydrometeorological variables may affect the magnitude of these hydrological impacts at both scales. The results show green roofs, when they are widely implemented, can affect urban runoff in terms of peak discharge and volume, and avoid flooding in several cases. Both precipitation - generally accumulated during the whole event- and the initial substrate saturation are likely to have an impact on green roof effects. In this context, the studied green roofs seem useful to mitigate the effects of usual rainfall events but turn out being less helpful for the more severe ones. We conclude that, combined with other infrastructures, green roofs represent an interesting contribution to urban water management in the future.

  19. Assessment of Learning Outcomes: The Example of Spatial Analysis at Bowling Green State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Zhou, Yu

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a developing approach to assessing selected undergraduate geography courses at Bowling Green State University (BGSU). The assessment focuses on the students' skills in collecting, integrating, analysing, displaying, and communicating spatial information and data sources using mapping and geographic information…

  20. Hydrologic, Social, and Economic Efficacy of Green Infrastructure Credit Programs: Toward Citizen Stormwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, O. O.; Kertesz, R.; Rossman, L.; Shuster, W.

    2013-12-01

    Fostering 'citizen stormwater management', whereby citizens make stormwater management a part of their everyday lives, aims to improve the resilience of the urban water social-ecological system by reducing the load on the stormwater collection system through investment in natural and social capitals. A popular method of incentivizing citizen stormwater management is offering stormwater fee discounts as credits for the installation of green infrastructure onsite. Such installations, in effect, reduce the amount of impervious area by disconnecting them from the sewer system. We analyze 4 such programs (Portland OR, Cleveland OH, Fort Myers FL, and Lynchburg VA) which offer discounts to single family residences for installing rain gardens or bioinfiltration features. Findings indicate large variability in the hydrological, social, and economic efficacy of these programs. We assessed hydrologic efficacy using the Environmental Protection Agency's recently released Stormwater Calculator, a user-friendly model based on SWMM. Hydrologic efficacy was most sensitive to level of detail in administrative rules (i.e., specifics pertaining to soil drainage, slope), regional conditions (e.g., precipitation) and local conditions (e.g., soil, percent of impervious area treated). Social efficacy was measured by the accessibility of the programs to average citizens and varied from highly accessible programs, whereby municipalities had sufficient outreach efforts such that average residents could install their own green infrastructure, to programs with no outreach and contradictory rules which would require a professional engineer to navigate the process and install an eligible rain garden. Economic efficiency was largely dependent on the base stormwater fee (i.e., higher baseline bill results in higher discount and thus higher incentive to participate). From the perspective of a homeowner, they may receive a windfall (i.e., % runoff reduced < % discount), yet due to the low baseline

  1. Tool to address green roof widespread implementation effect in flood characteristics for water management planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, R.; Lorenzini, F.; Allasia, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    In the last decades, new approaches were adopted to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible through technologies and devices that preserve and recreate natural landscape features. Green Roofs (GR) are examples of these devices that are also incentivized by city's stormwater management plans. Several studies show that GR decreases on-site runoff from impervious surfaces, however, the analysis of the effect of widespread implementation of GR in the flood characteristics at the urban basin scale in subtropical areas are little discussed, mainly because of the absence of data. Thereby, this paper shows results related to the monitoring of an extensive modular GR under subtropical weather conditions, the development of a rainfall-runoff model based on the modified Curve Number (CN) and SCS Triangular Unit Hydrograph (TUH) methods and the analysis of large-scale impact of GR by modelling different basins. The model was calibrated against observed data and showed that GR absorbed almost all the smaller storms and reduced runoff even during the most intense rainfall. The overall CN was estimated in 83 (consistent with available literature) with the shape of hydrographs well reproduced. Large-scale modelling (in basins ranging from 0.03 ha to several square kilometers) showed that the widespread use of GRs reduced peak flows (volumes) around 57% (48%) at source and 38% (32%) at the basin scale. Thus, this research validated a tool for the assessment of structural management measures (specifically GR) to address changes in flood characteristics in the city's water management planning. From the application of this model it was concluded that even if the efficiency of GR decreases as the basin scale increase they still provide a good option to cope with urbanization impact.

  2. Bone fractures: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Lim, L; Sirichai, P

    2016-03-01

    Severe dental traumatic injuries often involve the supporting bone and soft tissues. This article outlines the current concepts in the management of dentoalveolar fractures for the general dental practitioner with case reports to illustrate management principles and techniques. PMID:26923449

  3. Bone fractures: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Lim, L; Sirichai, P

    2016-03-01

    Severe dental traumatic injuries often involve the supporting bone and soft tissues. This article outlines the current concepts in the management of dentoalveolar fractures for the general dental practitioner with case reports to illustrate management principles and techniques.

  4. Environmental Management Systems: A Framework for Planning Green Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keniry, Julian

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on recent survey data from the National Wildlife Federation and other publications, explains what an environmental management system is and identifies its components; examines how environmental management systems have been applied in higher education settings; reports on trends in implementation; and illustrates how the environmental…

  5. A Multimethodology Contractor Assessment Model for Facilitating Green Innovation: The View of Energy and Environmental Protection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations. PMID:24311979

  6. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations.

  7. A multimethodology contractor assessment model for facilitating green innovation: the view of energy and environmental protection.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Sung-Lin; Yan, Min-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The trends of the green supply chain are attributed to pressures from the environment and from customers. Green innovation is a practice for creating competitive advantage in sustainable development. To keep up with the changing business environment, the construction industry needs an appropriate assessment tool to examine the intrinsic and extrinsic effects regarding corporate competitive advantage. From the viewpoint of energy and environmental protection, this study combines four scientific methodologies to develop an assessment model for the green innovation of contractors. System dynamics can be used to estimate the future trends for the overall industrial structure and is useful in predicting competitive advantage in the industry. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and utility theory focus on the customer's attitude toward risk and are useful for comprehending changes in objective requirements in the environment. Fuzzy logic can simplify complicated intrinsic and extrinsic factors and express them with a number or ratio that is easy to understand. The proposed assessment model can be used as a reference to guide the government in examining the public constructions that qualified green contractors participate in. Additionally, the assessment model serves an indicator of relative competitiveness that can help the general contractor and subcontractor to evaluate themselves and further green innovations. PMID:24311979

  8. Assessing the Performance of Large Scale Green Roofs and Their Impact on the Urban Microclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalls-Mantey, L.; Foti, R.; Montalto, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In ultra-urban environments green roofs offer a feasible solution to add green infrastructure (GI) in neighborhoods where space is limited. Green roofs offer the typical advantages of urban GI such as stormwater reduction and management while providing direct benefits to the buildings on which they are installed through thermal protection and mitigation of temperature fluctuations. At 6.8 acres, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center (JJCC) in New York City, hosts the second largest green roof in the United States. Since its installation in August 2013, the Sustainable Water Resource (SWRE) Laboratory at Drexel University has monitored the climate on and around the green roof by means of four weather stations situated on various roof and ground locations. Using two years of fine scale climatic data collected at the JJCC, this study explores the energy balance of a large scale green roof system. Temperature, radiation, evapotranspiration and wind profiles pre- and post- installation of the JJCC green roof were analyzed and compared across monitored locations, with the goal of identifying the impact of the green roof on the building and urban micro-climate. Our findings indicate that the presence of the green roof, not only altered the climatic conditions above the JJCC, but also had a measurable impact on the climatic profile of the areas immediately surrounding it. Furthermore, as a result of the mitigation of roof temperature fluctuations and of the cooling provided during warmer months, an improvement of the building thermal efficiency was contextually observed. Such findings support the installation of GI as an effective practice in urban settings and important in the discussion of key issues including energy conservation measures, carbon emission reductions and the mitigation of urban heat islands.

  9. Urban green spatio- temporal changes assessment through time-series satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding spatio-temporal changes of urban environments is essential for regional and local planning and environmental management. With the rapid changes of Bucharest city in Romania during past decades, green spaces have been fragmented and dispersed causing impairment and dysfunction of these urban elements. The main goal of this study is to address these tasks in synergy with in-situ data and new analytical methods. Spatio- temporal monitoring of urban vegetation land cover changes is important for policy decisions, regulatory actions and subsequent land use activities. This study explored the use of time-series MODIS Terra/Aqua Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Land Surface Temperature (LST) and evapotranspiration (ET) data to provide vegetation change detection information for metropolitan area of Bucharest. Training and validation are based on a reference dataset collected from IKONOS high resolution remote sensing data. The mean detection accuracy for period 2002- 2014 was assessed to be of 87%, with a reasonable balance between change commission errors (20.24%), change omission errors (25.65%), and Kappa coefficient of 0.72. Annual change detection rates across the urban/periurban areas over the study period (2002-2014) were estimated at 0.79% per annum in the range of 0.46% (2002) to 0.77% (2014).Vegetation dynamics in urban areas at seasonal and longer timescales reflect large-scale interactions between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate system. Extracted green space areas were further analyzed quantitatively in relation with air quality data and extreme climate events. The results have been analyzed in terms of environmental impacts and future climate trends.

  10. Assessment of changes in urban green spaces of Mashad city using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Reza; Salman Mahiny, Abdolrassoul; Khorasani, Nematolah

    2009-12-01

    Green spaces play important functions in urban environments. Reducing air pollution, providing shade and habitat for arboreal birds, producing oxygen, providing shelter against winds, recreational and aesthetic qualities and architectural applications are the main functions of urban green spaces. With the rapid change of urban area in Mashad city during the past decades, green spaces have been fragmented and dispersed causing impairment and dysfunction of these important urban elements. The objective of this study was to detect changes in extent and pattern of green areas of Mashad city and to analyze the results in terms of landscape ecology principles and functioning of the green spaces. In this research, we classified a Landsat TM and an IRS LISS-III image belonging to the years 1987 and 2006, respectively. We then used a post-classification comparison to determine the changes in green space areas of Mashad city during the 19 years covered by the images. Then, we applied landscape ecology calculations to derive metrics that quantified pattern of the changes in the green areas. The results showed that during 19 years from 1987, a significant decrease had occurred in the extent of urban green spaces with a concomitant fragmentation resulting in downgrading and destruction of the functions and services these areas provide. We conclude that the general quality of life in the central parts of the city has been diminished. We also state that a combination of remote sensing image classification, landscape metrics assessment and vegetation indices can provide a tool for assessing life quality and its trend for urban areas.

  11. USEPA Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Program: Green Infrastructure for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The water research portfolio of the USEPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) includes a significant focus on stormwater management as a major cause of contaminants in and degradation to surface waters. The importance of maintaining and restoring natural hydrology via green...

  12. Evaluating the Effect of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices on New England Stream Habitat

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is evaluating the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) stormwater best management practices (BMPs) on stream habitat at the small watershed (< HUC12) scale in New England. Predictive models for thermal regime and substrate characteristics (substrate size, % em...

  13. Simulated Benefits of Green Infrastructure for Urban Stormwater Management under Climate Change in Different Hydroclimatic and Archetypal Urban Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. E.; Butcher, J.; Sarkar, S.; Clark, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change could significantly alter the occurrence and management of urban stormwater runoff quantity and quality. Responding to this challenge requires an improved understanding of potential changes together with the effectiveness of management responses for reducing impacts under range of potential future climatic conditions. Traditional gray stormwater infrastructure generally uses single-purpose, hard structures including detention basins and storm sewers to dispose of rainwater. Green infrastructure (GI) uses vegetation and soil to manage rainwater where it falls. GI has been gaining in popularity, and has been shown to provide a number of benefits for adapting to climate change including effects on stormwater quantity, quality and carbon and nutrient biogeochemical cycling. Uncertainty remains, however, due to limited understanding of GI performance in different hydroclimatic and urban settings, and in response to changes in climate. In this study we use simulation modeling to assess the impacts of climate change on both gray (wet ponds) and green infrastructure practices (green roofs, swales, bioretention) in different hydroclimatic and urban settings. Simulations were conducted using RHESSYs, a mechanistic, hydrologic and biogeochemical model, for 36 characteristic urban "archetypes" (AUSs) representing different development patterns and GI practices found in typical U.S. cities. Climate change scenarios are based on dynamically and temporally downscaled, mid-21st century climate model output from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Results suggest altered mass and energy inputs will cause changes in performance of these practices for water quantity, water quality, and carbon sequestration that vary across the country. Infrastructure design should take these potential changes into consideration.

  14. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  15. Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    PubMed Central

    Satyavani, G.; Chandrasehar, G.; Varma, K. Krishna; Goparaju, A.; Ayyappan, S.; Reddy, P. Neelakanta; Murthy, P. Balakrishna

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of expired pesticides on the yield and growth rate of green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, a study was conducted as per the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline number 201. Fifteen expired pesticide formulations, most commonly used in Indian agriculture, were tested in comparison with their unexpired counterparts. The expired pesticide formulations studied belonged to various class and functional groups: organophosphate, pyrethroid-based insecticides; azole-based fungicides; acetamide, propionate, acetic acid-based herbicides; fungicides mixtures containing two actives—azole and dithiocarbamate. The toxicity endpoints of yield (EyC50: 0–72 h) and growth rate (ErC50: 0–72 h) of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for each pesticide formulation (both expired and unexpired pesticides) were determined statistically using TOXSTAT 3.5 version software. The results pointed out that some expired pesticide formulations exhibited higher toxicity to tested algal species, as compared to the corresponding unexpired pesticides. These data thus stress the need for greater care to dispose expired pesticides to water bodies, to avoid the effects on aquatic ecospecies tested. PMID:23762633

  16. Systems scale assessment of the sustainability implications of emerging green initiatives.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Namdeo, Anil; Fuentes, Jose; Dore, Anthony; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Bell, Margaret

    2013-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a systems framework for assessment of environmental impacts from 'green initiatives', through a case study of meso-scale, anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. The following cross-sectoral green initiatives, combining the emerging trends in the North East region of the United Kingdom, have been considered - increasing the vegetation cover; decarbonising road transport; decentralising energy production through biomass plants. Two future scenarios are assessed - Baseline_2020 (projected emissions from realisation of policy instruments); Aggressive_2020 (additional emissions from realisation of green initiatives). Resulting trends from the Aggressive_2020 scenario suggest an increase in emissions of pollutant precursors, including biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide over the base case by up to 20% and 5% respectively. This has implications for enhanced daytime ozone and secondary aerosols formation by up to 15% and over 5% respectively. Associated land cover changes show marginal decrease of ambient temperature but modest reductions in ammonia and ambient particulates.

  17. Framework for Incorporating Green Infrastructure into Urban Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts have been under way by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 2003 to develop a decision-support system for placement of best management practices (BMPs) at strategic locations in urban watersheds. This system is called the System for Urban Stormwater Treatm...

  18. German experience in managing stormwater with green infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper identifies and describes experience with ‘green’ stormwater management practices in Germany. It provides the context in which developments took place and extracts lessons learned to inform efforts of other countries in confronting urban stormwater challenges. Our findi...

  19. Greening academia: Developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.; Williams, I.D.; Kemp, S.; Smith, N.F.

    2011-07-15

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4 million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated legislative, economic and environmental pressures can be difficult to control and manage. This paper critically reviews why sustainable waste management has become a key issue for the worldwide HE sector to address and describes some of the benefits, barriers, practical and logistical problems. As a practical illustration of some of the issues and problems, the four-phase waste management strategy developed over 15 years by one of the largest universities in Southern England - the University of Southampton (UoS) - is outlined as a case study. The UoS is committed to protecting the environment by developing practices that are safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly and has developed a practical, staged approach to manage waste in an increasingly sustainable fashion. At each stage, the approach taken to the development of infrastructure (I), service provision (S) and behavior change (B) is explained, taking into account the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) factors. Signposts to lessons learned, good practice and useful resources that other institutions - both nationally and internationally - can access are provided. As a result of the strategy developed at the UoS, from 2004 to 2008 waste costs fell by around Pounds 125k and a recycling rate of 72% was achieved. The holistic approach taken - recognizing the PESTLE factors and the importance of a concerted ISB approach - provides a realistic, successful and practical example for other institutions wishing to effectively and sustainably manage their waste.

  20. Greening academia: developing sustainable waste management at Higher Education Institutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N; Williams, I D; Kemp, S; Smith, N F

    2011-07-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are often the size of small municipalities. Worldwide, the higher education (HE) sector has expanded phenomenally; for example, since the 1960s, the United Kingdom (UK) HE system has expanded sixfold to >2.4 million students. As a consequence, the overall production of waste at HEIs throughout the world is very large and presents significant challenges as the associated legislative, economic and environmental pressures can be difficult to control and manage. This paper critically reviews why sustainable waste management has become a key issue for the worldwide HE sector to address and describes some of the benefits, barriers, practical and logistical problems. As a practical illustration of some of the issues and problems, the four-phase waste management strategy developed over 15 years by one of the largest universities in Southern England--the University of Southampton (UoS)--is outlined as a case study. The UoS is committed to protecting the environment by developing practices that are safe, sustainable and environmentally friendly and has developed a practical, staged approach to manage waste in an increasingly sustainable fashion. At each stage, the approach taken to the development of infrastructure (I), service provision (S) and behavior change (B) is explained, taking into account the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) factors. Signposts to lessons learned, good practice and useful resources that other institutions--both nationally and internationally--can access are provided. As a result of the strategy developed at the UoS, from 2004 to 2008 waste costs fell by around £125k and a recycling rate of 72% was achieved. The holistic approach taken--recognizing the PESTLE factors and the importance of a concerted ISB approach--provides a realistic, successful and practical example for other institutions wishing to effectively and sustainably manage their waste.

  1. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report.

  2. Assessing the quality of cost management

    SciTech Connect

    Fayne, V.; McAllister, A.; Weiner, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    Managing environmental programs can be effective only when good cost and cost-related management practices are developed and implemented. The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM), recognizing this key role of cost management, initiated several cost and cost-related management activities including the Cost Quality Management (CQM) Program. The CQM Program includes an assessment activity, Cost Quality Management Assessments (CQMAs), and a technical assistance effort to improve program/project cost effectiveness. CQMAs provide a tool for establishing a baseline of cost-management practices and for measuring improvement in those practices. The result of the CQMA program is an organization that has an increasing cost-consciousness, improved cost-management skills and abilities, and a commitment to respond to the public`s concerns for both a safe environment and prudent budget outlays. The CQMA program is part of the foundation of quality management practices in DOE. The CQMA process has contributed to better cost and cost-related management practices by providing measurements and feedback; defining the components of a quality cost-management system; and helping sites develop/improve specific cost-management techniques and methods.

  3. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies for Advanced Green Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Meyer, Michael L.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the Exploration Vision for returning to the Moon and beyond, NASA and its partners are developing and testing critical cryogenic fluid propellant technologies that will meet the need for high performance propellants on long-term missions. Reliable knowledge of low-gravity cryogenic fluid management behavior is lacking and yet is critical in the areas of tank thermal and pressure control, fluid acquisition, mass gauging, and fluid transfer. Such knowledge can significantly reduce or even eliminate tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, and simplify vehicle operations. The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) Project is performing experimental and analytical evaluation of several areas within Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) to enable NASA's Exploration Vision. This paper discusses the status of the PCAD CFM technology focus areas relative to the anticipated CFM requirements to enable execution of the Vision for Space Exploration.

  4. Field Assessment of the Village Green Project: An Autonomous Community Air Quality Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent findings on air pollution levels in communities motivate new technologies to assess air pollution at finer spatial scale. The Village Green Project (VGP) is a novel approach using commercially-available technology for long-term community environments air pollution measure...

  5. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF IONIC LIQUIDS VIA LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic Liquids have been suggested as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. However, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases have not been studied. Such a "cradle to gate" Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for comparing the environmental impact of various solvents...

  6. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account.

  7. Assessment and management of orbital cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nikul; Syed, Irfan; Osborne, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Orbital cellulitis is a medical emergency requiring multidisciplinary team involvement. Early diagnosis and intervention is imperative to avoid serious complications. This article provides an evidence-based approach to the assessment and management of patients with orbital cellulitis.

  8. An eco-sustainable green approach for heavy metals management: two case studies of developing industrial region.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Multifaceted issues or paradigm of sustainable development should be appropriately addressed in the discipline of environmental management. Pollution of the biosphere with toxic metals has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In present review, comparative assessment of traditional chemical technologies and phytoremediation has been reviewed particularly in the context of cost-effectiveness. The potential of phytoremediation and green chemicals in heavy metals management has been described critically. Further, the review explores our work on phytoremediation as green technology during the last 6 years and hand in hand addresses the various ecological issues, benefits and constraints pertaining to heavy metal pollution of aquatic ecosystems and its phytoremediation as first case study. Second case study demonstrates the possible health implications associated with use of metal contaminated wastewater for irrigation in peri-urban areas of developing world. Our researches revealed wetland plants/macrophytes as ideal bio-system for heavy metals removal in terms of both ecology and economy, when compared with chemical treatments. However, there are several constraints or limitations in the use of aquatic plants for phytoremediation in microcosm as well as mesocosm conditions. On the basis of our past researches, an eco-sustainable model has been proposed in order to resolve the certain constraints imposed in two case studies. In relation to future prospect, phytoremediation technology for enhanced heavy metal accumulation is still in embryonic stage and needs more attention in gene manipulation area. Moreover, harvesting and recycling tools needs more extensive research. A multidisciplinary research effort that integrates the work of natural sciences, environmental engineers and policy makers is essential for greater success of green technologies as a potent tool of heavy metals management. PMID:21465134

  9. Welfare assessment in transgenic pigs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP).

    PubMed

    Huber, Reinhard C; Remuge, Liliana; Carlisle, Ailsa; Lillico, Simon; Sandøe, Peter; Sørensen, Dorte B; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Olsson, I Anna S

    2012-08-01

    Since large animal transgenesis has been successfully attempted for the first time about 25 years ago, the technology has been applied in various lines of transgenic pigs. Nevertheless one of the concerns with the technology--animal welfare--has not been approached through systematic assessment and statements regarding the welfare of transgenic pigs have been based on anecdotal observations during early stages of transgenic programs. The main aim of the present study was therefore to perform an extensive welfare assessment comparing heterozygous transgenic animals expressing GFP with wildtype animals along various stages of post natal development. The protocol used covered reproductory performance and behaviour in GFP and wildtype sows and general health and development, social behaviour, exploratory behaviour and emotionality in GFP and wildtype littermates from birth until an age of roughly 4 months. The absence of significant differences between GFP and wildtype animals in the parameters observed suggests that the transgenic animals in question are unlikely to suffer from deleterious effects of transgene expression on their welfare and thus support existing anecdotal observations of pigs expressing GFP as healthy. Although the results are not surprising in the light of previous experience, they give a more solid fundament to the evaluation of GFP expression as being relatively non-invasive in pigs. The present study may furthermore serve as starting point for researchers aiming at a systematic characterization of welfare relevant effects in the line of transgenic pigs they are working with.

  10. Bioassays as one of the Green Chemistry tools for assessing environmental quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Wieczerzak, M; Namieśnik, J; Kudłak, B

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, mankind has contributed to irreversible environmental changes, but due to the modern science of recent decades, scientists are able to assess the scale of this impact. The introduction of laws and standards to ensure environmental cleanliness requires comprehensive environmental monitoring, which should also meet the requirements of Green Chemistry. The broad spectrum of Green Chemistry principle applications should also include all of the techniques and methods of pollutant analysis and environmental monitoring. The classical methods of chemical analyses do not always match the twelve principles of Green Chemistry, and they are often expensive and employ toxic and environmentally unfriendly solvents in large quantities. These solvents can generate hazardous and toxic waste while consuming large volumes of resources. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable techniques that would not only meet the requirements of Green Analytical Chemistry, but they could also complement and sometimes provide an alternative to conventional classical analytical methods. These alternatives may be found in bioassays. Commercially available certified bioassays often come in the form of ready-to-use toxkits, and they are easy to use and relatively inexpensive in comparison with certain conventional analytical methods. The aim of this study is to provide evidence that bioassays can be a complementary alternative to classical methods of analysis and can fulfil Green Analytical Chemistry criteria. The test organisms discussed in this work include single-celled organisms, such as cell lines, fungi (yeast), and bacteria, and multicellular organisms, such as invertebrate and vertebrate animals and plants.

  11. Bioassays as one of the Green Chemistry tools for assessing environmental quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Wieczerzak, M; Namieśnik, J; Kudłak, B

    2016-09-01

    For centuries, mankind has contributed to irreversible environmental changes, but due to the modern science of recent decades, scientists are able to assess the scale of this impact. The introduction of laws and standards to ensure environmental cleanliness requires comprehensive environmental monitoring, which should also meet the requirements of Green Chemistry. The broad spectrum of Green Chemistry principle applications should also include all of the techniques and methods of pollutant analysis and environmental monitoring. The classical methods of chemical analyses do not always match the twelve principles of Green Chemistry, and they are often expensive and employ toxic and environmentally unfriendly solvents in large quantities. These solvents can generate hazardous and toxic waste while consuming large volumes of resources. Therefore, there is a need to develop reliable techniques that would not only meet the requirements of Green Analytical Chemistry, but they could also complement and sometimes provide an alternative to conventional classical analytical methods. These alternatives may be found in bioassays. Commercially available certified bioassays often come in the form of ready-to-use toxkits, and they are easy to use and relatively inexpensive in comparison with certain conventional analytical methods. The aim of this study is to provide evidence that bioassays can be a complementary alternative to classical methods of analysis and can fulfil Green Analytical Chemistry criteria. The test organisms discussed in this work include single-celled organisms, such as cell lines, fungi (yeast), and bacteria, and multicellular organisms, such as invertebrate and vertebrate animals and plants. PMID:27472199

  12. Exploring Academics' Approaches to Managing Team Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augar, Naomi; Woodley, Carolyn J.; Whitefield, Despina; Winchester, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of academics' approaches to managing team assessment at an Australian University with a view to informing policy development and assessment design. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted using a single exploratory case study approach focussing on the team assessment…

  13. Dysphagia: its nature, assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, John

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia impacts on the health and quality of life of individuals and contributes to the cost of health care. This paper summarises current literature regarding the nature, assessment and management of acquired oro-pharyngeal dysphagia in older adults. It examines the aetiology, prevalence and consequences of dysphagia, as well as issues regarding medication administration. Assessment of dysphagia is explored in terms of multidisciplinary screening, speech and language therapist clinical swallowing evaluation and instrumental assessment.

  14. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-08-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05-25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%-89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire Heihe river basin at the sub

  15. Assessment and management of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijendra P; Malhotra, Neeraj; Apratim, Abhishek; Verma, Madhu

    2015-05-01

    Halitosis is an unpleasant condition that may be the origin of concern not only for a possible health condition but also for frequent psychological alterations which may lead to social and personal isolation. The most frequent sources of halitosis that exist in the oral cavity include bacterial reservoirs such as the dorsum of the tongue, saliva and periodontal pockets. Volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) are the prominent elements of oral malodour. Genuine halitosis and pseudo-halitosis should be in the treatment realm of dental practitioners. Clinical Relevance: Halitosis can be a symptom of underlying systemic disease, therefore the exact diagnosis and its source (oral or non-oral) is important in the proper approach to its management. PMID:26062259

  16. [Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil active organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management index].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil active organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management index. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management index increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management index (P < 0.01), and had a significant correlation with dis- solved organic C and MBC (P < 0.05). Rice yield was significantly positively correlated with AOC contents and the C pool management index, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management index, improve soil quality and fertility.

  17. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  18. Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

    2013-02-01

    Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management.

  19. TOMCAT: An Obsolescence Management Capability Assessment Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Rojo, F. J.; Baguley, P.; Shaikh, N.; Roy, R.; Kelly, S.

    2012-05-01

    As the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) moves away from the traditional support contracts to contracting for availability/capability, it is essential that the MoD has confidence in Industry's capability to manage the risk of obsolescence. For this purpose, it was necessary to develop a set of metrics to demonstrate it. The eight key elements identified are as follows: obsolescence management governance; supplier; design for obsolescence; risk assessment; obsolescence monitoring; communication; and obsolescence resolution process. Each one was assessed, ranked, and was further broken down into major constituents. They formed the basis of the final 25 metrics, which were then ranked and weighted accordingly. These metrics are embedded into the Total Obsolescence Management Capability Assessment Tool (TOMCAT), which provides a mean for contractors to perform self-assessment and for the MoD to set obsolescence management capability improvement targets. This tool was subjected to rigorous industry scrutiny through different means, including workshops and piloting sessions, which led to refining the TOMCAT tool and the way in which the metrics are formulated. This tool has been developed as a web based application. The MoD is planning to standardise its usage by incorporating it to the obsolescence management policy for defence contracting.

  20. Geriatric vestibulopathy assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Joseph M.; Raz, Yael; Whitney, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses the demographics of dizziness in the older person, the evaluation of the older dizzy patient and how the treatment of dizziness in older patients differs from that in younger individuals. Recent findings Seven percent of all visits to primary care physicians for patients older than 65 years of age are for dizziness, and dizziness is the most common complaint for patients older than 75 years. In a German study, the 12-month prevalence of vertigo in the general population was 5% with an incidence of 1.4% in adults overall. For individuals aged 60–69 the 12-month prevalence was found to be 7.2% and in individuals 70 years of age or older 8.9%. Data from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys indicated that the prevalence of vestibular dysfunction for individuals in the seventh decade of life, eighth decade of life, and older was 49.4, 68.7, and 84.8 percent, respectively. Only subtle age effects are seen on caloric and rotational testing whereas vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) change somewhat with age. Particle repositioning for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo combined with vestibular rehabilitation is more effective than only performing the repositioning maneuver. Tai Chi appears to be an effective intervention for older adults at risk for falling. Summary When caring for an older dizzy patient always assess medication use, perform a Dix–Hallpike maneuver, obtain orthostatic vital signs, discuss fall risk precautions, and consider referral for vestibular rehabilitation. PMID:20613528

  1. Pain in Children: Assessment and Nonpharmacological Management

    PubMed Central

    Srouji, Rasha; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Schneeweiss, Suzan

    2010-01-01

    Pain perception in children is complex, and is often difficult to assess. In addition, pain management in children is not always optimized in various healthcare settings, including emergency departments. A review of pain assessment scales that can be used in children across all ages, and a discussion of the importance of pain in control and distraction techniques during painful procedures are presented. Age specific nonpharmacological interventions used to manage pain in children are most effective when adapted to the developmental level of the child. Distraction techniques are often provided by nurses, parents or child life specialists and help in pain alleviation during procedures. PMID:20706640

  2. Soil Quality Assessment Is a Necessary First Step for Designing Urban Green Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James A; Klimas, Christie A; Arcus, Joseph; DeKnock, Christian; Rico, Kathryn; Rodriguez, Yarency; Vollrath, Katherine; Webb, Ellen; Williams, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a preliminary project conducted by a team of DePaul University undergraduate students and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center located on Chicago's South Side. The team assessed soil quality on 116 samples collected among four abandoned residential lots adjacent to the Comer Center. Soil quality data will be used in a follow-up study to determine the suitability of each lot for green infrastructure implementation. Green infrastructure may be a useful approach for providing ecosystem services and mitigating food deserts in inner-city communities. Soil quality on all lots was poor. All soils had pH >8.0, low biological activity, and low N mineralization potential. The soils were rich in available P and had mean total Pb concentrations above the USEPA threshold (400 mg kg) for children's playlots. Mean bioavailable Pb on the largest of the four lots was 12% of total Pb, indicating that most of the total Pb is not bioavailable. This result is encouraging because high bioavailable Pb concentrations are linked with negative health effects, particularly in children. All lots had NO-N concentrations below those considered to be appropriate for plant growth. On the other hand, no significant differences in mean concentrations of the other analytes were found. The poor soil quality in the four lots presents an opportunity to use green infrastructure to enhance ecosystem services, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space. PMID:26828156

  3. Soil Quality Assessment Is a Necessary First Step for Designing Urban Green Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, James A; Klimas, Christie A; Arcus, Joseph; DeKnock, Christian; Rico, Kathryn; Rodriguez, Yarency; Vollrath, Katherine; Webb, Ellen; Williams, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a preliminary project conducted by a team of DePaul University undergraduate students and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center located on Chicago's South Side. The team assessed soil quality on 116 samples collected among four abandoned residential lots adjacent to the Comer Center. Soil quality data will be used in a follow-up study to determine the suitability of each lot for green infrastructure implementation. Green infrastructure may be a useful approach for providing ecosystem services and mitigating food deserts in inner-city communities. Soil quality on all lots was poor. All soils had pH >8.0, low biological activity, and low N mineralization potential. The soils were rich in available P and had mean total Pb concentrations above the USEPA threshold (400 mg kg) for children's playlots. Mean bioavailable Pb on the largest of the four lots was 12% of total Pb, indicating that most of the total Pb is not bioavailable. This result is encouraging because high bioavailable Pb concentrations are linked with negative health effects, particularly in children. All lots had NO-N concentrations below those considered to be appropriate for plant growth. On the other hand, no significant differences in mean concentrations of the other analytes were found. The poor soil quality in the four lots presents an opportunity to use green infrastructure to enhance ecosystem services, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space.

  4. Assessing Cost-effectiveness of Green Infrastructures in response to Large Storm Events at Household Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Liu, X.; Zhan, W.

    2015-12-01

    Green infrastructures (GI) are becoming more important for urban stormwater control worldwide. However, relatively few studies focus on researching the specific designs of GI at household scale. This study assesses the hydrological performance and cost-effectiveness of different GI designs, namely green roofs, bioretention systems and porous pavements. It aims to generate generic insights by comparing the optimal designs of each GI in 2-year and 50-year storms of Hong Kong, China and Seattle, US. EPA SWMM is first used to simulate the hydrologic performance, in particular, the peak runoff reduction of thousands of GI designs. Then, life cycle costs of the designs are computed and their effectiveness, in terms of peak runoff reduction percentage per thousand dollars, is compared. The peak runoff reduction increases almost linearly with costs for green roofs. However, for bioretention systems and porous pavements, peak runoff reduction only increases significantly with costs in the mid values. For achieving the same peak runoff reduction percentage, the optimal soil depth of green roofs increases with the design storm, while surface area does not change significantly. On the other hand, for bioretention systems and porous pavements, the optimal surface area increases with the design storm, while thickness does not change significantly. In general, the cost effectiveness of porous pavements is highest, followed by bioretention systems and then green roofs. The cost effectiveness is higher for a smaller storm, and is thus higher for 2-year storm than 50-year storm, and is also higher for Seattle when compared to Hong Kong. This study allows us to better understand the hydrological performance and cost-effectiveness of different GI designs. It facilitates the implementation of optimal choice and design of each specific GI for stormwater mitigation.

  5. Mental models of a water management system in a green building.

    PubMed

    Kalantzis, Anastasia; Thatcher, Andrew; Sheridan, Craig

    2016-11-01

    This intergroup case study compared users' mental models with an expert design model of a water management system in a green building. The system incorporates a constructed wetland component and a rainwater collection pond that together recycle water for re-use in the building and its surroundings. The sample consisted of five building occupants and the cleaner (6 users) and two experts who were involved with the design of the water management system. Users' mental model descriptions and the experts' design model were derived from in-depth interviews combined with self-constructed (and verified) diagrams. Findings from the study suggest that there is considerable variability in the user mental models that could impact the efficient functioning of the water management system. Recommendations for improvements are discussed.

  6. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide

  7. A COMPARISON OF GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG INDUSTRIES SECTORS IN CHINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    This paper aims to examine the differences of Green supply chain management (GSCM) implementation among chemical, automobile and machinery industries in China based on a questionnaire survey designed by Industrial Ecology at two industrial parks in Shenyang city. Exploratory factor analysis and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The main result was that the GSCM practices of the three industries are still at a beginning stage. The level of GSCM practices of automobile industry (promoted by international market competition) was higher than those of chemical and machinery industry (promoted by domestic laws and policies).

  8. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. PMID:26836279

  9. The Environmental Assessment Management modification of CADET

    1996-05-01

    The original CADET system (finalized in September 1995 as version 1.3) is a data collection and transfer system developed for the Headquarters Air Force Space Command (HQAFSPC) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP). The system was designed as a tool for ECAMP evaluators to use to enter compliance related data while in the field and to subsequently store, modify, sort, query, and print the data and to electronically transfer the data into the Airmore » Force''s Work Information Management System Environmental Subsystem (WIMSES). The original CADET system was designed to match the database structure of the WIMSES ECAMP module that came on-line in 1992. In June 1995, the Department of Defense issued The Environmental Assessment Management (TEAM) Guide and ECAMP Supplement to the TEAM Guide. These included changes to the type and amount of data collected during an ECAMP assessment. The WIMSES database structure was not modified to match the TEAM Guide; however, the need for collecting and storing the ECAMP data remained. The HQAFSC decided to modify the CADET system to incorporate the changes specified in the ECAMP Supplement and to convert the system from simply a data entry and transfer tool to a data entry and storage system to manage ECAMP findings in lieu of the WIMSES ECAMP module. The revised software is designated as version 2.0 and nicknamed TEAM CADET to distinguish it from the original CADET system.« less

  10. Modelling green macroalgal blooms on the coasts of Brittany, France to enhance water quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Thierry; Rossi, Nadège; Ménesguen, Alain; Dumas, Franck

    2014-04-01

    First recorded in the 1970s, massive green macroalgal blooms have since become an annual recurrence in Brittany, France. Eutrophication (in particular to anthropogenic nitrogen input) has been identified as the main factor controlling Ulva ‘green tide' events. In this study, we modelled Ulva proliferation using a two-dimensional model by coupling hydrodynamic and biological models (coined ‘MARS-Ulves') for five sites along the Brittany coastline (La Fresnaye Bay, Saint-Brieuc Bay, Lannion Bay, Guissény Bay and Douarnenez Bay). Calibration of the biological model was mainly based on the seasonal variation of the maximum nitrogen uptake rate (VmaxN) and the half-saturation constant for nitrogen (KN) to reproduce the internal nutrient quotas measured in situ for each site. In each bay, model predictions were in agreement with observed algal coverage converted into biomass. A numerical tracking method was implemented to identify the contribution of the rivers that empty into the study bays, and scenarios of decreases in nitrate concentration in rivers were simulated. Results from numerical nitrogen tracking highlighted the main nitrogen sources of green tides and also showed that each river contributes locally to green tides. In addition, dynamic modelling showed that the nitrate concentrations in rivers must be limited to between 5 and 15 mg l- 1, depending on the bay, to reduce Ulva biomass by half on the coasts. The three-step methodology developed in this study (analysing total dissolved inorganic nitrogen flux from rivers, tracking nitrogen sources in Ulva and developing scenarios for reducing nitrogen) provides qualitative and quantitative guidelines for stakeholders to define specific nitrogen reduction targets for better environmental management of water quality.

  11. Impacts of Climate and Management Variables on the Contamination of Preharvest Leafy Greens with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Hofstra, Nynke; Franz, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    The observed seasonality of foodborne disease suggests that climatic conditions play a role and that changes in the climate may affect the presence of pathogens. However, it is hard to determine whether this effect is direct or whether it works indirectly through other factors, such as farm management. This study aimed to identify the climate and management variables that are associated with the contamination (presence and concentration) of leafy green vegetables with E. coli. This study used data about E. coli contamination from 562 leafy green vegetables (lettuce and spinach) samples taken between 2011 and 2013 from 23 open-field farms in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway, and Spain. Mixed-effect logistic and linear regression models were used to study the statistical relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Climate variables and agricultural management practices together had a systematic influence on E. coli presence and concentration. The variables important for E. coli presence included the minimum temperature of the sampling day (odds ratio = 1.47), region, and application of inorganic fertilizer. The variables important for concentration (R(2) = 0.75) were the maximum temperature during the 3 days before sampling and the region. Temperature had a stronger influence (had a significant parameter estimate and the highest R(2)) than did management practices on E. coli presence and concentration. Region was a variable that masked many management variables, including rainwater, surface water, manure, inorganic fertilizer, and spray irrigation. Climate variables had a positive relationship with E. coli presence and concentration. Temperature, irrigation water type, fertilizer type, and irrigation method should be systematically considered in future studies of fresh produce safety.

  12. Impacts of Climate and Management Variables on the Contamination of Preharvest Leafy Greens with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Hofstra, Nynke; Franz, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    The observed seasonality of foodborne disease suggests that climatic conditions play a role and that changes in the climate may affect the presence of pathogens. However, it is hard to determine whether this effect is direct or whether it works indirectly through other factors, such as farm management. This study aimed to identify the climate and management variables that are associated with the contamination (presence and concentration) of leafy green vegetables with E. coli. This study used data about E. coli contamination from 562 leafy green vegetables (lettuce and spinach) samples taken between 2011 and 2013 from 23 open-field farms in Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Norway, and Spain. Mixed-effect logistic and linear regression models were used to study the statistical relationship between the dependent and independent variables. Climate variables and agricultural management practices together had a systematic influence on E. coli presence and concentration. The variables important for E. coli presence included the minimum temperature of the sampling day (odds ratio = 1.47), region, and application of inorganic fertilizer. The variables important for concentration (R(2) = 0.75) were the maximum temperature during the 3 days before sampling and the region. Temperature had a stronger influence (had a significant parameter estimate and the highest R(2)) than did management practices on E. coli presence and concentration. Region was a variable that masked many management variables, including rainwater, surface water, manure, inorganic fertilizer, and spray irrigation. Climate variables had a positive relationship with E. coli presence and concentration. Temperature, irrigation water type, fertilizer type, and irrigation method should be systematically considered in future studies of fresh produce safety. PMID:26735025

  13. 76 FR 30902 - Shasta Lake Management Unit, Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; Green-Horse Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... management prescriptions. This project-level amendment is proposed to enable the Forest Service to achieve...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shasta Lake Management Unit, Shasta-Trinity National Forest; California; Green-Horse Habitat Restoration and Maintenance Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA....

  14. 24 CFR 902.40 - Management operations assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations assessment... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #3: Management Operations § 902.40 Management operations assessment. (a) Objective. The objective of the Management Operations Indicator is...

  15. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness. PMID:26066313

  16. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness.

  17. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-07-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  18. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-02-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  19. Planning and design of a knowledge based system for green manufacturing management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Mohd Nawawi, Mohd; Mohd Zuki Nik Mohamed, Nik; Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a conceptual design approach to the development of a hybrid Knowledge Based (KB) system for Green Manufacturing Management (GMM) at the planning and design stages. The research concentrates on the GMM by using a hybrid KB system, which is a blend of KB system and Gauging Absences of Pre-requisites (GAP). The hybrid KB/GAP system identifies all potentials elements of green manufacturing management issues throughout the development of this system. The KB system used in the planning and design stages analyses the gap between the existing and the benchmark organizations for an effective implementation through the GAP analysis technique. The proposed KBGMM model at the design stage explores two components, namely Competitive Priority and Lean Environment modules. Through the simulated results, the KBGMM System has identified, for each modules and sub-module, the problem categories in a prioritized manner. The System finalized all the Bad Points (BP) that need to be improved to achieve benchmark implementation of GMM at the design stage. The System provides valuable decision making information for the planning and design a GMM in term of business organization.

  20. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  1. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage. PMID:23477199

  2. An assessment model for quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völcker, Chr.; Cass, A.; Dorling, A.; Zilioli, P.; Secchi, P.

    2002-07-01

    SYNSPACE together with InterSPICE and Alenia Spazio is developing an assessment method to determine the capability of an organisation in the area of quality management. The method, sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA), is called S9kS (SPiCE- 9000 for SPACE). S9kS is based on ISO 9001:2000 with additions from the quality standards issued by the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) and ISO 15504 - Process Assessments. The result is a reference model that supports the expansion of the generic process assessment framework provided by ISO 15504 to nonsoftware areas. In order to be compliant with ISO 15504, requirements from ISO 9001 and ECSS-Q-20 and Q-20-09 have been turned into process definitions in terms of Purpose and Outcomes, supported by a list of detailed indicators such as Practices, Work Products and Work Product Characteristics. In coordination with this project, the capability dimension of ISO 15504 has been revised to be consistent with ISO 9001. As contributions from ISO 9001 and the space quality assurance standards are separable, the stripped down version S9k offers organisations in all industries an assessment model based solely on ISO 9001, and is therefore interesting to all organisations, which intend to improve their quality management system based on ISO 9001.

  3. A Blue/Green Water-based Accounting Framework for Assessment of Water Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D. B.; Gupta, H. V.; Mendiondo, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, including provisioning and support for freshwater ecosystem services, water footprint, water scarcity, and water vulnerability, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) flows defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here, we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provisioning and demand (in terms of water footprint) for BW and GW ecosystem services can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 sq.km) within the Cantareira water supply system in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision-making, we compute the BW provision using three different hydrological-based methods for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs) for 23 year-period. The current BW-Footprint was defined using surface water rights for reference year 2012. Then we analyzed the BW- and GW-Footprints against long-term series of monthly values of freshwater availability. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin, and help to distinguish between human and natural reasons (drought) for conditions of insecurity. The Blue/Green water-based accounting framework developed here can be benchmarked at a range of spatial scales, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise. Future investigation will be necessary to better understand the intra-annual variability of blue water demand and to evaluate the impacts of uncertainties associated with a) the water rights database, b) the effects of climate change projections on blue and green freshwater provision.

  4. Sustainable Drainage, Green Infrastructure or Natural Flood Management - which should you choose?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingfield, Thea; Potter, Karen; Jones, Gareth; Spees, Jack; Macdonald, Neil

    2016-04-01

    River catchments as management units are more effective than administrative boundaries to integrate and coordinate efforts of organisations that utilise and manage water, soil and habitat quality. The UK government announced a pilot integrated water management initiative called, 'The Catchment Based Approach', on World Water Day 2011. After successful trials the scheme was extended to all river catchments in England during the summer of 2013. This policy has been designed to improve the collaboration, partnership and coordination of organisations involved in water and land management through locally led partnership groups. The lead organisations are all charitable bodies with significantly varying levels of experience of stormwater management; a key component of integrated water management and of great concern to communities at risk. These partnerships have implemented a number of Nature Based Solutions, but these have been presented in different ways by the different groups. In the UK there are three terms commonly used to describe Nature Based Solutions for managing the drainage of stormwater: Sustainable Drainage (SuDS), Green Infrastructure (GI) and Natural Flood Management (NFM). The definitions of each refers to the replication of natural hydrological processes in order to slow the flow of water through the landscape. But, there has been some concerns as to which of these nature based terms should be applied and why they appear to be used interchangeably. This study demonstrates that, despite the definitions of these three terms being almost identical, in practice they are not the same and should not be used interchangeably. The terms were developed by different professional groups in response to their own objectives and histories. The hydrological processes used to manage storm-water may be the same and the suggested interventions may show a degree of convergence. Yet, they operate at different scales, both geographically and organisationally. The different

  5. Green wireless body area nanonetworks: energy management and the game of survival.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sudip; Islam, Nabiul; Mahapatro, Judhistir; Rodrigues, Joel Jose P C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we envisage the architecture of Green Wireless Body Area Nanonetwork (GBAN) as a collection of nanodevices, in which each device is capable of communicating in both the molecular and wireless electromagnetic communication modes. The term green refers to the fact that the nanodevices in such a network can harvest energy from their surrounding environment, so that no nanodevice gets old solely due to the reasons attributed to energy depletion. However, the residual energy of a nanodevice can deplete substantially with the lapse of time, if the rate of energy consumption is not comparable with the rate of energy harvesting. It is observed that the rate of energy harvesting is nonlinear and sporadic in nature. So, the management of energy of the nanodevices is fundamentally important. We specifically address this problem in a ubiquitous healthcare monitoring scenario and formulate it as a cooperative Nash Bargaining game. The optimal strategy obtained from the Nash equilibrium solution provides improved network performance in terms of throughput and delay.

  6. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  7. Sustainability and shared smart and mutual--green growth (SSaM-GG) in Korean medical waste management.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Jeong, Seung-Ik

    2015-05-01

    Since medical insurance was introduced in the Republic of Korea, there have been several increases concerning medical waste. In order to solve these problems, we have applied life cycle assessment and life cycle cost. But these methods cannot be a perfect decision-making tool because they can only evaluate environmental and economic burdens. Thus, as one of many practical methods the shared smart and mutual - green growth considers economic growth, environmental protection, social justice, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism when applied to medical waste management in the Republic of Korea. Four systems were considered: incineration, incineration with heat recovery, steam sterilisation, and microwave disinfection. This research study aimed to assess pollutant emissions from treatment, transport, and disposal. Global warming potential, photochemical oxidant creation potential, acidifications potential, and human toxicity are considered to be environmental impacts. Total investment cost, transport cost, operation, and maintenance cost for the medical waste are considered in the economy evaluations though life cycle cost. The social development, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism are analysed through the Delphi-method conducted by expert groups related to medical waste. The result is that incineration with heat recovery is the best solution. However, when heat recovery is impossible, incineration without heat recovery becomes the next best choice. That is why 95% of medical waste is currently treated by both incineration and incineration with heat recovery within the Republic of Korea.

  8. Sustainability and shared smart and mutual--green growth (SSaM-GG) in Korean medical waste management.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Jeong, Seung-Ik

    2015-05-01

    Since medical insurance was introduced in the Republic of Korea, there have been several increases concerning medical waste. In order to solve these problems, we have applied life cycle assessment and life cycle cost. But these methods cannot be a perfect decision-making tool because they can only evaluate environmental and economic burdens. Thus, as one of many practical methods the shared smart and mutual - green growth considers economic growth, environmental protection, social justice, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism when applied to medical waste management in the Republic of Korea. Four systems were considered: incineration, incineration with heat recovery, steam sterilisation, and microwave disinfection. This research study aimed to assess pollutant emissions from treatment, transport, and disposal. Global warming potential, photochemical oxidant creation potential, acidifications potential, and human toxicity are considered to be environmental impacts. Total investment cost, transport cost, operation, and maintenance cost for the medical waste are considered in the economy evaluations though life cycle cost. The social development, science technology and art, and mutual voluntarism are analysed through the Delphi-method conducted by expert groups related to medical waste. The result is that incineration with heat recovery is the best solution. However, when heat recovery is impossible, incineration without heat recovery becomes the next best choice. That is why 95% of medical waste is currently treated by both incineration and incineration with heat recovery within the Republic of Korea. PMID:25762566

  9. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  10. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  11. Assessing humoral and cell-mediated immune response in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Chang, S.P.; Berestecky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Seven immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured from Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. Two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (EWL) in Freunda??s complete adjuvant, Gerbu, or ISA-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. Humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-mediated immune response was measured using in vitro cell proliferation assays (CPA) using whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) cultured with concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or soluble egg EWL antigen. All turtles, except for one immunized with Gerbu and the control, produced a detectable humoral immune response by 6 weeks which persisted for at least 14 weeks after a single immunization. All turtles produced an anamnestic humoral immune response after secondary immunization. Antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in PBM was seen in all turtles either after primary or secondary immunization, but it was not as consistent as humoral immune response; antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in whole blood was rarely seen. Mononuclear cells had significantly higher stimulation indices than whole blood regardless of adjuvant, however, results with whole blood had lower variability. Both Gerbu and ISA-70 appeared to potentiate the cell-mediated immune response when PBM or whole blood were cultured with PHA. This is the first time cell proliferation assays have been compared between whole blood and PBM for reptiles. This is also the first demonstration of antigen specific cell-mediated response in reptiles. Cell proliferation assays allowed us to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response of green turtles. However, CPA may be less reliable than ELISA for detecting antigen specific immune response. Either of the three adjuvants appears suitable to safely elicit a

  12. Quantifying green water flows for improved Integrated Land and Water Resource Management under the National Water Act of South Africa: A review on hydrological research in South Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarmain, C.; Everson, C. S.; Gush, M. B.; Clulow, A. D.

    2009-09-01

    The contribution of hydrological research in South Africa in quantifying green water flows for improved Integrated Land and Water Resources Management is reviewed. Green water refers to water losses from land surfaces through transpiration (seen as a productive use) and evaporation from bare soil (seen as a non-productive use). In contrast, blue water flows refer to streamflow (surface water) and groundwater / aquifer recharge. Over the past 20 years, a number of methods have been used to quantify the green water and blue water flows. These include micrometeorological techniques (e.g. Bowen ratio energy balance, eddy covariance, surface renewal, scintillometry, lysimetry), field scale models (e.g. SWB, SWAP), catchment scale hydrological models (e.g. ACRU, SWAT) and more recently remote sensing based models (e.g. SEBAL, SEBS). The National Water Act of South Africa of 1998 requires that water resources are managed, protected and used (developed, conserved and controlled) in an equitable way which is beneficial to the public. The quantification of green water flows in catchments under different land uses has been pivotal in (a) regulating streamflow reduction activities (e.g. forestry) and the management of alien invasive plants, (b) protecting riparian and wetland areas through the provision of an ecological reserve, (c) assessing and improving the water use efficiency of irrigated pastures, fruit tree orchards and vineyards, (d) quantifying the potential impact of future land uses like bio-fuels (e.g. Jatropha) on water resources, (e) quantifying water losses from open water bodies, and (f) investigating "biological” mitigation measures to reduce the impact of polluted water resources as a result of various industries (e.g. mining). This paper therefore captures the evolution of measurement techniques applied across South Africa, the impact these results have had on water use and water use efficiency and the extent to which it supported the National Water Act of

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  14. Plasma chemistry as a tool for green chemistry, environmental analysis and waste management.

    PubMed

    Mollah, M Y; Schennach, R; Patscheider, J; Promreuk, S; Cocke, D L

    2000-12-15

    The applications of plasma chemistry to environmental problems and to green chemistry are emerging fields that offer unique opportunities for advancement. There has been substantial progress in the application of plasmas to analytical diagnostics and to waste reduction and waste management. This review discusses the chemistry and physics necessary to a basic understanding of plasmas, something that has been missing from recent technical reviews. The current status of plasmas in environmental chemistry is summarized and emerging areas of application for plasmas are delineated. Plasmas are defined and discussed in terms of their properties that make them useful for environmental chemistry. Information is drawn from diverse fields to illustrate the potential applications of plasmas in analysis, materials modifications and hazardous waste treatments. PMID:11077165

  15. Salt tolerant green crop species for sodium management in space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Shimoda, Toshifumi; Nose, Akihiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Ecological system and materials recycling loop of space agriculture are quite tight compared to natural ecological system on Earth. Sodium management will be a keen issue for space agricul-ture. Human nutritional requirements include sodium salt. Since sodium at high concentration is toxic for most of plant growth, excreted sodium of human waste should be removed from compost fertilizer. Use of marine algae is promising for harvesting potassium and other min-erals required for plant growth and returning remained sodium to satisfy human need of its intake. Farming salt tolerant green crop species is another approach to manage sodium problem in both space and terrestrial agriculture. We chose ice plant and New Zealand spinach. These two plant species are widely accepted green vegetable with many recipe. Ice plant can grow at the salinity level of sea water, and contain sodium salt up to 30% of its dry mass. Sodium distributes mainly in its bladder cells. New Zealand spinach is a plant species found in the front zone of sea shore, and tolerant against high salinity as well. Plant body size of both species at harvest is quite large, and easy to farm. Capability of bio-remediation of high saline soil is examined with ice plant and New Zealand spinach. Incubation medium was chosen to contain high concentration of sodium and potassium at the Na/K ratio of human excreta. In case Na/K ratio of plant body grown by this medium is greatly higher than that of incubation medium or soil, these halophytes are effective to remediate soil for farming less tolerant plant crop. Experimental results was less positive in this context.

  16. MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT SAFETY & HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (ISMS) CORE FUNCTION FOR FEEDBACK & CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    VON WEBER, M.

    2005-07-26

    Management assessment is required of US Department of Energy contractors by 10 CFR 830.122 and DOE Order 414.1. The management assessment process is a rigorous, preplanned, forward-looking review. It is required to be performed by owners of the processes that are being assessed. Written from the perspective of the Assessment Program Director and an Assessment Specialist, this paper describes the evolution of the process used by CH2MHILL to implement its management assessment program over the past two years including: roles, responsibilities, and details about our program improvement project designed to produce a clear picture of management processes and to identify opportunities for improvement. The management assessment program is essential to successful implementation, maintenance, and improvement of the CH2MHILL Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System (ISMS). The management assessment program implements, in part, ISMS Core Function No. 5. ''Feedback and Continuous Improvement''. Organizations use the management assessment process to assess ISMS implementation and effectiveness. Management assessments evaluate the total picture of how well management processes are meeting organizational objectives and the customer's requirements and expectations. The emphasis is on management issues affecting performance, systems, and processes such as: strategic planning, qualification, training, staffing, organizational interfaces, communication, cost and schedule control and mission objectives. Management assessments should identify any weaknesses in the management aspects of performance and make process improvements. All managers from first line supervisors to the president and general manager are involved in the management assessment process. More senior managers, in conducting their assessment, will use data from lower levels of management. This approach will facilitate the objective of having managers closer to the work under review focusing on more

  17. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  18. Blue and green infrastructures implementation to solve stormwater management issues in a new urban development project - a modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating buildings and socio-economic activities, urban areas are particularly vulnerable to hydrological risks. Modification in climate may intensify already existing issues concerning stormwater management (due to impervious area) and water supply (due to the increase of the population). In this context, water use efficiency and best water management practices are key-issues in the urban environment already stressed. Blue and green infrastructures are nature-based solutions that provide synergy of the blue and green systems to provide multifunctional solutions and multiple benefits: increased amenity, urban heat island improvement, biodiversity, reduced energy requirements... They are particularly efficient to reduce the potential impact of new and existing developments with respect to stormwater and/or water supply issues. The Multi-Hydro distributed rainfall-runoff model represents an adapted tool to manage the impacts of such infrastructures at the urban basin scale. It is a numerical platform that makes several models interact, each of them representing a specific portion of the water cycle in an urban environment: surface runoff and infiltration depending on a land use classification, sub-surface processes and sewer network drainage. Multi-Hydro is still being developed at the Ecole des Ponts (open access from https://hmco.enpc.fr/Tools-Training/Tools/Multi-Hydro.php) to take into account the wide complexity of urban environments. The latest advancements have made possible the representation of several blue and green infrastructures (green roof, basin, swale). Applied in a new urban development project located in the Paris region, Multi-Hydro has been used to simulate the impact of blue and green infrastructures implementation. It was particularly focused on their ability to fulfil regulation rules established by local stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. The results show that a combination of several blue and green

  19. Natural-technological risk assessment and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burova, Valentina; Frolova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    EM-DAT statistical data on human impact and economic damages in the 1st semester 2015 are the highest since 2011: 41% of disasters were floods, responsible for 39% of economic damage and 7% of events were earthquakes responsible for 59% of total death toll. This suggests that disaster risk assessment and management still need to be improved and stay the principle issue in national and international related programs. The paper investigates the risk assessment and management practice in the Russian Federation at different levels. The method is proposed to identify the territories characterized by integrated natural-technological hazard. The maps of the Russian Federation zoning according to the integrated natural-technological hazard level are presented, as well as the procedure of updating the integrated hazard level taking into account the activity of separate processes. Special attention is paid to data bases on past natural and technological processes consequences, which are used for verification of current hazard estimation. The examples of natural-technological risk zoning for the country and some regions territory are presented. Different output risk indexes: both social and economic, are estimated taking into account requirements of end-users. In order to increase the safety of population of the Russian Federation the trans-boundaries hazards are also taken into account.

  20. Ecological risk assessment benefits environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbrother, A.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Glicken, J.

    1994-12-31

    The ecological risk assessment process in its ideal form is an unbiased approach for assessing the probability of harm to the environment as a consequence of a given action. This information can then be combined with other societal values and biases in the management of such risks. However, as the process currently is understood, decision makers often are accused of manipulating information in order to generate decisions or achieve buy in from the public in support of a particular political agenda. A clear understanding of the nature of the risk management process can help define areas where information should be free from social or personal bias, and areas where values and judgments are critical. The authors do not propose to discuss the individual`s decision-making process, but rather to address the social process of risk communication and environmentally-related decision-making, identifying which parts of that process require bias-free, scientifically generated information about the consequences of various actions and which parts need an understanding of the social values which underlie the informed choices among those possible actions.

  1. Indocyanine green kinetics to assess liver function: Ready for a clinical dynamic assessment in major liver surgery?

    PubMed

    De Gasperi, Andrea; Mazza, Ernestina; Prosperi, Manlio

    2016-03-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) kinetics (PDR/R15) used to quantitatively assess hepatic function in the perioperative period of major resective surgery and liver transplantation have been the object of an extensive, updated and critical review. New, non invasive bedside monitors (pulse dye densitometry technology) make this opportunity widely available in clinical practice. After having reviewed basic concepts of hepatic clearance, we analysed the most common indications ICG kinetic parameters have nowadays in clinical practice, focusing in particular on the diagnostic and prognostic role of PDR and R15 in the perioperative period of major liver surgery and liver transplantation. As recently pointed out, even if of extreme interest, ICG clearance parameters have still some limitations, to be considered when using these tests. PMID:26981173

  2. Indocyanine green kinetics to assess liver function: Ready for a clinical dynamic assessment in major liver surgery?

    PubMed Central

    De Gasperi, Andrea; Mazza, Ernestina; Prosperi, Manlio

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) kinetics (PDR/R15) used to quantitatively assess hepatic function in the perioperative period of major resective surgery and liver transplantation have been the object of an extensive, updated and critical review. New, non invasive bedside monitors (pulse dye densitometry technology) make this opportunity widely available in clinical practice. After having reviewed basic concepts of hepatic clearance, we analysed the most common indications ICG kinetic parameters have nowadays in clinical practice, focusing in particular on the diagnostic and prognostic role of PDR and R15 in the perioperative period of major liver surgery and liver transplantation. As recently pointed out, even if of extreme interest, ICG clearance parameters have still some limitations, to be considered when using these tests. PMID:26981173

  3. Green Infrastructure Design Evaluation Using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    In arid and semi-arid regions, green infrastructure (GI) can address several issues facing urban environments, including augmenting water supply, mitigating flooding, decreasing pollutant loads, and promoting greenness in the built environment. An optimum design captures stormwat...

  4. Evaluation of green infrastructure designs using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In arid and semi-arid regions, green infrastructure (GI) designs can address several issues facing urban environments, including augmenting water supply, mitigating flooding, decreasing pollutant loads, and promoting greenness in the built environment. An optimum design captures stormwater, addressi...

  5. Evaluation of Green Infrastructure Designs Using the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    In arid and semi-arid regions, green infrastructure (GI) can address several issues facing urban environments, including augmenting water supply, mitigating flooding, decreasing pollutant loads, and promoting greenness in the built environment. An optimum design captures stormwat...

  6. Consumer demand for green stormwater management technology in an urban setting: The case of Chicago rain barrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Amy W.; Freitas, Luiz P. C.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrological disruption and water pollution from urbanization can be reduced if households in urban areas adopt decentralized storm water controls. We study a citywide municipal subsidized rain-barrel program in the third biggest city in the United States, Chicago, to explore what factors influence whether households purchase this sort of green storm water management technology in an urban setting. Specifically, we regress census-tract level data on the number of rain barrels adopted in different parts of the city on socioeconomic variables, data on local flood frequency, and features of the housing stock. We find that rain-barrel purchases are not correlated with local levels of flooding, even though city residents were told by program managers that rain barrels could alleviate local flooding. Instead, rain barrels are heavily concentrated in places with high-income attitudinally green populations. We do find more rain barrels were adopted in places close to rain-barrel distribution points and near sites of hydrological information campaigns; thus, policy makers might increase green-technology adoption in areas where they can do the most good by reducing transaction costs and providing education programs to those areas. Finally, our results indicate that owner occupancy is positively correlated with green-technology adoption. Low-rise rental housing may have inefficiently low levels of adoption, such that city managers might want to develop programs to encourage storm water management investments by landlords who do not live in their own properties.

  7. Inpatient Falls: Improving assessment, documentation, and management.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eleanor; Reynolds, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A frequently occurring job during on-call and out-of-hours shifts is reviewing a patient following a fall with this often being the responsibility of the most junior and inexperienced doctors. Following a pilot audit we identified inconsistencies in medical assessment and documentation, with 50% of expected data points not recorded. Failure to complete a thorough assessment can lead to missed injuries, prolonged length of stay, and litigation. Using the plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycle model this project sought to address this through providing teaching to junior doctors and the development of a pro-forma. Three style cycles of data collection were performed; a formal baseline dataset, after delivering a teaching session to new junior doctors and following the trial of the new fall pro-forma. We selected 15 to 17 patient notes to review at random during a one month period for each data collection cycle and compared the medical assessment to the standards outlined by the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) guidelines.[1] There were two key areas of improvement identified following the teaching session and introduction of the proforma. Documentation of a fall history was improved by nearly 30% being recorded in 100% of cases after the interventions. Documentation of a thorough musculoskeletal examination was improved from being recorded in just 54% of cases to 77% of cases; it was recorded in 100% of the cases where the proforma was used. The project demonstrated the need to improve documentation and assessment of a patient who has fallen. Initial data collection has shown that assessment and documentation were improved providing teaching to junior doctors and by use of the document. The pro-forma has since been incorporated into hospital policy and now forms the compulsory documentation expected of the doctors and nurses managing patients following a fall. Ensuring easy access to the proforma and re-auditing after editing the document will be the next steps. PMID

  8. Assessment of blue-green algae in substantially reducing nitrogen fertilizer requirements for biomass fuel crops

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.B.; Molten, P.M.; Metting, B.

    1981-07-01

    Laboratory, mass culture, and field studies are being undertaken in order to assess the potential of using blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) as nitrogen biofertilizers on irrigated ground. Of seven candidate strains, two were chosen for application to replicated field plots sown to field corn and the basis of laboratory-scale soil tray experiments and ease of semi-continuous 8000 l culture. Chosen were Anabaena BM-165, isolated from a local soil and Tolypothrix tenuis, imported from India. Using the acetylene reduction method, Anabaena is estimated from laboratory soil experiments to be able to fix from 30 to 62 kg N/ha/y, and has been mass cultured to a density of 1527 mg dry wt/l. T. tenuis is estimated from laboratory experiments to be able to fix from 27 to 65 kg N/ha/y, and has been mass cultured to a density of 1630 mg dry wt/l.

  9. Efficacy of chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwashes in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Priya, B. Meena; Anitha, V.; Shanmugam, M.; Ashwath, B.; Sylva, Suganthi D.; Vigneshwari, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The intake of green tea has been increased recently due to its medicinal values. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of green tea were found to be beneficial in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The aim of this comparative study was to compare the efficacy of the mouthwash containing green tea and chlorhexidine in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who participated in the study were divided randomly into two groups, each group of 15 patients was prescribed with either chlorhexidine or green tea mouthwash. Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index, Löe and Silness gingival index, Ainamo and Bay bleeding index, tooth stain, and tongue stain (TS) were recorded at baseline, 15 days, and 1 month. The subjects were asked to report any discomfort or alteration in taste. Results: There was a significant decrease in plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding index in both the groups. However, green tea mouthwash resulted in a statistically significant decrease in bleeding index compared to chlorhexidine group. There was no significant difference in tooth stain and TS in both the groups. Conclusion: The green tea-containing mouthwash is equally effective in reducing the gingival inflammation and plaque to chlorhexidine. PMID:26681856

  10. Evaluating fishery rehabilitation under uncertainty: A bioeconomic analysis of quota management for the Green Bay yellow perch fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.; Milliman, S.R.; Bishop, R.C.; Kitchell, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The fishery for yellow perch Perca flavescens in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, is currently operating under a rehabilitation plan based on a commercial harvest quota. We developed a bioeconomic computer model that included links between population density and growth, recruitment, and fishing effort for this fishery. Random variability was included in the stock-recruitment relation and in a simulated population assessment. We used the model in an adaptive management framework to evaluate the effects of the rehabilitation plan on both commercial and sport fisheries and to search for ways to improve the plan. Results indicate that the current quota policy is a member of a set of policies that would meet most management goals and increase total value of the fishery. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this conclusion is robust over a wide range of biological conditions. We predict that commercial fishers will lose money relative to the baseline condition, but they may receive other benefits from the elimination of the common-property nature of the fishery. The prospect exists for managing variability in harvest and stock size and for maximizing economic returns in the fishery, but more information is required, primarily on sportfishing effort dynamics and angler preferences. Stock-recruitment relations, density dependence of growth, and dynamics of sportfishing effort are the primary sources of uncertainty limiting the precision of our predictions. The current quota policy is about as good as other policies at reducing this uncertainty and appears, overall, to be one of the best choices for this fishery. The analytical techniques used in this study were primarily simple, heuristic approaches that could be easily transferred to other studies.

  11. A blue/green water-based accounting framework for assessment of water security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Dulce B. B.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Mendiondo, Eduardo M.

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive assessment of water security can incorporate several water-related concepts, while accounting for Blue and Green Water (BW and GW) types defined in accordance with the hydrological processes involved. Here we demonstrate how a quantitative analysis of provision probability and use of BW and GW can be conducted, so as to provide indicators of water scarcity and vulnerability at the basin level. To illustrate the approach, we use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model the hydrology of an agricultural basin (291 km2) within the Cantareira Water Supply System in Brazil. To provide a more comprehensive basis for decision making, we analyze the BW and GW-Footprint components against probabilistic levels (50th and 30th percentile) of freshwater availability for human activities, during a 23 year period. Several contrasting situations of BW provision are distinguished, using different hydrological-based methodologies for specifying monthly Environmental Flow Requirements (EFRs), and the risk of natural EFR violation is evaluated by use of a freshwater provision index. Our results reveal clear spatial and temporal patterns of water scarcity and vulnerability levels within the basin. Taking into account conservation targets for the basin, it appears that the more restrictive EFR methods are more appropriate than the method currently employed at the study basin. The blue/green water-based accounting framework developed here provides a useful integration of hydrologic, ecosystem and human needs information on a monthly basis, thereby improving our understanding of how and where water-related threats to human and aquatic ecosystem security can arise.

  12. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lybeck, Nancy; Coble, Jamie B.; Tawfik, Magdy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-05-18

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging NPPs presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging NPPs. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of an NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of an NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system development tools, deployable architectures

  13. Assessment of two BWR accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Petek, M.

    1991-01-01

    Candidate mitigative strategies for management of in-vessel events during the late phase (after core degradation has occurred) of postulated BWR severe accidents were considered at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during 1990. The identification of new strategies was subject to the constraint that they should, to the maximum extent possible, make use of the existing equipment and water resources of the BWR facilities and not require major equipment modifications or additions. As a result of this effort, two of these candidate strategies were recommended for additional assessment. The first is a strategy for containment flooding to maintain the core and structural debris within the reactor vessel in the event that vessel injection cannot be restored to terminate a severe accident sequence. The second strategy pertains to the opposite case, for which vessel injection would be restored after control blade melting had begun; its purpose is to provide an injection source of borated water at the concentration necessary to preclude criticality upon recovering a damaged BWR core. Assessments of these two strategies have been performed during 1991 under the auspices of the Detailed Assessment of BWR In-Vessel Strategies Program. This paper provides a discussion of the motivation for and purpose of these strategies and the potential for their success. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  15. The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-cycle assessment of a brownfield redevelopment project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecheisen, Thomas; Theis, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development projects to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment project, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-cycle stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site. Methodological note: data for this life-cycle assessment were obtained from project reports, construction blueprints and utility bills.

  16. Diagnosis and management of lymphoma in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Folland, Douglas W; Johnston, Matthew S; Thamm, Douglas H; Reavill, Drury

    2011-10-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION-A 2-year-old female green iguana was examined for anorexia and swelling and pain on palpation in the cranial cervical area. CLINICAL FINDINGS-Marked soft tissue swelling in the cranial cervical area with corresponding cystic swellings in the pharynx were noted. The iguana was considered to be 50% under the expected body weight, given diet and husbandry conditions. The WBC count was markedly elevated, characterized by heterophilia and lymphocytosis. Surgical exploration of the cranial cervical area and histologic and microbial testing identified lymphoma with secondary infection as the cause of the swelling. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-The tumor was initially treated with a single 10-Gy fraction of radiation directed at the masses in the neck. A vascular access port was placed in the ventral abdominal vein, and a canine chemotherapy protocol was modified for use in the iguana. During the course of treatment, the protocol was modified twice. At 1,008 days from the initiation of treatment, the iguana appeared to be in remission. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of radiation with doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone to successfully manage lymphoma in a reptile. A vascular access port was used effectively for drug administration for an extended period. The doxorubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone protocol appeared to be safe and effective in this iguana for the management of lymphoma.

  17. Integrating Green and Blue Water Management Tools for Land and Water Resources Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewitt, G. P. W.

    2009-04-01

    The role of land use and land use change on the hydrological cycle is well known. However, the impacts of large scale land use change are poorly considered in water resources planning, unless they require direct abstraction of water resources and associated development of infrastructure e.g. Irrigation Schemes. However, large scale deforestation for the supply of raw materials, expansion of the areas of plantation forestry, increasing areas under food production and major plans for cultivation of biofuels in many developing countries are likely to result in extensive land use change. Given the spatial extent and temporal longevity of these proposed developments, major impacts on water resources are inevitable. It is imperative that managers and planners consider the consequences for downstream ecosystems and users in such developments. However, many popular tools, such as the vitual water approach, provide only coarse scale "order of magnitude" type estimates with poor consideration of, and limited usefulness, for land use planning. In this paper, a framework for the consideration of the impacts of large scale land use change on water resources at a range of temporal and spatial scales is presented. Drawing on experiences from South Africa, where the establishment of exotic commercial forest plantations is only permitted once a water use license has been granted, the framework adopts the "green water concept" for the identification of potential high impact areas of land use change and provides for integration with traditional "blue water" water resources planning tools for more detailed planning. Appropriate tools, ranging from simple spreadsheet solutions to more sophisticated remote sensing and hydrological models are described, and the application of the framework for consideration of water resources impacts associated with the establishment of large scale tectona grandis, sugar cane and jatropha curcas plantations is illustrated through examples in Mozambique

  18. Assessment, investigation, and management of acute monoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Till, S H; Snaith, M L

    1999-01-01

    Trauma is the commonest cause of acute monoarticular joint pain and swelling in patients attending an accident and emergency (A&E) department. However, in a significant minority of patients there will be no history of trauma and consequently a different approach to assessment and investigation is required. Our aim is to offer an outline of how to assess, investigate, and manage a patient with monoarthritis. Despite advances in antibiotic treatment diagnostic delay partly explains why septic arthritis is still associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. It is therefore imperative that joint infection is considered above all other diagnoses. Arthrocentesis is a relatively safe procedure and doctors in A&E medicine are encouraged to develop the skills required to aspirate large joints. In the same way that the A&E department is often portrayed as the shop window of a hospital, the joint can reflect a wide variety of internal diseases. Connective tissue disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sarcoidosis, and vasculitis can all present with a monoarthritis. A non-specific reactive monoarthritis may be a feature of a wide variety of common and uncommon infections including, brucellosis, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis. Drugs are also associated with acute arthritis either through their metabolic consequences or as idiosyncratic drug reactions. The ability for the joint to reflect multisystem disease necessitates close liaison with specialists from other fields. A multidisciplinary approach to the management of these patients is strongly encouraged as some will have unusual diseases that require specialist advice. It is not difficult to appreciate how the patient with monoarthritis can present the clinician with a fascinating diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, which we hope this article will help to unravel. Images PMID:10505918

  19. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Self, Jesse G.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a total of 1.32 trillion barrels of oil in place in 18 oil shale zones in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado.

  20. Integrated assessment of contaminated sediments in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Ankley, G.T.; Lodge, K.; Call, D.J.; Balcer, M.D.; Brooke, L.T.; Cook, P.M.; Kreis, R.G. Jr.; Carlson, A.R.; Johnson, R.D.; Niemi, G.J. )

    1992-02-01

    Samples of sediment and biota were collected from sites in the lower Fox River and southern Green Bay to determine existing or potential impacts of sediment-associated contaminants on different ecosystem components of this Great Lakes area of concern. Evaluation of benthos revealed a relatively depauperate community, particularly at the lower Fox River sites. Sediment pore water and bulk sediments from several lower Fox River sites were toxic to a number of test species including Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Hexagenia limbata, Selenastrum capricornutum, and Photobacterium phosphorum. An important component of the observed toxicity appeared to be due to ammonia. Evaluation of three bullhead (Ictalurus) species from the lower Fox River revealed an absence of preneoplastic or neoplastic liver lesions, and the Salmonella typhimurium bioassay indicated relatively little mutagenicity in sediment extracts. Apparent adverse reproductive effects were noted in two species of birds nesting along the lower Fox River and on a confined disposal facility for sediments near the mouth of the river, and there were measurable concentrations of potentially toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both in the birds and in sediments from several of the study sites. Based on toxic equivalency factors and the results of an in vitro bioassay with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells, it appeared that the majority of potential toxicity of the PCB/PCDF/PCDD mixture in biota from the lower Fox River/Green Bay system was due to the planar PCBs. The results of these studies are discussed in terms of an integrated assessment focused on providing data for remedial action planning.

  1. Assessment of the Green Building Education Needs of North Carolina Real Estate Appraisers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Lee F., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    The construction industry has experienced little growth since the beginning of the 2008 recession. Despite this phenomenon, green building remains in the forefront as a growing sector within the industry. There are, however, many barriers to the success and widespread adoption of high performance green building practices. This study focused on the real estate appraisal industry's role in determining the value of properties with green features. The study sample included appraisers from regions within North Carolina that have the largest numbers of certified commercial and residential green buildings. The central hypothesis predicted that, regardless of the number of certified green buildings or properties with green building features within the study areas, appraisers lack the experience and knowledge needed in order to provide an accurate appraisal of these properties. The research methods used for this study included surveys, interviews, case studies, and an extensive international literature review. In addition, industry experts throughout the United States were interviewed. The study generated a green building education gap analysis of real estate appraisers in addition to identification of the primary methods currently being used in the valuation of properties with green features. The results of this research will be utilized by green building workforce development providers and for the creation of green building continuing education and regional certification programs for real estate appraisers and other building professionals.

  2. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas. PMID:25163601

  3. Mitigating and adapting to climate change: multi-functional and multi-scale assessment of green urban infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Demuzere, M; Orru, K; Heidrich, O; Olazabal, E; Geneletti, D; Orru, H; Bhave, A G; Mittal, N; Feliu, E; Faehnle, M

    2014-12-15

    In order to develop climate resilient urban areas and reduce emissions, several opportunities exist starting from conscious planning and design of green (and blue) spaces in these landscapes. Green urban infrastructure has been regarded as beneficial, e.g. by balancing water flows, providing thermal comfort. This article explores the existing evidence on the contribution of green spaces to climate change mitigation and adaptation services. We suggest a framework of ecosystem services for systematizing the evidence on the provision of bio-physical benefits (e.g. CO2 sequestration) as well as social and psychological benefits (e.g. improved health) that enable coping with (adaptation) or reducing the adverse effects (mitigation) of climate change. The multi-functional and multi-scale nature of green urban infrastructure complicates the categorization of services and benefits, since in reality the interactions between various benefits are manifold and appear on different scales. We will show the relevance of the benefits from green urban infrastructures on three spatial scales (i.e. city, neighborhood and site specific scales). We will further report on co-benefits and trade-offs between the various services indicating that a benefit could in turn be detrimental in relation to other functions. The manuscript identifies avenues for further research on the role of green urban infrastructure, in different types of cities, climates and social contexts. Our systematic understanding of the bio-physical and social processes defining various services allows targeting stressors that may hamper the provision of green urban infrastructure services in individual behavior as well as in wider planning and environmental management in urban areas.

  4. [Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemicals in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie-yu; Zhou, Yun-qiao; Li, Qi-feng; Lü, Yong-long

    2016-02-15

    Risk assessment and risk management have been increasingly approved as an effective approach for appropriate disposal and scientific management of chemicals. This study systematically analyzed the risk assessment methods of chemicals from three aspects including health risk, ecological risk and regional risk. Based on the current situation of classification and management towards chemicals in China, a specific framework of risk management on chemicals was proposed by selecting target chemicals, predominant industries and related stakeholders as the objects. The results of the present study will provide scientific support for improving risk assessment and reasonable management of chemicals in China. PMID:27363124

  5. Management and development of land in the name of the Green Economy: planning, landscape, efficiency, biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Promoting sustainable economic development is the basis of the Green Economy: a new vision of Agriculture, Environmental and Regional policy, shared by the wine sector, especially on some crucial issues, such as reducing the consumption of agricultural land, recognition as economically important of the green agricultural production space, spreading of organic farming, adoption of good agricultural practices. Sustainability, in fact , is not just about the use of analysis tools (carbonfoot print, Waterfoot print, etc .) but is about innovations to be introduced in the entire production process, protection of biodiversity, ethic work in the vineyard and winery. It means to disseminate as much as possible all those practices that can enable a more efficient land management also considering the recent climate changes: introduction of agro-energy and precision agriculture, rational use of water resources, creation of an observatory on temperatures and an interactive mapping system, viticultural zoning and municipal planning to make concrete balance between vitality in agronomic sector and landscape quality. Realizing such a regional geopedological mapping about agricultural soil, will allow companies to display a real-time access to all the data needed for a sustainable management of the funds, not only it would be an important tool to support the technical choices of farmers, enhancing their potential and optimizing production in relation to the current climate crisis, but would have a strong impact in terms of managing and saving water and energy resources. A strong efficacy in this context should be recognized at the "Urban Regulation Plans of the Wine Cities", which have developed since 2007 on the base of the guidelines promoted by the Italian Association Città del Vino, in order to enhance the quality of wine districts. The foundations of this multidisciplinary tool are based on: • in-depth knowledge of the characteristics of the wine territory; • unity and

  6. Multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainable implementation of effective green supply chain management practices.

    PubMed

    Boutkhoum, Omar; Hanine, Mohamed; Boukhriss, Hicham; Agouti, Tarik; Tikniouine, Abdessadek

    2016-01-01

    At present, environmental issues become real critical barriers for many supply chain corporations concerning the sustainability of their businesses. In this context, several studies have been proposed from both academia and industry trying to develop new measurements related to green supply chain management (GSCM) practices to overcome these barriers, which will help create new environmental strategies, implementing those practices in their manufacturing processes. The objective of this study is to present the technical and analytical contribution that multi-criteria decision making analysis (MCDA) can bring to environmental decision making problems, and especially to GSCM field. For this reason, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, combining fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (fuzzy TOPSIS), is proposed to contribute to a better understanding of new sustainable strategies through the identification and evaluation of the most appropriate GSCM practices to be adopted by industrial organizations. The fuzzy AHP process is used to construct hierarchies of the influential criteria, and then identify the importance weights of the selected criteria, while the fuzzy TOPSIS process employs these weighted criteria as inputs to evaluate and measure the performance of each alternative. To illustrate the effectiveness and performance of our MCDA approach, we have applied it to a chemical industry corporation located in Safi, Morocco.

  7. Multi-criteria decision support framework for sustainable implementation of effective green supply chain management practices.

    PubMed

    Boutkhoum, Omar; Hanine, Mohamed; Boukhriss, Hicham; Agouti, Tarik; Tikniouine, Abdessadek

    2016-01-01

    At present, environmental issues become real critical barriers for many supply chain corporations concerning the sustainability of their businesses. In this context, several studies have been proposed from both academia and industry trying to develop new measurements related to green supply chain management (GSCM) practices to overcome these barriers, which will help create new environmental strategies, implementing those practices in their manufacturing processes. The objective of this study is to present the technical and analytical contribution that multi-criteria decision making analysis (MCDA) can bring to environmental decision making problems, and especially to GSCM field. For this reason, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology, combining fuzzy analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (fuzzy TOPSIS), is proposed to contribute to a better understanding of new sustainable strategies through the identification and evaluation of the most appropriate GSCM practices to be adopted by industrial organizations. The fuzzy AHP process is used to construct hierarchies of the influential criteria, and then identify the importance weights of the selected criteria, while the fuzzy TOPSIS process employs these weighted criteria as inputs to evaluate and measure the performance of each alternative. To illustrate the effectiveness and performance of our MCDA approach, we have applied it to a chemical industry corporation located in Safi, Morocco. PMID:27350904

  8. Green-house gas emissions from rice fields under different water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Ferrara, Rossana Monica; Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene; Linquist, Bruce; Gavina, Giacomo; Ravaglia, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    During 2012 season, two rice fields have been selected in Italy (Cantaglia farm, Bologna province) and subjected to different water management: one under continuous flooding (WET) and the other under alternate wetting and drying (AWD). In AWD, re-flushing occurred in order to maintain water field capacity over 60 %. Two rice varieties (one commonly cultivated in Italy and one variety from the S.I.S. germoplasm collection) have been considered under WET treatment (Gladio and Zhen Long 13 - abbreviated as ZL13), while only Gladio under AWD. Green house gases (GHGs) sampling have been performed weekly or bi-weekly throughout the growing season. Soluble organic carbon (C), soluble nitrogen (N) and nitrates have been collected through piezometers. Soil sampling have been performed at the beginning and at the end of the growing season and total organic C (TOC), total N (TN), C/N ratio of soil organic matter (SOM), bulk density and water holding capacity were measured. At the end of the growing season rice above- and below-ground biomass have been sampled and C and N content of stem, grain and roots were measured. Methane (CH4) emissions showed a clear trend, following water availability in soils. An initial peak after the first flooding was observed in all soils, while after the second flooding CH4 was emitted only in the WET treatment. Further flooding events in AWD soil did not determine CH4 emissions during the vegetative season. Overall, in 2012 growing season a 98 % reduction of CH4 emissions in AWD soil was observed. In the WET treatment, no significant variations were observed between the two varieties, although on average ZL13 showed lower rates of CH4 emissions. Two peaks of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were observed: the first after the initial flooding in all soils; the second one, much greater, 14 days after the fertilization only in AWD soils. These two peaks accounted for 92 % of total N2O emissions in 2012 rice season. Overall, in 2012 growing season N2O

  9. Low Impact Development (LID) Technologies for Sustainable Water Management: Studies from a Green Roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digiovanni, K. A.; Montalto, F. A.; Gaffin, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic induced landscape alterations, such as urbanization, can cause drastic alterations to predevelopment hydrologic conditions and the systems linked to these cycles. Low impact development (LID) technologies, such as green roofs, can help to minimize these impacts given their ability to retain and detain stormwater and subsequently evapotranspire or infiltrate excess water. An innovative technique for simultaneously monitoring stormwater retention, allowing for runoff quantification, as well as evapotranspiration from a small scale green roof box was employed for a green roof at the Ethical Culture Fieldston School located in the Bronx, NY. A 1.2 meter long by 0.6 meter wide green roof box was created as a replica section of the 525 m2 green roof on the building. The layers of the green roof box consisted of a roof membrane, drainage layer, four inch media layer, and vegetative Sedum layer. Monitoring equipment on the green roof included a weather station and real time environmental sensors which quantify wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture, temperature, humidity, albedo, and incident solar radiation. In addition to this equipment, a platform scale was positioned beneath the green roof box. Data was collected at 5 minute time intervals over a six month monitoring period between Spring and Fall 2009. A mass balance technique was utilized to quantify runoff from the green roof box. Evapotranspiration during antecedent conditions was also quantified utilizing a mass balance methodology and compared to energy balance estimates based on climatic conditions measured on the green roof. Results of runoff generation under a variety of rainfall conditions, as well as a comparison between mass balance and energy balance measures of evapotranspiration will be presented. The incorporation of this and further data collection into model development and calibration activities will be informative in predicting the impact that the implementation of green roof

  10. Assessing the willingness of the public to pay to conserve urban green space: the Hangzhou City, China, case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhu, Zhujun

    2006-12-01

    The authors assessed the willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation in Hangzhou, China, using the contingent-valuation method. The aim of the study was to provide policy makers with information that would be useful for making informed decisions in urban-development planning. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) The willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation was positively correlated with their perceptions of the benefits of green spaces and negatively correlated with perceptions of the annoyances. 2) The willingness to pay a higher premium for green-space conservation is directly related to gender, income level, and residential-ownership status. Age and education level are not significantly correlated with willingness to pay. 3) A majority of respondents view the conservation of urban green spaces as a very important function of the city, and most of them are willing to pay additional taxes for this conservation. 4) The total value per year to the public of the conservation program in Hangzhou is about $15.4 million. These qualitative and quantitative findings can be used in the policy-making process for urban-development plans.

  11. Golf Ball Roll Distance: A Field Exercise to Explore Management Factors Affecting Putting Green Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Cale A.; Walker, Kristina S.

    2007-01-01

    Putting greens are the most important golf course use area and regularly draw comments regarding their appearance and playing condition. This field laboratory exercise taught students how to properly measure putting green speed, an important functional characteristic, using a Stimpmeter device that measures golf ball roll distance (BRD).…

  12. Review and Assessment of the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools: An Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Some educational professionals have suggested that so-called green schools would result in superior performance and increased health for students and teachers. While there is no commonly accepted definition of a green school, there are a number of attributes that such schools appear to have: low cost operations, security, healthy and comfortable,…

  13. A National Assessment of Change in Green Infrastructure Using Mathematical Morphology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is a popular framework for conservation planning. The main elements of green infrastructure are hubs and links. Hubs tend to be large areas of natural vegetation and links tend to be linear features (e.g., streams) that connect hubs. Within the United States...

  14. GREEN-MAC-LCCP: a tool for assessing the life cycle climate performance of MAC systems.

    PubMed

    Papasavva, Stella; Hill, William R; Andersen, Stephen O

    2010-10-01

    In 2008, 95% of the vehicle fleet in the developed countries and 80% of fleet in the developing countries were equipped with mobile air conditioning systems (MACs). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted due to refrigerant leakage (direct emissions) and due to the energy consumed by MACs operation (indirect emissions). In response to reducing the global warming impact of MACs, policy makers and the industry are investigating alternative refrigerant systems that use low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. The GREEN-MAC-LCCP model assesses the direct and indirect CO(2) equivalent emissions related to MACs usage, as well as those associated with the production, use and disposal of alternative refrigerants and MACs components. This model provides a platform for simple data input and provides an output summary as well as details that can be analyzed in a custom fashion by the user. It provides engineers and policy makers a state-of-the-art tool, based on sound engineering data and methods, in order to facilitate the process of evaluating alternate refrigerants with low lifecycle global warming impact as well as providing the total impact of any MACs on the environment. It has been recognized as the standard of the MACs industry. PMID:20812721

  15. Estimation of indocyanine green concentration in blood from fluorescence emission: application to hemodynamic assessment during hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2009-09-01

    There is considerable interest in assessing cardiovascular function noninvasively in patients receiving hemodialysis. A possible approach is to measure the blood concentration of bolus-injected indocyanine green dye and to apply the dye-dilution method for estimating cardiac output and blood volume. Blood ICG concentration can be derived from a measurement of the ICG fluorescence through the dialysis tubing if a simple and unique calibration relationship can be established between transmural fluorescence intensity and blood ICG concentration. We investigated this relationship using Monte Carlo simulations of light transport in blood with varying hematocrit and ICG concentrations and performed empiric measurements of optical absorption and ICG fluorescence emission to confirm our findings. The ICG fluorescence intensity measured at the blood surface, as well as the light intensity remitted by the blood, varied as hematocrit changes modified the absorption and scattering characteristics of the blood. Calibration relationships were developed between fluorescence intensity and ICG concentration that accounted for hematocrit changes. Combining the backreflected fluorescence and the reflected light measured near the point of illumination provided optimal signal intensity, linearity, and robustness to hematocrit changes. These results provide a basis for developing a noninvasive approach to derive optically circulating blood ICG concentration in hemodialysis circuits.

  16. Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging in the Surgical Management of an Iatrogenic Lymphatic Fistula: Description of a Surgical Technique.

    PubMed

    Papadia, Andrea; Imboden, Sara; Mohr, Stefan; Lanz, Susanne; Nirgianakis, Konstantinos; Mueller, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of laparoscopic surgical management of an iatrogenic lymphorrhea using indocyanine green (ICG). A case of a patient who developed recurrent symptomatic lymphorrhea after laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy for an early stage cervical cancer is presented. Intraoperative bipedal interdigital subcutaneous injection of ICG exactly localized the disrupted lymphatic duct on fluorescence imaging performed with a near-infrared laparoscopic fluorescent optic device, thus allowing a successful surgical repair.

  17. Managing Risk Assessment in Science Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter; Forlin, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Describes a health-and-safety risk-management audit in four Queensland, Australia high schools. One major outcome of this research project is the development of a comprehensive risk-management policy in compliance with the law. Other outcomes include the preparation of a professional-development package in risk-management policy for use as a…

  18. Toxicity assessment of manufactured nanomaterials using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Xuezhi; Chen, Yongsheng; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2008-10-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, there is an increasing risk of human and environmental exposure to nanotechnology-based materials and products. As water resources are particularly vulnerable to direct and indirect contamination of nonomaterials (NMs), the potential toxicity and environmental implication of NMs to aquatic organisms must be evaluated. In this study, we assessed potential toxicity of two commercially used NMs, titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and quantum dots (QDs), using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhartii as a model system. The response of the organism to NMs was assessed at physiological, biochemical, and molecular genetic levels. Growth kinetics showed that growth inhibition occurred during the first two to three days of cultivation in the presence of TiO(2) or QDs. Measurements of lipid peroxidation measurement indicated that oxidative stress of the cells occurred as early as 6 h after exposure to TiO(2) or QDs. The transcriptional expression profiling of four stress response genes (sod1, gpx, cat, and ptox2) revealed that transient up-regulation of these genes occurred in cultures containing as low as 1.0 mg L(-1) of TiO(2) or 0.1 mg L(-1) of QDs, and the maximum transcripts of cat, sod1, gpx, and ptox2 occurred at 1.5, 3, 3, and 6 h, respectively, and were proportional to the initial concentration of the NMs. As the cultures continued, recovery in growth was observed and the extent of recovery, as indicated by the final cell concentration, was dosage-dependent. QDs were found to be more toxic to Chlamydomonas cells than TiO(2) under our experimental conditions.

  19. Toxicity assessment of manufactured nanomaterials using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangxin; Zhang, Xuezhi; Chen, Yongsheng; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

    2008-10-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, there is an increasing risk of human and environmental exposure to nanotechnology-based materials and products. As water resources are particularly vulnerable to direct and indirect contamination of nonomaterials (NMs), the potential toxicity and environmental implication of NMs to aquatic organisms must be evaluated. In this study, we assessed potential toxicity of two commercially used NMs, titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and quantum dots (QDs), using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhartii as a model system. The response of the organism to NMs was assessed at physiological, biochemical, and molecular genetic levels. Growth kinetics showed that growth inhibition occurred during the first two to three days of cultivation in the presence of TiO(2) or QDs. Measurements of lipid peroxidation measurement indicated that oxidative stress of the cells occurred as early as 6 h after exposure to TiO(2) or QDs. The transcriptional expression profiling of four stress response genes (sod1, gpx, cat, and ptox2) revealed that transient up-regulation of these genes occurred in cultures containing as low as 1.0 mg L(-1) of TiO(2) or 0.1 mg L(-1) of QDs, and the maximum transcripts of cat, sod1, gpx, and ptox2 occurred at 1.5, 3, 3, and 6 h, respectively, and were proportional to the initial concentration of the NMs. As the cultures continued, recovery in growth was observed and the extent of recovery, as indicated by the final cell concentration, was dosage-dependent. QDs were found to be more toxic to Chlamydomonas cells than TiO(2) under our experimental conditions. PMID:18768203

  20. Developmental Visual Dysfunction: Models for Assessment and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhardt, Rhoda Priest

    This book describes transdisciplinary management of multiply disabled children with vision problems and presents four theoretical models of visual assessment and three illustrative case studies in a sequence appropriate to the learning process. The first three models are intended to lead to assessment and management of the child and the last to…

  1. 75 FR 4098 - Section 8 Management Assessment Program (SEMAP) Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Section 8 Management Assessment Program (SEMAP) Certification AGENCY: Office of the... performance in administering a housing choice voucher program. Assessment ratings are used as tool in.... This notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Section 8 Management...

  2. Environmental Management Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental management assessment performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from September 14 through September 27, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and NREL contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The environmental management assessment of NREL focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems and assessed the formality of programs employing an approach that recognizes the level of formality implementing environmental programs may vary commensurate with non-nuclear research and development operations. The Assessment Team evaluated environmental monitoring, waste management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities at NREL, from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section of this report. The scope of the NREL Environmental Management Assessment was comprehensive and included all areas of environmental management. At the same time, environmental monitoring, waste management, and NEPA activities were evaluated to develop a programmatic understanding of these environmental disciplines, building upon the results of previous appraisals, audits, and reviews performed at the NREL.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban green spaces of Beijing: concentration, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0-5 cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban green spaces of Beijing: concentration, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Jianzhi; Liu, Yan

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban green space soils of Beijing, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. The objective of this study was to determine concentration, spatial distribution, and health risk of 15 PAHs in 121 surface soil (0-5 cm) samples collected from four types of green space, such as park green space (PGS), roadside green space (RDS), residential green space (RGS), and attached green space (AGS). Results showed that the highest concentrations of 15 PAHs was in soils of RDS, followed by RGS, PGS, and AGS. The level of PAHs pollution was seriously and mainly distributed in the central and southwest of the city. Incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) associated with exposures to PAHs in soil was calculated separately for children and adults under normal and extreme conditions. The results showed that ILCRs for urban green space soil of Beijing were low under normal conditions. But individual samples are seriously polluted, and its potential health risks cannot be ignored. PMID:27502522

  5. Toward effectiveness assessment of health management education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Caro, D H

    1994-01-01

    A growing theme in the management education literature is that of effectiveness assessment. Integrated effectiveness assessment systems represent an important challenge in health management education in Canada. This article examines the service effectiveness paradigm that evolved from comprehensive auditing developments in the public domain. It presents an integrated model of effectiveness assessment systems and the barriers that currently impede its full development and implementation in Canada. Finally, the evolving effectiveness assessment challenge--which will fundamentally change health management education in Canada--is examined.

  6. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  7. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  8. Physiotherapy assessment of shoulder stiffness and how it influences management

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Common causes of shoulder stiffness include osteoarthritis, trauma, rheumatological conditions and stiffness secondary to soft tissue adaptation. Physiotherapy assessment of the stiff shoulder aims to ascertain the key causative factors of stiffness to inform effective management planning. Identification of whether a patient presents with pain or stiffness as their predominant symptom further guides treatment selection. The current evidence base underpins a management algorithm which has been developed to guide the assessment and management of patients presenting with shoulder stiffness. PMID:27582980

  9. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  10. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  11. The Chinese Grain for Green Programme: assessing the carbon sequestered via land reform.

    PubMed

    Persson, Martin; Moberg, Jesper; Ostwald, Madelene; Xu, Jintao

    2013-09-15

    The Grain for Green Programme (GGP) was launched in China in 1999 to control erosion and increase vegetation cover. Budgeted at USD 40 billion, GGP has converted over 20 million hectares of cropland and barren land into primarily tree-based plantations. Although GGP includes energy forests, only a negligible part (0.6%) is planted as such, most of the land (78%) being converted for protection. Future use of these plantations is unclear and an energy substitution hypothesis is valid. We estimate the overall carbon sequestration via GGP using official statistics and three approaches, based on i) net primary production, ii) IPCC's greenhouse gas inventory guidelines, and iii) mean annual increment. We highlight uncertainties associated with GGP and the estimates. Results indicate that crop- and barren-land conversion sequestered 222-468 Mt of carbon over GGP's first ten years, the IPCC approach yielding the highest estimate and the other two approaches yielding similar but lower estimates (approximately 250 Mt of carbon). The carbon stock in these plantation systems yields a mean of 12.3 t of carbon per hectare. Assessment uncertainties concern the use of growth curves not designed for particular species and locations, actual plantation survival rates, and discrepancies in GGP figures (e.g., area, type, and survival rate) at different authority levels (from national to local). The carbon sequestered in above- and below-ground biomass from GGP represents 14% (based on the median of the three approaches) of China's yearly (2009) carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use and cement production.

  12. Assessing visual green effects of individual urban trees using airborne Lidar data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Gao, Bingbo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees benefit people's daily life in terms of air quality, local climate, recreation and aesthetics. Among these functions, a growing number of studies have been conducted to understand the relationship between residents' preference towards local environments and visual green effects of urban greenery. However, except for on-site photography, there are few quantitative methods to calculate green visibility, especially tree green visibility, from viewers' perspectives. To fill this research gap, a case study was conducted in the city of Cambridge, which has a diversity of tree species, sizes and shapes. Firstly, a photograph-based survey was conducted to approximate the actual value of visual green effects of individual urban trees. In addition, small footprint airborne Lidar (Light detection and ranging) data was employed to measure the size and shape of individual trees. Next, correlations between visual tree green effects and tree structural parameters were examined. Through experiments and gradual refinement, a regression model with satisfactory R2 and limited large errors is proposed. Considering the diversity of sample trees and the result of cross-validation, this model has the potential to be applied to other study sites. This research provides urban planners and decision makers with an innovative method to analyse and evaluate landscape patterns in terms of tree greenness.

  13. Assessing Institutional Effectiveness: Issues, Methods, and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron, Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers was presented at a 1987 conference at which speakers presented personal perspectives on institutional effectiveness. Papers are organized under three major headings: "Managing Quality: Methods and Outcomes,""Institutional Response," and "Special Issues." Titles include: (1) "Managing the Meaning of Institutional…

  14. Assessment and Management of the Violent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, H.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews various techniques for evaluating the relative risk of violent behaviour. Recognition of relevant patient-related factors is explored. Management techniques are presented to help the physician avert and deal with impending or manifestly violent behaviour. Specific management techniques include talking to the patient, pharmacological agents, and pharmacological restraint. PMID:21248918

  15. Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Condition assessment provides critical information for assessment of an asset’s physical condition, remaining useful service life, and long-term performance. This paper will describe data management issues integral to a successful condition assessment program. Key points will b...

  16. Modeling the Connectedness Between best Management Practices and Vulnerability Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandhi, A.; Bailey, N.; Thomas, M.; Bartnick, B.

    2015-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to better understand the connectedness between Best management practices (BMPs) and vulnerability assessments (VA) in a changing landuse. Developing this connectedness will help understand key vulnerabilities and improve adaptive capacity important for ecosystem sustainability. BMPs are practical management practices or systems designed and installed in watersheds to provide a wide range of effects to protect or restore the physical, chemical, and biological condition of waterbodies (e.g. changing hydrology; improving vegetative habitat; mitigate adverse environmental change). VAs can be defined as "the degree to which the system is susceptible to and is unable to cope with adverse effects of change" and are often characterized as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. There are many variables and factors used in calculating the impact of BMPs and VAs. The event mean concentration or load (e.g. nutrient, sediment,) associated with the specific landuse is an important variable. There is much data that predicts the loads associated with the major landuses (urban, agricultural). Loads greatly vary with region; rainfall characteristics (e.g. rainfall intensity, rainfall frequency); soil characteristics (e.g. soil type, hydrologic soil groups); hydrologic characteristics (e.g. runoff potential). A concern also exists that possibly all of the variables associated with changes in an individual land use have not been identified and distinguished for their impact on land use. For example, the loads associated with a high density residential with much green space may be more similar to medium density than loads associated with high rise apartment buildings. Other factors may include age of construction, % of families with children, % of families with pets, level of transiency, and construction activity The objective of our study is to develop an initial framework using multiple variables and factors to represent the

  17. [Assessment of soil nutrient status in urban green space of main cities in Hubei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-Shi; Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-Yuan; Zhang, Run-Hua; Chen, Fang

    2013-08-01

    According to the topography of the cities in Hubei Province, soil samples were collected from the urban green space in two mountainous cities (Enshi and Shiyan), three hilly cities (Jing-men, Xiangfan and Yichang), and five plain cities (Wuhan, Xiaogan, Xianning, Jingzhou, Suizhou and Huangshi). Within each city, subsoil samples were taken in accordance with four different types of land use, including park, residential, institutional (school, hospital and government, etc.), and roadside. In the main cities in Hubei, the soil pH of urban green space was averagely 7.9, being obviously higher than that of natural soils, while the soil organic matter content was rather low (6.8 g x kg(-1)). The soil available N and P contents were at a low level, while the soil available trace element (Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and B) contents were moderate. Land use type had significant effects on the soil nutrient contents in plain cities. The soil pH in the residential green space was significantly higher than that in the park, roadside and institutional green space, while the contents of soil available trace elements (S, Cu, Mn and Zn) in roadside green space were significantly higher than those of green space in the other land use types. Park green space had the lowest soil nutrient contents. There existed significant differences in the soil nutrient contents among the cities with different topography. The soil organic matter, NH4-N, available K and P, and Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu and Mn contents were significantly higher in plain cities than in mountainous cities.

  18. ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous sources of infectious disease causing microorganisms exist in watersheds and can impact recreational and drinking water quality. Organisms of concern include bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The watershed manager is challenged to limit human contact with pathogens, limi...

  19. Assessment, authorization and access to medicaid managed mental health care.

    PubMed

    Masland, Mary C; Snowden, Lonnie R; Wallace, Neal T

    2007-11-01

    Examined were effects on access of managed care assessment and authorization processes in California's 57 county mental health plans. Primary data on managed care implementation were collected from surveys of county plan administrators; secondary data were from Medicaid claims and enrollment files. Using multivariate fixed effects regression, we found that following implementation of managed care, greater access occurred in county plans where assessments and treatment were performed by the same clinician, and where service authorizations were made more rapidly. Lower access occurred in county plans where treating clinicians authorized services themselves. Results confirm the significant effects of managed care processes on outcomes and highlight the importance of system capacity.

  20. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  1. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  2. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  3. Managing Learning: Authority and Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2011-01-01

    A feature of language assessment internationally is its role in the enforcement of language policies established by governments and other educational and cultural agencies. This trend has led to the near-universal adoption of curriculum and assessment frameworks, the clearest example of which is the Common European Framework of Reference for…

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  5. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    PubMed

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  6. Transitioning from traditional to green cleaners: an analysis of custodian and manager focus groups.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Nancy; Wakai, Sara; Welsh, Loyola; Westinghouse, Carol; Morse, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Custodians represent one of the largest occupational groups using cleaning agents, and yet their voices are infrequently heard in relation to the introduction of "green" cleaners and the laws regarding environmentally preferable products (EPP). This study reflects worker voices on use and effectiveness of chemicals, as well as incentives and obstacles for green cleaning programs. Sixty-four custodians and staff participated in 10 focus groups. Data were entered into Atlas Ti and the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis was used to identify themes. Themes included satisfaction in a "well-done" job, more effort required for job, lack of involvement in EPP selection process, EPP's ease of use for workers with English as a Second Language (ESL), misuse of disinfectants, health complaints, and need for training. This study shows that custodians have a voice, and that improved communication and feedback among all the stakeholders are needed to make the transition to green cleaning more effective.

  7. Differences between multimedia and text-based assessments of emotion management: An exploration with the multimedia emotion management assessment (MEMA).

    PubMed

    MacCann, Carolyn; Lievens, Filip; Libbrecht, Nele; Roberts, Richard D

    2016-11-01

    People process emotional information using visual, vocal, and verbal cues. However, emotion management is typically assessed with text based rather than multimedia stimuli. This study (N = 427) presents the new multimedia emotion management assessment (MEMA) and compares it to the text-based assessment of emotion management used in the MSCEIT. The text-based and multimedia assessment showed similar levels of cognitive saturation and similar prediction of relevant criteria. Results demonstrate that the MEMA scores have equivalent evidence of validity to the text-based MSCEIT test scores, demonstrating that multimedia assessment of emotion management is viable. Furthermore, our results inform the debate as to whether cognitive saturation in emotional intelligence (EI) measures represents "noise" or "substance". We find that cognitive ability associations with EI represent substantive variance rather than construct-irrelevant shared variance due to reading comprehension ability required for text-based items.

  8. Application of Watershed Ecological Risk Assessment Methods to Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watersheds are frequently used to study and manage environmental resources because hydrologic boundaries define the flow of contaminants and other stressors. Ecological assessments of watersheds are complex because watersheds typically overlap multiple jurisdictional boundaries,...

  9. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Green Peter-Foster Project; Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Green Peter-Foster Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1955, 1972, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Eleven wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Green Peter-Foster Project extensively altered or affected 7873 acres of land and river in the Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1429 acres of grass-forb vegetation, 768 acres of shrubland, and 717 acres of open conifer forest cover types. Impacts resulting from the Green Peter-Foster Project included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, river otter, beaver, pileated woodpecker, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Green Peter-Foster Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  10. Designing measurements to assess case management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mateo, M A; Matzke, K; Newton, C

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating outcomes begins with determining the goals of case management. As the emphasis on the delivery of cost-effective patient care increases, comparing outcomes across settings is desirable and essential. A key component to comparing how an organization rates with similar institutions is to identify commonly used measures. Conducting a literature search, benchmarking, participating in initiatives of accrediting bodies, and establishing ways to collect and manage reliable and valid data are vital in laying the groundwork for an organization's ability to join evaluation projects across settings. PMID:9526390

  11. Designing measurements to assess case management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Magdalena A; Matzke, Karen; Newton, Cheryl

    2002-01-01

    Evaluating outcomes begins with determining the goals of case management. As the emphasis on the delivery of cost-effective patient care increases, comparing outcomes across settings is desirable and essential. A key component to comparing how an organization rates with similar institutions is to identify commonly used measures. Conducting a literature search, benchmarking, participating in initiatives of accrediting bodies, and establishing ways to collect and manage reliable and valid data are vital in laying the groundwork for an organization's ability to join evaluation projects across settings. PMID:12478228

  12. Assessing equipment repair and asset management.

    PubMed

    Rhine, K; Fodor, J

    1998-05-01

    As reimbursement continues to decline, healthcare managers are now forced to seek out and establish alternative means for ensuring optimal patient care delivery via maximized equipment uptimes, minimized downtimes, increased productivity and decreased expenses. And, while our benchmarking survey documented manufacturers' service contracts as the "best practice" for repair of equipment in radiation oncology, this method was also identified as the most costly. As a result, serious consideration must be given to alternate methods, irrespective of advantages and disadvantages. As a new industry-wide product, asset management is still another viable method and alternative for consideration with regard to equipment maintenance and repair.

  13. Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

  14. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling Software: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watersh...

  15. Managing Athletic Liability: An Assessment Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burling, Philip; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive risk-management program associated with athletic activities contains the following essential components: (1) policies and procedures; (2) training; (3) supervision; (4) corrective action; (5) review and revision; (6) legal counsel and support. Action steps follow each of these major areas. (29 case references) (MLF)

  16. Water Quantity and Quality Processes in Urban Wetlands and Green Stormwater Management Practices

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been invited to give a presentation as part of the Environmental Studies Program’s weekly seminar series at the Richard Stockton College in Pomona, NJ. I will present my dissertation research on urban wetlands and the green infrastructure research here, including the park...

  17. Assessment of multiple management systems in the Upper Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced tillage, multi-crop rotations and use of organic fertilizers are characteristically expected to improve soil quality. As measures of soil quality, microbial and soluble C and N were evaluated in an nine-year assessment of management practices alternative to a conventionally managed two-year ...

  18. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO(2) - based assessment.

    PubMed

    Kranert, Martin; Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian; Hafner, Gerold

    2010-04-01

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO(2)-balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:19896819

  19. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO{sub 2} - Based assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kranert, Martin; Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian; Hafner, Gerold

    2010-04-15

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO{sub 2}-balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  1. Data proxies for assessment of urban soil suitability to support green infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban green infrastructure is being implemented in many U.S. cities. It would be beneficial to efficiently and inexpensively characterize candidate properties and those on which on which similar benefits are being realized without intervention. We hypothesize that the capability...

  2. Guava SSR analysis: Diversity assessment and similarity to accessions associated with reducing citrus greening in Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The guava (Psidium guajava) is an evergreen tree in the Myrtaceae, native to tropical America. It is grown throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world, and is used as a fresh fruit and processed into juice, jelly and paste. Recent introduction of citrus greening (huanglongbing) into Florida...

  3. 78 FR 46938 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Regulatory Commission (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Availability of...

  4. 78 FR 936 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Regulatory Commission (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Availability of...

  5. Utilizing 1-meter Landcover Data to Assess Associations between Green Space and Stress

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: When using remotely-sensed data to study health, researchers must identify an appropriate spatial resolution to capture potential exposures. Investigations into urban green space are often limited by the unavailability of fine-scale landcover data. We analyzed 1-meter gr...

  6. Energy or compost from green waste? - A CO(2) - based assessment.

    PubMed

    Kranert, Martin; Gottschall, Ralf; Bruns, Christian; Hafner, Gerold

    2010-04-01

    Green waste is increasingly extracted from the material recycling chain and, as a result of the financial subsidy arising from the German renewable energy law for the generation of energy from renewable raw materials; it is fed into the energy recovery process in biomass power stations. A reduction in climate relevant gases is also linked to the material recovery of green waste - in particular when using composts gained from the process as a new raw material in different types of potting compost and plant culture media as a replacement for peat. Unlike energy recovery, material valorisation is not currently subsidised. Through the analysis of material and energy valorisation methods for green waste, with particular emphasis on primary resource consumption and CO(2)-balance, it could be determined that the use of green waste for energy generation and its recovery for material and peat replacement purposes can be considered to be on a par. Based on energy recovery or material oriented scenarios, it can be further deduced that no method on its own will achieve the desired outcome and that a combination of recycling processes is more likely to lead to a significant decrease of greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Assessment for Exemplary Schools: Productive School Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.

    2009-01-01

    The 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), also known as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation, has been called the most far-reaching federal education bill in nearly four decades. The law's comprehensive assessment provisions address areas from school choice to low-performing schools and increased…

  8. Assessing Landscapes to Support Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we change the face of the landscape in the United States with urban development and agriculture practices, the alterations can cause stormwater runoff, soil erosion and water pollution. Therefore, evaluating or assessing natural landscapes and providing the tools to do the...

  9. Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…

  10. Outcomes Assessment in Accredited Health Information Management Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dorine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use and perceived usefulness of outcomes assessment methods in health information management programs. Additional characteristics of the outcomes assessment practices were recognized. The findings were evaluated for significant differences in results based on age of the program, type of institution,…

  11. Managing Change-Engaging Faculty in Assessment Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2011-01-01

    Regional accrediting bodies require evidence that higher education institutions are meeting their stated goals. Institutions have answered this call for accountability by assessing student learning. Managing change in order to implement assessment practices is a challenge, however, particularly when autonomy, academic freedom, and shared…

  12. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  13. Pain assessment and management strategies for elderly patients.

    PubMed

    MacSorley, Robyn; White, Jill; Conerly, Vicki H; Walker, Jean T; Lofton, Susan; Ragland, Gaye; Davey, DeBrynda; Robertson, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Home healthcare nurses play a critical role in pain assessment and management in elderly patients. People 65 years of age and older are the largest consumers of prescription and nonprescription pain medications in the United States and are at increased risk for adverse reactions and inadequate pain management. This article seeks to explore strategies to assist hospice and home healthcare nurses in assessing and managing elderly patients' pain. The goal is to provide tools to assist nurses in streamlining elderly patient care and improving quality of life while decreasing mortality and morbidity for this patient population. PMID:24802598

  14. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  15. Indicators for Assessing Climate Change Resilience Resulting from Emplacement of Green Infrastructure Projects Across an Urban Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parish, E. S.; Omitaomu, O.; Sylvester, L.; Nugent, P.

    2015-12-01

    Many U.S. cities are exploring the potential of using green infrastructure (e.g., porous pavements, green roofs, street planters) to reduce urban storm water runoff, which can be both be a nuisance and costly to treat. While tools exist to measure local runoff changes resulting from individual green infrastructure (GI) projects, most municipalities currently have no method of analyzing the collective impact of GI projects on urban stormwater systems under future rainfall scenarios and impervious surface distribution patterns. Using the mid-sized city of Knoxville, Tennessee as a case study, we propose a set of indicators that can be used to monitor and analyze the collective effects of GI emplacement on urban storm water runoff volumes as well as to quantify potential co-benefits of GI projects (e.g., urban heat island reduction, reduced stream scouring) under different climate projection ensembles and population growth scenarios. These indicators are intended to help the city prioritize GI projects as opportunities arise, as well as to track the effectiveness of GI implementation over time. We explore the aggregation of these indicators across different spatial scales (e.g., plot, neighborhood, watershed, city) in order to assess potential changes in climate change resilience resulting from the collective implementation of GI projects across an urban landscape.

  16. Ada and software management in NASA: Assessment and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Recent NASA missions have required software systems that are larger, more complex, and more critical than NASA software systems of the past. The Ada programming language and the software methods and support environments associated with it are seen as potential breakthroughs in meeting NASA's software requirements. The findings of a study by the Ada and Software Management Assessment Working Group (ASMAWG) are presented. The study was chartered to perform three tasks: (1) assess the agency's ongoing and planned Ada activities; (2) assess the infrastructure (standards, policies, and internal organizations) supporting software management and the Ada activities; and (3) present an Ada implementation and use strategy appropriate for NASA over the next 5 years.

  17. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pantea, Michael P.; Self, Jesse G.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a reassessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of richness, in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. A considerable amount of oil-yield data has been collected after previous in-place assessments were published, and these data were incorporated into this new assessment. About twice as many oil-yield data points were used, and several additional oil shale intervals were included that were not assessed previously for lack of data. Oil yields are measured using the Fischer assay method. The Fischer assay method is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale that has been almost universally used to determine oil yields for Green River Formation oil shales. Fischer assay does not necessarily measure the maximum amount of oil that an oil shale can produce, and there are retorting methods that yield more than the Fischer assay yield. However, the oil yields achieved by other technologies are typically reported as a percentage of the Fischer assay oil yield, and thus Fischer assay is still considered the standard by which other methods are compared.

  18. Hazard assessment of selenium and other trace elements in wild larval razorback sucker from the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Muth, R.T.; Waddell, B.; May, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminant investigations of the Green River in northeastern Utah have documented selenium contamination at sites receiving irrigation drainage. The Green River provides critical habitat for four endangered fishes including the largest extant riverine population of endangered razorback sucker. Although 2175 larval razorback suckers were collected from the river between 1992 and 1996, very few juveniles have been captured within recent decades. Selenium concentrations were measured in larval razorback suckers collected from five sites in the Green River (Cliff Creek, Stewart Lake Drain, Sportsman's Drain, Greasewood Corral, and Old Charlie Wash) to assess the potential for adverse effects on recruitment of larvae to the juvenile stage and the adult population. Larvae from all sites contained mean selenium concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 ??g/g. These values were at or above the proposed toxic threshold of 4 ??g/g for adverse biological effects in fish, which was derived from several laboratory and field studies with a wide range of fish species. At two sites, Cliff Creek and Stewart Lake Drain, selenium concentrations in larvae increased over time as fish grew, whereas selenium concentrations decreased as fish grew at Sportsman's Drain. Evaluation of a 279-larvae composite analyzed for 61 elements demonstrated that selenium and, to a lesser extent, vanadium were elevated to concentrations reported to be toxic to a wide range of fish species. Elevated selenium concentrations in larval razorback suckers from the five sites suggest that selenium contamination may be widespread in the Green River, and that survival and recruitment of larvae to the juvenile stage may be limited due to adverse biological effects. Selenium contamination may be adversely affecting the reproductive success and recruitment of endangered razorback sucker.

  19. NGNP Risk Management through Assessing Technology Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Collins

    2010-08-01

    Throughout the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project life cycle, technical risks are identified, analyzed, and mitigated and decisions are made regarding the design and selection of plant and sub-system configurations, components and their fabrication materials, and operating conditions. Risk resolution and decision making are key elements that help achieve project completion within budget and schedule constraints and desired plant availability. To achieve this objective, a formal decision-making and risk management process was developed for NGNP, based on proven systems engineering principles that have guided aerospace and military applications.

  20. Assessing and managing depression in older people.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Hywel

    Depression is the most common mental health condition in people aged 65 and over. It can have a detrimental effect on quality of life and reduce patients' ability to manage their health. Nurses caring for older people with physical health problems are in an ideal position to identify depression; this article outlines how general receive the appropriate mental health care. nurses can do so and ensure their patientsepression can occur as a result of major life changes. It affects an estimated two million people over the age of 65 in the UK and is the most common mental illness

  1. Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  2. Concepts of modern risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Corbin, S B

    1994-01-01

    An emerging and increasingly complex array of environmental health concerns face dental practitioners in both the private and public sectors. These concerns are challenging and possibly threatening the traditionally inviolable dentist-patient relationship. Regulatory bodies, health risk experts, attorneys, and enthusiastic media are inserting themselves into the process. Essential assets for "successful" dental practitioners include enhanced expertise in basic science and technology, including the area of risk assessment, and development of broadened perspectives and skills for communicating with patients and the public.

  3. Construction of green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant iridovirus to assess viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Ye, Fuzhou; Guan, Liya; Liu, Hong; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-09-01

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged recombinant virus has been successfully applied to observing the infective dynamics and evaluating viral replication. Here, we identified soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) ORF55 as an envelope protein (VP55), and developed a recombinant STIV expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to VP55 (EGFP-STIV). Recombinant EGFP-STIV shared similar single-step growth curves and ultrastructural morphology with wild type STIV (wt-STIV). The green fluorescence distribution during EGFP-STIV infection was consistent with the intracellular distribution of VP55 which was mostly co-localized with virus assembly sites. Furthermore, EGFP-STIV could be used to evaluate viral replication conveniently under drug treatment, and the result showed that STIV replication was significantly inhibited after the addition of antioxidant pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Thus, the EGFP-tagged recombinant iridovirus will not only be useful for further investigations on the viral replicative dynamics, but also provide an alternative simple strategy to screen for antiviral substances.

  4. Assessing and managing spider and scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Stephen; Weiner, Aaron; Finnegan, Alan; Visovsky, Constance; Clochesy, John M; Graves, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Envenomation by spiders or scorpions is a public health problem in many parts of the world and is not isolated to the tropics and subtropics. Spiders and scorpions can be unintentionally transported globally, and keeping them as pets is becoming more popular, so envenomation can occur anywhere. Emergency nurses should be prepared to assess and treat patients who present with a bite or sting. This article gives an overview of the signs, symptoms and treatment of envenomation by species of arachnids that are clinically significant to humans.

  5. Assessing and managing spider and scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Stephen; Weiner, Aaron; Finnegan, Alan; Visovsky, Constance; Clochesy, John M; Graves, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Envenomation by spiders or scorpions is a public health problem in many parts of the world and is not isolated to the tropics and subtropics. Spiders and scorpions can be unintentionally transported globally, and keeping them as pets is becoming more popular, so envenomation can occur anywhere. Emergency nurses should be prepared to assess and treat patients who present with a bite or sting. This article gives an overview of the signs, symptoms and treatment of envenomation by species of arachnids that are clinically significant to humans. PMID:26542925

  6. Whooping cough: identification, assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Jackie; Pinfield, Jenny; Rouse, Jo

    Although there is a high uptake of vaccinations providing protection against Bordetella pertussis, the main cause of whooping cough, there has been an increase in the incidence of notifications of the disease in the UK and other developed countries in recent years. The increase in cases of whooping cough is mainly evident in older children and adults. While these individuals may experience persistent and unpleasant symptoms, most notably prolonged cough, symptoms may be mild, in part, because most older children and adults have been vaccinated against the disease. The most significant public health concern relating to whooping cough is that infected older children and adults may transmit the disease to unvaccinated infants who are most vulnerable to the symptoms. This article aims to develop the reader's understanding of whooping cough, including its prevention and management.

  7. Air quality risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This article provides (1) a synthesis of the literature on the linkages between air pollution and human health, (2) an overview of quality management approaches in Canada, the United States, and the European Union (EU), and (3) future directions for air quality research. Numerous studies examining short-term effects of air pollution show significant associations between ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and increases in premature mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Several well-designed epidemiological studies confirmed the adverse long-term effects of PM on both mortality and morbidity. Epidemiological studies also document significant associations between ozone (O3), sulfur (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and adverse health outcomes; however, the effects of gaseous pollutants are less well documented. Subpopulations that are more susceptible to air pollution include children, the elderly, those with cardiorespiratory disease, and socioeconomically deprived individuals. Canada-wide standards for ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 were set in 2000, providing air quality targets to be achieved by 2010. In the United States, the Clean Air Act provides the framework for the establishment and review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants and the establishment of emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants. The 1996 European Union's enactment of the Framework Directive for Air Quality established the process for setting Europe-wide limit values for a series of pollutants. The Clean Air for Europe program was established by the European Union to review existing limit values, emission ceilings, and abatement protocols, as set out in the current legislation. These initiatives serve as the legislative framework for air quality management in North America and Europe.

  8. Greening the global water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  9. Quantitative assessment of the microbial risk of leafy greens from farm to consumption: preliminary framework, data, and risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Danyluk, Michelle D; Schaffner, Donald W

    2011-05-01

    This project was undertaken to relate what is known about the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 under laboratory conditions and integrate this information to what is known regarding the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak in the context of a quantitative microbial risk assessment. The risk model explicitly assumes that all contamination arises from exposure in the field. Extracted data, models, and user inputs were entered into an Excel spreadsheet, and the modeling software @RISK was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations. The model predicts that cut leafy greens that are temperature abused will support the growth of E. coli O157:H7, and populations of the organism may increase by as much a 1 log CFU/day under optimal temperature conditions. When the risk model used a starting level of -1 log CFU/g, with 0.1% of incoming servings contaminated, the predicted numbers of cells per serving were within the range of best available estimates of pathogen levels during the outbreak. The model predicts that levels in the field of -1 log CFU/g and 0.1% prevalence could have resulted in an outbreak approximately the size of the 2006 E. coli O157:H7 outbreak. This quantitative microbial risk assessment model represents a preliminary framework that identifies available data and provides initial risk estimates for pathogenic E. coli in leafy greens. Data gaps include retail storage times, correlations between storage time and temperature, determining the importance of E. coli O157:H7 in leafy greens lag time models, and validation of the importance of cross-contamination during the washing process.

  10. Wetland assessment, monitoring and management in India using geospatial techniques.

    PubMed

    Garg, J K

    2015-01-15

    Satellite remote sensing and GIS have emerged as the most powerful tools for inventorying, monitoring and management of natural resources and environment. In the special context of wetland ecosystems, remotely sensed data from orbital platforms have been extensively used in India for the inventory, monitoring and preparation of action plans for conservation and management. First scientific inventory of wetlands in India was carried out in 1998 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad using indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) data of 1992-93 timeframe, which stimulated extensive use of geospatial techniques for wetland conservation and management. Subsequently, with advances in GIS, studies were carried out for development of Wetland Information System for a state (West Bengal) and for Loktak lake wetland (a Ramsar site) as a prelude to National Wetland Information System. Research has also been carried out for preparation of action plans especially for Ramsar sites in the country. In a novel research, use of the geospatial technology has also been demonstrated for biodiversity conservation using landscape ecological metrics. A country-wide estimate of emission of methane, a Green House Gas, from wetlands has also been made using MODIS data. Present article critically reviews the work carried out in India for wetland conservation and management using geospatial techniques.

  11. Global Greening Is Firm, Drivers Are Mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P.; Meyfroidt, P.; Ausubel, J. H.; Graven, H. D.; Birdsey, R.; Posch, M.; Wernick, I.; Myneni, R. B.; Stenberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for global greening is converging, asserting an increase in CO2 uptake and biomass of the terrestrial biosphere. Global greening refers to global net increases in the area of green canopy, stocks of carbon, and the duration of the growing season. The growing seasons in general have prolonged while the stock of biomass carbon has increased and the rate of deforestation has decelerated, although these trends are mixed in the Tropics. Evidence for these trends comes from firm empirical data obtained through atmospheric CO2 observations, remote sensing, forest inventories and land use statistics. The drivers of global greening cannot be assessed based only on unambiguous empirical measurements. They include spatially and temporally heterogeneous combinations of changing land use and management - including green revolution and increasing yields, afforestation, forest protection and management, and abandonment of agricultural land -, changes in the global environment (increased CO2, warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northern latitudes, acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle), and shifts in demand for forest and farm products. The global trade of biomass-derived commodities affects the link between consumption patterns and the land cover impact. Global greening confirms the immediacy of global change and may be associated with more or less biodiversity and diverse environmental and human consequences depending on local circumstances. Understanding causes, mechanisms, and implications of global greening requires integrated analyses spanning land use and management, demand for products of the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere and climate. Understanding the pace and drivers of global greening matters crucially for assessing the future of the terrestrial C sink; ecological, economic, social, and cultural assessments of the bio-economy; and the preservation of ecosystems.

  12. Environmental Assessment : Squawfish Management Program : Final.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to decrease the number of northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) in reservoirs in the Columbia River system. The goal of the Squawfish Management Program is to reduce losses of outmigrating juvenile salmon and steelhead (salmonids) to northern squawfish predation. The objective is to reduce the number of northern squawfish that feed on juvenile salmonids (smolts) by 10 to 20 percent to alter the age and size structure of the northern squawfish population. The hypothesis, based on computer modeling, indicates that sustained northern squawfish harvest (5 to 10 years) and the resultant population restructuring may reduce losses of juvenile salmonids to predation by up to 50 percent or more within 10 years. The proposed action would target northern squawfish 11 inches and longer, the size in which northern squawfish being preying significantly on juvenile salmonids. BPA proposes to fund three types of fisheries to harvest northern squawfish. BPA also proposes to fund monitoring activities of these fisheries to determine whether desired or other results occur. The three fisheries methods proposed are: (1) commercial Tribal fishing; (2) sport reward fishing; and (3) fishing from restricted areas of each dam ( dam angling''). These fisheries were tested in 1990 and 1991.

  13. Cyclical vomiting syndrome: Recognition, assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Tan, Michelle Ln; Liwanag, Maria Janelle; Quak, Seng Hock

    2014-08-01

    Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional, debilitating disorder of childhood frequently leading to hospitalization. Affected children usually experience a stereotypical pattern of vomiting though it may vary between different individuals. The vomiting is intense often bilious, and accompanied by disabling nausea. Identifiable precipitating factors for CVS include psychosocial stressors, infections, lack of sleep and occasionally even food triggers. Often, it may be difficult to distinguish episodes of CVS from other causes of acute abdomen and altered consciousness. Thus, the diagnosis of CVS remains largely one of exclusion. Investigations routinely done during the work-up of a child with suspected CVS include both blood and imaging modalities. Plasma lactate, ammonia, amino acid and acylcarnitine profiles as well as urine organic acid profile are indicated to exclude inborn errors of metabolism. The treatment remains challenging and targeted at prevention or shortening of the attacks and can be considered as abortive, supportive and prophylactic. Use of non-pharmacological therapy is also part of the management of CVS. The prognosis of CVS is variable. More insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder as well as role of non-pharmacological therapy is needed. PMID:25254185

  14. The soil management assessment framework: A potential soil health assessment tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) was developed in the 1990s utilizing Systems Engineering and Ecology experiences with scoring functions to normalize disparate soil physical, chemical, and biological indicator data representing critical properties and processes associated with soil qu...

  15. The assessment and management of falls in residential care settings.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Anita

    Care of the older person has become more specialised in Ireland particularly since the introduction of national and international healthcare standards. In this regard, older people are receiving more evidence-based quality care when living in long-term healthcare facilities in Ireland. Assessment and management of falls is currently high on the quality agenda in terms of measuring quality outcomes. Clinical practice is being standardised using evidence-based practice and research. Residential care nurses caring for older people in Ireland are required to demonstrate clinical competence when assessing and managing falls in the residential care setting. Healthcare legislation, policy and in-service education, occurring in both the public and private sector, require a multidisciplinary-team approach. This article addresses the nursing priorities regarding falls assessment and management strategies that residential nurses should consider when caring for the older person at risk of falling. PMID:23545551

  16. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-10-01

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = -0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = -0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants. PMID:26457711

  17. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-01-01

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = −0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = −0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants. PMID:26457711

  18. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-10-08

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = -0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = -0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  19. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: Risk assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. Integr

  20. Assessing quality management in an R and D environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.D.

    1998-02-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier research and development institution operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Since 1991, LANL has pursued a heightened commitment to developing world-class quality in management and operations. In 1994 LANL adopted the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria as a framework for all activities and initiated more formalized customer focus and quality management. Five measurement systems drive the current integration of quality efforts: an annual Baldrige-based assessment, a customer focus program, customer-driven performance measurement, an employee performance management system and annual employee surveys, and integrated planning processes with associated goals and measures.

  1. Ductal carcinoma in situ - update on risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jia-Min B; Gorringe, Kylie L; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for ~20-25% of breast cancers. While DCIS is not life-threatening, it may progress to invasive carcinoma over time, and treatment intended to prevent invasive progression may itself cause significant morbidity. Accurate risk assessment is therefore necessary to avoid over- or undertreatment of an individual patient. In this review we will outline the evidence for current management of DCIS, discuss approaches to DCIS risk assessment and challenges facing identification of novel DCIS biomarkers.

  2. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  3. Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  4. Status of Neonatal Pain Assessment and Management in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Akuma, Akuma O; Jordan, Sue

    2016-08-01

    Current pain assessment and management in neonates need to be fully described before neonatal pain care can be optimized. This study's purpose was to report neonatal nurses' knowledge, existing pain assessment practice, and pharmacological pain management of neonates in Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Eighteen neonatal intensive care units in Jordan were included in the study. One hundred eighty-four neonatal nurses participated. Questionnaires were distributed by and returned to the neonatal intensive care units' managers between June and August 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present study results. Of 240 questionnaires distributed, 184 useable responses were returned. Nurses' knowledge regarding neonates' neurological development, nociception, and need for neonatal pain management was suboptimal. The analgesics most commonly used to treat neonatal pain were acetaminophen (52%) and lidocaine (45%). Benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone, and muscles relaxants were also used. Most nurses (54%-97%) reported that pain emanating from most painful procedures was never or rarely treated. Circumcision, lumbar punctures, and chest tube insertion were assigned the highest pain scores (≥9), but were rarely accompanied by analgesia. Pain assessment scales were more likely to be used, and procedural pain was more likely to be treated, in private hospitals than public hospitals. Neonates who require special care still suffer unnecessary pain that could be avoided and managed by following best practice recommendations. Disparities between developed and developing countries in quality of neonatal pain care appear to exist. Resources for education and routine care are needed to address these discrepancies.

  5. Status of Neonatal Pain Assessment and Management in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Akuma, Akuma O; Jordan, Sue

    2016-08-01

    Current pain assessment and management in neonates need to be fully described before neonatal pain care can be optimized. This study's purpose was to report neonatal nurses' knowledge, existing pain assessment practice, and pharmacological pain management of neonates in Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Eighteen neonatal intensive care units in Jordan were included in the study. One hundred eighty-four neonatal nurses participated. Questionnaires were distributed by and returned to the neonatal intensive care units' managers between June and August 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present study results. Of 240 questionnaires distributed, 184 useable responses were returned. Nurses' knowledge regarding neonates' neurological development, nociception, and need for neonatal pain management was suboptimal. The analgesics most commonly used to treat neonatal pain were acetaminophen (52%) and lidocaine (45%). Benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone, and muscles relaxants were also used. Most nurses (54%-97%) reported that pain emanating from most painful procedures was never or rarely treated. Circumcision, lumbar punctures, and chest tube insertion were assigned the highest pain scores (≥9), but were rarely accompanied by analgesia. Pain assessment scales were more likely to be used, and procedural pain was more likely to be treated, in private hospitals than public hospitals. Neonates who require special care still suffer unnecessary pain that could be avoided and managed by following best practice recommendations. Disparities between developed and developing countries in quality of neonatal pain care appear to exist. Resources for education and routine care are needed to address these discrepancies. PMID:27108085

  6. Assessing stimulus and subject influences on auditory evoked potentials and their relation to peripheral physiology in green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea)

    PubMed Central

    Buerkle, Nathan P.; Schrode, Katrina M.; Bee, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) are important models for comparative studies of communication, auditory physiology, and neuroethology, but to date, most of our knowledge comes from in-depth studies of a relatively small number of model species. Using the well-studied green treefrog (Hyla cinerea), this study sought to develop and evaluate the use of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) as a minimally invasive tool for investigating auditory sensitivity in a larger diversity of anuran species. The goals of the study were to assess the effects of frequency, signal level, sex, and body size on auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes and latencies, characterize gross ABR morphology, and generate an audiogram that could be compared to several previously published audiograms for green treefrogs. Increasing signal level resulted in larger ABR amplitudes and shorter latencies, and these effects were frequency dependent. There was little evidence for an effect of sex or size on ABRs. Analyses consistently distinguished between responses to stimuli in the frequency ranges of the three previously-described populations of afferents that innervate the two auditory end organs in anurans. The overall shape of the audiogram shared prominent features with previously published audiograms. This study highlights the utility of AEPs as a valuable tool for the study of anuran auditory sensitivity. PMID:25151643

  7. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  8. Assessing stimulus and subject influences on auditory evoked potentials and their relation to peripheral physiology in green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea).

    PubMed

    Buerkle, Nathan P; Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) are important models for comparative studies of communication, auditory physiology, and neuroethology, but to date, most of our knowledge comes from in-depth studies of a relatively small number of model species. Using the well-studied green treefrog (Hyla cinerea), this study sought to develop and evaluate the use of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) as a minimally invasive tool for investigating auditory sensitivity in a larger diversity of anuran species. The goals of the study were to assess the effects of frequency, signal level, sex, and body size on auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes and latencies, characterize gross ABR morphology, and generate an audiogram that could be compared to several previously published audiograms for green treefrogs. Increasing signal level resulted in larger ABR amplitudes and shorter latencies, and these effects were frequency dependent. There was little evidence for an effect of sex or size on ABRs. Analyses consistently distinguished between responses to stimuli in the frequency ranges of the three previously-described populations of afferents that innervate the two auditory end organs in anurans. The overall shape of the audiogram shared prominent features with previously published audiograms. This study highlights the utility of AEPs as a valuable tool for the study of anuran auditory sensitivity. PMID:25151643

  9. Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Assay Results for Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Green Tea Nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Abd-ElSalam, Heba-Alla H; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad; Nassar, Noha; Zaazaa, Hala E; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2016-07-01

    Green tea (GT)-derived catechins; epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in particular are commonly used nutraceuticals for their free-radical scavenging activity (FRSA). The influence of photodegradation on the protective power of GT nutracenticals against oxidative stress was thoroughly explored. Photodegradation of GT extracts was carried out and monitored using orthogonal stability-indicating testing protocol; in vitro and in vivo assays. Total polyphenol content (TPC) and FRSA were determined spectrophotometrically while EGCG was selectively monitored using SPE-HPLC. In vivo assessment of photodegraded samples was investigated via measuring a number of biomarkers for hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis (caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase, glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nuclear factor kappa beta, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor) as well as liver damage (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase) in serum of rats previously subjected to oxidative stress. Results showed complete degradation of EGCG in photodegraded green tea samples with no correlation with either TPC or FRSA. On the other hand, in vivo assay results revealed not only loss of activity but formation of harmful pro-oxidants. Photostability was found crucial for the protective effect of GT extract against lead acetate insult. Results confirmed that careful design of quality control protocols requires correlation of chemical assays to bioassays to verify efficacy, stability, and most importantly safety of nutraceuticals.

  10. Assessing stimulus and subject influences on auditory evoked potentials and their relation to peripheral physiology in green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea).

    PubMed

    Buerkle, Nathan P; Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Anurans (frogs and toads) are important models for comparative studies of communication, auditory physiology, and neuroethology, but to date, most of our knowledge comes from in-depth studies of a relatively small number of model species. Using the well-studied green treefrog (Hyla cinerea), this study sought to develop and evaluate the use of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) as a minimally invasive tool for investigating auditory sensitivity in a larger diversity of anuran species. The goals of the study were to assess the effects of frequency, signal level, sex, and body size on auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes and latencies, characterize gross ABR morphology, and generate an audiogram that could be compared to several previously published audiograms for green treefrogs. Increasing signal level resulted in larger ABR amplitudes and shorter latencies, and these effects were frequency dependent. There was little evidence for an effect of sex or size on ABRs. Analyses consistently distinguished between responses to stimuli in the frequency ranges of the three previously-described populations of afferents that innervate the two auditory end organs in anurans. The overall shape of the audiogram shared prominent features with previously published audiograms. This study highlights the utility of AEPs as a valuable tool for the study of anuran auditory sensitivity.

  11. An Assessment of Ohio's Education Management Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.

    The Legislative Office of Education Oversight (LOEO) assessed the planning and implementation of Ohios Education Management Information System (EMIS). The EMIS was mandated in 1989 as a provision of one of the most comprehensive educational reform bills ever passed in Ohio. The EMIS was developed based on an existing computer network, the Ohio…

  12. Assessing Educational Processes Using Total-Quality-Management Measurement Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchia, Peter, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the use of Total Quality Management (TQM) assessment tools in educational settings highlights and gives examples of fishbone diagrams, or cause and effect charts; Pareto diagrams; control charts; histograms and check sheets; scatter diagrams; and flowcharts. Variation and quality are discussed in terms of continuous process…

  13. Wound exudate assessment and management: a challenge for clinicans.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Joy

    2015-11-11

    The production of wound exudate is a natural and normal consequence of healing. However, it is when the constituents, volume and consistency of the exudate alter that problems can occur. This article discusses the different types of exudate, particularly highly viscous exudate, its impact on both the patient and the clinician, and appropriate exudate assessment, effective management and dressing selection.

  14. Experiences in monitoring and assessment of sustainable land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although sustainable land management (SLM) is widely promoted to prevent and mitigate land degradation and desertification, its monitoring and assessment has received much less attention. This paper compiles methodological approaches which to date have been little reported in literature. It draws le...

  15. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashar, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…

  16. Self-Assessment of Competences in Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández López, Lidia; de Saá Pérez, Petra; Ballesteros Rodríguez, Jose Luis; García Almeida, Desiderio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theoretical and practical need for research into the learning conditions that influence a student's self-assessment of their competences in management education. By means of a theoretical review, the paper introduces a model that integrates various learning conditions related to a student's…

  17. The Evaluation of the Management Assessment Center. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Joseph J.

    The Management Assessment Center (MAC) of the Dade County (Florida) Public Schools is a unique project, employing multiple techniques to evaluate behavior for school-level administrator personnel selection. This final report of an evaluation deals primarily with issues of the validity and the utility of the MAC. To ascertain validity of the MAC,…

  18. Assessment of the Quality Management Models in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basar, Gulsun; Altinay, Zehra; Dagli, Gokmen; Altinay, Fahriye

    2016-01-01

    This study involves the assessment of the quality management models in Higher Education by explaining the importance of quality in higher education and by examining the higher education quality assurance system practices in other countries. The qualitative study was carried out with the members of the Higher Education Planning, Evaluation,…

  19. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  20. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  1. Assessing and managing freshwater ecosystems vulnerable to global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Drakare, Stina; McKie, Brendan G.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are important for global biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services. There is consensus in the scientific literature that freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change, which may trigger irreversible regime shifts upon which biodiversity and ecosystem services may be lost. There are profound uncertainties regarding the management and assessment of the vulnerability of freshwater ecosystems to environmental change. Quantitative approaches are needed to reduce this uncertainty. We describe available statistical and modeling approaches along with case studies that demonstrate how resilience theory can be applied to aid decision-making in natural resources management. We highlight especially how long-term monitoring efforts combined with ecological theory can provide a novel nexus between ecological impact assessment and management, and the quantification of systemic vulnerability and thus the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

  2. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  3. Using Risk Assessment Methodologies to Meet Management Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate and program objectives focus on desired performance and results. ?Management decisions that affect how to meet these objectives now involve a complex mix of: technology, safety issues, operations, process considerations, employee considerations, regulatory requirements, financial concerns and legal issues. ?Risk Assessments are a tool for decision makers to understand potential consequences and be in a position to reduce, mitigate or eliminate costly mistakes or catastrophic failures. Using a risk assessment methodology is only a starting point. ?A risk assessment program provides management with important input in the decision making process. ?A pro-active organization looks to the future to avoid problems, a reactive organization can be blindsided by risks that could have been avoided. ?You get out what you put in, how useful your program is will be up to the individual organization.

  4. Risk assessment and risk management for safe foods: Assessment needs inclusion of variability and uncertainty, management needs discrete decisions.

    PubMed

    Zwietering, M H

    2015-11-20

    The introduction of relevant food safety changes in legislation, like time-temperature criteria for pasteurisation and sterilisation, microbiological criteria, HACCP and FSOs, generally took several decades. All these approaches have helped to define specific targets or systems to improve the management of food safety. More and more the measures could be related to specific efficiency in public health protection. With the use of quantitative risk assessment, theoretically the effect of all interventions on the final risk can be determined, which can help to design the appropriate controls in the food safety management system. In such an assessment in practice, however results have understandably large variability and also uncertainty. There is large variability and uncertainty in the biological parts of the assessment, the dose response (infectivity, human susceptibility) the micro-organism kinetics in the chain (growth, inactivation, stress response) and also in the more technological parts, the conditions in the chain and the consumer behaviour. Often the results of risk assessments are probability distributions of the variability in illness probability, also sometimes represented with their uncertainty. To make a link from these distributions to managerial decisions, that need to be black and white, should not be considered the job of risk managers. This link needs investment from both the assessor and the manager.

  5. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  6. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  7. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robert D.; Scyphers, Steven B.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders’ perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state’s management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders’ support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that

  8. Assessment of human resources management practices in Lebanese hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Sound human resources (HR) management practices are essential for retaining effective professionals in hospitals. Given the recruitment and retention reality of health workers in the twenty-first century, the role of HR managers in hospitals and those who combine the role of HR managers with other responsibilities should not be underestimated. The objective of this study is to assess the perception of HR managers about the challenges they face and the current strategies being adopted. The study also aims at assessing enabling factors including role, education, experience and HR training. Methods A cross-sectional survey design of HR managers (and those who combine their role as HR manager with other duties) in Lebanese hospitals was utilized. The survey included a combination of open- and close-ended questions. Questions included educational background, work experience, and demographics, in addition to questions about perceived challenges and key strategies being used. Quantitative data analysis included uni-variate analysis, whereas thematic analysis was used for open-ended questions. Results A total of 96 respondents from 61 hospitals responded. Respondents had varying levels of expertise in the realm of HR management. Thematic analysis revealed that challenges varied across respondents and participating hospitals. The most frequently reported challenge was poor employee retention (56.7%), lack of qualified personnel (35.1%), and lack of a system for performance evaluation (28.9%). Some of the strategies used to mitigate the above challenges included offering continuing education and training for employees (19.6%), improving salaries (14.4%), and developing retention strategies (10.3%). Mismatch between reported challenges and strategies were observed. Conclusion To enable hospitals to deliver good quality, safe healthcare, improving HR management is critical. There is a need for a cadre of competent HR managers who can fully assume these

  9. Socioeconomic impact assessment and nuclear power plant licensing, Greene County, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews the setting, participants and status of the joint federal-state hearings, findings of the FES, problems of conducting social impact assessment (SIA) for the GCNPP, and the nature and effect of public participation in the formal, legalistic hearings process. The GCNPP is evaluated in terms of trends in Atomic Energy Commission-Nuclear Regulatory Commission social impact assessments from 1972 to 1979. Progress in the adequacy and relevance of social impact assessment is defined according to steps in a lengthy, evolutionary legitimation process.

  10. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76).

  11. Field assessment of the Village Green Project: an autonomous community air quality monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wan; Hagler, Gayle S W; Williams, Ronald W; Sharpe, Robert N; Weinstock, Lewis; Rice, Joann

    2015-05-19

    Continuous, long-term, and time-resolved measurement of outdoor air pollution has been limited by logistical hurdles and resource constraints. Measuring air pollution in more places is desired to address community concerns regarding local air quality impacts related to proximate sources, to provide data in areas lacking regional air monitoring altogether, or to support environmental awareness and education. This study integrated commercially available technologies to create the Village Green Project (VGP), a durable, solar-powered air monitoring park bench that measures real-time ozone, PM2.5, and meteorological parameters. The data are wirelessly transmitted via cellular modem to a server, where automated quality checks take place before data are provided to the public nearly instantaneously. Over 5500 h of data were successfully collected during the first ten months of pilot testing in Durham, North Carolina, with about 13 days (5.5%) of downtime because of low battery power. Additional data loss (4-14% depending on the measurement) was caused by infrequent wireless communication interruptions and instrument maintenance. The 94.5% operational time via solar power was within 1.5% of engineering calculations using historical solar data for the location. The performance of the VGP was evaluated by comparing the data to nearby air monitoring stations operating federal equivalent methods (FEM), which exhibited good agreement with the nearest benchmark FEMs for hourly ozone (r(2) = 0.79) and PM2.5 (r(2) = 0.76). PMID:25905923

  12. Stability assessment of indocyanine green within dextran-coated mesocapsules by absorbance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Yu, Jie; Wong, Michael S; Anvari, Bahman

    2007-01-01

    The biocompatibility and high absorption in the near IR range of indocyanine green (ICG) have made it a suitable candidate chromophore for optical imaging and laser-mediated therapy of superficial tumors. However, its clinical efficacy remains limited by factors such as rapid circulation kinetics, lack of target specificity, and molecular instability. Such drawbacks motivated us to encapsulate ICG into carrier particles to improve target specificity and retention time. We use absorbance spectroscopy to investigate the effects of encapsulating ICG within dextran-coated capsules. The mesocapsules (MCs) containing ICG are synthesized using a previously reported charge-assembly technique. Both freely dissolved ICG and ICG-MCs are prepared with ICG concentrations of either 50 or 10 microg/ml. Samples are exposed either to a broadband light source or incubated at 3, 23, or 40 degrees C. Absorbance spectra are recorded at various time points up to 96 h. At the lower concentration of 10 microg/ml, ICG within MCs experiences less light-induced degradation. The MC system also protects ICG from thermal degradation at all tested temperatures. The polymer-salt aggregate core of the MCs hinders the mobility of ICG molecules. The MC system shields ICG from vibrational and translational agitation as well as molecular changes such as fragmentation.

  13. Safety assessment of recombinant green fluorescent protein orally administered to weaned rats.

    PubMed

    Richards, Harold A; Han, Chung-Ting; Hopkins, Robin G; Failla, Mark L; Ward, William W; Stewart, C Neal

    2003-06-01

    Several proposed biotechnological applications of green fluorescent protein (GFP) are likely to result in its introduction into the food supply of domestic animals and humans. We fed pure GFP and diets containing transgenic canola expressing GFP to young male rats for 26 d to evaluate the potential toxicity and allergenicity of GFP. Animals (n = 8 per group) were fed either AIN-93G (control), control diet plus 1.0 mg of purified GFP daily, modified control diet with 200 g/kg canola (Brassica rapa cv Westar), or control diet with 200 g/kg transgenic canola containing one of two levels of GFP. Ingestion of GFP did not affect growth, food intake, relative weight of intestine or other organs, or activities of hepatic enzymes in serum. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of GFP to known food allergens revealed that the greatest number of consecutive amino acid matches between GFP and any food allergen was four, suggesting the absence of common allergen epitopes. Moreover, GFP was rapidly degraded during simulated gastric digestion. These data indicate that GFP is a low allergenicity risk and provide preliminary indications that GFP is not likely to represent a health risk.

  14. Assessing management effects on Oak forests in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Sishir; Pietsch, Stephan A.; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Historic land use as well as silvicultural management practices have changed the structures and species composition of central European forests. Such changes have effects on the growth of forests and contribute to global warming. As insufficient information on historic forest management is available it is hard to explain the effect of management on forests growth and its possible consequences to the environment. In this situation, the BIOME-BGC model, which integrates the main physical, biological and physiological processes based on current understanding of ecophysiology is an option for assessing the management effects through tracking the cycling of energy, water, carbon and nutrients within a given ecosystems. Such models are increasingly employed to simulate current and future forest dynamics. This study first compares observed standing tree volume, carbon and nitrogen content in soil in the high forests and coppice with standards stands of Oak forests in Austria. Biome BGC is then used to assess the effects of management on forest growth and to explain the differences with measured parameters. Close positive correlations and unbiased results and statistically insignificant differences between predicted and observed volumes indicates the application of the model as a diagnostic tool to assess management effects in oak forests. The observed data in 2006 and 2009 was further compared with the results of respective model runs. Further analysis on simulated data shows that thinning leads to an increase in growth efficiency (GE), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and water use efficiency (WUE), and to a decrease in the radiation use efficiency (RUE) in both forests. Among all studied growth parameters, only the difference in the NUE was statistically significant. This indicates that the difference in the yield of forests is mainly governed by the NUE difference in stands due to thinning. The coppice with standards system produces an equal amount of net primary

  15. Integrated Safeguards and Security Management Self-Assessment 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Lunford, Dan; Ramsey, Dwayne

    2005-04-01

    In 2002 Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory deployed the first Integrated Safeguards and Security Management (ISSM) Self-Assessment process, designed to measure the effect of the Laboratory's ISSM efforts. This process was recognized by DOE as a best practice and model program for self-assessment and training. In 2004, the second Self-Assessment was launched. The cornerstone of this process was an employee survey that was designed to meet several objectives: (1) Ensure that Laboratory assets are protected. (2) Provide a measurement of the Laboratory's current security status that can be compared against the 2002 Self-Assessment baseline. (3) Educate all Laboratory staff about security responsibilities, tools, and practices. (4) Provide security staff with feedback on the effectiveness of security programs. (5) Provide line management with the information they need to make informed decisions about security. This 2004 Self Assessment process began in July 2004 with every employee receiving an information packet and instructions for completing the ISSM survey. The Laboratory-wide survey contained questions designed to measure awareness and conformance to policy and best practices. The survey response was excellent--90% of Berkeley Lab employees completed the questionnaire. ISSM liaisons from each division followed up on the initial survey results with individual employees to improve awareness and resolve ambiguities uncovered by the questionnaire. As with the 2002 survey, the Self-Assessment produced immediate positive results for the ISSM program and revealed opportunities for longer-term corrective actions. Results of the questionnaire provided information for organizational profiles and an institutional summary. The overall level of security protection and awareness was very high--often above 90%. Post-survey work by the ISSM liaisons and line management consistently led to improved awareness and metrics, as shown by a comparison of profiles at the

  16. A Review of Managing Huanglongbing (Citrus Greening) in China Using a Nutritional Approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental nutrition as a part of huanglongbing (HLB) management is being adopted by an increasing number of citrus growers in Florida. The hope is that additional nutrition, especially micronutrients, will extend the productive life of HLB affected trees. Although the approach is recent in the U...

  17. An alert system for triggering different levels of coastal management urgency: Tunisia case study using rapid environmental assessment data.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Jaoui, K; Pearson, M P; Jeudy de Grissac, A

    2014-03-15

    Rapid environmental assessment (REA) involves scoring abundances of ecosystems/species groups and magnitude of pressures, concurrently, using the same logarithmic (0-6) assessment scale. We demonstrate the utility of REA data for an alert system identifying different levels of coastal management concern. Thresholds set for abundances/magnitudes, when crossed, trigger proposed responses. Kerkennah, Tunisia, our case study, has significant natural assets (e.g. exceptional seagrass and invertebrate abundances), subjected to varying levels of disturbance and management concern. Using REA thresholds set, fishing, green algae/eutrophication and oil occurred at 'low' levels (scores 0-1): management not (currently) necessary. Construction and wood litter prevailed at 'moderate' levels (scores 2-4): management alerted for (further) monitoring. Solid waste densities were 'high' (scores 5-6): management alerted for action; quantities of rubbish were substantial (20-200 items m⁻¹ beach) but not unprecedented. REA is considered a robust methodology and complementary to other rapid assessment techniques, environmental frameworks and indicators of ecosystem condition.

  18. Using Risk Assessment Methodologies to Meet Management Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMott, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Current decision making involves numerous possible combinations of technology elements, safety and health issues, operational aspects and process considerations to satisfy program goals. Identifying potential risk considerations as part of the management decision making process provides additional tools to make more informed management decision. Adapting and using risk assessment methodologies can generate new perspectives on various risk and safety concerns that are not immediately apparent. Safety and operational risks can be identified and final decisions can balance these considerations with cost and schedule risks. Additional assessments can also show likelihood of event occurrence and event consequence to provide a more informed basis for decision making, as well as cost effective mitigation strategies. Methodologies available to perform Risk Assessments range from qualitative identification of risk potential, to detailed assessments where quantitative probabilities are calculated. Methodology used should be based on factors that include: 1) type of industry and industry standards, 2) tasks, tools, and environment 3) type and availability of data and 4) industry views and requirements regarding risk & reliability. Risk Assessments are a tool for decision makers to understand potential consequences and be in a position to reduce, mitigate or eliminate costly mistakes or catastrophic failures.

  19. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  20. Comprehensive safety management and assessment at rugby football competitions.

    PubMed

    Tajima, T; Chosa, E; Kawahara, K; Nakamura, Y; Yoshikawa, D; Yamaguchi, N; Kashiwagi, T

    2014-11-01

    The present study aims to improve medical systems by designing objective safety assessment criteria for rugby competitions. We evaluated 195 competitions between 2002 and 2011 using an original safety scale comprising the following sections: 1) competence of staff such as referees, medical attendants and match day doctor; 2) environment such as weather, wet bulb globe temperature and field conditions; and 3) emergency medical care systems at the competitions. Each section was subdivided into groups A, B and C according to good, normal or fair degrees of safety determined by combinations of the results.Overall safety was assessed as A, B and C for 110, 78 and 7 competitions, respectively. The assessments of individual major factors were mostly favorable for staff, but the environment and medical care systems were assessed as C in 25 and 70, respectively, of the 195 competitions. Medical management involves not having a match day doctor, but also comprehensive management including preventive factors and responses from the staff, environment and medical-care systems. 6 cases of severe injuries and accidents occurred between 2002 and 2011, which were observed in Grade A competition. These cases revealed better prognosis without obvious impairment, thus confirming the value of the present assessment scale.

  1. Y-12 Waste Management Division Process Waste Assessment (PWA) report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Process Waste Assessment (PWA) methodology used by the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) Y-12 Waste Management Division (WMD) was based on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Model Process Waste Assessment Plan, which in turn, was based on the US Environmental Protection Agency, (US EPA) Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual but incorporated modifications suggested by various DOE production facilities. The DOE PWA plan methodology was slightly modified to meet the differing needs of WMD because the model was directed toward production operations versus waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations. The objective of this PWA was to compile information about the WMD operations and processes that transport, treat, store, and dispose of waste streams generated by other Y-12 organizations and WMD. Data were also collected on WMD operating procedures and WMD waste streams as well as other Y-12 organizations' waste streams managed. The assessment consisted of five primary steps: organization of the WMD PWA Team and subteams, assessment of WMD operations and waste streams, development and evaluation of waste minimization options, compilation, review, and publication of the PWA report and supporting data, and implementation of waste minimization options.

  2. Y-12 Waste Management Division Process Waste Assessment (PWA) report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The Process Waste Assessment (PWA) methodology used by the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) Y-12 Waste Management Division (WMD) was based on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Model Process Waste Assessment Plan, which in turn, was based on the US Environmental Protection Agency, (US EPA) Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual but incorporated modifications suggested by various DOE production facilities. The DOE PWA plan methodology was slightly modified to meet the differing needs of WMD because the model was directed toward production operations versus waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations. The objective of this PWA was to compile information about the WMD operations and processes that transport, treat, store, and dispose of waste streams generated by other Y-12 organizations and WMD. Data were also collected on WMD operating procedures and WMD waste streams as well as other Y-12 organizations` waste streams managed. The assessment consisted of five primary steps: organization of the WMD PWA Team and subteams, assessment of WMD operations and waste streams, development and evaluation of waste minimization options, compilation, review, and publication of the PWA report and supporting data, and implementation of waste minimization options.

  3. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27208716

  4. Radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Samantha; Bryan, Julie

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy often experience a skin reaction to their treatment. In an attempt to assist clinicians in the recognition and care of these radiotherapy-induced skin reactions, an assessment and management tool has been designed for use. This patient-focused assessment tool has been distributed across the counties that the authors' trust serves. It has standardised the care of patients with these skin reactions, so that the patients can be treated with the same interventions whether they visit their GP, hospital or district nurse.

  5. Ductal carcinoma in situ - update on risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jia-Min B; Gorringe, Kylie L; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for ~20-25% of breast cancers. While DCIS is not life-threatening, it may progress to invasive carcinoma over time, and treatment intended to prevent invasive progression may itself cause significant morbidity. Accurate risk assessment is therefore necessary to avoid over- or undertreatment of an individual patient. In this review we will outline the evidence for current management of DCIS, discuss approaches to DCIS risk assessment and challenges facing identification of novel DCIS biomarkers. PMID:26768032

  6. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain.

  7. Thermodynamic data management system for nuclear waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Siegel, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Thermodynamic property values for use in assessing the performance of a nuclear waste repository are described. More emphasis is on a computerized data base management system which facilitates use of the thermodynamic data in sensitivity analysis and other studies which critically assess the performance of disposal sites. Examples are given of critical evaluation procedures; comparison of apparent equilibrium constants calculated from the data base, with other work; and of correlations useful in estimating missing values of both free energy and enthalpy of formation for aqueous species. 49 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Samantha; Bryan, Julie

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy often experience a skin reaction to their treatment. In an attempt to assist clinicians in the recognition and care of these radiotherapy-induced skin reactions, an assessment and management tool has been designed for use. This patient-focused assessment tool has been distributed across the counties that the authors' trust serves. It has standardised the care of patients with these skin reactions, so that the patients can be treated with the same interventions whether they visit their GP, hospital or district nurse. PMID:26911177

  9. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  10. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2014-11-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalaya of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterised by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  11. Assessing the effects of trematode infection on invasive green crabs in eastern north america.

    PubMed

    Blakeslee, April M H; Keogh, Carolyn L; Fowler, Amy E; Griffen, Blaine D

    2015-01-01

    A common signature of marine invasions worldwide is a significant loss of parasites (= parasite escape) in non-native host populations, which may confer a release from some of the harmful effects of parasitism (e.g., castration, energy extraction, immune activation, behavioral manipulation) and possibly enhance the success of non-indigenous species. In eastern North America, the notorious invader Carcinus maenas (European green crab) has escaped more than two-thirds its native parasite load. However, one of its parasites, a trematode (Microphallus similis), can be highly prevalent in the non-native region; yet little is known about its potential impacts. We employed a series of laboratory experiments to determine whether and how M. similis infection intensity influences C. maenas, focusing on physiological assays of body mass index, energy storage, and immune activation, as well as behavioral analyses of foraging, shelter utilization, and conspicuousness. We found little evidence for enduring physiological or behavioral impacts four weeks after experimental infection, with the exception of mussel handling time which positively correlated with cyst intensity. However, we did find evidence for a short-term effect of M. similis infection during early stages of infection (soon after cercarial penetration) via a significant drop in circulating immune cells, and a significant increase in the crabs' righting response time. Considering M. similis is the only common parasite infecting C. maenas in eastern North America, our results for minimal lasting effects of the trematode on the crab's physiology and behavior may help explain the crab's continued prominence as a strong predator and competitor in the region. PMID:26030816

  12. Assessing the Effects of Trematode Infection on Invasive Green Crabs in Eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, April M. H.; Keogh, Carolyn L.; Fowler, Amy E.; Griffen, Blaine D.

    2015-01-01

    A common signature of marine invasions worldwide is a significant loss of parasites (= parasite escape) in non-native host populations, which may confer a release from some of the harmful effects of parasitism (e.g., castration, energy extraction, immune activation, behavioral manipulation) and possibly enhance the success of non-indigenous species. In eastern North America, the notorious invader Carcinus maenas (European green crab) has escaped more than two-thirds its native parasite load. However, one of its parasites, a trematode (Microphallus similis), can be highly prevalent in the non-native region; yet little is known about its potential impacts. We employed a series of laboratory experiments to determine whether and how M. similis infection intensity influences C. maenas, focusing on physiological assays of body mass index, energy storage, and immune activation, as well as behavioral analyses of foraging, shelter utilization, and conspicuousness. We found little evidence for enduring physiological or behavioral impacts four weeks after experimental infection, with the exception of mussel handling time which positively correlated with cyst intensity. However, we did find evidence for a short-term effect of M. similis infection during early stages of infection (soon after cercarial penetration) via a significant drop in circulating immune cells, and a significant increase in the crabs’ righting response time. Considering M. similis is the only common parasite infecting C. maenas in eastern North America, our results for minimal lasting effects of the trematode on the crab’s physiology and behavior may help explain the crab’s continued prominence as a strong predator and competitor in the region. PMID:26030816

  13. Assessing the water challenge of a new green revolution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rockström, Johan; Lannerstad, Mats; Falkenmark, Malin

    2007-04-10

    This article analyzes the water implications in 92 developing countries of first attaining the 2015 hunger target of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and then feeding a growing population on an acceptable standard diet. The water requirements in terms of vapor flows are quantified, potential water sources are identified, and impacts on agricultural land expansion and water tradeoffs with ecosystems are analyzed. This article quantifies the relative contribution from infiltrated rainwater/green water in rain-fed agriculture, and liquid water/blue water from irrigation, and how far water productivity (WP) gains can go in reducing the pressure on freshwater resources. Under current WP levels, another 2,200 km(3).yr(-1) of vapor flow is deemed necessary to halve hunger by 2015 and 5,200 km(3).yr(-1) in 2050 to alleviate hunger. A nonlinear relationship between vapor flow and yield growth, particularly in low-yielding savanna agro-ecosystems, indicates a high potential for WP increase. Such WP gains may reduce additional water needs in agriculture, with 16% in 2015 and 45% by 2050. Despite an optimistic outlook on irrigation development, most of the additional water will originate from rain-fed production. Yield growth, increasing consumptive use on existing rain-fed cropland, and fodder from grazing lands may reduce the additional rain-fed water use further by 43-47% until 2030. To meet remaining water needs, a cropland expansion of approximately 0.8% yr(-1), i.e., a similar rate as over the past 50 years (approximately 0.65% yr(-1)), seems unavoidable if food production is to occur in proximity to local markets.

  14. [Construction and assessment of heart-specific green fluorescence zebrafish line].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi-Yang; Chen, Ting-Fang; Huang, Ting; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Wu, Xiu-Shan; Deng, Yun

    2013-04-01

    Using the promoter for cardiac myosin light chain 2 (cmlc2) gene, an expression vector pTol2-cmlc2-IRES- EGFP for making heart-specific expression of exogenous gene in transgenic zebrafish was generated previously. Here, we reported the construction of a transgenic zebrafish line which stably expresses EGFP using this vector, and the effects of EGFP on the heart development and cardiac function of this transgenic zebrafish line were preliminarily analyzed. The results showed that the green fluorescence signal of cmlc2:EGFP line under fluorescence microscopy specifically expressed in heart and faithfully recapitulated both the spatial and temporal expression patterns of endogenous cmlc2 gene revealed by in situ hybridization in the early developmental stages. The cardiac morphology and development of this transgenic zebrafish line remained to be normal. Furthermore, the heart morphology and physiological function of this transgenic line have been analyzed using M-mode analysis. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the cmlc2:EGFP and the wild type lines with respect to heart period, heart rate, diastolic surface area and systolic surface area, and fractional area change. No tachyarrhythmia was observed in the embryos from either line. Thus, the excessive expression of EGFP in this transgenic line seemed to exert no detrimental effects on the function and development of zebrafish hearts during early stages. Our study laid a foundation for the construction of exogenous gene transgenic line using pTol2-cmlc2-IRES-EGFP vector to study the function of genes that expressed in heart.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-09-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  16. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  17. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  18. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  19. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  20. Open Ocean Assessments for Management in the GEF Transboundary Waters Assessment Project (TWAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. S.; Alverson, K. D.

    2010-12-01

    A methodology for a thematic and scientifically-credible assessment of Open Ocean waters as a part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Transboundary Waters Assessment Project (TWAP) has been developed in the last 18 months by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, and is presented for feedback and comment. While developed to help the GEF International Waters focal area target investment to manage looming environmental threats in interlinked freshwater and marine systems (a very focused decision support system), the assessment methodology could contribute to other assessment and management efforts in the UN system and elsewhere. Building on a conceptual framework that describes the relationships between human systems and open ocean natural systems, and on mapping of the human impact on the marine environment, the assessment will evaluate and make projections on a thematic basis, identifying key metrics, indices, and indicators. These themes will include the threats on key ecosystem services of climate change through sea level rise, changed stratification, warming, and ocean acidification; vulnerabilities of ecosystems, habitats, and living marine resources; the impact and sustainability of fisheries; and pollution. Global-level governance arrangements will also be evaluated, with an eye to identifying scope for improved global-level management. The assessment will build on sustained ocean observing systems, model projections, and an assessment of scientific literature, as well as tools for combining knowledge to support identification of priority concerns and in developing scenarios for management. It will include an assessment of key research and observing needs as one way to deal with the scientific uncertainty inherent in such an exercise, and to better link policy and science agendas.

  1. Assessing biocomputational modelling in transforming clinical guidelines for osteoporosis management.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Rainer; Viceconti, Marco; Stroetmann, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Biocomputational modelling as developed by the European Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) Initiative is the area of ICT most likely to revolutionise in the longer term the practice of medicine. Using the example of osteoporosis management, a socio-economic assessment framework is presented that captures how the transformation of clinical guidelines through VPH models can be evaluated. Applied to the Osteoporotic Virtual Physiological Human Project, a consequent benefit-cost analysis delivers promising results, both methodologically and substantially. PMID:21893787

  2. Using Concept Maps to Assess Interdisciplinary Integration of Green Engineering Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Maura; Newswander, Chad B.; McNair, Lisa D.; McGinnis, Sean; Paretti, Marie C.

    2009-01-01

    Engineering education, like many fields, has started to explore the benefits of concept maps as an assessment technique for knowledge integration. Because they allow students to graphically link topics and represent complex interconnections among diverse concepts, we argue that concept maps are particularly appropriate for assessing…

  3. 76 FR 2365 - Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of... Environmental Assessment (FEA). In the FEA, Commission staff analyzes the potential environmental effects of... human environment. A copy of the FEA is on file with the Commission and is available for...

  4. Assessment of Preoperative Liver Function in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma – The Albumin-Indocyanine Green Evaluation (ALICE) Grade

    PubMed Central

    Kokudo, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Amikura, Katsumi; Uldry, Emilie; Shirata, Chikara; Yamaguchi, Takamune; Arita, Junichi; Kaneko, Junichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Amane; Sakamoto, Hirohiko; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Demartines, Nicolas; Malagó, Massimo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Halkic, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have underlying liver disease, therefore, precise preoperative evaluation of the patient’s liver function is essential for surgical decision making. Methods We developed a grading system incorporating only two variables, namely, the serum albumin level and the indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15), to assess the preoperative liver function, based on the overall survival of 1868 patients with HCC who underwent liver resection. We then tested the model in a European cohort (n = 70) and analyzed the predictive power for the postoperative short-term outcome. Results The Albumin-Indocyanine Green Evaluation (ALICE) grading system was developed in a randomly assigned training cohort: linear predictor = 0.663 × log10ICG R15 (%)−0.0718 × albumin (g/L) (cut-off value: -2.20 and -1.39). This new grading system showed a predictive power for the overall survival similar to the Child-Pugh grading system in the validation cohort. Determination of the ALICE grade in Child-Pugh A patients allowed further stratification of the postoperative prognosis. This result was reproducible in the European cohort. Determination of the ALICE grade allowed better prediction of the risk of postoperative liver failure and mortality (ascites: grade 1, 2.1%; grade 2, 6.5%; grade 3, 16.0%; mortality: grade 1, 0%; grade 2, 1.3%; grade 3, 5.3%) than the previously reported model based on the presence/absence of portal hypertension. Conclusions This new grading system is a simple method for prediction of the postoperative long-term and short-term outcomes. PMID:27434062

  5. Non-invasive assessment of porcine oocyte quality by supravital staining of cumulus-oocyte complexes with lissamine green B.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Rahul; Li, Shun; Fischer, Konrad; Kind, Alexander; Flisikowska, Tatiana; Flisikowski, Krzysztof; Rottmann, Oswald; Schnieke, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of lissamine green B (LB) staining of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) as a non-invasive method of predicting maturational and developmental competence of slaughterhouse-derived porcine oocytes cultured in vitro. Cumulus cells of freshly aspirated COCs were evaluated either morphologically on the basis of thickness of cumulus cell layers, or stained with LB, which penetrates only non-viable cells. The extent of cumulus cell staining was taken as an inverse indicator of membrane integrity. The two methods of COC grading were then examined as predictors of nuclear maturation and development after parthenogenetic activation. In both cases LB staining proved a more reliable indicator than morphological assessment (P < 0.05). The relationship between LB staining and cumulus cell apoptosis was also examined. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for DNA fragmentation revealed that oocytes within COCs graded as low quality by either LB staining or visual morphology showed significantly greater DNA fragmentation (P < 0.05) than higher grades, and that LB and visual grading were of similar predictive value. Expression of the stress response gene TP53 showed significantly higher expression in COCs graded as low quality by LB staining. However expression of the apoptosis-associated genes BAK and CASP3 was not significantly different between high or low grade COCs, suggesting that mRNA expression of BAK and CASP3 is not a reliable method of detecting apoptosis in porcine COCs. Evaluation of cumulus cell membrane integrity by lissamine green B staining thus provides a useful new tool to gain information about the maturational and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. PMID:27172057

  6. Imagining flood futures: risk assessment and management in practice.

    PubMed

    Lane, Stuart N; Landström, Catharina; Whatmore, Sarah J

    2011-05-13

    The mantra that policy and management should be 'evidence-based' is well established. Less so are the implications that follow from 'evidence' being predictions of the future (forecasts, scenarios, horizons) even though such futures define the actions taken today to make the future sustainable. Here, we consider the tension between 'evidence', reliable because it is observed, and predictions of the future, unobservable in conventional terms. For flood risk management in England and Wales, we show that futures are actively constituted, and so imagined, through 'suites of practices' entwining policy, management and scientific analysis. Management has to constrain analysis because of the many ways in which flood futures can be constructed, but also because of commitment to an accounting calculus, which requires risk to be expressed in monetary terms. It is grounded in numerical simulation, undertaken by scientific consultants who follow policy/management guidelines that define the futures to be considered. Historical evidence is needed to deal with process and parameter uncertainties and the futures imagined are tied to pasts experienced. Reliance on past events is a challenge for prediction, given changing probability (e.g. climate change) and consequence (e.g. development on floodplains). So, risk management allows some elements of risk analysis to become unstable (notably in relation to climate change) but forces others to remain stable (e.g. invoking regulation to prevent inappropriate floodplain development). We conclude that the assumed separation of risk assessment and management is false because the risk calculation has to be defined by management. Making this process accountable requires openness about the procedures that make flood risk analysis more (or less) reliable to those we entrust to produce and act upon them such that, unlike the 'pseudosciences', they can be put to the test of public interrogation by those who have to live with their consequences

  7. Conceptualising and managing trade-offs in sustainability assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Pope, Jenny

    2013-01-15

    One of the defining characteristics of sustainability assessment as a form of impact assessment is that it provides a forum for the explicit consideration of the trade-offs that are inherent in complex decision-making processes. Few sustainability assessments have achieved this goal though, and none has considered trade-offs in a holistic fashion throughout the process. Recent contributions such as the Gibson trade-off rules have significantly progressed thinking in this area by suggesting appropriate acceptability criteria for evaluating substantive trade-offs arising from proposed development, as well as process rules for how evaluations of acceptability should occur. However, there has been negligible uptake of these rules in practice. Overall, we argue that there is inadequate consideration of trade-offs, both process and substantive, throughout the sustainability assessment process, and insufficient considerations of how process decisions and compromises influence substantive outcomes. This paper presents a framework for understanding and managing both process and substantive trade-offs within each step of a typical sustainability assessment process. The framework draws together previously published literature and offers case studies that illustrate aspects of the practical application of the framework. The framing and design of sustainability assessment are vitally important, as process compromises or trade-offs can have substantive consequences in terms of sustainability outcomes delivered, with the choice of alternatives considered being a particularly significant determinant of substantive outcomes. The demarcation of acceptable from unacceptable impacts is a key aspect of managing trade-offs. Offsets can be considered as a form of trade-off within a category of sustainability that are utilised to enhance preferred alternatives once conditions of impact acceptability have been met. In this way they may enable net gains to be delivered; another imperative

  8. Exploring valid and reliable assessment methods for care management education.

    PubMed

    Gennissen, Lokke; Stammen, Lorette; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien; Wieringa, Sietse; Busari, Jamiu

    2016-07-01

    Purpose It is assumed that the use of valid and reliable assessment methods can facilitate the development of medical residents' management and leadership competencies. To justify this assertion, the perceptions of an expert panel of health care leaders were explored on assessment methods used for evaluating care management (CM) development in Dutch residency programs. This paper aims to investigate how assessors and trainees value these methods and examine for any inherent benefits or shortcomings when they are applied in practice. Design/methodology/approach A Delphi survey was conducted among members of the platform for medical leadership in The Netherlands. This panel of experts was made up of clinical educators, practitioners and residents interested in CM education. Findings Of the respondents, 40 (55.6 per cent) and 31 (43 per cent) participated in the first and second rounds of the Delphi survey, respectively. The respondents agreed that assessment methods currently being used to measure residents' CM competencies were weak, though feasible for use in many residency programs. Multi-source feedback (MSF, 92.1 per cent), portfolio/e-portfolio (86.8 per cent) and knowledge testing (76.3 per cent) were identified as the most commonly known assessment methods with familiarity rates exceeding 75 per cent. Practical implications The findings suggested that an "assessment framework" comprising MSF, portfolios, individual process improvement projects or self-reflections and observations in clinical practice should be used to measure CM competencies in residents. Originality/value This study reaffirms the need for objective methods to assess CM skills in post-graduate medical education, as there was not a single assessment method that stood out as the best instrument. PMID:27397747

  9. Clinical Assessment of Risk Management: an INtegrated Approach (CARMINA).

    PubMed

    Tricarico, Pierfrancesco; Tardivo, Stefano; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Moretti, Francesca; Poletti, Piera; Fiore, Alberto; Monturano, Massimo; Mura, Ida; Privitera, Gaetano; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The European Union recommendations for patient safety calls for shared clinical risk management (CRM) safety standards able to guide organizations in CRM implementation. The purpose of this paper is to develop a self-evaluation tool to measure healthcare organization performance on CRM and guide improvements over time. Design/methodology/approach - A multi-step approach was implemented including: a systematic literature review; consensus meetings with an expert panel from eight Italian leader organizations to get to an agreement on the first version; field testing to test instrument feasibility and flexibility; Delphi strategy with a second expert panel for content validation and balanced scoring system development. Findings - The self-assessment tool - Clinical Assessment of Risk Management: an INtegrated Approach includes seven areas (governance, communication, knowledge and skills, safe environment, care processes, adverse event management, learning from experience) and 52 standards. Each standard is evaluated according to four performance levels: minimum; monitoring; outcomes; and improvement actions, which resulted in a feasible, flexible and valid instrument to be used throughout different organizations. Practical implications - This tool allows practitioners to assess their CRM activities compared to minimum levels, monitor performance, benchmarking with other institutions and spreading results to different stakeholders. Originality/value - The multi-step approach allowed us to identify core minimum CRM levels in a field where no consensus has been reached. Most standards may be easily adopted in other countries. PMID:27477931

  10. Environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide. Louisiana supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DoD) components, have developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DoD Components. Currently there are five participating DoD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DoD component-specific manuals detailing DoD component regulations and policies. The Louisiana Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Louisiana state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  11. Environment assessment and management (team) guide - Mississippi supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rourke, C.; Twait, S.

    1995-03-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD Components. Currently there are five participating DOD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Mississippi Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Mississippi state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  12. Clinical Assessment of Risk Management: an INtegrated Approach (CARMINA).

    PubMed

    Tricarico, Pierfrancesco; Tardivo, Stefano; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Moretti, Francesca; Poletti, Piera; Fiore, Alberto; Monturano, Massimo; Mura, Ida; Privitera, Gaetano; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The European Union recommendations for patient safety calls for shared clinical risk management (CRM) safety standards able to guide organizations in CRM implementation. The purpose of this paper is to develop a self-evaluation tool to measure healthcare organization performance on CRM and guide improvements over time. Design/methodology/approach - A multi-step approach was implemented including: a systematic literature review; consensus meetings with an expert panel from eight Italian leader organizations to get to an agreement on the first version; field testing to test instrument feasibility and flexibility; Delphi strategy with a second expert panel for content validation and balanced scoring system development. Findings - The self-assessment tool - Clinical Assessment of Risk Management: an INtegrated Approach includes seven areas (governance, communication, knowledge and skills, safe environment, care processes, adverse event management, learning from experience) and 52 standards. Each standard is evaluated according to four performance levels: minimum; monitoring; outcomes; and improvement actions, which resulted in a feasible, flexible and valid instrument to be used throughout different organizations. Practical implications - This tool allows practitioners to assess their CRM activities compared to minimum levels, monitor performance, benchmarking with other institutions and spreading results to different stakeholders. Originality/value - The multi-step approach allowed us to identify core minimum CRM levels in a field where no consensus has been reached. Most standards may be easily adopted in other countries.

  13. The environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide, Idaho supplement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1998-04-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The US Air Force, US Army, Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Since 1984, the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD components. Currently there are five participating DOD components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and DLA. These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations and management practices into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Idaho Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Idaho state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  14. Strategic environmental assessment of alternative sewage sludge management scenarios.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aa

    2003-02-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of sewage sludge management in a Danish municipality (Aalborg), with 160,000 inhabitants using alternative methods for aggregation of environmental impacts was performed. The purpose is to demonstrate the use of SEA in relation to sludge management and to improve SEA methodology. Six different scenarios for management of sewage sludge within the Aalborg municipality involving thermal treatment, composting and landfilling of sludge were evaluated. Environmental impact categories considered were global warming, non-renewable resources (nutrients and fossil fuels) and land use. Impact categories human health, ecotoxicity and soil quality were excluded as methodology for their assessment is not yet fully developed. Thermal sludge treatment with energy utilisation was shown to be a promising option for sewage sludge management in Aalborg. Sensitivity of the relative environmental impacts with respect to calculation methodology and input parameter values were evaluated to identify important parameters and calculation methods. The analysis showed that aggregation procedures, sludge biogas potential and sludge production were very important whereas sludge transport was not. PMID:12667015

  15. Strategic environmental assessment of alternative sewage sludge management scenarios.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aa

    2003-02-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of sewage sludge management in a Danish municipality (Aalborg), with 160,000 inhabitants using alternative methods for aggregation of environmental impacts was performed. The purpose is to demonstrate the use of SEA in relation to sludge management and to improve SEA methodology. Six different scenarios for management of sewage sludge within the Aalborg municipality involving thermal treatment, composting and landfilling of sludge were evaluated. Environmental impact categories considered were global warming, non-renewable resources (nutrients and fossil fuels) and land use. Impact categories human health, ecotoxicity and soil quality were excluded as methodology for their assessment is not yet fully developed. Thermal sludge treatment with energy utilisation was shown to be a promising option for sewage sludge management in Aalborg. Sensitivity of the relative environmental impacts with respect to calculation methodology and input parameter values were evaluated to identify important parameters and calculation methods. The analysis showed that aggregation procedures, sludge biogas potential and sludge production were very important whereas sludge transport was not.

  16. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal ) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed. PMID

  17. Passive sampling methods for contaminated sediments: risk assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Marc S; Chapman, Peter M; Allan, Ian J; Anderson, Kim A; Apitz, Sabine E; Beegan, Chris; Bridges, Todd S; Brown, Steve S; Cargill, John G; McCulloch, Megan C; Menzie, Charles A; Shine, James P; Parkerton, Thomas F

    2014-04-01

    This paper details how activity-based passive sampling methods (PSMs), which provide information on bioavailability in terms of freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ), can be used to better inform risk management decision making at multiple points in the process of assessing and managing contaminated sediment sites. PSMs can increase certainty in site investigation and management, because Cfree is a better predictor of bioavailability than total bulk sediment concentration (Ctotal ) for 4 key endpoints included in conceptual site models (benthic organism toxicity, bioaccumulation, sediment flux, and water column exposures). The use of passive sampling devices (PSDs) presents challenges with respect to representative sampling for estimating average concentrations and other metrics relevant for exposure and risk assessment. These challenges can be addressed by designing studies that account for sources of variation associated with PSMs and considering appropriate spatial scales to meet study objectives. Possible applications of PSMs include: quantifying spatial and temporal trends in bioavailable contaminants, identifying and evaluating contaminant source contributions, calibrating site-specific models, and, improving weight-of-evidence based decision frameworks. PSM data can be used to assist in delineating sediment management zones based on likelihood of exposure effects, monitor remedy effectiveness, and, evaluate risk reduction after sediment treatment, disposal, or beneficial reuse after management actions. Examples are provided illustrating why PSMs and freely dissolved contaminant concentrations (Cfree ) should be incorporated into contaminated sediment investigations and study designs to better focus on and understand contaminant bioavailability, more accurately estimate exposure to sediment-associated contaminants, and better inform risk management decisions. Research and communication needs for encouraging broader use are discussed.

  18. Decision Support System (DSS) for MSMA Integrated Stormwater Management Ecohydrology for Sustainable Green Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohiyaden, H. A.; Haris, H.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization has known to have several adverse impacts towards hydrological cycle due to increasing impervious surface and degradation of water quality in stormwater runoff. In the past, urban waterways have been confined to narrow river corridors with the channels canalised and concrete and other synthetic materials forming the bed and banks of the river. Apart from that, stormwater pollutants such as litter, debris and sediments in drainage system are common problems that can lead to flooding and the degradation of water quality. To solve this problem, implementing stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) proves very promising due to its near natural characteristics and multiple effects on the drainage of stormwater runoff in urban areas. This judgment of using BMPs depends on not only relevant theoretical considerations, but also a large amount of practical experience and the availability of relevant data, as well. To fulfil this task, the so-called Decision Support System (DSS) in MSMA Design Aid and Database system are able to assist engineers and developers in management and improvement of water quantity and quality entering urban rivers from urban regions. This system is also helpful when an expert level judgment procure some repetitive and large amount of cases, like in the planning of stormwater BMPs systems for an entire city catchment. One of the advantages of an expert system is that it provides automation of expert-level judgement using availability of checking tools system.

  19. Graves' Ophthalmopathy: VISA versus EUGOGO Classification, Assessment, and Management.

    PubMed

    Barrio-Barrio, Jesús; Sabater, Alfonso L; Bonet-Farriol, Elvira; Velázquez-Villoria, Álvaro; Galofré, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder associated with thyroid disease which affects ocular and orbital tissues. GO follows a biphasic course in which an initial active phase of progression is followed by a subsequent partial regression and a static inactive phase. Although the majority of GO patients have a mild, self-limiting, and nonprogressive ocular involvement, about 3-7% of GO patients exhibit a severe sight-threatening form of the disease due to corneal exposure or compressive optic neuropathy. An appropriate assessment of both severity and activity of the disease warrants an adequate treatment. The VISA (vision, inflammation, strabismus, and appearance), and the European Group of Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) classifications are the two widely used grading systems conceived to assess the activity and severity of GO and guide the therapeutic decision making. A critical analysis of classification, assessment, and management systems is reported. A simplified "GO activity assessment checklist" for routine clinical practice is proposed. Current treatments are reviewed and management guidelines according to the severity and activity of the disease are provided. New treatment modalities such as specific monoclonal antibodies, TSH-R antagonists, and other immunomodulatory agents show a promising outcome for GO patients.

  20. Pedigree management and assessment in a net-centric environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioioso, Marisa M.; McCullough, S. Daryl; Cormier, Jennifer P.; Marceau, Carla; Joyce, Robert A.

    2007-04-01

    Modern Defense strategy and execution is increasingly net-centric, making more information available more quickly. In this environment, the intelligence agent or warfighter must distinguish decision-quality information from potentially inaccurate, or even conflicting, pieces of information from multiple sources - often in time-critical situations. The Pedigree Management and Assessment Framework (PMAF) enables the publisher of information to record standard provenance metadata about the source, manner of collection, and the chain of modification of information as it passed through processing and/or assessment. In addition, the publisher can define and include other metadata relevant to quality assessment, such as domain-specific metadata about sensor accuracy or the organizational structure of agencies. PMAF stores this potentially enormous amount of metadata compactly and presents it to the user in an intuitive graphical format, together with PMAF-generated assessments that enable the user to quickly estimate information quality. PMAF has been created for a net-centric information management system; it can access pedigree information across communities of interest (COIs) and across network boundaries and will also be implemented in a Web Services environment.

  1. Environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.K.; Schell, D.J.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U. S. Army, Defense Logistic Agency, and Crops of Engineers (Civil Works) have programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Since 1984, the U. S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD components. Currently there are several participating components: the Air Force, Air Force National Guard, Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserves, Civil Works, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this guide. This guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. The TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing regulations and policies. The TEAM Guide is an update, revision, and replacement of the current U.S. ECAMP, U.S. ECAS, and DLA compliance assessment checklist manuals and will be continually updated with new compliance laws and regulations.

  2. Assessment and management of risk to wildlife from cadmium.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-01-15

    Cadmium, a nonessential heavy metal that comes from natural and anthropogenic sources, is a teratogen, carcinogen, and a possible mutagen. Assessment of potential risk from cadmium requires understanding environmental exposure, mainly from ingestion, although there is some local exposure through inhalation. Chronic exposure is more problematic than acute exposure for wildlife. There is evidence for bioaccumulation, particularly in freshwater organisms, but evidence for biomagnification up the food chain is inconsistent; in some bird studies, cadmium levels were higher in species that are higher on the food chain than those that are lower. Some freshwater and marine invertebrates are more adversely affected by cadmium exposure than are birds and mammals. There is very little experimental laboratory research on the effects of cadmium in amphibians, birds and reptiles, and almost no data from studies of wildlife in nature. Managing the risk from cadmium to wildlife involves assessment (including ecological risk assessment), biomonitoring, setting benchmarks of effects, regulations and enforcement, and source reduction.

  3. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring ``global visualization`` onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  4. Information technologies for global resources management and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.P.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in computer and communications technologies offer unprecedented opportunities to develop sophisticated information resources management systems for global resources management and environment assessment in an efficient, effective, and systematic manner. In this paper, the emerging global energy and environmental issues are identified. Since satellite-based remote sensing systems are becoming increasingly available and produce massive data collections, the utilization of imaging processing techniques and their applications for regional and global resources management and environmental studies are described. Interoperability and interconnectivity among heterogeneous computer systems are major issues in designing a totally integrated, multimedia-based, information resources management system that operates in a networking environment. Discussions of the future technology trends are focused on a number of emerging information management technologies and communications standards which will aid in achieving seamless system integration and offer user-friendly operations. It can be foreseen that advances in computer and communications technologies, increasingly sophisticated image processing techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and the development of globally comprehensive data bases will bring global visualization'' onto multimedia desktop computers before the end of this decade.

  5. Assessment and management of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Baur, Louise A; Hazelton, Briony; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A

    2011-11-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence highlights the need for effective treatment approaches. Initial assessments of these patients should include taking a careful history (investigating comorbidities, family history and potentially modifiable behaviors) and physical examination with BMI plotted on a BMI-for-age chart. The degree of investigation is dependent on the patient's age and severity of obesity, the findings on history and physical examination, and associated familial risk factors. There are several broad principles of conventional management: management of comorbidities; family involvement; taking a developmentally appropriate approach; the use of a range of behavior change techniques; long-term dietary change; increased physical activity; and decreased sedentary behaviors. Orlistat can be useful as an adjunct to lifestyle changes in severely obese adolescents and metformin can be used in older children and adolescents with clinical insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery should be considered in those who are severely obese, with recognition of the need for management in centers with multidisciplinary weight management teams and for surgery to be performed in tertiary institutions experienced in bariatric surgery. Finally, given the high prevalence and chronic nature of obesity, coordinated models of care for health-service delivery for the management of pediatric obesity are needed.

  6. Ranked management concerns to assess SLR impacts to wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, H. H.; Fletcher, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    Historically the Hawaiian Islands supported over 30 species of waterbirds. However, due largely to habitat loss, four of the six remaining endemic waterbird species are listed as endangered and require low-lying coastal plain freshwater wetlands for their survival. Sea-level rise (SLR) threatens these ecosystems by direct inundation, salt water intrusion, coastal erosion, drainage problems, and habitat change. To better communicate these risks to wetland decision-makers we improve upon standard inundation mapping by assessing the SLR vulnerability of James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge, O'ahu, Hawai'i as a function of four input parameters: 1. time of inundation, 2. inundation type, 3. ecological significance, and 4. management intensity. We create a 2 m horizontal resolution raster for each input parameter and apply a vulnerability score of 1-10, 10 being most vulnerable. We estimate time of inundation and inundation type using Vermeer and Rahmstorf's (2009) economic scenario SLR curves, a 2007 USACE digital elevation model (DEM), and the 8-sided hydrologic connectivity method. Ecologically threatened habitats flooded by SLR were digitized by wetland managers from imagery, and management intensity is a measure of difficulty in managing flooded areas due to the location of water control devices and accessibility associated with land cover. The resulting spatial information is combined and areas with the highest total vulnerability score are identified as a guide to focus future management efforts. Existing wetland areas with low vulnerability scores may serve as the most suitable areas for future wetlands.

  7. Assessing the Relationship of Knowledge Management Effectiveness and Assessment Quality Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringhand, Darlene Gail

    2009-01-01

    Administrators at post-secondary institutions have found that national or regional accreditation is necessary to remain competitive in the higher education market with evidence of assessment considered a positive measure for accreditation. This quantitative study examined the correlation between the ranked levels of knowledge management within…

  8. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  9. What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ekvall, Tomas Assefa, Getachew; Bjoerklund, Anna; Eriksson, Ola; Finnveden, Goeran

    2007-07-01

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  10. Assessing competency in spasticity management: a method of development and assessment.

    PubMed

    Escaldi, Steven V; Cuccurullo, Sara J; Terzella, Matthew; Petagna, Ann Marie; Strax, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    This project endeavored to create an educational module including methodology to instruct physical medicine and rehabilitation residents in the evaluation and appropriate treatment of patients with spasticity and other sequelae of the upper motor neuron syndrome. It further sought to verify acquired competencies in spasticity management through objective evaluation methodology. A physical medicine and rehabilitation board-certified physician with 10 yrs clinical experience in spasticity management trained 16 residents using a standardized competency-based module. Assessment tools developed for this program address the basic competencies outlined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. The 16 residents successfully demonstrated proficiency in every segment of the evaluation module by the end of the Postgraduate Year 3 spasticity management rotation. Objective measures compared resident scores on an institution-specific standardized test administered before and after training. Resident proficiency in the skills and knowledge pertaining to spasticity management was objectively verified after completion of the standardized educational module. Validation of the assessment tool is evidenced by significantly improved postrotational institution-specific standardized test scores (mean pretest score, 61.1%; mean posttest score, 95.4%) as well as oral testing. In addition, the clinical development tool was validated by residents being individually observed performing skills and deemed competent by a board-certified physical medicine and rehabilitation physician specializing in spasticity management. The standardized educational module and evaluation methodology provide a potential framework for the definition of baseline competency in the clinical skill area of spasticity management. PMID:22173081

  11. Management and organizational assessments: a review of selected organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, M.V.; Kerwin, C.M.

    1984-02-01

    This report is part of a larger project designed to assist the NRC in its responsibilities for assessing the management and organization of utilities applying for an operating license for a nuclear power plant. This report reviews the processes and criteria used by other organizations that conduct management and organization audits and evaluations. It was undertaken in order to provide data and a basis for future analysis by taking a comparative perspective. When considering changes in criteria and procedures as the NRC is doing, a standard benchmark is the performance of other organizations that are similarly situated. It was our goal to directly inform the NRC about the activities of other organizations so that a reconsideration of NRC activities could benefit from the perspective of organizations with a longer, broader, and different experience than the NRC has in the management and organization area. Data collected for this report has provided useful information in designing organization and administration guidelines and assessment procedures for consideration by the NRC.

  12. Optimization of the vertical flight profile on the flight management system for green aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix Patron, Roberto Salvador

    To reduce aircraft's fuel consumption, a new method to calculate flight trajectories to be implemented in commercial Flight Management Systems has been developed. The aircraft's model was obtained from a flight performance database, which included experimental flight data. The optimized trajectories for three different commercial aircraft have been analyzed and developed in this thesis. To obtain the optimal flight trajectory that reduces the global flight cost, the vertical and the LNAV profiles have been studied and analyzed to find the aircraft's available speeds, possible flight altitudes and alternative horizontal trajectories that could reduce the global fuel consumption. A dynamic weather model has been implemented to improve the precision of the algorithm. This weather model calculates the speed and direction of wind, and the outside air temperature from a public weather database. To reduce the calculation time, different time-optimization algorithms have been implemented, such as the Golden Section search method, and different types of genetic algorithms. The optimization algorithm calculates the aircraft trajectory considering the departure and arrival airport coordinates, the aircraft parameters, the in-flight restrictions such as speeds, altitudes and WPs. The final output is given in terms of the flight time, fuel consumption and global flight cost of the complete flight. To validate the optimization algorithm results, the software FlightSIM RTM has been used. This software considers a complete aircraft aerodynamic model for its simulations, giving results that are accurate and very close to reality.

  13. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  14. Alpha-amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Marine Green Algae and its Possible Role in Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, P. S.; Suthindhiran, K.; Jayasri, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In the continuing search for safe and efficient antidiabetic drug, marine algae become important source which provide several compounds of immense therapeutic potential. Alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and antioxidant compounds are known to manage diabetes and have received much attention recently. In the present study, four green algae (Chaetomorpha aerea, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Chlorodesmis, and Cladophora rupestris) were chosen to evaluate alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory, and antioxidant activity in vitro. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical constituents of all the extracts were qualitatively determined. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by inhibitory potential of extracts against alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase by spectrophotometric assays. Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide scavenging assay. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried out to determine the major compound responsible for its antidiabetic action. Results: Among the various extracts screened, chloroform extract of C. aerea (IC50 − 408.9 μg/ml) and methanol extract of Chlorodesmis (IC50 − 147.6 μg/ml) showed effective inhibition against alpha-amylase. The extracts were also evaluated for alpha-glucosidase inhibition, and no observed activity was found. Methanol extract of C. rupestris showed notable free radical scavenging activity (IC50 – 666.3 μg/ml), followed by H2O2 (34%) and nitric oxide (49%). Further, chemical profiling by GC-MS revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds. Phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) and z, z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one were predominantly found in the methanol extract of C. rupestris and chloroform extract of C. aerea. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the selected algae exhibit notable alpha-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Therefore, characterization of active compounds and its in vivo

  15. A National Assessment of Green Infrastructure and Change for the Conterminous United States Using Morphological Image Processing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is a popular framework for conservation planning. The main elements of green infrastructure are hubs and links. Hubs tend to be large areas of ‘natural’ vegetation and links tend to be linear features (e.g., streams) that connect hubs. Within the United State...

  16. Assessment of Change in Green Infrastructure Components Using Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is a widely used framework for conservation planning in the United States and elsewhere. The main components of green infrastructure are hubs and corridors. Hubs are large areas of natural vegetation, and corridors are linear features that connect hubs. W...

  17. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland.

  18. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. PMID:27353372

  19. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Paula V. Vanclay, Frank

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  20. Assessment and management of pain in haemophilia patients.

    PubMed

    Riley, R R; Witkop, M; Hellman, E; Akins, S

    2011-11-01

    Haemophilia patients experience acute pain during joint bleeds and chronic pain from haemophilic arthropathy. More than 50% of haemophilia patients have painful joints that cause disability and impair quality of life. Unfortunately, only a few clinical studies have investigated the non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments for pain or the adverse effects of pain on the health and quality of life of children and adults with haemophilia. There are no detailed algorithms or guidelines for pain management in haemophilia patients, and treatment is largely empirical. Therefore, a standardized approach to the management of pain in haemophilia patients is needed. This approach should include a close relationship between pain specialists and the staffs at haemophilia treatment centres; validated instruments specific to haemophilia for assessing pain, quality of life and disability; and stepwise algorithms/protocols for treatment of chronic vs. acute pain and prophylactic vs early treatment. A pain treatment protocol should include a definition of the problem of pain and best practices for physicians. A call to action is needed to standardize treatment approaches to pain and to develop algorithms/protocols for the management of pain in haemophilia patients. This review will highlight the prevalence and devastating impact of pain in haemophilia patients, currently available treatment options and identify the unmet needs for pain management.

  1. Ames Laboratory integrated safety management self-assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The implementation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) at Ames Laboratory began with the signing of the ISM Implementation Charter on February 24, 1997 (see Appendix A). The first step toward implementation of ISM at Ames Laboratory is the performance of a Self-Assessment (SA). In preparation for the SA, a workshop on ISM was provided to the Laboratory`s Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Coordinators, Safety Review Committee members, and the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH&A) staff. In addition, a briefing was given to the Laboratory`s Executive Council and Program Directors. Next, an SA Team was organized. The Team was composed of four Ames Laboratory and four Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office (DOE-CH) staff members. The purpose of this SA was to determine the current status of ES&H management within Ames Laboratory, as well as to identify areas which need to be improved during ISM implementation. The SA was conducted by reviewing documents, interviewing Ames Laboratory management and staff, and performing walkthroughs of Laboratory areas. At the conclusion of this SA, Ames Laboratory management was briefed on the strengths, weaknesses, and the areas of improvement which will assist in the implementation of ISM.

  2. Constructed wetlands as green tools for management of boron mine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are of increasing interest worldwide given that they represent an eco-technological solution to many environmental problems such as wastewater treatment. Turkey possesses approximately 70% of the world's total boron (B) reserves, and B contamination occurs in both natural and cultivated sites throughout Turkey, particularly in the north-west of the country. This study analyzes B removal and plant uptake of B in pilot plots of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands were vegetated with Typha latifolia (referred to as CW1) and Phragmites australis (referred to as CW2) to treat wastewater from a borax reserve in Turkey--the largest of its type in the world and were assessed under field conditions. The B concentrations of water inflows to the systems were determined to be 10.2, 28.2, 84.6, 232.3, 716.4, and 2019.1 mg l(-1). The T. latifolia in the CW1 treatment group absorbed a total of 1300 mg kg(-1) B, whereas P. australis absorbed 839 mg kg(-1). As a result, CW1 had an average removal efficiency of 40.7%, while that of CW2 was 27.2%. Our results suggest that constructed wetlands are an effective, economic and eco-friendly solution to treating B mine wastewater and controlling the adverse environmental effects of B mining.

  3. Constructed wetlands as green tools for management of boron mine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are of increasing interest worldwide given that they represent an eco-technological solution to many environmental problems such as wastewater treatment. Turkey possesses approximately 70% of the world's total boron (B) reserves, and B contamination occurs in both natural and cultivated sites throughout Turkey, particularly in the north-west of the country. This study analyzes B removal and plant uptake of B in pilot plots of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands were vegetated with Typha latifolia (referred to as CW1) and Phragmites australis (referred to as CW2) to treat wastewater from a borax reserve in Turkey--the largest of its type in the world and were assessed under field conditions. The B concentrations of water inflows to the systems were determined to be 10.2, 28.2, 84.6, 232.3, 716.4, and 2019.1 mg l(-1). The T. latifolia in the CW1 treatment group absorbed a total of 1300 mg kg(-1) B, whereas P. australis absorbed 839 mg kg(-1). As a result, CW1 had an average removal efficiency of 40.7%, while that of CW2 was 27.2%. Our results suggest that constructed wetlands are an effective, economic and eco-friendly solution to treating B mine wastewater and controlling the adverse environmental effects of B mining. PMID:24912241

  4. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  5. Assessment and management of pain in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, Jennifer N; Luca, Nadia JC; Jibb, Lindsay A

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a common chronic childhood illness. Pain is the most common and distressing symptom of JIA. Pain has been found to negatively impact all aspects of functioning, including physical, social, emotional and role functions. Children with arthritis continue to experience clinically significant pain despite adequate doses of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and anti-inflammatory agents. The present article reviews the prevalence and nature of pain in JIA, the biopsychosocial factors that contribute to the pain experience, current approaches to assessing pain in this population, and ways of managing both acute and persistent pain using pharmacological, physical and psychological therapies. Finally, new approaches to delivering disease self-management treatment for youth with JIA using the Internet will be outlined. PMID:23248812

  6. System change: quality assessment and improvement for Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    Smith, W R; Cotter, J J; Rossiter, L F

    1996-01-01

    Rising Medicaid health expenditures have hastened the development of State managed care programs. Methods to monitor and improve health care under Medicaid are changing. Under fee-for-service (FFS), the primary concern was to avoid overutilization. Under managed care, it is to avoid underutilization. Quality enhancement thus moves from addressing inefficiency to addressing insufficiency of care. This article presents a case study of Virginia's redesign of Quality Assessment and Improvement (QA/I) for Medicaid, adapting the guidelines of the Quality Assurance Reform Initiative (QARI) of the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). The article concludes that redesigns should emphasize Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) by all providers and of multi-faceted, population-based data.

  7. Assessment and management of pain in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Jennifer N; Luca, Nadia J C; Jibb, Lindsay A

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a common chronic childhood illness. Pain is the most common and distressing symptom of JIA. Pain has been found to negatively impact all aspects of functioning, including physical, social, emotional and role functions. Children with arthritis continue to experience clinically significant pain despite adequate doses of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and anti-inflammatory agents. The present article reviews the prevalence and nature of pain in JIA, the biopsychosocial factors that contribute to the pain experience, current approaches to assessing pain in this population, and ways of managing both acute and persistent pain using pharmacological, physical and psychological therapies. Finally, new approaches to delivering disease self-management treatment for youth with JIA using the Internet will be outlined.

  8. Quantitative Security Risk Assessment and Management for Railway Transportation Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flammini, Francesco; Gaglione, Andrea; Mazzocca, Nicola; Pragliola, Concetta

    Scientists have been long investigating procedures, models and tools for the risk analysis in several domains, from economics to computer networks. This paper presents a quantitative method and a tool for the security risk assessment and management specifically tailored to the context of railway transportation systems, which are exposed to threats ranging from vandalism to terrorism. The method is based on a reference mathematical model and it is supported by a specifically developed tool. The tool allows for the management of data, including attributes of attack scenarios and effectiveness of protection mechanisms, and the computation of results, including risk and cost/benefit indices. The main focus is on the design of physical protection systems, but the analysis can be extended to logical threats as well. The cost/benefit analysis allows for the evaluation of the return on investment, which is a nowadays important issue to be addressed by risk analysts.

  9. Early phase of acute pancreatitis: Assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Phillip, Veit; Steiner, Jörg M; Algül, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a potentially life-threatening disease with a wide spectrum of severity. The overall mortality of AP is approximately 5%. According to the revised Atlanta classification system, AP can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Severe AP often takes a clinical course with two phases, an early and a late phase, which should both be considered separately. In this review article, we first discuss general aspects of AP, including incidence, pathophysiology, etiology, and grading of severity, then focus on the assessment of patients with suspected AP, including diagnosis and risk stratification, followed by the management of AP during the early phase, with special emphasis on fluid therapy, pain management, nutrition, and antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:25133018

  10. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  11. Assessing the combined effects from two kinds of cephalosporins on green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) based on response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruixin; Xie, Weishu; Chen, Jianqiu

    2015-04-01

    The present work evaluated the combined effects of cefradine and ceftazidime on the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa using response surface methodologies (RSM). After a 48 h-exposure, the population growth rate (PGR), the chlorophyll-a content and the SOD content of the alga increased with increased concentrations of two antibiotics. However, the three responses did not continue to demonstrate significant increases once antibiotic concentrations exceed a moderate level. Three two order polynomial regression equations were obtained to describe well the relationship between the responses of the alga and the two antibiotics' concentration (R(2) = 0.9997, 0.9292 and 0.9039, respectively). Three 3 D-surface graphs and their contour plots showed directly the changing trends of the alga under the combined effects of two antibiotics. This study for the first time employed the RSM in ecotoxicology, which indicated that the RSM should be placed under a feasible and a potential application prospect in toxicity assessment.

  12. Agile green process design for the intensified Kolbe-Schmitt synthesis by accompanying (simplified) life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kressirer, Sabine; Kralisch, Dana; Stark, Annegret; Krtschil, Ulrich; Hessel, Volker

    2013-05-21

    In order to investigate the potential for process intensification, various reaction conditions were applied to the Kolbe-Schmitt synthesis starting from resorcinol. Different CO₂ precursors such as aqueous potassium hydrogencarbonate, hydrogencarbonate-based ionic liquids, DIMCARB, or sc-CO₂, the application of microwave irradiation for fast volumetric heating of the reaction mixture, and the effect of harsh reaction conditions were investigated. The experiments, carried out in conventional batch-wise as well as in continuously operated microstructured reactors, aimed at the development of an environmentally benign process for the preparation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. To provide decision support toward a green process design, a research-accompanying simplified life cycle assessment (SLCA) was performed throughout the whole investigation. Following this approach, it was found that convective heating methods such as oil bath or electrical heating were more beneficial than the application of microwave irradiation. Furthermore, the consideration of workup procedures was crucial for a holistic view on the environmental burdens.

  13. Assessing the combined effects from two kinds of cephalosporins on green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) based on response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruixin; Xie, Weishu; Chen, Jianqiu

    2015-04-01

    The present work evaluated the combined effects of cefradine and ceftazidime on the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa using response surface methodologies (RSM). After a 48 h-exposure, the population growth rate (PGR), the chlorophyll-a content and the SOD content of the alga increased with increased concentrations of two antibiotics. However, the three responses did not continue to demonstrate significant increases once antibiotic concentrations exceed a moderate level. Three two order polynomial regression equations were obtained to describe well the relationship between the responses of the alga and the two antibiotics' concentration (R(2) = 0.9997, 0.9292 and 0.9039, respectively). Three 3 D-surface graphs and their contour plots showed directly the changing trends of the alga under the combined effects of two antibiotics. This study for the first time employed the RSM in ecotoxicology, which indicated that the RSM should be placed under a feasible and a potential application prospect in toxicity assessment. PMID:25684417

  14. Soil quality assessment of urban green space under long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is widely used for landscape irrigation with the benefits of saving fresh water and ameliorating soil quality. Field samples were collected from seven parks in Beijing irrigated reclaimed water with different irrigation history in 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the long-term impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil quality. Soil quality index method was used to assess the comprehensive effects of reclaimed water irrigation on soil. Results showed that the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil nutrient conditions were limited. Compared with tap water irrigation, soil salinity was significantly higher in 2011, while the difference was insignificant in 2014; soil heavy metals were slightly higher by 0.5-10.6 % in 2011 and 2014, while the differences were insignificant. Under reclaimed water irrigation, soil biological activities were significantly improved in both years. Total nitrogen in reclaimed water had a largest effect on soil quality irrigated reclaimed water. Soil quality irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 2.6 and 6.8 % respectively in 2011 and 2014, while the increases were insignificant. Soil quality of almost half samples was more than or closed to soil quality of natural forest in Beijing. Soil quality was ameliorated at some extent with long-term reclaimed water irrigation. PMID:26527339

  15. Soil quality assessment of urban green space under long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is widely used for landscape irrigation with the benefits of saving fresh water and ameliorating soil quality. Field samples were collected from seven parks in Beijing irrigated reclaimed water with different irrigation history in 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the long-term impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil quality. Soil quality index method was used to assess the comprehensive effects of reclaimed water irrigation on soil. Results showed that the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil nutrient conditions were limited. Compared with tap water irrigation, soil salinity was significantly higher in 2011, while the difference was insignificant in 2014; soil heavy metals were slightly higher by 0.5-10.6 % in 2011 and 2014, while the differences were insignificant. Under reclaimed water irrigation, soil biological activities were significantly improved in both years. Total nitrogen in reclaimed water had a largest effect on soil quality irrigated reclaimed water. Soil quality irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 2.6 and 6.8 % respectively in 2011 and 2014, while the increases were insignificant. Soil quality of almost half samples was more than or closed to soil quality of natural forest in Beijing. Soil quality was ameliorated at some extent with long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

  16. An omics based assessment of cadmium toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Jamers, An; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim; Griffin, Julian L; Jones, Oliver A H

    2013-01-15

    The effects of cadmium were assessed in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae were exposed to concentrations of 0, 8.1 or 114.8 μM of cadmium and growth rates, gene transcription and metabolite profiles were examined after 48 and 72 h of exposure. In algae exposed to 8.1 μM Cd, several genes were differentially transcribed after 48 h but no adverse growth related effects were detected. A transient effect on both gene transcription patterns and metabolite profiles could be discerned after 48 h of exposure but the majority of these changes disappeared after 72 h. In contrast, all effects were more pronounced at the 114.8 μM cadmium exposure. Here growth was clearly reduced and transcription of a large number of genes involved in oxidative stress defense mechanisms was differentially increased. Metabolites involved in the glutathione synthesis pathway (an important antioxidant defense) were also affected but the effects of cadmium were found to be more pronounced at the transcript level than in the metabolome, suggesting that the former exhibits greater sensitivity toward cadmium exposure. PMID:23063003

  17. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. Wound infection: a clinician's guide to assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Joy

    2013-09-01

    Wound infection significantly increases the cost of wound care and has significant detrimental effects on patients' quality of life. It is imperative that all health-care professionals are able to promptly recognise and assess for wound infection and initiate effective management. Clinicians must be able to recognise the different levels of bacterial bioburden and to act accordingly. This article provides clear guidance for recognising an infected wound, understanding the different levels of wound bioburden and practical guidance on different forms and appropriateness of antimicrobial agents.

  19. Deployed Assessment and Management of mTBI Casualties.

    PubMed

    Garfin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have placed a spotlight on screening, evaluation, and treatment of mild traumatic brain injury, otherwise known as concussion. The author presents a mass casualty case in which a Ranger company medical section assessed and managed 30 Servicemembers (SM) diagnosed with concussion. Through the process of treating these Servicemembers, a consolidated checklist was created based on existing Department of Defense, United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), and United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) guidelines. During this and subsequent clinical encounters, utilization of this checklist resulted in efficient identification of concussed personnel, appropriate treatment, and documentation. PMID:24048990

  20. Pathophysiology, assessment and management of multiple sclerosis spasticity: an update.

    PubMed

    Haas, Judith

    2011-04-01

    Spasticity is one of the most common and disabling symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). MS spasticity occurs through both myelin and nerve fiber (axonal) degradation, which commence in the early stages of the disease. More than 80% of MS patients experienced spasticity in a large UK survey, with more than 50% of patients reporting their spasticity to be `moderate' or `severe'. Data from a large US registry show that patients with moderate-to-severe MS spasticity experience levels of disability that correlate closely with being wheelchair-bound and/or bedridden. The Ashworth scale is the most commonly used scale for assessing the degree of MS spasticity. However, the validity, reliability and sensitivity of this scale have been challenged and it is not considered an ideal scale for assessing the severity of MS spasticity. The numerical rating scale, a well-established standard pain assessment tool, provides a reliable, valid and simplified scale for patient self-rated assessment of the mean level of spasticity over the previous 24 h (0 = no spasticity, 10 = worst possible spasticity). According to data from the German MS Register, almost a third of MS patients with spasticity were untreated. Despite the availability of oral agents for generalized spasticity (often used in conjunction with physical/rehabilitation management strategies), including baclofen, tizanidine, dantrolene and gabapentin, there is limited clinical evidence to support their use and there is a need for improved and better tolerated pharmacological therapies for MS spasticity. The endocannabinoid system modulator, Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name), provides an alternative therapeutic approach in the management of MS spasticity. PMID:21449853

  1. COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ATHLETES WITH SPORT CONCUSSION

    PubMed Central

    McQueen-Borden, Emily; Bell, Roberta A.; Barr, Thomas; Juengling, Jenifer

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the popular approach to post-concussion management of the athlete relies upon the use of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, all typically coordinated by a physician. That core team is often supplemented by nurses, psychotherapists, coaches, teachers, the athletic director, and, of course, family members. However, access to such a model is frequently limited by financial, geographical, and numerous other factors. In the absence of such resources, a thorough clinical evaluation and management by an available, ongoing healthcare provider, quite often the sports physical therapist, becomes necessary. The authors recommend that the professional who coordinates the athlete's post-concussion healthcare should focus efforts upon a comprehensive assessment and tailored treatment plan specific to the athlete's post-concussive symptoms. Assessment of both pre-morbid function and post-injury physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, and behavioral issues, including the patient's support system, can assist the clinician with identifying specific constraints to sport, academic, social, and vocational activity participation. Hence, the assessment provides structure to the athlete's individualized treatment plan. Successful specialized interventions that address the multi-faceted impairments of sport related concussion frequently require knowledge of resources in a variety of other healthcare professions, in order to facilitate appropriate and necessary treatment referrals. Initial assessment should be followed by repeat monitoring throughout treatment, and spanning a variety of environments, in order to ensure the athlete's full recovery prior to return, not only to sport participation, but also to involvement in social, academic, and/or employment related life activities. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:22893863

  2. Assessing environmental drivers of vegetation greenness by integrating multiple earth observation data in the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forkel, Matthias; Carvalhais, Nuno; Schaphoff, Sibyll; von Bloh, Werner; Thurner, Martin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    Recently produced satellite datasets of vegetation greenness demonstrate a widespread greening of the earth in the last three decades. These positive trends in vegetation greenness are related to changes in leaf area, vegetation cover and photosynthetic activity. Climatic changes, CO2 fertilization, disturbances and other land cover changes are potential drivers of these greening trends. Nevertheless, different satellite datasets show different magnitudes and trends in vegetation greenness. This fact raises the question about the reliability of these datasets. On the other hand, global vegetation models can be potentially used to assess the effects of environmental drivers on vegetation greenness and thus to explore the environmental reliability of these datasets. Unfortunately, current vegetation models have several weaknesses in reproducing observed temporal dynamics in vegetation greenness. Our aim is to integrate multiple earth observation data sets in a dynamic global vegetation model in order to 1) improve the model's capability to reproduce observed dynamics and spatial patterns of vegetation greenness and 2) to assess the spatial and temporal importance of environmental drivers for the seasonal to decadal variability of vegetation greenness. For this purpose, we developed a data integration system for the LPJmL dynamic global vegetation model (LPJmL-DIS). We implemented a new phenology scheme in LPJmL to better represent observed temporal dynamics of FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation). Model parameters were globally optimized using a genetic optimization algorithm. The model optimization was performed globally against 30 year FAPAR time series (GIMMS3g dataset), against 10 year albedo time series (MODIS) and global patterns of gross primary production as up-scaled from FLUXNET eddy covariance measurements. Additionally, we directly prescribed satellite observations of land and tree cover in LPJmL to better represent global

  3. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways.

    PubMed

    Perros, Petros; Dayan, Colin M; Dickinson, A Jane; Ezra, Daniel; Estcourt, Stephanie; Foley, Peter; Hickey, Janis; Lazarus, John H; MacEwen, Caroline J; McLaren, Julie; Rose, Geoffrey E; Uddin, Jimmy; Vaidya, Bijay

    2015-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is uncommon, but responsible for considerable morbidity. A coordinated approach between healthcare professionals is required in order to meet the needs of patients. Early diagnosis can be achieved by a simple clinical assessment. Low-cost effective interventions can be initiated by generalists, which may improve outcomes. Moderate-to-severe GO should be referred to specialised centres. Recommendations for clinical diagnosis, initial management and referral pathways are highlighted.

  4. Management of patients with Graves' orbitopathy: initial assessment, management outside specialised centres and referral pathways.

    PubMed

    Perros, Petros; Dayan, Colin M; Dickinson, A Jane; Ezra, Daniel; Estcourt, Stephanie; Foley, Peter; Hickey, Janis; Lazarus, John H; MacEwen, Caroline J; McLaren, Julie; Rose, Geoffrey E; Uddin, Jimmy; Vaidya, Bijay

    2015-04-01

    Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is uncommon, but responsible for considerable morbidity. A coordinated approach between healthcare professionals is required in order to meet the needs of patients. Early diagnosis can be achieved by a simple clinical assessment. Low-cost effective interventions can be initiated by generalists, which may improve outcomes. Moderate-to-severe GO should be referred to specialised centres. Recommendations for clinical diagnosis, initial management and referral pathways are highlighted. PMID:25824071

  5. A Global Assessment of Long-Term Greening and Browning Trends in Pasture Lands Using the GIMMS LAI3g Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Pau, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Pasture ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to land degradation due to the high risk of human disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, burning, etc.), especially when compared with natural ecosystems (non-pasture, non-cultivated) where direct human impacts are minimal. Using maximum annual leaf area index (LAImax) as a proxy for standing biomass and peak annual aboveground productivity, we analyze greening and browning trends in pasture areas from 1982-2008. Inter-annual variability in pasture productivity is strongly controlled by precipitation (positive correlation) and, to a lesser extent, temperature (negative correlation). Linear temporal trends are significant in 23% of pasture cells, with the vast majority of these areas showing positive LAImax trends. Spatially extensive productivity declines are only found in a few regions, most notably central Asia, southwest North America, and southeast Australia. Statistically removing the influence of precipitation reduces LAImax trends by only 13%, suggesting that precipitation trends are only a minor contributor to long-term greening and browning of pasture lands. No significant global relationship was found between LAImax and pasture intensity, although the magnitude of trends did vary between cells classified as natural versus pasture. In the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, the median rate of greening in pasture cells is significantly higher than for cells dominated by natural vegetation. In the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, conversely, greening of natural areas is 2-4 times the magnitude of greening in pasture areas. This analysis presents one of the first global assessments of greening and browning trends in global pasture lands, including a comparison with vegetation trends in regions dominated by natural ecosystems. Our results suggest that degradation of pasture lands is not a globally widespread phenomenon and, consistent with much of the terrestrial biosphere, there have been widespread increases in

  6. Throughput Benefit Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lohr, Gary W.; Fenbert, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The System-Oriented Runway Management (SORM) concept is a collection of needed capabilities focused on a more efficient use of runways while considering all of the factors that affect runway use. Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM), one of the SORM capabilities, provides runway configuration and runway usage recommendations, monitoring the active runway configuration for suitability given existing factors, based on a 90 minute planning horizon. This study evaluates the throughput benefits using a representative sample of today's traffic volumes at three airports: Memphis International Airport (MEM), Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), and John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK). Based on this initial assessment, there are statistical throughput benefits for both arrivals and departures at MEM with an average of 4% for arrivals, and 6% for departures. For DFW, there is a statistical benefit for arrivals with an average of 3%. Although there is an average of 1% benefit observed for departures, it is not statistically significant. For JFK, there is a 12% benefit for arrivals, but a 2% penalty for departures. The results obtained are for current traffic volumes and should show greater benefit for increased future demand. This paper also proposes some potential TRCM algorithm improvements for future research. A continued research plan is being worked to implement these improvements and to re-assess the throughput benefit for today and future projected traffic volumes.

  7. Assessing hospitals' clinical risk management: Development of a monitoring instrument

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical risk management (CRM) plays a crucial role in enabling hospitals to identify, contain, and manage risks related to patient safety. So far, no instruments are available to measure and monitor the level of implementation of CRM. Therefore, our objective was to develop an instrument for assessing CRM in hospitals. Methods The instrument was developed based on a literature review, which identified key elements of CRM. These elements were then discussed with a panel of patient safety experts. A theoretical model was used to describe the level to which CRM elements have been implemented within the organization. Interviews with CRM practitioners and a pilot evaluation were conducted to revise the instrument. The first nationwide application of the instrument (138 participating Swiss hospitals) was complemented by in-depth interviews with 25 CRM practitioners in selected hospitals, for validation purposes. Results The monitoring instrument consists of 28 main questions organized in three sections: 1) Implementation and organizational integration of CRM, 2) Strategic objectives and operational implementation of CRM at hospital level, and 3) Overview of CRM in different services. The instrument is available in four languages (English, German, French, and Italian). It allows hospitals to gather comprehensive and systematic data on their CRM practice and to identify areas for further improvement. Conclusions We have developed an instrument for assessing development stages of CRM in hospitals that should be feasible for a continuous monitoring of developments in this important area of patient safety. PMID:21144039

  8. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Stephen R; Mooney, Harold A; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; Defries, Ruth S; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J; Whyte, Anne

    2009-02-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social-ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social-ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social-ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

  9. Science for managing ecosystem services: Beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephen R.; Mooney, Harold A.; Agard, John; Capistrano, Doris; DeFries, Ruth S.; Díaz, Sandra; Dietz, Thomas; Duraiappah, Anantha K.; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred; Pereira, Henrique Miguel; Perrings, Charles; Reid, Walter V.; Sarukhan, José; Scholes, Robert J.; Whyte, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) introduced a new framework for analyzing social–ecological systems that has had wide influence in the policy and scientific communities. Studies after the MA are taking up new challenges in the basic science needed to assess, project, and manage flows of ecosystem services and effects on human well-being. Yet, our ability to draw general conclusions remains limited by focus on discipline-bound sectors of the full social–ecological system. At the same time, some polices and practices intended to improve ecosystem services and human well-being are based on untested assumptions and sparse information. The people who are affected and those who provide resources are increasingly asking for evidence that interventions improve ecosystem services and human well-being. New research is needed that considers the full ensemble of processes and feedbacks, for a range of biophysical and social systems, to better understand and manage the dynamics of the relationship between humans and the ecosystems on which they rely. Such research will expand the capacity to address fundamental questions about complex social–ecological systems while evaluating assumptions of policies and practices intended to advance human well-being through improved ecosystem services. PMID:19179280

  10. [Assessment and management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Martinerie, L; Le Heuzey, M-F; Delorme, R; Carel, J-C; Bargiacchi, A

    2016-06-01

    Gender dysphoria, originally called gender identity disorder, is characterized by the dissociation between one's expressed gender and the gender of rearing as assigned at birth, which generates significant clinical distress and social, academic, and other important forms of isolation. This state is also known as transgender or transsexualism and is recognized as a medical disease. Adults with gender dysphoria can benefit from psychological, medical, and surgical care. However, gender dysphoria rarely occurs in adulthood but rather emerges in childhood or adolescence, generating deep social and academic difficulties, especially at puberty. For the last 10years, the management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents has developed in several countries, specifically in Europe, but remains under-recognized in France. Since 2013, several pediatric psychiatry and endocrinology departments have initiated a multidisciplinary evaluation and management approach for these patients. This article reviews the clinical criteria helping diagnose gender dysphoria and presents the different steps in the assessment and management of these patients in accordance with international guidelines. PMID:27117996

  11. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Butera, Stefania Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  12. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  13. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  14. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    PubMed

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  15. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    PubMed

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  16. A GIS-based human health risk assessment for urban green space planning--an example from Grugliasco (Italy).

    PubMed

    Poggio, Laura; Vrscaj, Borut

    2009-11-15

    The need to develop approaches for risk-based management of soil contamination, as well as the integration of the assessment of the human health risk (HHR) due to the soil contamination in the urban planning procedures has been the subject of recent attention of scientific literature and policy makers. The spatial analysis of environmental data offers multiple advantages for studying soil contamination and HHR assessment, facilitating the decision making process. The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities and benefits of spatial implementation of a quantitative HHR assessment methodology for a planning case in a typical urban environment where the soil is contaminated. The study area is located in the city of Grugliasco a part of the Turin (Italy) metropolitan area. The soils data were derived from a site specific soil survey and the land-use data from secondary sources. In the first step the soil contamination data were geo-statistically analysed and a spatial soil contamination data risk modelling procedure designed. In order to spatially assess the HHR computer routines were developed using GIS raster tools. The risk was evaluated for several different land uses for the planned naturalistic park area. The HHR assessment indicated that the contamination of soils with heavy metals in the area is not sufficient to induce considerable health problems due to typical human behaviour within the variety of urban land uses. An exception is the possibility of direct ingestion of contaminated soil which commonly occurs in playgrounds. The HHR evaluation in a planning case in the Grugliasco Municipality confirms the suitability of the selected planning option. The construction of the naturalistic park presents one solution for reducing the impacts of soil contamination on the health of citizens. The spatial HHR evaluation using GIS techniques is a diagnostic procedure for assessing the impacts of urban soil contamination, with which one can verify planning

  17. Risk assessment and risk management of noncriteria pollutants.

    PubMed

    Lee, S D

    1990-10-01

    Noncriteria air pollutants are synonymous with hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), air toxics or toxic air pollutants (TAPs). The term noncriteria pollutants refers to all air pollutants except for the criteria pollutants (SOx, PM, NOx, CO, O3, and Pb). Air toxics are pervasive in our environment worldwide in varying degrees. Uses of these chemicals are varied and numerous; their emissions are ubiquitous, and they include organic compounds such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, dioxins, aldehydes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals such as chromium, nickel, cadmium, and mercury. There are more than 70,000 chemicals that are in use commercially in the United States, and we know relatively little about their ambient concentrations, persistence, transport and transformation as well as their effects on health and the environment, many of which take decades to emerge. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, under the authority of Section 112 of the Clean Air Act, is mandated to regulate any air pollutant which, in the Administrator's judgment, "causes, or contributes to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in serious irreversible or incapacitating reversible illness." For such regulatory decision-making, EPA's Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) provides scientific assessment of health effects for potentially hazardous air pollutants. In accordance with risk assessment guidelines developed by OHEA over the years, Health Assessment Documents (HADs) containing risk assessment information were prepared and were subjected to critical review and careful revision to produce Final Draft HADs which serve as scientific databases for regulatory decision-making by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) in its risk management process. EPA developed databases such as the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) and the National Air Toxics Information Clearinghouse (NATICH) and a technical

  18. Second California Assessment: Integrated climate change impacts assessment of natural and managed systems. Guest editorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franco, G.; Cayan, D.R.; Moser, S.; Hanemann, M.; Jones, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006 the scientific community in California, in cooperation with resource managers, has been conducting periodic statewide studies about the potential impacts of climate change on natural and managed systems. This Special Issue is a compilation of revised papers that originate from the most recent assessment that concluded in 2009. As with the 2006 studies that influenced the passage of California's landmark Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), these papers have informed policy formulation at the state level, helping bring climate adaptation as a complementary measure to mitigation. We provide here a brief introduction to the papers included in this Special Issue focusing on how they are coordinated and support each other. We describe the common set of downscaled climate and sea-level rise scenarios used in this assessment that came from six different global climate models (GCMs) run under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios: B1 (low emissions) and A2 (a medium-high emissions). Recommendations for future state assessments, some of which are being implemented in an on-going new assessment that will be completed in 2012, are offered. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management (IHM) Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lybeck; M. Tawfik; L. Bond; J. Coble

    2012-05-01

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to the better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging nuclear power plants. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of a NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of a NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system

  20. The Resilience Assessment Framework: a common indicator for land management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Annette; Metternicht, Graciela; O'Connell, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    At the Rio+20 conference in June 2013, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reinforced their mutual interests in building linkages between biodiversity conservation, sustainable land management, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The UNCCD sees building resilience of agro-ecosystems as a common interest that could strengthen linkages between the conventions and deliver synergies in progressing goals of each of the conventions. Furthermore, enhancing resilience of productive agro-ecosystems is fundamental to food security and sustainable development, and thus aligns with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Global Environment Facility (GEF) shares the interest of the conventions in building resilience in agro-ecosystems. Indicators of resilience are required for monitoring progress in these endeavors, application of a common indicator between the UNCCD, UNFCCC and CBD as a measure of both land-based adaptation and ecosystem resilience, could strengthen links between the conventions and increase attention to the broad benefits of improved land management. Consequently, the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) to the GEF commissioned the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to produce a report reviewing the conceptual basis for resilience, and proposing an indicator approach that could meet the needs of the Conventions and the GEF for an indicator of agro-ecosystem resilience and land-based adaption. The paper presents a synthesis of scientific understanding of resilience in agro-ecosystems, reviews indicators that have been proposed, and, having concluded that none of the extant indicator approaches adequately assesses resilience of agro-ecosystems, proposes a new approach to the assessment of resilience. Recognizing that no single indicator of resilience is

  1. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling. PMID:16573187

  2. Toxicity testing, risk assessment, and options for dredged material management.

    PubMed

    Munns, Wayne R; Berry, Walter J; Dewitt, Theodore H

    2002-04-01

    Programs for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into waters of the United States specify a tiered testing and evaluation protocol that includes performance of acute and chronic bioassays to assess toxicity of the dredged sediments. Although these evaluations reflect the toxicological risks associated with disposal activities to some degree, analysis activities are limited to the sediments of each dredging project separately. Cumulative risks to water column and benthic organisms at and near the designated disposal site are therefore difficult to assess. An alternate approach is to focus attention on the disposal site, with the goal of understanding more directly the risks of multiple disposal events to receiving ecosystems. Here we review current US toxicity testing and evaluation protocols, and describe an application of ecological risk assessment that allows consideration of the temporal and spatial components of risk to receiving aquatic ecosystems. When expanded to include other disposal options, this approach can provide the basis for holistic management of dredged material disposal. PMID:12139319

  3. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling.

  4. Assessment of green cleaning effectiveness on polychrome surfaces by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Hrdlickova Kuckova, Stepanka; Crhova Krizkova, Michaela; Pereira, Catarina Luísa Cortes; Hynek, Radovan; Lavrova, Olga; Busani, Tito; Branco, Luis Cobra; Sandu, Irina Crina Anca

    2014-08-01

    This article proposes an innovative methodology which employs nondestructive techniques to assess the effectiveness of new formulations based on ionic liquids, as alternative solvents for enzymes (proteases), for the removal of proteinaceous materials from painted surfaces during restoration treatments. Ionic liquids (ILs), also known as "designer" solvents, because of their peculiar properties which can be adjusted by selecting different cation-anion combinations, are potentially green solvents due totheir low vapour pressure. In this study, two ionic liquids were selected: IL1 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4 ])) and IL2 (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM][EtSO4 ])). New formulations were prepared with these ILs and two different proteases (E): one acid (E1-pepsin) and one alkaline (E2-obtained from Aspergillus sojae). These formulations were tested on tempera and oil mock-up samples, prepared in accordance with historically documented recipes, and covered with two different types of protein-based varnishes (egg white and isinglass-fish glue). A noninvasive multiscale imaging methodology was applied before and after the treatment to evaluate the cleaning's effectiveness. Different microscopic techniques-optical microscopy (OM) with visible and fluorescent light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-together with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were applied on areas cleaned with the new formulations (IL + E) and reference areas cleaned only with the commercial enzyme formulations (gels). MALDI-TOF proved particularly very useful for comparing the diversity and abundance of peptides released by using different enzymatic systems. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:574-585, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24825619

  5. Assessing the viscoelasticity of green light induced CXL in the rabbit cornea by noncontact OCE and FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-hao; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    The biomechanical properties of the cornea have a profound influence on its health and function. Rose bengal/green light corneal collagen cross-linking (RGX) has been proposed as an alternative to UV-A Riboflavin collagen cross-linking (UV-CXL) for treatment of keratoconus. However, the effects of RGX on the biomechanical properties of the cornea are not as well understood as UV-CXL. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the viscoelasticity of the rabbit cornea before and after RGX using a noncontact method of phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) and finite element modeling (FEM). Viscoelastic FE models of the corneas were constructed to simulate the elastic wave propagation based on the OCE measurements. In addition, the effect of the fluid-structure interface (FSI) between the corneal posterior surface and aqueous humor on the elastic wave group velocity was also investigated. The effect of the FSI was first validated by OCE measurements and FEM simulations on contact lenses, and the OCE and FEM results were in good agreement. The Young's modulus of the rabbit cornea before RGX was assessed as E=80 kPa, and the shear viscosity was η=0.40 Pa•s at an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 15 mmHg. After RGX, the Young's modulus increased to E=112 kPa and shear viscosity decreased to η=0.37 Pa•s. Both the corneal OCE experiments and the FE simulations also demonstrated that the FSI significantly reduced the group velocity of the elastic wave, and thus, the FSI should be considered when determining the biomechanical properties of the cornea.

  6. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Breunig, Hanna M.; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Borgia, Andrea; Price, Phillip N.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2013-06-13

    reluctant to invest in capital intensive, high risk GCS projects; early technical, economic, and environmental assessments of brine management are extremely valuable for determining the potential role of GCS in the US. We performed a first order feasibility and economic assessment, at three different locations in the US, of twelve GCS extracted-­water management options, including: geothermal energy extraction, desalination, salt and mineral harvesting, rare-­earth element harvesting, aquaculture, algae biodiesel production, road de-­icing, enhanced geothermal system (EGS) recharge, underground reinjection, landfill disposal, ocean disposal, and evaporation pond disposal. Three saline aquifers from different regions of the US were selected as hypothetical GCS project sites to encompass variation in parameters that are relevant to the feasibility and economics of brine disposal. The three aquifers are the southern Mt. Simon Sandstone Formation in the Illinois Basin, IL; the Vedder Formation in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA; and the Jasper Interval in the eastern Texas Gulf Basin, TX. These aquifers are candidates for GCS due to their physical characteristics and their close proximity to large CO2 emission sources. Feasibility and impacts were calculated using one mt-­CO2 injected as the functional unit of brine management. Scenarios were performed for typical 1000MW coal-­fired power plants (CFPP) that incurred an assumed 24 percent carbon capture energy penalty (EP), injected 90 percent of CO2 emissions (~9 million mt-­ CO2 injected annually), and treated extracted water onsite. Net present value (NPV), land requirements, laws and regulations, and technological limits were determined for each stage of disposal, and used to estimate feasibility. The boundary of the assessment began once extracted water was brought to the surface, and ended once the water evaporated, was injected underground, or was discharged into

  7. Green tea: potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Craig; Segre, Tiffany

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been used widely and in high doses for centuries as a health tonic in many societies. Evidence suggests that green tea is effective for treating genital warts. There is some supportive evidence for the use of green tea in cancer prevention. Drinking green tea is associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality, but not in cancer-related mortality. Small clinical studies have found that green tea may also be helpful in losing and managing weight, and lowering cholesterol. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that green tea may prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Green tea appears to be safe, although there have been case reports of hepatotoxicity possibly related to a specific extract in pill or beverage form. Green tea seems to be a low-risk complementary therapy for a number of conditions, but more studies are needed.

  8. Assessing the effects of a short-term green tea intervention in skin microvascular function and oxygen tension in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Wasilewski, Rebecca; Ubara, Emmanuel O; Klonizakis, Markos

    2016-09-01

    Green tea consumption has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, there is little evidence examining its potential differing effect between younger and older populations, whilst little is known on its effect on the circulatory system when oxygen demand is higher. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of green tea consumption on microvascular functioning in both an older and younger population. Fifteen young [24 (4.0)] and fifteen older [61 (4.0)] participants, consumed two cups of green tea daily for 14days. We used Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) to assess cutaneous microvascular function and Transcutaneous Oxygen monitoring (TcPO2) to assess skin oxygen tension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also assessed on both visits. We observed significant improvements in axon-mediated microvascular vasodilation for the younger group [1.6 (0.59) vs 2.05 (0.72), p<0.05] and the older group [1.25 (0.58) vs 1.65 (0.5) p<0.05]. Improvements in skin oxygen tension were also noted for both groups in both noted TcPO2 measures (i.e. 1.25 (0.58) vs 1.65 (0.5) (p<0.05), for ΔTcPO2max for the older group, between visits) respectively. Improvements were also observed for systolic blood pressure in both the younger [120 (10) vs 112 (10), p<0.05] and older group [129 (12) v 124 (11), p<0.001]. In conclusion, we observed statistically-significant improvements in microvascular function and skin oxygen tension. Our results suggest that green tea may prove beneficial as a dietary element in lifestyle interventions aiming to lower cardiovascular disease risk, in both older and younger populations.

  9. An empirical assessment of which inland floods can be managed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mogollon, Beatriz; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Hoegh, Andrew B.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Riverine flooding is a significant global issue. Although it is well documented that the influence of landscape structure on floods decreases as flood size increases, studies that define a threshold flood-return period, above which landscape features such as topography, land cover and impoundments can curtail floods, are lacking. Further, the relative influences of natural versus built features on floods is poorly understood. Assumptions about the types of floods that can be managed have considerable implications for the cost-effectiveness of decisions to invest in transforming land cover (e.g., reforestation) and in constructing structures (e.g., storm-water ponds) to control floods. This study defines parameters of floods for which changes in landscape structure can have an impact. We compare nine flood-return periods across 31 watersheds with widely varying topography and land cover in the southeastern United States, using long-term hydrologic records (≥20 years). We also assess the effects of built flow-regulating features (best management practices and artificial water bodies) on selected flood metrics across urban watersheds. We show that landscape features affect magnitude and duration of only those floods with return periods ≤10 years, which suggests that larger floods cannot be managed effectively by manipulating landscape structure. Overall, urban watersheds exhibited larger (270 m3/s) but quicker (0.41 days) floods than non-urban watersheds (50 m3/s and 1.5 days). However, urban watersheds with more flow-regulating features had lower flood magnitudes (154 m3/s), but similar flood durations (0.55 days), compared to urban watersheds with fewer flow-regulating features (360 m3/s and 0.23 days). Our analysis provides insight into the magnitude, duration and count of floods that can be curtailed by landscape structure and its management. Our findings are relevant to other areas with similar climate, topography, and land use, and can help ensure that

  10. An empirical assessment of which inland floods can be managed.

    PubMed

    Mogollón, Beatriz; Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Hoegh, Andrew B; Angermeier, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Riverine flooding is a significant global issue. Although it is well documented that the influence of landscape structure on floods decreases as flood size increases, studies that define a threshold flood-return period, above which landscape features such as topography, land cover and impoundments can curtail floods, are lacking. Further, the relative influences of natural versus built features on floods is poorly understood. Assumptions about the types of floods that can be managed have considerable implications for the cost-effectiveness of decisions to invest in transforming land cover (e.g., reforestation) and in constructing structures (e.g., storm-water ponds) to control floods. This study defines parameters of floods for which changes in landscape structure can have an impact. We compare nine flood-return periods across 31 watersheds with widely varying topography and land cover in the southeastern United States, using long-term hydrologic records (≥20 years). We also assess the effects of built flow-regulating features (best management practices and artificial water bodies) on selected flood metrics across urban watersheds. We show that landscape features affect magnitude and duration of only those floods with return periods ≤10 years, which suggests that larger floods cannot be managed effectively by manipulating landscape structure. Overall, urban watersheds exhibited larger (270 m(3)/s) but quicker (0.41 days) floods than non-urban watersheds (50 m(3)/s and 1.5 days). However, urban watersheds with more flow-regulating features had lower flood magnitudes (154 m(3)/s), but similar flood durations (0.55 days), compared to urban watersheds with fewer flow-regulating features (360 m(3)/s and 0.23 days). Our analysis provides insight into the magnitude, duration and count of floods that can be curtailed by landscape structure and its management. Our findings are relevant to other areas with similar climate, topography, and land use, and can help

  11. An empirical assessment of which inland floods can be managed.

    PubMed

    Mogollón, Beatriz; Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Hoegh, Andrew B; Angermeier, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Riverine flooding is a significant global issue. Although it is well documented that the influence of landscape structure on floods decreases as flood size increases, studies that define a threshold flood-return period, above which landscape features such as topography, land cover and impoundments can curtail floods, are lacking. Further, the relative influences of natural versus built features on floods is poorly understood. Assumptions about the types of floods that can be managed have considerable implications for the cost-effectiveness of decisions to invest in transforming land cover (e.g., reforestation) and in constructing structures (e.g., storm-water ponds) to control floods. This study defines parameters of floods for which changes in landscape structure can have an impact. We compare nine flood-return periods across 31 watersheds with widely varying topography and land cover in the southeastern United States, using long-term hydrologic records (≥20 years). We also assess the effects of built flow-regulating features (best management practices and artificial water bodies) on selected flood metrics across urban watersheds. We show that landscape features affect magnitude and duration of only those floods with return periods ≤10 years, which suggests that larger floods cannot be managed effectively by manipulating landscape structure. Overall, urban watersheds exhibited larger (270 m(3)/s) but quicker (0.41 days) floods than non-urban watersheds (50 m(3)/s and 1.5 days). However, urban watersheds with more flow-regulating features had lower flood magnitudes (154 m(3)/s), but similar flood durations (0.55 days), compared to urban watersheds with fewer flow-regulating features (360 m(3)/s and 0.23 days). Our analysis provides insight into the magnitude, duration and count of floods that can be curtailed by landscape structure and its management. Our findings are relevant to other areas with similar climate, topography, and land use, and can help

  12. Assessing water resources management and development in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Pianosi, F.; Quach, X.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2011-07-01

    In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use system analysis and optimal control to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam), and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  13. Application of fisheries-management techniques to assessing impacts

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Simmons, M.A.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Monitoring methods used in fisheries-management assessments were examined and their potential applicability in confirmatory impact monitoring were evaluated using case studies from selected nuclear power plants. A report on Task I of the project examined the application of Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) techniques in monitoring programs at riverine, large lake and ocean sites. Included in this final report is an examination of CPUE data for the Oconee Nuclear Plant on Lake Keowee, a reservoir site. This report also presents a summary of results obtained over the life of the project and guidelines for designing and implementing data collection programs and for data analysis and interpretation. Analysis of monitoring data from Lake Keowee confirmed findings from previous analyses of surveys at nuclear power plants on large lakes, rivers and coastal sites. CPUE techniques as applied to these monitoring programs do not provide data necessary to separate changes induced by plant operation from naturally occurring changes.

  14. The Value of Green Technology at ABC Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    A challenge facing community colleges nationwide is to reduce the carbon footprint of campuses by initiating green technology initiatives. This case study assessed the effect of switching from paper assignments to a learning management system at ABC Community College. The topic is important because federal and state funding, as well as…

  15. Assessing water reservoir management and development in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, F.; Quach, X.; Castelletti, A.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this work we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam), focusing on the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River. We first provide a general and mathematical description of the socio economic and physical system of the Red River Basin, including the three main objectives of hydropower production, flood control, and water supply, and using conceptual and data-driven modeling tools. Then, we analyze the historical operation of the HoaBinh reservoir and explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives, using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Results show that there exist several operating policies that prove Pareto-dominant over the historical one, that is, they can improve all three management objectives simultaneously. However, while the improvement is rather significant with respect to hydropower production and water supply, it is much more limited in terms of flood control. To understand whether this is due to structural constraints (insufficient storing capacity) or to the imperfect information system (uncertainty in forecasting future flows and thus anticipate floods), we assessed the infrastructural system potential by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization

  16. Benefits Assessment for Tactical Runway Configuration Management Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa; Phojanamongkolkij, Nipa; Lohr, Gary; Fenbert, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Tactical Runway Configuration Management (TRCM) software tool was developed to provide air traffic flow managers and supervisors with recommendations for airport configuration changes and runway usage. The objective for this study is to conduct a benefits assessment at Memphis (MEM), Dallas Fort-Worth (DFW) and New York's John F. Kennedy (JFK) airports using the TRCM tool. Results from simulations using the TRCM-generated runway configuration schedule are compared with results using historical schedules. For the 12 days of data used in this analysis, the transit time (arrival fix to spot on airport movement area for arrivals, or spot to departure fix for departures) for MEM departures is greater (7%) than for arrivals (3%); for JFK, there is a benefit for arrivals (9%) but not for departures (-2%); for DFW, arrivals show a slight benefit (1%), but this is offset by departures (-2%). Departure queue length benefits show fewer aircraft in queue for JFK (29%) and MEM (11%), but not for DFW (-13%). Fuel savings for surface operations at MEM are seen for both arrivals and departures. At JFK there are fuel savings for arrivals, but these are offset by increased fuel use for departures. In this study, no surface fuel benefits resulted for DFW. Results suggest that the TRCM algorithm requires modifications for complex surface traffic operations that can cause taxi delays. For all three airports, the average number of changes in flow direction (runway configuration) recommended by TRCM was many times greater than the historical data; TRCM would need to be adapted to a particular airport's needs, to limit the number of changes to acceptable levels. The results from this analysis indicate the TRCM tool can provide benefits at some high-capacity airports. The magnitude of these benefits depends on many airport-specific factors and would require adaptation of the TRCM tool; a detailed assessment is needed prior to determining suitability for a particular airport.

  17. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed. PMID:23346663

  18. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  19. Community-based primary care: improving and assessing diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Meghan; Qaseem, Amir; Snow, Vincenza

    2010-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes make it a prime target for quality improvement research. Quality gaps and racial/gender disparities persist throughout this population of patients necessitating a sustainable improvement in the clinical management of diabetes. The authors of this study sought (1) to provide a population perspective on diabetes management, and (2) to reinforce evidence-based clinical guidelines through a Web-based educational module.The project also aimed to gain insight into working remotely with a community of rural physicians. This longitudinal pre-post intervention study involved 18 internal medicine physicians and included 3 points of medical record data abstraction over 24 months. A Web-based educational module was introduced after the baseline data abstraction. This module contained chapters on clinical education, practice tools, and self-assessment. The results showed a sustained improvement in most clinical outcomes and demonstrated the effectiveness of using Web-based mediums to reinforce clinical guidelines and change physician behavior.

  20. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

    1999-05-07

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

  1. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  2. Assessment of the development of aquifer management councils (COTAS) for sustainable groundwater management in Guanajuato, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wester, Philippus; Sandoval Minero, Ricardo; Hoogesteger, Jaime

    2011-06-01

    Collective groundwater management by water users—self-regulation—is increasingly advocated as a complement to state regulation. This article analyzes the attempts by the Guanajuato State Water Commission (CEAG) in central Mexico to promote user self-regulation through the establishment and development of 14 Consejos Técnicos de Aguas (COTAS; Technical Water Councils). Based on a joint assessment by a former senior CEAG policy-maker and two researchers, Guanajuato's groundwater-management policy is reviewed to understand why user self-regulation was less successful than expected. It concludes that increasing awareness and improving the knowledge base on groundwater is not enough to trigger self-regulation by groundwater users. A wider delegation of responsibilities to the COTAS is necessary, combined with: (1) functioning mechanisms for enforcing groundwater legislation, especially concerning well permits and pumped volumes, and (2) mechanisms that ensure the legitimacy and accountability of users' representatives to both users and state agencies.

  3. The Role of Threat Assessment and Management in College Counseling: How's That Net Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Flynn, Christopher; Eells, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors respond to Goodwin's (2014) "Threat Assessment: Are We Using the Wrong Nets?" and use that article as a springboard to discuss various aspects of the threat assessment and management process. We find that Goodwin misses critical elements of the threat assessment and management process, conflates the process with two types of…

  4. Next generation paradigm for urban pluvial flood modelling, prediction, management and vulnerability reduction - Interaction between RainGain and Blue Green Dream projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimovic, C.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of climate change and increasing urbanisation call for a new paradigm for efficient planning, management and retrofitting of urban developments to increase resilience to climate change and to maximize ecosystem services. Improved management of urban floods from all sources in required. Time scale for well documented fluvial and coastal floods allows for timely response but surface (pluvial) flooding caused by intense local storms had not been given appropriate attention, Pitt Review (UK). Urban surface floods predictions require fine scale data and model resolutions. They have to be tackled locally by combining central inputs (meteorological services) with the efforts of the local entities. Although significant breakthrough in modelling of pluvial flooding was made there is a need to further enhance short term prediction of both rainfall and surface flooding. These issues are dealt with in the EU Iterreg project Rain Gain (RG). Breakthrough in urban flood mitigation can only be achieved by combined effects of advanced planning design, construction and management of urban water (blue) assets in interaction with urban vegetated areas' (green) assets. Changes in design and operation of blue and green assets, currently operating as two separate systems, is urgently required. Gaps in knowledge and technology will be introduced by EIT's Climate-KIC Blue Green Dream (BGD) project. The RG and BGD projects provide synergy of the "decoupled" blue and green systems to enhance multiple benefits to: urban amenity, flood management, heat island, biodiversity, resilience to drought thus energy requirements, thus increased quality of urban life at lower costs. Urban pluvial flood management will address two priority areas: Short Term rainfall Forecast and Short term flood surface forecast. Spatial resolution of short term rainfall forecast below 0.5 km2 and lead time of a few hours are needed. Improvements are achievable by combining data sources of raingauge networks

  5. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a "gold standard" for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable. PMID:26322307

  6. Assessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Pianosi, F.; Quach, X.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam), and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. To reach this goal we analyze the historical operation of the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River, explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives (hydropower production, flood control and water supply), using multi-objective optimization techniques, namely Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Finally, we assess the structural system potential and the need for capacity expansion by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  7. Final Environmental assessment for the Uranium Lease Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a programmatic environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue leasing withdrawn lands and DOE-owned patented claims for the exploration and production of uranium and vanadium ores. The Domestic Uranium Program regulation, codified at Title 10, Part 760.1, of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), gives DOE the flexibility to continue leasing these lands under the Uranium Lease Management Program (ULMP) if the agency determines that it is in its best interest to do so. A key element in determining what is in DOE`s ``best interest`` is the assessment of the environmental impacts that may be attributable to lease tract operations and associated activities. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA for the ULMP, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 United States Code 4321 et seq.), as amended.Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for the ULMP,and DOE is issuing this Finding, of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a “gold standard” for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable. PMID:26322307

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Management in Prerenal Transplantation Candidates.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Eric M; Hall, Amanda K; Hess, Jordan; Abraham, Jo; Smith, Brigham; Hopkins, Paul N; Shihab, Fuad; Welt, Frederick; Owan, Theophilus; Fang, James C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) assessment in prerenal transplant patients varies by center. Current guidelines recommend stress testing for candidates if ≥ 3 CV risk factors exist. We evaluated the CV assessment and management in 685 patients referred for kidney transplant over a 7-year period. All patients had CV risk factors, and the most common cause of end-stage renal disease was diabetes. Thirty-three percent (n = 229) underwent coronary angiography. The sensitivity of stress testing to detect obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was poor (0.26). Patients who had no CAD, nonobstructive CAD, or CAD with intervention had significantly higher event-free survival compared with patients with obstructive CAD without intervention. There were no adverse clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and graft failure) within 30 days post-transplant in patients who had preoperative angiography (n = 77). Of the transplanted patients who did not have an angiogram (n = 289), there were 8 clinical events (6 myocardial infarctions) in the first 30 days. In conclusion, our results indicate that stress testing and usual risk factors were poor predictors of obstructive CAD and that revascularization may prove beneficial in these patients.

  10. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a "gold standard" for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable.

  11. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept.

    PubMed

    Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha

    2008-10-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from the impact of human activities on the environment to the impacts of natural hazards. Recovery/reconstruction of these areas is highly challenging. A clear understanding of the complex dynamics of the coast and the types of challenges faced by the several stakeholders of the coast is required. Issues such as sustainability, equity and community participation assume importance. The concept of ICZM (integrated coastal zone management) has been effectively used in most parts of the world. This concept emphasizes the holistic assessment of the coast and a multidisciplinary analysis using participatory processes. It integrates anthropocentric and eco-centric approaches. This paper documents several issues involved in the recovery of tsunami-affected areas and recommends the application of the ICZM concept to the reconstruction efforts. PMID:17544565

  12. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept.

    PubMed

    Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha

    2008-10-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from the impact of human activities on the environment to the impacts of natural hazards. Recovery/reconstruction of these areas is highly challenging. A clear understanding of the complex dynamics of the coast and the types of challenges faced by the several stakeholders of the coast is required. Issues such as sustainability, equity and community participation assume importance. The concept of ICZM (integrated coastal zone management) has been effectively used in most parts of the world. This concept emphasizes the holistic assessment of the coast and a multidisciplinary analysis using participatory processes. It integrates anthropocentric and eco-centric approaches. This paper documents several issues involved in the recovery of tsunami-affected areas and recommends the application of the ICZM concept to the reconstruction efforts.

  13. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    Italian levees and historical breach failures to be exploited in the framework of an operational procedure addressed to the seepage vulnerability assessment of river reaches where the levee system is an important structural measure against flooding. For its structure, INLED is a dynamic geospatial database with ongoing efforts to add levee data from authorities with the charge of hydraulic risk mitigation. In particular, the database is aimed to provide the available information about: i) location and condition of levees; ii) morphological and geometrical properties; iii) photographic documentation; iv) historical levee failures; v) assessment of vulnerability to overtopping and seepage carried out through a procedure based on simple vulnerability indexes (Camici et al. 2014); vi) management, control and maintenance; vii)flood hazard maps developed by assuming the levee system undamaged/damaged during the flood event. Currently, INLED contains data of levees that are mostly located in the Tiber basin, Central Italy. References Apel H., Merz B. & Thieken A.H. Quantification of uncertainties in flood risk assessments. Int J River Basin Manag 2008, 6, (2), 149-162. Camici S,, Barbetta S., Moramarco T., Levee body vulnerability to seepage: the case study of the levee failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 (central Italy)", Journal of Flood Risk Management, in press. Colleselli F. Geotechnical problems related to river and channel embankments. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: Springer, 1994. H. R.Wallingford Consultants (HRWC). Risk assessment for flood and coastal defence for strategic planning: high level methodology technical report, London, 2003. Mazzoleni M., Bacchi B., Barontini S., Di Baldassarre G., Pilotti M. & Ranzi R. Flooding hazard mapping in floodplain areas affected by piping breaches in the Po River, Italy. J Hydrol Eng 2014, 19, (4), 717-731.

  14. Assessing the ecological state and managing Armenia's farmlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Asmaryan, Shushanik; Muradyan, Vahagn; Tepanosyan, Garegin; Minasyan, Lilit

    2014-05-01

    The territory of the Republic of Armenia (RA) occupies an area 29.8 sq. km, the major part of which - 2077 hectares - falls on farmlands located at a height 400-3200m a.s.l. Such a variation in altitude complicates development of territories especially in the case they have an extensive character stemmed from the Soviet era: land plough-up on sites lying at a very steep angle of decline - >20 grade, unregulated grazing and so on. A long-term, unplanned and unregulated use of farmlands entailed intense washout of upper soil horizon, which subsequently provoked intense development of erosion and degradation of lands. A practicable solution to this problem is a scientifically and methodically grounded assessment of ecological state of farmlands and economically 'competent' planning and management of agricultural resources. With the view of developing animal husbandry and managing pastures/hayfields, in 2011-2012 the Government of the Republic of Armenia under support of the World Bank implemented a Farm Resources Management and Competitiveness Program. The goal of the Program is ceasing a trend to overgrazing and degradation of close-to-village sites, using remote pastures/hayfields in the best effective manner, improving feed production and animal feeding networks, and promoting a growth in animal feed production volumes. To achieve that, the following works were planned and implemented successfully in 23 rural communities of 6 marzes of the RA, which was done by 3 stages. In preparatory stage • Accessible web resources - programs and sites (Google Earth, www.landcocer.org) with a view of identifying information to support implementation of the planned activities, were explored and evaluated. • Cartographic material (topographic maps sc.1:10000, landscape maps, panchromatic and multi-spectral high- and medium - resolution satellite images /LANDSAT ETM, QuickBird/ and other thematic cartographic and archival material) required for subsequent treatment of

  15. A Green's function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clow, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    A knowledge of subsurface temperatures in sedimentary basins, fault zones, volcanic environments and polar ice sheets is of interest for a wide variety of geophysical applications. However, the process of drilling deep boreholes in these environments to provide access for temperature and other measurements invariably disturbs the temperature field around a newly created borehole. Although this disturbance dissipates over time, most temperature measurements are made while the temperature field is still disturbed. Thus, the measurements must be ‘corrected’ for the drilling-disturbance effect if the undisturbed temperature field is to be determined. This paper provides compact analytical solutions for the thermal drilling disturbance based on 1-D (radial) and 2-D (radial and depth) Green's functions (GFs) in cylindrical coordinates. Solutions are developed for three types of boundary conditions (BCs) at the borehole wall: (1) prescribed temperature, (2) prescribed heat flux and (3) a prescribed convective condition. The BC at the borehole wall is allowed to vary both with depth and time. Inclusion of the depth dimension in the 2-D solution allows vertical heat-transfer effects to be quantified in situations where they are potentially important, that is, near the earth's surface, at the bottom of a well and when considering finite-drilling rates. The 2-D solution also includes a radial- and time-dependent BC at the earth's surface to assess the impact of drilling-related infrastructure (drilling pads, mud pits, permanent shelters) on the subsurface temperature field. Latent-heat effects due to the melting and subsequent refreezing of interstitial ice while drilling a borehole through ice-rich permafrost can be included in the GF solution as a moving-plane heat source (or sink) located at the solid–liquid interface. Synthetic examples are provided illustrating the 1-D and 2-D GF solutions. The flexibility of the approach allows the investigation of thermal

  16. A Green's function approach for assessing the thermal disturbance caused by drilling deep boreholes in rock or ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clow, Gary D.

    2015-12-01

    A knowledge of subsurface temperatures in sedimentary basins, fault zones, volcanic environments and polar ice sheets is of interest for a wide variety of geophysical applications. However, the process of drilling deep boreholes in these environments to provide access for temperature and other measurements invariably disturbs the temperature field around a newly created borehole. Although this disturbance dissipates over time, most temperature measurements are made while the temperature field is still disturbed. Thus, the measurements must be `corrected' for the drilling-disturbance effect if the undisturbed temperature field is to be determined. This paper provides compact analytical solutions for the thermal drilling disturbance based on 1-D (radial) and 2-D (radial and depth) Green's functions (GFs) in cylindrical coordinates. Solutions are developed for three types of boundary conditions (BCs) at the borehole wall: (1) prescribed temperature, (2) prescribed heat flux and (3) a prescribed convective condition. The BC at the borehole wall is allowed to vary both with depth and time. Inclusion of the depth dimension in the 2-D solution allows vertical heat-transfer effects to be quantified in situations where they are potentially important, that is, near the earth's surface, at the bottom of a well and when considering finite-drilling rates. The 2-D solution also includes a radial- and time-dependent BC at the earth's surface to assess the impact of drilling-related infrastructure (drilling pads, mud pits, permanent shelters) on the subsurface temperature field. Latent-heat effects due to the melting and subsequent refreezing of interstitial ice while drilling a borehole through ice-rich permafrost can be included in the GF solution as a moving-plane heat source (or sink) located at the solid-liquid interface. Synthetic examples are provided illustrating the 1-D and 2-D GF solutions. The flexibility of the approach allows the investigation of thermal drilling

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Security Cost Model Functional Management Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tevis, J; Hirahara, J; Thomas, B; Mendez, M

    2008-06-12

    The scope of the Functional Management Assessment of the cost model included a review of the plan and progress of the Cost Model Review Team. The review focused on processes in place to ensure simplicity, compliance with cost accounting standards and indirect cost allocation methodology, and the change management plan. This was intended to be a high-level initial review in order to provide recommendations for a subsequent more comprehensive review. The single document reviewed by the team during the assessment was the Indirect Cost Recovery Model Review, which describes how the indirect rate restructure and new organizational structure have resulted in streamlined charging practices to better understand and strategically manage costs. ISSUE 1: The cost model focuses heavily on rate structure but not on cost management. Significant progress has been made to simplify the rate structure. The number of indirect rates has been reduced from 67 different indirect rates used under the prior contract to 32 rates in the first year of the LLNS contract, with a goal of further reduction to 16 for FY09. The reductions are being recommended by a broad-based Working Group driven by Lab leadership desiring a simplified rate structure that would make it easier to analyze the true cost of overhead, be viewed as equitable, and ensure appropriate use of Service, i.e., operations, Centers. This has been a real challenge due to the significant change in approach from one that previously involved a very complex rate structure. Under this prior approach, the goal was to manage the rates, and rates were established at very detailed levels that would 'shine the light' on pools of overhead costs. As long as rates stayed constant or declined, not as much attention tended to be given to them, particularly with so many pools to review (184 indirect rate pools in FY05). However, as difficult and important as simplifying the rate structure has been, the fundamental reason for the simplification

  18. Integrated pest management of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomato in North Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Green Stinkbug, Nezara viridula is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential for IPM of N. viridula. The experimental trap crops and refuge crops were, striped sunflower, WGF sorghum and brown ...

  19. Performance of Green Stormwater Management Practices at EPA’s Edison Environmental Center: Permeable Pavement and Bioretention

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the departmental Chemistry and Environmental Science weekly seminar series at NJIT in Newark, NJ, Rowe and Stander have been invited to conduct a joint presentation on UWMB’s green infrastructure research program, including the parking lot and rain garden studies. The...

  20. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation When Scaling-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevallos, Pedro F., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  1. Clinical results of a new high-phototherapeutic-efficiency blue-green lamp for the management of hyperbilirubinemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Gian Paolo; Pratesi, Simone; Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Pratesi, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    We report a preliminary study on the introduction of a new, blue-green fluorescent lamp with high phototherapeutic efficiency in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The lamp (New Lamp) has an emission spectrum, peaked at 490 nm and about 40 nm wide, that was not previously investigated in clinical trials. Our study demonstrates the significantly greater efficacy of the New Lamp in decreasing the bilirubin serum level, in comparison with the most commonly used blue fluorescent lamp. The rate of decline of bilirubin concentration with the New Lamp was twice that with Philips/BB light. The success of the blue-green PT is mainly due to the combined effects of the (1) increase from blue to green of the quantum yield for lumirubin, that is the bilirubin photoproduct rapidly excreted from the organism; (2) corresponding decrease of the configurational photoisomer, formed with high concentration but not excreted from the organism; (3) filtering effect of the skin, which attenuates more blue than green light. Our results represent the first significant improvement of phototherapy efficiency following the development and introduction of the special-blue lamp by Sisson in 1970. The phototherapy exposure time has now been reduced to less than 1-day in preterm infants, ensuring less stress to the infant and less interference with nursing care.

  2. A Case Study with Green Dot Public Schools on Managing the Tension between Fidelity and Adaptation when Scaling-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevallos, Pedro Felipe, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation was a single case study with Green Dot Public Schools (GDPS) describing their rapid scale-up process. Specifically, it investigates the phenomenon of the inherent tension between maintaining the fidelity of the original model school's design, culture and values with local adaptation of the brand by stakeholders at the expansion…

  3. Red Light-Green Light: A Classwide Management System for Students with Behavior Disorders in Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbetta, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    Red Light-Green Light is a levels system providing immediate behavior modification feedback and varying privilege levels throughout the school day for primary students with behavior disorders. This article presents guidelines for implementation, covering development of classroom rules, classroom expectations, and system maintenance. Tips for…

  4. A tool for assessing management capacity at the decentralized level in a fragile state.

    PubMed

    Newbrander, William; Peercy, Chavanne; Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Vergeer, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Fragile states need assessment of decentralized management capabilities, not just of the central level, to design capacity-building efforts focused on improving management. Improving the management capacity of health departments at the provincial or district level is just as critical as strengthening the central ministry in fragile states if a health system that effectively addresses the real health needs of the population is to be formed. This paper describes a management capacity assessment tool developed for use in fragile states. It uses a framework that describes six critical management areas: oversight and coordination; human resources; resource management; health financing; community involvement; and health information management. These core areas of health system management are assessed with regard to capacity in three core management functions: the capacity to plan, to implement, and to monitor and evaluate. The tool was applied to assess the management capacity of six counties in Liberia. The results helped differentiate the level of capacity of the different counties and clarify the actions required to strengthen the health system in the periphery. The assessment also allowed the prioritizing of county health offices with regard to the level of capacity building required to improve management. The tool also identified successes that can inform the design of future health programs in other county health offices. The tool can be applied to other challenging country situations to assess management capacity, which will help focus technical assistance to the health sector in fragile states.

  5. Scenario-visualization for the assessment of perceived green space qualities at the urban-rural fringe.

    PubMed

    Lange, Eckart; Hehl-Lange, Sigrid; Brewer, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    The provision of green space is increasingly being perceived as an important factor for quality of life. However, green spaces often face high developmental pressure. The main objective of this study is to investigate a prospective approach to green space planning by combining three-dimensional (3D) visualization of green space scenarios and survey techniques to facilitate improved participation of the public. Aside from the 'Status quo', scenarios 'Agriculture', 'Recreation', 'Nature conservation' and 'Wind turbines' are visualized in three dimensions. In order to test responses, a survey was conducted both in print format and on the Internet. Overall, 49 different visualizations that belong to one of the scenarios were available in the survey and were rated according to the perceived esthetic, recreational and ecological values. The highest rated scenes include vegetation elements such as meadows with orchards, single trees, shrubs or forest. The least attractive scenes are those where buildings are highly dominant or where there are no vegetation elements. Based on the ratings for the individual images and on the corresponding scenarios, our study shows that there is high potential for improving the existing landscape. All suggested changes are either rated about equal to or considerably higher than the status quo, with the scenario 'Nature conservation' receiving the highest scores. PMID:17766028

  6. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  7. THE MANAGEMENT OF TRANSFUSION SERVICES, ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Dzenana; Mujicic, Ermina; Coric, Jozo; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The hospital blood bank (HBB) need to timely provide adequate amounts of blood and blood products for surgeries. For various surgical programs are performed assessments of the average number of blood doses needed for surgery. By using two types of requisitions BT/AB (blood type/antibody) and BT/AB/MT (blood type/antibody/match test) for pretransfusion immunohaematological testing in General Hospital “Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas” is achieved more rational consumption of blood and blood derivatives and financial savings through reduced number of matching tests (MT). Goal: To determine the total amount of pre-operative requisitions (BT/AB and BT/AB/MT) for blood and blood products at surgical departments of the General Hospital “Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas” in the period from June 1, 2014 – December 31, 2014 and analyze the consumption/return of blood in reserve in relation to the surgical disciplines, the total number of savings in MT. Conduct assessments MSBOS (Maximum Surgical Blood Ordering Schedule). Results: The total amount of preoperative requisitions for blood and blood products in surgical wards was 927 requests from which 623 demands or 67.2% is tested by BT/MT, while 304 or 32.8% was tested by BT/AB/MT. Transfused in total was 617 units of blood and blood products, 275 units were not transfused. Probability of transfusions for surgery was 51.3, the highest in the case of surgical intensive care 70.4 and the lowest for the department of general surgery 37.2%. Assessment of indicators of efficient resource management indicates they are the best at the delivery ward 0.89, while a total for surgical wards is 0.69. In total for surgery on the average were required 2.1 units of blood. By using two types of requisitions for pretransfusion immunohaematological testing (BT/AB and CG/AB/MT) is achieved more rational use of MT. In 623 requests for BT/AB only 61 MT were performed. Average of blood units issued in accordance with these requirements is 0

  8. THE MANAGEMENT OF TRANSFUSION SERVICES, ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Begic, Dzenana; Mujicic, Ermina; Coric, Jozo; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The hospital blood bank (HBB) need to timely provide adequate amounts of blood and blood products for surgeries. For various surgical programs are performed assessments of the average number of blood doses needed for surgery. By using two types of requisitions BT/AB (blood type/antibody) and BT/AB/MT (blood type/antibody/match test) for pretransfusion immunohaematological testing in General Hospital “Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas” is achieved more rational consumption of blood and blood derivatives and financial savings through reduced number of matching tests (MT). Goal: To determine the total amount of pre-operative requisitions (BT/AB and BT/AB/MT) for blood and blood products at surgical departments of the General Hospital “Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas” in the period from June 1, 2014 – December 31, 2014 and analyze the consumption/return of blood in reserve in relation to the surgical disciplines, the total number of savings in MT. Conduct assessments MSBOS (Maximum Surgical Blood Ordering Schedule). Results: The total amount of preoperative requisitions for blood and blood products in surgical wards was 927 requests from which 623 demands or 67.2% is tested by BT/MT, while 304 or 32.8% was tested by BT/AB/MT. Transfused in total was 617 units of blood and blood products, 275 units were not transfused. Probability of transfusions for surgery was 51.3, the highest in the case of surgical intensive care 70.4 and the lowest for the department of general surgery 37.2%. Assessment of indicators of efficient resource management indicates they are the best at the delivery ward 0.89, while a total for surgical wards is 0.69. In total for surgery on the average were required 2.1 units of blood. By using two types of requisitions for pretransfusion immunohaematological testing (BT/AB and CG/AB/MT) is achieved more rational use of MT. In 623 requests for BT/AB only 61 MT were performed. Average of blood units issued in accordance with these requirements is 0

  9. Active Piezoelectric Structures for Tip Clearance Management Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Managing blade tip clearance in turbomachinery stages is critical to developing advanced subsonic propulsion systems. Active casing structures with embedded piezoelectric actuators appear to be a promising solution. They can control static and dynamic tip clearance, compensate for uneven deflections, and accomplish electromechanical coupling at the material level. In addition, they have a compact design. To assess the feasibility of this concept and assist the development of these novel structures, the NASA Lewis Research Center developed in-house computational capabilities for composite structures with piezoelectric actuators and sensors, and subsequently used them to simulate candidate active casing structures. The simulations indicated the potential of active casings to modify the blade tip clearance enough to improve stage efficiency. They also provided valuable design information, such as preliminary actuator configurations (number and location) and the corresponding voltage patterns required to compensate for uneven casing deformations. An active ovalization of a casing with four discrete piezoceramic actuators attached on the outer surface is shown. The center figure shows the predicted radial displacements along the hoop direction that are induced when electrostatic voltage is applied at the piezoceramic actuators. This work, which has demonstrated the capabilities of in-house computational models to analyze and design active casing structures, is expected to contribute toward the development of advanced subsonic engines.

  10. Assessing a Research Training Course for Wheat Crop Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, R. T.; Bell, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Methods, materials, analysis, and results of an assessment of the course are presented. The methods, application, and validity of the assessment and its use in assessing curriculum content and documenting changes are discussed. (CW)

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Security CFO Processes Functional Management Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, A; Sampson, D; Thomas, B; Mendez, M

    2008-06-12

    The scope of the Functional Management Assessment of the CFO included a review of the CFO Organizational Structure, including deployed financial services and the division of responsibilities and internal controls between CFO and other organizations that perform financial functions across the Laboratory. In addition, the assessment team solicited input from end users and reviewers. Three issues discussed are: ISSUE 1: Financial activities and cash transactions are occurring outside the CFO organization. Approximately $200M of non-purchase order spending occurs in seven areas outside CFO control (travel, relocation, special disbursements, IPO, legal, risk management, and freight). NIF financial services have not been integrated into the CFO organization and operate outside CFO control. Business risks--There is no single point of financial accountably; Currently within the CFO and Business and Operations organizations there is a lack of clarity of roles and responsibilities for financial activities; Financial talent within the laboratory is fragmented; and Inefficiencies exist based on the current structure; An example of the above business risks associated with organizational structure can be observed in the process for reimbursement of relocation costs to employees. Currently, Human Resources and Travel both administer portions of an employee's relocation. Costs are reviewed for compliance with FAR travel guidelines and for compliance with the offer letter but there is no financial review for allowability of costs nor is there a single point where the total relocation costs are reviewed. Through the e-pay system the check is processed by the CFO organization but there is no review by that organization. ISSUE 2: Impact of involuntary separation on current and future activities. 3 risks are: (1) Loss of internal controls--with the upcoming involuntary reductions there will be a loss of personnel with institutional knowledge which will increase the risk of losing

  12. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT (AGWA): A GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ASSESSMENT AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assessment of land use and land cover is an extremely important activity for contemporary land management. A large body of current literature suggests that human land-use practice is the most important factor influencing natural resource management and environmental condition...

  13. Progress Report: Stratton Ecological Research Site - An Experimental Approach to Assess Effects of Various Grazing Treatments on Vegetation and Wildlife Communities Across Managed Burns and Habitat Controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Heidi J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how management practices affect wildlife is fundamental to wise decisions for conservation of public lands. Prescribed fire and grazing timing are two management tools frequently used within publicly owned sagebrush ecosystems. We conducted a variety of surveys in order to assess the impacts of grazing timing strategies (early summer before peak green-up, mid-summer at peak green-up, and late summer after peak green-up) in conjunction with prescribed fire on avian and small mammal populations in a high-elevation sagebrush ecosystem. Avian surveys resulted in a large detection sample size for three bird species: Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri), horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), and vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus). Brewer's sparrows had the lowest number of detections within the mid-summer grazing treatment compared to early and late summer grazing treatments, while horned larks and vesper sparrows had higher detection frequencies within the late summer grazing treatment. Summer and fall sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) pellet counts revealed that the greatest over-winter and over-summer use by sage-grouse occurred within the early summer grazing treatment with minimal use of burn treatment areas across all grazing treatments. Deer-mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) represented approximately 90 percent of small mammals captured and were most prevalent within the mid-summer grazing treatment. Sagebrush cover was greatest within the mid-summer grazing treatment. We monitored 50 and 103 nests in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The apparent success rate for shrub-obligate nesting species was 58 percent in 2007 and 63 percent in 2008. This research will support management of sagebrush ecosystems by providing public land managers with direct comparisons of wildlife response to management regimes.

  14. Conceptual modeling for adaptive environmental assessment and management in the Barycz Valley, lower Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-08-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments ("hard path") as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This "soft path" requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between "experts" and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs "Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment". The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and "green" local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region's sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more

  15. Competency Assessment and Human Resource Management of County Extension Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, James R.

    The purpose of this descriptive and correlational study was to examine perceptions of Ohio State University Extension county chairs regarding their human resource management competencies and performance of human resource management activities. The study also sought to describe the relationship between human resource management competencies and…

  16. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  17. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  18. Assessment and Management of Aging in Phenix Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dumarcher, V.; Bourrier, J.L.; Chaucheprat, P.; Boulegue, D.

    2006-07-01

    The combination of one or several processes of ruins can involve the materials failure of a nuclear power plant. These processes arise from the external agents action such as the pressure, the mechanical efforts, the heat flows and the radiations constitute the whole of the 'actions' of the surrounding medium. The prolongation and the repetition of these effects can involve a deterioration of the machine. In accordance with the decree of February 26, 1974, the PWR operator must be firstly, sure that the system is controlled according to the situations considered in the file of dimensioning and secondly, be able to know anytime the life of the equipment. The physical phenomena which cause the structures ruin are less complex in the PWR than in the SFR. In the SFR, the high temperatures imposed on components for long periods can involve a significant creep. In the course of time, this deformations accelerate the release of fatigue cracks. To consider the creep, the reactor lifespan is correlated at the numbers of thermals transients envisaged initially. To realize the management of aging in Phenix power plant, it is necessary to carry out an individualized monitoring of the structures and not only on the vessel. We must ensure the good state and/or the correct operation of the significant stations for safety which are the control of the reactivity, the movement of control rods, the primary sodium containment and the decay heat removal. For that, we monitor the main vessel, the conical skirt, the IHX and the Core Cover Plug. A profound knowledge of the thermal transients of the past is necessary to carry out an effective assessment. In order to guarantee that any harmful situation is well taken into the management of aging, we monitor permanently certain measurements (primary and secondary pump speed, hot and cold pool temperatures, IHX-main vessel and reactor roof temperatures). We present in the article the scientific method used in the Physics Section. A logical

  19. The Legal Side of Campus Threat Assessment and Management: What Student Counselors Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Jeffrey J.; Moncure, Thomas M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies what student mental health professionals need to know about legal issues of relevance to threat assessment and management. The article summarizes the common law duties and the common law and statutory standards of care that are likely to apply to the work of college and university threat assessment and management teams. The…

  20. Psychometric evaluation of a new assessment of the ability to manage technology in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Malinowsky, Camilla; Nygård, Louise; Kottorp, Anders

    2011-03-01

    Technology increasingly influences the everyday lives of most people, and the ability to manage technology can be seen as a prerequisite for participation in everyday occupations. However, knowledge of the ability and skills required for management of technology is sparse. This study aimed to validate a new observation-based assessment, the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The META has been developed to assess the ability to manage technology in everyday life. A sample of 116 older adults with and without cognitive impairment were observed and interviewed by the use of the META when managing their everyday technology at home. The results indicate that the META demonstrates acceptable person response validity and technology goodness-of-fit. Additionally, the META can separate individuals with higher ability from individuals with lower ability to manage everyday technology. The META can be seen as a complement to existing ADL assessment techniques and is planned to be used in both research and practice.

  1. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  2. 78 FR 52964 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Management Assessment Program (SEMAP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Management Assessment... of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The... Officer, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503; fax:...

  3. 76 FR 20366 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... receivable. The interim Management Operations Scoring Notice was published on February 23, 2011 (76 FR 10050... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring... request for public comments on the Management Operations interim scoring notice. The...

  4. 75 FR 43197 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Asset Management Transition Year 2 Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... issue a new overall PHAS score. Further, PHAs were not required to submit their management operations..., management operations, and resident assessment indicators. C. Transition Year 2 Extension This notice... applies to this extension notice. Management Operations Indicator. PHAs will be required to submit...

  5. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  6. Analytical Eco-Scale for Assessing the Greenness of a Developed RP-HPLC Method Used for Simultaneous Analysis of Combined Antihypertensive Medications.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Heba M; Lamie, Nesrine T

    2016-09-01

    In the past few decades the analytical community has been focused on eliminating or reducing the usage of hazardous chemicals and solvents, in different analytical methodologies, that have been ascertained to be extremely dangerous to human health and environment. In this context, environmentally friendly, green, or clean practices have been implemented in different research areas. This study presents a greener alternative of conventional RP-HPLC methods for the simultaneous determination and quantitative analysis of a pharmaceutical ternary mixture composed of telmisartan, hydrochlorothiazide, and amlodipine besylate, using an ecofriendly mobile phase and short run time with the least amount of waste production. This solvent-replacement approach was feasible without compromising method performance criteria, such as separation efficiency, peak symmetry, and chromatographic retention. The greenness profile of the proposed method was assessed and compared with reported conventional methods using the analytical Eco-Scale as an assessment tool. The proposed method was found to be greener in terms of usage of hazardous chemicals and solvents, energy consumption, and production of waste. The proposed method can be safely used for the routine analysis of the studied pharmaceutical ternary mixture with a minimal detrimental impact on human health and the environment. PMID:27492952

  7. Recent Assessment of Groundwater Conditions and Management in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of California Water Plan Update, a comprehensive set of data, information, and analysis is developed to help local and regional groundwater managers, as well as individual well owners, better understand California's hidden and commonly misunderstood resource. The State's groundwater basins, aquifers, and well infrastructure are characterized through compilation and analysis of readily-available groundwater information. Data and analysis related to groundwater monitoring efforts, aquifer conditions in response to extraction, groundwater management practices, and conjunctive management programs are included. Findings, data gaps, and recommendations to improve groundwater management on a statewide and regional basis are presented. The work expands and enhances baseline groundwater information on a regional scale, identifies challenges associated with sustainable groundwater management, and helps guide implementation of diverse resource management strategies.

  8. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  9. [Management effectiveness of China nature reserves: status quo assessment and countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Quan, Jia; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Xu, Wei-Hua; Miao, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Based on the questionnaire of World Bank/World Wide Fund for Nature (WB/WWF) management effectiveness tracking tool, a survey was conducted in 535 China nature reserves to assess their management effectiveness, with the countermeasures suggested. The 535 nature reserves had an average score of 51.95, and 69.35% of them had a score less than 60, illustrating that the general management level of our nature reserves was relatively low. There was a significant difference (P < 0.01) in the scores of management effectiveness among the nature reserves of different class and established at different time, i. e., the higher class and the longer establishing time, the higher score of management effectiveness. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the scores among the reserves with different area and type. The average scores of management base, management mechanism, management behavior, and management effectiveness were 1.55, 1.44, 1.52, and 1.90, respectively. The indices (management of protection targets, condition assessment, reserve boundary, resource management, and management agency) had the highest average scores, while equipment use and maintenance, community co-management, budget sources, budget expending and management, and management system and regulations had the lowest ones. The management system for China nature reserves had been generally established, the major targets and their values had been successfully protected, but there were still many problems in the management of China nature reserves, such as management mechanism and management base construction. To improve the management effectiveness, some countermeasures should be taken, e. g., establishing rational distribution and management mechanisms of budgets, strengthening ability construction, and promoting community participation.

  10. Assessment in Management, Nursing, and Teaching at Alverno College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loacker, Georgine

    Alverno College (Wisconsin) defines a curriculum in which all students demonstrate certain major abilities within their disciplines or professional areas, and it assesses those abilities as its primary graduation requirements. The college-wide assessment center has enabled assessment of complex abilities not easily tested through a single course.…

  11. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  12. The Greening Role of Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  13. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem. PMID:26253501

  14. Assessing Risk Management: How Effective Is Your Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries may occur more often in physical education due to the nature of the activities taught. Because of this, the issue of negligence is an important concern. Risk management is one method physical educators use to decrease the occurrence of injuries and negligence. The purpose of this article is to introduce a Risk Management Inventory that…

  15. Management by Objectives: Authentic Assessment in a Public Relations Practicum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fall, Lisa T.

    Incorporation of management principles in the classroom can motivate students to successfully complete project work. The Communication Arts Department at Georgia Southern University developed a Public Relations Event Management course in which the students were responsible for planning a campus-wide special event to raise funds for two clients.…

  16. Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

  17. Assessment of Student Memo Assignments in Management Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julie Ann Stuart; Stanny, Claudia J.; Reid, Randall C.; Hill, Christopher J.; Rosa, Katie Martin

    2015-01-01

    Frequently in Management Science courses, instructors focus primarily on teaching students the mathematics of linear programming models. However, the ability to discuss mathematical expressions in business terms is an important professional skill. The authors present an analysis of student abilities to discuss management science concepts through…

  18. Remote Sensing of Soils for Environmental Assessment and Management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGloria, Stephen D.; Irons, James R.; West, Larry T.

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of imaging systems integrated with complex analytical methods will revolutionize the way we inventory and manage soil resources across a wide range of scientific disciplines and application domains. This special issue highlights those systems and methods for the direct benefit of environmental professionals and students who employ imaging and geospatial information for improved understanding, management, and monitoring of soil resources.

  19. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed approaches to water quality management have become popular, because they can address multiple point and non-point sources and the influences of land use. Developing technically-sound watershed management strategies can be challenging due to the need to 1) account for mu...

  20. Review of Teaching Performance Assessments for Use in Human Capital Management. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony T.; Heneman, Herbert G., III; Kimball, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    The major goal of this study is to review the current state of the art in teaching assessment by examining a sample of assessment systems, then to develop a "specification" for a state-of the art performance assessment system to be used for human capital management (HCM) functions. This specification could be a stimulus and guidepost for working…