Padman, Rema; Jaladi, Sravani; Kim, Sean; Kumar, Saumitra; Orbeta, Philip; Rudolph, Kate; Tran, Tony
According to WHO, pediatric diabetes is a rising global public health problem, with increasing impact on developing nations. This study summarizes a multidimensional, scalable pilot evaluation of a diabetes self-management platform combining mobile technology with social networking to capture four key metrics of Type 1 diabetes self-management, associated social interactions, and gaming features providing targeted feedback to 8 pediatric users. Based on their 2-month interaction with the application, we analyze click-stream data from social interactions, key health metrics, text comments, and usability and satisfaction surveys to evaluate engagement with the platform and effectiveness in controlling blood glucose using a product-process-program framework. Our preliminary results indicate that this framework was successful in demonstrating the potential of the mobile health platform to effectively leverage the growing use of mobile applications and social media to present a unique benefit that engaged pediatric users and provided useful insights for self-health management.
Tajiri, Kazuko; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Aonuma, Kazutaka
A growing body of evidence has been accumulating to demonstrate that human myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy involve a complex interaction with autoimmunity triggered by cardiotropic microbial infections. Animal experiments have provided direct evidence that infections with a particular microbe can incite autoimmune myocarditis, and this autoimmune response can be mimicked by immunization with the cardiac autoantigen, α- myosin. Animal models greatly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of myocarditis, and various novel therapeutic strategies have been reported during the last two decades. In this review we present animal models of autoimmune myocarditis and describe the outlook of possible drug targets by showing the latest findings from animal studies.
Tringali, C.; Re, V.; Siciliano, G.; Chkir, N.; Tuci, C.; Zouari, K.
Sustainable groundwater management strategies in water-scarce countries need to guide future decision-making processes pragmatically, by simultaneously considering local needs, environmental problems and economic development. The socio-hydrogeological approach named `Bir Al-Nas' has been tested in the Grombalia region (Cap Bon Peninsula, Tunisia), to evaluate the effectiveness of complementing hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological investigations with the social dimension of the issue at stake (which, in this case, is the identification of groundwater pollution sources). Within this approach, the social appraisal, performed through social network analysis and public engagement of water end-users, allowed hydrogeologists to get acquainted with the institutional dimension of local groundwater management, identifying issues, potential gaps (such as weak knowledge transfer among concerned stakeholders), and the key actors likely to support the implementation of the new science-based management practices resulting from the ongoing hydrogeological investigation. Results, hence, go beyond the specific relevance for the Grombaila basin, showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the importance of including social assessment in any given hydrogeological research aimed at supporting local development through groundwater protection measures.
Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Chawarska, Kasia; Constantino, John; Dawson, Geraldine; Dobkins, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Iverson, Jana; Klin, Ami; Landa, Rebecca; Messinger, Daniel; Ozonoff, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Stone, Wendy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Yirmiya, Nurit
With increased public awareness of the early signs and recent American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations that all 18- and 24-month-olds be screened for autism spectrum disorders, there is an increasing need for diagnostic assessment of very young children. However, unique challenges exist in applying current diagnostic guidelines for autism spectrum disorders to children under the age of 2 years. In this article, we address challenges related to early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders in this age group. We provide a comprehensive review of findings from recent studies on the early development of children with autism spectrum disorders, summarizing current knowledge on early signs of autism spectrum disorders, the screening properties of early detection tools, and current best practice for diagnostic assessment of autism spectrum disorders before 2 years of age. We also outline principles of effective intervention for children under the age of 2 with suspected/confirmed autism spectrum disorders. It is hoped that ongoing studies will provide an even stronger foundation for evidence-based diagnostic and intervention approaches for this critically important age group.
Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Chawarska, Kasia; Constantino, John; Dawson, Geraldine; Dobkins, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Iverson, Jana; Klin, Ami; Landa, Rebecca; Messinger, Daniel; Ozonoff, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Stone, Wendy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Yirmiya, Nurit
With increased public awareness of the early signs and recent American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations that all 18- and 24-month-olds be screened for autism spectrum disorders, there is an increasing need for diagnostic assessment of very young children. However, unique challenges exist in applying current diagnostic guidelines for autism spectrum disorders to children under the age of 2 years. In this article, we address challenges related to early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders in this age group. We provide a comprehensive review of findings from recent studies on the early development of children with autism spectrum disorders, summarizing current knowledge on early signs of autism spectrum disorders, the screening properties of early detection tools, and current best practice for diagnostic assessment of autism spectrum disorders before 2 years of age. We also outline principles of effective intervention for children under the age of 2 with suspected/confirmed autism spectrum disorders. It is hoped that ongoing studies will provide an even stronger foundation for evidence-based diagnostic and intervention approaches for this critically important age group. PMID:19403506
Sahoo, Satya S; Ramesh, Priya; Welter, Elisabeth; Bukach, Ashley; Valdez, Joshua; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bamps, Yvan; Stoll, Shelley; Jobst, Barbara C; Sajatovic, Martha
We present Insight as an integrated database and analysis platform for epilepsy self-management research as part of the national Managing Epilepsy Well Network. Insight is the only available informatics platform for accessing and analyzing integrated data from multiple epilepsy self-management research studies with several new data management features and user-friendly functionalities. The features of Insight include, (1) use of Common Data Elements defined by members of the research community and an epilepsy domain ontology for data integration and querying, (2) visualization tools to support real time exploration of data distribution across research studies, and (3) an interactive visual query interface for provenance-enabled research cohort identification. The Insight platform contains data from five completed epilepsy self-management research studies covering various categories of data, including depression, quality of life, seizure frequency, and socioeconomic information. The data represents over 400 participants with 7552 data points. The Insight data exploration and cohort identification query interface has been developed using Ruby on Rails Web technology and open source Web Ontology Language Application Programming Interface to support ontology-based reasoning. We have developed an efficient ontology management module that automatically updates the ontology mappings each time a new version of the Epilepsy and Seizure Ontology is released. The Insight platform features a Role-based Access Control module to authenticate and effectively manage user access to different research studies. User access to Insight is managed by the Managing Epilepsy Well Network database steering committee consisting of representatives of all current collaborating centers of the Managing Epilepsy Well Network. New research studies are being continuously added to the Insight database and the size as well as the unique coverage of the dataset allows investigators to conduct
Rubin, Jay J
At least 40 to 60 percent of women and at least 20 percent of men with chronic pain disorders report a history of being abused during childhood and/or adulthood. This incidence of abuse is two to four times higher than in the general population. Patients with more severe or frequent abuse, usually during childhood and worse if sexual in nature. often develop specific syndromes or combinations of syndromes. These syndromes include posttraumatic stress disorder, fibromyalgia, and other conditions characterized by repression, somatization, and increased utilization of medical care. Psychosomatic symptoms and dysfunctional behaviors may emerge as these patients seek attention and validation of their suffering, while paradoxically repressing painful memories of trauma. Behavioral observations and key features of the physical examination may greatly help the clinician identify both the presence and severity of psychosomatic disease. In addition, it is very interesting that various studies document physiologic changes in the brains of patients with a history of abuse and in patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. These studies suggest that abuse may physiologically and developmentally increase a person's susceptibility to pain and that some organic changes may be associated with psychogenic disease. Diagnosis and treatment of even the most challenging patients with chronic pain is much more effective if it includes (a) careful inquiry about any history of past or present abuse or other severe trauma, (b) empathy and constructive validation of disease and suffering, (c) recognition of dysfunctional pain behaviors and personality traits, (d) documentation of nonanatomic as well as anatomic features on examination, (e) multidisciplinary treatments including psychotherapy whenever indicated, and (f) noninvasive procedures and alternatives to potentially habit-forming medications whenever possible and appropriate. Furthermore, it has been shown that helping patients gain
Langan, K L; Farrell, M E; Keyser, E A; Salyer, B A; Burney, R O
Endometriosis is a debilitating gynecologic disorder causing pelvic pain and infertility and characterized by the implantation of endometrial tissue to extrauterine locations. Though aspects of the condition remain enigmatic, the molecular pathophysiology of endometriosis appears to be clarifying. Estrogen dependence of the disease is a sentinel endocrine feature and reduction of estrogen bioavailability is the therapeutic principle upon which traditional treatment and prevention approaches have been based. Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory condition associated with lesional neoangiogenesis and attenuated progesterone action at the level of the endometrium. The elucidation of the molecular pathways mediating these observations has revealed new targets for directed medical and surgical treatment. This paper will review current approaches to the management of endometriosis in the context of the molecular pathophysiology.
Lund, J. R.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Howitt, R. E.; MacEwan, D.; Sumner, D. A.
Droughts stress water systems and provide important opportunities to learn about vulnerabilities and motivate improvements in water systems. Current and past droughts in California show that this highly-engineered system is highly robust and resilient to droughts, as agriculture and urban water needs are mostly fulfilled and recover quickly following drought. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper reviews the impacts of California's ongoing 4-year drought and its importance for better understanding its ecological and water supply systems, as well as motivating improvements in water management and scientific work.
Yahr, Michael A.
Global managers of the l990s and beyond must have definitive impacts on their work environments. Among the skills they need to possess are the abilities to adapt to new and fast-changing situations and to interact with people who view the business world from varied perspectives. A humanities/management partnership offers a viable and effective…
Taylor, David L
The personal leadership of the perioperative director is a critical factor in the success of any change management initiative. This article presents an approach to perioperative nursing leadership that addresses obstacles that prevent surgical departments from achieving high performance in clinical and financial outcomes. This leadership approach consists of specific insights, priorities, and tools: key insights include self-understanding of personal barriers to leadership and accuracy at understanding economic and strategic considerations related to the OR environment; key priorities include creating a customer-centered organization, focusing on process improvement, and concentrating on culture change; and key tools include using techniques (e.g., direct engagement, collaborative leadership) to align surgical organizations with leadership priorities and mitigate specific perioperative management risks. Included in this article is a leadership development plan for perioperative directors.
Feldman, Keith; Stiglic, Gregor; Dasgupta, Dipanwita; Kricheff, Mark; Obradovic, Zoran; Chawla, Nitesh V.
The increasing availability of electronic health care records has provided remarkable progress in the field of population health. In particular the identification of disease risk factors has flourished under the surge of available data. Researchers can now access patient data across a broad range of demographics and geographic locations. Utilizing this Big healthcare data researchers have been able to empirically identify specific high-risk conditions found within differing populations. However to date the majority of studies approached the issue from the top down, focusing on the prevalence of specific diseases within a population. Through our work we demonstrate the power of addressing this issue bottom-up by identifying specifically which diseases are higher-risk for a specific population. In this work we demonstrate that network-based analysis can present a foundation to identify pairs of diagnoses that differentiate across population segments. We provide a case study highlighting differences between high and low income individuals in the United States. This work is particularly valuable when addressing population health management within resource-constrained environments such as community health programs where it can be used to provide insight and resource planning into targeted care for the population served. PMID:27461860
Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay
Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.
Björk, Joar; Petersson, Christer
In the spring of 2013, the Swedish journalist Maciej Zaremba wrote a series of articles criticizing the impact of NPM (New Public Management) on Swedish health care. The present study examines the views of experienced Swedish physicians (general practitioners and internal medicine speclialists) on the problems focused in Mr Zaremba's article series. The respondents (51 general practitioners and 61 internal medicine specialists) mention advantages as well as disadvantages with NPM in Swedish health care. The majority agrees that with NPM, physicians loose influence over health care governance to other professional groups. The majority disagree with the charge made by Mr Zaremba that NPM has had the effect of manipulating Swedish physicians away from the standards of good medical care.
Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J
Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe.
Senn, Hans M.
The halogenases are a group of enzymes that have only come to the fore over the last 10 years thanks to the discovery and characterization of several novel representatives. They have revealed the fascinating variety of distinct chemical mechanisms that nature utilizes to activate halogens and introduce them into organic substrates. Computational studies using a range of approaches have already elucidated many details of the mechanisms of these enzymes, often in synergistic combination with experiment. This Review summarizes the main insights gained from these studies. It also seeks to identify open questions that are amenable to computational investigations. The studies discussed herein serve to illustrate some of the limitations of the current computational approaches and the challenges encountered in computational mechanistic enzymology. PMID:25426489
Caniels, Marjolein C. J.; Romijn, Henny A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the study of supply chain design from the perspective of complex dynamic systems. Unlike extant studies that use formal simulation modelling and associated methodologies rooted in the physical sciences, it adopts a framework rooted in the social sciences, strategic niche management, which…
Richardson, Bryan T.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Cook, Benjamin Koger
This report summarizes research on a holistic analysis framework to assess and manage risks in complex infrastructures, with a specific focus on the bulk electric power grid (grid). A comprehensive model of the grid is described that can approximate the coupled dynamics of its physical, control, and market components. New realism is achieved in a power simulator extended to include relevant control features such as relays. The simulator was applied to understand failure mechanisms in the grid. Results suggest that the implementation of simple controls might significantly alter the distribution of cascade failures in power systems. The absence of cascade failures in our results raises questions about the underlying failure mechanisms responsible for widespread outages, and specifically whether these outages are due to a system effect or large-scale component degradation. Finally, a new agent-based market model for bilateral trades in the short-term bulk power market is presented and compared against industry observations.
Valyrakis, Manousos; Liu, Da
In the context of increasing magnitude and frequency of extreme hydrologic events, eco-hydraulic engineers have a dual role of providing novel designs that both help stabilise river systems, as well as help effectively route floodwater safely downstream, though the catchment. One of such soft and green measures commonly used in engineering to protect channel banks and floodplains, is riverbank vegetation. Riverbank vegetation can be of high importance both in preserving the form (morphology) and function (ecology) of our natural as well as engineered river systems. Here the results of an experimental flume study, investigating riverbank hydrodynamics are presented. The effect of different riverbank vegetation densities on flow hydrodynamics across the channel are reported and discussed. Flow diagnostics including mean and turbulent intensity flow profiles along the streamwise and lateral directions, are being assessed via acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) both at the main channel and within the riverbank. The configuration of vegetation elements follows a linear or staggered arrangement as vegetation density is progressively increased. Implications for sediment transport are discussed by considering the change in near-bed shear stresses at the main channel (increasing) and riverbank (decreasing) as the riverbank density increases. As such processes have the potential to affect both the form and function of the river system, the insights from this study are of significant importance to geomorphologists and hydraulic engineers, as well as ecologists.
Seetoh, Theresa; Cutter, Jeffery
Field epidemiology involves the implementation of quick and targeted public health interventions with the aid of epidemiological methods. In this article, we share our practical experiences in outbreak management and in safeguarding the population against novel diseases. Given that cities represent the financial nexuses of the global economy, global health security necessitates the safeguard of cities against epidemic diseases. Singapore's public health landscape has undergone a systemic and irreversible shift with global connectivity, rapid urbanization, ecological change, increased affluence, as well as shifting demographic patterns over the past two decades. Concomitantly, the threat of epidemics, ranging from severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza A (H1N1) to the resurgence of vector-borne diseases as well as the rise of modern lifestyle-related outbreaks, have worsened difficulties in safeguarding public health amidst much elusiveness and unpredictability. One critical factor that has helped the country overcome these innate and man-made public health vulnerabilities is the development of a resilient field epidemiology service, which includes our enhancement of surveillance and response capacities for outbreak management, and investment in public health leadership. We offer herein the Singapore story as a case study in meeting the challenges of disease control in our modern built environment. PMID:23091652
Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri
Constipation in children is a common health problem affecting 0.7% to 29.6% children across the world. Exact etiology for developing symptoms is not clear in children and the majority is considered to have functional constipation. Alteration of rectal and pelvic floor function through the brain-gut axis seems to play a crucial role in the etiology. The diagnosis is often a symptom-based clinical process. Recently developed Rome III diagnostic criteria looks promising, both in clinical and research fields. Laboratory investigations such as barium enema, colonoscopy, anorectal manometry and colonic transit studies are rarely indicated except in those who do not respond to standard management. Treatment of childhood constipation involves several facets including education and demystification, toilet training, rational use of laxatives for disimpaction and maintenance and regular follow-up. Surgical options should be considered only when medical therapy fails in long standing constipation. Since most of the management strategies of childhood constipation are not evidence-based, high-quality randomized controlled trials are required to assess the efficacy of currently available or newly emerging therapeutic options. Contrary to the common belief that children outgrow constipation as they grow up, a sizable percentage continue to have symptoms beyond puberty. PMID:21369490
Fügener, Andreas; Schiffels, Sebastian; Kolisch, Rainer
The planning of surgery durations is crucial for efficient usage of operating theaters. Both planning too long and too short durations for surgeries lead to undesirable consequences, e.g. idle time, overtime, or rescheduling of surgeries. We define these consequences as operating room inefficiency. The overall objective of planning surgery durations is to minimize expected operating room inefficiency, since surgery durations are stochastic. While most health care studies assume economically rational behavior of decision makers, experimental studies have shown that decision makers often do not act according to economic incentives. Based on insights from health care operations management, medical decision making, behavioral operations management, as well as empirical observations, we derive hypotheses that surgeons' behavior deviates from economically rational behavior. To investigate this, we undertake an experimental study where experienced surgeons are asked to plan surgeries with uncertain durations. We discover systematic deviations from optimal decision making and offer behavioral explanations for the observed biases. Our research provides new insights to tackle a major problem in hospitals, i.e. low operating room utilization going along with staff overtime.
The author's experience with a Nunavut business management education program illustrates how to develop culturally relevant organizational behavior curriculum. The process initially involved interviews with Inuit Elders about culturally appropriate responses to scenarios of cultural conflicts in the workplace identified by Inuit managers. The…
Verleger, Rolf; Rose, Michael; Wagner, Ullrich; Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil
In recent years, vibrant research has developed on "consolidation" during sleep: To what extent are newly experienced impressions reprocessed or even restructured during sleep? We used the number reduction task (NRT) to study if and how sleep does not only reiterate new experiences but may even lead to new insights. In the NRT, covert regularities may speed responses. This implicit acquisition of regularities may become explicitly conscious at some point, leading to a qualitative change in behavior which reflects this insight. By applying the NRT at two consecutive sessions separated by an interval, we investigated the role of sleep in this interval for attaining insight at the second session. In the first study, a night of sleep was shown to triple the number of participants attaining insight above the base rate of about 20%. In the second study, this hard core of 20% discoverers differed from other participants in their task-related EEG potentials from the very beginning already. In the third study, the additional role of sleep was specified as an effect of the deep-sleep phase of slow-wave sleep on participants who had implicitly acquired the covert regularity before sleep. It was in these participants that a specific increase of EEG during slow-wave sleep in the 10-12 Hz band was obtained. These results support the view that neuronal memory reprocessing during slow-wave sleep restructures task-related representations in the brain, and that such restructuring promotes the gain of explicit knowledge.
Alshikho, Mohamad J.; Talas, Joud M.; Noureldine, Salem I.; Zazou, Saf; Addas, Aladdin; Kurabi, Haitham; Nasser, Mahmoud
investigations showed that the patient had IL. Suitable diet modification plans were applied as a long-term management plan. Conclusions: IL is a rare disease of challenging nature due to its systematic effects and lack of comprehensive studies that can evaluate the effectiveness of specific treatments in a large cohort of patients. Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oils and diet modification strategies are effective in reducing the loss of body proteins and in maintaining near-normal blood levels of immunoglobulins. However, octreotide and MCT oils had no proven role in reducing lymphedema in our patient. PMID:27440277
Alshikho, Mohamad J; Talas, Joud M; Noureldine, Salem I; Zazou, Saf; Addas, Aladdin; Kurabi, Haitham; Nasser, Mahmoud
BACKGROUND Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by a dilatation of the intestinal lymphatics and loss of lymph fluid into the gastrointestinal tract leading to hypoproteinemia, edema, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobinemia, and immunological abnormalities. Iron, calcium, and other serum components (e.g., lipids, fat soluble vitamins) may also be depleted. A literature search revealed more than 200 reported cases of IL. Herein, we report our observations of a patient diagnosed with IL; we also present our conclusion for our review of the published literature. CASE REPORT A 24-year-old male was admitted to Aleppo University Hospital with the complaints of abdominal pain, headache, arthralgia, fever, and rigors. His past medical history was remarkable for frequent episodes of diarrhea, recurrent infections, and swelling in the lower limbs. In addition, he had been hospitalized several times in non-academic hospitals due to edema in his legs, cellulitis, and recurrent infections. In the emergency department, a physical examination revealed a patient in distress. He was weak, dehydrated, pale, and had a high-grade fever. His lower extremities were edematous, swollen, and extremely tender to touch. The overlying skin was erythematous and warm. Moreover, the patient was tachycardic, tacypneic, and moderately hypotensive. The patient was resuscitated with IV fluids, and Tylenol was administered to bring the temperature down. Blood tests showed anemia and high levels of inflammatory markers. The patient's white blood cell count was elevated with an obvious left shift. However, subsequent investigations showed that the patient had IL. Suitable diet modification plans were applied as a long-term management plan. CONCLUSIONS IL is a rare disease of challenging nature due to its systematic effects and lack of comprehensive studies that can evaluate the effectiveness of specific treatments in a large cohort of patients. MCT (medium-chain triglyceride
Costa, Michel I da Silveira; Faria, Lucas Del B
An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical complexities inherent to the application of biocontrol only. In addition, pesticide toxicity depends rather on the species intrinsic parameters than on the chemical agent concentration.
Verleger, Rolf; Rose, Michael; Wagner, Ullrich; Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil
In recent years, vibrant research has developed on “consolidation” during sleep: To what extent are newly experienced impressions reprocessed or even restructured during sleep? We used the number reduction task (NRT) to study if and how sleep does not only reiterate new experiences but may even lead to new insights. In the NRT, covert regularities may speed responses. This implicit acquisition of regularities may become explicitly conscious at some point, leading to a qualitative change in behavior which reflects this insight. By applying the NRT at two consecutive sessions separated by an interval, we investigated the role of sleep in this interval for attaining insight at the second session. In the first study, a night of sleep was shown to triple the number of participants attaining insight above the base rate of about 20%. In the second study, this hard core of 20% discoverers differed from other participants in their task-related EEG potentials from the very beginning already. In the third study, the additional role of sleep was specified as an effect of the deep-sleep phase of slow-wave sleep on participants who had implicitly acquired the covert regularity before sleep. It was in these participants that a specific increase of EEG during slow-wave sleep in the 10-12 Hz band was obtained. These results support the view that neuronal memory reprocessing during slow-wave sleep restructures task-related representations in the brain, and that such restructuring promotes the gain of explicit knowledge. PMID:24605175
Makris, Alexandros; Piperopoulos, Alexandros; Karmaniolou, Iosifina
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system affecting young adults that may lead to significant disability. The clinical course varies among the types of the disease as well as among individuals. Herein we provide a brief review of the recent data concerning the clinical presentation, diagnosis, causes, and pathogenesis of MS as well as medication used, followed by the anesthetic considerations of patients diagnosed with the disease. To accomplish this, we conducted a systematic PubMed literature search for articles, using the terms multiple sclerosis, anesthesia, general, regional, perioperative, and preoperative, and we then manually reviewed the references from each pertinent article. Because randomized controlled trials on the field are rare, most information is derived by case reports and case series. We concluded that the disease itself as well as the treatment modalities may have several implications in the conduct of anesthesia and perioperative management of MS patients. General and regional anesthetic techniques have been successfully used. With thorough preoperative evaluation and in depth knowledge of the disease and its complications, the MS patients can be managed safely.
Xue, Rui; Gui, Dingkun; Zheng, Liyang; Zhai, Ruonan
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes and the largest single cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many developed countries. DN is also associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors. Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors. However, the exact mechanisms of DN are unclear. Despite the benefits derived from strict control of glucose and blood pressure, as well as inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, many patients continue to enter into ESRD. Thus, there is urgent need for improving mechanistic understanding of DN and then developing new and effective therapeutic approaches to delay the progression of DN. This review focuses on recent progress and future perspective about mechanistic insight and management of DN. Some preclinical relevant studies are highlighted and new perspectives of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for delaying DN progression are discussed in detail. These findings strengthen the therapeutic rationale for TCM in the treatment of DN and also provide new insights into the development of novel drugs for the prevention of DN. However, feasibility and safety of these therapeutic approaches and the clinical applicability of TCM in human DN need to be further investigated. PMID:28386567
Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat
Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072
Boyack, Kevin W.; Wylie, Brian N.; Davidson, George S.
Presents the application of a knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight[R], to enable domain analysis for science and technology management. Uses data mining from sources of bibliographic information to define subsets of relevant information and discusses citation mapping, text mapping, and journal mapping. (Author/LRW)
Typhina, Eli; Yan, Changmin
Aiming to help municipalities develop effective education and outreach campaigns to reduce stormwater pollutants, such as pet waste, this study applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify perceptions of dog waste and corresponding collection behaviors from dog owners living in a small U.S. city. Results of 455 online survey responses…
Dilling, L.; Failey, E. L.
Carbon management is increasingly becoming a topic of interest among policy circles and business entrepreneurs alike. In the United States, while no binding regulatory framework exists, carbon management is nonetheless being pursued both by voluntary actions at a variety of levels, from the individual to the national level, and through mandatory policies at state and local levels. Controlling the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere for climate purposes will ultimately require a form of governance that will ensure that the actions taken and being rewarded financially are indeed effective with respect to the global atmosphere on long time scales. Moreover, this new system of governance will need to interface with existing governance structures and decision criteria that have been established to arbitrate among various societal values and priorities. These existing institutions and expressed values will need to be examined against those proposed for effective carbon governance, such as the permanence of carbon storage, the additionality of credited activities, and the prevention of leakage, or displacement of prohibited activities to another region outside the governance boundary. The latter issue suggests that interactions among scales of decision making and governance will be extremely important in determining the ultimate success of any future system of carbon governance. The goal of our study is to understand the current context of land use decision making in different sectors and examine the potential for future carbon policy to be effective given this context. This study examined land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado from a variety of ownership perspectives, including US Federal land managers, individual private owners, and policy makers involved in land use at a number of different scales. This paper will report on the results of interviews with land managers and provide insight into the policy context for carbon management through land
Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Peroni, Gabriella; Repaci, Erica; Allieri, Francesca; Perna, Simone
Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The more rationale approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia is based on the combination of proper nutrition, possibly associated with the use of dietary supplements and a regular exercise program. We performed a narrative literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of sarcopenia; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 67 eligible studies. In addition to the well recognized link between adequate intake of proteins/amino acids and sarcopenia, the recent literature underlines that in sarcopenic elderly subjects there is an unbalance in vitamin D synthesis and in omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of sarcopenia. The optimum diet therapy for the sarcopenia treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, which must be reached through accession of the elderly to specific personalized dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining muscle mass; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega-3 PUFA supplements; taking vitamin D supplementation, if there are low serum levels.
Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Peroni, Gabriella; Repaci, Erica
Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The more rationale approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia is based on the combination of proper nutrition, possibly associated with the use of dietary supplements and a regular exercise program. We performed a narrative literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of sarcopenia; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 67 eligible studies. In addition to the well recognized link between adequate intake of proteins/amino acids and sarcopenia, the recent literature underlines that in sarcopenic elderly subjects there is an unbalance in vitamin D synthesis and in omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of sarcopenia. The optimum diet therapy for the sarcopenia treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, which must be reached through accession of the elderly to specific personalized dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining muscle mass; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega-3 PUFA supplements; taking vitamin D supplementation, if there are low serum levels. PMID:25705670
Linden, Ariel; Adams, John L
While the randomized controlled trial (RCT) remains the gold-standard study design for evaluating treatment effect, outcomes researchers turn to powerful quasi-experimental designs when only observational studies can be conducted. Within these designs, propensity score matching is one of the most popular to evaluate disease management (DM) programme effectiveness. Given that DM programmes generally have a much smaller number of participants than non-participants in the population, propensity score matching will typically result in all or nearly all participants finding successful matches, while most of the non-participants in the population remain unmatched and thereby excluded from the analysis. By excluding data from the unmatched population, the effect of non-treatment in the remaining population with the disease is not captured. In the present study, we examine changes in hospitalization rates stratified by propensity score quintiles across the entire population allowing us to gain insight as to how well the programme chose its participants, or if the programme could have been effective on those individuals not explicitly targeted for the intervention. These data indicate the presence of regression to the mean, and suggest that the DM programme may be overly limited to only the highest strata when there is evidence of a potential benefit for those in all the lower strata as well.
Mynatt, Sarah; Wicks, Mona; Bolden, Lois
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if treatment with INSIGHT therapy, designed specifically for women, could reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and loneliness in African American women. Prevalence of mental illness differs in African Americans and Caucasians. The nonexperimental one-group pretest posttest design study examined the effectiveness of a 12-week INSIGHT group intervention. Due to the stigma of mental illness, groups met at an African American church. Reliability and validity of instruments were effectively demonstrated. Statistically significant difference was found in the level of depression but the study was underpowered to detect statistically significant differences in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness. Clinically significant improvement occurred for some participants in anxiety, hopelessness, and loneliness.
Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.
A plant's maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified.
Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.
A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified.
Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Kew, Olen M; Sutter, Roland W; Aylward, R Bruce; Watkins, Margaret; Gary, Howard; Alexander, James P; Venczel, Linda; Johnson, Denise; Cáceres, Victor M; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Jafari, Hamid; Cochi, Stephen L
The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative promises to bring large benefits, including sustained improvements in quality of life (i.e., cases of paralytic disease and deaths avoided) and costs saved from cessation of vaccination. Obtaining and maintaining these benefits requires that policymakers manage the transition from the current massive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) to a world without OPV and free of the risks of potential future reintroductions of live polioviruses. This article describes the analytical journey that began in 2001 with a retrospective case study on polio risk management and led to development of dynamic integrated risk, economic, and decision analysis tools to inform global policies for managing the risks of polio. This analytical journey has provided several key insights and lessons learned that will be useful to future analysts involved in similar complex decision-making processes.
Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J.
A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.
Branch, Kristi M.; Peffers, Melissa S.; Ruegg, Rosalie T.; Vallario, Robert W.
This guide takes the science manager through the steps of planning, implementing, validating, communicating, and using case studies. It outlines the major methods of analysis, describing their relative merits and applicability while providing relevant examples and sources of additional information. Well-designed case studies can provide a combination of rich qualitative and quantitative information, offering valuable insights into the nature, outputs, and longer-term impacts of the research. An objective, systematic, and credible approach to the evaluation of U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science programs adds value to the research process and is the subject of this guide.
McDermott, Shana M; Irwin, Rebecca E; Taylor, Brad W
critical. To accomplish the management and enforcement of these economic policies, we discuss modification of existing agencies and infrastructure. Finally, a sensitivity analysis revealed that lowering the economic cost of invader removal would strongly increase the probability of invader eradication. Taken together, our results provide quantitative insight into management decisions and economic policy instruments that can encourage invasive species removal across a social landscape.
Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.
Shen, Wangbing; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Luo, Jing; Gong, Zhe
The question of whether creative insight varies across problem types has recently come to the forefront of studies of creative cognition. In the present study, to address the nature of creative insight, the coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique was utilized to individually conduct three quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging experiments that used the compound remote associate (CRA) task, the prototype heuristic (PH) task and the Chinese character chunk decomposition (CCD) task. These tasks were chosen because they are frequently used to uncover the neurocognitive correlates of insight. Our results demonstrated that creative insight reliably activates largely non-overlapping brain regions across task types, with the exception of some shared regions: the CRA task mainly relied on the right parahippocampal gyrus, the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus; the PH task primarily depended on the right middle occipital gyrus (MOG), the bilateral superior parietal lobule/precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobule, the left lingual gyrus and the left middle frontal gyrus; and the CCD task activated a broad cerebral network consisting of most dorsolateral and medial prefrontal regions, frontoparietal regions and the right MOG. These results provide the first neural evidence of the task dependence of creative insight. The implications of these findings for resolving conflict surrounding the different theories of creative cognition and for defining insight as a set of heterogeneous processes are discussed.
Thornton, Joyce K.
Current library automation practices and new technologies have forced library managers to seek some means of reducing carpal tunnel syndrome, and a case study of Texas A&M's library provides insights. Highlights include identifying and assessing the injuries, adjusting work surfaces, testing and selecting new keyboards, and developing…
Filler, Scott G
Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections.
McKnight, Darren S.
Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.
Shen, Wangbing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiaojiang; Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Yalin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemispheric effect of creative insight. This study used high-density ERPs to record participants' brain activity while they performed an insight task. Results showed that both insight solutions and incomprehension solutions elicited a more negative ERP deflection (N320~550) than noninsight solutions…
Bruno, A. V.
The development of a Monte Carlo simulation of procurement activities at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. Data cover: simulation of the procurement cycle, construction of a performance evaluation model, examination of employee development, procedures and review of evaluation criteria for divisional and individual performance evaluation. Determination of the influences and apparent impact of contract type and structure and development of a management control system for planning and controlling manpower requirements.
Ahmad, N S; Chan, M Y; Hiew, F L; Sharif, S A; Vijayasingham, P; Thayaparan, T; Loh, L C
The cornerstone of asthma management is achieving adequate symptom control and patient education. We studied in our local population of asthmatic patients how well their symptoms were controlled with currently prescribed treatment and their insight into the disease and its management. Over a 6-month period, 93 asthmatics recruited from two local government health clinics and a state hospital were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Patients were classified into 4 groups based on the treatment they were on according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) treatment guidelines. The number of patients in Step 1 (rescue medication alone), Step 2 (1 controller medication), Step 3 (2 controller medications) and Step 4 (at least 3 controller medications) were 8, 39, 34 and 12, respectively. Except for day symptoms in Step 1 group, fewer than 50% achieved minimum day or night symptoms and no restriction of daily activities. Questions on patient insight were only available for 50 patients. Weather change (74%), air pollution (66%) and physical stress (46%) were the three highest ranked common asthma triggers. More than half correctly recognized the important symptoms of a serious asthma attack but fewer than 15% were familiar with the peak flow meter and its use or with the asthma self-management plan. Most patients perceived that their treatment had helped reduce disease severity and exacerbations. We conclude that symptom control and some aspect of patient education are still lacking in our local asthmatics.
Guisan, Antoine; Petitpierre, Blaise; Broennimann, Olivier; Daehler, Curtis; Kueffer, Christoph
Assessing whether the climatic niche of a species may change between different geographic areas or time periods has become increasingly important in the context of ongoing global change. However, approaches and findings have remained largely controversial so far, calling for a unification of methods. Here, we build on a review of empirical studies of invasion to formalize a unifying framework that decomposes niche change into unfilling, stability, and expansion situations, taking both a pooled range and range-specific perspective on the niche, while accounting for climatic availability and climatic analogy. This framework provides new insights into the nature of climate niche shifts and our ability to anticipate invasions, and may help in guiding the design of experiments for assessing causes of niche changes.
Milliron, Mark David; Malcolm, Laura; Kil, David
Civitas Learning was conceived as a community of practice, bringing together forward-thinking leaders from diverse higher education institutions to leverage insight and action analytics in their ongoing efforts to help students learn well and finish strong. We define insight and action analytics as drawing, federating, and analyzing data from…
Fadyl, Joanna K; Channon, Alexis; Theadom, Alice; McPherson, Kathryn M
Knowledge about aspects that influence recovery and adaptation in the postacute phase of disabling health events is key to understanding how best to provide appropriate rehabilitation and health services. Qualitative longitudinal research makes it possible to look for patterns, key time points and critical moments that could be vital for interventions and supports. However, strategies that support robust data management and analysis for longitudinal qualitative research in health-care are not well documented in the literature. This article reviews three challenges encountered in a large longitudinal qualitative descriptive study about experiences of recovery and adaptation after traumatic brain injury in New Zealand, and the strategies and technologies used to address them. These were (i) tracking coding and analysis decisions during an extended analysis period; (ii) navigating interpretations over time and in response to new data; and (iii) exploiting data volume and complexity. Concept mapping during coding review, a considered combination of information technologies, employing both cross-sectional and narrative analysis, and an expectation that subanalyses would be required for key topics helped us manage the study in a way that facilitated useful and novel insights. These strategies could be applied in other qualitative longitudinal studies in healthcare inquiry to optimise data analysis and stimulate important insights.
Missar, Charles D., Ed.
This book provides insight into how managers of federally sponsored libraries view their roles and carry out their duties. Seven federally supported libraries were selected to serve as case studies. These libraries represent a cross-section of various types, and the nine chapters are written by librarians from these facilities. The discussion…
Allott, Emma H.; Hursting, Stephen D.
Obesity is associated with a range of health outcomes that are of clinical and public health significance, including cancer. Herein, we summarize epidemiologic and preclinical evidence for an association between obesity and increased risk of breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, we describe data from observational studies of weight change in humans and from calorie restriction studies in mouse models which support a potential role for weight loss in counteracting tumor-promoting properties of obesity in breast and prostate cancers. Given that weight loss is challenging to achieve and maintain, we also consider evidence linking treatments for obesity-associated co-morbidities, including metformin, statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Finally, we highlight several challenges that should be considered when conducting epidemiologic and preclinical research in the area of obesity and cancer, including the measurement of obesity in population-based studies, the timing of obesity and weight change in relation to tumor latency and cancer diagnosis, and the heterogeneous nature of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Given that obesity is a complex trait, comprised of behavioral, epidemiologic and molecular/metabolic factors, we argue that a transdisciplinary approach is the key to understanding the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. As such, this review highlights the critical need to integrate evidence from both epidemiologic and preclinical studies to gain insight into both biologic and non-biologic mechanisms contributing to the obesity-cancer link. PMID:26373570
Allott, Emma H; Hursting, Stephen D
Obesity is associated with a range of health outcomes that are of clinical and public health significance, including cancer. Herein, we summarize epidemiologic and preclinical evidence for an association between obesity and increased risk of breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Moreover, we describe data from observational studies of weight change in humans and from calorie-restriction studies in mouse models that support a potential role for weight loss in counteracting tumor-promoting properties of obesity in breast and prostate cancers. Given that weight loss is challenging to achieve and maintain, we also consider evidence linking treatments for obesity-associated co-morbidities, including metformin, statins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, with reduced breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Finally, we highlight several challenges that should be considered when conducting epidemiologic and preclinical research in the area of obesity and cancer, including the measurement of obesity in population-based studies, the timing of obesity and weight change in relation to tumor latency and cancer diagnosis, and the heterogeneous nature of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Given that obesity is a complex trait, comprised of behavioral, epidemiologic and molecular/metabolic factors, we argue that a transdisciplinary approach is the key to understanding the mechanisms linking obesity and cancer. As such, this review highlights the critical need to integrate evidence from both epidemiologic and preclinical studies to gain insight into both biologic and non-biologic mechanisms contributing to the obesity-cancer link.
The study attempted to identify specific industry-related communication problems of bank managers. A questionnaire was completed by 193 managers identifying perceived communication barriers and relative importance of each. Resistance to change and tendency not to listen were considered serious barriers. (CH)
O'Reagain, P J; Scanlan, J C
Inter-annual rainfall variability is a major challenge to sustainable and productive grazing management on rangelands. In Australia, rainfall variability is particularly pronounced and failure to manage appropriately leads to major economic loss and environmental degradation. Recommended strategies to manage sustainably include stocking at long-term carrying capacity (LTCC) or varying stock numbers with forage availability. These strategies are conceptually simple but difficult to implement, given the scale and spatial heterogeneity of grazing properties and the uncertainty of the climate. This paper presents learnings and insights from northern Australia gained from research and modelling on managing for rainfall variability. A method to objectively estimate LTCC in large, heterogeneous paddocks is discussed, and guidelines and tools to tactically adjust stocking rates are presented. The possible use of seasonal climate forecasts (SCF) in management is also considered. Results from a 13-year grazing trial in Queensland show that constant stocking at LTCC was far more profitable and largely maintained land condition compared with heavy stocking (HSR). Variable stocking (VAR) with or without the use of SCF was marginally more profitable, but income variability was greater and land condition poorer than constant stocking at LTCC. Two commercial scale trials in the Northern Territory with breeder cows highlighted the practical difficulties of variable stocking and provided evidence that heavier pasture utilisation rates depress reproductive performance. Simulation modelling across a range of regions in northern Australia also showed a decline in resource condition and profitability under heavy stocking rates. Modelling further suggested that the relative value of variable v. constant stocking depends on stocking rate and land condition. Importantly, variable stocking may possibly allow slightly higher stocking rates without pasture degradation. Enterprise
The prevalence and management of angina among patients with chronic coronary artery disease across US outpatient cardiology practices: insights from the Angina Prevalence and Provider Evaluation of Angina Relief (APPEAR) study.
Kureshi, Faraz; Shafiq, Ali; Arnold, Suzanne V; Gosch, Kensey; Breeding, Tracie; Kumar, Ashwath S; Jones, Philip G; Spertus, John A
Although eliminating angina is a primary goal in treating patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), few contemporary data quantify prevalence and severity of angina across US cardiology practices. The authors hypothesized that angina among outpatients with CAD managed by US cardiologists is low and its prevalence varies by site. Among 25 US outpatient cardiology clinics enrolled in the American College of Cardiology Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence (PINNACLE) registry, we prospectively recruited a consecutive sample of patients with chronic CAD over a 1- to 2-week period at each site between April 2013 and July 2015, irrespective of the reason for their appointment. Eligible patients had documented history of CAD (prior acute coronary syndrome, prior coronary revascularization procedure, or diagnosis of stable angina) and ≥1 prior office visit at the practice site. Angina was assessed directly from patients using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire Angina Frequency score. Among 1257 patients from 25 sites, 7.6% (n = 96) reported daily/weekly, 25.1% (n = 315) monthly, and 67.3% (n = 846) no angina. The proportion of patients with daily/weekly angina at each site ranged from 2.0% to 24.0%, but just over half (56.3%) were on ≥2 antianginal medications, with wide variability across sites (0%-100%). One-third of outpatients with chronic CAD managed by cardiologists report having angina in the prior month, and 7.6% have frequent symptoms. Among those with frequent angina, just over half were on ≥2 antianginal medications, with wide variability across sites. These findings suggest an opportunity to improve symptom control.
Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan
Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi’an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index’s weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem’s service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi’an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers. PMID:27886137
Feig, Jonathan E.
Based on studies that extend back to the 1920s, regression and stabilization of atherosclerosis in humans has gone from just a dream to one that is achievable. Review of the literature indicates that the successful attempts at regression generally applied robust measures to improve plasma lipoprotein profiles. Examples include extensive lowering of plasma concentrations of atherogenic apolipoprotein B and enhancement of reverse cholesterol transport from atheromata to the liver. Possible mechanisms responsible for lesion shrinkage include decreased retention of atherogenic apolipoprotein B within the arterial wall, efflux of cholesterol and other toxic lipids from plaques, emigration of lesional foam cells out of the arterial wall, and influx of healthy phagocytes that remove necrotic debris as well as other components of the plaque. However, currently available clinical agents cause less dramatic changes in plasma lipoprotein levels, and thereby fail to stop most cardiovascular events. There is, therefore, a clear need for preclinical and clinical testing of new agents expected to facilitate atherosclerosis regression with the hope that additional mechanistic insights will allow further progress. PMID:24751561
Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Matsiev, Daniel
The hydroxyl radical has a key role in the chemistry and energetics of the Earth's middle atmosphere. A detailed knowledge of the rate constants and relevant pathways for OH(high v) vibrational relaxation by atomic and molecular oxygen and their temperature dependence is absolutely critical for understanding mesospheric OH and extracting reliable chemical heating rates from atmospheric observations. We have developed laser-based experimental approaches to study the complex collisional energy transfer processes involving the OH radical and other relevant atmospheric species. Previous work in our laboratory indicated that the total removal rate constant for OH(v = 9) + O at room temperature is more than one order of magnitude larger than that for removal by O2. Thus, O atoms are expected to significantly influence the intensity and vibrational distribution extracted from the Meinel OH(v) emissions. We will report our most recent laboratory experiments that corroborate the aforementioned result for OH(v = 9) + O and provide important new insights on the mechanistic pathways involved. We will also highlight relevant atmospheric implications, including warranted revisions of current mesospheric OH models. Research supported by SRI International Internal R&D and NSF Aeronomy grant AGS-1441896. Previously supported by NASA Geospace Science grant NNX12AD09G.
McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S; Rodriguez, Eileen T
A prevention trial tested the efficacy of INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers in six inner city schools. Teachers completed the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory (SESBI) and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Competence and Social Acceptance (TRS) at baseline and again upon completion of the intervention. Boys participating in INSIGHTS, compared with those in the Read Aloud program, showed a significant decline in attentional difficulties and overt aggression toward others. Teachers in INSIGHTS, compared to those in the attention control condition, reported significantly fewer problems managing the emotional-oppositional behavior, attentional difficulties, and covert disruptive behavior of their male students. They also perceived the boys as significantly more cognitively and physically competent.
Muralidharan, Arjun; Smith, Maree T
Prostate cancer (PCa) has a high propensity for metastasis to bone. Despite the availability of multiple treatment options for relief of PCa-induced bone pain (PCIBP), satisfactory relief of intractable pain in patients with advanced bony metastases is challenging for the clinicians because currently available analgesic drugs are often limited by poor efficacy and/or dose-limiting side effects. Rodent models developed in the past decade show that the pathobiology of PCIBP comprises elements of inflammatory, neuropathic and ischemic pain arising from ectopic sprouting and sensitization of sensory nerve fibres within PCa-invaded bones. In addition, at the cellular level, PCIBP is underpinned by dynamic cross talk between metastatic PCa cells, cellular components of the bone matrix, factors associated with the bone microenvironment as well as peripheral components of the somatosensory system. These insights are aligned with the clinical management of PCIBP involving use of a multimodal treatment approach comprising analgesic agents (opioids, NSAIDs), radiotherapy, radioisotopes, cancer chemotherapy agents and bisphosphonates. However, a major drawback of most rodent models of PCIBP is their short-term applicability due to ethical concerns. Thus, it has been difficult to gain insight into the mal(adaptive) neuroplastic changes occurring at multiple levels of the somatosensory system that likely contribute to intractable pain at the advanced stages of metastatic disease. Specifically, the functional responsiveness of noxious circuitry as well as the neurochemical signature of a broad array of pro-hyperalgesic mediators in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord of rodent models of PCIBP is relatively poorly characterized. Hence, recent work from our laboratory to develop a protocol for an optimized rat model of PCIBP will enable these knowledge gaps to be addressed as well as identification of novel targets for drug discovery programs aimed at producing new analgesics
Thakre, Tushar P.; Deoras, Ketan; Griffin, Catherine; Vemana, Aarthi; Podmore, Petra; Krishna, Jyoti
consistently able to identify caffeine content or lack thereof in some common beverages. The results of this pilot study show that caffeine literacy in adolescents warrants further investigation and educational intervention. Citation: Thakre TP, Deoras K, Griffin C, Vemana A, Podmore P, Krishna J. Caffeine awareness in children: insights from a pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):741–746. PMID:25845895
McClowry, Sandra Graham; Snow, David L.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Rodriguez, Eileen T.
A prevention trial tested the efficacy of "INSIGHTS into Children's Temperament" as compared to a Read Aloud attention control condition in reducing student disruptive behavior and enhancing student competence and teacher classroom management. Participants included 116 first and second grade students, their parents, and their 42 teachers…
Fulton, Elizabeth A; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C; Johnson, Penelope
An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals.
Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Smith, David C.; Johnson, Penelope
An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals. PMID:24454722
Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.; Kratschmer, Sophie; Pachinger, Bärbel; Strauss, Peter; Bauer, Thomas; Paredes, Daniel; Gómez, José A.; Guzmán, Gema; Landa, Blanca; Nicolai, Annegret; Burel, Francoise; Cluzeau, Daniel; Popescu, Daniela; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Potthoff, Martin; Guernion, Muriel; Batáry, Péter
Viticultural agro-ecosystems provide a range of different ecosystem services which are affected by management decisions of winegrowers. At the global scale, vineyards are often high intensity agricultural systems with bare soil or inter-row vegetation consisting of only a few plant species. These systems primarily aim at optimizing wine production by reducing competition for water and nutrients between grapevines and weeds and by preventing the outbreak of pests and diseases. At the same time, this kind of management is often associated with ecosystem disservices such as high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and decline of biodiversity. Recently, several initiatives across the world tried to overcome detrimental effects of that management style by creating biodiversity friendly vineyards. The consequences of establishing divers cover crop mixes or tolerating spontaneous vegetation in vineyards for ecosystem services (including yield) overstretching local case studies has not been investigated yet. This meta-analysis will provide an overview of all published studies comparing the effects of different vineyard management practices on a range of different ecosystem services like biodiversity, pest control, pollination, soil conservation and carbon sequestration. The aggregated effect size will point out which management measures can provide the best overall net sum of ecosystem services. This meta-analysis is part of the transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project VineDivers and will ultimately lead into management and policy recommendations for various stakeholder groups engaged in viticulture.
Lee, C. A.; Rudnick, R. L.
Studies of xenoliths provide a depth dimension to surface geology studies, and, in favorable circumstances, also provide the fourth dimension of time. In particular, geochemical studies of xenoliths provide insights into the processes that formed and modified the deep lithosphere (e.g., melting, metamorphism, fluid infiltration, basaltic underplating) and when they occurred. While xenoliths can provide a glimpse of the types of lithologies present at depth and how they formed, they cannot be assumed to be representative of the deep lithosphere, and inferences regarding the dominant lithologies present in the lower crust or upper mantle must be tempered by geophysical constraints on bulk physical properties of these regions. Mantle. Xenoliths from the lithospheric mantle are generally composed of peridotite, with lesser amounts of pyroxenite and/or eclogite. Equilibration T for these lithologies can generally be determined on the basis of two-pyroxene thermometery; precise depths of equilibration are much harder to estimate unless the samples contain garnet. The crystallization ages of mantle xenoliths are also usually difficult to constrain, as zircon is a rare phase in most upper mantle lithologies and most xenoliths have resided above the blocking temperature of other radiogenic isotope systems (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf) for a significant fraction of their histories. The Re- Os isotope system provides arguably the best means of determining the crystallization age of mantle xenoliths, but, like most model age approaches, carries significant uncertainty. Crust. Xenoliths from the lower continental crust can be extremely heterogeneous in composition, but mafic compositions dominate in a number of regions. Equilibration T and P may determined from coexisting phases and, in some cases, thermal histories deduced from presence of frozen metamorphic reactions (e.g., coronas). The presence of zircon and other U-bearing accessory phases provides the opportunity to determine the
Ritz, Mariah; Noltemeyer, Amity; Davis, Darrel; Green, Jennifer
This mixed methods study examined behavior management strategies used by preschool teachers to address student noncompliance in the classroom. Specifically, the study aimed to (1) examine the methods that preschool teachers are currently using to respond to noncompliant behavior in their classrooms, (2) measure the frequency with which each…
Muslin, Ivan S; Vardaman, James M; Cornell, Paul T
Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) allows physicians to enter orders in a computer rather than handwriting them. Computerized physician order entry is touted as a major improvement in patient safety, and although the literature suggests that such systems have the potential to improve patient outcomes, studies also suggest that CPOE may have significant drawbacks that accompany those benefits. Physicians have often been resistant to accept its implementation. This study investigates the implementation of CPOE at a 217-bed rural hospital in the southeastern United States. Drawing on a mixed-method approach, we identify correlates of change acceptance and propose a set of recommendations for health care managers to foster acceptance of CPOE. Findings from physician surveys (n = 19) indicate that older physicians are less accepting of CPOE, but high-quality change communication may overcome resistance even among older physicians. With insights derived from the organizational change literature, findings bring to the fore a set of practices that managers can use to foster acceptance of CPOE. The thrust of these practices is that managers should make physicians active participants in fine-tuning CPOE within the unique needs and constraints of the local hospital setting.
Jenkins, K; Surminski, S; Hall, J; Crick, F
Climate change and increasing urbanization are projected to result in an increase in surface water flooding and consequential damages in the future. In this paper, we present insights from a novel Agent Based Model (ABM), applied to a London case study of surface water flood risk, designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options; how risk reduction could be achieved by homeowners and government; and the role of flood insurance and the new flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The analysis highlights that while combined investment in property-level flood protection and sustainable urban drainage systems reduce surface water flood risk, the benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. In our simulations, Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, the scheme does face increasing financial pressure due to rising surface water flood damages. If the intended transition to risk-based pricing is to take place then a determined and coordinated strategy will be needed to manage flood risk, which utilises insurance incentives, limits new development, and supports resilience measures. Our modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for the ongoing regulatory and political approval process for Flood Re as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes to incentivise flood risk management and climate adaptation in the UK and internationally.
Mamedov, Amrakh; Warrington, David; Levy, Guy
Understanding the processes and mechanisms affecting runoff generation and subsequent soil erosion in semi-arid regions is essential for the development of improved soil and water conservation management practices. Using a drip type laboratory rain simulator, we studied runoff and soil erosion, and the relationships between them, in 60 semi-arid region soils varying in their intrinsic properties (e.g., texture, organic matter) under differing extrinsic conditions (e.g., rain properties, and conditions prevailing in the field soil). Both runoff and soil erosion were significantly affected by the intrinsic soil and rain properties, and soil conditions within agricultural fields or watersheds. The relationship between soil erosion and runoff was stronger when the rain kinetic energy was higher rather than lower, and could be expressed either as a linear or exponential function. Linear functions applied to certain limited cases associated with conditions that enhanced soil structure stability, (e.g., slow wetting, amending with soil stabilizers, minimum tillage in clay soils, and short duration exposure to rain). Exponential functions applied to most of the cases under conditions that tended to harm soil stability (e.g., fast wetting of soils, a wide range of antecedent soil water contents and rain kinetic energies, conventional tillage, following biosolid applications, irrigation with water of poor quality, consecutive rain simulations). The established relationships between runoff and soil erosion contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing overland flow and soil loss, and could assist in (i) further development of soil erosion models and research techniques, and (ii) the design of more suitable management practices for soil and water conservation.
Coleman, Howard W.
This collection of case studies, based on factual situations which have challenged broadcast managers in recent years, is designed to stimulate thinking about and solving of "real world" problems in commercial radio and television operations. Topics of a serious, long-run nature include enlarging the radio audience; station revenue and economy;…
Historical accounts of the field of educational management (EM) have seen the last quarter of the nineteenth century as the beginning of EM as a profession and later on as a field of study in American universities. The search for efficiency in education in those days encouraged many American educators to participate in administrator preparation…
Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.
We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women's understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) "types of sexual risk,"…
Spormann, A M
motor in M. xanthus controls cell movement in groups (S-motility system). It is dependent on functional type IV pili and is operative only when cells are in close proximity to each other. Type IV pili are known to be involved in another mode of bacterial surface translocation, called twitching motility. S-motility may well represent a variation of twitching motility in M. xanthus. However, twitching differs from gliding since it involves cell movements that are jerky and abrupt and that lack the organization and smoothness observed in gliding. Components of this motor are encoded by genes of the S-system, which appear to be homologs of genes involved in the biosynthesis, assembly, and function of type IV pili in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. How type IV pili generate force in S-motility is currently unknown, but it is to be expected that ongoing physiological, genetic, and biochemical studies in M. xanthus, in conjunction with studies on twitching in P. aeruginosa and N. gonorrhoeae, will provide important insights into this microbial motor. The two motility systems of M. xanthus are affected to different degrees by the MglA protein, which shows similarity to a small GTPase. Bacterial chemotaxis-like sensory transduction systems control gliding motility in M. xanthus. The frz genes appear to regulate gliding movement of individual cells and movement by the S-motility system, suggesting that the two motors found in this bacterium can be regulated to result in coordinated multicellular movements. In contrast, the dif genes affect only S-system-dependent swarming.
Spormann, Alfred M.
motor in M. xanthus controls cell movement in groups (S-motility system). It is dependent on functional type IV pili and is operative only when cells are in close proximity to each other. Type IV pili are known to be involved in another mode of bacterial surface translocation, called twitching motility. S-motility may well represent a variation of twitching motility in M. xanthus. However, twitching differs from gliding since it involves cell movements that are jerky and abrupt and that lack the organization and smoothness observed in gliding. Components of this motor are encoded by genes of the S-system, which appear to be homologs of genes involved in the biosynthesis, assembly, and function of type IV pili in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. How type IV pili generate force in S-motility is currently unknown, but it is to be expected that ongoing physiological, genetic, and biochemical studies in M. xanthus, in conjunction with studies on twitching in P. aeruginosa and N. gonorrhoeae, will provide important insights into this microbial motor. The two motility systems of M. xanthus are affected to different degrees by the MglA protein, which shows similarity to a small GTPase. Bacterial chemotaxis-like sensory transduction systems control gliding motility in M. xanthus. The frz genes appear to regulate gliding movement of individual cells and movement by the S-motility system, suggesting that the two motors found in this bacterium can be regulated to result in coordinated multicellular movements. In contrast, the dif genes affect only S-system-dependent swarming. PMID:10477310
Prochaska, Megan L.; Taylor, Eric N.
Objectives. To review the contributions of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) I and NHS II to understanding the role of dietary factors, beverages, body size, and urinary factors in the development of kidney stones. Methods. We conducted a review of kidney stone–related publications of NHS I and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Studies using NHS I and NHS II data have demonstrated the importance of many factors in kidney stone formation and were the first to report that higher dietary calcium was associated with a lower risk of incident kidney stones in women. Data from these cohorts were instrumental in emphasizing that nephrolithiasis is a systemic disease and suggesting that a kidney stone or shared risk factors may lead to hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions. Findings from the NHSs have changed the scientific understanding and the clinical practice of stone prevention and have been incorporated into widely consulted textbooks and the American Urological Association Medical Management of Kidney Stones guidelines. PMID:27459448
Introduction Prescription writing is an important task performed by a doctor during patient management. Prescription refers to written instructions given to a patient regarding medications. Lack of attention during prescription writing can lead to prescription errors which in turn can adversely affect patients’ well-being. Thus, prescriptions are an important target area for improvement. Aim The purpose of the present study was to analyze the quality of prescriptions dispensed by the students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore and to compare the prescription writing patterns amongst undergraduates, interns and postgraduates of this institution. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 randomly selected prescriptions dispensed by the students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India. All the prescriptions were analyzed for the presence of (a) Patient’s information: Out-Patient file number, name, age, gender, address and contact number (b) Doctors information: Full name, department name, qualification, contact details, date of prescription, superscription, and signature (c) Drug information: Name, strength, dosage form, dosage instructions, duration and total quantity. Each prescription was further categorized into groups A, B, C or D, depending on the scores obtained. Prescription quality was then compared between the undergraduates, interns and postgraduates. Results Analysis of prescriptions performed using Chi-square test showed that groups A, B, C and D had 12 (2%), 155 (31%), 333 (67%) and 0 (0%) students respectively. Association between the groups and qualifications showed statistically significant results (p<0.05). Undergraduate prescriptions were better written in comparison to interns and postgraduates. Conclusion Findings of the current study demonstrate the need for further improvement in the quality of prescription writing by students of The Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore
Weisberg, Robert W.
Psychologists studying problem solving have, for over 100 years, been interested in the question of whether there are two different modes of solving problems. One mode--problem solving based on analysis--depends on application of past experience to the problem at hand and proceeds incrementally toward solution. The second mode--problem solving…
Blaiss, Michael S; Nathan, Robert A; Stoloff, Stuart W; Meltzer, Eli O; Murphy, Kevin R; Doherty, Dennis E
Long-term achievement of asthma control is dependent in part on the use of mutually understandable asthma terminology in all verbal and written patient-physician communications. Using data from the Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) survey, the objective of this analysis is to provide a contemporary depiction of asthma deterioration terminology as used by current asthma patients and physicians in the United States. As part of the 2009 AIM survey, current asthma patients (≥12 years of age; weighted n = 2499) and physicians (n = 309) were queried about their recognition, understanding, and/or use of the terms "asthma attack," "asthma flare-up," and "asthma exacerbation" in telephone interviews. Nearly all patients had heard the term "asthma attack" (97%), but relatively few had heard the term "asthma exacerbation" (24%); 71% had heard "asthma flare-up." In contrast, physicians reported using the term "asthma attack" least (65%) and the term "asthma exacerbation" most (77%) when discussing asthma with their patients; 70% reported using "asthma flare-up." Among patients familiar with "asthma flare-up" and "asthma exacerbation" (n = 502), only 38% said that the terms mean the same thing; nearly all physicians (94%) said that the terms mean the same thing. Collectively, data from the AIM survey suggest that patients and physicians use different asthma deterioration terminology and, more importantly, that they do not necessarily understand each other's terms. Standardizing asthma deterioration terminology may help optimize asthma patient-physician communication to improve patient understanding of written asthma action plans and therefore, enhance patient outcomes.
Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R.; Davis, Robert T.; Harris, Richard E.; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M.; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J.; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N.; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M.; Wayne, Peter M.
Abstract Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies. PMID:26745452
MacPherson, Hugh; Hammerschlag, Richard; Coeytaux, Remy R; Davis, Robert T; Harris, Richard E; Kong, Jiang-Ti; Langevin, Helene M; Lao, Lixing; Milley, Ryan J; Napadow, Vitaly; Schnyer, Rosa N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Witt, Claudia M; Wayne, Peter M
Research into acupuncture has had ripple effects beyond the field of acupuncture. This paper identifies five exemplars to illustrate that there is tangible evidence of the way insights gleaned from acupuncture research have informed biomedical research, practice, or policy. The first exemplar documents how early research into acupuncture analgesia has expanded into neuroimaging research, broadening physiologic understanding and treatment of chronic pain. The second describes how the acupuncture needle has become a tool to enhance biomedical knowledge of connective tissue. The third exemplar, which illustrates use of a modified acupuncture needle as a sham device, focuses on emergent understanding of placebo effects and, in turn, on insights into therapeutic encounters in treatments unrelated to acupuncture. The fourth exemplar documents that two medical devices now in widespread use were inspired by acupuncture: transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulators for pain control and antinausea wrist bands. The final exemplar describes how pragmatic clinical trial designs applied in acupuncture research have informed current general interest in comparative effectiveness research. In conclusion, these exemplars of unanticipated outcomes of acupuncture research comprise an additional rationale for continued support of basic and clinical research evaluating acupuncture and other under-researched therapies.
Rusk, Robert Brian
This qualitative case study explored how the classroom management practices of sampled teachers in a private school in central Oregon influenced classroom disruptions. Through the study, the researcher was able to provide insight on the differences in specific classroom management processes between teachers who had a high number of Positive…
Ménard, C; Hodes, G E; Russo, S J
Major depressive disorder (MDD) will affect one out of every five people in their lifetime and is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Nevertheless, mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of MDD have yet to be completely understood and current treatments remain ineffective in a large subset of patients. In this review, we summarize the most recent discoveries and insights for which parallel findings have been obtained in human depressed subjects and rodent models of mood disorders in order to examine the potential etiology of depression. These mechanisms range from synaptic plasticity mechanisms to epigenetics and the immune system where there is strong evidence to support a functional role in the development of specific depression symptomology. Ultimately we conclude by discussing how novel therapeutic strategies targeting central and peripheral processes might ultimately aid in the development of effective new treatments for MDD and related stress disorders.
Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.
We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) in order to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women’s understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) types of sexual risk; (b) factors that moderate sexual risk; and (c) strategies for managing sexual risk. Collectively, participants identified many risks but distanced themselves from these by claiming that girls’ susceptibility is largely a function of personal factors and therefore avoidable given the right traits, values, and skills. We consider this reliance on other-blaming and self-exemption, as well as instances in which individual participants diverged from this group discourse, in the context of neoliberalism. PMID:21860537
Holvoet, Kevin; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Sampers, Imca; Uyttendaele, Mieke
This study provided insight into the degree of microbial contamination in the processing chain of prepacked (bagged) lettuce in two Belgian fresh-cut produce processing companies. The pathogens Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. Total psychrotrophic aerobic bacterial counts (TPACs) in water samples, fresh produce, and environmental samples suggested that the TPAC is not a good indicator of overall quality and best manufacturing practices during production and processing. Because of the high TPACs in the harvested lettuce crops, the process water becomes quickly contaminated, and subsequent TPACs do not change much throughout the production process of a batch. The hygiene indicator Escherichia coli was used to assess the water management practices in these two companies in relation to food safety. Practices such as insufficient cleaning and disinfection of washing baths, irregular refilling of the produce wash baths with water of good microbial quality, and the use of high product/water ratios resulted in a rapid increase in E. coli in the processing water, with potential transfer to the end product (fresh-cut lettuce). The washing step in the production of fresh-cut lettuce was identified as a potential pathway for dispersion of microorganisms and introduction of E. coli to the end product via cross-contamination. An intervention step to reduce microbial contamination is needed, particularly when no sanitizers are used as is the case in some European Union countries. Thus, from a food safety point of view proper water management (and its validation) is a critical point in the fresh-cut produce processing industry.
Chighizola, Cecilia Beatrice; Ubiali, Tania; Meroni, Pier Luigi
Vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity represent the clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is serologically characterized by the persistent positivity of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents currently provide the mainstay of APS treatment. However, the debate is still open: controversies involve the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation and the treatment of stroke and refractory cases. Unfortunately, the literature cannot provide definite answers to these controversial issues as it is flawed by many limitations, mainly due to the recruitment of patients not fulfilling laboratory and clinical criteria for APS. The recommended therapeutic management of different aPL-related clinical manifestations is hereby presented, with a critical appraisal of the evidence supporting such approaches. Cutting edge therapeutic strategies are also discussed, presenting the pioneer reports about the efficacy of novel pharmacological agents in APS. Thanks to a better understanding of aPL pathogenic mechanisms, new therapeutic targets will soon be explored. Much work is still to be done to unravel the most controversial issues about APS management: future studies are warranted to define the optimal management according to aPL risk profile and to assess the impact of a strict control of cardiovascular risk factors on disease control.
Kopp, R. E., III; Hsiang, S. M.; Houser, T.; Larsen, K.; Rasmussen, D. M., Jr.; Jina, A.; Rising, J.; Delgado, M.; Mohan, S.; Muir-Wood, R.; Wilson, P. S.
The American Climate Prospectus (ACP), the technical analysis underlying the Risky Business project, quantitatively assessed the economic risks posed to the United States by six categories of climate change impacts: crop yield, energy demand, coastal storm damage, criminal activity, labor productivity, and mortality . At a national level, measured by impact on gross domestic product, increased mortality and decreased labor productivity pose the large risks, followed by increased energy demand and coastal damages. Changes in crop yield and crime have smaller impacts. The ACP was not intended to conduct a benefit-cost analysis of climate change mitigation. It assessed the economic consequences of future impacts on an economy with a structure equivalent to that of the current economy, not accounting for socio-economic development and adaptation, and did not assess the cost of mitigation. One of its primary goals was to inform adaptation decisions that are conventionally considered 'endogenous' in economic analyses of climate change. Nonetheless, its results provide insight into the potential of mitigation to manage climate risk. Differences between RCP 8.5 (moderately-high business-as-usual emissions), RCP 4.5 (moderate mitigation) and RCP 2.6 (extremely strong mitigation) are not apparent until mid-century and become significant only late in the century. For all impacts except coastal damages, mitigation significantly reduces uncertainty in late-century impact estimates. Nationally, mitigation significantly and monotonically reduces median projected labor productivity losses and violent crime. Switching from RCP 8.5 to RCP 4.5 also significantly reduces median projections of mortality and energy demand, but the domestic value to the U.S. of further mitigation to RCP 2.6 is less clear. The marginal benefits decline in part because some regions of the country (especially the Northwest) may experience increased crop yields, reduced mortality, and reduced energy
Buetow, S; Adair, V; Coster, G; Hight, M; Gribben, B; Mitchell, E
BACKGROUND: Different sets of literature suggest how aspects of practice time management can limit access to general practitioner (GP) care. Researchers have not organised this knowledge into a unified framework that can enhance understanding of barriers to, and opportunities for, improved access. AIM: To suggest a framework conceptualising how differences in professional and cultural understanding of practice time management in Auckland, New Zealand, influence access to GP care for children with chronic asthma. DESIGN OF STUDY: A qualitative study involving selective sampling, semi-structured interviews on barriers to access, and a general inductive approach. SETTING: Twenty-nine key informants and ten mothers of children with chronic, moderate to severe asthma and poor access to GP care in Auckland. METHOD: Development of a framework from themes describing barriers associated with, and needs for, practice time management. The themes were independently identified by two authors from transcribed interviews and confirmed through informant checking. Themes from key informant and patient interviews were triangulated with each other and with published literature. RESULTS: The framework distinguishes 'practice-centred time' from 'patient-centred time.' A predominance of 'practice-centred time' and an unmet opportunity for 'patient-centred time' are suggested by the persistence of five barriers to accessing GP care: limited hours of opening; traditional appointment systems; practice intolerance of missed appointments; long waiting times in the practice; and inadequate consultation lengths. None of the barriers is specific to asthmatic children. CONCLUSION: A unified framework was suggested for understanding how the organisation of practice work time can influence access to GP care by groups including asthmatic children. PMID:12528583
von Lindern, Eike; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
Using inadequate management tools often threatens the natural environment. This study focuses on the example of Swiss recreational fishermen (hereafter called “anglers”) as recreational fisheries management stakeholders. In recreational fisheries, fish stocking conducted by anglers has been identified as one important factor associated with declining fish catches. We therefore aimed to a) gain insights into why anglers want to maintain fish stocking and b) identify entry points for interventions to promote more pro-ecological management practices. Results (N = 349) showed that the majority of anglers think very uncritically about stocking and that they frequently engage in it. We conclude that outcome expectancies and beliefs about risks, in combination with a lack of stocking success controls are the main reasons that anglers retain stocking measures. We suggest that providing anglers with direct experience and feedback about stocking success is suitable to change their intentions regarding stocking and their actual stocking behavior, and thus, to promote more pro-ecological management methods. From a more general perspective, the results of this study are likely to help improve pro-ecological ecosystem management in other domains where problems similar to those in recreational fisheries management might exist. PMID:25514798
von Lindern, Eike; Mosler, Hans-Joachim
Using inadequate management tools often threatens the natural environment. This study focuses on the example of Swiss recreational fishermen (hereafter called "anglers") as recreational fisheries management stakeholders. In recreational fisheries, fish stocking conducted by anglers has been identified as one important factor associated with declining fish catches. We therefore aimed to a) gain insights into why anglers want to maintain fish stocking and b) identify entry points for interventions to promote more pro-ecological management practices. Results (N = 349) showed that the majority of anglers think very uncritically about stocking and that they frequently engage in it. We conclude that outcome expectancies and beliefs about risks, in combination with a lack of stocking success controls are the main reasons that anglers retain stocking measures. We suggest that providing anglers with direct experience and feedback about stocking success is suitable to change their intentions regarding stocking and their actual stocking behavior, and thus, to promote more pro-ecological management methods. From a more general perspective, the results of this study are likely to help improve pro-ecological ecosystem management in other domains where problems similar to those in recreational fisheries management might exist.
Mahajan, Nalini; Naidu, Padmaja; Kaur, Simran Deep
Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is an important cause of infertility in India. Lack of an accurate diagnostic test has led to an indiscriminate use of antitubercular treatment in infertile women. Apart from concerns of drug toxicity, this may be a contributing factor in the increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant TB reported in India. We conducted a study to analyze whether a combination of tests could help improve diagnostic accuracy. An algorithm for the management of GTB in infertile women based on the use of multiple tests is presented. PMID:27803580
In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.
Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.
It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…
McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer L; Sieck, Cynthia J; Huerta, Timothy R
Objective To improve understanding of facilitators of EHR system implementation, paying particular attention to opportunities to maximize physician adoption and effective deployment. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collected from 47 physician and 35 administrative key informants from six U.S. health care organizations identified because of purported success with EHR implementation. Study Design We conducted interviews and focus groups in an extensive qualitative study. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Verbatim transcripts were analyzed both deductively and inductively using the constant comparative method. Principal Findings Conceptualizing EHR adoption as loss through the lens of Kübler-Ross's five stages of grief model may help individuals and organizations more effectively orient to the challenge of change. Coupled with Kotter's eight-step change management framework, we offer a structure to facilitate organizations' movement through the EHR implementation journey. Combining insights from these frameworks, we identify 10 EHR strategies that can help address EHR implementation barriers. Conclusions Loss is one part of change often overlooked. Addressing it directly and compassionately can potentially facilitate the EHR implementation journey. We offer a summarized list of deployment strategies that are sensitive to these issues to support physician transition to new technologies that will bring value to clinical practice. PMID:25219627
Aziato, Lydia; Adejumo, Oluyinka
Nurses form an indispensable part of the clinical team that manages postoperative pain (POP). Within a particular clinical context, nurses perceive and respond to pain based on specific factors. This study aimed at illuminating the perceptions and responses of Ghanaian surgical nurses regarding their patients' POP. It also identified the factors that influenced nurses' pain responses. A focused ethnography was used, and data were collected through individual interviews. Sampling was performed purposively to include junior, senior, day, and night nurses who cared for surgical patients. Concurrent data analysis was performed and data were saturated with 12 individual interviews. The findings indicated that nurses perceived POP as an individual phenomenon, and nurses responded to patients' pain by administering analgesics and by using nonpharmacologic measures. Factors that influenced the nurses' response were individual factors, such as commitment, discretion, fear of addiction, and organizational factors, such as organizational laxity and challenges of teamwork. The study recommended that nurses should be educated, supported, and encouraged to ensure pain relief after surgery and that they should see pain relief as a priority postoperative care to avert the negative repercussions of poorly managed POP.
Srinivasaiah, Nishant M.; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Sinha, Anindya
Background A dearth in understanding the behavior of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at the scale of populations and individuals has left important management issues, particularly related to human-elephant conflict (HEC), unresolved. Evaluation of differences in behavior and decision-making among individual elephants across groups in response to changing local ecological settings is essential to fill this gap in knowledge and to improve our approaches towards the management and conservation of elephants. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesized certain behavioral decisions that would be made by Asian elephants as reflected in their residence time and movement rates, time-activity budgets, social interactions and group dynamics in response to resource availability and human disturbance in their habitat. This study is based on 200 h of behavioral observations on 60 individually identified elephants and a 184-km2 grid-based survey of their natural and anthropogenic habitats within and outside the Bannerghatta National Park, southern India during the dry season. At a general population level, the behavioral decisions appeared to be guided by the gender, age and group-type of the elephants. At the individual level, the observed variation could be explained only by the idiosyncratic behaviors of individuals and that of their associating conspecific individuals. Recursive partitioning classification trees for residence time of individual elephants indicated that the primary decisions were taken by individuals, independently of their above-mentioned biological and ecological attributes. Conclusions/Significance Decision-making by Asian elephants thus appears to be determined at two levels, that of the population and, more importantly, the individual. Models based on decision-making by individual elephants have the potential to predict conflict in fragmented landscapes that, in turn, could aid in mitigating HEC. Thus, we must target individuals, in addition to
Debele, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Parlange, J.
Models have long been used in water resources management to guide decision making and improve understanding of the system. Numerous models of different scales -spatial and temporal - are available. Yet, very few models manage to bridge simulations of hydrological and water quality parameters from both upland watershed and riverine system. Most water quality models, such as QUAL2E and EPD-RIV1 concentrate on the riverine system while CE-QUAL-W2 and WASP models focus on larger waterbodies, such as lakes and reservoirs. On the other hand, the original SWAT model, HSPF and other upland watershed hydrological models simulate agricultural (diffuse) pollution sources with limited number of processes incorporated to handle point source pollutions that emanate from industrial sectors. Such limitations, which are common in most hydrodynamic and water quality models undermine better understanding that otherwise could be uncovered by employing integrated hydrological and water quality models for both upland watershed and riverine system. The SWAT model is a well documented and verified hydrological and water quality model that has been developed to simulate the effects of various management scenarios on the health of the environment in terms of water quantity and quality. Recently, the SWAT model has been extended to include the simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality parameters in the river system. The extended SWAT model (ESWAT) has been further extended to run using diurnally varying (hourly) weather data and produce outputs at hourly timescales. This and other improvements in the ESWAT model have been documented in the current work. Besides, the results from two case studies in Texas will be reported.
Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R
Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives.
Kevin M. Kostelnik, Ph.D.; James H. Clarke, Ph. D.
Contaminants remaining on sites after regulatory-approved environmental remediation operations are complete represent continued risk to human health and the environment. Many sites require continued management efforts to: (1) protect the integrity of the engineered remedy/control, (2) limit the exposure of individuals to residual contamination by limiting reuse activities, (3) maintain ready access to accurate records/information, and (4) protect against vulnerabilities from intentional threats/actions. This paper presents performance information from selected case studies to provide insight into various management approaches employed for addressing the risks associated with residual contaminants. The case studies involve sites remediated within the U.S. CERCLA framework, and illustrate two prevailing management approaches for addressing the risks. Sacrifice Zones are sites that are purposefully isolated to prevent human access onto the property. Reuse Sites provide limited access for specific use.
Michael, Steve O.
Analysis of over 100 technology audits conducted by graduate students in Ohio K-12 school organizations yielded insights into best practices that school leaders may find useful, including attention to user access rate, leadership promise, technology planning, staff development, technical support, strategic hardware and software procurement,…
Calyk, Muammer; Ayas, Alipa; Ebenezer, Jazlin V.
This study has reviewed the last two decades of student conception research in solution chemistry pertaining to aims, methods of exploring students' conception, general knowledge claims, students' conceptions and difficulties, and conceptual change studies. The aims of solution chemistry studies have been to assess students' understanding level of…
Crabtree, Michael D.; Dahal, Liza; Wicky, Basile I. M.; Clarke, Jane
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are characterized by a lack of persistent structure. Since their identification more than a decade ago, many questions regarding their functional relevance and interaction mechanisms remain unanswered. Although most experiments have taken equilibrium and structural perspectives, fewer studies have investigated the kinetics of their interactions. Here we review and highlight the type of information that can be gained from kinetic studies. In particular, we show how kinetic studies of coupled folding and binding reactions, an important class of signaling event, are needed to determine mechanisms. PMID:26851275
Engh, John A; Friis, Svein; Birkenaes, Astrid B; Jónsdóttir, Halldóra; Ringen, Petter A; Ruud, Torleif; Sundet, Kjetil S; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Andreassen, Ole A
Background Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) has been designed for assessment of self-reflection on patients' anomalous experiences and interpretations of own beliefs. The scale has been developed and validated for patients with schizophrenia. We wanted to study the utility of the scale for patients with bipolar disorder. The relationship between the BCIS as a measure of cognitive insight and established methods for assessment of insight of illness was explored in both diagnostic groups. Methods The BCIS self-report inventory was administered to patients with schizophrenia (n = 143), bipolar disorder (n = 92) and controls (n = 64). The 15 items of the inventory form two subscales, self-reflectiveness and self-certainty. Results The internal consistency of the subscales was good for the patient groups and the controls. The mean subscale scores were not significantly different for the three groups. Four items in subscale self-reflectiveness referring to psychotic experiences gave, however, different results in the control subjects. Self-certainty and scores on insight item PANSS correlated significantly in the schizophrenia, but not in the bipolar group. Conclusion BCIS with its two subscales seems applicable for patients with bipolar disorder as well as for patients with schizophrenia. The self-report inventory can also be applied to control subjects if the items referring to psychotic experiences are omitted. In schizophrenia high scores on self-certainty is possibly associated with poor insight of illness. For the bipolar group the subscales are largely independent of traditional insight measures. PMID:18072961
Yarrow, Maurice; McCann, Karen M.; DeVivo, Adrian
The Information Power Grid Virtual Laboratory (ILab) is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) graphical-user-interface computer program that generates shell scripts to facilitate parametric studies performed on the Grid. (The Grid denotes a worldwide network of supercomputers used for scientific and engineering computations involving data sets too large to fit on desktop computers.) Heretofore, parametric studies on the Grid have been impeded by the need to create control language scripts and edit input data files painstaking tasks that are necessary for managing multiple jobs on multiple computers. ILab reflects an object-oriented approach to automation of these tasks: All data and operations are organized into packages in order to accelerate development and debugging. A container or document object in ILab, called an experiment, contains all the information (data and file paths) necessary to define a complex series of repeated, sequenced, and/or branching processes. For convenience and to enable reuse, this object is serialized to and from disk storage. At run time, the current ILab experiment is used to generate required input files and shell scripts, create directories, copy data files, and then both initiate and monitor the execution of all computational processes.
Siddall, Mark; Clark, Peter; Thompson, Bill; Waelbroeck, Claire; Gregory, Jonathan; Stocker, Thomas
Empirical Constraints on Future Sea Level Rise; Bern, Switzerland, 25-29 August 2008; Eustatic sea level (ESL) rise during the 21st century is perhaps the greatest threat from climate change, but its magnitude is contested. Geological records identify examples of nonlinear ice sheet response to climate forcing, suggesting a strategy for refining estimates of 21st-century sea level change. In August 2008, Past Global Changes (PAGES), International Marine Past Global Change Study (IMAGES), and the University of Bern cosponsored a workshop to address this possibility. The workshop highlighted several ways that paleoceanography studies can place limits on future sea level rise, and these are enlarged upon here.
Charles, Eric P; Rowland, Nicholas J; Long, Brooke; Yarrison, Fritz
Our research on non-religion supports the proposed shift toward more interactive models of prejudice. Being nonreligious is easily hideable and, increasingly, of low salience, leading to experiences not easily understood via traditional or contemporary frameworks for studying prejudice and prejudice reduction. This context affords new opportunity to observe reverse forms of interactive prejudice, which can interfere with prejudice reduction.
Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.
The use of longitudinal neuroimaging to study the developmental perspectives of brain pathology in children with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is described. Structural neuroimaging is capable of providing evidence of neurobiological specificity of COS to distinguish it from other brain abnormalities seen in neuropsychiatric illnesses like…
de Brito Alves, José L.; de Sousa, Vanessa P.; Cavalcanti Neto, Marinaldo P.; Magnani, Marciane; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; da Costa-Silva, João H.; Leandro, Carol G.; Vidal, Hubert; Pirola, Luciano
Arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the most prevalent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CD) and is the main cause of deaths worldwide. Current research establish that dietary polyphenols may help to lower blood pressure (BP), thus contributing to the reduction of cardiovascular complications. In addition, the health benefits of probiotics on BP have also attracted increased attention, as probiotics administration modulates the microbiota, which, by interacting with ingested polyphenols, controls their bioavalability. The aim of the present mini-review is to summarize and clarify the effects of dietary polyphenols and probiotics administration on BP using combined evidence from clinical and experimental studies, as well as to discuss the current debate in the literature about the usefulness of this nutritional approach to manage BP. Clinical trials and experimental studies have demonstrated that consuming dietary polyphenols or probiotics in adequate amounts may improve BP, ranging from modest to greater effects. However, the mechanisms linking probiotic intake and reduced BP levels need to be further elucidated as a definitive consensus on the link between intake of polyphenols or probiotics and improvement of AH has not been reached yet. PMID:27766081
Davis, Heather A.; Summers, Jessica J.; Miller, Lauren M.
Like having a hidden camera in other teachers' classrooms, An Interpersonal Approach to Classroom Management engages you from the start by contrasting how two teachers respond differently to common situations. The authors expertly bridge the gap between educational psychology and peer and student-teacher management from the perspectives of student…
Graham, Hilary; Flemming, Kate; Fox, David; Heirs, Morag; Sowden, Amanda
The adverse effects of smoking in pregnancy are minimised if the mother quits completely in early pregnancy. Smokers are therefore advised to quit abruptly; cutting down is not recommended either as a method of, or alternative to, quitting. However, most pregnant smokers do not quit and cutting down is widely reported. Evidence comes primarily from quantitative studies; qualitative research has contributed little to understandings of cigarette consumption in pregnancy. In consequence, little is known about the place and meaning of cutting down for pregnant smokers. The paper investigates this important dimension of maternal smoking. It explores perceptions and experiences of cutting down among pregnant smokers by examining data from a systematic review of qualitative studies of smoking in pregnancy. The studies were located in high-income countries and published between 1970 and 2012. Twenty-six studies, reported in 29 papers, were included, representing over 640 women. Meta-ethnography guided the analysis and synthesis. Data (participants' accounts and authors' interpretations) were extracted and coded; codes were progressively combined to identify overarching themes ('lines of argument'). Running through the lines of argument was evidence on cutting down; the paper presents and analyses this evidence. The analysis indicates that cutting down figured centrally as both a method of quitting and, for persistent smokers, a method of harm reduction. While pregnant women were aware that official advice was to quit abruptly, cutting down was seen as a positive behaviour change in often-difficult domestic circumstances, and one that health professionals condoned. Our findings suggest that cutting down in pregnancy, as an aid and an alternative to quitting, requires greater recognition if healthcare and tobacco control policies are to be sensitive to the perspectives and circumstances of pregnant smokers.
Flajnik, M F; Ohta, Y; Namikawa-Yamada, C; Nonaka, M
MHC classical class I and class II genes have been identified in representative species from all major jawed vertebrate taxa, the oldest group being the cartilaginous fish, whereas no class I/II genes of any type have been detected in animals from older taxa. Among ectothermic vertebrate classes, studies of MHC architecture have been done in cartilaginous fish (sharks), bony fish (several teleost species), and amphibians (the frog Xenopus). The Xenopus MHC contains class I, class II, and class III genes, demonstrating that all of these genes were linked in the ancestor of the tetrapods, but the gene order is not the same as that in mouse/man. Studies of polyploid Xenopus suggest that MHC genes can be differentially silenced when multiple copies are present; i.e. MHC 'subregions' can be silenced. Surprisingly, in all teleosts examined to date class I and class II genes are not linked. Likewise, class III genes like the complement genes factor B (Bf) and C4 are scattered throughout the genome of teleosts. However, the presumed classical class I genes are closely linked to the 'immune' proteasome genes, LMP2 and LMP7, and to the peptide-transporter genes (TAP), implying that a true 'class I region' exists in this group. A similar type of linkage group is found in chickens and perhaps Xenopus, and thus it may reveal the ancestral organization of class I-associated genes. In cartilaginous fish, classical and non-classical class I genes have been isolated from three shark species, and class II A and B chain genes from nurse sharks. Studies of MHC linkage in sharks are being carried out to provide further understanding of the putative primordial organization of MHC Segregation studies in one shark family point to linkage of classical class I and class II genes, suggesting that the non-linkage of these genes in teleosts is a derived characteristic.
Ferguson-Smith, Anne; Lin, Shau-Ping; Tsai, Chen-En; Youngson, Neil; Tevendale, Maxine
A subset of mammalian genes is controlled by genomic imprinting. This process causes a gene to be expressed from only one chromosome homologue depending on whether it originally came from the egg or the sperm. Parental origin-specific gene regulation is controlled by epigenetic modifications to DNA and chromatin. Genomic imprinting is therefore a useful model system to study the epigenetic control of genome function. Here we consider the value of the mouse as an experimental organism to address questions about the role of imprinted genes, about the regulation of mono-allelic gene expression and about the evolution of the imprinting function and mechanism.
The number of obese patients is increasing in Japan, due to the westernization of lifestyle. Obesity, especially visceral fat obesity, is important for the development of metabolic syndrome. Genetic factors are important for the development of obesity as well as environmental factors. Importance of genetic factors of fat distribution is also reported. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed the obesity and fat distribution-related polymorphisms. GWAS will highlight a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms in the regulation of obesity and distribution of body fat.
Kiernan, Kathleen; Smith, Kate
This study uses information from the Millennium Cohort Study to examine the characteristics of families where children are born within a marriage, within a cohabiting union or outside of a co-residential partnership. For this latter group, for the first time in a national data set, an assessment can be made of the 'strength' of the parent's relationship at the time of the birth. We show that the context of childbearing varies with respect to geography, ethnicity, age, parity and educational status of the mother, and that the socioeconomic wellbeing of families varies according to the partnership status of their parents. A closer look at the non-partnered parents shows that the extent to which the fathers were involved with the mother of the child around the time the baby was born was related to the presence of the father at the birth of the child and whether his name was recorded on the child's birth certificate; as well as to subsequent behaviour, such as, whether they moved in with the mother, saw their children on a regular basis or contributed money to the child's maintenance.
Good, Kimberley P; Sullivan, Randii Lynn
Olfactory deficits on measures of identification, familiarity, and memory are consistently noted in patients with psychotic disorders relative to age-matched controls. Olfactory intensity ratings, however, appear to remain intact while the data on hedonics and detection threshold are inconsistent. Despite the behavioral abnormalities noted, no specific regional brain hypoactivity has been identified in psychosis patients, for any of the olfactory domains. However, an intriguing finding emerged from this review in that the amygdala and pirifom cortices were not noted to be abnormal in hedonic processing (nor was the amygdala identified abnormal in any study) in psychotic disorders. This finding is in contrast to the literature in healthy individuals, in that this brain region is strongly implicated in olfactory processing (particularly for unpleasant odorants). Secondary olfactory cortex (orbitofrontal cortices, thalamus, and insula) was abnormally activated in the studies examined, particularly for hedonic processing. Further research, using consistent methodology, is required for better understanding the neurobiology of olfactory deficits. The authors suggest taking age and sex differences into consideration and further contrasting olfactory subgroups (impaired vs intact) to better our understanding of the heterogeneity of psychotic disorders. PMID:26110122
Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik
Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates. PMID:26791619
Jickling, Glen C; Liu, DaZhi; Ander, Bradley P; Stamova, Boryana; Zhan, Xinhua; Sharp, Frank R
Neutrophils have key roles in ischemic brain injury, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. As such, neutrophils are of great interest as targets to treat and prevent ischemic stroke. After stroke, neutrophils respond rapidly promoting blood–brain barrier disruption, cerebral edema, and brain injury. A surge of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species, proteases, and cytokines are released as neutrophils interact with cerebral endothelium. Neutrophils also are linked to the major processes that cause ischemic stroke, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Thrombosis is promoted through interactions with platelets, clotting factors, and release of prothrombotic molecules. In atherosclerosis, neutrophils promote plaque formation and rupture by generating oxidized-low density lipoprotein, enhancing monocyte infiltration, and degrading the fibrous cap. In experimental studies targeting neutrophils can improve stroke. However, early human studies have been met with challenges, and suggest that selective targeting of neutrophils may be required. Several properties of neutrophil are beneficial and thus may important to preserve in patients with stroke including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and neuroprotective functions. PMID:25806703
Liabeuf, Sophie; Drüeke, Tilman B; Massy, Ziad A
The uremic syndrome is attributed to the progressive retention of a large number of compounds which, under normal conditions, are excreted by healthy kidneys. The compounds are called uremic toxins when they interact negatively with biological functions. The present review focuses on a specific class of molecules, namely the family of protein-bound uremic toxins. Recent experimental studies have shown that protein-bound toxins are involved not only in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but also in the generation and aggravation of cardiovascular disease. Two protein-bound uremic retention solutes, namely indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, have been shown to play a prominent role. However, although these two molecules belong to the same class of molecules, exert toxic effects on the cardiovascular system in experimental animals, and accumulate in the serum of patients with CKD they may have different clinical impacts in terms of cardiovascular disease and other complications. The principal aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate retention on CKD patient outcomes, based on recent clinical studies.
Nebuloni, Manuela; Albarello, Luca; Andolfo, Annapaola; Magagnotti, Cinzia; Genovese, Luca; Locatelli, Irene; Tonon, Giovanni; Longhi, Erika; Zerbi, Pietro; Allevi, Raffaele; Podestà, Alessandro; Puricelli, Luca; Milani, Paolo; Soldarini, Armando; Salonia, Andrea; Alfano, Massimo
The extracellular matrix (ECM) from perilesional and colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but not healthy colon, sustains proliferation and invasion of tumor cells. We investigated the biochemical and physical diversity of ECM in pair-wised comparisons of healthy, perilesional and CRC specimens. Progressive linearization and degree of organization of fibrils was observed from healthy to perilesional and CRC ECM, and was associated with a steady increase of stiffness and collagen crosslinking. In the perilesional ECM these modifications coincided with increased vascularization, whereas in the neoplastic ECM they were associated with altered modulation of matrisome proteins, increased content of hydroxylated lysine and lysyl oxidase. This study identifies the increased stiffness and crosslinking of the perilesional ECM predisposing an environment suitable for CRC invasion as a phenomenon associated with vascularization. The increased stiffness of colon areas may represent a new predictive marker of desmoplastic region predisposing to invasion, thus offering new potential application for monitoring adenoma with invasive potential.
Nebuloni, Manuela; Albarello, Luca; Andolfo, Annapaola; Magagnotti, Cinzia; Genovese, Luca; Locatelli, Irene; Tonon, Giovanni; Longhi, Erika; Zerbi, Pietro; Allevi, Raffaele; Podestà, Alessandro; Puricelli, Luca; Milani, Paolo; Soldarini, Armando; Salonia, Andrea; Alfano, Massimo
The extracellular matrix (ECM) from perilesional and colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but not healthy colon, sustains proliferation and invasion of tumor cells. We investigated the biochemical and physical diversity of ECM in pair-wised comparisons of healthy, perilesional and CRC specimens. Progressive linearization and degree of organization of fibrils was observed from healthy to perilesional and CRC ECM, and was associated with a steady increase of stiffness and collagen crosslinking. In the perilesional ECM these modifications coincided with increased vascularization, whereas in the neoplastic ECM they were associated with altered modulation of matrisome proteins, increased content of hydroxylated lysine and lysyl oxidase. This study identifies the increased stiffness and crosslinking of the perilesional ECM predisposing an environment suitable for CRC invasion as a phenomenon associated with vascularization. The increased stiffness of colon areas may represent a new predictive marker of desmoplastic region predisposing to invasion, thus offering new potential application for monitoring adenoma with invasive potential. PMID:26940881
Behr, Jürgen; Kreuter, Michael; Hoeper, Marius M; Wirtz, Hubert; Klotsche, Jens; Koschel, Dirk; Andreas, Stefan; Claussen, Martin; Grohé, Christian; Wilkens, Henrike; Randerath, Winfried; Skowasch, Dirk; Meyer, F Joachim; Kirschner, Joachim; Gläser, Sven; Herth, Felix J F; Welte, Tobias; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Neurohr, Claus; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Höffken, Gert; Held, Matthias; Koch, Andrea; Bahmer, Thomas; Pittrow, David
After introduction of the new international guidelines on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in 2011, we investigated clinical management practices for patients with IPF according to physicians' diagnoses. A prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study with comprehensive quality measures including on-site source data verification was performed in Germany. 502 consecutive patients (171 newly diagnosed, 331 prevalent; mean±SD age 68.7±9.4 years, 77.9% males) with a mean disease duration of 2.3±3.5 years were enrolled. IPF diagnosis was based on clinical assessments and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in 90.2%, and on surgical lung biopsy combined with histology in 34.1% (lavage in 61.8%). The median 6-min walk distance was 320 m (mean 268±200 m). The mean forced vital capacity was 72±20% pred and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was 35±15% pred. No drugs were administered in 17.9%, oral steroids in 23.7%, N-acetylcysteine in 33.7%, pirfenidone in 44.2% and other drugs in 4.6% of patients. Only 2.8% of the cohort was listed for lung transplantation. IPF patients were diagnosed in line with the new guidelines. They had more severe disease than those enrolled in recent randomised controlled trials. In addition to HRCT, the frequency of lung biopsies was surprisingly high. Treatment patterns varied substantially.
Bariana, Tadbir K; Ouwehand, Willem H; Guerrero, Jose A; Gomez, Keith
Inherited disorders of platelet granules are clinically heterogeneous and their prevalence is underestimated because most patients do not undergo a complete diagnostic work-up. The lack of a genetic diagnosis limits the ability to tailor management, screen family members, aid with family planning, predict clinical progression and detect serious consequences, such as myelofibrosis, lung fibrosis and malignancy, in a timely manner. This is set to change with the introduction of high throughput sequencing (HTS) as a routine clinical diagnostic test. HTS diagnostic tests are now available, affordable and allow parallel screening of DNA samples for variants in all of the 80 known bleeding, thrombotic and platelet genes. Increased genetic diagnosis and curation of variants is, in turn, improving our understanding of the pathobiology and clinical course of inherited platelet disorders. Our understanding of the genetic causes of platelet granule disorders and the regulation of granule biogenesis is a work in progress and has been significantly enhanced by recent genomic discoveries from high-powered genome-wide association studies and genome sequencing projects. In the era of whole genome and epigenome sequencing, new strategies are required to integrate multiple sources of big data in the search for elusive, novel genes underlying granule disorders.
Pereiro, J; Bollinger, A T; Logvenov, G; Gozar, A; Panagopoulos, C; Bozović, I
A brief overview is given of the studies of high-temperature interface superconductivity based on atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE). A number of difficult materials science and physics questions have been tackled, frequently at the expense of some technical tour de force, and sometimes even by introducing new techniques. ALL-MBE is especially suitable to address questions related to surface and interface physics. Using this technique, it has been demonstrated that high-temperature superconductivity can occur in a single copper oxide layer-the thinnest superconductor known. It has been shown that interface superconductivity in cuprates is a genuine electronic effect-it arises from charge transfer (electron depletion and accumulation) across the interface driven by the difference in chemical potentials rather than from cation diffusion and mixing. We have also understood the nature of the superconductor-insulator phase transition as a function of doping. However, a few important questions, such as the mechanism of interfacial enhancement of the critical temperature, are still outstanding.
Mindea, Stefan A; Yang, Benson P; Shenkar, Robert; Bendok, Bernard; Batjer, H Hunt; Awad, Issam A
Familial disease is responsible for one third to one half of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) cases presenting to clinical attention. Much has been learned in the past decade about the genetics of these cases, which are all inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, at three known chromosome loci. Unique features of inherited CCMs in Hispanic-Americans of Mexican descent have been described. The respective genes for each locus have been identified and preliminary observations on disease pathways and mechanisms are coming to light, including possible explanations for selectivity of neural milieu and relationships to endothelial layer abnormalities. Mechanisms of lesion genesis in cases of genetic predisposition are being investigated, with evidence to support a two-hit model emerging from somatic mutation screening of the lesions themselves and from lesion formation in transgenic murine models of the disease. Other information on potential inflammatory factors has emerged from differential gene expression studies. Unique phenotypic features of solitary versus familial cases have emerged: different associations with venous developmental anomaly and the exceptionally high penetrance rates that are found in inherited cases when high-sensitivity screening is performed with gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging. This information has changed the landscape of screening and counseling for patients and their families, and promises to lead to the development of new tools for predicting, explaining, and modifying disease behavior.
THREAT EVALUATION, DECISION MAKING), (*STRATEGIC WARFARE, THREAT EVALUATION), (*FOREIGN POLICY, DECISION MAKING), OPERATIONS RESEARCH, MANAGEMENT ...PLANNING AND CONTROL, AERIAL WARFARE, USSR, PERCEPTION, GAME THEORY, WEAPON SYSTEMS , WARFARE, EGYPT, ISRAEL, JORDAN, LEBANON, CUBA, CYPRUS, THEORY, COMMUNISTS, CHINA, SOUTH KOREA, NORTH KOREA.
Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy
Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against
principles to manage biological and physical systems in a manner that safeguards the long-term ecological sustainability, natural diversity, and...focus on ecosystem management (e.g., biodiversity conservation; restoration of native ecological systems). In all fairness, such a judgment would be...decisions. Regardless of which view one adheres to, a region can be defined along multiple dimensions—biological, physical , socio -cultural and economic. The
Alldredge, Alice L.; Gotschalk, Chris; Passow, Uta; Riebesell, Ulf
While the aggregation and mass settlement of diatoms at the termination of blooms results in significant export of carbon from the surface ocean, the mechanisms of bloom aggregation have been poorly understood. The aggregation of a multispecies diatom bloom was investigated under controlled conditions in a 1200 liter, nutrient-enriched, laboratory mesocosm in order to elucidate the parameters sufficient to accurately predict bloom aggregation. A diverse bloom of diatoms dominated by several species of Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira progressed through a classic pattern of exponential, stationary, and senescent phases in the mesocosm. Aggregates larger than 0.5 mm became detectable on the eighth day after inoculation, and aggregates >1 mm increased exponentially from Day 10 onward producing the appearance of a mass aggregation event late on Day 10. The bloom aggregated sequentially with Thalassiosira dominating early aggregates and Chaetoceros dominating later ones. Chaetoceros resting spores formed only in aggregates. Aggregation was not linked to nutrient depletion or to the physiological state of the cells since the onset of aggregation and the mass aggregation event occurred 1 to 3 days prior to nutrient depletion and while carbon:nitrogen ratios of cells were still very low and growth rates high. Moreover, visible aggregates did not form in the mesocosm until cell abundances were considerably higher than abundances observed to aggregate in nature, suggesting that aggregation was not strongly linked to phytoplankton cell concentration. Complementary studies in this volume clarify the role of non-phytoplankton particles in aggregation of the mesocosm bloom. The mesocosm approach proved highly effective in producing an aggregating diatom bloom under controlled conditions.
van Dyk, Silke
When it comes to old age, we are witnessing almost revolutionary changes at the present time. After decades of ignorance and lack of public interest, old age has fundamentally been re-negotiated. A diverse range of authors have diagnosed the growing bifurcation of old age into a rather independent and capable Third Age and a deep old Fourth Age that is characterized by sickness, frailty and dependency. Against this backdrop, many gerontologists claim that the so-called young-old are praised and valued for their (ongoing) "sameness" in terms of midlife-norms and capabilities, whereas the oldest old are increasingly excluded from humanity by radical "othering". Taking up this diagnosis, the article elaborates on this growing polarization within later life: Based on empirical research on the re-negotiation of old age in Germany, this contribution argues that the juxtaposition of "sameness" and "otherness" obscures the true character of the polarization, particularly with regard to the social role of the Third Age. Instead of sameness and otherness, we rather witness different processes of othering, with the young-old being valued as the other and the oldest old being disdained as the other. Despite the existence of profound critical analyses of the abjection associated with the Fourth Age as well as a considerable amount of literature on old age activation and the new role of the young-old, the specific point of this article's concern-the othering of the Third Age-has been completely neglected. The article discusses the reasons for this gap in more detail and will indicate to what extent concepts from Postcolonial Studies may help us to understand the dual process of othering-glorification and abjection.
Martínez-González, Miguel A; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Ros, Emilio
The PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) multicenter, randomized, primary prevention trial assessed the long-term effects of the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) on clinical events of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We randomized 7447 men and women at high CVD risk into three diets: MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), MeDiet supplemented with nuts, and control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). No energy restriction and no special intervention on physical activity were applied. We observed 288 CVD events (a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or CVD death) during a median time of 4.8years; hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% CI, 0.53-0.91) for the MeDiet+EVOO and 0.70 (CI, 0.53-0.94) for the MeDiet+nuts compared to the control group. Respective hazard ratios for incident diabetes (273 cases) among 3541 non-diabetic participants were 0.60 (0.43-0.85) and 0.82 (0.61-1.10) for MeDiet+EVOO and MeDiet+nuts, respectively versus control. Significant improvements in classical and emerging CVD risk factors also supported a favorable effect of both MeDiets on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, lipoprotein particles, inflammation, oxidative stress, and carotid atherosclerosis. In nutrigenomic studies beneficial effects of the intervention with MedDiets showed interactions with several genetic variants (TCF7L2, APOA2, MLXIPL, LPL, FTO, M4CR, COX-2, GCKR and SERPINE1) with respect to intermediate and final phenotypes. Thus, the PREDIMED trial provided strong evidence that a vegetable-based MeDiet rich in unsaturated fat and polyphenols can be a sustainable and ideal model for CVD prevention.
Revolutionary theoretical concepts derived from experimental evolution have reached the realm of plant viruses, and their empirical demonstration is opening new avenues for disease management. From a populational standpoint, plant viruses and viroids constitute dynamic spectra of variants. The frequ...
Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A
The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.
Wooten, Kevin C.; Dann, Sara M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kotarba, Joseph A.
The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle. PMID:25621288
Kreuter, Michael; Hoeper, Marius M.; Wirtz, Hubert; Klotsche, Jens; Koschel, Dirk; Andreas, Stefan; Claussen, Martin; Grohé, Christian; Wilkens, Henrike; Randerath, Winfried; Skowasch, Dirk; Meyer, F. Joachim; Kirschner, Joachim; Gläser, Sven; Herth, Felix J.F.; Welte, Tobias; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Neurohr, Claus; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Höffken, Gert; Held, Matthias; Koch, Andrea; Bahmer, Thomas; Pittrow, David
After introduction of the new international guidelines on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in 2011, we investigated clinical management practices for patients with IPF according to physicians' diagnoses. A prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study with comprehensive quality measures including on-site source data verification was performed in Germany. 502 consecutive patients (171 newly diagnosed, 331 prevalent; mean±sd age 68.7±9.4 years, 77.9% males) with a mean disease duration of 2.3±3.5 years were enrolled. IPF diagnosis was based on clinical assessments and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in 90.2%, and on surgical lung biopsy combined with histology in 34.1% (lavage in 61.8%). The median 6-min walk distance was 320 m (mean 268±200 m). The mean forced vital capacity was 72±20% pred and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was 35±15% pred. No drugs were administered in 17.9%, oral steroids in 23.7%, N-acetylcysteine in 33.7%, pirfenidone in 44.2% and other drugs in 4.6% of patients. Only 2.8% of the cohort was listed for lung transplantation. IPF patients were diagnosed in line with the new guidelines. They had more severe disease than those enrolled in recent randomised controlled trials. In addition to HRCT, the frequency of lung biopsies was surprisingly high. Treatment patterns varied substantially. PMID:25837040
Dittrich, Maria; Markovic, Stefan; Cadena, Sandra; Doan, Phuong T. K.; Watson, Sue; Mugalingam, Shan
Phosphorus is an indispensable nutrient for organisms in aquatic systems and its availability often controls primary productivity. At the sediment-water interface, intensive microbiological, geochemical and physical processes determine the fraction of organic matter, nutrients and pollutants released into the overlying water. Therefore, detailed understanding of the processes occurring in the top centimeters of the sediment is essential for the assessment of water quality and the management of surface waters. In cases where measurements are impossible or expensive, diagenetic modelling is required to investigate the interplay among the processes, verify concepts and predict potential system behavior. The main aims of this study are to identify and predict the dynamics of phosphorus (P) in sediments and gain insight into the mechanism of P release from sediments under varying environmental conditions. We measured redox, O2 and pH profiles with micro-sensors at the sediment-water interface; analyzed phosphate and metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Ca) content in pore waters collected using in situ samplers, so called "peepers"; determined P binding forms using sequential extraction and analyzed metals associated with each fraction. Following the sediment analysis, P binding forms were divided in five groups: inert, carbonate-bound, organic, redox-sensitive, and labile P. Using the flux of organic and inorganic matter as dynamic boundary conditions, the diagenetic model simulates P internal loading and predicts P retention. This presentation will discuss the results of two years studies on P dynamics at the sediment-water interface in three different lakes ranging from heavy-polluted Hamilton Harbor and Bay of Quinte to pristine Georgian Bay in Ontario, Canada.
Russell, Alexander; Hindshaw, Ruth
The management of water resources is rapidly becoming one of the most important issues affecting many societies worldwide. The chemical components of a river are often not directly related to discharge, instead the water chemistry and transit time of a catchment are a function of several parameters including the flow pathways, water sources and the storage of water within a catchment. There is a need to constrain the parameters controlling hydrochemistry if water resources are to be managed efficiently and be protected from anthropogenic influences. This study will present experimental analysis of a small catchment, focusing on the relationship between discharge and hydrochemistry; tracing water sources through the investigation of the hydrochemistry, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr composition of rain water, groundwater, and stream water. This study focuses on the River Lagan catchment in Northern Ireland. The lower catchment of the river surrounds the city of Belfast, where it drains into the sea. However, the upper catchment (84.6 km2) is noted to be a natural regime, unaffected by damming and, as such, should provide an ideal opportunity to gain insight into the natural hydrochemistry and hydrologic pathways of the catchment. The bedrock of the area is dominated by the Southern Uplands-Down-Longford Terrane, consisting of greywacke sandstone and mudstone successions. Geochemical data obtained from the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland (GSNI), focusing on stream sediment and soils, suggests there is minimal geochemical variation throughout the upper catchment. The response of the catchment to rainfall was investigated through a time series, recorded during July and August 2014. This time series included a more intensive hourly series, taken over a period of 24 hours, during a forecast rain event. Potential end-members were also sampled: shallow groundwater samples were taken from a well and regular rain samples were collected. Spatial variability within the catchment
Oxley, Rebecca; Macnaughton, Jane
Purpose of review Breathlessness can be debilitating for those with chronic conditions, requiring continual management. Yet, the meaning of breathlessness for those who live with it is poorly understood in respect of its subjective, cultural, and experiential significance. This article discusses a number of current issues in understanding the experience of breathlessness. Recent findings Effective communication concerning the experience of breathlessness is crucial for diagnosis, to identify appropriate treatment, and to provide patients with the capacity to self-manage their condition. However, there is an evident disconnect between the way breathlessness is understood between clinical and lay perspectives, in terms of awareness of breathlessness, the way symptoms are expressed, and acknowledgement of how it affects the daily lives of patients. Summary The review highlights the need for integrated multidisciplinary work on breathlessness, and suggests that effective understanding and management of breathlessness considers its wider subjective and social significance. PMID:27490147
Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.
Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…
Rupa, Megha; Girimaji, Satish; Muthuswamy, Selvi; Jacob, Preeti; Ravi, Malavika
Anorexia nervosa is a rare but sever psychiatric disorder in adolescence, with chronicity and death being the most feared consequence. Emotional Insight into one's problem is considered a key determinant of success in therapy. The following case study of a 14-year-old client, describes the process of therapy as it unfolded across 45 sessions. An…
Roessingh, Hetty; Elgie, Susan
This article reports on the preliminary findings of a two-staged empirical study aimed at gaining insights into the variables salient in the early language and literacy development of young English language learners (ELL). Increasingly, young ELL, whether foreign-born or Canadian-born, arrive at school with little developed English-language…
Finger, Glenn; Houguet, Belinda
This study, embedded within the "Researching School Change in Technology Education" (RSCTE) project in Queensland, Australia, aimed to gain insights into the intrinsic and extrinsic challenges experienced by teachers during the implementation of technology education within primary school settings. The official publication and launch of…
Case Study of Insight Homes who built 36 identical houses, three at a time, with increasing energy-efficiency measures in each generation until they arrived at the most cost-effective mix. Advanced framing and high-efficiency HVAC located in a sealed, insulated crawlspace helped them achieve a HERS scores of 49 to 56 and average utility bills of $93 per year.
Kalaitzidou, I; Venetikou, M S; Konstadinidis, K; Artemiadis, A K; Chrousos, G; Darviri, C
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a complex disorder with various biopsychosocial implications leading the individual into a state of chronic stress that further worsens ED symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a 8-week stress management programme on erectile dysfunction (ED). A convenience sample of 31 newly diagnosed men with ED, aged between 20 and 55 years, was recruited during a period of 5 months to receive either tadalafil (12 patients) or tadalafil and the 8-week stress management programme. Both groups showed statistical significant improvement of both perceived stress and erectile function scores. Men practising stress management showed a statistical significant reduction in perceived stress score compared with men receiving tadalafil alone. No other statistical significant differences were noted between the two groups, although the stress management group showed a lower daily exposure to cortisol compared with the control group after 8 weeks. Finally, perceived stress and cortisol showed some interesting correlations with sexual function measurements. These findings provide important insight into the role of stress management, as part of the recommended biopsychosocial approach, in ED. Future studies should focus on randomised, controlled trials with larger samples and longer follow-up time.
White, Lori S.
This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…
Hardware and software products and technologies that are available for implementation in the early space station data management system (DMS) design are expected to have limited capabilities in such areas as system performance, capacity, and throughput. With the anticipated growth in operations and payload user requirements during the space station's operational phase, a knowledge base of technological advancements and their possible incorporation into the DMS design will be maintained. System growth and technologies insertion issues for DMS design and development are addressed.
Erez, Offer; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Thachil, Jecko
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a life-threatening situation that can arise from a variety of obstetrical and nonobstetrical causes. Obstetrical DIC has been associated with a series of pregnancy complications including the following: (1) acute peripartum hemorrhage (uterine atony, cervical and vaginal lacerations, and uterine rupture); (2) placental abruption; (3) preeclampsia/eclampsia/hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome; (4) retained stillbirth; (5) septic abortion and intrauterine infection; (6) amniotic ﬂuid embolism; and (7) acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Prompt diagnosis and understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease leading to this complication in essential for a favorable outcome. In recent years, novel diagnostic scores and treatment modalities along with bedside point-of-care tests were developed and may assist the clinician in the diagnosis and management of DIC. Team work and prompt treatment are essential for the successful management of patients with DIC.
Houdret, Annabelle; Dombrowsky, Ines; Horlemann, Lena
River Basin Management (RBM) as an approach to sustainable water use has become the dominant model of water governance. Its introduction, however, entails a fundamental realignment and rescaling of water-sector institutions along hydrological boundaries. Creating such a new governance scale is inherently political, and is being described as politics of scale. This paper analyzes how the politics of scale play out in the institutionalization of RBM in Mongolia. It furthermore scrutinizes the role of the broader political decentralization process in the introduction of RBM, an issue that has so far received little attention. Finally, it assesses whether the river basin is an adequate water management scale in Mongolia. This article finds that institutionalizing RBM in Mongolia is indeed a highly political negotiation process that does not only concern the choice of the governance scale, but also its detailed institutional design. It furthermore reveals that Mongolia's incomplete political decentralization process has for a long time negatively impacted the decentralization of water-related tasks and the implementation of RBM. However, the 2011 Budget Law and the 2012 Water Law provide for a fiscal strengthening of local governments and clearer sharing of responsibilities among the various different institutions involved in water management. Nevertheless, only if the 2012 Water Law is complemented by adequate by-laws - and if the newly created river basin institutions are adequately equipped - can RBM be effectively put into practice. This article confirms the usefulness of a politics-of-scale approach to understand scalar practices and changes in water management. However, the article also argues for a broadening of the analytical perspective to take the interdependencies between changes in water governance and other political processes, such as decentralization, into account.
Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Smith, S.K.
This report evaluates the available technical information and field experience related to management of aging damage to light water reactor metal containments. A generic aging management approach is suggested for the effective and comprehensive aging management of metal containments to ensure their safe operation. The major concern is corrosion of the embedded portion of the containment vessel and detection of this damage. The electromagnetic acoustic transducer and half-cell potential measurement are potential techniques to detect corrosion damage in the embedded portion of the containment vessel. Other corrosion-related concerns include inspection of corrosion damage on the inaccessible side of BWR Mark I and Mark II containment vessels and corrosion of the BWR Mark I torus and emergency core cooling system piping that penetrates the torus, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking of the penetration bellows. Fatigue-related concerns include reduction in the fatigue life (a) of a vessel caused by roughness of the corroded vessel surface and (b) of bellows because of any physical damage. Maintenance of surface coatings and sealant at the metal-concrete interface is the best protection against corrosion of the vessel.
Richmond, Laurie; Middleton, Beth Rose; Gilmer, Robert; Grossman, Zoltán; Janis, Terry; Lucero, Stephanie; Morgan, Tukoroirangi; Watson, Annette
This article describes the increasing connections between the fields of Indigenous studies and environmental management and examines some of the ways that an Indigenous studies perspective can guide thinking about environmental management. Indigenous groups have been involved in the management of environmental and natural resources on their lands since time immemorial. Indigenous groups have also become increasingly involved in Western practices of environmental management with the advent of co-management institutions, subsistence boards, traditional ecological knowledge forums, and environmental issues affecting Indigenous resources. Thus, it is an important time for scholarship that explores how Indigenous groups are both shaping and being affected by processes of environmental management. This article summarizes key findings and themes from eight papers situated at the intersection of these two fields of study and identify means by which environmental managers can better accommodate Indigenous rights and perspectives. It is the authors’ hope that increased dialog between Indigenous studies and environmental management can contribute to the building of sustainable and socially just environmental management practices.
Nickel, J Curtis; Alexander, Richard B; Anderson, Rodney; Berger, Richard; Comiter, Craig V; Datta, Nand S; Fowler, Jackson E; Krieger, John N; Landis, J Richard; Litwin, Mark S; McNaughton-Collins, Mary; O'Leary, Michael P; Pontari, Michel A; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Shoskes, Daniel A; White, Paige; Kusek, John; Nyberg, Leroy
Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome remains an enigmatic medical condition. Creation of the National Institutes of Health-funded Chronic Prostatitis Collaborative Research Network (CPCRN) has stimulated a renewed interest in research on and clinical aspects of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Landmark publications of the CPCRN document a decade of progress. Insights from these CPCRN studies have improved our management of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and offer hope for continued progress.
McDonald, Birgitte I; Ponganis, Paul J
The management and depletion of O2 stores underlie the aerobic dive capacities of marine mammals. The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) presumably optimizes O2 store management during all dives, but approaches its physiological limits during deep dives to greater than 300 m depth. Blood O2 comprises the largest component of total body O2 stores in adult sea lions. Therefore, we investigated venous blood O2 depletion during dives of California sea lions during maternal foraging trips to sea by: (1) recording venous partial pressure of O2 (P(O2)) profiles during dives, (2) characterizing the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of sea lion Hb and (3) converting the P(O2) profiles into percent Hb saturation (S(O2)) profiles using the dissociation curve. The O2-Hb dissociation curve was typical of other pinnipeds (P50=28±2 mmHg at pH 7.4). In 43% of dives, initial venous S(O2) values were greater than 78% (estimated resting venous S(O2)), indicative of arterialization of venous blood. Blood O2 was far from depleted during routine shallow dives, with minimum venous S(O2) values routinely greater than 50%. However, in deep dives greater than 4 min in duration, venous S(O2) reached minimum values below 5% prior to the end of the dive, but then increased during the last 30-60 s of ascent. These deep dive profiles were consistent with transient venous blood O2 depletion followed by partial restoration of venous O2 through pulmonary gas exchange and peripheral blood flow during ascent. These differences in venous O2 profiles between shallow and deep dives of sea lions reflect distinct strategies of O2 store management and suggest that underlying cardiovascular responses will also differ.
Łukowiak, Remigiusz; Grzebisz, Witold; Sassenrath, Gretchen F
This manuscript presents research results examining phosphorus (P) management in a soil–plant system for three variables: i) internal resources of soil available phosphorus, ii) cropping sequence, and iii) external input of phosphorus (manure, fertilizers). The research was conducted in long-term cropping sequences with oilseed rape (10 rotations) and maize (six rotations) over three consecutive growing seasons (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2006/2007) in a production farm on soils originated from Albic Luvisols in Poland. The soil available phosphorus pool, measured as calcium chloride extractable P (CCE-P), constituted 28% to 67% of the total phosphorus input (PTI) to the soil–plant system in the spring. Oilseed rape and maize dominant cropping sequences showed a significant potential to utilize the CCE-P pool within the soil profile. Cropping sequences containing oilseed rape significantly affected the CCE-P pool, and in turn contributed to the P(TI). The P(TI) uptake use efficiency was 50% on average. Therefore, the CCE-P pool should be taken into account as an important component of a sound and reliable phosphorus balance. The instability of the yield prediction, based on the P(TI), was mainly due to an imbalanced management of both farmyard manure and phosphorus fertilizer. Oilseed rape plants provide a significant positive impact on the CCE-P pool after harvest, improving the productive stability of the entire cropping sequence. This phenomenon was documented by the P(TI) increase during wheat cultivation following oilseed rape. The Unit Phosphorus Uptake index also showed a higher stability in oilseed rape cropping systems compared to rotations based on maize. Cropping sequences are a primary factor impacting phosphorus management. Judicious implementation of crop rotations can improve soil P resources, efficiency of crop P use, and crop yield and yield stability. Use of cropping sequences can reduce the need for external P sources such as farmyard manure
Esh, D.; Philip, J.; Snyder, K.
The use of cementitious materials has been proposed in a variety of waste management systems because these materials can have a variety of desirable performance characteristics: hydraulic isolation, chemical isolation, structural stability. Cementitious barriers are commonly engineered with a goal of achieving the highest quality material possible (e.g. minimizing hydraulic conductivity, porosity, tortuosity, diffusivity). However, a single performance goal may not be optimum when practical considerations of designs and performance characteristics are considered simultaneously. In addition, laboratory-scale optimized designs may have field-scale characteristics that are less than ideal.
Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy (AIN), also called primary autoimmune neutropenia, is a disease in which antibodies recognize membrane antigens of neutrophils, mostly located on immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptor type 3b (FcγIIIb receptor), causing their peripheral destruction. It is the most frequent type of neutropenia in children under 3–4 years of age and in most cases shows a benign, self-limited course. The diagnosis is based on evidence of indirect antineutrophil antibodies, whose detection frequently remains difficult. In this review we have analyzed the literature regarding AIN and present our personal experience in diagnosis and management. PMID:25642312
fluorinated silicates from cohesive energy studies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew J...Insights into surface structure and performance of fluorinated silicates from cohesive energy studies 17 March 2016 Andrew J. Guenthner,1 Timothy...distribution is unlimited. PA Clearance Number 16153 Comparison of Surface Energy Parameters for Fluorosilicates 5 • Typical Surface Energies : -CF3 = 6
Schloss, Janet; Colosimo, Maree; Vitetta, Luis
Objective: Neurological complications such as chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and neuropathic pain are frequent side effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy agents. An increasing survival rate and frequent administration of adjuvant chemotherapy treatments involving neurotoxic agents makes it imperative that accurate diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these neurological complications be implemented. Methods: A consideration was undertaken of the current options regarding protective and treatment interventions for patients undergoing chemotherapy with neurotoxic chemotherapy agent or experience with CIPN. Current knowledge on the mechanism of action has also been identified. The following databases PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CNKI, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant article retrieval. Results: A range of pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and herbal medicine treatments were identified that either showed efficacy or had some evidence of efficacy. Duloxetine was the most effective pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of CIPN. Vitamin E demonstrated potential for the prevention of cisplatin-IPN. Intravenous glutathione for oxaliplatin, Vitamin B6 for both oxaliplatin and cisplatin, and omega 3 fatty acids for paclitaxel have shown protection for CIPN. Acetyl-L-carnitine may provide some relief as a treatment option. Acupuncture may be of benefit for some patients and Gosha-jinki-gan may be of benefit for protection from adverse effects of oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions: Clinicians and researchers acknowledge that there are numerous challenges involved in understanding, preventing, and treating peripheral neuropathy caused by chemotherapeutic agents. New insights into mechanisms of action from chemotherapy agents may facilitate the development of novel preventative and treatment options, thereby enabling medical staff to better support patients by reducing this
Liu, Jingya; Li, Jing; Gao, Ziyi; Yang, Min; Qin, Keyu; Yang, Xiaonan
Global climate and environmental changes are endangering global water resources; and several approaches have been tested to manage and reduce the pressure on these decreasing resources. This study uses the case study of Xi'an City in China to test reasonable and effective methods to address water resource shortages. The study generated a framework combining ecosystem services and water resource management. Seven ecosystem indicators were classified as supply services, regulating services, or cultural services. Index values for each indicator were calculated, and based on questionnaire results, each index's weight was calculated. Using the Likert method, we calculated ecosystem service supplies in every region of the city. We found that the ecosystem's service capability is closely related to water resources, providing a method for managing water resources. Using Xi'an City as an example, we apply the ecosystem services concept to water resources management, providing a method for decision makers.
Shan, Lei; Hu, Yibo; Zhu, Lifeng; Yan, Li; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Jin, Xuelin; Zhang, Chenglin; Wei, Fuwen
The captive genetic management of threatened species strives to preserve genetic diversity and avoid inbreeding to ensure populations remain available, healthy, and viable for future reintroduction. Determining and responding to the genetic status of captive populations is therefore paramount to these programs. Here, we genotyped 19 microsatellite loci for 240 captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) (∼64% of the captive population) from four breeding centers, Wolong (WL), Chengdu (CD), Louguantai (LGT), and Beijing (BJ), and analyzed 655 bp of mitochondrial DNA control region sequence for 220 of these animals. High levels of genetic diversity and low levels of inbreeding were estimated in the breeding centers, indicating that the captive population is genetically healthy and deliberate further genetic input from wild animals is unnecessary. However, the LGT population faces a higher risk of inbreeding, and significant genetic structure was detected among breeding centers, with LGT-CD and WL-BJ clustering separately. Based on these findings, we highlight that: 1) the LGT population should be managed as an independent captive population to resemble the genetic distinctness of their Qinling Mountain origins; 2) exchange between CD and WL should be encouraged because of similar wild founder sources; 3) the selection of captive individuals for reintroduction should consider their geographic origin, genetic background, and genetic contribution to wild populations; and 4) combining our molecular genetic data with existing pedigree data will better guide giant panda breeding and further reduce inbreeding into the future.
Iughetti, Lorenzo; Bigi, Elena; Venturelli, Donatella
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, vascular injury and multiorgan dysfunctions. Over the last few decades, there have been significant improvements in SCD management in Western countries, especially in pediatric population. An early onset of prophylaxis with Penicillin and a proper treatment of the infections have increased the overall survival in childhood. Nevertheless, management of painful episodes and prevention of organ damage are still challenging and more efforts are needed to better understand the mechanisms behind the development of chronic organ damages. Hydroxyurea (Hydroxycarbamide, HU), the only medication approved as a disease-modifying agent by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency, is usually under-used, especially in developing countries. Currently, hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is considered the only curative option, although its use is limited by lack of donors and transplant-related toxicity. SCD symptoms are similar in children and adults, but complications and systemic organ damages increase with age, leading to early mortality worldwide. Experts in comprehensive care of young patients with SCD, especially those approaching the transition age to adulthood, are missing, leading people to rely on urgent care, increasing health care utilization costs and inappropriate treatments. It would be important to establish programs of comprehensive healthcare for patients with SCD from birth to adulthood, to improve their quality and expectancy of life. PMID:26862499
Della Rossa, Pauline; Jannoyer, Magalie; Mottes, Charles; Plet, Joanne; Bazizi, Abderazak; Arnaud, Luc; Jestin, Alexandra; Woignier, Thierry; Gaude, Jean-Marie; Cattan, Philippe
Persistent organic pollutants like organochlorine pesticides continue to contaminate large areas worldwide raising questions concerning their management. We designed and tested a method to link soil and water pollution in the watershed of the Galion River in Martinique. We first estimated the risk of soil contamination by chlordecone by referring to past use of land for banana cultivation and took 27 soil samples. We then sampled surface waters at 39 points and groundwater at 16 points. We tested three hypotheses linked to the source of chlordecone pollution at the watershed scale: (i) soils close to the river, (ii) soils close to the sampling point, (iii) throughout the sub-watershed generated at the sampling point. Graphical and statistical analysis showed that contamination of the river increased when it passed through an area with contaminated plots and decreased when it passed through area not contaminated by chlordecone. Modeling showed that the entire surface area of the watershed contributed to river pollution, suggesting that the river was mainly being contaminated by the aquifers and groundwater flows. Our method proved to be a reliable way to identify areas polluted by chlordecone at the watershed scale and should help stakeholders focus their management actions on both hot spots and the whole watershed.
Kearns, Lorna R.; Frey, Barbara A.; Tomer, Christinger; Alman, Susan
The literature suggests that personal information management is a serious challenge for many computer users. Online faculty are especially challenged because of the large number of electronic files necessitated by teaching online. Those who have experience in this environment may offer valuable insights regarding information management challenges…
Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana
This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…
Edwards, K. Anthony
In an introductory psychology course, students were taught some principles of "adjustment" using self-management techniques and were required to conduct a self-management project. The four student projects reported herein were specifically designed to improve study skills through use of Premack's principle and stimulus control. Course…
Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei
Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…
McLean, Gary N.
Eight case studies appropriate for use in a course in management development were prepared and are provided in this document. The typical case describes a real business situation in which a real manager had to reach a decision. The case gives quantitative and qualitative information that is, or may be, relevant to that decision. Questions for…
The document presents a course outline for the study of natural resources management by junior and senior year high school students. Basic information and practical experiences are offered to the student in the classroom and through several field trips in order to acquire more knowledge in various areas of natural resources and their management.…
Powers, S. M.; Burt, T. P.; Chan, N. I.; Elser, J. J.; Haygarth, P. M.; Howden, N. J. K.; Jarvie, H. P.; Peterson, H. M.; Shen, J.; Worrall, F.; Sharpley, A. N.
Phosphorus (P) is closely linked to major societal concerns including food security and water quality, and human activities strongly control the modern global P cycle. Current knowledge of the P cycle includes many insights about relatively short-term processes, but a long-term and landscape-level view may be needed to understand P status and optimize P management towards P sustainability. We reconstructed long-term (>40 years) P mass balances and rates of P accumulation in three major river basins where excess P pollution is demanding improvements in P management at local, national, and international levels. We focus on: Maumee River Basin, a major source of agricultural P to Lake Erie, the southernmost and shallowest of the Laurentian Great Lakes; Thames River Basin, where fluxes of effluent P from the London, England metropolitan area have declined following improvements in wastewater treatment; Yangtze (Changjiang) River Basin, the largest in China, which is undergoing rapid economic development. The Maumee and Thames are intensively monitored, and show long-term declines in basin P inputs that represent a step towards P sustainability. However, river P outputs have been slower to decline, consistent with the hypothesis that legacy P is mobilizing from soils or from within the river network. Published data on the Yangtze indicate the P flux from land to water has clearly increased with industrialization and population growth. Historical trajectories of P accumulation and depletion in major river basins are providing new understanding about the long-term impacts of P management, including watershed P legacies and response times, that may inform future policy towards local, national, and global P sustainability.
Amoah, Abena S; Boakye, Daniel A; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria
The last few decades have seen a marked increase in the global prevalence of allergic diseases particularly among children. Among the factors attributed to this rise has been reduced exposure to pathogens during childhood leading to insufficient maturation of the regulatory arm of developing immune systems. Over the years, a number of epidemiological studies have observed an inverse relationship between parasitic worm (helminth) infections and allergies. The purpose of this review is to highlight insights from population studies conducted among children published between 2008 and 2013 that explore the complex dynamics between helminth infections and allergies. These insights include the effect of anthelmintic treatment on allergic responses, an elucidation of immune mechanisms and an examination of helminth-induced immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity. A better understanding of the relationship between helminths and allergies is imperative as research directions move toward harnessing the therapeutic potential of helminths and their products in the treatment of allergic disorders.
Barua, Pranoy; O'Mahony, M Sinead
Asthma is under-recognised and undertreated in older populations. This is not surprising, given that one-third of older people experience significant breathlessness. The differential diagnosis commonly includes asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, malignancy, aspiration and infections. Because symptoms and signs of several cardiorespiratory diseases are nonspecific in older people and diseases commonly co-exist, investigations are important. A simple strategy for the investigation of breathlessness in older people should include a full blood count, chest radiograph, ECG, peak flow diary and/or spirometry with reversibility as a minimum. If there are major abnormalities on the ECG, an echocardiogram should also be performed. Diurnal variability in peak flow readings >or=20% or >or=15% reversibility in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, spontaneously or with treatment, support a diagnosis of asthma. Distinguishing asthma from COPD is important to allow appropriate management of disease based on aetiology, accurate prediction of treatment response, correct prognosis and appropriate management of the chest condition and co-morbidities. The two conditions are usually readily differentiated by clinical features, particularly age at onset, variability of symptoms and nocturnal symptoms in asthma, supported by the results of reversibility testing. Full lung function tests may not necessarily help in differentiating the two entities, although gas transfer factor is characteristically reduced in COPD and usually normal or high in asthma. Methacholine challenge tests previously mainly used in research are now also used widely and safely to confirm asthma in clinical settings. Interest in exhaled nitric oxide as a biomarker of airways inflammation is increasing as a noninvasive tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of asthma. Regular inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of treatment of asthma. Even in mild disease in older adults
Davin, E.; Lejeune, Q.; Seneviratne, S. I.
Human activities have profoundly transformed the land surface through land use/land cover change (LULCC). The consequence of this transformation is twofold: First, the conversion from natural to anthropogenic systems exert a direct forcing on climate (through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical processes); Second the transformed ecosystems may modify land-atmosphere feedback mechanisms thus modulating the response to climate change or to specific weather events. The first point will be illustrated by reviewing recent modelling results, including LUCID and CMIP5 model intercomparisons, to shed some light on the relative importance of LULCC versus other climate forcings. Given the importance of LULCC impacts at the regional scale, some recent efforts to improve the representation of land processes in regional climate models  as well as a regional assessment of the impact of amazonian deforestation  will be presented. The second point will be discussed through two examples. First, the fact that LULCC may modulate certain modes of variability will be illustrated based on model experiments highlighting the regional interplay between ENSO variability and amazonian deforestation. Second, we will show that peak temperatures during heat waves can be strongly influenced locally by the type of land cover or land management practices. In particular no-till farming, by increasing surface albedo, can lead to a substantial attenuation of hot temperatures during heat waves, in part due to a more efficient radiative cooling effect during cloud-free conditions . References: Davin, E.L. and S.I. Seneviratne (2012), Role of land surface processes and diffuse/direct radiation partitioning in simulating the European climate, Biogeosciences, 9, 1695-1707, doi:10.5194/bg-9-1695-2012. Lejeune, Q., E.L. Davin, B. Guillod and S.I. Seneviratne (2015), Influence of Amazonian deforestation on the future evolution of regional surface fluxes, circulation, surface temperature and
Cormick, Craig; Romanach, Lygia Malzoni
Values-based studies of people's attitudes towards science and technology not only provide great insights into what drives different attitudes to issues like climate change and genetically modified foods, but allow for segmenting the general public by homogeneous values. Such segmentations both provide better predictions of people's attitudes to new technologies or contentious science issues than age, sex, or other standard demographics, and allow a better matching of different messages with different community values.
Computer trades and analyses of selected Power Module Data Management Subsystem issues to support concurrent inhouse MSFC Power Study are provided. The charts which summarize and describe the results are presented. Software requirements and definitions are included.
Caliceti, Cristiana; Franco, Placido; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G
Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as gender Berberis. Berberine is recognised to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and preliminary clinical evidences suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a possible interesting role of berberine and its metabolites in clinical practice. However, its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic, and metabolism are not fully elucidated and contradictory data have been reported. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacological and biological features of berberine, with a focus on berberine as well as their pharmacologically active metabolites and the different mechanisms underlying their activities in order to clarify the correct use of berberine supplementation, alone or in association with other nutraceuticals, for the management of metabolic disorders associated to increased cardiovascular disease risk. A particular attention has also been given to the available clinical trials assessing its short- and middle- term use tolerability, safety and efficacy in various conditions, such as dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
Yuxiang, Li; Lingjun, Zhou; Lu, Tang; Mengjie, Liu; Xing, Ming; Fengping, Shen; Jing, Cui; Xianli, Meng; Jijun, Zhao
Pain is a major problem after burns and researchers continue to report that pain from burns remains undertreated. The inadequate pain control results in adverse sequalae physically and psychologically in the burn victims. A better understanding of a burn patient's experience is important in identifying the factors responsible for undertreated pain and establishing effective pain management guidelines or recommendation in the practice of pain relief for burn injuries. This study sought to explore and describe the experience that patients have about pain related to burn-injury during hospitalization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on eight patients with moderate to severe pain from burn injuries recruited from a Burn Centre in Northwest China. Data was collected by in-depth interviews and qualitative description after full transcription of each interview. Analysis involved the identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy of patients' experience of burn pain and its management. Three themes were indentified: (1) patients' experience of pain control, (2) patients' perception on burn pain management, and (3) patients' expectation of burn pain management. Findings from this study suggested that patients experience uncontrolled pain both physically and psychologically which may serve as an alert for awareness of health professionals to recognize and establish a multidisciplinary pain management team for burn victims, including surgeons, critical care specialists, anesthesiologists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers to accomplish safe and effective strategies for pain control to reach an optimal level of pain management in burn patients. It also provides insights and suggestions for future research directions to address this significant clinical problem.
Baxley, Brian T.; Beyer, Timothy M.; Cooke, Stuart D.; Grant, Karlus A.
In 2012, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimated that U.S. commercial air carriers moved 736.7 million passengers over 822.3 billion revenue-passenger miles. The FAA also forecasts, in that same report, an average annual increase in passenger traffic of 2.2 percent per year for the next 20 years, which approximates to one-and-a-half times the number of today's aircraft operations and passengers by the year 2033. If airspace capacity and throughput remain unchanged, then flight delays will increase, particularly at those airports already operating near or at capacity. Therefore it is critical to create new and improved technologies, communications, and procedures to be used by air traffic controllers and pilots. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the FAA, and the aviation industry are working together to improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System and the cost to operate in it in several ways, one of which is through the creation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). NextGen is intended to provide airspace users with more precise information about traffic, routing, and weather, as well as improve the control mechanisms within the air traffic system. NASA's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1) Project is designed to contribute to the goals of NextGen, and accomplishes this by integrating three NASA technologies to enable fuel-efficient arrival operations into high-density airports. The three NASA technologies and procedures combined in the ATD-1 concept are advanced arrival scheduling, controller decision support tools, and aircraft avionics to enable multiple time deconflicted and fuel efficient arrival streams in high-density terminal airspace.
McCullough, Peter A; Beaver, Thomas M; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Emmett, Michael; Fonarow, Gregg C; Goyal, Abhinav; Herzog, Charles A; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Palmer, Biff F
The plasma pool of potassium is a partial reflection of the overall body, transient cellular shifts, and potassium elimination regulated by the kidneys. Potassium concentrations elevating above the upper limit of normal (> 5.0 mEq/L) have become more common in cardiovascular practice due to the growing population of patients with chronic kidney disease and the broad applications of drugs that modulate potassium excretion by either reducing production of angiotensin II (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, direct renin inhibitors, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists), blocking angiotensin II receptors (angiotensin receptor blockers), or antagonizing the action of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). In addition, acute kidney injury, critical illness, crush injuries, and massive red blood cell transfusions can result in hyperkalemia. Progressively more severe elevations in potassium are responsible for abnormalities in cardiac depolarization and repolarization and contractility. Untreated severe hyperkalemia results in sudden cardiac death. Traditional management steps have included reducing dietary potassium and discontinuing potassium supplements; withdrawal of exacerbating drugs; acute treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate, insulin, and glucose; nebulized albuterol; correction of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate for short-term shifts out of the plasma pool; and, finally, gastrointestinal ion exchange with oral sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol, which is mainly used in the hospital and is poorly tolerated due to gastrointestinal adverse effects. This review explores hyperkalemia as a complication in cardiovascular patients and highlights new acute, chronic, and preventative oral therapies (patiromer calcium, cross-linked polyelectrolyte, ZS-9) that could potentially create a greater margin of safety for vulnerable patients with combined heart and kidney disease.
Ponte, Maya L
of blood products for possible vCJD contamination in the UK, contributed to a greater sense of urgency and a speedier implementation of regulations in that country. Third, while the results of scientific studies played a prominent role in the construction of regulations in both nations, this role was shaped by existing social and professional networks. In the UK, early focus on a European study implicating B-lymphocytes as the carrier of prion infectivity in blood led to the introduction of a policy that requires universal leukoreduction of blood components. In the US, early focus on an American study highlighting the ability of plasma to serve as a reservoir of prion infectivity led the FDA and its advisory panel to eschew similar measures. Conclusions The results of this study yield three important theoretical insights that pertain to the global management of emerging infectious diseases. First, because the perception and management of disease may be shaped by previous experience with disease, especially catastrophic experience, there is always the possibility for over-management of some possible routes of transmission and relative neglect of others. Second, local specificities within a given nation may influence the temporality of decision making, which in turn may influence the choice of disease management policies. Third, a preference for science-based risk management among nations will not necessarily lead to homogeneous policies. This is because the exposure to and interpretation of scientific results depends on the existing social and professional networks within a given nation. Together, these theoretical insights provide a framework for analyzing and anticipating potential conflicts in the international management of emerging infectious diseases. In addition, this study illustrates the utility of qualitative methods in investigating research questions that are difficult to assess through quantitative means. PMID:17076547
Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Hussain, Azhar
Purpose. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of hospital pharmacists towards drug management and reasons underlying stock-outs of antimalarial drugs in Pakistan. Methods. A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of hospital pharmacists regarding drug management and irrational use of antimalarial drugs in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital) and Rawalpindi (twin city). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital pharmacists using indepth interview guides at a place and time convenient for the respondents. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, were evaluated by thematic content analysis and by other authors' analysis. Results. Most of the respondents were of the view that financial constraints, inappropriate drug management, and inadequate funding were the factors contributing toward the problem of antimalarial drug stock-outs in healthcare facilities of Pakistan. The pharmacists anticipated that prescribing by nonproprietary names, training of health professionals, accepted role of hospital pharmacist in drug management, implementation of essential drug list and standard treatment guidelines for malaria in the healthcare system can minimize the problem of drug stock outs in healthcare system of Pakistan. Conclusion. The current study showed that all the respondents in the two cities agreed that hospital pharmacist has failed to play an effective role in efficient management of anti-malarial drugs stock-outs. PMID:24223321
Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego
The Andes divide Peru into three natural drainage basins: Pacific basin, Atlantic basin and Lake Titicaca basin. According to the National Water Authority (ANA), the Pacific basin is the driest basin. The bulk of water that feed the local aquifers in the coastal Pacific region is coming from rivers that flow west from the Andes. One of them is the Ica River- source of the Ica Aquifer and the Pampas de Villacuri Aquifer. The Ica River flows in a graben that was created by a series of faults. The graben is filled with sand and gravel with interbeded and lenses of clay. The aquifer thickness varies between 25 meters to more than 200 meters. The Ica Valley has an extension of 7700 km2 and belongs to the Province of Ica, the second larger economic center in Peru. The Valley is located in the hyperarid region of the Southern Coastal area of Peru with a few millimeters of precipitation per year. The direct recharge is almost zero. The recharge into the Ica Valley aquifer is comes indirectly by infiltration of storm water through the riverbed generates in the Andes, through irrigation canals and by irrigation return flow. In this hyperarid region, local aquifers like the Ica Valley are extremely valuable resources to local populations and are the key sources of groundwater for agriculture and population needs. Therefore, these aquifers play a crucial role in providing people with water and intense attention should be given to manage the water sector properly and to keep the aquifer sustainable for future generations. The total pumping (from rough estimations) is much greater than the direct and indirect recharge. The deficit in the water balance is reflected in large water level decline, out of operation of shallow wells and the ascending of saline water from deeper layers. The change from flood irrigation that contributes about 35-40% of the water to the aquifer, to drip irrigation dramatically reduces the amount of water that infiltrates into the sub-surface from the
Guelfi, Kym J; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A
-to-recovery ratios observed in team and field sports have been conducted. The findings of these studies do not support the existing recommendations for managing blood glucose levels during IHE. Hence, the purpose of this article is to discuss the results of these recent studies, which provide new insight into the management of blood glucose levels during and after IHE and have implications for current guidelines aimed at minimising the risk of hypoglycaemia. These findings, along with future investigations, should provide valuable information for health professionals and individuals with type 1 diabetes on the management of blood glucose levels during and after exercise to allow for safe participation in intermittent activities along with their peers.
Guelfi, Kym J; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A
-to-recovery ratios observed in team and field sports have been conducted. The findings of these studies do not support the existing recommendations for managing blood glucose levels during IHE. Hence, the purpose of this article is to discuss the results of these recent studies, which provide new insight into the management of blood glucose levels during and after IHE and have implications for current guidelines aimed at minimising the risk of hypoglycaemia. These findings, along with future investigations, should provide valuable information for health professionals and individuals with type 1 diabetes on the management of blood glucose levels during and after exercise to allow for safe participation in intermittent activities along with their peers.
Sodium phenylbutyrate is used in the pharmacological treatment of urea cycle disorders to create alternative pathways for nitrogen excretion. The primary metabolite, phenylacetate, conjugates glutamine in the liver and kidney to form phenylacetylglutamine that is readily excreted in the urine. Patients with urea cycle disorders taking sodium phenylbutyrate have a selective reduction in the plasma concentrations of branched chain amino acids despite adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, this depletion is usually the harbinger of a metabolic crisis. Plasma branched chain amino acids and other essential amino acids were measured in control subjects, untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females, and treated patients with urea cycle disorders (ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency) in the absorptive state during the course of stable isotope studies. Branched chain amino acid levels were significantly lower in treated patients with urea cycle disorders when compared to untreated ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency females or control subjects. These results were replicated in control subjects who had low steady-state branched chain amino acid levels when treated with sodium phenylbutyrate. These studies suggested that alternative pathway therapy with sodium phenylbutyrate causes a substantial impact on the metabolism of branched chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders, implying that better titration of protein restriction can be achieved with branched chain amino acid supplementation in these patients who are on alternative pathway therapy. PMID:20299258
Apostolakis, Stavros; Konstantinides, Stavros
Until recently, the right ventricle (RV) received little attention in adult patients with congenital heart disease and even less attention in the setting of acquired heart failure. However, in the last two decades, our perspective towards the right side of the heart has begun to change. Advances in imaging modalities have permitted the accurate study of RV physiology and made it apparent that RV function is an important determinant of prognosis in heart failure irrespective of the underlying etiology. This article summarizes the existing data on the unique anatomical and physiological features of the RV. The hemodynamic conditions and cellular and biochemical pathways that lead to right heart failure are presented. Moreover, the imaging modalities that aid in the assessment of RV structure and function are described and the importance of the diagnostic and prognostic information they provide is discussed.
Mogler, Braden K; Shu, Suzanne B; Fox, Craig R; Goldstein, Noah J; Victor, Ronald G; Escarce, José J; Shapiro, Martin F
Despite a revolution in therapeutics, the ability to control chronic diseases remains elusive. We present here a conceptual model of the potential role of behavioral tools in chronic disease control. Clinicians implicitly accept the assumption that patients will act rationally to maximize their self-interest. However, patients may not always be the rational actors that we imagine. Major behavioral barriers to optimal health behavior include patients' fear of threats to health, unwillingness to think about problems when risks are known or data are ambiguous, the discounting of risks that are far in the future, failure to act due to lack of motivation, insufficient confidence in the ability to overcome a health problem, and inattention due to pressures of everyday life. Financial incentives can stimulate initiation of health-promoting behaviors by reducing or eliminating financial barriers, but may not produce long-term behavior change without additional interventions. Strategies have been developed by behavioral economists and social psychologists to address each of these barriers to better decision-making. These include: labeling positive behaviors in ways consistent with patient life goals and priorities; greater focus on more immediate risks of chronic diseases; intermediate subgoals as steps to a large health goal; and implementation of specific plans as to when, where, and how an action will be taken. Such strategies hold promise for improving health behaviors and disease control, but most have not been studied in medical settings. The effectiveness of these approaches should be evaluated for their potential as tools for the clinician.
Olin, Jeffrey W.; Sealove, Brett A.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD), which comprises atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta, iliac, and lower-extremity arteries, is underdiagnosed, undertreated, and poorly understood by the medical community. Patients with PAD may experience a multitude of problems, such as claudication, ischemic rest pain, ischemic ulcerations, repeated hospitalizations, revascularizations, and limb loss. This may lead to a poor quality of life and a high rate of depression. From the standpoint of the limb, the prognosis of patients with PAD is favorable in that the claudication remains stable in 70% to 80% of patients over a 10-year period. However, the rate of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death in patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic PAD is markedly increased. The ankle brachial index is an excellent screening test for the presence of PAD. Imaging studies (duplex ultrasonography, computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, catheter-based angiography) may provide additional anatomic information if revascularization is planned. The goals of therapy are to improve symptoms and thus quality of life and to decrease the cardiovascular event rate (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death). The former is accomplished by establishing a supervised exercise program and administering cilostazol or performing a revascularization procedure if medical therapy is ineffective. A comprehensive program of cardiovascular risk modification (discontinuation of tobacco use and control of lipids, blood pressure, and diabetes) will help to prevent the latter. PMID:20592174
Ahmadi, Alireza; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Heidari Zadie, Zahra; Euasobhon, Pramote; Ketumarn, Penkae; Karbasfrushan, Ali; Amini-Saman, Javad; Mohammadi, Reza
Abstract: Background: Pain in trauma has a role similar to the double-edged sword. On the one hand, pain is a good indicator to determine the severity and type of injury. On the other hand, pain can induce sever complications and it may lead to further deterioration of the patient. Therefore, knowing how to manage pain in trauma patients is an important part of systemic approach in trauma. The aim of this manuscript is to provide information about pain management in trauma in the Emergency Room settings. Methods: In this review we searched among electronic and manual documents covering a 15-yr period between 2000 and 2016. Our electronic search included Pub Med, Google scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. We looked for articles in English and in peer-reviewed journals using the following keywords: acute pain management, trauma, emergency room and injury. Results: More than 3200 documents were identified. After screening based on the study inclusion criteria, 560 studies that had direct linkage to the study aim were considered for evaluation based World Health Organization (WHO) pain ladder chart. Conclusions: To provide adequate pain management in trauma patients require: adequate assessment of age-specific pharmacologic pain management; identification of adequate analgesic to relieve moderate to severe pain; cognizance of serious adverse effects of pain medications and weighting medications against their benefits, and regularly reassessing patients and reevaluating their pain management regimen. Patient-centered trauma care will also require having knowledge of barriers to pain management and discussing them with the patient and his/her family to identify solutions. PMID:27414816
Brown, Shoshana D.; Babbitt, Patricia C.
Understanding how enzymes have evolved offers clues about their structure-function relationships and mechanisms. Here, we describe evolution of functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies, each representing a large set of sequences that evolved from a common ancestor and that retain conserved features of their structures and active sites. Using several examples, we describe the different structural strategies nature has used to evolve new reaction and substrate specificities in each unique superfamily. The results provide insight about enzyme evolution that is not easily obtained from studies of one or only a few enzymes. PMID:25210038
Brown, Shoshana D; Babbitt, Patricia C
Understanding how enzymes have evolved offers clues about their structure-function relationships and mechanisms. Here, we describe evolution of functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies, each representing a large set of sequences that evolved from a common ancestor and that retain conserved features of their structures and active sites. Using several examples, we describe the different structural strategies nature has used to evolve new reaction and substrate specificities in each unique superfamily. The results provide insight about enzyme evolution that is not easily obtained from studies of one or only a few enzymes.
Background Because early life growth has long-lasting metabolic and behavioral consequences, intervention during this period of developmental plasticity may alter long-term obesity risk. While modifiable factors during infancy have been identified, until recently, preventive interventions had not been tested. The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity. This “parenting” intervention is being compared with a home safety control among first-born infants and their parents. INSIGHT’s central hypothesis is that responsive parenting and specifically responsive feeding promotes self-regulation and shared parent–child responsibility for feeding, reducing subsequent risk for overeating and overweight. Methods/Design 316 first-time mothers and their full-term newborns were enrolled from one maternity ward. Two weeks following delivery, dyads were randomly assigned to the “parenting” or “safety” groups. Subsequently, research nurses conduct study visits for both groups consisting of home visits at infant age 3–4, 16, 28, and 40 weeks, followed by annual clinic-based visits at 1, 2, and 3 years. Both groups receive intervention components framed around four behavior states: Sleeping, Fussy, Alert and Calm, and Drowsy. The main study outcome is BMI z-score at age 3 years; additional outcomes include those related to patterns of infant weight gain, infant sleep hygiene and duration, maternal responsiveness and soothing strategies for infant/toddler distress and fussiness, maternal feeding style and infant dietary content and physical activity. Maternal outcomes related to weight status, diet, mental health, and parenting sense of competence are being collected. Infant temperament will be explored as a moderator of parenting effects, and blood is collected to obtain genetic
Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A
Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. The findings point to an important role of the prefrontal cortex for generating novelty and complexity. Finally, the potentials and limitations of training creativity in adolescence are described. The findings are interpreted vis-à-vis the dynamic changes that occur during adolescence in brain development and behavioral control processes.
Technical Report AD-A235 639 CMU/SEI-90-TR-25 Tool Version Management Technology: A Case Study Peter H. Feiler Grace F. Downey November 1990 x 91...00304 90 7 Technical Report CMU/SEI-90-TR-25 ESD-90-TR-226 November 1990 Tool Version Management Technology: A Case Study Peter H. Feiler Grace F. Downey...trademark holder. Table of Contents 1. lntroducton 1 2. The Problem 3 2.1. Tool Version Organization and Selection 3 2.2. Stability of Selected Tool
Sumner, P. D.; Hall, K. J.; van Rooy, J. L.; Meiklejohn, K. I.
The mountains in the eastern region of southern Africa are of significant regional importance, providing for a diverse range of land use including conservation, tourism and subsistence agriculture. The higher regions are comprised of flood basalts and are immediately underlain by predominantly aeolian-origin sandstones. Our understanding of the weathering of these basalts and sandstones is reviewed here, with particular focus on the insights gained from the Lesotho Highlands Water Project and an ongoing study into the deterioration of rock art. While the chemical weathering attributes of the basalts have been substantially investigated, it is evident that the environmental surface conditions of rock moisture and temperature, as affecting weathering processes, remain largely unknown. Within the sandstones, studies pertaining to rock art deterioration present insights into the potential surface weathering processes and highlight the need for detailed field monitoring. Outside of these site-specific studies, however, little is understood of how weathering impacts on landscape development; notably absent, are detail on weathering rates, and potential effects of biological weathering. Some palaeoenvironmental inferences have also been made from weathering products, both within the basalts and the sandstones, but aspects of these remain controversial and further detailed research can still be undertaken.
Moise, Imelda K; Mulhall, Peter F
Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded and the case managers' comments were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, a deductive approach. Data were collected in 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Case managers are challenged by externalities (demographic shifts in target populations, poverty); contractual requirements (predefined catchment neighborhoods, caseload); limited support (client incentives, tailored training, and a high staff turnover rate); and logistic difficulties (organizational issues). Their approach to case management tends to be focused on linking Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded
Moise, Imelda K.; Mulhall, Peter F.
Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded and the case managers' comments were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, a deductive approach. Data were collected in 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Case managers are challenged by externalities (demographic shifts in target populations, poverty); contractual requirements (predefined catchment neighborhoods, caseload); limited support (client incentives, tailored training, and a high staff turnover rate); and logistic difficulties (organizational issues). Their approach to case management tends to be focused on linking Although Healthy Start case managers recognized the benefits of case management for facilitating optimal service delivery to women and their families, structural factors impact effective implementation. This study investigated case managers' views of 1) the structural challenges faced in implementing case management for program participants, and 2) possible strategies to enhance case management in medical home settings. Two focus groups were conducted separately with case managers from the four program service sites to gain insight into these issues noted above. Each group was co-facilitated by two evaluators using a previously developed semi-structured interview guide. The group discussions were audio recorded
Delamou, Alexandre; Belaid, Loubna; De Brouwere, Vincent
Background. Timely and adequate treatment is important to limit complications of diabetes affecting pregnancy, but there is a lack of knowledge on how these women are managed in low resource settings. Objective. To identify modalities of gestational diabetes detection and management in low and lower middle income countries. Methods. We conducted a scoping review of published literature and searched the databases PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and African Index Medicus. We included all articles published until April 24, 2016, containing information on clinical practices of detection and management of gestational diabetes irrespective of publication date or language. Results. We identified 23 articles mainly from Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of studies were conducted in large tertiary care centers and hospital admission was reported in a third of publications. Ambulatory follow-up was generally done by weekly to fortnightly visits, whereas self-monitoring of blood glucose was not the norm. The cesarean section rate for pregnancies affected by diabetes ranged between 20% and 89%. Referral of newborns to special care units was common. Conclusion. The variety of reported provider practices underlines the importance of promoting latest consensus guidelines on GDM screening and management and the dissemination of information regarding their implementation. PMID:27803934
Reports results of a bibliometric study of the literature on Japanese-style management published in western languages from 1971-84 in order to: (1) determine Japanese contributions to the literature; (2) determine whether there are nuclear journals for the subject; and (3) investigate how the flow of information from Japan to overseas countries…
Magyar, J. S.; Asous, N. K.; Barth, S. J.; Benzik, E.; Chou, J.; Dalchand, N.; Gallagher, G. E.; Montero, K. S.; Lone, S. K.; Salerno, G. J.
Extraordinary amounts of information are now available from genomic and metagenomic analyses of a wide variety of environments of geological and biological interest. Using such genomic information as a starting point, we are interested in looking at microbial systems at the molecular level, using the tools and approaches of inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, and molecular biology. From these studies, spanning the molecular to the global, we gain insights into relationships between microbial life and the geochemical environment in which it lives. In our work to date, we have focused on hydrocarbon-rich environments, including the La Brea Tar Pits and the Gulf of Mexico. Starting from genomic information, we have identified proteins of interest, cloned synthetic genes into E. coli, overexpressed and purified the proteins, and characterized them by UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, and NMR spectroscopies; X-ray crystallography; and electrochemistry. Using as examples our recent studies of a metal-uptake protein from a methanogenic archaeon native to the La Brea Tar Pits, and of electron-transfer and hydrocarbon-degrading proteins from cold marine ecosystems, we describe how new combinations of genomics, molecular biology, and bioinorganic chemistry can provide novel insights into geobiological processes.
Saywell, Nicola; Taylor, Denise
The objective of the study was to draw on the insights of people with stroke to assist in the development of a telerehabilitation program, using easily accessible technology to deliver an intervention. A qualitative study was conducted with four focus groups of people who were at least 12 months post-stroke and who had completed their rehabilitation. All focus groups were conducted in community facilities and used a semi-structured approach. Fifteen people took part in the focus groups. Three main themes emerged from the data in response to questions about use of technology and important aspects of physiotherapy. The first theme expressed the participants' perspective that the technology really helped with "keeping connected". The second theme indicated "what we need from therapists" in order to gain the most from therapy; and the third theme highlighted aspects of a physiotherapy program they considered important, "what we would like from therapy". The themes helped us gain insight into how participants viewed the use of technology to augment rehabilitation and also what they needed from therapists to make the gains they viewed as important. These themes informed the development of a telerehabilitation program using readily accessible technology.
Kozmikova, Iryna; Kozmik, Zbynek
Cephalochordates, commonly known as amphioxus or lancelets, are the most basal subphylum of chordates. Cephalochordates are thus key to understanding the origin of vertebrates and molecular mechanisms underlying vertebrate evolution. The evolution of developmental control mechanisms during invertebrate-to-vertebrate transition involved not only gene duplication events, but also specific changes in spatial and temporal expression of many genes. To get insight into the spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression during invertebrate-to-vertebrate transition, functional studies of amphioxus gene regulatory elements are highly warranted. Here, we review transgenic studies performed in amphioxus and vertebrates using promoters and enhancers derived from the genome of Branchiostoma floridae. We describe the current methods of transgenesis in amphioxus, provide evidence of Tol2 transposon-generated transgenic embryos of Branchiostoma lanceolatum and discuss possible future directions. We envision that comparative transgenic analysis of gene regulatory sequences in the context of amphioxus and vertebrate embryos will likely provide an important mechanistic insight into the evolution of vertebrate body plan.
The Spacelab data management system is described. The data management subsystem (DMS) integrates the avionics equipment into an operational system by providing the computations, logic, signal flow, and interfaces needed to effectively command, control, monitor, and check out the experiment and subsystem hardware. Also, the DMS collects/retrieves experiment data and other information by recording and by command of the data relay link to ground. The major elements of the DMS are the computer subsystem, data acquisition and distribution subsystem, controls and display subsystem, onboard checkout subsystem, and software. The results of the DMS portion of the Spacelab Phase B Concept Definition Study are analyzed.
Cooper, Christine; Burden, Sorrel T; Cheng, Huilin; Molassiotis, Alex
The aim of this study was to summarize the existing qualitative literature in order to develop the evidence base for understanding and managing weight loss and anorexia, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. A systematic search was performed to retrieve English language studies using electronic search and manual checks of selected reference lists. Keywords included qualitative, cancer cachexia, weight loss, anorexia, appetite, malnutrition, food, eating, and drinking. The selection and appraisal of papers were undertaken by two reviewers. Twenty-one qualitative articles were included in the review. There were three major findings emerging from the previous qualitative studies including ‘the multidimensionality of weight loss and anorexia experience’, ‘patients and caregivers' responses to coping with weight loss and anorexia’, and ‘clinical assessment and management of weight loss and anorexia’. The literature review revealed the multidimensional nature of cachexia and weight loss experience by patients and caregivers, which was not recognized and adequately managed by healthcare professionals. Future research in this area would be helpful in enabling a deeper understanding of the complexity of cachexia and weight loss experience in order to move forward to develop an optimal model of supportive care for patients and caregivers. PMID:26136417
The monooxygenase P450 BM-3 is a NADPH-dependent fatty acid hydroxylase enzyme isolated from soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium. As a pivotal member of cytochrome P450 superfamily, it has been intensely studied for the comprehension of structure-dynamics-function relationships in this class of enzymes. In addition, due to its peculiar properties, it is also a promising enzyme for biochemical and biomedical applications. However, despite the efforts, the full understanding of the enzyme structure and dynamics is not yet achieved. Computational studies, particularly molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have importantly contributed to this endeavor by providing new insights at an atomic level regarding the correlations between structure, dynamics, and function of the protein. This topical review summarizes computational studies based on MD simulations of the cytochrome P450 BM-3 and gives an outlook on future directions.
Brandt, Cynthia A.; Gadagkar, Rohit; Rodriguez, Cesar; Nadkarni, Prakash M.
In highly functional metadata-driven software, the interrelationships within the metadata become complex, and maintenance becomes challenging. We describe an approach to metadata management that uses a knowledge-base subschema to store centralized information about metadata dependencies and use cases involving specific types of metadata modification. Our system borrows ideas from production-rule systems in that some of this information is a high-level specification that is interpreted and executed dynamically by a middleware engine. Our approach is implemented in TrialDB, a generic clinical study data management system. We review approaches that have been used for metadata management in other contexts and describe the features, capabilities, and limitations of our system. PMID:15187070
Davila, Marco L; Brentjens, Renier; Wang, Xiuyan; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel
Second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are powerful tools to redirect antigen-specific T cells independently of HLA-restriction. Recent clinical studies evaluating CD19-targeted T cells in patients with B-cell malignancies demonstrate the potency of CAR-engineered T cells. With results from 28 subjects enrolled by five centers conducting studies in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or lymphoma, some insights into the parameters that determine T-cell function and clinical outcome of CAR-based approaches are emerging. These parameters involve CAR design, T-cell production methods, conditioning chemotherapy as well as patient selection. Here, we discuss the potential relevance of these findings and in particular the interplay between the adoptive transfer of T cells and pre-transfer patient conditioning.
Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.
This study investigates the use of using complexity theory--the study of nonlinear dynamical systems of which chaos and catastrophe theory are subsets--in the analysis of a non temporal data set to derive valuable insights into the functioning of university schools of business. The approach is unusual in that studies of nonlinearity in complex…
Anbar, Ran D; Linden, Julie H
Training in hypnosis is particularly valuable for the physician seeking to better appreciate the interplay between mind and body. Through such experiences the physician can learn that presentation of symptoms often is affected by patients' psychological states, and that symptoms sometimes serve as solutions for patients' psychological dilemmas. The presented case study demonstrates how an 11-year-old's complaint of shortness of breath becomes an opportunity for an appropriately trained physician to provide treatment by helping the patient to engage his inner resources. The case illustrates the strength of hypnosis for accessing resources outside of conscious awareness and use of dissociative language to both support and alter the patient's defenses. We discuss the role of hypnosis when working psychodynamically with a patient, and whether and when insight is important or necessary for change of behavior.
Amon, Krestina L; Paxton, Karen; Klineberg, Emily; Riley, Lisa; Hawke, Catherine; Steinbeck, Katharine
Facebook has been used in health research, but there is a lack of literature regarding how Facebook may be used to recruit younger adolescents. A Facebook Page was created for an adolescent cohort study on the effects of puberty hormones on well-being and behaviour in early adolescence. Used as a communication tool with existing participants, it also aimed to alert potential participants to the study. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of the development of the study Facebook Page and present the fan response to the types of posts made on the Page using the Facebook-generated Insights data. Two types of posts were made on the study Facebook Page. The first type was study-related update posts and events. The second was relevant adolescent and family research and current news posts. Observations on the use of and response to the Page were made over 1 year across three phases (phase 1, very low Facebook use; phase 2, high Facebook use; phase 3, low Facebook use). Most Page fans were female (88.6%), with the largest group of fans aged between 35 and 44 years. Study-related update posts with photographs were the most popular. This paper provides a model on which other researchers could base Facebook communication and potential recruitment in the absence of established guidelines.
Sanquist, T.F.; Schuller, C.R.; McCallum, M.C.; Underwood, J.A.; Bettin, P.J.; King, J.L.; Melber, B.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Seaver, D.A.
The main objectives of this impact study were to identify the potential cost savings associated with automated Army Training Management (TM), and to perform a cost-benefit analysis for an Army-wide automated TM system. A subsidiary goal was to establish baseline data for an independent evaluation of a prototype Integrated Training Management System (ITMS), to be tested in the fall of 1988. A structured analysis of TM doctrine was performed for comparison with empirical data gathered in a job analysis survey of selected units of the 9ID (MTZ) at Ft. Lewis, Washington. These observations will be extended to other units in subsequent surveys. The survey data concerning staffing levels and amount of labor expended on eight distinct TM tasks were analyzed in a cost effectiveness model. The main results of the surveys and cost effectiveness modelling are summarized. 18 figs., 47 tabs.
Schaeffer, Evelin L; Figueiro, Micheli; Gattaz, Wagner F
Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia among the elderly, accounting for ~60-70% of all cases of dementia. The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease are senile plaques (mainly containing p-amyloid peptide derived from amyloid precursor protein) and neurofibrillary tangles (containing hyperphosphorylated Tau protein), along with neuronal loss. At present there is no effective treatment for Alzheimer disease. Given the prevalence and poor prognosis of the disease, the development of animal models has been a research priority to understand pathogenic mechanisms and to test therapeutic strategies. Most cases of Alzheimer disease occur sporadically in people over 65 years old, and are not genetically inherited. Roughly 5% of patients with Alzheimer disease have familial Alzheimer disease--that is, related to a genetic predisposition, including mutations in the amyloid precursor protein, presenilin 1, and presenilin 2 genes. The discovery of genes for familial Alzheimer disease has allowed transgenic models to be generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial Alzheimer disease. Although none of these models fully replicates the human disease, they have provided valuable insights into disease mechanisms as well as opportunities to test therapeutic approaches. This review describes the main transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer disease which have been adopted in Alzheimer disease research, and discusses the insights into Alzheimer disease pathogenesis from studies in such models. In summary, the Alzheimer disease mouse models have been the key to understanding the roles of soluble b-amyloid oligomers in disease pathogenesis, as well as of the relationship between p-amyloid and Tau pathologies.
Chanan, A; Vigneswaran, S; Kandasamy, J
A Water Sensitive City is now commonly acknowledged best practice for designing the cities of the future. In Australia, the National Water Initiative has allocated high priority towards offering insight into successful water sensitive urban development projects, to facilitate capacity building within the industry. This paper shares innovative water sensitive projects implemented at Kogarah City Council, in Sydney. Four key projects are discussed, demonstrating how stormwater, rainwater and wastewater can be incorporated into decentralised water systems to offer sustainable water management of the future. The case studies included in the paper highlight Kogarah's journey towards the Soft Path for Water Management.
Spritz, Richard A
Generalized vitiligo (GV) is a complex disease in which patchy depigmentation results from autoimmune loss of melanocytes from affected regions. Genetic analyses of GV span six decades, with the goal of understanding biological mechanisms and elucidating pathways that underlie the disease. The earliest studies attempted to describe the mode of inheritance and genetic epidemiology. Early genetic association studies of biological candidate genes resulted in some successes, principally HLA and PTPN22, but in hindsight many such reports now seem to be false-positives. Later, genome-wide linkage studies of multiplex GV families identified NLRP1 and XBP1, which appear to be valid GV susceptibility genes that control key aspects of immune regulation. Recently, the application of genome-wide association studies to analysis of GV has produced a rich yield of validated GV susceptibility genes that encode components of biological pathways reaching from immune cells to the melanocyte. These genes and pathways provide insights into underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and possible triggers of GV, establish relationships to other autoimmune diseases, and may provide clues to potential new approaches to GV treatment and perhaps even prevention. These results thus validate the hopes and efforts of the early investigators who first attempted to comprehend the genetic basis of vitiligo.
Ciprandi, Alessandra; da Silva, Wanderson Marques; Santos, Agenor Valadares; de Castro Pimenta, Adriano Monteiro; Carepo, Marta Sofia Peixe; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur
Chromobacterium violaceum is a beta-proteobacterium with high biotechnological potential, found in tropical environments. This bacterium causes opportunistic infections in both humans and animals, that can spread throughout several tissues, quickly leading to the death of the host. Genomic studies identified potential mechanisms of pathogenicity but no further studies were done to confirm the expression of these systems. In this study 36 unique protein entries were identified in databank from a two-dimensional profile of C. violaceum secreted proteins. Chromobacterium violaceum exoproteomic preliminary studies confirmed the production of proteins identified as virulence factors (such as a collagenase, flagellum proteins, metallopeptidases, and toxins), allowing us to better understand its pathogenicity mechanisms. Biotechnologically interesting proteins (such as chitinase and chitosanase) were also identified among the secreted proteins, as well as proteins involved in the transport and capture of amino acids, carbohydrates, and oxidative stress protection. Overall, the secreted proteins identified provide us important insights on pathogenicity mechanisms, biotechnological potential, and environment adaptation of C. violaceum.
Mullens, Wilfried; Oliveira, Leonardo P J; Verga, Tanya; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson
Changes in intrathoracic impedance (Z) leading to crossing of a derived fluid index (FI) threshold has been associated with heart failure (HF) hospitalization. The authors developed a remote monitoring program as part of HF disease management and prospectively examined the feasibility and resource utilization of monitoring individuals with an implanted device capable of measuring Z. An HF nurse analyzed all transmitted data daily, as they were routinely uploaded as part of quarterly remote device monitoring, and called the patient if the FI crossed the threshold (arbitrarily defined at 60 Omega) to identify clinically relevant events (CREs) that occurred during this period (eg, worsening dyspnea or increase in edema or weight). A total of 400 uploads were completed during the 4-month study period. During this period, 34 patients (18%) had an FI threshold crossing, averaging 0.52 FI threshold crossings per patient-year. Thirty-two of 34 patients contacted by telephone (94%) with FI threshold crossing had evidence of CREs during this period. However, only 6 (18%) had HF hospitalizations, 19 (56%) had reported changes in HF therapy, and 13 (38%) reported drug and/or dietary plan nonadherence. The average data analysis time required was 30 min daily when focusing on those with FI threshold crossing, averaging 8 uploads for review per working day and 5 telephone follow-ups per week. Our pilot observations suggested that Internet-based remote monitoring of Z trends from existing device interrogation uploads is feasible as part of a daily routine of HF disease management.
Billon, Nathalie; Dani, Christian
The current epidemic of obesity and overweight has caused a surge of interest in the study of adipose tissue formation. Much progress has been made in defining the transcriptional networks controlling the terminal differentiation of adipocyte progenitors into mature adipocytes. However, the early steps of adipocyte development and the embryonic origin of this lineage have been largely disregarded until recently. In mammals, two functionally different types of adipose tissues coexist, which are both involved in energy balance but assume opposite functions. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure. WAT and BAT can be found as several depots located in various sites of the body. Individual fat depots exhibit different timing of appearance during development, as well as distinct functional properties, suggesting possible differences in their developmental origin. This hypothesis has recently been revisited through large-scale genomics studies and in vivo lineage tracing approaches, which are reviewed in this report. These studies have provided novel fundamental insights into adipocyte biology, pointing out distinct developmental origins for WAT and BAT, as well as for individual WAT depots. They suggest that the adipose tissue is composed of distinct mini-organs, exhibiting developmental and functional differences, as well as variable contribution to obesity-related metabolic diseases.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanoscale size vesicles secreted by cells and are important mediators of intercellular communication and genetic exchange. Exosomes, EVs generated in endosomal multivesicular bodies, have been the focus of numerous publications as they have emerged as clinically valuable markers of disease states. Exosomes have been mostly studied from conditioned culture media and body fluids, with the difficulty of isolating exosomes from tissues having delayed their study in vivo. The implementation of a method designed to isolate exosomes from tissues, however, has yielded the first insights into characteristics of exosomes in the brain. It has been observed that brain exosomes from murine models of neurodegenerative diseases and human postmortem brains tend to mirror the protein content of the cells of origin, and interestingly, they are enriched with toxic proteins. Whether this enrichment with neurotoxic proteins is beneficial by relieving neurons of accumulated toxic material or detrimental to the brain by propagating pathogenicity throughout the brain remains to be answered. Here is summarized the first group of studies describing exosomes isolated from brain, results that demonstrate that exosomes in vivo reflect complex multicellular pathogenic processes in neurodegenerative disorders and the brain's response to injury and damage. PMID:28386213
Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience (EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate (NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors (including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments (including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed. PMID:28271667
Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, J. C.; Kucsera, T. L.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Tarasick, D. J.
Ozone profile data from soundings integrate models, aircraft and other ground-based measurements for better interpretation of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. A well-designed network of ozonesonde stations, with consistent sampling, can answer questions not possible with short campaigns or current satellite technology. The SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) project, for example, has led to these findings about tropical ozone: definition of the zonal tropospheric wave-one pattern in equatorial ozone, characterization of the "Atlantic ozone paradox" and establishment of a link between tropical Atlantic and Indian Ocean pollution. Building on the SHADOZ concept, a short-term ozone network was formed in July-August 2004 to coordinate ozonesonde launches during the ICARTT/INTEX/NEAQS (International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation)/Intercontinental Transport Experiment/New England Air Quality Study. In IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study), more than 250 soundings, with daily frequency at half the sites, were launched from eleven North American stations and an oceanographic ship in the Gulf of Maine. Although the goal was to examine pollution influences under stable high-pressure systems and transport associated with "warm conveyor belt" flows, the INTEX study region was dominated by a series of weak frontal system that mixed aged pollution with stratospheric ozone in the middle troposphere. Deconvoluting ozone sources provides new insights into ozone in the transition between mid-latitude and polar air.
Remais, Justin V.; Xiao, Ning; Akullian, Adam; Qiu, Dongchuan; Blair, David
For many pathogens with environmental stages, or those carried by vectors or intermediate hosts, disease transmission is strongly influenced by pathogen, host, and vector movements across complex landscapes, and thus quantitative measures of movement rate and direction can reveal new opportunities for disease management and intervention. Genetic assignment methods are a set of powerful statistical approaches useful for establishing population membership of individuals. Recent theoretical improvements allow these techniques to be used to cost-effectively estimate the magnitude and direction of key movements in infectious disease systems, revealing important ecological and environmental features that facilitate or limit transmission. Here, we review the theory, statistical framework, and molecular markers that underlie assignment methods, and we critically examine recent applications of assignment tests in infectious disease epidemiology. Research directions that capitalize on use of the techniques are discussed, focusing on key parameters needing study for improved understanding of patterns of disease. PMID:21552326
Collins, Ross D; de Neufville, Richard; Claro, João; Oliveira, Tiago; Pacheco, Abílio P
Forest fires are a serious management challenge in many regions, complicating the appropriate allocation to suppression and prevention efforts. Using a System Dynamics (SD) model, this paper explores how interactions between physical and political systems in forest fire management impact the effectiveness of different allocations. A core issue is that apparently sound management can have unintended consequences. An instinctive management response to periods of worsening fire severity is to increase fire suppression capacity, an approach with immediate appeal as it directly treats the symptom of devastating fires and appeases the public. However, the SD analysis indicates that a policy emphasizing suppression can degrade the long-run effectiveness of forest fire management. By crowding out efforts to preventative fuel removal, it exacerbates fuel loads and leads to greater fires, which further balloon suppression budgets. The business management literature refers to this problem as the firefighting trap, wherein focus on fixing problems diverts attention from preventing them, and thus leads to inferior outcomes. The paper illustrates these phenomena through a case study of Portugal, showing that a balanced approach to suppression and prevention efforts can mitigate the self-reinforcing consequences of this trap, and better manage long-term fire damages. These insights can help policymakers and fire managers better appreciate the interconnected systems in which their authorities reside and the dynamics that may undermine seemingly rational management decisions.
Watts, Nelson B
GLOW is an observational, longitudinal, practice-based cohort study of osteoporosis in 60,393 women aged ≥55 years in 10 countries on three continents. In this Review, we present insights from the first 3 years of the study. Despite cost analyses being frequently based on spine and hip fractures, we found that nonvertebral, nonhip fractures were around five times more common and doubled the use of health-care resources compared with hip and spine fractures combined. Fractures not at the four so-called major sites in FRAX(®) (upper arm, forearm, hip and clinical vertebral fractures) account for >40% of all fractures. The risk of fracture is increased by various comorbidities, such as Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis and lung and heart disease. Obesity, although thought to be protective against all fractures, substantially increased the risk of fractures in the ankle or lower leg. Simple assessment by age plus fracture history has good predictive value for all fractures, but risk profiles differ for first and subsequent fractures. Fractures diminish quality of life as much or more than diabetes mellitus, arthritis and lung disease, yet women substantially underestimate their own fracture risk. Treatment rates in patients at high risk of fracture are below those recommended but might be too frequent in women at low risk. Comorbidities and the limits of current therapeutic regimens jeopardize the efficacy of drugs; new regimens should be explored for severe cases.
Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Rush, Gilbert E.
Sequestration of carbon as a stable mineral carbonate has been proposed to mitigate environmental concerns that carbon dioxide may with time escape from its sequestered matrix using alternative sequestration technologies. A method has been developed to prepare stable carbonate products by reacting CO2 with magnesium silicate minerals in aqueous bicarbonate/chloride media at high temperature and pressure. Because this approach is inherently expensive due to slow reaction rates and high capital costs, studies were conducted to improve the reaction rates through mineral pretreatment steps and to cut expenses through improved reactor technology. An overview is given for the estimated cost of the process including sensitivity to grinding and heating as pretreatment options for several mineral feedstocks. The energy costs are evaluated for each pretreatment in terms of net carbon avoided. New studies with a high-temperature, high-pressure flow-loop reactor have yielded information on overcoming kinetic barriers experienced with processing in stirred autoclave reactors. Repeated tests with the flow-loop reactor have yielded insights on wear and failure of system components, on challenges to maintain and measure flow, and for better understanding of the reaction mechanism.
Background Chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in obese subjects is associated with health complications including cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes. Reducing inflammatory responses may reduce these risks. However, available markers of inflammatory status inadequately describe the complexity of metabolic responses to mild anti-inflammatory therapy. Methods To address this limitation, we used an integrative omics approach to characterize modulation of inflammation in overweight men during an intervention with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Measured parameters included 80 plasma proteins, >300 plasma metabolites (lipids, free fatty acids, oxylipids and polar compounds) and an array of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) gene expression products. These measures were submitted to multivariate and correlation analysis and were used for construction of biological response networks. Results A panel of genes, proteins and metabolites, including PGE2 and TNF-alpha, were identified that describe a diclofenac-response network (68 genes in PBMC, 1 plasma protein and 4 plasma metabolites). Novel candidate markers of inflammatory modulation included PBMC expression of annexin A1 and caspase 8, and the arachidonic acid metabolite 5,6-DHET. Conclusion In this study the integrated analysis of a wide range of parameters allowed the development of a network of markers responding to inflammatory modulation, thereby providing insight into the complex process of inflammation and ways to assess changes in inflammatory status associated with obesity. Trial registration The study is registered as NCT00221052 in clinicaltrials.gov database. PMID:20178593
McEwen, Bruce S.; McKittrick, Christina R.; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Sakai, Randall R.
The discovery of adrenal steroid receptors outside of the hypothalamus in the hippocampus and other forebrain regions catalyzed research on the effects of stress upon cognitive function, emotions and self-regulatory behaviors as well as the molecular, cellular and neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying acute and chronic stress effects on the brain. Indeed, this work has shown that the brain is a plastic and vulnerable organ in the face of acute and chronic stress. The insight that Bob and Caroline Blanchard had in developing and interpreting findings using the Visible Burrow System model made an enormous contribution to the current view that the human brain is very sensitive to the social environment and to agonistic interactions between individuals. Their collaboration with Sakai and McEwen at The Rockefeller University extended application of the Visible Burrow System model to demonstrate that it also was a unique and highly relevant neuroethological model with which to study stress and adaptation to stressors. Those studies focused on the brain and systemic organ responses to stress and, in turn, described that the brain is also very responsive to changes in systemic physiology. PMID:26066722
Tevosian, Sergei G
For the past 2 decades, transgenic technology in mice has allowed for an unprecedented insight into the transcriptional control of reproductive development and function. The key factor among the mouse genetic tools that made this rapid advance possible is a conditional transgenic approach, a particularly versatile method of creating gene deletions and substitutions in the mouse genome. A centerpiece of this strategy is an enzyme, Cre recombinase, which is expressed from defined DNA regulatory elements that are active in the tissue of choice. The regulatory DNA element (either genetically engineered or natural) assures Cre expression only in predetermined cell types, leading to the guided deletion of genetically modified (flanked by loxP or 'floxed' by loxP) gene loci. This review summarizes and compares the studies in which genes encoding GATA family transcription factors were targeted either globally or by Cre recombinases active in the somatic cells of ovaries and testes. The conditional gene loss experiments require detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal expression of Cre activity, and the challenges in interpreting the outcomes are highlighted. These studies also expose the complexity of GATA-dependent regulation of gonadal gene expression and suggest that gene function is highly context dependent.
Ferrando, Juan; Mir-Bonafé, José M.; Cepeda-Valdés, Rodrigo; Domínguez, Anna; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; García-Veigas, Javier; Gómez-Flores, Minerva; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.
Background: Trichothiodistrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is characterized by a specific congenital hair shaft dysplasia caused by deficiency of sulfur associated with a wide spectrum of multisystem abnormalities. In this article, we study clinical, microscopic, and ultrastructural findings of 20 patients with TTD with the aim to add further insights regarding to this rare condition. Additionally, analyses of our results are compared with those extracted from the literature in order to enhance its comprehensibility. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of TTD were included: 7 from Mexico and 14 from Spain. Clinical, microscopic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies and X-ray microanalysis (XrMa) were carried out in all of them. Genetic studies were performed in all seven Mexican cases. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and xeroderma pigmentosum/TTD-complex were excluded. Results: Cuticular changes and longitudinal crests of the hair shaft were demonstrated. These crests were irregular, disorganized, following the hair longest axis. Hair shaft sulfur deficiency was disposed discontinuously and intermittently rather than uniformly. This severe decrease of sulfur contents was located close to the trichoschisis areas. Only five patients did not show related disturbances. Micro-dolichocephaly was observed in five cases and represented the most frequent facial dysmorphism found. It is also remarkable that all patients with urologic malformations also combined diverse neurologic disorders. Moreover, three Mexican sisters demonstrated the coexistence of scarce pubic vellus hair, developmental delay, onychodystrophy, and maxillar/mandibullar hypoplasia. Conclusions: TTD phenotype has greatly varied from very subtle forms to severe alterations such as neurologic abnormalities, blindness, lamellar ichthyosis and gonadal malformations. Herein, a multisystem study should be performed mandatorily in patients diagnosed with TTD. PMID:23180925
Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Liu, Jiawang; Foroozesh, Maryam; Stevens, Cheryl L. Klein
The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment of several disease conditions such as numerous cancers and fungal infections in addition to their critical role in drug-drug interactions. Structure activity relationships (SAR), and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships (3D-QSAR) represent important tools in understanding the interactions of the inhibitors with the active sites of the CYP enzymes. A comprehensive account of the QSAR studies on the major human CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and a few other CYPs are detailed in this review which will provide us with an insight into the individual/common characteristics of the active sites of these enzymes and the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. PMID:22864238
Fernandes, Carlos A H; Pazin, Wallance M; Dreyer, Thiago R; Bicev, Renata N; Cavalcante, Walter L G; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L; Ito, Amando S; Oliveira, Cristiano L P; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Fontes, Marcos R M
Crotoxin (CTX) is the main neurotoxin found in Crotalus durissus rattlesnake venoms being composed by a nontoxic and non-enzymatic component (CA) and a toxic phospholipase A2 (CB). Previous crystallographic structures of CTX and CB provided relevant insights: (i) CTX structure showed a 1:1 molecular ratio between CA and CB, presenting three tryptophan residues in the CA/CB interface and one exposed to solvent; (ii) CB structure displayed a tetrameric conformation. This study aims to provide further information on the CTX mechanism of action by several biophysical methods. Our data show that isolated CB can in fact form tetramers in solution; however, these tetramers can be dissociated by CA titration. Furthermore, CTX exhibits a strong reduction in fluorescence intensity and lifetime compared with isolated CA and CB, suggesting that all tryptophan residues in CTX may be hidden by the CA/CB interface. By companying spectroscopy fluorescence and SAXS data, we obtained a new structural model for the CTX heterodimer in which all tryptophans are located in the interface, and the N-terminal region of CB is largely exposed to the solvent. Based on this model, we propose a toxic mechanism of action for CTX, involving the interaction of N-terminal region of CB with the target before CA dissociation.
Chen,G.; Wang, H.; Robinson, H.; Cai, J.; Wan, Y.; Ke, H.
Selective inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) have been used as drugs for treatment of male erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. An insight into the pharmacophores of PDE5 inhibitors is essential for development of second generation of PDE5 inhibitors, but has not been completely illustrated. Here we report the synthesis of a new class of the sildenafil derivatives and a crystal structure of the PDE5 catalytic domain in complex with 5-(2-ethoxy-5-(sulfamoyl)-3-thienyl)-1-methyl-3-propyl-1, 6-dihydro-7H-pyrazolo[4, 3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (12). Inhibitor 12 induces conformational change of the H-loop (residues 660-683), which is different from any of the known PDE5 structures. The pyrazolopyrimidinone groups of 12 and sildenafil are well superimposed, but their sulfonamide groups show a positional difference of as much as 1.5 Angstroms . The structure-activity analysis suggests that a small hydrophobic pocket and the H-loop of PDE5 are important for the inhibitor affinity, in addition to two common elements for binding of almost all the PDE inhibitors: the stack against the phenylalanine and the hydrogen bond with the invariant glutamine. However, the PDE5-12 structure does not provide a full explanation to affinity changes of the inhibitors. Thus alternatives such as conformational change of the M-loop are open and further structural study is required.
Trees are large global stores of carbon (C) that will be impacted by increased carbon dioxide levels and climate change. However, at present we cannot properly predict the carbon balance of forests in future as we lack knowledge on how plant physiological processes, the transfer of carbon within the plant, carbon storage, and remobilization in the plant tissues as well as the release of carbon from the roots to the soil interact with environmental drivers and ecosystem-scale processes. This paper will summarise how stable isotope techniques can give new insights in the fate of newly assimilated C in plants and ecosystems on time scales from hours to seasons and it will include studies either characterizing temporal and spatial variation in the natural abundance of carbon and oxygen isotopes or applying isotopically enriched tracers. It comprises the assessment of the mechanisms of C partitioning among specific metabolic pathways, between plant organs and into various ecosystem C pools with different residence times. Moreover stable isotopes are highly suitable tools to characterise the role of the phloem, which is the central long-distance conveyer distributing C from source to sinks and thus plays a central role in linking sites and structures of storage, growth and other metabolic activities. A deeper understanding of these processes and their interaction with environmental drivers is critical for predicting how trees and ecosystems will respond to coming global environmental changes, including increased temperature, altered precipitation, and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.
Mackenzie, Ian R A; Neumann, Manuela
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous molecular basis. The past decade has seen the discovery of several new FTD-causing genetic mutations and the identification of many of the relevant pathological proteins. The current neuropathological classification is based on the predominant protein abnormality and allows most cases of FTD to be placed into one of three broad molecular subgroups; frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau, TDP-43 or FET protein accumulation. This review will describe our current understanding of the molecular basis of FTD, focusing on insights gained from the study of human postmortem tissue, as well as some of the current controversies. Most cases of FTD can be subclassified into one of three broad molecular subgroups based on the predominant protein that accumulates as pathological cellular inclusions. Understanding the associated pathogenic mechanisms and recognizing these FTD molecular subtypes in vivo will likely be crucial for the development and use of targeted therapies. This article is part of the Frontotemporal Dementia special issue.
Rose, Peter; Moore, Philip K; Zhu, Yi Zhun
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has profound biological effects within living organisms and is now increasingly being considered alongside other gaseous signalling molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Conventional use of pharmacological and molecular approaches has spawned a rapidly growing research field that has identified H2S as playing a functional role in cell-signalling and post-translational modifications. Recently, a number of laboratories have reported the use of siRNA methodologies and genetic mouse models to mimic the loss of function of genes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of H2S within tissues. Studies utilising these systems are revealing new insights into the biology of H2S within the cardiovascular system, inflammatory disease, and in cell signalling. In light of this work, the current review will describe recent advances in H2S research made possible by the use of molecular approaches and genetic mouse models with perturbed capacities to generate or detoxify physiological levels of H2S gas within tissues.
Wilhelm, Steven W
Sound field methodologies are an essential prerequisite in the development of a basic understanding of toxic cyanobacteria blooms. Sample collection, on-site processing, storage and transportation, and subsequent analysis and documentation are all critically dependent on a sound field program that allows the researcher to construct, with minimal uncertainty, linkages between bloom events and cyanotoxin production with the ecology of the studied system. Since 1999, we have collected samples in Lake Erie as part of the MELEE (Microbial Ecology of the Lake Erie Ecosystem) and MERHAB-LGL (Monitoring Event Responses for Harmful Algal Blooms in the Lower Great Lakes) research programs to develop appropriate tools and refine methods necessary to characterize the ecology of the reoccurring cyanobacterial blooms in the systems. Satellite imagery, large ship expeditions, classical and novel molecular tools have been combined to provide insight into both the cyanobacteria responsible for these events as well as into some of the environmental cues that may facilitate the formation of toxic blooms. This information, as well new directions in cyano-specific monitoring will be presented to highlight needs for field program monitoring and/or researching toxic freshwater cyanobacteria.
Digne-Malcolm, Holly; Frise, Matthew C.; Dorrington, Keith L.
Though antihypertensive drugs have been in use for many decades, the mechanisms by which they act chronically to reduce blood pressure remain unclear. Over long periods, mean arterial blood pressure must match the perfusion pressure necessary for the kidney to achieve its role in eliminating the daily intake of salt and water. It follows that the kidney is the most likely target for the action of most effective antihypertensive agents used chronically in clinical practice today. Here we review the long-term renal actions of antihypertensive agents in human studies and find three different mechanisms of action for the drugs investigated. (i) Selective vasodilatation of the renal afferent arteriole (prazosin, indoramin, clonidine, moxonidine, α-methyldopa, some Ca++-channel blockers, angiotensin-receptor blockers, atenolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, labetolol, hydrochlorothiazide, and furosemide). (ii) Inhibition of tubular solute reabsorption (propranolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, and indapamide). (iii) A combination of these first two mechanisms (amlodipine, nifedipine and ACE-inhibitors). These findings provide insights into the actions of antihypertensive drugs, and challenge misconceptions about the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of many of the agents. PMID:27524972
Fernandes, Carlos A. H.; Pazin, Wallance M.; Dreyer, Thiago R.; Bicev, Renata N.; Cavalcante, Walter L. G.; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo L.; Ito, Amando S.; Oliveira, Cristiano L. P.; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Fontes, Marcos R. M.
Crotoxin (CTX) is the main neurotoxin found in Crotalus durissus rattlesnake venoms being composed by a nontoxic and non-enzymatic component (CA) and a toxic phospholipase A2 (CB). Previous crystallographic structures of CTX and CB provided relevant insights: (i) CTX structure showed a 1:1 molecular ratio between CA and CB, presenting three tryptophan residues in the CA/CB interface and one exposed to solvent; (ii) CB structure displayed a tetrameric conformation. This study aims to provide further information on the CTX mechanism of action by several biophysical methods. Our data show that isolated CB can in fact form tetramers in solution; however, these tetramers can be dissociated by CA titration. Furthermore, CTX exhibits a strong reduction in fluorescence intensity and lifetime compared with isolated CA and CB, suggesting that all tryptophan residues in CTX may be hidden by the CA/CB interface. By companying spectroscopy fluorescence and SAXS data, we obtained a new structural model for the CTX heterodimer in which all tryptophans are located in the interface, and the N-terminal region of CB is largely exposed to the solvent. Based on this model, we propose a toxic mechanism of action for CTX, involving the interaction of N-terminal region of CB with the target before CA dissociation. PMID:28256632
Oplatka, Izhar; Lapidot, Orit
Based on semi-structured interviews with 11 Muslim women graduate students in Israel, the current study provides insight into the determinants enabling this group of women in the Arab sector to apply for a second degree and succeed. Among these determinants are the family, the high school, the individual's personal drive for learning, the…
Korpershoek, YJG; Vervoort, SCJM; Nijssen, LIT; Trappenburg, JCA; Schuurmans, MJ
Background In patients with COPD, self-management skills are important to reduce the impact of exacerbations. However, both detection and adequate response to exacerbations appear to be difficult for some patients. Little is known about the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and explain the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management behavior. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews was performed according to the grounded theory approach, following a cyclic process in which data collection and data analysis alternated. Fifteen patients (male n=8; age range 59–88 years) with mild to very severe COPD were recruited from primary and secondary care settings in the Netherlands, in 2015. Results Several patterns in exacerbation-related self-management behavior were identified, and a conceptual model describing factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management was developed. Acceptance, knowledge, experiences with exacerbations, perceived severity of symptoms and social support were important factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management. Specific factors influencing recognition of exacerbations were heterogeneity of exacerbations and habituation to symptoms. Feelings of fear, perceived influence on exacerbation course, patient beliefs, ambivalence toward treatment, trust in health care providers and self-empowerment were identified as specific factors influencing self-management actions. Conclusion This study provided insight into factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management behavior in COPD patients. The conceptual model can be used as a framework for health care professionals providing self-management support. In the development of future self-management interventions, factors influencing the process of exacerbation-related self-management should be taken into account. PMID:27932877
Background In recent years, preventive and clinical interventions for cardiovascular risk management have been implemented widely in primary care in the Netherlands. Although this has enhanced quality and outcomes of cardiovascular risk management, further improvement remains possible. In the planned observational study, we aim to examine the role of social networks of healthcare providers and patients in quality and outcomes of cardiovascular risk management. Methods/Design In a longitudinal observational study, data on social networks of approximately 300 primary care providers from 30 general practices and 900 cardiovascular patients will be collected twice, with a six month interval, using a mix of measures. Social networks are documented with specifically designed questionnaires for patients, relatives, and healthcare professionals. For each included patient, we will extract from medical records to gather data on clinical processes and cardiovascular risk predictors. Data on self-management and psychosocial outcomes of patients will be collected using questionnaires for patients. The analysis focuses on identifying network characteristics, which are associated with (changes in) cardiovascular risk management or self-management. Discussion This research will provide insight into the role of social networks of patients and providers in cardiovascular risk management in primary practice. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR4069. PMID:24942555
Mackenzie, Isla S; Rutherford, Daniel; MacDonald, Thomas M
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator in both health and disease. In addition to its effects on vascular tone and platelet function, it plays roles in inflammation and pain perception that may be of relevance in osteoarthritis. Many patients with osteoarthritis take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) long term for pain control. Over recent years concern has been raised about the possible cardiovascular side effects of NSAIDs. The reasons for this possible increased cardiovascular risk with NSAIDs are not yet entirely clear, although changes in blood pressure, renal salt handling and platelet function may contribute. Recently, drugs that chemically link a NSAID with a NO donating moiety (cyclo-oxygenase-inhibiting NO-donating drugs [CINODs]) were developed. NO is an important mediator of endothelial function, acting as a vasodilator and an inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and having anti-inflammatory properties. The potential benefits of CINODs include the combination of effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions with NO release, which might counterbalance any adverse cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Effects of CINODs in animal studies include inhibition of vasopressor responses, blood pressure reduction in hypertensive rats and inhibition of platelet aggregation. CINODs may also reduce ischemic damage to compromised myocardial tissue. In addition, endothelial dysfunction is a recognized feature of inflammatory arthritides, and therefore a drug that might provide slow release of NO to the vasculature while treating pain is an attractive prospect in these conditions. Further studies of the effects of CINODs in humans are required, but these agents represent a potential exciting advance in the management of osteoarthritis. PMID:19007428
Winstanley, Catharine A.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.; Jentsch, J. David
Drug use disorders are often accompanied by deficits in the capacity to efficiently process reward-related information and to monitor, suppress, or override reward-controlled behavior when goals are in conflict with aversive or immediate outcomes. This emerging deficit in behavioral flexibility and impulse control may be a central component of the progression to addiction, as behavior becomes increasingly driven by drugs and drug-associated cues at the expense of more advantageous activities. Understanding how neural mechanisms implicated in impulse control are affected by addictive drugs may therefore prove a useful strategy in the search for new treatment options. Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could make a significant contribution to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. PMID:20491734
Winstanley, Catharine A; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R; Jentsch, J David
Drug use disorders are often accompanied by deficits in the capacity to efficiently process reward-related information and to monitor, suppress, or override reward-controlled behavior when goals are in conflict with aversive or immediate outcomes. This emerging deficit in behavioral flexibility and impulse control may be a central component of the progression to addiction, as behavior becomes increasingly driven by drugs and drug-associated cues at the expense of more advantageous activities. Understanding how neural mechanisms implicated in impulse control are affected by addictive drugs may therefore prove a useful strategy in the search for new treatment options. Animal models of impulsivity and addiction could make a significant contribution to this endeavor. Here, some of the more common behavioral paradigms used to measure different aspects of impulsivity across species are outlined, and the importance of the response to reward-paired cues in such paradigms is discussed. Naturally occurring differences in forms of impulsivity have been found to be predictive of future drug self-administration, but drug exposure can also increase impulsive responding. Such data are in keeping with the suggestion that impulsivity may contribute to multiple stages within the spiral of addiction. From a neurobiological perspective, converging evidence from rat, monkey, and human studies suggest that compromised functioning within the orbitofrontal cortex may critically contribute to the cognitive sequelae of drug abuse. Changes in gene transcription and protein expression within this region may provide insight into the mechanism underlying drug-induced cortical hypofunction, reflecting new molecular targets for the treatment of uncontrolled drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989, included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act 1980. Inclusion on the NPL initiates the Remedial investigation (RI) and (FS) process for characterizing the nature and extent of condition to human health and the environment, and selection of remedial actions. This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the S plant Aggregate Area located in the 200 Areas. The study provides the basis for initiating RI/FS under CERCLA or under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS). This report also integrates RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past-Practice investigations.
Garavan, Thomas N.; Carbery, Ronan; Murphy, Eamonn
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore strategies used by communities of practice (CoPs) managers when managing intentionally created CoPs. Design/methodology/approach: Four intentionally created CoPs in Ireland are explored, using a qualitative research design with data from observation, interviews and analysis of documents. Findings:…
White, M. J.
A study of the relation between top managers in Federal agencies and the operations research and management science (OR/MS) group is reported. Sixteen managers were questioned about the following characteristics: closeness of top managers to OR/MS groups; top managers' attitudes toward the OR/MS activities; relation between closeness and these attitudes; and top managers' use of OR/MS groups. It is concluded that OR/MS is relevant to many top managers and that OR/MS has begun to play a role in decisions. Top management attitudes and actions are not related in obvious ways. The consequences to top management's use of and closeness to an OR/MS group need not be the success of the group as a professional, innovative, research-oriented unit.
Guillemot, Joannès; Delpierre, Nicolas; Vallet, Patrick; François, Christophe; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K.; Soudani, Kamel; Nicolas, Manuel; Badeau, Vincent; Dufrêne, Eric
Background and Aims The structure of a forest stand, i.e. the distribution of tree size features, has strong effects on its functioning. The management of the structure is therefore an important tool in mitigating the impact of predicted changes in climate on forests, especially with respect to drought. Here, a new functional–structural model is presented and is used to assess the effects of management on forest functioning at a national scale. Methods The stand process-based model (PBM) Castanea was coupled to a stand structure module (SSM) based on empirical tree-to-tree competition rules. The calibration of the SSM was based on a thorough analysis of intersite and interannual variability of competition asymmetry. The coupled Castanea–SSM model was evaluated across France using forest inventory data, and used to compare the effect of contrasted silvicultural practices on simulated stand carbon fluxes and growth. Key Results The asymmetry of competition varied consistently with stand productivity at both spatial and temporal scales. The modelling of the competition rules enabled efficient prediction of changes in stand structure within the Castanea PBM. The coupled model predicted an increase in net primary productivity (NPP) with management intensity, resulting in higher growth. This positive effect of management was found to vary at a national scale across France: the highest increases in NPP were attained in forests facing moderate to high water stress; however, the absolute effect of management on simulated stand growth remained moderate to low because stand thinning involved changes in carbon allocation at the tree scale. Conclusions This modelling approach helps to identify the areas where management efforts should be concentrated in order to mitigate near-future drought impact on national forest productivity. Around a quarter of the French temperate oak and beech forests are currently in zones of high vulnerability, where management could thus mitigate
Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton
In this article, we leverage theoretical insights and methodological guidelines of discourse analytic scholarship to re-examine language phenomena typically associated with autism. Through empirical analysis of the verbal behavior of three children with autism, we engage the question of how prototypical features of autistic language--notably…
Ly, Chau Thi Minh; Vickers, Margaret H.; Fernandez, Santha
Purpose: Exploratory insights into the graduate student experiences of offshore MBA programmes in Vietnam are presented. Students are considered key stakeholders in the higher education (HE) debate, and their views were sought in light of recent shifts in HE worldwide, associated business education changes, nagging questions around the quality of…
Rosenberger, Eric W.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.
Insight into the construct of countertransference may be gained by studying the relationships among its constituents. Toward that end, a single therapy dyad was analyzed for 13 sessions. Client verbalizations predicted to trigger countertransference reactions were studied in relation to their possible consequences, and the potential mitigating…
Andraski, B. J.; Garcia, C.; Michel, R. L.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Mayers, C.; Johnson, M.
Questions concerning radionuclide migration include the spatial extent of contamination and the rate at which contamination spreads. Previous work at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada used a plant-based method to map large-scale, tritium plumes in a 72-ha area adjacent to a closed, commercial low-level radioactive waste facility. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine if the plant-mapped contaminant distribution has changed with time and (ii) use soil water-vapor samples to gain insight into subsurface transport. Mapping of plant-water tritium concentrations was repeated 5 yr after the initial mapping. During this 5-yr period, annual soil water-vapor samples from the root zone (~0 to 1-m depth) and sub-root-zone gravelly sand (~1 to 2-m depth) were collected along transects that passed through two tritium hot spots. Mapped plant-water tritium concentrations within the main body of both hot spots decreased ~30-40% over 5 yr. In contrast, the plant data along the periphery of the south hot spot showed little change with time, while those along the west hot spot increased and indicated continued lateral advancement of the western plume. The peak sub-root-zone water-vapor concentration within the south hot spot (2,150 Bq/L) was measured 100 m from the facility and that for the west hot spot (11,970 Bq/L) was immediately adjacent to the facility. Soil water-vapor transect data supported the plant-mapping results. For example, over 5 yr, sub-root-zone concentrations at south-transect locations within 200 m of the facility and west-transect locations within 25 m of the facility decreased by ~40%. In addition, the west-transect 200-m location showed a relatively steady increase in annual sub-root-zone water-vapor concentrations that confirmed lateral advancement of the western plume. Data collected in the south hot spot show that long-distance lateral migration of the shallow vapor-phase tritium plume occurs preferentially through the gravelly layer
Babizhayev, Mark A; Lankin, Vadim Z; Savel'Yeva, Ekaterina L; Deyev, Anatoliy I; Yegorov, Yegor E
peroxidase type of activity and protection of antioxidant enzymes from inactivation (such as in a case of superoxide dismutase). Carnosine biological mimetics react with methylglyoxal and they are described in this study as a glyoxalase mimetics. The imidazole-containing carnosine biological mimetics can react with a number of deleterious aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation and thereby suppress their toxicity. Carnosine and carcinine can also react with glycated proteins and inhibit advanced glycation end product formation. These studies indicate a therapeutic role for imidazole-containing antioxidants (non-hydrolized carnosine, carcinine, D-carnosine, ophthalmic prodrug N-acetylcarnosine, leucyl-histidylhidrazide and patented formulations thereof) in therapeutic management strategies for Type 2 Diabetes.
Graham, Andrew T.
This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…
Braun, Dietmar; Benninghoff, Martin; Ramuz, Raphaël; Gorga, Adriana
There remains uncertainty in scientific discussions regarding the governance of universities in new public management regimes in terms of who actually "rules" in the university. Apparently, a strengthened management leadership is confronted with continuing elements of academic self-regulation and professional autonomy in knowledge…
Hao, Xin; Cui, Shuai; Li, Wenfu; Yang, Wenjing; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin
Insight can be the first step toward creating a groundbreaking product. As evident in anecdotes and major inventions in history, heuristic events (heuristic prototypes) prompted inventors to acquire insight when solving problems. Bionic imitation in scientific innovation is an example of this kind of problem solving. In particular, heuristic prototypes (e.g., the lotus effect; the very high water repellence exhibited by lotus leaves) help solve insight problems (e.g., non-stick surfaces). We speculated that the biological functional feature of prototypes is a critical factor in inducing insightful scientific problem solving. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we selected scientific innovation problems and utilized "learning prototypes-solving problems" two-phase paradigm to test the supposition. We also explored its neural mechanisms. Functional MRI data showed that the activation of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG, BA 37) and the middle occipital gyrus (MOG, BA 19) were associated with the highlighted functional feature condition. fMRI data also indicated that the MTG (BA 37) could be responsible for the semantic processing of functional features and for the formation of novel associations based on related functions. In addition, the MOG (BA 19) could be involved in the visual imagery of formation and application of function association between the heuristic prototype and problem. Our findings suggest that both semantic processing and visual imagery could be crucial components underlying scientific problem solving.
Walvoort, Serge JW; van der Heijden, Paul T; Kessels, Roy PC; Egger, Jos IM
Aim Impaired illness insight may hamper treatment outcome in patients with alcohol-related cognitive deficits. In this study, a short questionnaire for the assessment of illness insight (eg, the Q8) was investigated in patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS) and in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with mild neurocognitive deficits. Methods First, reliability coefficients were computed and internal structure was investigated. Then, comparisons were made between patients with KS and patients with AUD. Furthermore, correlations with the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) were investigated. Finally, Q8 total scores were correlated with neuropsychological tests for processing speed, memory, and executive function. Results Internal consistency of the Q8 was acceptable (ie, Cronbach’s α =0.73). The Q8 items represent one factor, and scores differ significantly between AUD and KS patients. The Q8 total score, related to the DEX discrepancy score and scores on neuropsychological tests as was hypothesized, indicates that a higher degree of illness insight is associated with a higher level of cognitive functioning. Conclusion The Q8 is a short, valid, and easy-to-administer questionnaire to reliably assess illness insight in patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction. PMID:27445476
Wong, Cheuk-Kit; White, Harvey D; Wilcox, Robert G; Criger, Douglas A; Califf, Robert M; Topol, Eric J; Ohman, E Magnus
The Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO)-3 atrial fibrillation (AF) substudy assessed the prognostic significance of AF during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the use of antiarrhythmic therapies, and whether different antiarrhythmic therapies were associated with different outcomes. The timing of the onset of AF relative to other post-AMI complications was recorded in the study. Of the 13,858 patients who were in sinus rhythm at the time of enrolment into GUSTO-3, 906 (6.5%) developed AF and 12,952 did not. Worsening heart failure, hypotension, third-degree heart block, and ventricular fibrillation were independent predictors of new-onset AF. The risks of 30-day and 1-year mortality were increased among patients with AF versus patients without AF before (odds ratio [OR] 2.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.56-3.34; and OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.48-3.46, respectively) and after adjustment for baseline factors and pre-AF complications (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.17-1.89; and OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.35-2.01, respectively). A total of 1,138 patients had data available on the management of their AF, including 117 with a history of paroxysmal AF and 138 with chronic AF prior to AMI. Of these 1,138 patients, 317 (28%) received antiarrhythmic therapies: class I antiarrhythmic drugs in 12%, sotalol in 5% and amiodarone in 15%. Electrical cardioversion was attempted in 116 patients (10%). Sinus rhythm was restored in 72% of patients given class I drugs, 67% of those given sotalol, 79% of those given amiodarone, and 64% of those who underwent electrical cardioversion. After adjustment for baseline characteristics and pre-AF complications, none of the specific antiarrhythmic therapies was associated with a higher chance of having sinus rhythm at discharge or before deterioration to in-hospital death. However, the use of class I antiarrhythmic drugs or sotalol was associated with lower unadjusted 30-day and 1-year mortality rates. After adjustment for baseline
Van Steenwinkel, Iris; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Heylighen, Ann
Due to memory loss, people with dementia are increasingly disorientated in space, time, and identity, which causes profound experiences of insecurity, anxiety, and homesickness. In the case study presented in this article, we explored how architecture can support people in coping with this challenge. We took a novel approach to offer architects insights into experiences of living with dementia. Starting from a critical realist and constructionist approach, we combined ethnographic techniques with an architectural analysis. This case study offers insights into the experiences and activities of a woman living with dementia within the architectural context of her home. We describe how the physical and social environment provided her guidance through sequences of day-to-day activities. This study highlights how architecture can support people with dementia in orientating by accommodating places for (1) everyday activities and (2) privacy and togetherness.
Parellada, Mara; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Reig, Santiago; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Moreno, Dolores; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Otero, Soraya; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Graell, Montserrat; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso
Background: Increasing evidence supports the important role of illness state and individual characteristics in insight. Methods: Insight, as measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, over the first 2 years of early-onset first-episode psychosis and its correlations with clinical, socio-demographic, cognitive, and structural brain variables are studied. Results: (1) insight at 2 years is poorer in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) than in subjects with other psychoses; (2) the more severe the psychosis, the worse the insight. In SSD, depressive symptoms, poorer baseline executive functioning, lower IQ, longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and poorer premorbid infancy adjustment are associated with poorer insight; frontal and parietal gray matter (GM) reductions at baseline correlate with worse insight into having psychotic symptoms at 2 years; (3) insight into having a mental disorder (Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder [SUMD]1) at 1 year, DUP, and baseline IQ are the most consistent variables explaining different aspects of insight at 2 years in SSD patients. IQ and SUMD1 at 1 year, together with left frontal and parietal GM volumes, explain 80% of the variance of insight into having specific psychotic symptoms in SSD patients (adjusted R2 = 0.795, F = 15.576, P < .001). Conclusion: Insight is a complex phenomenon that depends both on severity of psychopathology and also on disease and subject characteristics, such as past adjustment, IQ, DUP, cognitive functioning, frontal and parietal GM volumes, and age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:20884756
Thorpe, Anthony; Burns, Eila
This article explores the topic of diversity in the teaching workforce though the enactment of policy concentrating on teachers with dyslexia within the Further/Vocational Education and Training sectors of England and Finland. Two research projects from Finland and England focusing, respectively, on individual teachers' perspectives and managers'…
Wollen, Mark; Merino, Fred; Schuster, John; Newton, Christopher
Concepts of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) were designed for lunar descent stage reaction control system (RCS) and lunar ascent stage (main and RCS propulsion) missions using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4). Study ground rules set a maximum of 19 days from launch to lunar touchdown, and an additional 210 days on the lunar surface before liftoff. Two PMDs were conceptually designed for each of the descent stage RCS propellant tanks, and two designs for each of the ascent stage main propellant tanks. One of the two PMD types is a traditional partial four-screen channel device. The other type is a novel, expanding volume device which uses a stretched, flexing screen. It was found that several unique design features simplified the PMD designs. These features are (1) high propellant tank operating pressures, (2) aluminum tanks for propellant storage, and (3) stringent insulation requirements. Consequently, it was possible to treat LO2 and LCH4 as if they were equivalent to Earth-storable propellants because they would remain substantially subcooled during the lunar mission. In fact, prelaunch procedures are simplified with cryogens, because any trapped vapor will condense once the propellant tanks are pressurized in space.
Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad
Background: A model of quality management called Strategic Collaborative Quality Management (SCQM) model was developed based on the quality management literature review, the findings of a survey on quality management assessment in healthcare organisations, semi-structured interviews with healthcare stakeholders, and a Delphi study on healthcare quality management experts. The purpose of this study was to verify the SCQM model. Methods: The proposed model was further developed using feedback from thirty quality management experts using a Delphi method. Further, a guidebook for its implementation was prepared including a road map and performance measurement. Results: The research led to the development of a context-specific model of quality management for healthcare organisations and a series of guidelines for its implementation. Conclusion: A proper model of quality management should be developed and implemented properly in healthcare organisations to achieve business excellence. PMID:24596883
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MXEMIS) NEEDS by Ronald Webster Ralph Mitchell Valorie Young -J : 2 34 LA--. Approved for public release...System (SAIFS) The MX Management Information System (MX MIS) The Mobilization Early Warning System (MEWS) The Computer-Aided Environmental Baseline...26 REFERENCES DISTRIBUTION I5 S’ t A STUDY OF MX ENVIRONMENTAL 2 EXISTING SYSTEMS CLASSIFICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MXEMIS
Gohl, Kheng Lim; Listrat, Anne; Béchet, Daniel
As the key component of the musculoskeletal system, the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues such as ligaments and tendons is a biological example of fibre-reinforced composite but with a complex hierarchical architecture. To establish a comprehensive structure-function relationship at the respective levels (i.e., from molecule to tissue) of the hierarchical architecture is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving the integration of findings from the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, structural biology, materials science and biophysics. Accordingly, in recent years, some of these fields, namely structural biology, materials science and biophysics, have made significant progress in the microscale and nanoscale studies of extracellular matrix using new tools, such as microelectromechanical systems, optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy, complemented by new techniques in simultaneous imaging and mechanical testing and computer modelling. The intent of this paper is to review the key findings on the mechanical response of extracellular matrix at the respective levels of the hierarchical architecture. The main focus is on the structure and function--the findings are compared across the different levels to provide insights that support the goal of establishing a comprehensive structure-function relationship of extracellular matrix. For this purpose, the review is divided into two parts. The first part explores the features of key structural units of extracellular matrix, namely tropocollagen molecule (the lowest level), microfibril, collagen fibril, collagen fibre and fascicle. The second part examines the mechanics of the structural units at the respective levels. Finally a framework for extracellular matrix mechanics is proposed to support the goal to establish a comprehensive structure-function relationship. The framework describes the integration of the mechanisms of reinforcement by the structural units at the
Eamus, D.; Zolfaghar, S.; Villalobos-Vega, R.; Cleverly, J.; Huete, A.
Groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) are at risk globally due to unsustainable levels of groundwater extraction, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this review, we examine recent developments in the ecohydrology of GDEs with a focus on three knowledge gaps: (1) how do we locate GDEs, (2) how much water is transpired from shallow aquifers by GDEs and (3) what are the responses of GDEs to excessive groundwater extraction? The answers to these questions will determine water allocations that are required to sustain functioning of GDEs and to guide regulations on groundwater extraction to avoid negative impacts on GDEs. We discuss three methods for identifying GDEs: (1) techniques relying on remotely sensed information; (2) fluctuations in depth-to-groundwater that are associated with diurnal variations in transpiration; and (3) stable isotope analysis of water sources in the transpiration stream. We then discuss several methods for estimating rates of GW use, including direct measurement using sapflux or eddy covariance technologies, estimation of a climate wetness index within a Budyko framework, spatial distribution of evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing, groundwater modelling and stable isotopes. Remote sensing methods often rely on direct measurements to calibrate the relationship between vegetation indices and ET. ET from GDEs is also determined using hydrologic models of varying complexity, from the White method to fully coupled, variable saturation models. Combinations of methods are typically employed to obtain clearer insight into the components of groundwater discharge in GDEs, such as the proportional importance of transpiration versus evaporation (e.g. using stable isotopes) or from groundwater versus rainwater sources. Groundwater extraction can have severe consequences for the structure and function of GDEs. In the most extreme cases, phreatophytes experience crown dieback and death following groundwater drawdown. We provide a brief
Lederer. S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Cintala, M. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.
Impacts into forsterite and orthoenstatite at speeds typically encountered by comets demonstrate that shock imparted by collisions is detectable in the infrared signatures of their dust. The spectral signatures can be traced to physical alterations in their crystalline structures, as observed in TEM imaging and modeled using a dipole approximation. These results yield tantalizing insights into the collisional history of our solar system, as well as the history of individual comets and Trojan asteroids.
Fazzolare, R. A.; Wong-Swanson, B. G.
Energy management opportunities in the process of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite for lunar oxygen production are being investigated. An optimal energy system to supply the power requirements for the process will be determined.
Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A
A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.
Oulas, Anastasis; Pavloudi, Christina; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Kotoulas, Georgios; Arvanitidis, Christos; Iliopoulos, Ioannis
Advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have allowed significant breakthroughs in microbial ecology studies. This has led to the rapid expansion of research in the field and the establishment of “metagenomics”, often defined as the analysis of DNA from microbial communities in environmental samples without prior need for culturing. Many metagenomics statistical/computational tools and databases have been developed in order to allow the exploitation of the huge influx of data. In this review article, we provide an overview of the sequencing technologies and how they are uniquely suited to various types of metagenomic studies. We focus on the currently available bioinformatics techniques, tools, and methodologies for performing each individual step of a typical metagenomic dataset analysis. We also provide future trends in the field with respect to tools and technologies currently under development. Moreover, we discuss data management, distribution, and integration tools that are capable of performing comparative metagenomic analyses of multiple datasets using well-established databases, as well as commonly used annotation standards. PMID:25983555
Tada, Hayato; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Nohara, Atsushi; Inazu, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Junji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu
Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is an extremely rare inherited disorder, the cause of which is mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor adaptor protein 1 (LDLRAP1) gene. Only 36 families with 14 different mutations have been reported in the literature to date. The clinical phenotype of ARH is milder than that of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) caused by LDL receptor gene mutations. Recently, the lipoprotein metabolism of ARH was investigated in both humans and mice by several investigators, including ourselves. Based on these findings the preserved clearance of LDL receptor-dependent very-LDL (VLDL) may be a possible mechanism underlying the responsiveness to statins and the milder phenotype of ARH. Although ARH has been described as being "recessive," several studies, including ours, have indicated that a heterozygous carrier status of the LDLRAP1 gene is associated with mild hypercholesterolemia and exacerbates the phenotype of FH resulting from LDL receptor gene mutations. This review summarizes current understanding regarding ARH and its causative gene, LDLRAP1, and attempts to provide new insight into novel pharmacological targets for treating dyslipidemic patients.
Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Cooke, Georgina M.; Chao, Ning L.; Landguth, Erin L.
Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas. PMID:25653668
Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L
Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas.
Minkman, Mirella M N; Ligthart, Suzanne A; Huijsman, Robbert
The number of dementia patients is growing, and they require a variety of services, making integrated care essential for the ability to continue living in the community. Many healthcare systems in developed countries are exploring new approaches for delivering health and social care. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse a new approach in extensive case management programmes concerned with long-term dementia care in The Netherlands. The focus is on the characteristics, and success and failure factors of these programmes.A multiple case study was conducted in eight regional dementia care provider networks in The Netherlands. Based on a literature study, a questionnaire was developed for the responsible managers and case managers of the eight case management programmes. During 16 semistructured face-to-face interviews with both respondent groups, a deeper insight into the dementia care programmes was provided. Project documentation for all the cases was studied. The eight programmes were developed independently to improve the quality and continuity of long-term dementia care. The programmes show overlap in terms of their vision, tasks of case managers, case management process and the participating partners in the local dementia care networks. Differences concern the targeted dementia patient groups as well as the background of the case managers and their position in the local dementia care provider network. Factors for success concern the expert knowledge of case managers, investment in a strong provider network and coherent conditions for effective inter-organizational cooperation to deliver integrated care. When explored, caregiver and patient satisfaction was high. Further research into the effects on client outcomes, service use and costs is recommended in order to further analyse the impact of this approach in long-term care. To facilitate implementation, with a focus on joint responsibilities of the involved care providers, policy
Bourdin, Arnaud; Doble, Adam; Godard, Philippe
Asthma is the most frequently encountered allergic respiratory disease, and one that has a potentially serious impact on patients' functioning and well-being. From a public health perspective, it is important to collect data on the prevalence, burden and management of asthma in order to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and to ensure that national healthcare policies are adapted and appropriate. In this respect, the different AIR surveys, which have collected standardised data on asthma in the general population of a large number of countries around the world, have made an important contribution. The latest of these surveys is the AIRMAG survey, performed in the three Maghreb countries of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. In these countries, the prevalence of asthma (3.4% to 3.9%) is in the low to moderate range. This is consistent with rates observed elsewhere in the Mediterranean basin. Nonetheless, the prevalence of asthma in the Maghreb may be expected to rise in the future as populations become more urbanized and adopt a more 'Westernized' lifestyle. Indeed the prevalence of asthma is already higher in the urban coastal regions of these countries than in the more rural mountainous and desert regions. Asthma control in the Maghreb is relatively poor compared to other regions evaluated in previous AIR studies, with control being unacceptable in around three-quarters of respondents. Although part of the explanation may reside in limited access to care, treatment rates for inhaled corticosteroids (26.1% of adults and 29.1% of children) were no worse than those reported in previous AIR studies. On the other hand, asthma monitoring through regular follow-up visits, home flow-meter use and preparation of individualised asthma management plans was in general unsatisfactory. In addition, awareness of asthma in the general population of the Maghreb countries was low. Education measures directed at the patient, together with programmes directed at the
Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.
Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and
The 67 Management Plans represent recommended study approaches for resolving 108 of the 305 Issues which were identified. Each study Management Plan is prepared in three formats: Management Plan Overview (lists the subsumed Issues, study background, and related overview information); Study Plan (details the study approach by tasks, lists special needs, and describes expected study products); Schedule-Task Flow (provides a time-lined schedule for the study tasks and resource requirements). The Management Relationships Matrix, included in this volume, shows the data input-output relationships among all recommended studies. A listing is also included which cross-references the unresolved requirements to Issues to management plans. A glossary of all abbreviations utilized is provided.
Tse, Gary; Yeo, Jie M.; Chan, Yin Wah; Lai, Eric T. H. Lai; Yan, Bryan P.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains an unsolved problem in the twenty-first century. It is often due to rapid onset, ventricular arrhythmias caused by a number of different clinical conditions. A proportion of SCD patients have identifiable diseases such as cardiomyopathies, but for others, the causes are unknown. Viral myocarditis is becoming increasingly recognized as a contributor to unexplained mortality, and is thought to be a major cause of SCD in the first two decades of life. Myocardial inflammation, ion channel dysfunction, electrophysiological, and structural remodeling may play important roles in generating life-threatening arrhythmias. The aim of this review article is to examine the electrophysiology of action potential conduction and repolarization and the mechanisms by which their derangements lead to triggered and reentrant arrhythmogenesis. By synthesizing experimental evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies, a framework of how host (inflammation), and viral (altered cellular signaling) factors can induce ion electrophysiological and structural remodeling is illustrated. Current pharmacological options are mainly supportive, which may be accompanied by mechanical circulatory support. Heart transplantation is the only curative option in the worst case scenario. Future strategies for the management of viral myocarditis are discussed. PMID:27493633
Tse, Gary; Lai, Eric Tsz Him; Yeo, Jie Ming; Yan, Bryan P.
Bayés syndrome is an under-recognized clinical condition characterized by inter-atrial block (IAB). This is defined electrocardiographically as P-wave duration > 120 ms and can be categorized into first, second and third degree IAB. It can be caused by inflammatory conditions such as systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, abnormal protein deposition in cardiac amyloidosis, or neoplastic processes invading the inter-atrial conduction system, such as primary cardiac lymphoma. It may arise transiently during volume overload, autonomic dysfunction or electrolyte disturbances from vomiting. In other patients without an obvious cause, the predisposing factors are diabetes mellitus, hypertensive heart disease, and hypercholesterolemia. IAB has a strong association with atrial arrhythmogenesis, left atrial enlargement (LAE), and electro-mechanical discordance, increasing the risk of cerebrovascular accidents as well as myocardial and mesenteric ischemia. The aim of this review article is to synthesize experimental evidence on the pathogenesis of IAB and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Current medical therapies include anti-fibrotic, anti-arrhythmic and anti-coagulation agents, whereas interventional options include atrial resynchronization therapy by single or multisite pacing. Future studies will be needed to elucidate the significance of the link between IAB and atrial tachyarrhythmias in patients with different underlying etiologies and optimize the management options in these populations. PMID:27303306
Tse, Gary; Liu, Tong; Li, Ka H. C.; Laxton, Victoria; Chan, Yin W. F.; Keung, Wendy; Li, Ronald A.; Yan, Bryan P.
Brugada syndrome (BrS), is a primary electrical disorder predisposing affected individuals to sudden cardiac death via the development of ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF). Originally, BrS was linked to mutations in the SCN5A, which encodes for the cardiac Na+ channel. To date, variants in 19 genes have been implicated in this condition, with 11, 5, 3, and 1 genes affecting the Na+, K+, Ca2+, and funny currents, respectively. Diagnosis of BrS is based on ECG criteria of coved- or saddle-shaped ST segment elevation and/or T-wave inversion with or without drug challenge. Three hypotheses based on abnormal depolarization, abnormal repolarization, and current-load-mismatch have been put forward to explain the electrophysiological mechanisms responsible for BrS. Evidence from computational modeling, pre-clinical, and clinical studies illustrates that molecular abnormalities found in BrS lead to alterations in excitation wavelength (λ), which ultimately elevates arrhythmic risk. A major challenge for clinicians in managing this condition is the difficulty in predicting the subset of patients who will suffer from life-threatening VT/VF. Several repolarization risk markers have been used thus far, but these neglect the contributions of conduction abnormalities in the form of slowing and dispersion. Indices incorporating both repolarization and conduction and based on the concept of λ have recently been proposed. These may have better predictive values than the existing markers. PMID:27803673
Mortimer, Stefanie A; Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A
A comprehensive understanding of RNA structure will provide fundamental insights into the cellular function of both coding and non-coding RNAs. Although many RNA structures have been analysed by traditional biophysical and biochemical methods, the low-throughput nature of these approaches has prevented investigation of the vast majority of cellular transcripts. Triggered by advances in sequencing technology, genome-wide approaches for probing the transcriptome are beginning to reveal how RNA structure affects each step of protein expression and RNA stability. In this Review, we discuss the emerging relationships between RNA structure and the regulation of gene expression.
Clavier, Carole; Gendron, Sylvie; Lamontagne, Lise; Potvin, Louise
This paper reports findings from an evaluation of the local implementation of a procedural public health programme whose objective is to create healthy environments (HE) for vulnerable families in the province of Quebec (Canada) through the funding of local projects. Considering the potential issue of programme-context interaction, our research question was the following: Does the procedural nature of this HE programme result in variation between local cases in terms of the types of projects and collaborations it subsidizes? Given that the creation of healthy environments requires intersectoral health action to address social determinants of health, the data were analysed with respect to intersectorality and cooperation. Results of this qualitative multiple case study (n = 8), for the period 2004-2009, show that the majority of subsidized projects were in the health and social services sector and focused on parenting, parent-child attachment, nutrition and the social networks of families. Only a few initiatives reached beyond the health and social services sector to address social health determinants such as education, housing and transportation. Membership and mandates of the local groups responsible for programme implementation also showed little intersectorality. The limited variation between these eight cases can be attributed to the configuration of the local networks, as well as to specific issues in urban and rural areas. To explain the overall similarity of results across cases, we turned to the literature on policy instruments which suggests that particular characteristics of a programme may produce effects that are independent of its intended objective. In our study, several programme mechanisms, such as those framing the definition of «healthy environment» and budget management rules, could have encouraged the local development of initiatives that focus on individual skills related to parenting and attachment rather than the development of
Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary
Sheppard, David P; Pirogovsky-Turk, Eva; Woods, Steven Paul; Holden, Heather M; Nicoll, Diane R; Filoteo, J Vincent; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Gilbert, Paul E
One important limitation of prior studies examining functional decline in Huntington's disease (HD) has been the reliance on self-reported measures of ability. Since report-based methods can be biased by lack of insight, depression, and cognitive impairment, contrasting self-reported ability with measures that assess capacity may lead to a more comprehensive estimation of real-world functioning. The present study examined self-reported ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs) and performance-based financial management capacity in 20 patients diagnosed with mild-moderate Huntington's disease (HD) and 20 demographically similar healthy adults. HD patients reported significantly greater declines in their ability to manage finances. On the capacity measure of financial management, HD patients performed significantly below healthy adults. Additionally, in the HD group there were no significant correlations between self-reported ability and capacity measures of financial management. HD patients endorsed declines in global iADL ability and exhibited deficits in functional capacity when performing a financial management task. Capacity measures may aid in assessing the extent to which HD patients accurately estimate real-world iADL performance, and the present findings suggest that such measures of capacity may be related to the cognitive, but not motor or affective, symptoms of HD.
Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 21 September...Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Service Supply Chain , Services Acquisition, Service Lifecycle, Contract Management, Project Management, Program Management = = ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ
Sgaier, Sema K; Baer, James; Rutz, Daniel C; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Basinga, Paulin; Parkyn, Rosie; Laube, Catharine
By the end of 2014, an estimated 8.5 million men had undergone voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in 14 priority countries in eastern and southern Africa, representing more than 40% of the global target. However, demand, especially among men most at risk for HIV infection, remains a barrier to realizing the program's full scale and potential impact. We analyzed current demand generation interventions for VMMC by reviewing the available literature and reporting on field visits to programs in 7 priority countries. We present our findings and recommendations using a framework with 4 components: insight development; intervention design; implementation and coordination to achieve scale; and measurement, learning, and evaluation. Most program strategies lacked comprehensive insight development; formative research usually comprised general acceptability studies. Demand generation interventions varied across the countries, from advocacy with community leaders and community mobilization to use of interpersonal communication, mid- and mass media, and new technologies. Some shortcomings in intervention design included using general instead of tailored messaging, focusing solely on the HIV preventive benefits of VMMC, and rolling out individual interventions to address specific barriers rather than a holistic package. Interventions have often been scaled-up without first being evaluated for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We recommend national programs create coordinated demand generation interventions, based on insights from multiple disciplines, tailored to the needs and aspirations of defined subsets of the target population, rather than focused exclusively on HIV prevention goals. Programs should implement a comprehensive intervention package with multiple messages and channels, strengthened through continuous monitoring. These insights may be broadly applicable to other programs where voluntary behavior change is essential to achieving
Gillespie, Seth J.
Many IT projects fail despite the best efforts to keep these projects within budget, schedule, and scope. Few studies have looked at the effect of project risk management tools and techniques on project success. The primary focus of this study was to examine the extent to which utilization of project risk management processes influence project…
Buffington, James R.; Harper, Jeffrey S.
Many Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accredited schools require undergraduate Management Information Systems (MIS) majors to take a course in the management of information technology. Over half of these schools utilize case studies in the teaching of this course. Case studies are an important vehicle for teaching…
Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina
This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…
Managers of ambulance stations face many communicative challenges in their interaction with employees working in prehospital first-line services. The article presents an exploratory study of how paramedics experience these challenges in communication with station leaders. On the basis of a dialogue perspective in qualitative method, 24 paramedics were interviewed in one-to-one and focus group settings. Naturalistic and phenomenological approaches were used to analyze the interviews. All the paramedics said that they wished to be more involved in decision processes and that station managers should provide better explanations of information "from above." The paramedics understood that it was difficult for the managers to find time for extensive dialogue, but many thought that the managers should give more priority to communication. The paramedics' views correspond to theoretical assumptions in human resource management. According to this model, employees should be involved in decision processes on management levels, as long as it is realistically possible to do so. Furthermore, expressing emotional support and positive attitudes does not take much time, and the study suggests that many ambulance managers should focus more on interpersonal relations to employees. It has been extensively documented that management communication affects organizational performance. The study indicates that managers of ambulance stations should be more aware of how their leadership style affects professional commitment and motivation in the first-line services.
Devès, Maud H.; Reynolds, Sally; King, Geoffrey C. P.; Kuebler, Simon; Sturdy, Derek; Godet, Nan
Fossil remains are embedded in a continually evolving landscape. Earth scientists have the methods and approaches to study the processes that shape the landscape at various temporal and spatial scales. Some of these methods can generate insights that are of potential use for researchers in other fields, such as archaeology and palaeoanthropology. Here we present two case studies to illustrate how a broader landscape perspective can provide new insights into the land use by Pliocene hominins in southern Africa, and more recently, by Palaeolithic hominins in the southern Levant. Key landscape attributes can help explain why humans, hominins and the wider animal community exploit certain types of landscapes in predictable ways. Our first case study examines how active tectonics or volcanism appears to be important in creating fertile regions with reliable water sources and complex topography. While relatively easy for agile primates such as hominins to negotiate, zones of complex topography are harder for certain predators and prey animals to traverse. In the second case study, we consider that differences in soil edaphics can exert a major control on animals by supplying or failing to supply necessary trace elements, such as selenium, copper, phosphate and potassium (Henkin et al., 1995). We show that the pattern of trace element distribution can accurately map animal movements between areas of suitable grazing. This predictability could have enabled Levantine humans to ambush megafauna during these seasonal migrations. By studying the landscape attributes around fossil site locations, Earth scientists can offer new insights and perspectives into the past, particularly on the ways in which the inhabitants would have used their landscapes.
Ling, Guangming; Rijmen, Frank
The factorial structure of the Time Management (TM) scale of the Student 360: Insight Program (S360) was evaluated based on a national sample. A general procedure with a variety of methods was introduced and implemented, including the computation of descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).…
Murin, Jan; Naditch-Brûlé, Lisa; Brette, Sandrine; Chiang, Chern-En; O’Neill, James; Steg, P. Gabriel
Background Atrial fibrillation can be categorized into nonpermanent and permanent atrial fibrillation. There is less information on permanent than on nonpermanent atrial fibrillation patients. This analysis aimed to describe the characteristics and current management, including the proportion of patients with successful atrial fibrillation control, of these atrial fibrillation subsets in a large, geographically diverse contemporary sample. Methods and Results Data from RealiseAF, an international, observational, cross-sectional survey of 10,491 patients with atrial fibrillation, were used to characterize permanent atrial fibrillation (N = 4869) and nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (N = 5622) patients. Permanent atrial fibrillation patients were older, had a longer time since atrial fibrillation diagnosis, a higher symptom burden, and were more likely to be physically inactive. They also had a higher mean (SD) CHADS2 score (2.2 [1.3] vs. 1.7 [1.3], p<0.001), and a higher frequency of CHADS2 score ≥2 (67.3% vs. 53.0%, p<0.001) and comorbidities, most notably heart failure. Physicians indicated using a rate-control strategy in 84.2% of permanent atrial fibrillation patients (vs. 27.5% in nonpermanent atrial fibrillation). Only 50.2% (N = 2262/4508) of permanent atrial fibrillation patients were controlled. These patients had a longer time since atrial fibrillation diagnosis, a lower symptom burden, less obesity and physical inactivity, less severe heart failure, and fewer hospitalizations for acute heart failure than uncontrolled permanent atrial fibrillation patients, but with more arrhythmic events. The most frequent causes of hospitalization in the last 12 months were acute heart failure and stroke. Conclusion Permanent atrial fibrillation is a high-risk subset of atrial fibrillation, representing half of all atrial fibrillation patients, yet rate control is only achieved in around half. Since control is associated with lower symptom burden and heart
The present report is based on the research conducted for the Process Field Study between March and September 2011. The Process Field Study documents how Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) services were delivered to clients, and the quality with which those services were delivered. The assessments were conducted by visiting 19 agencies in 19 states around the country interviewing agency managers, staff, and contractors; observing program intake along, with 43 audits, 45 measure installation and 37 final inspections; and conducting debriefing interviews with clients and weatherization staff following the observation of service delivery. In this report, we turn to detailed observations of a few field interactions. The client stories from our observations illustrate some of the ways clients and crew interact to build the success of the program, but shows there will always be unanticipated obstacles to building trust and getting the program to the public. Stories of staff and crew career paths indicate that weatherization technology and techniques are being learned and used by technicians out of the new home construction industry and that their new knowledge provides them with technical tools and methods that many hope to take back into the construction industry if and when they return. This report is organized according to the four stages of weatherization: intake, audit, installation, and inspection. It contributes to our understanding of the area where policy, environment, culture, and individual decisions influence social innovation. The anecdotes reveal the realities of implementing programs for the benefit of the greater good at minimal cost and sacrifice in times of ever restricting budgets. As the authors revisited their field notes and compiled memorable narratives to communicate the essence of the weatherization experience, they identified three key takeaways that summarize the major issues. First, in WAP as in all services there will always be
Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton
In this article, we leverage theoretical insights and methodological guidelines of discourse analytic scholarship to re-examine language phenomena typically associated with autism. Through empirical analysis of the verbal behavior of three children with autism, we engage the question of how prototypical features of autistic language-notably pronoun atypicality, pragmatic deficit, and echolalia-might conceal competencies and interactional processes that are largely invisible in mainstream research. Our findings offer a complex picture of children with autism in their use of language to communicate, interact and experience others. Such a picture also deepens our understanding of the interactional underpinnings of autistic children's speech. Finally, we describe how our findings offer fruitful suggestions for clinical intervention.
Funston, Paul J; Groom, Rosemary J; Lindsey, Peter A
Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus), are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there.
Funston, Paul J.; Groom, Rosemary J.; Lindsey, Peter A.
Large African predators, especially lions (Panthera leo) and leopards (Panthera pardus), are financially valuable for ecotourism and trophy hunting operations on land also utilized for the production of other wildlife species for the same purpose. Predation of ungulates used for trophy hunting can create conflict with landholders and trade off thus exists between the value of lions and leopards and their impact on ungulate populations. Therefore productionist and conservation trade-offs are complexly graded and difficult to resolve. We investigated this with a risk-benefit analysis on a large private wildlife production area in Zimbabwe. Our model showed that lions result in substantial financial costs through predation on wild ungulates that may not be offset by profits from hunting them, whereas the returns from trophy hunting of leopards are projected to exceed the costs due to leopard predation. In the absence of additional income derived from photo-tourism the number of lions may need to be managed to minimize their impact. Lions drive important ecological processes, but there is a need to balance ecological and financial imperatives on wildlife ranches, community wildlife lands and other categories of multiple use land used for wildlife production. This will ensure the competitiveness of wildlife based land uses relative to alternatives. Our findings may thus be limited to conservancies, community land-use areas and commercial game ranches, which are expansive in Africa, and should not necessarily applied to areas where biodiversity conservation is the primary objective, even if hunting is allowed there. PMID:23527083
Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels
Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers provide healthcare services to people with severe and persistent mental illness. These case managers take on generic roles in multidisciplinary teams and provide all-around services in the clients' private homes. This focus group study aimed to gain insight into Danish ACT case managers' professional identity work by examining their discussions of ethical dilemmas and collaboration in their everyday practice. Data were collected during five focus groups at three ACT teams in the North Denmark Region and subjected to discourse analysis emphasizing how identity work was accomplished through talk. The findings indicated that the case managers constructed professional identities by actively positioning themselves and the particular ACT approach in relation to other mental healthcare professionals and clients. They represented themselves as achieving better client-related outcomes by being more assertive and persistent, and as responsible caregivers who provided the help that their clients needed when other services had failed to do so. They depicted their services as being focused on the clients' well-being, and their persistent efforts to establish and sustain interpersonal relationships with clients were an important part of their service. Basic nursing tasks were described as an important part of their everyday work, and even though such tasks were not distinctive for ACT case managers, the representations of their work seemed to give them a sense of worth as professionals and legitimized a unique role in the community mental healthcare services.
Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter; Jenks, Chris
Much work on school bullying focuses on developing our understanding of the various factors that contribute to bullying and its management. This case study focuses on the possible connections between parts and offers a metaperspective of one mainstream secondary school. Demonstrating that bullying and its management is embedded within the network…
Abdur-Raouf; Kalim, Rukhsana; Siddiqi, Ahmed F.
This paper aims to identify the gaps in management education highlighted by 3 primary stakeholders: students, faculty and alumni. The study tries to address the issue of relevance and compatibility of management education and investigates areas of improvement perceived by respondents. The paper assumes that business departments of universities…
management information system (MIS) at AFGL. The study summarizes current management and administrative practices at AFGL. Requirements have been identified for automating several currently manual functions to compile accurate and timely information to better manage and plan AFGL programs. This document describes the functions and relative priorities of five MIS subsystems and provides suggestions for implementation solutions. Creation of a detailed Development Plan is recommended as the follow-on task.
Gercek, Gokhan; Saleem, Naveed
Providing adequate computing lab support for Management Information Systems (MIS) and Computer Science (CS) programs is a perennial challenge for most academic institutions in the US and abroad. Factors, such as lack of physical space, budgetary constraints, conflicting needs of different courses, and rapid obsolescence of computing technology,…
Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.
Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.
Lau, E Y; Felton, J S; Lightstone, F C
A computational study was performed to better understand the differences between human arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1 and 2. Homology models were constructed from available crystal structures and comparisons of the active site residues 125, 127, and 129 for these two enzymes provide insight into observed substrate differences. The NAT2 model provided a basis for understanding how some of the common mutations may affect the structure of the protein. Molecular dynamics simulations of the human NAT models and the template structure (NAT from Mycobacterium smegmatis) were performed and showed the models to be stable and reasonable. Docking studies of hydroxylated heterocyclic amines in the models of NAT1 and NAT2 probed the differences exhibited by these two proteins with mutagenic agents. The hydroxylated heterocyclic amines were only able to fit into the NAT2 active site, and an alternative binding site by the P-loop was found using our models and will be discussed. Additionally, quantum mechanical calculations were performed to study the O-acetylation reaction of the hydroxylated heterocyclic amines N-OH MeIQx and N-OH PhIP. This study has given us insight into why there are substrate differences among isoenzymes and explains some of the polymorphic activity differences.
Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia
, but in other basins it is higher under historical conditions. Global changes may be an incentive to use valuation in operating rules in some basins. In other basins, the benefits of reservoirs management based on economic criteria are less pronounced; in this case, trade-offs could arise between implementing economic based operation policies or not. Given its generic nature and low data requirements, the framework developed could be implemented in other regions concerned with water scarcity and its cost, or extended to a global coverage. Water policies at the country or regional level could be assessed.
Mills, Patrick C.
Exploratory studies were conducted at sites bordering the Fox River in Waukesha, Wisconsin, during 2010 and McHenry, Illinois, during 2011–13. The objectives of the studies were to assess strategies for the study of and insights into the potential for directly connected groundwater and surface-water systems with natural groundwater discharge to streams diverted and (or) streamflow induced (captured) by nearby production-well withdrawals. Several collection efforts of about 2 weeks or less provided information and data on site geology, groundwater and surface-water levels, hydraulic gradients, water-temperature and stream-seepage patterns, and water chemistry including stables isotopes. Overview information is presented for the Waukesha study, and selected data and preliminary findings are presented for the McHenry study.
Nurses have to solve complex problems for their patients and their families, and as such, nursing care capability has become a focus of attention. The aim of this longitudinal study was to develop a self-reflection practice exercise program for nursing students to be used during clinical practice and to evaluate the effects of this program empirically and longitudinally on change in students' clinical competence, self-reflection, stress, and perceived teaching quality. An additional aim was to determine the predictors important to nursing competence. We sampled 260 nursing students from a total of 377 practicum students to participate in this study. A total of 245 students nurse completed 4 questionnaires, Holistic Nursing Competence Scale, Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Clinical Teaching Quality Scale, at 2, 4, and 6 months after clinical practice experience. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the change in scores on each of the questionnaires. The findings showed that, at 6 months after clinical practice, nursing competence was significantly higher than at 2 and 4 months, was positively related to self-reflection and insight, and was negatively related to practice stress. Nursing students' competence at each time period was positively related to clinical teachers' instructional quality at 4 and 6 months. These results indicate that a clinical practice program with self-reflection learning exercise improves nursing students' clinical competence and that nursing students' self-reflection and perceived practice stress affect their nursing competence. Nursing core competencies are enhanced with a self-reflection program, which helps nursing students to improve self-awareness and decrease stress that may interfere with learning. Further, clinical practice experience, self-reflection and insight, and practice stress are predictors of nursing students' clinical competence.
Crumbley, D R; Ice, R C; Cassidy, R
The wound Care Clinic at Naval Hospital Charleston is a nurse-managed ambulatory clinic that has demonstrated the successful application of nursing case management in caring for patients with chronic and complex wounds. Nursing case management is an outcomes-based system of assessment, planning, provision of nursing services, coordination of interdisciplinary efforts, education, and referral. Nursing case management has been shown, in the literature and at Naval Hospital Charleston, to be an extension of role of professional nursing practice and results in decreased costs, improved quality of care, faster wound healing times, decreased complications, and greater coordination of care between specialty disciplines. These positive results are illustrated in several case studies. Nursing case management has many implications for the successful implementation of any healthcare delivery system where decreased costs and improved quality of care are valued, and it has special benefit in the complex management of chronically ill patients.
Henderson, Michael A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor
The field of heterogeneous photocatalysis has grown considerably in the decades since Fujishima and Honda's ground-breaking publications of photoelectrochemistry on TiO2. Numerous review articles continue to point to both progress made in the use of heterogeneous materials (such as TiO2) to perform photoconversion processes, and the many opportunities and challenges in heterogeneous photocatalysis research such as solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. The past decade has also seen an increase in the use of molecular-level approaches applied to model single crystal surfaces in an effort to obtain new insights into photocatalytic phenomena. In particular, scanning probe techniques (SPM) have enabled researchers to take a ‘nanoscale’ approach to photocatalysis that includes interrogation of the reactivities of specific sites and adsorbates on a model photocatalyst surface. The rutile TiO2(110) surface has become the prototypical oxide single crystal surface for fundamental studies of many interfacial phenomena. In particular, TiO2(110) has become an excellent model surface for probing photochemical and photocatalytic reactions at the molecular level. A variety of experimental approaches have emerged as being ideally suited for studying photochemical reactions on TiO2(110), including desorption-oriented approaches and electronic spectroscopies, but perhaps the most promising techniques for evaluating site-specific properties are those of SPM. In this review, we highlight the growing use of SPM techniques in providing molecular-level insights into surface photochemistry on the model photocatalyst surface of rutile TiO2(110). Our objective is to both illustrate the unique knowledge that scanning probe techniques have already provided the field of photocatalysis, and also to motivate a new generation of effort into the use of such approaches to obtain new insights into the molecular level details of photochemical events occurring at interfaces
Scottish Higher Education Funding Council, Edinburgh.
This Value for Money project provides an update of the 1996 "Energy Management Study in the Higher Education Sector: National Report." It reviews the management arrangement for utilities in the higher education (HE) sector, and it identifies key actions and future issues that must be addressed by HE institutions in developing a strategic…
This paper draws on the technical, elite and political interpretations of the purpose of management, to identify demands for particular forms of educational knowledge in the management studies curriculum. The varied character of this knowledge is discussed using Bernsteinian concepts of verticality, grammaticality, classification and framing, and…
McLean, Gary N.
These 15 case studies developed by faculty at institutions in Bangladesh are appropriate for use in a course in management development. The typical case describes a real business situation in which a real manager had to reach a decision. The case gives quantitative and qualitative information that is, or may be, relevant to that decision.…
Jancey, Jonine; Meuleners, Lynn; Phillips, Maureen
Objective: To explore health professionals' perceptions of sexual assault management practices and identify issues related to these practices across Western Australia (WA). Design: A two-round electronic Delphi study was undertaken with health professionals (medical doctors, registered nurses, social workers and managers). Setting: Healthcare…
The “Measured Annual Nutrient loads from AGricultural Environments” (MANAGE) database was published in 2006 to expand an early 1980’s compilation of nutrient export (load) data from agricultural land uses at the field or farm spatial scale. Then in 2008, MANAGE was updated with 15 additional studie...
Robinson, George D.
The aim of this study is to evaluate industrial approaches to management development programs to ascertain the applicability of using similar schooling techniques in Air Force managerial development. The primary emphasis is on where the Air Force might benefit from industry's experience in the middle manager area. An additional objective is the…
Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…
Mouls, Laetitia; Hugouvieux, Virginie; Mazauric, Jean-Paul; Sommerer, Nicolas; Mazerolles, Gérard; Fulcrand, Hélène
In the context of the potential health benefits of food polyphenols, the bioavailability of tannins (i.e. proanthocyanidins) is a major issue, which is strongly influenced by the polydispersity and the degree of polymerisation of tannins. The average degree of polymerisation (DP) of tannins is usually determined using depolymerisation methods, which do not provide any information about their polymer distribution. Moreover, it is still a challenge to characterise tannin fractions of high polydispersity and/or containing polymers of high molecular weights, due to the limit of detection of direct mass spectrometry (MS) analysis methods. In the present work, the polydispersity of several tannin fractions is investigated by two complementary methods: a MALDI-MS method and a semi-preparative sub-fractionation. Using a combination of these methods we are able to gain insight into the DP distributions of the fractions consisting of tannins of medium and high DP. Moreover combining analyses can be useful to assess and compare the DP distributions of most tannin fractions.
Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Stevens, Mark J.; Perez, Mario J.; Smith, Lynelle P.; Sanders, Linda; Cosgrove, Gregory; Robertson, Charles E.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Harris, J. Kirk
Bacterial infection of lung airways underlies some of the main complications of COPD, significantly impacting disease progression and outcome. Colonization by bacteria may further synergize, amplify, or trigger pathways of tissue damage started by cigarette smoke, contributing to the characteristic airway inflammation and alveolar destruction of COPD. We sought to elucidate the presence and types of lung bacterial populations in different stages of COPD, aimed at revealing important insights into the pathobiology of the disease. Sequencing of the bacterial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene in 55 well-characterized clinical lung samples, revealed the presence of Novosphingobium spp. (>2% abundance) in lungs of patients with GOLD 3-GOLD 4 COPD, cystic fibrosis and a subset of control individuals. Novosphingobium-specific quantitative PCR was concordant with the sequence data and high levels of Novosphingobium spp. were quantifiable in advanced COPD, but not from other disease stages. Using a mouse model of subacute lung injury due to inhalation of cigarette smoke, bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil and macrophage counts were significantly higher in mice challenged intratracheally with N. panipatense compared to control mice (p<0.01). Frequencies of neutrophils and macrophages in lung tissue were increased in mice challenged with N. panipatense at room air compared to controls. However, we did not observe an interaction between N. panipatense and subacute cigarette smoke exposure in the mouse. In conclusion, Novosphingobium spp. are present in more severe COPD disease, and increase inflammation in a mouse model of smoke exposure. PMID:25340840
Gulaboski, Rubin; Bogeski, Ivan; Kokoskarova, Pavlinka; Haeri, Haleh H; Mitrev, Sasa; Stefova, Marina; Stanoeva, Jasmina Petreska; Markovski, Velo; Mirčeski, Valentin; Hoth, Markus; Kappl, Reinhard
Coenzyme Q-0 (CoQ-0) is the only Coenzyme Q lacking an isoprenoid group on the quinoid ring, a feature important for its physico-chemical properties. Here, the redox behavior of CoQ-0 in buffered and non-buffered aqueous media was examined. In buffered aqueous media CoQ-0 redox chemistry can be described by a 2-electron-2-proton redox scheme, characteristic for all benzoquinones. In non-buffered media the number of electrons involved in the electrode reaction of CoQ-0 is still 2; however, the number of protons involved varies between 0 and 2. This results in two additional voltammetric signals, attributed to 2-electrons-1H(+) and 2-electrons-0H(+) redox processes, in which mono- and di-anionic compounds of CoQ-0 are formed. In addition, CoQ-0 exhibits a complex chemistry in strong alkaline environment. The reaction of CoQ-0 and OH(-) anions generates several hydroxyl derivatives as products. Their structures were identified with HPLC/MS. The prevailing radical reaction mechanism was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The hydroxyl derivatives of CoQ-0 have a strong antioxidative potential and form stable complexes with Ca(2+) ions. In summary, our results allow mechanistic insights into the redox properties of CoQ-0 and its hydroxylated derivatives and provide hints on possible applications.
Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.; Westlake, Aaron; Littlechild, Jennifer A.
The X-ray structures of two ω-aminotransferases from P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum in complex with an inhibitor offer the first detailed insight into the structural basis of the substrate specificity of these industrially important enzymes. The crystal structures and inhibitor complexes of two industrially important ω-aminotransferase enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum have been determined in order to understand the differences in their substrate specificity. The two enzymes share 30% sequence identity and use the same amino acceptor, pyruvate; however, the Pseudomonas enzyme shows activity towards the amino donor β-alanine, whilst the Chromobacterium enzyme does not. Both enzymes show activity towards S-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA), with the Chromobacterium enzyme having a broader substrate range. The crystal structure of the P. aeruginosa enzyme has been solved in the holo form and with the inhibitor gabaculine bound. The C. violaceum enzyme has been solved in the apo and holo forms and with gabaculine bound. The structures of the holo forms of both enzymes are quite similar. There is little conformational difference observed between the inhibitor complex and the holoenzyme for the P. aeruginosa aminotransferase. In comparison, the crystal structure of the C. violaceum gabaculine complex shows significant structural rearrangements from the structures of both the apo and holo forms of the enzyme. It appears that the different rigidity of the protein scaffold contributes to the substrate specificity observed for the two ω-aminotransferases.
Zerafa, Natalie; Scerri, Charles
Background Managing community pharmacists can play a leading role in supporting community dwelling individuals with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Objective The main purpose of this study was to assess knowledge of managing community pharmacists towards Alzheimer's disease and its pharmacological management. Setting Community pharmacies in the Maltese islands. Method A nationwide survey was conducted with full-time managing community pharmacists in possession of a tertiary education degree in pharmacy studies. The level of knowledge was investigated using the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale and the Alzheimer's Disease Pharmacotherapy Measure. Participants were also asked to rate a number of statements related to disease management. Results Maltese managing community pharmacists (57 % response rate) had inadequate knowledge on risk factors, caregiving issues and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease. Age and number of years working in a community pharmacy setting were found to be negatively correlated with increased knowledge. Conclusion The findings highlight the need of providing training and continued educational support to managing community pharmacists in order to provide quality advice to individuals with dementia and their caregivers in the community.
Jenkins, David; Walker, Charles; Cohen, Harriet; Curry, Linda
The aim of this study was to explore the experience of an older lesbian in managing the disclosure of her sexual identity. Specifically, the team wanted to better understand the ways she managed her identity in an assisted living facility. Using a qualitative case study methodology, 2 in-depth interviews were conducted. The following 5 themes were identified in the data: keeping her own counsel, maintaining "family" connection, celebrating second chances, living outside the L box, and staying morally centered. Practice and research implications are offered and the case study is used to expand understanding of disclosure management and resiliency theory.
Austin, C J; Hornberger, K D; Shmerling, J E
This article presents the results of information technology management audits conducted by senior executives at ten healthcare organizations. The audits evaluated how well the following seven information technology management responsibilities were carried out: (1) strategic information systems planning; (2) employment of a user focus in system development; (3) recruiting of competent personnel; (4) information systems integration; (5) protection of information security and confidentiality; (6) employment of effective project management in system development; and (7) post-implementation evaluation of information systems. The audit results suggest that most of these responsibilities are being met to a considerable extent by a majority of the organizations studied. However, substantial variation across organizations was noted. Executives participating in the study were able to define areas in which the management of information resources in their organizations was in need of attention. The audit process encourages senior management to provide the leadership required to ensure that information technology is used to maximum advantage.
Hao, Dapeng; Wang, Guangyu; Yin, Zuojing; Li, Chuanxing; Cui, Yan; Zhou, Meng
One important piece of information about the human Mendelian disorders is the mode of inheritance. Recent studies of human genetic diseases on a large scale have provided many novel insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms. However, most successful analyses ignored the mode of inheritance of diseases, which severely limits our understanding of human disease mechanisms relating to the mode of inheritance at the large scale. Therefore, we here conducted a systematic large-scale study of the inheritance mode of Mendelian disorders, to bring new insight into human diseases. Our analyses include the comparison between dominant and recessive disease genes on both genomic and proteomic characteristics, Mendelian mutations, protein network properties and disease connections on both the genetic and the population levels. We found that dominant disease genes are more functionally central, topological central and more sensitive to disease outcome. On the basis of these findings, we suggested that dominant diseases should have higher genetic heterogeneity and should have more comprehensive connections with each other compared with recessive diseases, a prediction we confirm by disease network and disease comorbidity.
Hung, Ming-Chien; Jen, Wen-Yuan
As their populations age, many countries are facing the increasing economic pressure of providing healthcare to their people. In Taiwan, this problem is exacerbated by an increasing rate of obesity and obesity-related conditions. Encouraging the adoption of personal health management services is one way to maintain current levels of personal health and to efficiently manage the distribution of healthcare resources. This study introduces Mobile Health Management Services (MHMS) and employs the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explore the intention of students in Executive Master of Business Management programs to adopt mobile health management technology. Partial least squares (PLS) was used to analyze the collected data, and the results revealed that "perceived usefulness" and "attitude" significantly affected the behavioral intention of adopting MHMS. Both "perceived ease of use" and "perceived usefulness," significantly affected "attitude," and "perceived ease of use" significantly affected "perceived usefulness" as well. The results also show that the determinants of intention toward MHMS differed with age; young adults had higher intention to adopt MHMS to manage their personal health. Therefore, relevant governmental agencies may profitably promote the management of personal health among this population. Successful promotion of personal health management will contribute to increases in both the level of general health and the efficient management of healthcare resources.
Trapp, Judith; McAfee, Alison; Foster, Leonard J
Globally, there are over 20 000 bee species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) with a host of biologically fascinating characteristics. Although they have long been studied as models for social evolution, recent challenges to bee health (mainly diseases and pesticides) have gathered the attention of both public and research communities. Genome sequences of twelve bee species are now complete or under progress, facilitating the application of additional 'omic technologies. Here, we review recent developments in honey bee and native bee research in the genomic era. We discuss the progress in genome sequencing and functional annotation, followed by the enabled comparative genomics, proteomics and transcriptomics applications regarding social evolution and health. Finally, we end with comments on future challenges in the postgenomic era.
Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.
Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.
Maheshwari, B. L.; Plunkett, M.
Purpose: The aim of this article to examine key irrigation management issues and their implications for future research and extension developments. Design/Methodology/Approach: Peri-urban landscapes are important as they supply fresh fruit, vegetables, turf, ornamental plants and other farm products to the cities. In this study, the…
Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita
Abstract Background: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be “delayed” with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. Methods: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way. In particular, we consider BG concentration measured after meal and exercise in 12 healthy volunteers, whereas ISF glucose is simulated using a well-accepted model of blood–ISF glucose kinetics, which permits calculation of the equilibration time, a parameter characterizing the system. Two metrics are defined: blood and ISF glucose difference at each time point and time to reach the same glucose value in blood and ISF. Results: The simulation performed and the two metrics show that the relationship between blood–ISF glucose profiles is more complex than a pure shift in time and that the pattern depends on both equilibration time and BG. Conclusions: In this in silico study, we have illustrated, with simple case studies, the meaning of the of ISF glucose with respect to BG. Understanding that ISF glucose is not just a shifted-in-time version but a distorted mirror of BG is important for a correct use of continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes management. PMID:27253751
Azhoni, Adani; Holman, Ian; Jude, Simon
Research on adaptation barriers is increasing as the need for climate change adaptation becomes evident. However, empirical studies regarding the emergence, causes and sustenance of adaptation barriers remain limited. This research identifies key contextual causes of adaptation barriers in water institutions in the mountainous Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in northern India. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with representatives from twenty-six key governmental, non-governmental, academic and research institutions in the State with responsibilities spanning domestic water supply, irrigation and hydropower generation, environmental monitoring and research. It identified low knowledge capacity and resources, policy implementation gaps, normative attitudes, and unavailability and inaccessibility of data and information compounded with weak interinstitutional networks as key adaptation barriers. Although these barriers are similar to those reported elsewhere, they have important locally-contextual root causes. For instance, inadequate resources result from fragmented resources allocation due to competing developmental priorities and the desire of the political leadership to please diverse electors, rather than climate scepticism. The identified individual barriers are found to be highly inter-dependent and closely intertwined which enables the identification of leverage points for interventions to maximise barrier removal. For instance, breaking down key barriers hindering accessibility to data and information, which are shaped by systemic bureaucracies and cultural attitudes, will involve attitudinal change through sensitisation to the importance of accurate and accessible data and information and the building trust between different actors, in addition to institutional structural changes through legislation and inter-institutional agreements. Approaching barriers as a system of contextually interconnected cultural, systemic, geographical and political
Fırat, Cemal; Erbatur, Serkan; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi
The extravasation of many agents during administration by way of the peripheral veins can produce severe necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. The incidence of an extravasation injury is elevated in the populations prone to complications, including the younger age groups. The severity of the necrosis depends on properties of the extravasated agent (vinca alkaloids, antracyclines, catecholamines, cationic solutions, osmotically active chemicals) including the type, concentration, and the quantity injected. In general, the primary diseases were chronic diseases such as hepatic or ischaemic encephalopathies, cardiac or pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus, and oncological diseases. The aim of this article was to explore the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of extravasation injuries with a review of the literature. From January 2009 to August 2011, 22 patients were reviewed. Ten patients were children, and the others were adults. The surgical interventions were delayed until the development of the necrosis. A topical boric acid 3% solution was applied to all wounds with repetitive debridement. Debridement was performed once every 2 days and was continued until healthy tissue was obtained. The wounds of eight patients were repaired with split-thickness skin grafts, the wounds of six patients were reconstructed with randomised fasciocutaneous flaps, and the wounds of five patients healed by secondary intention. The wounds of three patients with massive swelling of the forearms were treated with only conservative modalities and limb elevation for 24-48 hours. Boric acid was found to promote granulation tissue in the wounds. The extravasation injuries can be prevented by using appropriate measures, such as the avoidance of perfusion under pressure, patient participation in pain follow-up, wound management by experienced health professionals, and preference for large and suitable veins.
Kumar, Sunil; Bhattacharyya, J K; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devotta, Sukumar; Akolkar, A B
Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities, which are facing a serious pollution problem due to the generation of huge quantities of solid waste. This paper presents an assessment of the existing situation of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in major cities in India. The quantity and composition of MSW vary from place to place, and bear a rather consistent correlation with the average standard of living. Extensive field investigations were carried out for quantification, analysis of physical composition, and characterization of MSW in each of the identified cities. The MSW management status (per the MSW Rules, 2000) has also been assessed, and an action plan for better management has been formulated; both are presented in this paper. Studies carried out in 59 selected cities in India have revealed that there are many shortcomings in the existing practices used in managing the MSW. These shortcomings pertain mainly to inadequate manpower, financial resources, implements, and machinery required for effectively carrying out various activities for MSWM. To overcome the deficiencies in the existing MSWM systems, an indicative action plan has been presented incorporating strategies and guidelines. Based on this plan, municipal agencies can prepare specific action plans for their respective cities.
John-Stewart, Grace; Shah, Brandi; Wamalwa, Dalton; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Kelley, Maureen
Abstract Optimal pediatric HIV disclosure impacts illness and developmental experiences while improving access to timely treatment. However, disclosure rates in high HIV prevalence countries remain low and there are limited data on best practices. We conducted a qualitative study of disclosure practices and interviewed healthcare providers from five pediatric HIV clinics in Kenya. We identified themes central to disclosure practices, rationale for approaches, barriers to implementing disclosure, and creative strategies to overcome challenges. We used these insights to develop a practice-based framework for disclosure that is sensitive to practical challenges. Overall, providers had limited training but extensive experience in disclosure, endorsed individualized disclosure practices, invested substantial time on disclosure despite clinical burden, and noted adverse outcomes associated with unplanned or abrupt disclosure. Providers advocated for an approach to disclosure that is child-centered but respects caregiver fears and values. Caregiver support was provided to enable caregivers to be the person who ultimately disclosed HIV status to children. Unplanned or abrupt disclosure to children was reported to have severe and persistent adverse impact and was a stimulus to accelerate disclosure in scenarios when providers believed children may be suspecting their diagnosis. Based on these expert insights, the framework we developed incorporates concurrent evaluation of child and caregiver readiness, identifies cues to prompt disclosure discussions, includes caregiver education and support, and utilizes a gradual approach of unveiling HIV diagnosis to the child. PMID:25216105
Philip E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry
This paper provides the results of an assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 °C during a high or low-pressure conduction cooldown event was calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 °C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10-block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of an annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. From this work we learned how to design passively safe pebble bed reactors that produce more than 600 MWt. We also found a way to improve both the fuel utilization and safety by modifying the pebble design (by adjusting the fuel zone radius in the pebble to optimize the fuel
The purpose of this paper is to identify the role and the importance of irrigation management in integrated river basin management during arid and semi-arid conditions. The study has been conducted at Büyük Menderes Basin which is located in southwest of Turkey and where different sectors (irrigation, drinking and using, industry, tourism, ecology) related to the use and distribution of water sources compete with each other and also where the water demands for important ecological considerations is evaluated and where the river pollution has reached important magnitudes. Since, approximately 73% of the water resources of the basin are utilized for irrigation; as a result, irrigation management becomes important for basin management. Irrigation operations have an effect on basin soil resources, water users, and environmental and ecological conditions. Thus, the determination of the role and importance of irrigation management require an integrated and interdisciplinary approach. In the studies conducted in Turkey, usually the environmental reactions have been analyzed in the basin studies and so the other topics related to integrated river basin management have not been taken into account. Therefore, this study also is to address these existing gaps in the literature and practice.
Peterson, Matthew R; Young, Richard R; Gordon, Gary A
Key elements of supply chain theory remain relevant to emergency management (EM) logistics activities. The Supply Chain Operations Reference model can also serve as a useful template for the planning, organizing, and execution of EM logistics. Through a series of case studies (developed through intensive survey of organizations and individuals responsible for EM), the authors identified the extent supply chain theory is being adopted and whether the theory was useful for emergency logistics managers. The authors found several drivers that influence the likelihood of an organization to implement elements of supply chain management: the frequency of events, organizational resources, population density, range of events, and severity of the disaster or emergency.
Carlucci, Domenico; Nocella, Giuseppe; De Devitiis, Biagia; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Bimbo, Francesco; Nardone, Gianluca
The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies were identified for inclusion. These studies investigated consumer purchasing behaviour towards a variety of fish and seafood products, in different countries and by means of different methodological approaches. In particular, the review identifies and discusses the main drivers and barriers of fish consumption as well as consumers' preferences about the most relevant attributes of fish and seafood products providing useful insights for both practitioners and policy makers. Finally, main gaps of the existing literature and possible trajectories for future research are also discussed.
Szefler, Stanley J; Dakhama, Azzeddine
Although national asthma guidelines help organize standards for asthma care, current asthma management is still primarily symptom based. Recent reports provide insights on how to improve asthma management through steps to better understand the natural history of asthma, individualize asthma care, reduce asthma exacerbations, manage inner city asthma, and some potential new ways to use available medications to improve asthma control. Despite many significant gains in managing asthma, we must now find improved strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations, alter the natural history of the disease, and to reduce health disparities in asthma care. Perhaps new directions in personalized medicine including a systems biology approach, along with improved health care access and communication will lead to better methods to alleviate the burden of asthma. This review will discuss the benefits and limitations of the current approach to asthma management, new studies that could impact new directions in asthma management, and new insights related to mechanisms of asthma and allergic airways inflammation that could eventually lead to improved asthma control.
This document addresses a typical application -- that of a hypothetical nationwide chain of restaurants. The design study uses the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) as a guideline for specifying standard systems. Far from limiting the study`s usefulness to a particular type of National Account, this guideline is highly portable, and will be useful, with slight modifications only, in similarly specifying systems for other types of customers. A brief list of other applications could include many ``campus`` environments -- government agencies and university systems as well as manufacturers, airports, railyards, ski resorts, apartment complexes, hotels, hospitals, telecommunication facilities, oil fields, irrigation systems, municipal water/sewer systems, and so on.
In order to support our ongoing research in watershed ecology and global climate change, we gather and analyze environmental data from several government agencies. This case study demonstrates a researcher’s approach to accessing, organizing, and using intersectoral data. T...
Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Salem, Victoria; Atkar, Rajveer S; Dhillo, Waljit S
There has been resurgence in interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) following radiological and histological identification of metabolically active BAT in adult humans. Imaging enables BAT to be studied non-invasively and therefore imaging studies have contributed a significant amount to what is known about BAT function in humans. In this review the current knowledge (derived from imaging studies) about the prevalence, function, activity and regulation of BAT in humans (as well as relevant rodent studies), will be summarized. PMID:26167397
Al Masaeed, Khaled
This sociolinguistic study examines the functions and motivations of code-switching, which is used here to mean the use of more than one language in the same conversation. The conversations studied here take place in a very particular context: one-on-one speaking sessions in a study abroad program in Morocco where English is the L1 and Arabic the…
Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard
Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.
Data management areas were studied to identify pertinent problems and issues that will affect future NASA data users in terms of performance and cost. Specific topics discussed include the identifications of potential NASA data users other than those normally discussed, consideration affecting the clustering of minicomputers, low cost computer system for information retrieval and analysis, the testing of minicomputer based data base management systems, ongoing work related to the use of dedicated systems for data base management, and the problems of data interchange among a community of NASA data users.
The purpose of the present study is to present the diversities in high schools and opinions of teachers about management of these diversities. The sample of the study is from nine teachers working at the official high schools in the center of Denizli in Turkey. In this qualitative study, the data are collected with a semi-structured interview form…
Carnielli, Virgilio P; Giorgetti, Chiara; Simonato, Manuela; Vedovelli, Luca; Cogo, Paola
Respiratory distress syndrome is a common problem in preterm infants and the etiology is multifactorial. Lung underdevelopment, lung hypoplasia, abnormal lung water metabolism, inflammation, and pulmonary surfactant deficiency or disfunction play a variable role in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome. High-quality exogenous surfactant replacement studies and studies on surfactant metabolism are available; however, the contribution of surfactant deficiency, alteration or dysfunction in selected neonatal lung conditions is not fully understood. In this article, we describe a series of studies made by applying stable isotope tracers to the study of surfactant metabolism and lung water. In a first set of studies, which we call 'endogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled intravenous surfactant precursors, we showed the feasibility of measuring surfactant synthesis and kinetics in infants using several metabolic precursors including plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids and body water. In a second set of studies, named 'exogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled phosphatidylcholine tracer given endotracheally, we could estimate surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine pool size and half-life. Very recent studies are focusing on lung water and on the endogenous biosynthesis of the surfactant-specific proteins. Information obtained from these studies in infants will help to better tailor exogenous surfactant treatment in neonatal lung diseases.
Kenning, Cassandra; Coventry, Peter A; Gibbons, Chris; Bee, Penny; Fisher, Louise; Bower, Peter
Background. There is a need to better understand the mechanisms which lead to poor outcomes in patients with multimorbidity, especially those factors that might be amenable to intervention. Objective. This research aims to explore what factors predict self-management behaviour and health outcomes in patients with multimorbidity in primary care in the UK. Methods. A prospective study design was used. Questionnaires were mailed out to 1460 patients with multimorbidity. Patients were asked to complete a range of self-report measures including measures of multimorbidity, measures of their experience of multimorbidity and service delivery and outcomes (three measures of self-management: behaviours, Self-monitoring and Insight and medication adherence; and a measure of self-reported health). Results. In total, 36% (n = 499) of patients responded to the baseline survey and 80% of those respondents completed follow-up. Self-management behaviour at 4 months was predicted by illness perceptions around the consequences of individual conditions. Self-monitoring and Insight at 4 months was predicted by patient experience of ‘Hassles’ in health services. Self-reported medication adherence at 4 months was predicted by health status, Self-monitoring and Insight and ‘Hassles’ in health services. Perceived health status at 4 months was predicted by age and patient experience of multimorbidity. Conclusions. This research shows that different factors, particularly around patients’ experiences of health care and control over their treatment, impact on various types of self-management. Patient experience of multimorbidity was not a critical predictor of self-management but did predict health status in the short term. The findings can help to develop and target interventions that might improve outcomes in patients with multimorbidity. PMID:25715962
Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.
Neuroimaging studies have produced seemingly contradictory findings in regards to the pathophysiology of insomnia. Although most study results are interpreted from the perspective of a “hyperarousal” model, the aggregate findings from neuroimaging studies suggest a more complex model is needed. We provide a review of the major findings from neuroimaging studies, then discuss them in relation to a heuristic model of sleep-wake states that involves three major factors: wake drive, sleep drive, and level of conscious awareness. We propose that insomnia involves dysregulation in these factors, resulting in subtle dysregulation of sleep-wake states throughout the 24 h light/dark cycle. PMID:28241468
Lai, Hui-Min; Lin, I-Chun; Tseng, Ling-Tzu
Prior researches have indicated that an appropriate adoption of information technology (IT) can help hospitals significantly improve services and operations. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is believed to be the next generation innovation technology for automatic data collection and asset/people tracking. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework, this study investigated high-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals. This research reviewed literature related IT adoption in business and followed the results of a preliminary survey with 37 practical experts in hospitals to theorize a model for the RFID adoption in hospitals. Through a field survey of 102 hospitals and hypotheses testing, this research identified key factors influencing RFID adoption. Follow-up in-depth interviews with three high-level managers of IS department from three case hospitals respectively also presented an insight into the decision of RFID's adoption. Based on the research findings, cost, ubiquity, compatibility, security and privacy risk, top management support, hospital scale, financial readiness and government policy were concluded to be the key factors influencing RFID adoption in hospitals. For practitioners, this study provided a comprehensive overview of government policies able to promote the technology, while helping the RFID solution providers understand how to reduce the IT barriers in order to enhance hospitals' willingness to adopt RFID.
Lanham, C. C., Jr.
A data management system study is presented that defines, in functional terms, the most cost effective ground data management system to support Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL) flights of the space shuttle. Results from each subtask performed and the recommended system configuration for reformatting the experiment instrumentation tapes to computer compatible tape are examined. Included are cost factors for development of a mini control center for real-time support of the ATL flights.
Trillmich, Fritz; Meise, Kristine; Kalberer, Stephanie; Mueller, Birte; Piedrahita, Paolo; Pörschmann, Ulrich; Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Krüger, Oliver
Population monitoring is vital for conservation and management. However, simple counts of animals can be misleading and this problem is exacerbated in seals (pinnipeds) where individuals spend much time foraging away from colonies. We analyzed a 13-year-series of census data of Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) from the colony of Caamaño, an islet in the center of the Galapagos archipelago where a large proportion of animals was individually marked. Based on regular resighting efforts during the cold, reproductive (cold-R; August to January) and the warm, non-reproductive (warm-nR; February to May) season, we document changes in numbers for different sex and age classes. During the cold-R season the number of adults increased as the number of newborn pups increased. Numbers were larger in the morning and evening than around mid-day and not significantly influenced by tide levels. More adults frequented the colony during the warm-nR season than the cold-R season. Raw counts suggested a decline in numbers over the 13 years, but Lincoln-Petersen (LP-) estimates (assuming a closed population) did not support that conclusion. Raw counts and LP estimates were not significantly correlated, demonstrating the overwhelming importance of variability in attendance patterns of individuals. The probability of observing a given adult in the colony varied between 16% (mean for cold-R season) and 23% (warm-nR season) and may be much less for independent 2 to 4 year olds. Dependent juveniles (up to the age of about 2 years) are observed much more frequently ashore (35% during the cold-R and 50% during the warm-nR seasons). Simple counts underestimate real population size by a factor of 4–6 and may lead to erroneous conclusions about trends in population size. PMID:27148735
Deck, W.; Kosatsky, T. |
A study measuring the uptake of chemical contaminants among sport fishers who consume fish caught in the St. Lawrence river is currently being conducted in Montreal, Canada. In this study, blood, hair, and urine collected from local sport fishers is being tested for heavy metals and persistent organochlorine chemicals. The objective of this study was to formulate a framework for determining what information to communicate to individual subjects of a study measuring biomarkers of exposure, consistent with the principles of ethical clinical and research practice. Methods consisted of review of the scope of environmental exposure studies, including the use of biomarker measurement in clinical medicine and environmental research and the relevant principles of clinical ethics and research practice. An exposure biomarker study is designed to elucidate constitutional, behavioral, and environmental determinants of tissue concentrations of exogenous substances. Ethical clinical and research practice, aiming to maximize autonomy and beneficence and to minimize harm, requires that study findings concerning the determinants of exposure be communicated to study participants. In addition, investigators should reference clinical action levels beyond which individual biomarker results are routinely communicated to participants. When biomarkers have no known relation to risk, or when levels fall below action levels, it may be preferable not co communicate individual results, if this arrangement has been formalized at the time of informed consent.
Khalil, Alexander K.
At present, the need for an understanding of both physical and cultural geography is increasingly urgent in America's schools. The present study explores using music as focus for the exploration of geography. Not only is music strongly linked to culture and environment but also its study provides an experiential understanding of a given culture in…
Tarr, Jane Mary; Tsokova, Diana; Takkunen, Ulla-Maija
This study seeks to present data and discussion arising from a case study of a school in Finland renowned for its practice in the inclusion of learners with additional support requirements due to cognitive and physical disabilities. It aims to establish how the school staff understand their practice with inclusion through day-to-day professional…
Srinivasan, Saranya; Mathew, Samuel N.; Lloyd, Lyle L.
This study investigated current trends in communication intervention and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in southern India through a mixed-methods design. Study participants (N = 18) were special educators, speech-language pathologists, and behavior therapists. Responses from the questionnaire were quantitatively analyzed.…
Carmichael, Colin; MacDonald, Amy; McFarland-Piazza, Laura
This article is based on an exploratory study that examines factors which predict children's performance on the numeracy component of the Australian National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Utilizing an ecological theoretical model, this study examines child, home and school variables which may enable or constrain NAPLAN…
Lister, Cameron E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Vance, David L.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, Parley C.; Crookston, Benjamin T.
Background: Bullying is a global problem among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore bully victimization in Peru and to identify potential adverse mental health and social outcomes resulting from bully victimization. Methods: This study analyzed data from an ongoing prospective cohort of children taking part in the…
Fleischmann, Kenneth R.
In the digital age, libraries are increasingly being augmented or even replaced by information technology (IT), which is often accompanied by implicit assumptions of objectivity and neutrality, yet the field of science and technology studies (STS) has a long history of studying what values are embedded in IT and how they are embedded. This article…
McDonald, Deborah Dillon; Barri, Caroline
Pain management trajectory data that includes previous pain treatments, timing, changes, and outcomes provide crucial data for patients with chronic pain and their practitioners to use when discussing ways to optimize pain management regimens. The aim of this study was to test the use of the life history calendar method to identify pain treatments, treatment regimens, timing, and outcomes of the pain management trajectory of individuals with chronic pain, and to examine feasibility. A pilot, descriptive, methodological design was used. Settings included community-based sites such as congregate housing. Nineteen community-dwelling older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) pain of at least 1 year's duration participated. Participants were interviewed and asked to chronicle from the beginning of the OA pain to the present all of their pain treatments and treatment effects (pain outcomes and adverse events). Raters independently content analyzed the transcribed interviews to identify pain treatments, treatment groupings (regimens), and treatment effects on pain. Feasibility of patients reporting their pain management trajectories was content analyzed by identifying participant difficulty identifying pain treatments, treatment effects, treatment sequence; and difficulty discriminating between treatments, and between OA pain and other pain sources. Individual pain management trajectories were constructed that depicted chronological order of pain treatment regimens and treatment effects. Participants identified pain treatments, discriminate between treatments and between OA and other conditions, and identified treatment effects. Treatment sequence was identified, but more precise timing was generally not reported. Pain management trajectories could provide a helpful way for practitioners to discuss safe, efficacious pain management options with patients.
Joseph, Sarah B; Swanstrom, Ronald; Kashuba, Angela D M; Cohen, Myron S
HIV-1 infection typically results from the transmission of a single viral variant, the transmitted/founder (T/F) virus. Studies of these HIV-1 variants provide critical information about the transmission bottlenecks and the selective pressures acting on the virus in the transmission fluid and in the recipient tissues. These studies reveal that T/F virus phenotypes are shaped by stochastic and selective forces that restrict transmission and may be targets for prevention strategies. In this Review, we highlight how studies of T/F viruses contribute to a better understanding of the biology of HIV-1 transmission and discuss how these findings affect HIV-1 prevention strategies.
Kim, Annice E; Hopper, Timothy; Simpson, Sean; Nonnemaker, James; Lieberman, Alicea J; Hansen, Heather; Porter, Lauren
Background Marketing and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other electronic nicotine delivery devices have increased exponentially in recent years fueled, in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth communications via social media platforms, such as Twitter. Objective This study examines Twitter posts about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013 to gain insights into (1) marketing trends for selling and promoting e-cigarettes and (2) locations where people use e-cigarettes. Methods We used keywords to gather tweets about e-cigarettes between July 1, 2008 and February 28, 2013. A randomly selected subset of tweets was manually coded as advertising (eg, marketing, advertising, sales, promotion) or nonadvertising (eg, individual users, consumers), and classification algorithms were trained to code the remaining data into these 2 categories. A combination of manual coding and natural language processing methods was used to indicate locations where people used e-cigarettes. Additional metadata were used to generate insights about users who tweeted most frequently about e-cigarettes. Results We identified approximately 1.7 million tweets about e-cigarettes between 2008 and 2013, with the majority of these tweets being advertising (93.43%, 1,559,508/1,669,123). Tweets about e-cigarettes increased more than tenfold between 2009 and 2010, suggesting a rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and marketing efforts. The Twitter handles tweeting most frequently about e-cigarettes were a mixture of e-cigarette brands, affiliate marketers, and resellers of e-cigarette products. Of the 471 e-cigarette tweets mentioning a specific place, most mentioned e-cigarette use in class (39.1%, 184/471) followed by home/room/bed (12.5%, 59/471), school (12.1%, 57/471), in public (8.7%, 41/471), the bathroom (5.7%, 27/471), and at work (4.5%, 21/471). Conclusions Twitter is being used to promote e-cigarettes by different types of entities and the online marketplace is more
In the present day, bioinformatics becomes the modern science with several advantages. Several new "omics" sciences have been introduced for a few years and those sciences can be applied in biomedical work. Here, the author will summarize and discuss on important applications of omics studies in microbiology focusing on microbial pathogeny. It can be seen that genomics and proteinomics can be well used in this area of biomedical studies.
Martínez-Padilla, Jesus; Redpath, Steve M; Zeineddine, Mohammed; Mougeot, François
Long-term studies have been the backbone of population ecology. The red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus is one species that has contributed widely to this field since the 1950s. This paper reviews the trajectory and profound impact that these studies have had. Red grouse research has combined long-term studies of marked individuals with demographic studies over wide geographical areas and replicated individual- and population-level manipulations. A main focus has been on understanding the causes of population cycles in red grouse, and in particular the relative importance of intrinsic (behaviour) and extrinsic (climate, food limitation and parasite) mechanisms. Separate studies conducted in different regions initially proposed either the nematode parasite Trichostrongylus tenuis or changes in male aggressiveness in autumn as drivers of population cycles. More recent experiments suggest that parasites are not a necessary cause for cycles and have highlighted that behavioural and parasite-mediated mechanisms are interrelated. Long-term experiments show that parasites and aggressiveness interact. Two outstanding questions remain to be tested experimentally. First, what intrinsic mechanism causes temporal variation in patterns of male aggressiveness? The current favoured mechanism is related to patterns of kin structuring although there are alternative hypotheses. Second, how do the dual, interacting mechanisms, affect population dynamics? Red grouse studies have had an important impact on the field of population ecology, in particular through highlighting: (1) the impact of parasites on populations; (2) the role of intrinsic mechanisms in cyclic dynamics and (3) the need to consider multiple, interacting mechanisms.
Durbin, Michael P.
This study examined the perspectives of IT managers working in colleges and universities regarding their use of and value for project management. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to understand individual innovativeness, innovation characteristics of project management, and the perceived use of and value for project management best…
Background The valuable clinical data, specimens, and assay results collected during a primary clinical trial or observational study can enable researchers to answer additional, pressing questions with relatively small investments in new measurements. However, management of such follow-on, “ancillary” studies is complex. It requires coordinating across institutions, sites, repositories, and approval boards, as well as distributing, integrating, and analyzing diverse data types. General-purpose software systems that simplify the management of ancillary studies have not yet been explored in the research literature. Methods We have identified requirements for ancillary study management primarily as part of our ongoing work with a number of large research consortia. These organizations include the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI), the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN), the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN), the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (MHRP), and the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD). We also consulted with researchers at a range of other disease research organizations regarding their workflows and data management strategies. Lastly, to enhance breadth, we reviewed process documents for ancillary study management from other organizations. Results By exploring characteristics of ancillary studies, we identify differentiating requirements and scenarios for ancillary study management systems (ASMSs). Distinguishing characteristics of ancillary studies may include the collection of additional measurements (particularly new analyses of existing specimens); the initiation of studies by investigators unaffiliated with the original study; cross-protocol data pooling and analysis; pre-existing participant consent; and pre-existing data context and provenance. For an ASMS to address these characteristics, it would need to address both operational requirements (e.g., allocating existing specimens) and data management requirements
Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas
In vitro and in situ studies modelling the wear of dental hard tissues due to erosion and abrasion are characterised by a high variation in study designs and experimental parameters. Based on a summary of the existing protocols, the present review aimed to describe and discuss the parameters which must be carefully considered in erosion-abrasion research, especially when it is intended to simulate clinical conditions. Experimental characteristics and parameters were retrieved from a total of 42 in vitro and 20 in situ studies. The key experimental characteristics included parameters of erosion (duration and pH) and abrasion (duration, kinds of toothbrush and toothpaste, brushing force, and time point) as well as co-factors (e.g. dental hard tissue). The majority of studies used models with alternating erosion/abrasion treatments intended to simulate clinical conditions, while other studies exaggerated clinical conditions intentionally, often using only a single erosion/abrasion treatment. Both in vitro and in situ models shared a high level of standardisation, but several studies showed a trend to severe erosion (e.g. >5 min/cycle) or extensive brushing (e.g. >100 brushing strokes/cycle) at a high frequency and repetition rate. Thus, studies often tend to produce a higher amount of wear than in the clinical situation, especially as modifying biological factors (e.g. the dilution of the erosive solution by saliva and the protective effect of the pellicle) cannot be simulated adequately. With respect to the existing models, it seems advisable to diminish duration and frequency of erosion and abrasion to more realistic clinical conditions when the everyday situation is to be simulated. Experimental parameters must be chosen with care to ensure that the problem is investigated in an appropriate mode at standardised conditions and with adequate measuring systems to allow prediction of clinical outcomes.
Maloney, John C; Thompson, Michael K; Oldham, Michael J; Stiff, Charles L; Lilly, Patrick D; Patskan, George J; Shafer, Kenneth H; Sarkar, Mohamadi A
While several reports have been published using research methods of estimating exposure risk to e-cigarette vapors in nonusers, only two have directly measured indoor air concentrations from vaping using validated industrial hygiene sampling methodology. Our first study was designed to measure indoor air concentrations of nicotine, menthol, propylene glycol, glycerol, and total particulates during the use of multiple e-cigarettes in a well-characterized room over a period of time. Our second study was a repeat of the first study, and it also evaluated levels of formaldehyde. Measurements were collected using active sampling, near real-time and direct measurement techniques. Air sampling incorporated industrial hygiene sampling methodology using analytical methods established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Active samples were collected over a 12-hr period, for 4 days. Background measurements were taken in the same room the day before and the day after vaping. Panelists (n = 185 Study 1; n = 145 Study 2) used menthol and non-menthol MarkTen prototype e-cigarettes. Vaping sessions (six, 1-hr) included 3 prototypes, with total number of puffs ranging from 36-216 per session. Results of the active samples were below the limit of quantitation of the analytical methods. Near real-time data were below the lowest concentration on the established calibration curves. Data from this study indicate that the majority of chemical constituents sampled were below quantifiable levels. Formaldehyde was detected at consistent levels during all sampling periods. These two studies found that indoor vaping of MarkTen prototype e-cigarette does not produce chemical constituents at quantifiable levels or background levels using standard industrial hygiene collection techniques and analytical methods.
Leikin, Roza; Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark
We asked: "What are the similarities and differences in mathematical processing associated with solving learning-based and insight-based problems?" To answer this question, the ERP research procedure was employed with 69 male adolescent subjects who solved specially designed insight-based and learning-based tests. Solutions of…
De Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Cowen, Emory L.
Compared well-adjusted, elementary students with their maladjusted peers on measures of self-esteem, insight, and sociometric status. Found children referred to the mental health program had significantly lower self-esteem, peer acceptance, and insight than the comparison group, even though these variables were modestly intercorrelated.…
Maki, Pauline M; Dumas, Julie
Use of estrogen therapy in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods has been shown in several clinical trials to help women maintain a premenopausal level of cognitive function. What is not yet fully understood is how the neurobiological effects of estrogen contribute to these cognitive effects. This review explores data from two related bodies of human literature that provide compelling evidence in support of the biological plausibility that estrogen treatment can benefit cognition. The first half of the literature review focuses on studies from the estrogen neuroimaging literature, and the second half focuses on pharmacologic challenge studies assessing estrogen-neurotransmitter interactions. We integrate these two bodies of literature by focusing on the neurophysiologic underpinnings of estrogen effects on cognition and linking these clinical studies to preclinical studies. The focus on verbal memory is important because it is a cognitive function that has been shown to change with estrogen treatment and predict Alzheimer's disease risk but is not addressed by preclinical studies. Overall, we conclude that estrogen interacts with cholinergic and serotonergic systems to affect hippocampal and frontal cortical brain areas and thereby enhance memory, particularly at the retrieval stage.
Robine, Jean-Marie; Cheung, Siu Lan Karen; Saito, Yasuhiko; Jeune, Bernard; Parker, Marti G.; Herrmann, François R.
The number of oldest old grew tremendously over the past few decades. However, recent studies have disclosed that the pace of increase strongly varies among countries. The present study aims to specify the level of mortality selection among the nonagenarians and centenarians living currently in five low mortality countries, Denmark, France, Japan, Switzerland, and Sweden, part of the 5-Country Oldest Old Project (5-COOP). All data come from the Human Mortality Database, except for the number of centenarians living in Japan. We disclosed three levels of mortality selection, a milder level in Japan, a stronger level in Denmark and Sweden and an intermediary level in France and Switzerland. These divergences offer an opportunity to study the existence of a trade-off between the level of mortality selection and the functional health status of the oldest old survivors which will be seized by the 5-COOP project. PMID:21423541
Saif, Muhammad Jawwad; Naveed, Muhammad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Asif, Muhammad
The present study focuses on development of epoxy system reinforced with naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes (HNTs). A comparative study is presented describing the performance of pristine and γ-irradiated HNTs in an epoxy matrix. The γ-irradiation treatment was used for structural modification of natural pristine HNTs under air sealed environment at different absorbed doses and subsequently these irradiated HNTs were incorporated in epoxy resin with various wt% loadings. The consequences of γ-irradiation on HNTs were studied by FTIR and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in terms of changes in functional groups and crystalline characteristics. An improvement is observed in mechanical properties and crack resistance of composites reinforced with γ-irradiated HNTs. The irradiated HNTs imparted an improved flexural and tensile strength/modulus along with better thermal performance.
Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Barrett, Michael P; Breitling, Rainer; Creek, Darren J
The rapid emergence of metabolomics has enabled system-wide measurements of metabolites in various organisms. However, advances in the mechanistic understanding of metabolic networks remain limited, as most metabolomics studies cannot routinely provide accurate metabolite identification, absolute quantification and flux measurement. Stable isotope labeling offers opportunities to overcome these limitations. Here we describe some current approaches to stable isotope-labeled metabolomics and provide examples of the significant impact that these studies have had on our understanding of cellular metabolism. Furthermore, we discuss recently developed software solutions for the analysis of stable isotope-labeled metabolomics data and propose the bioinformatics solutions that will pave the way for the broader application and optimal interpretation of system-scale labeling studies in metabolomics. PMID:24568354
The advent of functional neuroimaging techniques has allowed to address the question of the role of the brain in a new light, being now able to record brain activity under different kinds of perceptual, cognitive or motor paradigms. Two exponentially emerging fields, i.e. social and affective neurosciences, converge on topics such as brain processing of emotional information issued by the congeners. As any social interaction obbeys a motivational dimension of interattraction, it is therefore important to study the role of the brain in specific functional contexts. In this paper we show how the emergence of a new field crystallized around the study of brain circuits involved in sexual affiliation has helped providing important results to understand the brain’s role in social motivated interactions. Specifically, these studies show for this involvement a central physiological component and its cortical representation that seems to be essential for social interactions with motivational component. PMID:21966343
Lenzi, Delia; Trentini, Cristina; Tambelli, Renata; Pantano, Patrizia
The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional, and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the “attachment-caregiving social bond” (Bowlby, 1969). We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e., those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli) and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview) modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction. PMID:26379578
Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew M.; Paczesny, Daniel
In this paper we present a model for effective methods of data collection with intensive data quality control and data security and design and deployment of management ICT system to ensure high quality-data in large scale population study. The designed and tested system fulfill all the requirements of entire IT and data management structure is designed with central server and web-based peripheral applications and tailored software managing data during entry/transmission/storage/coding under control of the QA and security procedures. The system was carried out during PONS project and the information from this model data management structure may improve the design of reliable databases' management for large-scale epidemiological studies. The project model itself by tailored hardware/software application shows positive impact of QA on the quality of outcomes in outcome analysis results, effective data management with shorter time, efficiency, ensuring the quality of epidemiological data and indicators of health with elimination of common errors of research questionnaire and medical measurements.
Patel, Riyaz S; Ye, Shu
With the advent of the Human Genome Project and the genomic era, new tools and methodologies have revitalised genetic research into coronary heart disease (CHD). Unprecedented collaborative efforts are discovering novel risk variants for CHD, with most in hitherto unknown molecular pathways. These findings have stimulated a plethora of follow-up of functional and risk prediction studies to mine this wealth of new data. This review will explore the current state of knowledge of the genetic basis of CHD, with an emphasis on recent genomic studies and how these may eventually lead to the promised goals of new therapeutics and personalised medicine.
Trojano, Maria; Tintore, Mar; Montalban, Xavier; Hillert, Jan; Kalincik, Tomas; Iaffaldano, Pietro; Spelman, Tim; Sormani, Maria Pia; Butzkueven, Helmut
The complexity of multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment means that doctors and decision-makers need the best available evidence to make the best decisions for patient care. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are accepted as the gold standard for assessing the efficacy and safety of any new drug, but conclusions of these trials do not always aid in daily decision-making processes. Indeed, RCTs are usually conducted in ideal conditions, so can measure efficacy only in restricted and unrepresentative populations. In the past decade, a growing number of MS databases and registries have started to produce long-term outcome data from large cohorts of patients with MS treated with disease-modifying therapies in real-world settings. Such observational studies are addressing issues that are otherwise difficult or impossible to study. In this Review, we focus on the most recently published observational studies designed to identify predictors of poor outcome and treatment response or failure, and to evaluate the relative and long-term effectiveness of currently used MS treatments. We also outline the statistical approaches that are most commonly used to reduce bias and limitations in these studies, and the challenges associated with the use of 'big MS data' to facilitate the implementation of personalized medicine in MS.
Maher, Carolyn A.
This paper reports on the mathematical thinking of participants of a long-term study, now in its 17th year, who did mathematics together through their public school and early university years. In particular, it describes how fundamental ideas and images of a cohort group of students are elaborated and presented in symbolic expressions of…
Lin, Shuai-Ting; Yang, Pinchen; Lai, Chien-Yu; Su, Yu-Yun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Chung
Neuroscientific and clinical studies of music over the past two decades have substantially increased our understanding of its use as a means of therapy. The authors briefly review current literature related to music's effect on people with different mental illnesses, and examine several neurobiological theories that may explain its effectiveness or lack thereof in treating psychiatric disorders. Neuroscientific studies have shown music to be an agent capable of influencing complex neurobiological processes in the brain and suggest that it can potentially play an important role in treatment. Clinical studies provide some evidence that music therapy can be used as an alternative therapy in treating depression, autism, schizophrenia, and dementia, as well as problems of agitation, anxiety, sleeplessness, and substance misuse, though whether it can actually replace other modes of treatment remains undetermined. Future research should include translational studies involving both neuroscience and clinical medicine that investigate the long-term effects of music intervention and that lead to the development of new strategies for music therapy.
With reports of declining participation in mathematics related careers and low female participation rates, the issue of gender differences in mathematics remains relevant. This study seeks to examine the relationship between: children's sex, parents' beliefs regarding their children's education, and, the children's mathematics performance. Through…
Forbes, Joan; Weiner, Gaby
This paper draws on a research study into multiple capitals in independent schooling in Scotland. We examine gender discourses and practices in the specific inter/institutional space created within school and research group relations. A three-level conceptual framing of physical, social and intellectual space is used together with theorizations of…
Neff, A. W.; Ritzenthaler, J. D.; Rosenbaum, J. F.
The variability in the response of Xenopus laevis eggs to a given force environment is studied. The roles of cytoplasmic organelle, the yolk platelets, and cytoskeletal components in varying in cytoplasmic mobility are examined. The data reveal that the packing of yolk platelets is not a major factor in causing cytoplasmic mobility differences and microtubules may affect cytoplasmic mobility.
Short, Elizabeth J.; Manos, Michael J.; Findling, Robert L.; Schubel, Emily A.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of psychostimulant medication in a naturalistic sample of preschoolers. Benefits and side effects for methylphenidate and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall) were examined. Method: Twenty-eight preschoolers (ages 4.0-5.9) participated in the present investigation. They were obtained…
This study explored the development and maintenance of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) among 352 American learners of Arabic who completed summer intensive language programs in five Arab countries. Data were collected through a survey that was based on the 2007 draft of the Culture Proficiency Guidelines (Lampe, 2007; later adopted by…
As part of a project to inform approaches for risk assessment of inhaled irritants of interest to homeland security, a set of acute (Peay et aI., SOT 2010) and subacute (George et aI., SOT 2010) studies of inhaled chlorine (CI2) in female F344 rats was performed. The exposure des...
MacDonald, Amy; Carmichael, Colin
International research suggests that early mathematical competences predicts later mathematical outcomes. In this paper, we build on our previous study of young children's mathematical competencies (MacDonald & Carmichael, 2015) to explore the relationship between mathematical competencies at 4-5 years, as measured by teacher ratings, and…
Microblogging tools such as Twitter show potential to enrich classroom experience and benefit student learning. Research shows that instructional guidance is particularly necessary in computer-assisted learning environments, but no research has been done to study the effects of instructional guidance in microblogging-based learning. Using a…
Ruiz-Lozano, Mercedes; de los Rios-Bergillos, Araceli; Tirado-Valencia, Pilar; Millan-Lara, Salud
The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of the learning process in business administration and management of students' values, through the application of factor analysis to the information obtained in a survey consisting of students in the first and fifth year of studies. The study derived the following conclusions: First,…
Callison, Daniel; Morris, Jacqueline
Thirty-two case studies illustrating problem areas and situations that develop in the modern environment of the electronic school library media program are presented for use by library science students and library/media center managers. Based on input from practicing librarians at the elementary and secondary levels, the studies are designed to…
Han, Shuangmiao; Zhong, Zhou
In this study, the conceptual use of the strategy map approach and the strategy map which it produces have been adapted from the business sector and introduced as tools for achieving more effective strategic planning and management in higher education institutions (HEIs). This study discusses the development of strategy maps as transformational…
Turner, Trevor; Persaud, Ganga
This case study reports results of research on the extent of nonformal education in Guyana; comparison of commitment in private and public enterprises; and financial support, program organization and management, learners' background and objectives, content and methodology, and evaluation strategy. The first two chapters describe the study's…
Sentürk, Ilknur; Oyman, Nidan
The purpose of this study is to determine teacher candidates' awareness of the concept of democracy, how they describe this concept, how their perceptions relate to the democratic classroom management process in the faculty of education, and their opinions about the qualifications of faculty members. This research is a descriptive study. This…
In spite of having undergone one century's vicissitude, China's educational management studies are still lagging behind those abroad. Two research lines, one being induction and generalization, another being deduction and transplantation, have been roughly evolved over these studies. Both of them have reached the level of empirical science. Since…
Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Peyrovi, Hamid; Valiee, Sina
Nursing errors are common in critical care units, and nurses are in the first line of confrontation. The purpose of this study was to explore the processes of managing nursing errors in critical care units in Iran and to develop a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon. This was a grounded theory study. We recruited a sample of 18 critical care nurses for the study. The sampling method was purposive and then changed to theoretical. The data were collected through in-depth interviews. For data analysis, we employed the constant comparative analysis technique. The core category of the study was "continuous situational analysis." The main categories were situational analysis and error removal. When nurses confronted an error, they opted for analyzing the error situation in terms of the nature of error, probable consequences, monitoring, and life threat. Accordingly, they employed error removal strategies such as self-action, cooperation, notifying, and censoring. These steps happened concurrently, successively, or cyclically. To manage their committed errors, nurses usually go through an informal process. Nurse-managers need to design effective error management strategies and require the practicing nurses to adhere to them. A practical model for effective prevention and management of nursing errors in critical care units is necessary.
McCarthy, Kevin; Hodge, Ernie
Energy-related subsystems in modern aircraft are more tightly coupled with less design margin. These subsystems include thermal management subsystems, vehicle electric power generation and distribution, aircraft engines, and flight control. Tighter coupling, lower design margins, and higher system complexity all make preliminary trade studies difficult. A suite of thermal management analysis tools has been developed to facilitate trade studies during preliminary design of air-vehicle propulsion systems. Simulink blocksets (from MathWorks) for developing quasi-steady-state and transient system models of aircraft thermal management systems and related energy systems have been developed. These blocksets extend the Simulink modeling environment in the thermal sciences and aircraft systems disciplines. The blocksets include blocks for modeling aircraft system heat loads, heat exchangers, pumps, reservoirs, fuel tanks, and other components at varying levels of model fidelity. The blocksets have been applied in a first-principles, physics-based modeling and simulation architecture for rapid prototyping of aircraft thermal management and related systems. They have been applied in representative modern aircraft thermal management system studies. The modeling and simulation architecture has also been used to conduct trade studies in a vehicle level model that incorporates coupling effects among the aircraft mission, engine cycle, fuel, and multi-phase heat-transfer materials.
This talk will summarize our recent research in tropical tropospheric ozone studies in the field and from space. New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument will be highlighted (Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999). These are suitable for studying processes like ozone pollution resulting from biomass fires, seasonal and interannual variations and trends. Archived maps of tropospheric ozone over the tropics, from the Nimbus 7 observing period (1979-1992) are available in digital form at our website. Real-time processing of TOMS data has produced images of tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) since early 1997, using Earth-Probe TOMS; these maps are also available on the homepage.
the same chemical functionality but possessing a different cross-linking architecture. In addition, RTCy has three chiral centers, producing four...Mix4 is rich in SiMCy. Due to its high reactivity, a catalyzed version of RTCy could not be formed into a high quality specimen using the cure methods...which is in agreement with numerous other studies  and also consistent with a standard deviation of 10-15% of the reported value. The catalyzed
Background It is well established that considering users is an important aspect of medical device development. However it is also well established that there are numerous barriers to successfully conducting user research and integrating the results into product development. It is not sufficient to simply conduct user research, it must also be effectively integrated into product development. Methods A case study of the development of a new medical imaging device was conducted to examine in detail how users were involved in a medical device development project. Two user research studies were conducted: a requirements elicitation interview study and an early prototype evaluation using contextual inquiry. A descriptive in situ approach was taken to investigate how these studies contributed to the product development process and how the results of this work influenced the development of the technology. Data was collected qualitatively through interviews with the development team, participant observation at development meetings and document analysis. The focus was on investigating the barriers that exist to prevent user data from being integrated into product development. Results A number of individual, organisational and system barriers were identified that functioned to prevent the results of the user research being fully integrated into development. The user and technological aspects of development were seen as separate work streams during development. The expectations of the developers were that user research would collect requirements for the appearance of the device, rather than challenge its fundamental concept. The manner that the user data was communicated to the development team was not effective in conveying the significance or breadth of the findings. Conclusion There are a range of informal and formal organisational processes that can affect the uptake of user data during medical device development. Adopting formal decision making processes may assist
Indran, Inthrani Raja; Lee, Bao Hui; Yong, Eu-Leong
Basic science studies have advanced our understanding of the role of key enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway and those that affect the pathophysiology of PCOS. Studies with ovarian theca cells taken from women with PCOS have demonstrated increased androgen production due to increased CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 enzyme activities. Furthermore, overexpression of DENND1A variant 2 in normal theca cells resulted in a PCOS phenotype with increased androgen production. Notably, cellular steroidogenesis models have facilitated the understanding of the mechanistic effects of pharmacotherapies, including insulin sensitizers (e.g., pioglitazone and metformin) used for the treatment of insulin resistance in PCOS, on androgen production. In addition, animal models of PCOS have provided a critical platform to study the effects of therapeutic agents in a manner closer to the physiological state. Indeed, recent breakthroughs have demonstrated that natural derivatives such as the dietary medium-chain fatty acid decanoic acid (DA) can restore estrous cyclicity and lower androgen levels in an animal model of PCOS, thus laying the platform for novel therapeutic developments in PCOS. This chapter reviews the current understanding on the pathways modulating androgen biosynthesis, and the cellular and animal models that form the basis for preclinical research in PCOS, and sets the stage for clinical research.
Liu, Yingying; Zhang, Guowen; Liao, Yijing; Wang, Yaping
Psoralen (PSO) is a naturally occurring furanocoumarin with a variety of pharmacological activities, however very limited information on the interaction of PSO with trypsin is available. In this study, the binding characteristics between PSO and trypsin at physiological pH were investigated using a combination of fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic, chemometric and molecular modeling approaches. It was found that the fluorescence quenching of trypsin by PSO was a static quenching procedure, ascribing the formation of a PSO-trypsin complex. The binding of PSO to trypsin was driven mainly by hydrophobic forces as the positive enthalpy change and entropy change values. The molecular docking showed that PSO inserted into the active site pocket of trypsin to interact with the catalytic residues His57, Asp102 and Ser195 and may cause a decrease in trypsin activity. The results of CD and FT-IR spectra along with the temperature-induced denaturation studies indicated that the addition of PSO to trypsin led to the changes in the secondary structure of the enzyme. The concentration profiles and spectra of the three components (PSO, trypsin, and PSO-trypsin complex) obtained by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares analysis exhibited the kinetic processes of PSO-trypsin interaction. This study will be helpful to understand the mechanism of PSO that affects the conformation and activity of trypsin in biological processes.
Abdul-Aziz, Muslihudeen A.; Cooper, Alan; Weyrich, Laura S.
As our understanding of the human microbiome expands, impacts on health and disease continue to be revealed. Alterations in the microbiome can result in dysbiosis, which has now been linked to subsequent autoimmune and metabolic diseases, highlighting the need to identify factors that shape the microbiome. Research has identified that the composition and functions of the human microbiome can be influenced by diet, age, sex, and environment. More recently, studies have explored how human genetic variation may also influence the microbiome. Here, we review several recent analytical advances in this new research area, including those that use genome-wide association studies to examine host genome–microbiome interactions, while controlling for the influence of other factors. We find that current research is limited by small sample sizes, lack of cohort replication, and insufficient confirmatory mechanistic studies. In addition, we discuss the importance of understanding long-term interactions between the host genome and microbiome, as well as the potential impacts of disrupting this relationship, and explore new research avenues that may provide information about the co-evolutionary history of humans and their microorganisms. PMID:27785127
Xie, Q; Li, X; Xu, X
The aetiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is multifactorial, and numerous studies have addressed that occlusion may be of great importance. However, whether occlusion plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of TMD remains controversial. Study designs utilising animal models have been used to study the effects of artificial occlusal alterations. Experimental traumatic occlusion affects blood flow in the temporomandibular joint and results in changes in the condylar cartilage, and artificial occlusal interference induces masticatory muscle nociceptive responses that are associated with peripheral sensitisation and lead to central sensitisation, which maintains masticatory muscle hyperalgesia. The possibility that occlusal interference results in TMD has been investigated in humans using a double-blind randomised design. Subjects without a history of TMD show fairly good adaptation to interferences. In contrast, subjects with a history of TMD develop a significant increase in clinical signs and self-report stronger symptoms (occlusal discomfort and chewing difficulties) in response to interferences. Meanwhile, psychological factors appear meaningful for symptomatic responses to artificial interferences in subjects with a history of TMD. Thus, individual differences in vulnerability to occlusal interferences do exist. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to using human and animal occlusal interference models, these approaches are indispensable for discovering the role of occlusion in TMD pathogenesis.
Hernández-Valdés, Daniel; Blanco-González, Alejandro; García-Fleitas, Ariel; Rodríguez-Riera, Zalua; Meola, Giuseppe; Alberto, Roger; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises
Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used in nuclear medicine as ligand for preparation of diagnostic and therapy radiopharmaceuticals. DMSA has been the subject of numerous investigations during the past three decades and new and significant information of the chemistry and pharmacology of DMSA complexes have emerged. In comparison to other ligands, the structure of some DMSA complexes is unclear up today. The structures and applications of DMSA complexes are strictly dependent on the chemical conditions of their preparation, especially pH and components ratio. A computational study of M-DMSA (M=Tc, Re) complexes has been performed using density functional theory. Different isomers for M(V) and M(III) complexes were studied. The pH influence over ligand structures was taken into account and the solvent effect was evaluated using an implicit solvation model. The fully optimized complex syn-endo Re((V))-DMSA shows a geometry similar to the X-ray data and was used to validate the methodology. Moreover, new alternative structures for the renal agent (99m)Tc((III))-DMSA were proposed and computationally studied. For two complex structures, a larger stability respect to that proposed in the literature was obtained. Furthermore, Tc((V))-DMSA complexes are more stable than Tc((III))-DMSA proposed structures. In general, Re complexes are more stable than the corresponding Tc ones.
Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi
This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.
Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh
Interaction of proflavine with hemoglobin (Hgb) was studied employing spectroscopy, calorimetry, and atomic force microscopy. The equilibrium constant was found to be of the order 10(4)M(-1). The quenching of Hgb fluorescence by proflavine was due to the complex formation. Calculation of the molecular distance (r) between the donor (β-Trp37 of Hgb) and acceptor (proflavine) suggested that energy can be efficiently transferred from the β-Trp37 residue at the α1β2 interface of the protein to the dye. Proflavine induced significant secondary structural changes in Hgb. Synchronous fluorescence studies showed that proflavine altered the microenvironment around the tryptophan residues to a greater extent than the tyrosine residues. Circular dichroism spectral studies showed that proflavine caused significant reduction in the α-helical content of Hgb. The esterase activity assay further complemented the circular dichroism data. The Soret band intensity of Hgb decreased upon complexation. Differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism melting results revealed that proflavine induced destabilization of Hgb. The binding was driven by both positive entropy and negative enthalpy. Atomic force microscopy studies revealed that the essential morphological features of hemoglobin were retained in the presence of proflavine. Overall, insights on the photophysical aspects and energetics of the binding of proflavine with Hgb are presented.
Madelain, Vincent; Guedj, Jérémie; Mentré, France; Nguyen, Thi Huyen Tram; Jacquot, Frédéric; Oestereich, Lisa; Kadota, Takumi; Yamada, Koichi; Taburet, Anne-Marie; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Raoul, Hervé
Favipiravir is an RNA polymerase inhibitor that showed strong antiviral efficacy in vitro and in small-animal models of several viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever (HF), including Ebola virus. The aim of this work was to characterize the complex pharmacokinetics of favipiravir in nonhuman primates (NHPs) in order to guide future efficacy studies of favipiravir in large-animal models. Four different studies were conducted in 30 uninfected cynomolgus macaques of Chinese (n = 17) or Mauritian (n = 13) origin treated with intravenous favipiravir for 7 to 14 days with maintenance doses of 60 to 180 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (BID). A pharmacokinetic model was developed to predict the plasma concentrations obtained with different dosing regimens, and the model predictions were compared to the 50% effective concentration (EC50) of favipiravir against several viruses. Favipiravir pharmacokinetics were described by a model accounting for concentration-dependent aldehyde oxidase inhibition. The enzyme-dependent elimination rate increased over time and was higher in NHPs of Mauritian origin than in those of Chinese origin. Maintenance doses of 100 and 120 mg/kg BID in Chinese and Mauritian NHPs, respectively, are predicted to achieve median trough plasma free concentrations above the EC50 for Lassa and Marburg viruses until day 7. For Ebola virus, higher doses are required. After day 7, a 20% dose increase is needed to compensate for the increase in drug clearance over time. These results will help rationalize the choice of dosing regimens in future studies evaluating the antiviral effect of favipiravir in NHPs and support its development against a variety of HF viruses.
Bonaduce, Ilaria; Carlyle, Leslie; Colombini, Maria Perla; Duce, Celia; Ferrari, Carlo; Ribechini, Erika; Selleri, Paola; Tiné, Maria Rosaria
This paper presents an analytical investigation of paint reconstructions prepared with linseed oil that have undergone typical 19th century treatments in preparation for painting. The oil was mechanically extracted from the same seed lot, which was then processed by various methods: water washing, heat treatments, and the addition of driers, with and without heat. A modern process lead white (Dutch source, Schoonhoven) and a commercially available vine black were used as pigments. The reconstructions were prepared in 1999, and naturally aged from then onwards. We compared thermogravimetric analysis (TG), which yields macromolecular information, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DEMS), which both provide molecular information. The study enabled us to quantitatively demonstrate, for the first time, that the parameters used to identify drying oils are deeply influenced by the history of the paint. In particular, here we show that the ratio between the relative amounts of palmitic and stearic acid (P/S), which is used as an index for differentiating between drying oils, is extremely dependent on the pigments present and the age of the paint. Moreover the study revealed that neither the P/S parameter nor the ratios between the relative amounts of the various dicarboxylic acids (azelaic over suberic and azelaic over sebacic) can be used to trace the sorts of pre-treatment undergone by the oil investigated in this study. The final results represent an important milestone for the scientific community working in the field, highlighting that further research is still necessary to solve the identification of drying oils in works of art. PMID:23166642
Bonaduce, Ilaria; Carlyle, Leslie; Colombini, Maria Perla; Duce, Celia; Ferrari, Carlo; Ribechini, Erika; Selleri, Paola; Tiné, Maria Rosaria
This paper presents an analytical investigation of paint reconstructions prepared with linseed oil that have undergone typical 19th century treatments in preparation for painting. The oil was mechanically extracted from the same seed lot, which was then processed by various methods: water washing, heat treatments, and the addition of driers, with and without heat. A modern process lead white (Dutch source, Schoonhoven) and a commercially available vine black were used as pigments. The reconstructions were prepared in 1999, and naturally aged from then onwards. We compared thermogravimetric analysis (TG), which yields macromolecular information, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct exposure mass spectrometry (DEMS), which both provide molecular information. The study enabled us to quantitatively demonstrate, for the first time, that the parameters used to identify drying oils are deeply influenced by the history of the paint. In particular, here we show that the ratio between the relative amounts of palmitic and stearic acid (P/S), which is used as an index for differentiating between drying oils, is extremely dependent on the pigments present and the age of the paint. Moreover the study revealed that neither the P/S parameter nor the ratios between the relative amounts of the various dicarboxylic acids (azelaic over suberic and azelaic over sebacic) can be used to trace the sorts of pre-treatment undergone by the oil investigated in this study. The final results represent an important milestone for the scientific community working in the field, highlighting that further research is still necessary to solve the identification of drying oils in works of art.
Saavedra, Danay; Garcia, Beatriz; Lage, Agustin
The senescence of the immune system and the risk of cancer increase with aging. Age itself entails changes in the immune system, which are related to a decrease in thymic output of naïve lymphocytes, an accumulation of chronic antigenic load, notably chronic viral infections such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), and replicative senescence of lymphocytes. These changes could eventually contribute to cancer risk and affect the response to cancer treatment. However, several confounding factors make it difficult to draw a picture of causal relationships. Studies in diverse human populations could contribute to clarify these complex relationships. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about the senescence of the T cells, the relationship with CMV infection, cancer, and cancer treatment. We also review the results of a series of studies performed in Cuba whose population is characterized by the unusual combination of long life expectancy and high antigenic load, including high seroprevalence of CMV, typical of tropical countries. Although immunosenescence affects almost all components and functions of the immune response, its most salient feature is a decrease in numbers and proportions of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes and an accretion of terminally differentiated CD8+ T lymphocytes. These features were confirmed by the Cuban studies, but interestingly a clear gender effect also appeared. Moreover, as aging is a global phenomenon, a fast increase in elderly with malignancies is expected; therefore, the evaluation of patient’s immune status would support the decision of treating them with immunotherapy and predict the efficacy of such treatments, thereby improving benefits for the patients. PMID:28261208
Gogoi, Prerana; Chandravanshi, Monika; Mandal, Suraj Kumar; Srivastava, Ambuj; Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad
About one-third of the existing proteins require metal ions as cofactors for their catalytic activities and structural complexities. While many of them bind only to a specific metal, others bind to multiple (different) metal ions. However, the exact mechanism of their metal preference has not been deduced to clarity. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate whether a cognate metal (bound to the structure) can be replaced with other similar metal ions. We have chosen seven different proteins (phospholipase A2, sucrose phosphatase, pyrazinamidase, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), plastocyanin, monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody Q425, and synaptotagmin 1 C2B domain) bound to seven different divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(2+), Cu(2+), Ba(2+), and Sr(2+), respectively). In total, 49 MD simulations each of 50 ns were performed and each trajectory was analyzed independently. Results demonstrate that in some cases, cognate metal ions can be exchanged with similar metal ions. On the contrary, some proteins show binding affinity specifically to their cognate metal ions. Surprisingly, two proteins CDO and plastocyanin which are known to bind Fe(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively, do not exhibit binding affinity to any metal ion. Furthermore, the study reveals that in some cases, the active site topology remains rigid even without cognate metals, whereas, some require them for their active site stability. Thus, it will be interesting to experimentally verify the accuracy of these observations obtained computationally. Moreover, the study can help in designing novel active sites for proteins to sequester metal ions particularly of toxic nature.
Lippold, Holger; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna
The mobility of contaminants in the subsurface hydrosphere can be governed by their interaction with aquatic humic substances, which may act as carriers. For modelling migration processes, retardation of humic molecules at mineral surfaces must be considered. There is, however, a lack of clarity concerning the reversibility of adsorption of these natural polyelectrolytes. In this work, evidence was provided that a dynamic adsorption equilibrium exists. For this purpose, adsorption of humic substances (purified Aldrich humic acid and an aquatic fulvic acid) onto kaolinite was examined in tracer exchange studies by means of 14C-labelled humic material. In addition, the kinetics of adsorption and desorption were investigated in batch experiments.
Zimmerman, R.E.; Shem, L.; Van Dyke, G.D.
Impacts of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) through wetlands depend on types of habitat, construction techniques, final elevations, ROW maintenance practices, soil composition, and local climate. In some instances factors unrelated to the presence of the pipeline may have greater impacts on wetland modification than does the pipeline itself. At one site, the required seeding program inhibited natural reestablishment of wetland plants; at another, downstream construction resulted in a major disruption to the adjacent wetland habitat. This paper discusses observation from 13 study sites, each zero to 30 years old, that are located in seven Eastern States.
Slater, S. J.
The long-running REU program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This 8-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single scientific discipline. This paper describes the results of that analysis in two sections. The first section describes the results from an ex post facto longitudinal data analysis. This data included multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over an 8-year period. As a result of this analysis, four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the nature of the scientific process, the culture of academia, and finally, an understanding of the "self." This analysis served as an initial theory that was used to design the second stage, interview protocol. In the second stage over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Analysis of this interview data failed to provide disconfirming evidence. Results from this study indicate that the REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the
Chen, Chia-Yen; Liu, Xiang; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen; Sharma, Amit; Jeang, Kuan-Teh
RNA helicases are ubiquitous in plants and animals and function in many cellular processes. Retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), encode no RNA helicases in their genomes and utilize host cellular RNA helicases at various stages of their life cycle. Here, we briefly summarize the roles RNA helicases play in HIV-1 replication that have been identified recently, in part, through genome-wide screenings, proteomics, and molecular studies. Some of these helicases augment virus propagation while others apparently participate in antiviral defenses against viral replication.
Li, Chunyi; Yang, Fuhe; Sheppard, Allan
Mammalian organ regeneration is the "Holy Grail" of modern regenerative biology and medicine. The most dramatic organ replacement is known as epimorphic regeneration. To date our knowledge of epimorphic regeneration has come from studies of amphibians. Notably, these animals have the ability to reprogram phenotypically committed cells at the amputation plane toward an embryonic-like cell phenotype (dedifferentiation). The capability of mammals to initiate analogous regeneration, and whether similar mechanisms would be involved if it were to occur, remain unclear. Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendages capable of full renewal, and therefore offer a unique opportunity to explore how nature has solved the problem of mammalian epimorphic regeneration. Following casting of old hard antlers, new antlers regenerate from permanent bony protuberances, known as pedicles. Studies through morphological and histological examinations, tissue deletion and transplantation, and cellular and molecular techniques have demonstrated that antler renewal is markedly different from that of amphibian limb regeneration (dedifferentiation-based), being a stem cell-based epimorphic process. Antler stem cells reside in the pedicle periosteum. We envisage that epimorphic regeneration of mammalian appendages, other than antler, could be made possible by recreating comparable milieu to that which supports the elaboration of that structure from the pedicle periosteum.
Charles, Nicolas; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan
In the southern French Massif Central, the Montagne Noire axial zone is a NE-SW elongated granite-migmatite dome emplaced within Visean south-verging recumbent folds and intruded by syn- to late-migmatization granitoids. The tectonic setting of this dome is still disputed, thus several models have been proposed. In order to better understand the emplacement mechanism of this dome, petrofabric and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) studies have been carried out. In the granites and migmatites that form the dome core, magmatic texture and to a lesser extent weak solid-state texture are dominant. As a paramagnetic mineral, biotite is the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility. On the basis of 135 AMS sites, the magnetic fabrics appear as independent of the lithology but related to the dome architecture. Coupling our results with previous structural and geochronological studies, allows us to propose a new emplacement model. Between 340-325 Ma, the Palaeozoic series underwent a compressional deformation represented by nappes and recumbent folds involving the thermal event leading to partial melting. Until ˜325-310 Ma, the dome emplacement was assisted by diapiric processes. An extensional event took place at ˜300 Ma, after the emplacement of the late to post-migmatitic granitic plutons. In the northeast side of the dome, a brittle normal-dextral faulting controlled the opening of the Graissessac coal basin.
Mastrantonio, V.; Porretta, D.; Urbanelli, S.; Crasta, G.; Nascetti, G.
Introgressive hybridization represents one of the long-lasting debated genetic consequences of species range expansion. Mitochondrial DNA has been shown to heavily introgress between interbreeding animal species that meet in new sympatric areas and, often, asymmetric introgression from local to the colonizing populations has been observed. Disentangling among the evolutionary and ecological processes that might shape this pattern remains difficult, because they continuously act across time and space. In this context, long-term studies can be of paramount importance. Here, we investigated the dynamics of mitochondrial introgression between two mosquito species (Aedes mariae and Ae. zammitii ) during a colonization event that started in 1986 after a translocation experiment. By analyzing 1,659 individuals across 25 years, we showed that introgression occurred earlier and at a higher frequency in the introduced than in the local species, showing a pattern of asymmetric introgression. Throughout time, introgression increased slowly in the local species, becoming reciprocal at most sites. The rare opportunity to investigate the pattern of introgression across time during a range expansion along with the characteristics of our study-system allowed us to support a role of demographic dynamics in determining the observed introgression pattern. PMID:27460445
Hébert, Agnès; Forquin-Gomez, Marie-Pierre; Roux, Aurélie; Aubert, Julie; Junot, Christophe; Heilier, Jean-François; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Beckerich, Jean-Marie
Yarrowia lipolytica, located at the frontier of hemiascomycetous yeasts and fungi, is an excellent candidate for studies of metabolism evolution. This yeast, widely recognized for its technological applications, in particular produces volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that fully contribute to the flavor of smear cheese. We report here a relevant global vision of sulfur metabolism in Y. lipolytica based on a comparison between high- and low-sulfur source supplies (sulfate, methionine, or cystine) by combined approaches (transcriptomics, metabolite profiling, and VSC analysis). The strongest repression of the sulfate assimilation pathway was observed in the case of high methionine supply, together with a large accumulation of sulfur intermediates. A high sulfate supply seems to provoke considerable cellular stress via sulfite production, resulting in a decrease of the availability of the glutathione pathway's sulfur intermediates. The most limited effect was observed for the cystine supply, suggesting that the intracellular cysteine level is more controlled than that of methionine and sulfate. Using a combination of metabolomic profiling and genetic experiments, we revealed taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in yeast for the first time. On the basis of a phylogenetic study, we then demonstrated that this pathway was lost by some of the hemiascomycetous yeasts during evolution.
Jager, Muriel; Chiori, Roxane; Alié, Alexandre; Dayraud, Cyrielle; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël
Ctenophores are non-bilaterian animals sharing with cnidarians and bilaterians the presence of sensory receptors, nerve cells, and synapses, absent in placozoans and sponges. Although recent immunofluorescence studies have renewed our knowledge of cnidarian neuro-anatomy, ctenophores have been much less investigated despite their importance to understanding the origin and early evolution of the nervous system. In this study, the neuro-anatomy of the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus (Müller, 1776) was explored by whole-mount fluorescent antibody staining using antibodies against tyrosylated -tubulin, FMRFamide, and vasopressin. We describe the morphology of nerve nets and their local specializations, and the organization of the aboral neuro-sensory complex comprising the apical organ and polar fields. Two distinct nerve nets are distinguished: a mesogleal nerve net, loosely organized throughout body mesoglea, and a much more compact “nerve net” with polygonal meshes in the ectodermal epithelium. The latter is organized as a plexus of short nerve cords. This epithelial nervous system contains distinct sub-populations of dispersed FMRFamide and vasopressin immunoreactive nerve cells. In the aboral neuro-sensory complex, our most significant observations include specialized nerve nets underlying the apical organ and polar fields, a tangential bundle of actin-rich fibers (interpreted as a muscle) within the polar fields, and distinct groups of neurons labeled by anti-FMRFamide and anti-vasopressin antibodies, within the apical organ floor. These results are discussed in a comparative perspective.
Luk, Alfred Chun-Shui; Chan, Wai-Yee; Rennert, Owen M; Lee, Tin-Lap
Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which undifferentiated spermatogonia are differentiated into spermatocytes and spermatids through two rounds of meiotic division and finally giving rise to mature spermatozoa (sperm). These processes involve many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products that undergo strict developmental regulations. As a result, identifying critical, regulatory genes controlling spermatogenesis provide the clues not only to the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis at the molecular level, but also to the identification of candidate genes for infertility or contraceptives development. Despite the biological importance in male germ cell development, the underlying mechanisms of stage-specific gene regulation and cellular transition during spermatogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous genomic studies on transcriptome profiling were largely limited to protein-coding genes. Importantly, protein-coding genes only account for a small percentage of transcriptome; the majority are noncoding transcripts that do not translate into proteins. Although small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNAs, siRNAs, and Piwi-interacting RNAs are extensively investigated in male germ cell development, the role of long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), commonly defined as ncRNAs longer than 200 bp, is relatively unexplored. Herein, we summarize recent transcriptome studies on spermatogenesis and show examples that a subset of noncoding transcript population, known as lncRNAs, constitutes a novel regulatory target in spermatogenesis.
Murugan, N. Arul; Sayeed, Ahmed
We have studied the thermal behavior of orientationally disordered phase of caffeine molecular crystal using variable shape variable size Monte Carlo simulations in isothermal-isobaric ensemble. We have investigated the structure, especially the nature of orientational disorder of caffeine molecules as a function of temperature in the range of 400-550 K. Experimentally this system is known to undergo a phase transition at 426 K (considered to be an orientational order-disorder transition) and melt at 512 K. Our simulations reproduce these two transitions in excellent agreement with experiment. We find that the in-plane reorientational motion of molecules is restricted to small angles below 425 K, and above this temperature, molecules undergo essentially free rotations in molecular plane, and we find the melting to occur between 525 and 550 K. In the high temperature disordered phase, the disorder is mostly attributable to the in-plane orientational motion of the molecules. The potential energy profile for the in-plane reorientational rotation has six wells as a consequence of specific packing of molecules in the ab crystallographic plane. Also we find considerable out-of-plane reorientational disorder for the molecules in the high temperature disordered phase. We have also studied the structure and orientational disorder of the system that is quenched from 450 to 300 K. We find that in the quenched phase, the molecular orientational arrangement remains partially frozen.
Hébert, Agnès; Forquin-Gomez, Marie-Pierre; Roux, Aurélie; Aubert, Julie; Junot, Christophe; Heilier, Jean-François; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal
Yarrowia lipolytica, located at the frontier of hemiascomycetous yeasts and fungi, is an excellent candidate for studies of metabolism evolution. This yeast, widely recognized for its technological applications, in particular produces volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that fully contribute to the flavor of smear cheese. We report here a relevant global vision of sulfur metabolism in Y. lipolytica based on a comparison between high- and low-sulfur source supplies (sulfate, methionine, or cystine) by combined approaches (transcriptomics, metabolite profiling, and VSC analysis). The strongest repression of the sulfate assimilation pathway was observed in the case of high methionine supply, together with a large accumulation of sulfur intermediates. A high sulfate supply seems to provoke considerable cellular stress via sulfite production, resulting in a decrease of the availability of the glutathione pathway's sulfur intermediates. The most limited effect was observed for the cystine supply, suggesting that the intracellular cysteine level is more controlled than that of methionine and sulfate. Using a combination of metabolomic profiling and genetic experiments, we revealed taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in yeast for the first time. On the basis of a phylogenetic study, we then demonstrated that this pathway was lost by some of the hemiascomycetous yeasts during evolution. PMID:23220962
Hyde, D C; Berteletti, I; Mou, Y
Humans have the ability to nonverbally represent the approximate numerosity of sets of objects. The cognitive system that supports this ability, often referred to as the approximate number system (ANS), is present in early infancy and continues to develop in precision over the life span. It has been proposed that the ANS forms a foundation for uniquely human symbolic number and mathematics learning. Recent work has brought two types of evidence to bear on the relationship between the ANS and human mathematics: correlational studies showing individual differences in approximate numerical abilities correlate with individual differences in mathematics achievement and experimental studies showing enhancing effects of nonsymbolic approximate numerical training on exact, symbolic mathematical abilities. From this work, at least two accounts can be derived from these empirical data. It may be the case that the ANS and mathematics are related because the cognitive and brain processes responsible for representing numerical quantity in each format overlap, the Representational Overlap Hypothesis, or because of commonalities in the cognitive operations involved in mentally manipulating the representations of each format, the Operational Overlap hypothesis. The two hypotheses make distinct predictions for future work to test.
Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen
There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation. From the perspective of recent findings in the neuroscience of emotion regulation, we discuss the interplay of top-down and bottom-up emotion regulation mechanisms associated with different mindfulness models. From a phenomenological and cognitive perspective, authors have argued that mindfulness elicits a “mindful emotion regulation” strategy; however, from a clinical perspective, this construct has not been properly differentiated from other strategies and interventions within MBIs. In this context we propose the distinction between top-down and bottom-up mindfulness based emotion regulation strategies. Furthermore, we propose an embodied emotion regulation framework as a multilevel approach for understanding psychobiological changes due to mindfulness meditation regarding its effect on emotion regulation. Finally, based on clinical neuroscientific evidence on mindfulness, we open perspectives and dialogues regarding commonalities and differences between MBIs and other psychotherapeutic strategies for emotion regulation. PMID:28321194
van Heusden, G Paul H
14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved, acidic, dimeric proteins. These proteins have been identified in all eukaryotic species investigated, often in multiple isoforms, up to 13 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Hundreds of proteins, from diverse eukaryotic organisms, implicated in numerous cellular processes, have been identified as binding partners of 14-3-3 proteins. Therefore, the major activity of 14-3-3 proteins seems to be its ability to bind other intracellular proteins. Binding to 14-3-3 proteins may result in a conformational change of the protein required for its full activity or for inhibition of its activity, in interaction between two binding partners or in a different subcellular localization. Most of these interactions take place after phosphorylation of the binding partners. These observations suggest a major role of 14-3-3 proteins in regulatory networks. Here, the information on 14-3-3 proteins gathered from several genome- and proteome-wide studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reviewed. In particular, the protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of 14-3-3 binding partners, phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins themselves, the transcriptional regulation of the 14-3-3 genes, and the role of 14-3-3 proteins in transcription are addressed. These large scale studies may help understand the function of 14-3-3 proteins at a cellular level rather than at the level of a single process.
Najiba, Shah; Chen, Jiuhua
One of the major obstacles to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is the lack of proper hydrogen storage material. Lithium amidoborane has attracted significant attention as hydrogen storage material. It releases ∼10.9 wt% hydrogen, which is beyond the Department of Energy target, at remarkably low temperature (∼90 °C) without borazine emission. It is essential to study the bonding behavior of this potential material to improve its dehydrogenation behavior further and also to make rehydrogenation possible. We have studied the high-pressure behavior of lithium amidoborane in a diamond anvil cell using in situ Raman spectroscopy. We have discovered that there is no dihydrogen bonding in this material, as the N—H stretching modes do not show redshift with pressure. The absence of the dihydrogen bonding in this material is an interesting phenomenon, as the dihydrogen bonding is the dominant bonding feature in its parent compound ammonia borane. This observation may provide guidance to the improvement of the hydrogen storage properties of this potential material and to design new material for hydrogen storage application. Also two phase transitions were found at high pressure at 3.9 and 12.7 GPa, which are characterized by sequential changes of Raman modes. PMID:23115332
Legrand, Matthieu; De Berardinis, Benedetta; Gaggin, Hanna K.; Magrini, Laura; Belcher, Arianna; Zancla, Benedetta; Femia, Alexandra; Simon, Mandy; Motiwala, Shweta; Sambhare, Rasika; Di Somma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Vaidya, Vishal S.; Januzzi, James L.; (GREAT), from the Global Research on Acute Conditions Team
Objective The objective of the study was to assess urinary biomarkers of renal injury for their individual or collective ability to predict Worsening renal function (WRF) in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Methods In a prospective, blinded international study, 87 emergency department (ED) patients with ADHF were evaluated with biomarkers of cardiac stretch (B type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and its amino terminal equivalent [NT-proBNP], ST2), biomarkers of renal function (creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) and biomarkers of renal injury (plasma neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin [pNGAL], urine kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase [NAG], urine Cystatin C, urine fibrinogen). The primary endpoint was WRF. Results 26% developed WRF; baseline characteristics of subjects who developed WRF were generally comparable to those who did not. Biomarkers of renal function and urine biomarkers of renal injury were not correlated, while urine biomarkers of renal injury correlated between each other. Biomarker concentrations were similar between patients with and without WRF except for baseline BNP. Although plasma NGAL was associated with the combined endpoint, none of the biomarker showed predictive accuracy for WRF. Conclusions In ED patients with ADHF, urine biomarkers of renal injury did not predict WRF. Our data suggest that a weak association exists between renal dysfunction and renal injury in this setting (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT#0150153). PMID:25386851
Boehm, Nils; Wolters, Dominik; Thiel, Uta; Lossbrand, Ulrike; Wiegel, Nelli; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H
Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and one of the leading causes of blindness. Autoantibody based immune processes are assumed to be involved in its pathogenesis. However, it is still unclear to what extent autoantibody patterns found in the eye (aqueous humor) are congruent to systemic autoantibodies (blood). Consistency would underline the specificity of known serum antibody markers for glaucoma. In this study we used antigen microarrays to analyze autoantibody reactivities in sera and corresponding aqueous humor samples of primary open-angle glaucoma patients (N=37) and non-glaucomatous controls (N=31). Compared to control subjects several divergent immunoreactivities were identified for the glaucoma group in both body fluids. Interestingly, 20% of the tested antigens revealed increased immunoreactivities (e.g., against HSP27, MBP, and α-1-antitrypsin) and 7.5% decreased immunoreactivities (e.g., against GFAP and β-L-crystallin), thus demonstrating a significant alteration of the autoantibody profiles in glaucoma patients. Using an artificial neural network in combination with a unique serum autoantibody pattern on prospective sera we were able to detect glaucoma with a specificity and sensitivity of approximately 93%. The intraindividual comparison revealed a strong correlation of detected immunoreactivities in sera and comparative aqueous humor samples in both study groups. These results emphasize the specificity of immunoreactions found in blood samples of glaucoma patients. Furthermore they indicate the necessity of analyzing not only up-regulated but also down-regulated antibody reactivities, which might be likewise relevant for the understanding of other diseases.
Thompson, Anne M.
This talk will summarize our recent research in tropical tropospheric ozone studies in the field and from space. New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument will be highlighted (Hudson and Thompson, 1998; Thompson and Hudson, 1999). These are suitable for studying processes like ozone pollution resulting from biomass fires, seasonal and interannual variations and trends. Archived maps of tropospheric ozone over the tropics, from the Nimbus 7 observing period (1979-1992) are available in digital form at our website: http://metosrv2.umd.edu/-tropo. Real-time processing of TOMS data has produced images of tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO) since early 1997, using Earth-Probe TOMS; these maps are also available on the homepage. The need for validation data for TTO maps has led to establishment of the NASA/NOAA-sponsored SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) network, from which a 2-year record of high-quality ozonesonde data can be obtained: (http://hyperion.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data-services/Shadoz/shadoz-hmpg2.htrnl). Examples will be shown, along with ozonesondes from the January-February 1999 Aerosols-99 cruise of the R/V Ronald H Brown from Virginia to Cape Town, South Africa.
de Graaf, D. C.; Aerts, M.; Brunain, M.; Desjardins, C. A.; Jacobs, F. J.; Werren, J. H.; Devreese, B.
With the Nasonia vitripennis genome sequences available, we attempted to determine the proteins present in venom by two different approaches. First, we searched for the transcripts of venom proteins by a bioinformatic approach using amino acid sequences of known hymenopteran venom proteins. Second, we performed proteomic analyses of crude N. vitripennis venom removed from the venom reservoir, implementing both an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (2D-LC-MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and a two-dimensional liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Founer transform ion cyclotron resonance (2D-LC-ESI-FT-ICR) MS setup. This combination of bioinformatic and proteomic studies resulted in an extraordinary richness of identified venom constituents. Moreover, half of the 79 identified proteins were not yet associated with insect venoms: 16 proteins showed similarity only to known proteins from other tissues or secretions, and an additional 23 did not show similarity to any known protein. Serine proteases and their inhibitors were the most represented. Fifteen nonsecretory proteins were also identified by proteomic means and probably represent so-called ‘venom trace elements’. The present study contributes greatly to the understanding of the biological diversity of the venom of parasitoid wasps at the molecular level. PMID:20167014
Thomas, Mervyn G; Gottlob, Irene
Infantile nystagmus is commonly associated with afferent abnormalities that can be detected using a range of investigative modalities. Optical coherence tomography allows high-resolution in vivo imaging of the retina. Recent studies have shown characteristic foveal abnormalities in patients with albinism, PAX6 mutations, and isolated foveal hypoplasia. Arrested development of the fovea leads to foveal hypoplasia, which causes reduction in visual acuity. Previous studies have shown correlations between visual acuity and the degree of foveal hypoplasia. Furthermore, in achromatopsia a characteristic lesion has been described that is associated with cone photoreceptor degeneration. Patients with achromatopsia also have foveal hypoplasia, however with atypical features. The signs of photoreceptor degeneration were progressive, which suggests that gene therapy is likely to be most beneficial if given within the first few years of life. With the advent of high speed and ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography it is now possible to document reliably the stages of foveal development and cone photoreceptor degeneration. This will aid clinicians in diagnosis and predicting prognosis in patients with infantile nystagmus.
Young, Sean; Dutta, Debo; Dommety, Gopal
Online social network users may leave creative, subtle cues on their public profiles to communicate their motivations and interests to other network participants. This paper explores whether psychological predictions can be made about the motivations of social network users by identifying and analyzing these cues. Focusing on the domain of relationship seeking, we predicted that people using social networks for dating would reveal that they have a single relationship status as a method of eliciting contact from potential romantic others. Based on results from a pilot study (n = 20) supporting this hypothesis, we predicted that people attempting to attract users of the same religious background would report a religious affiliation along with a single relationship status. Using observational data from 150 Facebook profiles, results from a multivariate logistic regression suggest that people providing a religious affiliation were more likely to list themselves as single (a proxy for their interest in using the network to find romantic partners) than people who do not provide religious information. We discuss the implications for extracting psychological information from Facebook profiles. To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that information from publicly available online social networking profiles can be used to predict people's motivations for using social networks.
The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better
The Integrated Energy Management (IEM) Study investigated the practicality and feasibility of a closed-loop energy management system for transport aircraft. The study involved: (1) instrumentation and collection of in-flight data for a United Airlines 727-200 flying 80 revenue flights throughout the United Airlines network,(2) analysis of the in-flight data to select representative city pairs and establish operational procedures employed in flying a reference flight profile, (3) simulation of the reference profile in a fast-time model to verify the model and establish performance values against which to measure IEM benefits, (4) development of IEM algorithms, and (5) assessment of the IEM concept.
Bayona, Sofía; Fernández-Arroyo, José Manuel; Martín, Isaac; Bayona, Pilar
The aims of this study were to test the face, content, and construct validities of a virtual-reality haptic arthroscopy simulator and to validate four assessment hypothesis. The participants in our study were 94 arthroscopists attending an international conference on arthroscopy. The interviewed surgeons had been performing arthroscopies for a mean of 8.71 years (σ = 6.94 years). We explained the operation, functionality, instructions for use, and the exercises provided by the simulator. They performed a trial exercise and then an exercise in which performance was recorded. After having using it, the arthroscopists answered a questionnaire. The simulator was classified as one of the best training methods (over phantoms), and obtained a mark of 7.10 out of 10 as an evaluation tool. The simulator was considered more useful for inexperienced surgeons than for surgeons with experience (mean difference 1.88 out of 10, P value < 0.001). The participants valued the simulator at 8.24 as a tool for learning skills, its fidelity at 7.41, the quality of the platform at 7.54, and the content of the exercises at 7.09. It obtained a global score of 7.82. Of the subjects, 30.8% said they would practise with the simulator more than 6 h per week. Of the surgeons, 89.4% affirmed that they would recommend the simulator to their colleagues. The data gathered support the first three hypotheses, as well as face and content validities. Results show statistically significant differences between experts and novices, thus supporting the construct validity, but studies with a larger sample must be carried out to verify this. We propose concrete solutions and an equation to calculate economy of movement. Analogously, we analyze competence measurements and propose an equation to provide a single measurement that contains them all and that, according to the surgeons' criteria, is as reliable as the judgment of experts observing the performance of an apprentice.
Background Insight is impaired in a majority of people with schizophrenia. Impaired insight is associated with poorer outcomes of the disorder. Based on existing literature, we developed a model that explains which processes may possibly play a role in impaired insight. This model was the starting point of the development of REFLEX: a brief psychosocial intervention to improve insight in schizophrenia. REFLEX is a 12-sessions group training, consisting of three modules of four sessions each. Modules in this intervention are: "coping with stigma", "you and your personal narrative", and "you in the present". Methods/Design REFLEX is currently evaluated in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eight mental health institutions in the Netherlands participate in this evaluation. Patients are randomly assigned to either REFLEX or an active control condition, existing of cognitive remediation exercises in a group. In a subgroup of patients, fMRI scans are made before and after training in order to assess potential haemodynamic changes associated with the effects of the training. Discussion REFLEX is one of the few interventions aiming specifically to improving insight in schizophrenia and has potential value for improving insight. Targeting insight in schizophrenia is a complex task, that comes with several methodological issues. These issues are addressed in the discussion of this paper. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN50247539 PMID:21975132
Day, Felix R.; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian’an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K.; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F.; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E.; Nalls, Michael A.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W.; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Attwood, Antony P.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N.; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H.; Gordon, Scott D.; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J.; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L.; Jeff, Janina M.; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lo, Ken Sin; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Morken, Mario A.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W.; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S.; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Scott, William R.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Warren, Helen R.; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Goddard, Michael E.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKnight, Amy J.; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R. B.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van ’t Hooft, Ferdinand M.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J. Wouter; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J. P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Marchand, Loic Le; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L.; Morris, Andrew D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F.; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Adair, Linda S.; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J.; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Heid, Iris M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Visscher, Peter M.; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E.; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.
Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10−8), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ~2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis. PMID:25673413
Shekhar, Shashank; Carlier, Marie-France
Polarized assembly of actin filaments forms the basis of actin-based motility and is regulated both spatially and temporally. Cells use a variety of mechanisms by which intrinsically slower processes are accelerated, and faster ones decelerated, to match rates observed in vivo. Here we discuss how kinetic studies of individual reactions and cycles that drive actin remodeling have provided a mechanistic and quantitative understanding of such processes. We specifically consider key barbed-end regulators such as capping protein and formins as illustrative examples. We compare and contrast different kinetic approaches, such as the traditional pyrene-polymerization bulk assays, as well as more recently developed single-filament and single-molecule imaging approaches. Recent development of novel biophysical methods for sensing and applying forces will in future allow us to address the very important relationship between mechanical stimulus and kinetics of actin-based motility. PMID:26715420
Stein, A; Lewis, D O
In a follow-up study of incarcerated Connecticut youth, 66 subjects participated in extensive personal interviews. This paper documents discrepancies between early data regarding abuse and retrospective self-reports of abuse given at the time of follow-up. It describes the development of an interview protocol in which inquiries regarding medical history, the general temperament of caretakers and their behaviors when intoxicated, and instruments and methods of punishment used in the home enabled subjects to describe abusive experiences not disclosed in response to direct questions about maltreatment. The paper also discusses the use of explicitly worded probes to flesh out a clear picture of subjects' experiences. The conflicts that underlie denial or minimization of abuse are discussed, along with interviewing strategies for overcoming them.
Marquardt, Drew; Van Oosten, Brad J; Ghelfi, Mikel; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Harroun, Thad A
We used circular dichroism (CD) to study differences in CD spectra between α-, δ-, and methylated-α-tocopherol in solvents with different polarities. CD spectra of the different tocopherol structures differ from each other in intensity and peak locations, which can be attributed to chromanol substitution and the ability to form hydrogen bonds. In addition, each structure was examined in different polarity solvents using the Reichardt index-a measure of the solvent's ionizing ability, and a direct measurement of solvent-solute interactions. Differences across solvents indicate that hydrogen bonding is a key contributor to CD spectra at 200 nm. These results are a first step in examining the hydrogen bonding abilities of vitamin E in a lipid bilayer.
Macpherson, Calum; Noël, Trevor; Fields, Paul; Jungkind, Donald; Yearwood, Katherine; Simmons, Monika; Widjaja, Susana; Mitchell, George; Noel, Dolland; Bidaisee, Satesh; Myers, Todd E; LaBeaud, A Desiree
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean region in 2014, and the first serologically confirmed case was seen in Grenada in July. This study investigated the outbreak of CHIKV in Grenada to identify the distinguishing clinical manifestations and the symptoms that corresponded the closest with serological test results. Sera were tested by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction to distinguish between cases positive or negative for CHIKV. Of 493 cases, 426 (86%) tested positive for CHIKV. The diagnostic decision rule, "Define as CHIKV positive a patient presenting with joint pain and any combination of fever, body pain, or rash," produced the closest agreement (85%) with the serological test results (Cohen's kappa, k = 0.289, P value < 0.001). When laboratory facilities are not available for diagnostic confirmation, syndromic surveillance using these four symptoms could be useful to define cases during a CHIKV outbreak when CHIKV is the predominant circulating arbovirus.
Chodkiewicz, Michał Leszek; Makal, Anna; Gajda, Roman; Vidovic, Dragoslav; Woźniak, Krzysztof
Two-dimensional diffuse X-ray scattering from an organic salt [N-(3-(2,6-dimethylanilino)-1-methylbut-2-enylidene)-2,6-dimethylanilinium chloride, C21H27N2(+)Cl(-)] was interpreted with the help of an analytical model of diffuse scattering. An analysis of the relationship between symmetry and diffuse scattering for the studied system has been undertaken. The symmetry of the system explains the extinction pattern, taking the form of curves, on the diffuse scattering planes. We have also tested the relationship between the average structure model and scattering intensities. Two models, differing in their representation of overlapping atoms, were used. In the case of diffuse scattering the difference between resulting intensities is immense, while for the Bragg intensities it is much smaller. This sensitivity of diffuse scattering could potentially be used to improve the description of the average structure.
Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J; Nielsen, Dea; Ulicheva, Anastasia; Snowling, Margaret J
We present the case study of MB-a bilingual child with Down syndrome (DS) who speaks Russian (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]) and has learned to read in two different alphabets with different symbol systems. We demonstrate that, in terms of oral language, MB is as proficient in Russian as English, with a mild advantage for reading in English, her language of formal instruction. MB's L1 abilities were compared with those of 11 Russian-speaking typically developing monolinguals and her L2 abilities to those of 15 English-speaking typically developing monolinguals and six monolingual English-speaking children with DS; each group achieving the same level of word reading ability as MB. We conclude that learning two languages in the presence of a learning difficulty need have no detrimental effect on either a child's language or literacy development.
He, Wenxing; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Nana; Tan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weihua; Li, Ping
The cycloaddition reaction mechanisms between interstellar molecule ketenimine and unsaturated hydrocarbon (ethyne and ethylene) have been systematically investigated employing the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses have been performed for the stationary points on the potential energy surfaces of the system. The calculated results show that it can be produced the five-membered cyclic carbene intermediates through pericyclic reaction processes between ketenimine and ethyne (or ethylene). For the reaction between ketenimine and ethyne, through the following H-transferred processes, carbene intermediate can be isomerized to the pyrrole compounds. For the reaction between ketenimine and ethylene, carbene intermediate can be isomerized to the pyrroline compounds. The present study is helpful to understand the reactivity of nitrogenous cumulene ketenimine and the formation of prebiotic species in interstellar space.
Burgoyne, Kelly; Duff, Fiona J.; Nielsen, Dea; Ulicheva, Anastasia
We present the case study of MB—a bilingual child with Down syndrome (DS) who speaks Russian (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]) and has learned to read in two different alphabets with different symbol systems. We demonstrate that, in terms of oral language, MB is as proficient in Russian as English, with a mild advantage for reading in English, her language of formal instruction. MB's L1 abilities were compared with those of 11 Russian‐speaking typically developing monolinguals and her L2 abilities to those of 15 English‐speaking typically developing monolinguals and six monolingual English‐speaking children with DS; each group achieving the same level of word reading ability as MB. We conclude that learning two languages in the presence of a learning difficulty need have no detrimental effect on either a child's language or literacy development. PMID:27917003
Pankratz, Susann; Bittner, Stefan; Kehrel, Beate E.; Langer, Harald F.; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G.; Göbel, Kerstin
Beyond their indispensable role in hemostasis, platelets have shown to affect the development of inflammatory disorders, as they have been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to diseases featuring an inflammatory reaction in inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disorders. The identification of novel molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and to platelets has highlighted them as new targets for therapeutic interventions. In particular, genetic and pharmacological studies have identified an important role for platelets in neuroinflammation. This review summarizes the main molecular links between platelets and inflammation, focusing on immune regulatory factors, receptors, cellular targets and signaling pathways by which they can amplify inflammatory reactions and that make them potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27754414
Tromp, D; Dufour, A; Lithfous, S; Pebayle, T; Després, O
Age-related cognitive changes often include difficulties in retrieving memories, particularly those that rely on personal experiences within their temporal and spatial contexts (i.e., episodic memories). This decline may vary depending on the studied phase (i.e., encoding, storage or retrieval), according to inter-individual differences, and whether we are talking about normal or pathological (e.g., Alzheimer disease; AD) aging. Such cognitive changes are associated with different structural and functional alterations in the human neural network that underpins episodic memory. The prefrontal cortex is the first structure to be affected by age, followed by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. In AD, however, the modifications occur mainly in the MTL (hippocampus and adjacent structures) before spreading to the neocortex. In this review, we will present results that attempt to characterize normal and pathological cognitive aging at multiple levels by integrating structural, behavioral, inter-individual and neuroimaging measures of episodic memory.
Locke, Adam E; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I; Justice, Anne E; Pers, Tune H; Day, Felix R; Powell, Corey; Vedantam, Sailaja; Buchkovich, Martin L; Yang, Jian; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Wood, Andrew R; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Faul, Jessica D; Smith, Jennifer A; Hua Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Hedman, Åsa K; Karjalainen, Juha; Schmidt, Ellen M; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Deng, Guohong; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Jackson, Anne U; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Medland, Sarah E; Nalls, Michael A; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J; Prokopenko, Inga; Shungin, Dmitry; Stančáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Isaacs, Aaron; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Attwood, Antony P; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bas, Isabelita N; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blagieva, Roza; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Caspersen, Ida H; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E Warwick; de Craen, Anton J M; Delgado, Graciela; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Eklund, Niina; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Fraser, Ross M; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S; Golay, Alain; Goodall, Alison H; Gordon, Scott D; Gorski, Mathias; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; Groves, Christopher J; Gusto, Gaëlle; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hengstenberg, Christian; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina M; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Laitinen, Jaana; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Sin Lo, Ken; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lu, Yingchang; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L; McLachlan, Stela; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nöthen, Markus M; Nolte, Ilja M; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Rettig, Rainer; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Scott, William R; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Vernon Smith, Albert; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Uh, Hae-Won; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verhulst, Frank C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Warren, Helen R; Waterworth, Dawn; Weedon, Michael N; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Brennan, Eoin P; Choi, Murim; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Eriksson, Per; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gådin, Jesper R; Gharavi, Ali G; Goddard, Michael E; Handsaker, Robert E; Huang, Jinyan; Karpe, Fredrik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kubo, Michiaki; Lee, Jong-Young; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P; Ma, Baoshan; McCarroll, Steven A; McKnight, Amy J; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Murabito, Joanne M; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R; Okada, Yukinori; Perry, John R B; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M; Sandholm, Niina; Scott, Robert A; Stolk, Lisette; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Van't Hooft, Ferdinand M; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zheng, Wei; Zondervan, Krina T; Heath, Andrew C; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Blangero, John; Bovet, Pascal; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Cesana, Giancarlo; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Chines, Peter S; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Cusi, Daniele; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Felix, Stephan B; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Gottesman, Omri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Alistair S; Harris, Tamara B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hicks, Andrew A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jacobs, Kevin B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jukema, J Wouter; Jula, Antti M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kastelein, John J P; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Knekt, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Kumari, Meena; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C; McKenzie, Colin A; McKnight, Barbara; Moll, Frans L; Morris, Andrew D; Morris, Andrew P; Murray, Jeffrey C; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ong, Ken K; Madden, Pamela A F; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Peden, John F; Peters, Annette; Postma, Dirkje S; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Ridker, Paul M; Rioux, John D; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sinisalo, Juha; Stolk, Ronald P; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Waeber, Gérard; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Zillikens, M Carola; Adair, Linda S; Amouyel, Philippe; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Chambers, John C; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; de Bakker, Paul I W; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franks, Paul W; Froguel, Philippe; Groop, Leif C; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Kaplan, Robert C; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Moebus, Susanne; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Colin N A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E; Saleheen, Danish; Sattar, Naveed; Schadt, Eric E; Schlessinger, David; Slagboom, P Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wilson, James F; Zanen, Pieter; Borecki, Ingrid B; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S; Heid, Iris M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Strachan, David P; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M; McCarthy, Mark I; Visscher, Peter M; Scherag, André; Willer, Cristen J; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Barroso, Inês; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K
Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P < 5 × 10(-8)), 56 of which are novel. Five loci demonstrate clear evidence of several independent association signals, and many loci have significant effects on other metabolic phenotypes. The 97 loci account for ∼2.7% of BMI variation, and genome-wide estimates suggest that common variation accounts for >20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.
Zeng, Hua-Jin; Yang, Ran; Liang, Huili; Qu, Ling-Bo
In the work described on this paper, the inhibitory effect of 10 flavonoids on pepsin and the interactions between them were investigated by a combination of spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The results indicated that all flavonoids could bind with pepsin to form flavonoid-pepsin complexes. The binding parameters obtained from the data at different temperatures revealed that flavonoids could spontaneously interact with pepsin mainly through electrostatic forces and hydrophobic interactions with one binding site. According to synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and molecular docking results, all flavonoids bound directly into the enzyme cavity site and the binding influenced the microenvironment and conformation of the pepsin activity site which resulted in the reduced enzyme activity. The present study provides direct evidence at a molecular level to understand the mechanism of digestion caused by flavonoids.
Marquardt, Drew; Van Oosten, Brad J.; Ghelfi, Mikel; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Harroun, Thad A.
We used circular dichroism (CD) to study differences in CD spectra between α-, δ-, and methylated-α-tocopherol in solvents with different polarities. CD spectra of the different tocopherol structures differ from each other in intensity and peak locations, which can be attributed to chromanol substitution and the ability to form hydrogen bonds. In addition, each structure was examined in different polarity solvents using the Reichardt index—a measure of the solvent’s ionizing ability, and a direct measurement of solvent–solute interactions. Differences across solvents indicate that hydrogen bonding is a key contributor to CD spectra at 200 nm. These results are a first step in examining the hydrogen bonding abilities of vitamin E in a lipid bilayer. PMID:27983631
Lavigne, Jenifer; Sharr, Christianne; Ozonoff, Al; Prock, Lisa Albers; Baumer, Nicole; Brasington, Campbell; Cannon, Sheila; Crissman, Blythe; Davidson, Emily; Florez, Jose C; Kishnani, Priya; Lombardo, Angela; Lyerly, Jordan; McCannon, Jessica B; McDonough, Mary Ellen; Schwartz, Alison; Berrier, Kathryn L; Sparks, Susan; Stock-Guild, Kara; Toler, Tomi L; Vellody, Kishore; Voelz, Lauren; Skotko, Brian G
The Down Syndrome Study Group (DSSG) was founded in 2012 as a voluntary, collaborative effort with the goal of supporting evidenced-based health care guidelines for individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Since then, 5 DS specialty clinics have collected prospective, longitudinal data on medical conditions that co-occur with DS. Data were entered by clinical staff or trained designees into the National Down Syndrome Patient Database, which we created using REDCap software. In our pilot year, we enrolled 663 participants across the U.S., ages 36 days to 70 years, from multiple racial and ethnic backgrounds. Here we report: (i) the demographic distribution of participants enrolled, (ii) a detailed account of our database infrastructure, and (iii) lessons learned during our pilot year to assist future researchers with similar goals for other patient populations.
Oren, J. A.
Candidate techniques for thermal management of unmanned modules docked to a large 250 kW platform were evaluated. Both automatically deployed and space constructed radiator systems were studied to identify characteristics and potential problems. Radiator coating requirements and current state-of-the-art were identified. An assessment of the technology needs was made and advancements were recommended.
Jaros, C.; SanClements, M.; McKnight, D. M.; Foreman, C. M.; Tedesco, M.; Smith, H.; Wei-Haas, M.; Chin, Y.
Glacial ecosystems are biogeochemically active environments that influence downstream ecosystem function, yet there are few studies describing supraglacial stream systems, especially in Antarctica. During the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 austral summers we sampled the supraglacial Cotton Glacier Stream at regular intervals to characterize one of these rarely studied systems. Throughout the 2009-2010 summer we focused on stream chemistry and dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterization. During the 2010-2011 season we established a meteorological station on the glacial surface to conduct measurements of the physical environment. Meteorological data revealed that during summer, temperatures do not frequently exceed zero Celsius for extended periods of time. Pressure transducers and time lapse cameras were installed to capture changes in water depth and revealed a system capable of extreme change on the time-scale of hours. While both temperature and solar radiation appeared to exert significant influence on the daily flow regime, they were not the dominant factor in driving extreme changes in hydrology during the summer. Our observations indicate that extreme hydrologic events (i.e. rapid flooding and draining), were largely controlled by downstream moulins which dictate the drainage of Cotton Stream. This suggests the flow regimes of large Antarctic supraglacial streams may be controlled by a complex relationship between geomorphology and meteorology; resulting in a decoupling of flow, temperature and solar radiation. Chemical analysis and DOM characterization indicate that the dynamic nature of Cotton Stream, paired with very dilute nutrient concentrations, results in an ecosystem with little to no legacy of microbial communities and DOM from year to year.
McCarl, Bruce A.; Murray, Brian; Kim, Man-Keun; Lee, Heng-Chi; Sands, Ronald D.; Schneider, Uwe
Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) as employed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) generally involves a multi-sector appraisal of greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) mitigation alternatives and climate change effects typically at the global level. Such a multi-sector evaluation encompasses potential climate change effects and mitigative actions within the agricultural and forestry (AF) sectors. In comparison with many of the other sectors covered by IAM, the AF sectors may require somewhat different treatment due to their critical dependence upon spatially and temporally varying resource and climatic conditions. In particular, in large countries like the United States, forest production conditions vary dramatically across the landscape. For example, some areas in the southern US present conditions favorable to production of fast growing, heat tolerant pine species, while more northern regions often favor slower-growing hardwood and softwood species. Moreover, some lands are currently not suitable for forest production (e.g., the arid western plains). Similarly, in agriculture, the US has areas where citrus and cotton can be grown and other areas where barley and wheat are more suitable. This diversity across the landscape causes differential GHGE mitigation potential in the face of climatic changes and/or responses to policy or price incentives. It is difficult for a reasonably sized global IAM system to reflect the full range of sub-national geographic AF production possibilities alluded to above. AF response in the face of climate change altered temperature precipitation regimes or mitigation incentives will likely involve region-specific shifts in land use and agricultural/forest production. This chapter addresses AF sectoral responses in climate change mitigation analysis. Specifically, we draw upon US-based studies of AF GHGE mitigation possibilities that incorporate sub-national detail drawing largely on a body of studies done by the authors in association with
Lough, Janice M.; Cooper, Timothy F.
The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy of calcification is measurably influenced by the sea's physico-chemical environment, which is changing rapidly. Warming oceans have already led to increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching, and ocean acidification has a demonstrable potential to cause reduced rates of calcification. There is now general agreement that ocean warming and acidification are attributable to human activities increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the large part of the extra carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas) that is absorbed by oceans. Certain massive corals provide historical perspectives on calcification through the presence of dateable annual density banding patterns. Each band is a page in an environmental archive that reveals past responses of growth (linear extension, skeletal density and calcification rate) and provides a basis for prediction of future of coral growth. A second major line of research focuses on the measurement of various geochemical tracers incorporated into the growth bands, allowing the reconstruction of past marine climate conditions (i.e. palaeoclimatology). Here, we focus on the structural properties of the annual density bands themselves (viz. density; linear extension), exploring their utility in providing both perspectives on the past and pointers to the future of calcification on coral reefs. We conclude that these types of coral growth records, though relatively neglected in recent years compared to the geochemical studies, remain immensely valuable aids to unravelling the consequences of anthropogenic climate change on coral reefs. Moreover, an understanding of coral growth processes is an essential pre-requisite for proper interpretation of studies of geochemical tracers in corals.
Pan, Y.; LI, J.; Menguy, N.; Deng, C.; Kissel, C.; Liu, Q.; Zhu, R.
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are widespread prokaryotes which can navigate along the Earth's magnetic field lines and produce tens to hundreds of nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or/and greigite (Fe3S4) aligned in chain(s) within a cell. The remains of MTB (i.e. magnetofossils) within geological records have therefore been considered as potential recorders of paleomagnetic, paleoenvironmental and ancient-life signals. These intracellularly-formed nanocrystals, called magnetosomes, generally have distinctively physical, chemical and crystallographic features from those magnetic minerals produced by abiotic or extracellular mineralization processes, and therefore could be distinguished by rock magnetic and electron microscopic approaches. However, identification and quantification of magnetofossils from sediments or sedimentary rocks are nevertheless not straightforward not only due to their tiny sizes, relatively low concentration, always mixing with abiotic magnetic minerals, but also the chain collapse and crystal maghemization during post-depositional processes. Comprehensive studies on the biomineralization and fossilization of magnetosomes are therefore essential for unambiguously identifying and quantitating magnetofossils from geologic samples. In this presentation, we summarize the biomineralization processes and magnetic properties of magnetosome chains within modern cultured and uncultured MTB. Experimental studies on the effects of the chain aligning and collapsing on the magnetic properties of magnetosomes are discussed, which give useful clues to understand the possible occurrence of magnetofossils within natural materials and their corresponding magnetic changes. Recent findings in magnetofossils from marine and lake sediments, showing how to identify magnetofossils from sediments by using the comprehensive rock magnetism, ferromagnetic resonance, and transmission electron microscopy approaches, as well as their implications for sedimentary magnetism
Antonellis, P J; Kharitonenkov, A; Adams, A C
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a multifaceted metabolic regulator which has several potential applications in the treatment of metabolic disease. When administered in vivo, FGF21 exhibits a plethora of actions, modulating metabolic homeostasis in a diverse manner. However, the mechanism and site of action underlying these effects were, until recently, entirely uncertain. Using mouse models lacking either FGF receptor isoform 1 (FGFR1) or βKlotho (KLB), a transmembrane co-factor critical for FGF21 action, our group and others sought to determine the tissue on which FGF21 acts and the receptor complex responsible for mediating its in vivo efficacy. Importantly, when KLB was ablated from all tissues mice were completely refractory to FGF21 action. Therefore, to determine the precise tissue of action we utilized mice with tissue specific deletion of FGFR1 in either adipose tissue or neurons, respectively. Surprisingly, in animals with neuronal FGFR1 loss there was no change in the metabolic activity of FGF21, suggesting a lack of central FGF21 action in the pharmacologic setting. In contrast, we found dramatic attenuation of metabolic efficacy in mice with adipose-specific FGFR1 ablation following either acute or chronic dosing with recombinant FGF21. Furthermore, several recent studies have suggested that the metabolic effects of FGF21 may occur via modulation of adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin. Importantly, the action of FGF21 via adipose tissue results in alterations in both secretion as well as systemic sensitivity to these factors. Therefore, while FGF21 itself does not seem to directly act on the CNS, leptin and other endocrine mediators may serve as intermediary facilitators of FGF21's secondary central effects downstream of an initial and direct engagement of FGF21 receptor complex in adipose tissue. Further studies are required to delineate the precise mechanistic basis underlying the interplay between peripheral and central FGF21 modes of
Roperch, P. J.; Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Herve, F.; Ramirez de Arellano, C.
One of the most noteworthy features of the Southern Andes is its bend, where the orogenic trend and main tectonic provinces change from Andean N-S oriented structures to W-E orientations in Tierra del Fuego. Few paleomagnetic studies have been carried out, and whether the bending is a primary curvature or a true orocline is still matter of controversy; also the mechanism of its formation. We have conducted a paleomagnetic study between 50°S to ~56°S, where 146 sites were drilled. Paleomagnetic data were obtained in 44 sites. Results in Early Cretaceous sediments and volcanics rocks confirm a remagnetization event during the mid-Cretaceous and record ~90° of counterclockwise rotation. Paleomagnetic results in mid-Cretaceous intrusives rocks record large counterclockwise rotation (>90°) while Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene intrusive rocks only record ~45° to ~30°. The paleomagnetic results reveal a systematic pattern of rotation—the Fueguian rotation pattern—suggesting that the curvature of Patagonia would have occurred in two stages: the first stage during the collapse and obduction of the Rocas Verdes basin in the mid-Cretaceous and a second stage between the Late Cretaceous and the Paleocene, concomitant with exhumation of Cordillera Darwin and propagation of the fold and thrust belt into the Magallanes foreland. Integrating this result in plate reconstructions shows the Antarctic Peninsula as a prolongation of Patagonia and would have acted as a non-rotational rigid block, facilitating the development of the Patagonia Bend. This land bridge could be a dispersal mechanism for fauna between Australia and South America and would have restricted deep ocean water circulation.
Holden, Richard J.; McDougald Scott, Amanda M.; Hoonakker, Peter L.T.; Hundt, Ann S.; Carayon, Pascale
Purpose Collecting information about health and disease directly from patients can be fruitfully accomplished using contextual approaches, ones that combine more and less structured methods in home and community settings. This paper's purpose is to describe and illustrate a framework of the challenges of contextual data collection. Methods A framework is presented based on prior work in community-based participatory research and organizational science, comprised of ten types of challenges across four broader categories. Illustrations of challenges and suggestions for addressing them are drawn from two mixed-method, contextual studies of patients with chronic disease in two regions of the US. Results The first major category of challenges was concerned with the researcher-participant partnership, for example, the initial lack of mutual trust and understanding between researchers, patients, and family members. The second category concerned patient characteristics such as cognitive limitations and a busy personal schedule that created barriers to successful data collection. The third concerned research logistics and procedures such as recruitment, travel distances, and compensation. The fourth concerned scientific quality and interpretation, including issues of validity, reliability, and combining data from multiple sources. The two illustrative studies faced both common and diverse research challenges and used many different strategies to address them. Conclusion Collecting less structured data from patients and others in the community is potentially very productive but requires the anticipation, avoidance, or negotiation of various challenges. Future work is necessary to better understand these challenges across different methods and settings, as well as to test and identify strategies to address them. PMID:25154464
Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming
Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers.
Matheis, Katja A.; Com, Emmanuelle; Gautier, Jean-Charles; Guerreiro, Nelson; Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans; Sposny, Alexandra; Hewitt, Philip; Amberg, Alexander; Boernsen, Olaf; Riefke, Bjoern; Hoffmann, Dana; Mally, Angela; Kalkuhl, Arno; Suter, Laura; Dieterle, Frank; Staedtler, Frank
The European InnoMed-PredTox project was a collaborative effort between 15 pharmaceutical companies, 2 small and mid-sized enterprises, and 3 universities with the goal of delivering deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of kidney and liver toxicity and to identify mechanism-linked diagnostic or prognostic safety biomarker candidates by combining conventional toxicological parameters with 'omics' data. Mechanistic toxicity studies with 16 different compounds, 2 dose levels, and 3 time points were performed in male Crl: WI(Han) rats. Three of the 16 investigated compounds, BI-3 (FP007SE), Gentamicin (FP009SF), and IMM125 (FP013NO), induced kidney proximal tubule damage (PTD). In addition to histopathology and clinical chemistry, transcriptomics microarray and proteomics 2D-DIGE analysis were performed. Data from the three PTD studies were combined for a cross-study and cross-omics meta-analysis of the target organ. The mechanistic interpretation of kidney PTD-associated deregulated transcripts revealed, in addition to previously described kidney damage transcript biomarkers such as KIM-1, CLU and TIMP-1, a number of additional deregulated pathways congruent with histopathology observations on a single animal basis, including a specific effect on the complement system. The identification of new, more specific biomarker candidates for PTD was most successful when transcriptomics data were used. Combining transcriptomics data with proteomics data added extra value.
Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.
Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m2), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569
Kernoghan, Alison; Riley, Barbara; Popp, Janice; Best, Allan; Milward, H. Brinton
Introduction We conducted a mixed methods study from June 2014 to March 2015 to assess the perspectives of stakeholders in networks that adopt a population approach for chronic disease prevention (CDP). The purpose of the study was to identify important and feasible outcome measures for monitoring network performance. Methods Participants from CDP networks in Canada completed an online concept mapping exercise, which was followed by interviews with network stakeholders to further understand the findings. Results Nine concepts were considered important outcomes of CDP networks: enhanced learning, improved use of resources, enhanced or increased relationships, improved collaborative action, network cohesion, improved system outcomes, improved population health outcomes, improved practice and policy planning, and improved intersectoral engagement. Three themes emerged from participant interviews related to measurement of the identified concepts: the methodological difficulties in measuring network outcomes, the dynamic nature of network evolution and function and implications for outcome assessment, and the challenge of measuring multisectoral engagement in CDP networks. Conclusion Results from this study provide initial insights into concepts that can be used to describe the outcomes of networks for CDP and may offer foundations for strengthening network outcome-monitoring strategies and methodologies. PMID:26583571
The genome sequence of Haloferax volcanii is available and several comparative genomic in silico studies were performed that yielded novel insight for example into protein export, RNA modifications, small non-coding RNAs, and ubiquitin-like Small Archaeal Modifier Proteins. The full range of functional genomic methods has been established and results from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies are discussed. Notably, Hfx. volcanii is together with Halobacterium salinarum the only prokaryotic species for which a translatome analysis has been performed. The results revealed that the fraction of translationally-regulated genes in haloarchaea is as high as in eukaryotes. A highly efficient genetic system has been established that enables the application of libraries as well as the parallel generation of genomic deletion mutants. Facile mutant generation is complemented by the possibility to culture Hfx. volcanii in microtiter plates, allowing the phenotyping of mutant collections. Genetic approaches are currently used to study diverse biological questions–from replication to posttranslational modification—and selected results are discussed. Taken together, the wealth of functional genomic and genetic tools make Hfx. volcanii a bona fide archaeal model species, which has enabled the generation of important results in recent years and will most likely generate further breakthroughs in the future. PMID:22190865
Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E
Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women.
Stojnic, Bojan B; Brecker, Stephen J D; Xiao, Han B; Gibson, Derek G
Objective—To study the mechanisms underlying the dominant `a' wave seen in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Design—Retrospective and prospective examination of the jugular venous pulse recording, flow in the superior vena cava, and Doppler echocardiographic studies. Setting—A tertiary referral centre for both cardiac and pulmonary disease, with facilities for invasive and noninvasive investigation, and assessment for heart and heart-lung transplantation. Patients—12 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, most being considered for heart-lung transplantation. Results—Two distinct patterns of venous pulse and superior vena caval flow were identified: a dominant `a' wave with no `v' wave, an absent or poorly developed `y' descent, and exclusively systolic downward flow in the superior vena cava (group 1, n = 8), and a dominant `v' wave, deep `y' descent and exclusively diastolic downward flow in the superior vena cava (group 2, n = 4). A comparison between the two groups showed age (mean (SD)) 42 (18) ν 36 (7) years, RR interval 700 (65) ν 740 (240) ms, left ventricular end diastolic dimension 3·6 (0·8) ν 3·2 (1·0) cm and end systolic dimension 2·1 (0·5) ν 2·3 (0·3) cm, right ventricular end diastolic dimension 2·6 (0·5) ν 2·8 (0·6) cm, and pressure drop between right ventricle and right atrium 60 (8) ν 70 (34) mm Hg to be similar. Duration of tricuspid regurgitation 520 (30) ν 420 (130) ms and the time interval of pulmonary closure to the end of the tricuspid regurgitant signal 140 (30) ν 110 (40) ms were longer in group 1 compared with group 2, whereas right ventricular filling time was much shorter 180 (70) ν 350 (130) ms. In seven patients from group 1, a single peak of forward tricuspid flow was present, but this pattern was seen in only one patient from group 2. Conclusions—In patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, the apparent `a' wave seen in the venous pulse is, in fact, a summation wave. It is
Mulavara, A. P.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.
The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. We are currently conducting studies on both International Space Station (ISS) astronauts experiencing up to 6 months of microgravity and subjects experiencing 70 days of 6??head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading somatosensory component on functional performance. Both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using a protocol that evaluated functional performance along with tests of postural and locomotor control before and after space flight and bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Astronauts were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6, and 12 days after re-ambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability showed less reduction in performance. Results indicate that body unloading
Wajner, Moacir; Goodman, Stephen I
Organic acidurias or organic acidemias constitute a group of inherited disorders caused by deficient activity of specific enzymes of amino acids, carbohydrates or lipids catabolism, leading to large accumulation and excretion of one or more carboxylic (organic) acids. Affected patients usually present neurologic symptoms and abnormalities, sometimes accompanied by cardiac and skeletal muscle alterations, whose pathogenesis is poorly known. However, in recent years growing evidence has emerged indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction is directly or indirectly involved in the pathology of various organic acidemias. Mitochondrial impairment in some of these diseases are generally due to mutations in nuclear genes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle or oxidative phosphorylation, while in others it seems to result from toxic influences of the endogenous organic acids to the mitochondrion. In this minireview, we will briefly summarize the present knowledge obtained from human and animal studies showing that disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis may represent a relevant pathomechanism of tissue damage in selective organic acidemias. The discussion will focus on mitochondrial alterations found in patients affected by organic acidemias and by the deleterious effects of the accumulating organic acids on mitochondrial pathways that are crucial for ATP formation and transfer. The elucidation of the mechanisms of toxicity of these acidic compounds offers new perspectives for potential novel adjuvant therapeutic strategies in selected disorders of this group.
Westerterp, Klaas R
Body weight and energy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, whereas short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. This review investigates whether physical activity is affected by over- and undereating, whether intake is affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and whether being overweight affects physical activity. The available evidence is based largely on studies that quantified physical activity with doubly labeled water. Overeating does not affect physical activity, while undereating decreases habitual or voluntary physical activity. Thus, it is easier to gain weight than to lose weight. An exercise-induced increase in energy requirement is typically compensated by increased energy intake, while a change to a more sedentary routine does not induce an equivalent reduction of intake and generally results in weight gain. Overweight and obese subjects tend to have similar activity energy expenditures to lean people despite being more sedentary. There are two ways in which the general population trend towards increasing body weight can be reversed: reduce intake or increase physical activity. The results of the present literature review indicate that eating less is the most effective method for preventing weight gain, despite the potential for a negative effect on physical activity when a negative energy balance is reached.
Kumar, Thulasi; Onichandran, Subashini; Lim, Yvonne A L; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ithoi, Init; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Dungca, Julieta Z; Chye, Tan Tian; Sulaiman, Wan Y W; Ling Lau, Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot
This study investigated the distribution of parasites as main contaminants in water environments of peninsular Malaysia (October 2011-December 2011) and the southeastern coast of Thailand (June 2012). Sixty-four water samples, 33 from Malaysia and 31 from Thailand, of various water types were examined according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Drinking or household water types from both countries were free from parasitic contamination. The recreational/environmental (except a swimming pool in Malaysia) and effluent water types from these two countries were contaminated with waterborne parasites: Giardia (0.04-4 cysts/L), Cryptosporidium (0.06-2.33 oocysts/L), hookworm (6.67-350 ova/L), Ascaris (0.33-33.33 ova/L), and Schistosoma (9.25-13.33 ova/L). The most contaminated sites were recreational lake garden 3 in Malaysia and river 2 in Thailand. Higher concentrations of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and hookworm were found in samples from Malaysia than in samples from Thailand. The presence of Giardia cysts showed a significant association with the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts (P < 0.005).
Wang, Yaping; Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Langhong
Prometryn possesses much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, the binding properties of prometryn with human serum albumin (HSA) and the protein structural changes were determined under simulative physiological conditions (pH 7.4) by multispectroscopic methods including fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, coupled with molecular modeling technique. The result of fluorescence titration suggested that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by prometryn was considered as a static quenching procedure. The negative enthalpy change (ΔH(○)) and positive entropy change (ΔS(○)) values indicated that the binding process was governed mainly by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The site marker displacement experiments suggested the location of prometryn binding to HSA was Sudlow's site I in subdomain IIA. Furthermore, molecular docking studies revealed prometryn can bind in the large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIA. Analysis of UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence, CD and FT-IR spectra demonstrated that the addition of prometryn resulted in rearrangement and conformational alteration of HSA with reduction in α-helix and increases in β-sheet, β-turn and random coil structures. This work provided reasonable model helping us further understand the transportation, distribution and toxicity effect of prometryn when it spreads into human blood serum.
Feuer, S K; Camarano, L; Rinaudo, P F
Since the birth of the first IVF-conceived child in 1978, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has grown dramatically, contributing to the successful birth of 5 million individuals worldwide. However, there are several reported associations of ART with pregnancy complications, such as low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth, birth defects, epigenetic disorders, cancer and poor metabolic health. Whether this is attributed to ART procedures or to the subset of the population seeking ART remains a controversy, but the most relevant question today concerns the potential long-term implications of assisted conception. Recent evidence has emerged suggesting that ART-conceived children have distinct metabolic profiles that may predispose to cardiovascular pathologies in adulthood. Because the eldest IVF individuals are still too young to exhibit components of chronic middle-aged syndromes, the use of animal models has become particularly useful in describing the effects of unusual or stressful preimplantation experiences on adult fitness. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which embryos integrate environmental signals into development and metabolic gene expression programs will be essential for optimizing ART procedures such as in vitro culture conditions, embryo selection and transfer. In the future, additional animal studies to identify mechanisms underlying unfavorable ART outcomes, as well as more epidemiological reviews to monitor the long-term health of ART children are required, given that ART procedures have become routine medical practice.
Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun
Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions. PMID:27405843
Wang, Wan-Hui; Xu, Shaoan; Manaka, Yuichi; Suna, Yuki; Kambayashi, Hide; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko; Himeda, Yuichiro
Highly efficient hydrogen generation from dehydrogenation of formic acid is achieved by using bioinspired iridium complexes that have hydroxyl groups at the ortho positions of the bipyridine or bipyrimidine ligand (i.e., OH in the second coordination sphere of the metal center). In particular, [Ir(Cp*)(TH4BPM)(H2 O)]SO4 (TH4BPM: 2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxyl-4,4'-bipyrimidine; Cp*: pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) has a high turnover frequency of 39 500 h(-1) at 80 °C in a 1 M aqueous solution of HCO2 H/HCO2 Na and produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide without carbon monoxide contamination. The deuterium kinetic isotope effect study clearly indicates a different rate-determining step for complexes with hydroxyl groups at different positions of the ligands. The rate-limiting step is β-hydrogen elimination from the iridium-formate intermediate for complexes with hydroxyl groups at ortho positions, owing to a proton relay (i.e., pendent-base effect), which lowers the energy barrier of hydrogen generation. In contrast, the reaction of iridium hydride with a proton to liberate hydrogen is demonstrated to be the rate-determining step for complexes that do not have hydroxyl groups at the ortho positions.
Polticelli, Fabio; Zobnina, Veranika; Ciaccio, Chiara; de Sanctis, Giampiero; Ascenzi, Paolo; Coletta, Massimo
Mini-myoglobin (mini-HHMb) is a fragment of horse-heart myoglobin (HHMb) considered to be the prototype of the product encoded by the central exon of the HHMb gene. For this reason, mini-HHMb has been studied extensively showing that carbonylation and oxygenation properties of the ferrous form are similar to those of the full-length protein, while kinetics and thermodynamics of azide binding to the ferric form are significantly different from those of HHMb. To analyze the structure-function relationships in mini-HHMb and the role of conformational fluctuations in ligand accessibility, the molecular model of mini-HHMb has been built and refined by molecular dynamics simulations, and analyzed in parallel with that of full length HHMb. Moreover, imidazole binding parameters of ferric mini-HHMb and HHMb have been determined. Furthermore, structural data of ferric mini-HHMb and HHMb have been correlated with the imidazole and previously determined azide binding properties. Present results indicate that, despite the extensive trimming, the heme-α-helices E-F substructure is essentially unaltered in mini-HHMb with respect to HHMb. However, the heme-Fe atom displays an enhanced accessibility in mini-HHMb, which may affect both ligand association and dissociation kinetics.
Storey, Kenneth B
Comparative enzymology explores the molecular mechanisms that alter the properties of enzymes to best fit and adapt them to the biotic demands and abiotic stresses that affect the cellular environment in which these protein catalysts function. For many years, comparative enzymology was primarily concerned with analyzing enzyme functional properties (e.g. substrate affinities, allosteric effectors, responses to temperature or pH, stabilizers, denaturants, etc.) in order to determine how enzyme properties were optimized to function under changing conditions. More recently it became apparent that posttranslational modifications of enzymes play a huge role in metabolic regulation. At first, such modifications appeared to target just crucial regulatory enzymes but recent work is showing that many dehydrogenases are also targets of posttranslational modification leading to substantial changes in enzyme properties. The present article focuses in particular on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showing that stress-induced changes in enzyme properties can be linked with reversible posttranslational modifications; e.g. changes in the phosphorylation state of LDH occur in response to dehydration stress in frogs and anoxia exposure of turtles and snails. Furthermore, these studies show that LDH is also a target of other posttranslational modifications including acetylation, methylation and ubiquitination that change in response to anoxia or dehydration stress. Selected new methods for exploring posttranslational modifications of dehydrogenases are discussed and new challenges for the future of comparative enzymology are presented that will help to achieve a deeper understanding of biochemical adaptation through enzyme regulation.
Belowground carbon (C) allocation is a key process in ecosystems: it plays an important role for plant C storage, fuels root metabolism and provides substrates for soil microorganisms, with strong implications for microbial community composition and activity and thus soil organic matter turnover. Belowground C allocation has been well studied in young plants and mesocosms, and as long-term patterns in ecosystems. Much less is known on the short-term dynamics of C allocation in mature plants and ecosystems, which reflect more closely the actual processes underlying observed C allocation patterns and the mechanisms determining responses to changing environmental conditions. C allocation dynamics can best be analyzed with isotopic pulse labeling experiments, which permit a tracing of recently photo-assimilated C to carbohydrate pools, microbial communities and respiratory fluxes. This overview talk will highlight the potential and limitations of in situ isotopic tracer experiments for assessing belowground C allocation dynamics in changing environments, summarize some major recent findings and point towards emerging research questions.
Clouthier, David E.; Passos Bueno, Maria Rita; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Gordon, Christopher T.
Among human birth defect syndromes, malformations affecting the face are perhaps the most striking due to cultural and psychological expectations of facial shape. One such syndrome is auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS), in which patients present with defects in ear and mandible development. Affected structures arise from cranial neural crest cells, a population of cells in the embryo that reside in the pharyngeal arches and give rise to most of the bone, cartilage and connective tissue of the face. Recent studies have found that most cases of ACS arise from defects in signaling molecules associated with the endothelin signaling pathway. Disruption of this signaling pathway in both mouse and zebrafish results in loss of identity of neural crest cells of the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch and the subsequent repatterning of these cells, leading to homeosis of lower jaw structures into more maxillary-like structures. These findings illustrate the importance of endothelin signaling in normal human craniofacial development and illustrate how clinical and basic science approaches can coalesce to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of human birth syndromes. Further, understanding the genetic basis for ACS that lies outside of known endothelin signaling components may help elucidate unknown aspects critical to the establishment of neural crest cell patterning during facial morphogenesis. PMID:24123988
Feuer, S.K.; Camarano, L.; Rinaudo, P.F.
Since the birth of the first IVF-conceived child in 1978, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has grown dramatically, contributing to the successful birth of 5 million individuals worldwide. However, there are several reported associations of ART with pregnancy complications, such as low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth, birth defects, epigenetic disorders, cancer and poor metabolic health. Whether this is attributed to ART procedures or to the subset of the population seeking ART remains a controversy, but the most relevant question today concerns the potential long-term implications of assisted conception. Recent evidence has emerged suggesting that ART-conceived children have distinct metabolic profiles that may predispose to cardiovascular pathologies in adulthood. Because the eldest IVF individuals are still too young to exhibit components of chronic middle-aged syndromes, the use of animal models has become particularly useful in describing the effects of unusual or stressful preimplantation experiences on adult fitness. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which embryos integrate environmental signals into development and metabolic gene expression programs will be essential for optimizing ART procedures such as in vitro culture conditions, embryo selection and transfer. In the future, additional animal studies to identify mechanisms underlying unfavorable ART outcomes, as well as more epidemiological reviews to monitor the long-term health of ART children are required, given that ART procedures have become routine medical practice. PMID:23264495
Albani, J. R.
Quenching resolved emission anisotropy method was applied to study the dynamics of the two classes of Trp residues of human α 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid), in the absence and presence of progesterone. In the absence of progesterone, the values of the anisotropies of the surface and buried Trp residues are 0.155 and 0.178, respectively. These values lower than the limiting anisotropy (0.267) indicate that both classes of Trp residues display residual motions. In the presence of progesterone, the values of the anisotropies decrease from 0.155 to 0.146 and from 0.178 to 0.167. Thus, binding of progesterone to orosomucoid increases the internal dynamics of the protein. Also, the fact that in the absence or in the presence of progesterone, the anisotropies of both classes are close, means that the amplitudes of the motions of the two classes are not significantly different. From our data and from the well-known position of the carbohydrate residues on orosomucoid, we suggest the presence of a hydrophobic pocket within the protein and where the 'buried' Trp residues can be found.
Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Keiser, Sharon; Ajami, Nadim J.; ...
The mechanisms by which gut microbiota contribute to methylmercury metabolism remain unclear. Among a cohort of pregnant mothers, the main objectives of our pilot study were to determine 1) associations between gut microbiota and mercury concentrations in biomarkers (stool, hair and cord blood) and 2) the contributions of gut microbial mercury methylation/demethylation to stool methylmercury. Moreover, for pregnant women (36-39 weeks gestation, n=17) donated hair and stool specimens, and cord blood was collected for a subset (n=7). The diversity of gut microbiota was determined using 16S rRNA gene profiling (n=17). For 6 stool samples with highest/lowest methylmercury concentrations, metagenomic wholemore » genome shotgun sequencing was employed to search for one mercury methylation gene (hgcA), and two mer operon genes involved in methylmercury detoxification (merA and merB). There were seventeen bacterial genera that were significantly correlated (increasing or decreasing) with stool methylmercury, stool inorganic mercury, or hair total mercury; however, aside from one genus, there was no overlap between biomarkers. No definitive matches for hgcA or merB, while merA were detected at low concentrations in all six samples. Proportional differences in stool methylmercury were not likely attributed to gut microbiota through methylation/demethylation. Gut microbiota potentially altered methylmercury metabolism using indirect pathways.« less
Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Keiser, Sharon; Ajami, Nadim J.; Wong, Matthew C.; Gesell, Jonathan; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Johs, Alexander
The mechanisms by which gut microbiota contribute to methylmercury metabolism remain unclear. Among a cohort of pregnant mothers, the main objectives of our pilot study were to determine 1) associations between gut microbiota and mercury concentrations in biomarkers (stool, hair and cord blood) and 2) the contributions of gut microbial mercury methylation/demethylation to stool methylmercury. Moreover, for pregnant women (36-39 weeks gestation, n=17) donated hair and stool specimens, and cord blood was collected for a subset (n=7). The diversity of gut microbiota was determined using 16S rRNA gene profiling (n=17). For 6 stool samples with highest/lowest methylmercury concentrations, metagenomic whole genome shotgun sequencing was employed to search for one mercury methylation gene (hgcA), and two mer operon genes involved in methylmercury detoxification (merA and merB). There were seventeen bacterial genera that were significantly correlated (increasing or decreasing) with stool methylmercury, stool inorganic mercury, or hair total mercury; however, aside from one genus, there was no overlap between biomarkers. No definitive matches for hgcA or merB, while merA were detected at low concentrations in all six samples. Proportional differences in stool methylmercury were not likely attributed to gut microbiota through methylation/demethylation. Gut microbiota potentially altered methylmercury metabolism using indirect pathways.
Sun, Biao; Kavanaugh, Scott I; Tsai, Pei-San
Several protostomian molecules that structurally resemble chordate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have been identified through cloning, biochemical purification or data mining. These molecules share considerable sequence and structural similarities with chordate GnRH, leading to the current belief that protostomian and chordate forms of GnRH share a common ancestor. However, the physiological significance of these protostomian GnRH-like molecules remains poorly understood. This knowledge gap hampers our understanding of how GnRH has evolved functionally over time. This review provides a summary of our recent functional characterization of a GnRH-like molecule (ap-GnRH) in a gastropod mollusk, Aplysia californica, and presents preliminary proof for a cognate ap-GnRH receptor (ap-GnRHR). Our data reveal that ap-GnRH is a general neural regulator capable of exerting diverse central and motor effects, but plays little or no role in reproductive activation. This notion is supported by the abundance of a putative ap-GnRHR transcript in the central nervous system and the foot. Comparing these results to the available functional data from a cephalopod mollusk, Octopus vulgaris, we surmise that protostomian GnRH-like molecules are likely to assume a wide range of physiological roles, and reproductive activation is not an evolutionarily conserved role of these molecules. Future functional studies using suitable protostomian models are required to identify functional changes in protostomian GnRH-like molecules that accompany major taxa-level transitions.
Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun
Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions.
Kumar, Thulasi; Onichandran, Subashini; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Ithoi, Init; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C.; Dungca, Julieta Z.; Chye, Tan Tian; Sulaiman, Wan Y. W.; Ling Lau, Yee; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot
This study investigated the distribution of parasites as main contaminants in water environments of peninsular Malaysia (October 2011–December 2011) and the southeastern coast of Thailand (June 2012). Sixty-four water samples, 33 from Malaysia and 31 from Thailand, of various water types were examined according to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Drinking or household water types from both countries were free from parasitic contamination. The recreational/environmental (except a swimming pool in Malaysia) and effluent water types from these two countries were contaminated with waterborne parasites: Giardia (0.04–4 cysts/L), Cryptosporidium (0.06–2.33 oocysts/L), hookworm (6.67–350 ova/L), Ascaris (0.33–33.33 ova/L), and Schistosoma (9.25–13.33 ova/L). The most contaminated sites were recreational lake garden 3 in Malaysia and river 2 in Thailand. Higher concentrations of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and hookworm were found in samples from Malaysia than in samples from Thailand. The presence of Giardia cysts showed a significant association with the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts (P < 0.005). PMID:24567315
Guillon, Quentin; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Baduel, Sophie; Rogé, Bernadette
We review different aspects of visual social attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from infancy to adulthood in light of the eye-tracking literature. We first assess the assumption that individuals with ASD demonstrate a deficit in social orienting together with decreased attention to socially relevant stimuli such as faces compared to TD individuals. Results show that social orienting is actually not qualitatively impaired and that decreased attention to faces does not generalized across contexts. We also assess the assumption that individuals with ASD demonstrate excess mouth and diminished eye gaze compared to TD individuals. We find that this assumption receives little support across ages and discuss some factors that might have initially lead to this conjecture. We report that the assessment of the ability to follow the direction of another person's gaze needs to be further examined and that eye-tracking studies add to the evidence that individuals with ASD demonstrate difficulties in interpreting gaze cues. Finally, we highlight innovative data acquisition and analyses that are increasingly shedding light on the more subtle nature of the profound social difficulties experienced by individuals with ASD.
Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses to anti–influenza virus hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (hIVIG) were characterized. Thirty-one patients with influenza during the 2013–2014 season were randomly assigned to receive 0.25 g/kg of hIVIG (n = 16) or placebo (n = 15). For hIVIG recipients, the ratio of geometric mean titers (1 hour after infusion/before infusion) was 4.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.61–6.13) for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.33–2.32) for influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B. Among patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1), ratios for hIVIG (n = 9) versus placebo (n = 8) were higher 1 hour after infusion (3.9 [95% CI, 2.3–6.7]) and sustained through day 3 (2.0 [95% CI, 1.0–4.0]). hIVIG administration significantly increases HAI titer levels among patients with influenza, supporting the need to perform a clinical outcomes study. Clinical trials registration: NCT02008578. PMID:26374911
Agosta, Fabrizio; di Celma, Claudio; Tondi, Emanuele; Corradetti, Amerigo; Cantalamessa, Gino
-perpendicular joint spacing/bed thickness (S/T) relationships on sandstone bodies that experienced similar diagenetic and tectonic histories. The field area is located in the Periadriatic foreland basin, eastern central Italy, which show late Pliocene slope turbidites in excellent 3d views. The Periadriatic foreland basin is an elongated, roughly N-S oriented trough located immediately east of the Apennines fold-thrust belt. The basin fill mostly consists of deepwater Plio-Pleistocene sediments partially incorporated into the frontal part of the orogenic wedge. During the late Pliocene, gravel and sand originated from the uplifting Apennines were abundantly supplied to the deep-water basin through a series of erosional conduits that, in the rock record, appear as a series of N-S oriented slope submarine canyon systems deeply incised into the hemipelagic mudstones of the adjacent slope. The studied exposure allows direct observation of spatial and temporal relationships among the various depositional elements comprising the canyon system and related lithofacies, as well as the bed-perpendicular joint density within each lithofacies. We performed a multidisciplinary work involving the following tasks: (i) 3D stratigraphic model of the depositional architecture of the Castignano and Ascensione canyon systems (Marche region, Italy); (ii) 2D scanline survey of several outcrops displaying bed-perpendicular joints; (iii) digital image analysis of selected thin-section obtained from oriented hand samples to characterize the 3D intergranualr porosity; (iv) Stiffness analysis of representative sandstone bodies by mean of Schmidt hammer tests. The first results of this ongoing study on the mechanical stratigraphy of the two Late Pliocene canyon systems are consistent with the joint density being effected by both geometrical (i.e., bed thickness) and mechanical properties. This data set will help field and experimental geologists to better define common strategies to assess the controlling
Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.
The magnitude of the biological productivity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) is traditionally viewed as directly reflecting the upwelling intensity. Yet, different EBUS show different sensitivities of productivity to upwelling-favorable winds (Carr and Kearns, 2003). Here, using a comparative modeling study of the California Current System (California CS) and Canary Current System (Canary CS), we show how physical and environmental factors, such as light, temperature and cross-shore circulation modulate the response of biological productivity to upwelling strength. To this end, we made a series of eddy-resolving simulations of the California CS and Canary CS using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), coupled to a nitrogen based Nutrient-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) ecosystem model. We find the nutrient content of the euphotic zone to be 20 % smaller in the Canary CS relative to the California CS. Yet, the biological productivity is 50 % smaller in the latter. This is due to: (1) a faster nutrient-replete growth in the Canary CS relative to the California CS, related to a more favorable light and temperature conditions in the Canary CS, and (2) the longer nearshore water residence times in the Canary CS which lead to larger buildup of biomass in the upwelling zone, thereby enhancing the productivity. The longer residence times in the Canary CS appear to be associated with the wider continental shelves and the lower eddy activity characterizing this upwelling system. This results in a weaker offshore export of nutrients and organic matter, thereby increasing local nutrient recycling and enhancing the coupling between new and export production in the Northwest African system. Our results suggest that climate change induced perturbations such as upwelling favorable wind intensification might lead to contrasting biological responses in the California CS and the Canary CS, with major implications for the biogeochemical cycles and fisheries
Cauchemez, Simon; Ferguson, Neil M.; Fox, Annette; Mai, Le Quynh; Thanh, Le Thi; Thai, Pham Quang; Thoang, Dang Dinh; Duong, Tran Nhu; Minh Hoa, Le Nguyen; Tran Hien, Nguyen; Horby, Peter
To guide control policies, it is important that the determinants of influenza transmission are fully characterized. Such assessment is complex because the risk of influenza infection is multifaceted and depends both on immunity acquired naturally or via vaccination and on the individual level of exposure to influenza in the community or in the household. Here, we analyse a large household cohort study conducted in 2007–2010 in Vietnam using innovative statistical methods to ascertain in an integrative framework the relative contribution of variables that influence the transmission of seasonal (H1N1, H3N2, B) and pandemic H1N1pdm09 influenza. Influenza infection was diagnosed by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody assay of paired serum samples. We used a Bayesian data augmentation Markov chain Monte Carlo strategy based on digraphs to reconstruct unobserved chains of transmission in households and estimate transmission parameters. The probability of transmission from an infected individual to another household member was 8% (95% CI, 6%, 10%) on average, and varied with pre-season titers, age and household size. Within households of size 3, the probability of transmission from an infected member to a child with low pre-season HI antibody titers was 27% (95% CI 21%–35%). High pre-season HI titers were protective against infection, with a reduction in the hazard of infection of 59% (95% CI, 44%–71%) and 87% (95% CI, 70%–96%) for intermediate (1∶20–1∶40) and high (≥1∶80) HI titers, respectively. Even after correcting for pre-season HI titers, adults had half the infection risk of children. Twenty six percent (95% CI: 21%, 30%) of infections may be attributed to household transmission. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis by influenza sub-type, age and pre-season HI titers in order to infer influenza transmission risks in and outside of the household. PMID:25144780
Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Milas, Goran; Hofman, Irena Drmić; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović
Introduction The aim of the study was to examine basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and to determine associations of various covariates (gender, sleep-wake rhythm, demographic, academic, life style and health-related characteristics) with altered daily salivary cortisol profiles in late adolescence. Materials and methods The total analytic sample consisted of 903 Croatian secondary school students aged 18 - 21 years (median 19 years). Salivary cortisol was sampled at home at three time points over the course of one week and its concentrations were measured by using the enzyme immunoassay. Results In comparison to males, female students had a higher cortisol awakening response (CAR) (median 4.69, IQR 10.46 and median 3.03, IQR 8.94, respectively; P < 0.001), a steeper (“healthier”) diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) (median 0.51, IQR 0.55 and median 0.44, IQR 0.51, respectively; P = 0.001), and a greater area under curve with respect to ground (AUCG) (median 206.79, IQR 111.78 and median 191.46, IQR 104.18, respectively; P < 0.001). Those students who woke-up earlier and were awake longer, had a higher CAR (P < 0.001), a flatter (“less healthy”) DCS (P < 0.001), and a greater AUCG (P < 0.001), than students who woke-up later and were awake shorter. Less consistent but still significant predictors of salivary cortisol indexes were age, school behaviour, friendship, diet healthiness and drug abuse. Conclusion Gender and sleep-wake up rhythm were major determinants of the altered daily salivary cortisol profiles in late adolescence. The predictive power of other covariates, although less clear, has a potential for identifying vulnerable subgroups such as male drug users and females without a best friend. PMID:27812308
Yakovlev, Sergey; Balsara, Nitash P.; Downing, Kenneth H.
Nafion is one of the most common materials used for polyelectrolyte membranes and is the standard to which novel materials are compared. In spite of great interest in Nafion’s nanostructure, it is still a subject of controversy. While multiple research efforts have addressed Nafion’s morphology with Transmission Electron Microscopy, the results of these efforts have often been inconsistent and cannot satisfactorily describe the membrane structure. One of the reasons for differences in the reported results is the lack of sufficient control over the damage caused by electron beam irradiation. In this work, we describe some aspects of damage in the material that have a strong influence on the results. We show that irradiation causes mass loss and phase separation in the material and that the morphologies that have been observed are, in many cases, artifacts caused by damage. We study the effect of the sample temperature on damage and show that, while working at low temperature does not prevent damage and mass loss, it slows formation of damage-induced artifacts to the point where informative low-dose images of almost undamaged material may be collected. We find that charging of the sample has a substantial effect on the damage, and the importance of charge neutralization under irradiation is also seen by the large reduction of beam induced movement with the use of an objective aperture or a conductive support film. To help interpret the low-dose images, we can apply slightly higher exposures to etch away the hydrophobic phase with the electron beam and reveal the network formed by the hydrophilic phase. Energy loss spectroscopy shows evidence that fluorine removal governs the beam damage process. PMID:24957067
Background Men continue to have a lower life expectancy in most countries compared to women. Explanations of this gendered health inequality tend to focus on male risk taking, unhealthy lifestyle choices and resistance to seeking help from health services. In the period 2005–2008 the Scottish Government funded a nationwide community health promotion programme aimed at improving men’s health, called Well Men Service Pilots (henceforth WMS). Method This paper explores WMS programme users’ perspectives and experiences of health help-seeking against theories of hegemonic masculinity as explanatory frameworks for men’s behaviour around health and illness, and their views on a male-specific focus of the programme. It is based on a secondary analysis of 43 semi-structured interviews with men who engaged with this programme. Results We challenge the commonly held notion of men as being disinterested in their health, and point to their heterogeneity in relation to their views about health and notions of health seeking. Moreover, men in our study were largely ambivalent about the need for gender specific services, despite their positive reactions to the programme in general. Conclusions Our findings question the utility of some theories of masculinity that posit somewhat simplistic explanations for men’s reluctance to seek help from formal healthcare services. They also suggest that providing male-specific health services may not significantly address men’s supposed reluctance to seek help from formal health services. Essentially, age seemed to be more important than gender. All encompassing health programmes are likely to fail to meet their health improvement objectives if they attempt to engage with men on the simple basis that they are male. PMID:23634701
Aman, Joseph W; Imperial, Julita S; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Zhang, Min-Min; Aguilar, Manuel; Taylor, Dylan; Watkins, Maren; Yoshikami, Doju; Showers-Corneli, Patrice; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Biggs, Jason; Teichert, Russell W; Olivera, Baldomero M
Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary "smoking gun" that illuminates the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting among marine cone snails, resulting in the adaptive radiation of fish-hunting lineages comprising ∼100 piscivorous Conus species. This smoking gun is δ-conotoxin TsVIA, a peptide from the venom of Conus tessulatus that delays inactivation of vertebrate voltage-gated sodium channels. C. tessulatus is a species in a worm-hunting clade, which is phylogenetically closely related to the fish-hunting cone snail specialists. The discovery of a δ-conotoxin that potently acts on vertebrate sodium channels in the venom of a worm-hunting cone snail suggests that a closely related ancestral toxin enabled the transition from worm hunting to fish hunting, as δ-conotoxins are highly conserved among fish hunters and critical to their mechanism of prey capture; this peptide, δ-conotoxin TsVIA, has striking sequence similarity to these δ-conotoxins from piscivorous cone snail venoms. Calcium-imaging studies on dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons revealed the peptide's putative molecular target (voltage-gated sodium channels) and mechanism of action (inhibition of channel inactivation). The results were confirmed by electrophysiology. This work demonstrates how elucidating the specific interactions between toxins and receptors from phylogenetically well-defined lineages can uncover molecular mechanisms that underlie significant evolutionary transitions.
Denney, Justin T; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Heck, Katherine; Cubbin, Catherine
Objectives Food insecurity in the United States is a stubborn public health issue, affecting more than one in five households with children and disproportionately impacting racial and ethnic minority women and their children. Past research and policy has focused on household predictors of food insecurity, but neglected broader factors, such as perceived neighborhood social cohesion, that might protect those most vulnerable to food insecurity. Methods We use a racially and ethnically diverse data set from the Geographic Research on Wellbeing study (N = 2847) of women and their young children in California to investigate whether social cohesion influences food insecurity and whether it moderates the relationship between race/ethnicity and food insecurity. Results We find that lower levels of perceived residential neighborhood social cohesion associate with higher odds of food insecurity even after considering important household socioeconomic factors. In addition, our results suggest that social cohesion is most relevant for reducing the risk of food insecurity among racial and ethnic minority mothers. For example, the probability of food insecurity for immigrant Latina mothers is nearly 0.40 in neighborhoods where mothers perceive little to no cohesion and less than 0.10 in neighborhoods where mothers perceive high cohesion. Conclusions for Practice Higher levels of neighborhood perceived social cohesion are protective against food insecurity in households with children and especially so for racial and ethnic minority households who are at a heightened risk of food insecurity. Supporting programs that focus on building closer knit communities may be a key to reducing food insecurity overall and for reducing disparities in food insecurity by race and ethnicity.
Ray, Debes; Aswal, V. K.
Triblock copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) are well known as dispersion stabilizers. It has also been recently found that they can act as reducing agents along with stabilizers and these two properties of block copolymers together have provided a single-step synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles at ambient temperature. We have studied the synthesis of stable gold nanoparticle solutions using block copolymer P85. Gold nanoparticles are prepared from 1 wt% aqueous solution of P85 mixed with varying concentration of HAuCl4.3H2O salt in the range 0.001 to 0.1 wt%. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band in UV-visible absorption spectra confirm the formation of the gold nanoparticles and the maximum yield of the nanoparticles is found to be quite low at 0.005 wt% of the salt solution. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements in these systems suggest that a very small fraction of the block copolymers (<1%) is only associated with the gold nanoparticles and remaining form their own micelles, which probably results in the low yield. This can be explained as on an average a high block copolymer-to-gold ion ratio r0 (22) is required for 1 wt% P85 in the reduction reaction to produce gold nanoparticles. Based on this understanding, a step-addition method is used to enhance the yield of gold nanoparticles by manifold where the gold salt is added in small steps to maintain higher value of r(>r0) and therefore continuous formation of nanoparticles.
Hinman, Veronica F; Cheatle Jarvela, Alys M
One of the central concerns of Evolutionary Developmental biology is to understand how the specification of cell types can change during evolution. In the last decade, developmental biology has progressed toward a systems level understanding of cell specification processes. In particular, the focus has been on determining the regulatory interactions of the repertoire of genes that make up gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Echinoderms provide an extraordinary model system for determining how GRNs evolve. This review highlights the comparative GRN analyses arising from the echinoderm system. This work shows that certain types of GRN subcircuits or motifs, i.e., those involving positive feedback, tend to be conserved and may provide a constraint on development. This conservation may be due to a required arrangement of transcription factor binding sites in cis regulatory modules. The review will also discuss ways in which novelty may arise, in particular through the co-option of regulatory genes and subcircuits. The development of the sea urchin larval skeleton, a novel feature that arose in echinoderms, has provided a model for study of co-option mechanisms. Finally, the types of GRNs that can permit the great diversity in the patterns of ciliary bands and their associated neurons found among these taxa are discussed. The availability of genomic resources is rapidly expanding for echinoderms, including genome sequences not only for multiple species of sea urchins but also a species of sea star, sea cucumber, and brittle star. This will enable echinoderms to become a particularly powerful system for understanding how developmental GRNs evolve.