Science.gov

Sample records for management measures risk

  1. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Management Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: • Risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other end states) • Risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities • Comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs • Ranking of programs or activities by risk • Ranking of wastes/materials by risk • Evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress • Integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  2. Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, L. Nathan

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" presents an overview of risk management for school districts. The chapter first discusses four fundamental elements of risk management: (1) identifying and measuring risks; (2) reducing or eliminating risks; (3) transferring unassumable risks; and (4) assuming remaining risks.…

  3. Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, L. Nathan

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" presents an overview of risk management for school districts. The chapter first discusses four fundamental elements of risk management: (1) identifying and measuring risks; (2) reducing or eliminating risks; (3) transferring unassumable risks; and (4) assuming remaining risks.…

  4. Developing risk management dashboards using risk and quality measures: A visual best practices approach.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Robert F; Siegal, Dana

    2017-09-28

    Because quality measures are ubiquitous, health care risk management leaders often use them as a proxy for risk management measures. While certain quality measures adequately reflect some aspects of risk management, they are neither a perfect nor complete substitute for well-developed and comprehensive risk management measures. Using a comprehensive approach consisting of quality measures, risk measures, and measures that are less amenable to classification would be the best approach. Identifying the most powerful and informative measures, designing the most appropriate dashboards, and incorporating visual best practices are crucial steps required for evaluating the effectiveness and value of an enterprise risk management program. The authors explain the terms and concepts, review the measures available in the literature, propose new measures, discuss visual best practices, and provide sample dashboard components. © 2017 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  5. Risk management measures for chemicals: the "COSHH essentials" approach.

    PubMed

    Garrod, A N I; Evans, P G; Davy, C W

    2007-12-01

    "COSHH essentials" was developed in Great Britain to help duty holders comply with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations. It uses a similar approach to that described in the new European "REACH" Regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals; EC No. 1907/2006 of the European Parliament), insofar as it identifies measures for managing the risk for specified exposure scenarios. It can therefore assist REACH duty holders with the identification and communication of appropriate risk-management measures. The technical basis for COSHH essentials is explained in the original papers published in the Annals of Occupational Hygiene. Its details will, therefore, not be described here; rather, its ability to provide a suitable means for communicating risk-management measures will be explored. COSHH essentials is a simple tool based on an empirical approach to risk assessment and risk management. The output is a "Control Guidance Sheet" that lists the "dos" and "don'ts" for control in a specific task scenario. The guidance in COSHH essentials recognises that exposure in the workplace will depend not just on mechanical controls, but also on a number of other factors, including administrative and behavioural controls, such as systems of work, supervision and training. In 2002, COSHH essentials was made freely available via the internet (http://www.coshh-essentials.org.uk/). This electronic delivery enabled links to be made between product series that share tasks, such as drum filling, and with ancillary guidance, such as setting up health surveillance for work with a respiratory sensitiser. COSHH essentials has proved to be a popular tool for communicating good control practice. It has attracted over 1 million visits to its site since its launch. It offers a common benchmark of good practice for chemical users, manufacturers, suppliers and importers, as well as regulators and health professionals.

  6. IFKIS a basis for organizational measures in avalanche risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bründl, M.; Etter, H.-J.; Klingler, Ch.; Steiniger, M.; Rhyner, J.; Ammann, W.

    2003-04-01

    The avalanche winter 1999 in Switzerland showed that the combination of protection measures like avalanche barriers, hazard zone mapping, artificial avalanche release and organisational measures (closure of roads, evacuation etc.) proved to perform well. However, education as well as information and communication between the involved organizations proved to be a weak link in the crisis management. In the first part of the project IFKIS we developed a modular education and training course program for security responsibles of settlements and roads. In the second part an information system was developed which improves on the one hand the information fluxes between the national center for avalanche forecasting, the Swiss Federal Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, and the local forecasters. On the other hand the communication between the avalanche security services in the communities can be enhanced. During the last two years an information system based on Internet technology has been developed for this purpose. This system allows the transmission of measured data and observations to a central database at SLF and visualization of the data for different users. It also provides the possibility to exchange information on organizational measures like closure of roads, artificial avalanche release etc. on a local and regional scale. This improves the information fluxes and the coordination of safety-measures because all users, although at different places, are on the same information level. Inconsistent safety-measures can be avoided and information and communication concerning avalanche safety becomes much more transparent for all persons involved in hazard management. The training program as well the concept for the information-system are important basics for an efficient avalanche risk management but also for other natural processes and catastrophes.

  7. Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lloyd

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the identification of risk management, risk management processes such as: quantification and prioritization; mitigation planning; implementation of risk reduction; and tracking process. It develops examples and answers questions about Risk Management.

  8. Measuring Property Management Risk and Loss: Step One Toward Managing Property on a Foundation of Risk, Cost, and Benefit

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Curtis

    1999-05-17

    This is a period of ever-tightening defense budgets and continuing pressure on the public sector to be more commercial-like, Property policies, practices, and regulations are increasingly being challenged and changed. In these times, we must be leaders in understanding and defining the value of our profession from a commercial standpoint so that we can provide the right services to our customers and explain and defend the value of those services. To do so, we must step outside current property management practices, regulations, and oversight. We must learn to think and speak in the language of those who fund us--a financial language of risk, cost, and benefit. Regardless of regulation and oversight, our bosses are demanding that we demonstrate (financially) the benefits of current practice, or else. This article is intended to be the beginning of an effort to understand and define our profession in terms of risk, cost, and benefit so that we can meet these new challenges. The first step in this effort must be defining and measuring risk, cost, and benefit. Our costs, although sometimes difficult to capture, are easy to understand: they are almost exclusively the effort, both within and without the property management organization, involved in managing property. Unfortunately, property risks and benefits are not so simple or so well understood. Generally, risks and benefits are identified and measured through physical inventory results: potential and actual shortages. This paper will explore the weaknesses in the current understanding and use of shortage information as the yardstick for property management risks and performance. It will define a new framework for understanding the purpose and value of property management. And finally, it will set a course for a new method of measuring and valuing physical inventoty shortages. This new method will yield accurate and useful measures of property management risk and benefit. Once risk and benefit are accurately

  9. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  10. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  11. Risk management.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Every plan contains risk. To proceed without planning some means of managing that risk is to court failure. The basic logic of risk is explained. It consists in identifying a threshold where some corrective action is necessary, the probability of exceeding that threshold, and the attendant cost should the undesired outcome occur. This is the probable cost of failure. Various risk categories in dentistry are identified, including lack of liquidity; poor quality; equipment or procedure failures; employee slips; competitive environments; new regulations; unreliable suppliers, partners, and patients; and threats to one's reputation. It is prudent to make investments in risk management to the extent that the cost of managing the risk is less than the probable loss due to risk failure and when risk management strategies can be matched to type of risk. Four risk management strategies are discussed: insurance, reducing the probability of failure, reducing the costs of failure, and learning. A risk management accounting of the financial meltdown of October 2008 is provided.

  12. Measuring and managing risk improves strategic financial planning.

    PubMed

    Kleinmuntz, D N; Kleinmuntz, C E; Stephen, R G; Nordlund, D S

    1999-06-01

    Strategic financial risk assessment is a practical technique that can enable healthcare strategic decision makers to perform quantitative analyses of the financial risks associated with a given strategic initiative. The technique comprises six steps: (1) list risk factors that might significantly influence the outcomes, (2) establish best-guess estimates for assumptions regarding how each risk factor will affect its financial outcomes, (3) identify risk factors that are likely to have the greatest impact, (4) assign probabilities to assumptions, (5) determine potential scenarios associated with combined assumptions, and (6) determine the probability-weighted average of the potential scenarios.

  13. Disaster Risk Management and Measurement Indicators for Cultural Heritage in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Y. N.; Cheng, C. F.; Cheng, H. M.

    2015-08-01

    Under the influence of global climate change, the risk preparedness has become a universal issue in different research fields. In the conservation of cultural heritage, disaster risk management is becoming one of the major research topics. Besides researches on the theory and mechanism of disaster risk management, the tools for the performance of site managers to protect cultural heritage is another important issue that needs development. UNESCO and ICOMOS have released some important documents on disaster risk management including its concept, identification, evaluation, mitigation, monitoring and resilience, etc. However, there is a big gap between concept and implementation in Taiwan. Presently there are 2000 monuments in Taiwan that hardly meet the modern code. First, based on international documents released, this research presents 13 disaster indicators on monuments and their environments. Next, 345 monuments in northern Taiwan are taken as examples to evaluate their risk situations with indicators designed in 2011. Some positive recommendations were given at the same time. As a result, a comparative evaluation was completed in 2012 and some key issues are found, such as too many electrical facilities, lack of efficient firefighting equipment, and a shortage of management mechanism, just to name a few. Through the improvement of the management, some major risk can be mitigated. In 2013~14, this research took 23 national monuments from the 345 monuments to evaluate their risk situations and compare the differences between national and local monuments. Results show that almost all management mechanisms in the national monuments have been established and are running well. However, problems like inappropriate electrical facilities and insufficient monitoring equipment remain. In addition, the performance of private monuments is not as good as public ones. Based on the collected information and evaluation, this research develops safety measures of heritage

  14. The Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT): A Behavioral Measure of Protective Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Essex, Brian G.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Qian, Rebecca Y.; Bernstein, Katherine; Zald, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Prior methods used to assess individual differences related to risk have not focused on an important component of risk management: how willing individuals are to pay for or take actions to insure what they already have. It is not clear whether this type of protective risk management taps into the same individual differences as does risk taking propensity measured by existing risk taking tasks. We developed a novel task to assess protective risk management, the Balloon Analog Insurance Task (BAIT), which is modeled after the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART). In the BAIT, individuals are forced to decide how much money they are willing to pay in order to insure a specific fraction of their prior winnings given changing but imprecise levels of risk of monetary loss. Participants completed the BART and BAIT for real monetary rewards, and completed six self report questionnaires. The amount of insurance purchased on the BAIT was positively correlated with scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale and on the Checking scale of the revised Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Conversely, the amount of insurance purchased was negatively correlated with scores on the Domain Specific Risk Taking Questionnaire, and on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Furthermore, relationships between insurance purchased and these scales remained significant after controlling for the BART in linear regression analyses, and the BART was only a significant predictor for measures on one scale - the PPI. Our results reveal that behavior on the BAIT taps into a number of individual differences that are not related to behavior on another measure of risk taking. We propose that the BAIT may provide a useful complement to the BART in the assessment of risk management style. PMID:21738666

  15. Development and pilot of an internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management in European primary care.

    PubMed

    Ludt, Sabine; Campbell, Stephen M; van Lieshout, Jan; Grol, Richard; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Wensing, Michel

    2011-04-07

    Primary care can play an important role in providing cardiovascular risk management in patients with established Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD), patients with a known high risk of developing CVD, and potentially for individuals with a low risk of developing CVD, but who have unhealthy lifestyles. To describe and compare cardiovascular risk management, internationally valid quality indicators and standardized measures are needed. As part of a large project in 9 European countries (EPA-Cardio), we have developed and tested a set of standardized measures, linked to previously developed quality indicators. A structured stepwise procedure was followed to develop measures. First, the research team allocated 106 validated quality indicators to one of the three target populations (established CVD, at high risk, at low risk) and to different data-collection methods (data abstraction from the medical records, a patient survey, an interview with lead practice GP/a practice survey). Secondly, we selected a number of other validated measures to enrich the assessment. A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility. Finally, we revised the measures based on the findings. The EPA-Cardio measures consisted of abstraction forms from the medical-records data of established Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)-patients--and high-risk groups, a patient questionnaire for each of the 3 groups, an interview questionnaire for the lead GP and a questionnaire for practice teams. The measures were feasible and accepted by general practices from different countries. An internationally standardized measure of cardiovascular risk management, linked to validated quality indicators and tested for feasibility in general practice, is now available. Careful development and pilot testing of the measures are crucial in international studies of quality of healthcare.

  16. Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakich, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    Beginning on the front page, this article explains ways of establishing a sound risk management insurance program that can improve a school district's financial position. Organizations that can help are listed. Available from the American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209. (MLF)

  17. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  18. Risk Management Implementation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Shayla L.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous Risk Management (CM) is a software engineering practice with processes, methods, and tools for managing risk in a project. It provides a controlled environment for practical decision making, in order to assess continually what could go wrong, determine which risk are important to deal with, implement strategies to deal with those risk and assure the measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. Continuous Risk Management provides many training workshops and courses to teach the staff how to implement risk management to their various experiments and projects. The steps of the CRM process are identification, analysis, planning, tracking, and control. These steps and the various methods and tools that go along with them, identification, and dealing with risk is clear-cut. The office that I worked in was the Risk Management Office (RMO). The RMO at NASA works hard to uphold NASA s mission of exploration and advancement of scientific knowledge and technology by defining and reducing program risk. The RMO is one of the divisions that fall under the Safety and Assurance Directorate (SAAD). I worked under Cynthia Calhoun, Flight Software Systems Engineer. My task was to develop a help screen for the Continuous Risk Management Implementation Tool (RMIT). The Risk Management Implementation Tool will be used by many NASA managers to identify, analyze, track, control, and communicate risks in their programs and projects. The RMIT will provide a means for NASA to continuously assess risks. The goals and purposes for this tool is to provide a simple means to manage risks, be used by program and project managers throughout NASA for managing risk, and to take an aggressive approach to advertise and advocate the use of RMIT at each NASA center.

  19. Risk Management Implementation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Shayla L.

    2004-01-01

    Continuous Risk Management (CM) is a software engineering practice with processes, methods, and tools for managing risk in a project. It provides a controlled environment for practical decision making, in order to assess continually what could go wrong, determine which risk are important to deal with, implement strategies to deal with those risk and assure the measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. Continuous Risk Management provides many training workshops and courses to teach the staff how to implement risk management to their various experiments and projects. The steps of the CRM process are identification, analysis, planning, tracking, and control. These steps and the various methods and tools that go along with them, identification, and dealing with risk is clear-cut. The office that I worked in was the Risk Management Office (RMO). The RMO at NASA works hard to uphold NASA s mission of exploration and advancement of scientific knowledge and technology by defining and reducing program risk. The RMO is one of the divisions that fall under the Safety and Assurance Directorate (SAAD). I worked under Cynthia Calhoun, Flight Software Systems Engineer. My task was to develop a help screen for the Continuous Risk Management Implementation Tool (RMIT). The Risk Management Implementation Tool will be used by many NASA managers to identify, analyze, track, control, and communicate risks in their programs and projects. The RMIT will provide a means for NASA to continuously assess risks. The goals and purposes for this tool is to provide a simple means to manage risks, be used by program and project managers throughout NASA for managing risk, and to take an aggressive approach to advertise and advocate the use of RMIT at each NASA center.

  20. Modeling strategy to identify patients with primary immunodeficiency utilizing risk management and outcome measurement.

    PubMed

    Modell, Vicki; Quinn, Jessica; Ginsberg, Grant; Gladue, Ron; Orange, Jordan; Modell, Fred

    2017-02-21

    This study seeks to generate analytic insights into risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. The Jeffrey Modell Centers Network database, Jeffrey Modell Foundation's 10 Warning Signs, the 4 Stages of Testing Algorithm, physician-reported clinical outcomes, programs of physician education and public awareness, the SPIRIT® Analyzer, and newborn screening, taken together, generates P values of less than 0.05%. This indicates that the data results do not occur by chance, and that there is a better than 95% probability that the data are valid. The objectives are to improve patients' quality of life, while generating significant reduction of costs. The advances of the world's experts aligned with these JMF programs can generate analytic insights as to risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. This strategy reduces the uncertainties related to primary immunodeficiency risks, as we can screen, test, identify, and treat undiagnosed patients. We can also address regional differences and prevalence, age, gender, treatment modalities, and sites of care, as well as economic benefits. These tools support high net benefits, substantial financial savings, and significant reduction of costs. All stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, third party payers, and government healthcare agencies, must address the earliest possible precise diagnosis, appropriate intervention and treatment, as well as stringent control of healthcare costs through risk assessment and outcome measurement. An affected patient is entitled to nothing less, and stakeholders are responsible to utilize tools currently available. Implementation offers a significant challenge to the entire primary immunodeficiency community.

  1. NASA's Risk Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Leadership is key to success. Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks -- risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  2. Pancreatic fistula after pancreatectomy: definitions, risk factors, preventive measures, and management-review.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman Oneil

    2012-01-01

    Resection of pancreas, in particular pancreaticoduodenectomy, is a complex procedure, commonly performed in appropriately selected patients with benign and malignant disease of the pancreas and periampullary region. Despite significant improvements in the safety and efficacy of pancreatic surgery, pancreaticoenteric anastomosis continues to be the "Achilles heel" of pancreaticoduodenectomy, due to its association with a measurable risk of leakage or failure of healing, leading to pancreatic fistula. The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy remains high in the range of 30% to 65%, although the mortality has significantly dropped to below 5%. Most of these complications are related to pancreatic fistula, with serious complications of intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative bleeding, and multiorgan failure. Several pharmacological and technical interventions have been suggested to decrease the pancreatic fistula rate, but the results have been controversial. This paper considers definition and classification of pancreatic fistula, risk factors, and preventive approach and offers management strategy when they do occur.

  3. NASA's Risk Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2013-01-01

    Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks - not just risk office personnel. Each group/department is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. ? Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner. Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  4. The contribution of satellite SAR-derived displacement measurements in landslide risk management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspini, Federico; Bardi, Federica; Bianchini, Silvia; Ciampalini, Andrea; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Farina, Paolo; Ferrigno, Federica; Solari, Lorenzo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Landslides are common phenomena that occur worldwide and are a main cause of loss of life and damage to property. The hazards associated with landslides are a challenging concern in many countries, including Italy. With 13% of the territory prone to landslides, Italy is one of the European countries with the highest landslide hazard, and on a worldwide scale, it is second only to Japan among the technologically advanced countries. Over the last 15 years, an increasing number of applications have aimed to demonstrate the applicability of images captured by space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors in slope instability investigations. InSAR (SAR Interferometry) is currently one of the most exploited techniques for the assessment of ground displacements, and it is becoming a consolidated tool for Civil Protection institutions in addressing landslide risk. We present a subset of the results obtained in Italy within the framework of SAR-based programmes and applications intended to test the potential application of C- and X-band satellite interferometry during different Civil Protection activities (namely, prevention, prevision, emergency response and post-emergency phases) performed to manage landslide risk. In all phases, different benefits can be derived from the use of SAR-based measurements, which were demonstrated to be effective in the field of landslide analysis. Analysis of satellite-SAR data is demonstrated to play a major role in the investigation of landslide-related events at different stages, including detection, mapping, monitoring, characterization and prediction. Interferometric approaches are widely consolidated for analysis of slow-moving slope deformations in a variety of environments, and exploitation of the amplitude data in SAR images is a somewhat natural complement for rapid-moving landslides. In addition, we discuss the limitations that still exist and must be overcome in the coming years to manage the transition of satellite SAR

  5. Managing Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a wide range of environmental risk. In spite of this, with proper planning, they can avoid emergencies or surprises. Advanced planning, coupled with strategic, technical environmental and legal advice, enable higher-education institutions to keep their environmental budgets under control and predictable. This article…

  6. Managing Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a wide range of environmental risk. In spite of this, with proper planning, they can avoid emergencies or surprises. Advanced planning, coupled with strategic, technical environmental and legal advice, enable higher-education institutions to keep their environmental budgets under control and predictable. This article…

  7. Risk Management for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This manual focuses on the promotion of good risk management practices. The first of four sections presents an overview of risk management in terms of risk management concepts and avoiding, transferring, controlling, and financing risk. Second, the manual present methods for identifying and assessing risk. The third section discusses different…

  8. Risk Management for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This manual focuses on the promotion of good risk management practices. The first of four sections presents an overview of risk management in terms of risk management concepts and avoiding, transferring, controlling, and financing risk. Second, the manual present methods for identifying and assessing risk. The third section discusses different…

  9. Project Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jr., R. F. Miles

    1995-01-01

    Project risk management is primarily concerned with performance, reliability, cost, and schedule. Environmental risk management is primarily concerned with human health and ecological hazards and likelihoods. This paper discusses project risk management and compares it to environmental risk management, both with respect to goals and implementation. The approach of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to risk management is presented as an example of a project risk management approach that is an extension to NASA NHB 7120.5: Management of Major System Programs and Projects.

  10. Project Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jr., R. F. Miles

    1995-01-01

    Project risk management is primarily concerned with performance, reliability, cost, and schedule. Environmental risk management is primarily concerned with human health and ecological hazards and likelihoods. This paper discusses project risk management and compares it to environmental risk management, both with respect to goals and implementation. The approach of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to risk management is presented as an example of a project risk management approach that is an extension to NASA NHB 7120.5: Management of Major System Programs and Projects.

  11. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  12. Upstream Structural Management Measures for an Urban Area Flooding in Turkey and their Consequences on Flood Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Bozoglu, B.; Girayhan, T.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. In this study the flood modelling in an urbanized area, namely Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is done. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2- dimensional shallow water flow modelling. 1/1000 scaled maps with the buildings for the urbanized area and 1/5000 scaled maps for the rural parts are used to obtain DTM needed in the flood modelling. The bathymetry of the river is obtained from additional surveys. The main river passing through the urbanized area has a capacity of Q5 according to the design discharge obtained by simple ungauged discharge estimation depending on catchment area only. The effects of the available structures like bridges across the river on the flooding are presented. The upstream structural measures are studied on scenario basis. Four sub-catchments of Terme River are considered as contributing the downstream flooding. The existing circumstance of the Terme River states that the meanders of the river have a major effect on the flood situation and lead to approximately 35% reduction in the peak discharge between upstream and downstream of the river. It is observed that if the flow from the upstream catchments can be retarded through a detention pond constructed in at least two of the upstream catchments, estimated Q100 flood can be conveyed by the river without overtopping from the river channel. The operation of the upstream detention ponds and the scenarios to convey Q500 without causing flooding are also presented. Structural management measures to address changes in flood characteristics in water management planning are discussed. Flood risk is obtained by using the flood hazard maps and water depth-damage functions plotted for a variety of building types and occupancies

  13. Risk management in surgery

    PubMed Central

    MESSANO, G.A.; SPAZIANI, E.; TURCHETTA, F.; CECI, F.; CORELLI, S.; CASCIARO, G.; MARTELLUCCI, A.; COSTANTINO, A.; NAPOLEONI, A.; CIPRIANI, B.; NICODEMI, S.; DI GRAZIA, C.; MOSILLO, R.; AVALLONE, M.; ORSINI, S.; TUDISCO, A.; AIUTI, F.; STAGNITTI, F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Malpractice is the responsible for the greatest number of legal claims. At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy are 15,000 per year, and a stunning increase about costs to refund patients injured by therapeutic and diagnostic errors is expected. The method for the medical prevention is “Risk Management”, that is the setting-up of organizational instruments, methods and actions that enable the measurement or estimation of medical risk; it allows to develop strategies to govern and reduce medical error. In the present work, the reconstruction about the history of risk management in Italy was carried out. After then the latest initiatives undertaken by Italy about the issue of risk management were examined. PMID:24091181

  14. Risk Management in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Jonathan; Lutomski, M.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of risk management in Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The contents include: 1) EVA Office at NASA - JSC; 2) EVA Project Risk Management: Why and When; 3) EVA Office Risk Management: How; 4) Criteria for Closing a Risk; 5) Criteria for Accepting a Risk; 6) ISS IRMA Reference Card Data Entry Requirement s; 7) XA/ EVA Office Risk Activity Summary; 8) EVA Significant Change Summary; 9) Integrated Risk Management Application (XA) Matrix, March 31, 2004; 10) ISS Watch Item: 50XX Summary Report; and 11) EVA Project RM Usefulness

  15. Challenges to sustainable risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Ariel C., Aurora, Ashish, Hall, Dennis E.,

    2004-08-09

    This paper summarizes the intermediate lessons learned from the analyses of the risk management problems in three technological endeavors. These problems are: the absence of a structure for rewarding successful project risk management; the need for an ever-more accurate economic measure of risk; and the difficulty of transferring risks to contract-bound independent outsourcing entity. This paper also describes recent advancement towards providing answers to these challenges and future research endeavors in this field.

  16. Risk Management and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letzring, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Schools cannot eliminate all risks but can manage them so they minimally affect the "bottom line." A sound risk-management program has four categories: risk avoidance, control, transfer, and retention. Schools retain some risk in situations when insurance is unavailable, costs are negligible, or loss probabilities are remote. (MLH)

  17. Risk Management and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letzring, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Schools cannot eliminate all risks but can manage them so they minimally affect the "bottom line." A sound risk-management program has four categories: risk avoidance, control, transfer, and retention. Schools retain some risk in situations when insurance is unavailable, costs are negligible, or loss probabilities are remote. (MLH)

  18. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

  19. [Global risk management].

    PubMed

    Sghaier, W; Hergon, E; Desroches, A

    2015-08-01

    Risk management is a fundamental component of any successful company, whether it is in economic, societal or environmental aspect. Risk management is an especially important activity for companies that optimal security challenge of products and services is great. This is the case especially for the health sector institutions. Risk management is therefore a decision support tool and a means to ensure the sustainability of an organization. In this context, what methods and approaches implemented to manage the risks? Through this state of the art, we are interested in the concept of risk and risk management processes. Then we focus on the different methods of risk management and the criteria for choosing among these methods. Finally we highlight the need to supplement these methods by a systemic and global approach including through risk assessment by the audits.

  20. A New Class of Risk-Importance Measures to Support Reactor Aging Management and the Prioritization of Materials Degradation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

    2010-06-07

    As the US fleet of light water reactors ages, the risks of operation might be expected to increase. Although probabilistic risk assessment has proven a critical resource in risk-informed regulatory decision-making, limitations in current methods and models have constrained their prospective value in reactor aging management. These limitations stem principally from the use of static component failure rate models (which do not allow the impact of component aging on failure rates to be represented) and a very limited treatment of passive components (which would be expected to have an increasingly significant risk contribution in an aging system). Yet, a PRA captures a substantial knowledge base that could be of significant value in addressing plant aging. In this paper we will describe a methodology and a new class of risk importance measures that allow the use of an existing PRA model to support the management of plant aging, the prioritization of improvements to non-destructive examination and monitoring techniques, and the establishment of research emphases in materials science. This methodology makes use of data resources generated under the USNRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation program which addresses the anticipated effects of numerous aging degradation mechanisms on a wide variety of component types.

  1. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low.

  2. Determinants of occupational exposure to metals by gas metal arc welding and risk management measures: a biomonitoring study.

    PubMed

    Persoons, Renaud; Arnoux, Damien; Monssu, Théodora; Culié, Olivier; Roche, Gaëlle; Duffaud, Béatrice; Chalaye, Denis; Maitre, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Welding fumes contain various toxic metals including chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and manganese (Mn). An assessment of the risk to health of local and systemic exposure to welding fumes requires the assessment of both external and internal doses. The aims of this study were to test the relevance in small and medium sized enterprises of a biomonitoring strategy based on urine spot-samples, to characterize the factors influencing the internal doses of metals in gas metal arc welders and to recommend effective risk management measures. 137 welders were recruited and urinary levels of metals were measured by ICP-MS on post-shift samples collected at the end of the working week. Cr, Ni and Mn mean concentrations (respectively 0.43, 1.69 and 0.27 μg/g creatinine) were well below occupational health guidance values, but still higher than background levels observed in the general population, confirming the absorption of metals generated in welding fumes. Both welding parameters (nature of base metal, welding technique) and working conditions (confinement, welding and grinding durations, mechanical ventilation and welding experience) were predictive of occupational exposure. Our results confirm the interest of biomonitoring for assessing health risks and recommending risk management measures for welders.

  3. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  4. Perspectives: Intellectual Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Ask a college administrator about students and risk management, and you're likely to get a quick and agitated speech about alcohol consumption and bad behavior or a meditation on mental health and campus safety. But in colleges and universities, we manage intellectual risk-taking too. Bring that up, and you'll probably get little out of that same…

  5. Risk Management Certainty Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hudson, Richard [R-NC-8

    2014-01-07

    House - 02/12/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Risk Management Plan Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    RMP implements Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, and requires facilities that use extremely hazardous substances to develop a Risk Management Plan and revise/resubmit every five years. Find guidance, factsheets, training, and assistance.

  7. Groundwater Risk Management Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    management approach. • Section 6.0 Case Studies : Provides examples of two sites where risk management approaches were employed to develop...unacceptable risk, but in some cases the remedy can be limited to land use controls (LUCs) with limited long- term monitoring, as discussed in the case study ...cost avoidance of $1,250,000 over active remediation. For more information on this equipment and additional case studies , view the Web tool at http

  8. Managing demographic risk.

    PubMed

    Strack, Rainer; Baier, Jens; Fahlander, Anders

    2008-02-01

    In developed nations, the workforce is aging rapidly. That trend has serious implications. Companies could face severe labor shortages in a few years as workers retire, taking critical knowledge with them. Businesses may also see productivity decline among older employees, especially in physically demanding jobs. The authors, partners at Boston Consulting Group, offer managers a systematic way to assess these dual threats--capacity risk and productivity risk--at their companies. It involves studying the age distribution of their employees to see if large percentages fall within high age brackets and then projecting--by location, unit, and job category--how the distribution will change over the next 15 years. Managers must also factor in both the impact of strategic moves on personnel needs and the future supply of workers in the market. When RWE Power analyzed its trends, the company learned that in 2018 almost 80% of its workers would be over 50. What's more, in certain critical areas its labor surplus was about to become a sizable shortfall. For instance, a shortage of specialized engineers would develop in the company just as their ranks in the job market thinned and competition to hire them intensified. Reversing its downsizing course, RWE Power took steps to increase its supply of workers in those key positions. The authors show how companies that face talent gaps, as RWE Power did, can close them through training, transfers, recruitment, retention, productivity improvements, and outsourcing. They also describe measures that companies can take to keep older workers productive, including workplace accommodations, revised compensation structures, performance incentives, and targeted health care management. The key is to identify and address potential problems early. Firms that do so will gain an edge on rivals that are still relentlessly focused on reducing head count.

  9. Today's School Risk Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cheryl P.; Levering, Steve

    2009-01-01

    School districts are held accountable not only for the monies that contribute to the education system but also for mitigating any issues that threaten student learning. Some school districts are fortunate to have professional risk managers on staff who can identify and control the many risks that are unique to school systems. Most schools,…

  10. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  11. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Novack, Steven David; Marshall, Frances Mc Clellan; Stromberg, Howard Merion; Grant, Gary Michael

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEELs lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  12. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    F. M. Marshall; G. M. Grant; H. M. Stromberg; S. D. Novack

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk-informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEEL's lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  13. Systemic risk measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Solange Maria; Silva, Thiago Christiano; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda; de Souza Penaloza, Rodrigo Andrés; de Castro Miranda, Rodrigo César

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present systemic risk measures based on contingent claims approach and banking sector multivariate density. We also apply network measures to analyze bank common risk exposure. The proposed measures aim to capture credit risk stress and its potential to become systemic. These indicators capture not only individual bank vulnerability, but also the stress dependency structure between them. Furthermore, these measures can be quite useful for identifying systemically important banks. The empirical results show that these indicators capture with considerable fidelity the moments of increasing systemic risk in the Brazilian banking sector in recent years.

  14. Air quality risk management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Martin L

    2008-01-01

    Rather than attempt to provide a comprehensive account of air quality risk assessment, as might be found in a textbook or manual, this article discusses some issues that are of current importance in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe, with special emphasis on risk assessment in the context of policy formulation, and emerging scientific knowledge. There are two pollutants of particular concern and that both pose challenges for risk assessment and policy, and they are particulate matter (PM) and ozone. The article describes some issues for health risk assessment and finally some forward-looking suggestions for future approaches to air quality management.

  15. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  16. Economic aspects of hydro geological risk mitigation measures management in Italy: the ReNDiS project experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, D.; Campobasso, C.; Gallozzi, P. L.; Dessi', B.; Traversa, F.

    2009-04-01

    ReNDiS project is a useful tool for monitoring, analysis and management of information data on mitigation measures and restoration works of soil protection at national scale. The main scope of the project, and related monitoring activities, is to improve the knowledge about the use of national funds and efforts against floods and landslides risk and, as a consequence, to better address the preventive policies in future. Since 1999 after the disastrous mudflow event occurred in Sarno in 1998, which caused the loss of 160 human lives, an extraordinary effort was conducted by the Italian Government in order to promote preventive measures against the hydro geological risk over the entire Italian territory. The Italian Ministry for the Environment promoted several and annual soil protection programmes. The ReNDiS project (Repertory of mitigation measures for National Soil Protection) is carried out by ISPRA - Institute for Environmental protection and Research, with the aim of improving the knowledge about the results of preventive policies against floods and landslides in order to better address national funds as requested by the Minister itself. The repertory is composed by a main archive and two secondary interface, the first for direct data management (ReNDiS-ist) and the latter (ReNDiS-web) for the on-line access and public consultation. At present, ReNDiS database contains about 3000 records concerning those programmes, focused on restoration works but including also information on landslide typologies and processes. The monitoring project is developed taking into account all the information about each step of every mitigation measure from the initial funding phase until the end of the work. During present work, we have statistically analyzed the ReNDiS database in order to highlight the conformity between the characteristic and type of the hazard (identified in a specific area) and the corresponding mitigation measures adopted for risk reduction. Through specific

  17. Global change: impact, management, risk approach and health measures--the case of Europe.

    PubMed

    Dufour, B; Moutou, F; Hattenberger, A M; Rodhain, F

    2008-08-01

    Global changes, including an increase in trade and global warming, which act on the environment, are likely to impact on the evolution of pathogens and hence of diseases. To anticipate the risks created by this new situation, a French group of experts has developed a method for prioritising animal health risks. This is a two-phase method: the first step is to identify the diseases whose incidence or geographical distribution could be affected by the changes taking place, and the second step is to evaluate the risk of each of these diseases. As a result of this process, six priority diseases were selected: bluetongue, Rift Valley fever, West Nile fever, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis and African horse sickness. The main recommendations were: to develop epidemiological surveillance, to increase knowledge of epidemiological cycles, to develop research into these diseases and to pool cross-border efforts to control them.

  18. Risk management in radiology departments

    PubMed Central

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients. PMID:26120383

  19. Risk management in radiology departments.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-06-28

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients.

  20. Case Report: The risks associated with chronic theophylline therapy and measures designed to improve monitoring and management.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Michael E; MacKenzie-Ross, Robert V

    2016-03-05

    Symptoms of theophylline toxicity and factors that augment the risk of developing it are well documented in the literature. However these appear to be poorly considered in clinical practice. This case underlines the challenges in recognising and managing theophylline toxicity; moreover the requirement for improved application of knowledge of its pharmacokinetics to our practice. In this case we observe how theophylline toxicity can be overlooked due to the presence of non-specific symptoms and lack of a structured system to mitigate error in detection, in both hospital medicine and general practice. Here, the initial theophylline concentration measurement was documented as 59.3 mg/l in a patient taking the medication long-term, with the previous concentration being recorded one year prior. Management consisted of suspension of theophylline along with best supportive care, however in the process other conditions were exacerbated and the patient ultimately died in hospital. Congestive cardiac failure, congestive liver disease and polypharmacy were factors isolated from this case that expedited the patients' development of theophylline toxicity. This was perpetuated by delay in diagnosis due to presentation with generalised symptoms including tachycardia, vomiting and neurological symptoms. Findings from this case necessitate a requirement for more stringent monitoring of theophylline when taken chronically in those who demonstrate risk factors for toxicity. This would aim to prevent accumulation of the drug, toxicity onset and subsequent acute presentation to hospital. Intervention, through charcoal haemoperfusion may provide a means of enhanced recovery to reduce sequelae of toxicity.

  1. Spatially quantitative models for vulnerability analyses and resilience measures in flood risk management: Case study Rafina, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Chiari, Michael; Hübl, Johannes; Maris, Fotis; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2013-04-01

    We will address spatially quantitative models for vulnerability analyses in flood risk management in the catchment of Rafina, 25 km east of Athens, Greece; and potential measures to reduce damage costs. The evaluation of flood damage losses is relatively advanced. Nevertheless, major problems arise since there are no market prices for the evaluation process available. Moreover, there is particular gap in quantifying the damages and necessary expenditures for the implementation of mitigation measures with respect to flash floods. The key issue is to develop prototypes for assessing flood losses and the impact of mitigation measures on flood resilience by adjusting a vulnerability model and to further develop the method in a Mediterranean region influenced by both, mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The objective of this study is to create a spatial and temporal analysis of the vulnerability factors based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk, and data on flood intensities. In this contribution, a methodology for the development of a flood damage assessment as a function of the process intensity and the degree of loss is presented. It is shown that (1) such relationships for defined object categories are dependent on site-specific and process-specific characteristics, but there is a correlation between process types that have similar characteristics; (2) existing semi-quantitative approaches of vulnerability assessment for elements at risk can be improved based on the proposed quantitative method; and (3) the concept of risk can be enhanced with respect to a standardised and comprehensive implementation by applying the vulnerability functions to be developed within the proposed research. Therefore, loss data were collected from responsible administrative bodies and analysed on an object level. The used model is based on a basin scale approach as well as data on elements at risk exposed

  2. Integrated risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to first present a basis or foundation for the building of an integrated risk management plan and them to present the plan. The integration referred to is across both the temporal and the hierarchical dimensions. Complexity, consequence, and credibility seem to be driving the need for the consideration of risk. Reduction of personal bias and reproducibility of the decision making process seem to be driving the consideration of a formal risk plan. While risk can be used as either a selection tool or a control tool, this paper concentrates on the selection usage. Risk relies on stated purpose. The tightness of the definition of purpose and success is directly reflected in the definition and control of risk. Much of a risk management plan could be designed by the answers to the questions of why, what, who, when, and where. However, any plan must provide the following information about a threat or risk: likelihood, consequence, predictability, reliability, and reproducibility. While the environment at NASA is seen as warm, but not hot, for the introduction of a risk program, some encouragement is seen if the following problems are addressed: no champion, no commitment of resource, confused definitions, lack of direction and focus, a hard sell, NASA culture, many choices of assessment methods, and cost. The plan is designed to follow the normal method of doing work and is structured to follow either the work break down structure or a functional structure very well. The parts of the plan include: defining purpose and success, initial threat assessment, initial risk assessment, reconciling threats and parameters, putting part of the information down and factoring the information back into the decision process as it comes back up, and developing inferences. Two major suggestions are presented. One is to build an office of risk management to be used as a resource by managers in doing the risk process. Another is to form a pilot program to try

  3. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  4. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  5. Continuous Risk Management: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda; Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    Software risk management is important because it helps avoid disasters, rework, and overkill, but more importantly because it stimulates win-win situations. The objectives of software risk management are to identify, address, and eliminate software risk items before they become threats to success or major sources of rework. In general, good project managers are also good managers of risk. It makes good business sense for all software development projects to incorporate risk management as part of project management. The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to implement risk management. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This is an introductory tutorial to continuous risk management based on this course. The rational for continuous risk management and how it is incorporated into project management are discussed. The risk management structure of six functions is discussed in sufficient depth for managers to understand what is involved in risk management and how it is implemented. These functions include: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  6. Medical-device risk management and public safety: using cost-benefit as a measurement of effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Allen A.

    1994-12-01

    Public safety can be enhanced through the development of a comprehensive medical device risk management. This can be accomplished through case studies using a framework that incorporates cost-benefit analysis in the evaluation of risk management attributes. This paper presents a framework for evaluating the risk management system for regulatory Class III medical devices. The framework consists of the following sixteen attributes of a comprehensive medical device risk management system: fault/failure analysis, premarket testing/clinical trials, post-approval studies, manufacturer sponsored hospital studies, product labeling, establishment inspections, problem reporting program, mandatory hospital reporting, medical literature surveillance, device/patient registries, device performance monitoring, returned product analysis, autopsy program, emergency treatment funds/interim compensation, product liability, and alternative compensation mechanisms. Review of performance histories for several medical devices can reveal the value of information for many attributes, and also the inter-dependencies of the attributes in generating risk information flow. Such an information flow network is presented as a starting point for enhancing medical device risk management by focusing on attributes with high net benefit values and potential to spur information dissemination.

  7. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.

    PubMed

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

    2010-09-01

    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders.

  8. Continuous Risk Management Course. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    This document includes a course plan for Continuous Risk Management taught by the Software Assurance Technology Center along with the Continuous Risk Management Guidebook of the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and a description of Continuous Risk Management at NASA.

  9. Manual of Educational Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Frank J.; Dise, John H., Jr.

    This is the first risk management publication for school administrators that attempts to be comprehensive by addressing all potential areas of risk to school districts and offering specific guidelines on how to manage those areas. Chapter 1 gives directions on how to use the manual. Chapter 2 contains a complete overview of risk management,…

  10. Manual of Educational Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Frank J.; Dise, John H., Jr.

    This is the first risk management publication for school administrators that attempts to be comprehensive by addressing all potential areas of risk to school districts and offering specific guidelines on how to manage those areas. Chapter 1 gives directions on how to use the manual. Chapter 2 contains a complete overview of risk management,…

  11. Risk management of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Gwinn, Maureen R; Tran, Lang

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology has become the focus of a large amount of scientific, political, and financial interest. Limited information on the exposure to nanomaterials is available, with only a few occupational exposure studies having been performed. While laboratory animal studies on the biological effects of some nanomaterials have been published, no epidemiological studies have been reported to date. This lack of data on exposure and human health effects hinders risk assessment of these materials. As the use of nanomaterials increases rapidly, it is of vital importance that the risk assessment community understands the complexities of the issues surrounding the manufacture, use and disposal of nanomaterials, the potential of environmental and occupational exposure to human populations, as well as adverse health outcomes. For this to happen, it is in many ways necessary for the scientific community to also understand what questions risk assessors need to ask, and what research will best answer them. Risk management of nanomaterials requires more information as to the human and ecological effects of exposure to various nanomaterials. At this time, there are no specific regulations for nanomaterials, but a few efforts to include nanomaterials under existing environmental regulations have begun. The purpose of this article is to describe the potential regulations for nanomaterials, and the current issues related to the risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  12. Acrylamide: considerations for risk management.

    PubMed

    Slayne, Martin A; Lineback, David R

    2005-01-01

    The presence of acrylamide in many carbohydrate-rich foods is due to its formation during conventional heating and preparation methods. Although acrylamide is established to be a toxic substance, the implications to public health from the amounts found in food are not clear. A better scientific understanding is required to help determine whether, and to what extent, formal risk management action might be necessary. Since acrylamide in food was highlighted in 2002, numerous investigations and initiatives have been developed, including international collaborations across governments, industry, research organizations, and consumer representations. The newly generated information is being used to help the overall understanding of this issue. In particular, new information on health aspects will be important to update the scientific risk assessment. The basis for decisions on possible risk management measures would then be clearer. If future risk assessment concludes that the amounts of acrylamide in food can pose a health threat, then options for risk management will need to be considered, such as limits, guide levels, codes of practice, guidance information, and advice to the food and catering industries and to consumers. In the meantime, it is possible to benefit from progress already made on how acrylamide is formed in food and on ways to lower the amounts present. Raising awareness to the approaches that can reduce the presence of acrylamide in food should be encouraged. Where feasible, such approaches can be assessed for practical use in production, processing, and preparation of the relevant food products.

  13. [Risk management and patient safety].

    PubMed

    Lessing, C

    2009-06-01

    Risk management and patient safety are of indisputable importance for the quality of health care. At the same time they confront all professional groups in the health system with high demands. The Action Alliance for Patient Safety inc. wants to demonstrate ways in which measures for avoiding errors and improving safety can reach the healthcare practice. Interdisciplinary cooperation and the availability of mutually developed materials are the maxims of the work of the society.

  14. MANAGING RISKS USING MEASUREMENTS OF STREAM COMMUNITY METABOLISM, NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT DYNAMICS AND GEOMORPHOLOGY IN THE LMR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project, and associated research, is to establish thresholds for ecological response to watershed disturbance and to develop tools and insights that will help us manage risks. Changes in the amount and types of land use in a watershed can result in increased ris...

  15. MANAGING RISKS USING MEASUREMENTS OF STREAM COMMUNITY METABOLISM, NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT DYNAMICS AND GEOMORPHOLOGY IN THE LMR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project, and associated research, is to establish thresholds for ecological response to watershed disturbance and to develop tools and insights that will help us manage risks. Changes in the amount and types of land use in a watershed can result in increased ris...

  16. Managing Risks and Beyond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    situation occurring and its undesirable consequences          • Risk (Project Management Body of Knowledge  PMBOK ) – An uncertain even or condition that, if it...favorable or advantageous combination of circumstances – A chance for progress or advancement  • Opportunity ( PMBOK ) – A condition or situation favorable to...opportunities and reduce threats to project objectives      PMBOK – Includes Mitigation and Contingencies – Includes acceptance of the risk or issue

  17. LNG risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, P.

    1980-12-01

    A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of accident scenarios and safety impacts, an analysis of the consequences of credible accidents such as tanker accidents, spills and fires, the assessment of risks and the design and evaluation of risk mitigation measures.

  18. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  19. Communicating Risk to Program Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Program Managers (PM) can protect program resources and improve chances of success by anticipating, understanding and managing risks. Understanding the range of potential risks helps one to avoid or manage the risks. A PM must choose which risks to accept to reduce fire fighting, must meet the expectations of stakeholders consistently, and avoid falling into costly "black holes" that may open. A good risk management process provides the PM more confidence to seize opportunities save money, meet schedule, even improve relationships with people important to the program. Evidence of managing risk and sound internal controls can mean better support from superiors for the program by building a trust and reputation from being on top of issues. Risk managers have an obligation to provide the PM with the best information possible to allow the benefits to be realized (Small Business Consortium, 2004). The Institute for Chartered Accountants in England and Wales sees very important benefits for companies in providing better information about what they do to assess and manage key business risks. Such information will: a) provide practical forward-looking information; b) reduce the cost of capital; c) encourage better risk management; and d) improve accountability for stewardship, investor protection and the usefulness of financial reporting. We are particularly convinced that enhanced risk reporting will help listed companies obtain capital at the lowest possible cost (The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England &Wales, June 2002). Risk managers can take a significant role in quantifying the success of their department and communicating those figures to executive (program) management levels while pushing for a broader risk management role. Overall, risk managers must show that risk management work matters in the most crucial place-the bottom line- as they prove risk management can be a profit center (Sullivan, 2004).

  20. [Thinking on risk assessment and risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xueqing; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    Drug risk assessment and management is an important measure for reducing the adverse drug reaction and enhancing medication safety of the patient. Based on the concepts of drug risk assessment and risk management, and domestic and international drug risk management situation, this paper discusses the risk management of post-marketing Chinese medicine.

  1. Managing information technology security risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) Security Risk Management is a critical task for the organization to protect against the loss of confidentiality, integrity and availability of IT resources. As systems bgecome more complex and diverse and and attacks from intrusions and malicious content increase, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage IT security risk. This paper describes a two-pronged approach in addressing IT security risk and risk management in the organization: 1) an institutional enterprise appraoch, and 2) a project life cycle approach.

  2. Managing information technology security risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) Security Risk Management is a critical task for the organization to protect against the loss of confidentiality, integrity and availability of IT resources. As systems bgecome more complex and diverse and and attacks from intrusions and malicious content increase, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage IT security risk. This paper describes a two-pronged approach in addressing IT security risk and risk management in the organization: 1) an institutional enterprise appraoch, and 2) a project life cycle approach.

  3. Best practice of nurse managers in risk management.

    PubMed

    Costa, Veridiana Tavares; Meirelles, Betina Hörner Schlindwein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2013-01-01

    To identify the actions, undertaken by nurse managers in a risk management program, considered as best practice. A case study undertaken in a private hospital in the south of Brazil. A risk manager and nurse managers working in a risk management program participated in this study. The data was collected between May and September 2011 through analysis of documents, semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation. Based on the triangulation, the data was analyzed through practical measures. Educational actions, the critical analysis of the context, and the multiple dimensions of the management were evidenced as best practice. The broadening of understanding regarding risk management best practice offers further support for nurse managers to achieve excellence in their actions and thus provide safe and quality care.

  4. Risk Management: A Leader's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Roger E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses what facilities management leaders can do to ensure the safety of students and employees. Focuses on six specific tasks, such as detecting hazards and assessing the risks, and offers three rules underlying the application of risk management, including do not accept unnecessary risk. Provides an outline of prevention responsibilities.…

  5. NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins; John M. Beck

    2011-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Risk Management System (RMS) is a database used to maintain the project risk register. The RMS also maps risk reduction activities to specific identified risks. Further functionality of the RMS includes mapping reactor suppliers Design Data Needs (DDNs) to risk reduction tasks and mapping Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRTs) to associated risks. This document outlines the basic instructions on how to use the RMS. This document constitutes Revision 1 of the NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk. It incorporates the latest enhancements to the RMS. The enhancements include six new custom views of risk data - Impact/Consequence, Tasks by Project Phase, Tasks by Status, Tasks by Project Phase/Status, Tasks by Impact/WBS, and Tasks by Phase/Impact/WBS.

  6. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  7. RISK MANAGEMENT USING PROJECT RECON

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-28

    Risk Management Using Project Recon UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Bonnie Leece...Project Recon Lead What is Project Recon? • A web-based GOTS tool designed to capture, manage , and link Risks, Issues, and Opportunities in a...centralized database. • Project Recon (formerly Risk Recon) is designed to be used by all Program Management Offices, Integrated Project Teams and any

  8. Improving Information Security Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anand

    2009-01-01

    manaOptimizing risk to information to protect the enterprise as well as to satisfy government and industry mandates is a core function of most information security departments. Risk management is the discipline that is focused on assessing, mitigating, monitoring and optimizing risks to information. Risk assessments and analyses are critical…

  9. Improving Information Security Risk Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anand

    2009-01-01

    manaOptimizing risk to information to protect the enterprise as well as to satisfy government and industry mandates is a core function of most information security departments. Risk management is the discipline that is focused on assessing, mitigating, monitoring and optimizing risks to information. Risk assessments and analyses are critical…

  10. [Does clinical risk management require a structured conflict management?].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A key element of clinical risk management is the analysis of errors causing near misses or patient damage. After analyzing the causes and circumstances, measures for process improvement have to be taken. Process management, human resource development and other established methods are used. If an interpersonal conflict is a contributory factor to the error, there is usually no structured conflict management available which includes selection criteria for various methods of conflict processing. The European University Viadrina in Frankfurt (Oder) has created a process model for introducing a structured conflict management system which is suitable for hospitals and could fill the gap in the methodological spectrum of clinical risk management. There is initial evidence that a structured conflict management reduces staff fluctuation and hidden conflict costs. This article should be understood as an impulse for discussion on to what extent the range of methods of clinical risk management should be complemented by conflict management.

  11. National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1997-02-01

    The NIF Risk Management Plan has been prepared in accordance with the DOE Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide to support Critical Decision 3 of the NIF Project. The objectives of the plan are to: 1) identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting technical and regulatory requirements, cost, and schedule, 2) assess the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H (environment, safety and health), costs, and schedule, and 3) address each identified risk in terms of suitable risk mitigation measures. The documents that form the basis for this risk assessment are as follows: 1. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (DOE, 1996a) and Record of Decision (DOE, 1996b), 2. Preliminary Hazards Analysis (Brereton, 1993), 3. Fire Hazards Analysis (Jensen, 1997), 4. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (LLNL, 1996a), 5. Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Report, 6. Radiation Protection Evaluation, 7. Primary Criteria and Functional Requirements (LLNL, 1996b), 8. Project Execution Plan (DOE, 1996c), 9. Schedule Risk Assessment, 10. Construction Safety Program (LLNL, 1997), 11. Title I Design Media, 12. Congressional Data Sheet. The process used in developing this plan was to form a Risk Assessment team of knowledgeable project personnel. This included: Assurances Manager, Systems Integration Manager, Project Control Manager, a Risk Management consultant, Deputy Associate Project Engineer for Activation and Start-up (Co-chairperson), and Lead Engineer for Safety Analysis (Co-chairperson). They were familiar with the risk basis documents and developed a list of the key risk elements. A methodology for assigning likelihoods, consequences, and risks was developed. Risk elements were then reviewed, and likelihoods, consequences, and risks were assigned. Risk mitigation measures were then developed. Comments were obtained

  12. Managing the risks of risk management on large fires

    Treesearch

    Donald G. MacGregor; Armando. González-Cabán

    2013-01-01

    Large fires pose risks to a number of important values, including the ecology, property and the lives of incident responders. A relatively unstudied aspect of fire management is the risks to which incident managers are exposed due to organizational and sociopolitical factors that put them in a position of, for example, potential liability or degradation of their image...

  13. Knowledge management: an innovative risk management strategy.

    PubMed

    Zipperer, Lorri; Amori, Geri

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management effectively lends itself to the enterprise risk process. The authors introduce the concept of knowledge management as a strategy to drive innovation and support risk management. They align this work with organizational efforts to improve patient safety and quality through the effective sharing of experience and lessons learned. The article closes with suggestions on how to develop a knowledge management initiative at an organization, who should be on the team, and how to sustain this effort and build the culture it requires to drive success.

  14. Continuous Risk Management at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions. This risk management structure of functions has been taught to projects at all NASA Centers and is being successfully implemented on many projects. This presentation will give project managers the information they need to understand if risk management is to be effectively implemented on their projects at a cost they can afford.

  15. Overview of Risk Management for Engineered Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Hodson, L. L.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Kuempel, E. D.; Murashov, V.; Martinez, K. F.; Heidel, D. S.

    2013-04-01

    Occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is considered a new and challenging occurrence. Preliminary information from laboratory studies indicates that workers exposed to some kinds of ENMs could be at risk of adverse health effects. To protect the nanomaterial workforce, a precautionary risk management approach is warranted and given the newness of ENMs and emergence of nanotechnology, a naturalistic view of risk management is useful. Employers have the primary responsibility for providing a safe and healthy workplace. This is achieved by identifying and managing risks which include recognition of hazards, assessing exposures, characterizing actual risk, and implementing measures to control those risks. Following traditional risk management models for nanomaterials is challenging because of uncertainties about the nature of hazards, issues in exposure assessment, questions about appropriate control methods, and lack of occupational exposure limits (OELs) or nano-specific regulations. In the absence of OELs specific for nanomaterials, a precautionary approach has been recommended in many countries. The precautionary approach entails minimizing exposures by using engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). Generally, risk management utilizes the hierarchy of controls. Ideally, risk management for nanomaterials should be part of an enterprise-wide risk management program or system and this should include both risk control and a medical surveillance program that assesses the frequency of adverse effects among groups of workers exposed to nanomaterials. In some cases, the medical surveillance could include medical screening of individual workers to detect early signs of work-related illnesses. All medical surveillance should be used to assess the effectiveness of risk management; however, medical surveillance should be considered as a second line of defense to ensure that implemented risk management practices are effective.

  16. Overview of Risk Management for Engineered Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Geraci, C L; Hodson, L L; Zumwalde, R D; Kuempel, E D; Murashov, V; Martinez, K F; Heidel, D S

    Occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is considered a new and challenging occurrence. Preliminary information from laboratory studies indicates that workers exposed to some kinds of ENMs could be at risk of adverse health effects. To protect the nanomaterial workforce, a precautionary risk management approach is warranted and given the newness of ENMs and emergence of nanotechnology, a naturalistic view of risk management is useful. Employers have the primary responsibility for providing a safe and healthy workplace. This is achieved by identifying and managing risks which include recognition of hazards, assessing exposures, characterizing actual risk, and implementing measures to control those risks. Following traditional risk management models for nanomaterials is challenging because of uncertainties about the nature of hazards, issues in exposure assessment, questions about appropriate control methods, and lack of occupational exposure limits (OELs) or nano-specific regulations. In the absence of OELs specific for nanomaterials, a precautionary approach has been recommended in many countries. The precautionary approach entails minimizing exposures by using engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). Generally, risk management utilizes the hierarchy of controls. Ideally, risk management for nanomaterials should be part of an enterprise-wide risk management program or system and this should include both risk control and a medical surveillance program that assesses the frequency of adverse effects among groups of workers exposed to nanomaterials. In some cases, the medical surveillance could include medical screening of individual workers to detect early signs of work-related illnesses. All medical surveillance should be used to assess the effectiveness of risk management; however, medical surveillance should be considered as a second line of defense to ensure that implemented risk management practices are effective.

  17. NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-09-01

    To facilitate the implementation of the Risk Management Plan, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project has developed and employed an analytical software tool called the NGNP Risk Management System (RMS). A relational database developed in Microsoft® Access, the RMS provides conventional database utility including data maintenance, archiving, configuration control, and query ability. Additionally, the tool’s design provides a number of unique capabilities specifically designed to facilitate the development and execution of activities outlined in the Risk Management Plan. Specifically, the RMS provides the capability to establish the risk baseline, document and analyze the risk reduction plan, track the current risk reduction status, organize risks by reference configuration system, subsystem, and component (SSC) and Area, and increase the level of NGNP decision making.

  18. Inpatient versus outpatient management of low-risk pediatric febrile neutropenia: measuring parents' and healthcare professionals' preferences.

    PubMed

    Sung, Lillian; Feldman, Brian M; Schwamborn, Gina; Paczesny, Diana; Cochrane, Ashley; Greenberg, Mark L; Maloney, Anne Marie; Hendershot, Eleanor I; Naqvi, Ahmed; Barrera, Maru; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary A

    2004-10-01

    Our primary objective was to describe and compare parents' and healthcare professionals' strength of preference scores for outpatient oral antibiotic relative to inpatient parenteral antibiotic treatment for low-risk febrile neutropenic children. Our secondary objective was to identify predictors of strength of preference for oral outpatient treatment. Respondents were parents of children receiving cancer chemotherapy, and pediatric oncology healthcare professionals. First, the inpatient and outpatient options were described, and the respondent indicated their initially preferred option. The respondent next ranked how important seven factors (including "fear/anxiety" and "comfort") were in making their initial choice. The threshold technique was then used to elicit the respondent's strength of preference score for oral outpatient, relative to parenteral inpatient management. There were 75 parent and 42 healthcare-professional respondents. There was no significant difference (P =.08) in the proportions of parents (40 of 75; 53%) and healthcare professionals (30 of 42; 71%) who initially would choose outpatient management. For parents, stronger preference for oral outpatient therapy was associated with higher anticipated quality of life for the parent and child at home relative to hospital, lower importance rank for "fear/anxiety," and higher importance rank for "comfort." Conversely, for professionals, only lower importance rank for "fear/anxiety" was associated with higher strength of preference scores for outpatient oral antibiotic management. Only 53% of parents would choose outpatient oral antibiotic management for low-risk febrile neutropenia. Predictors of strength of preference scores for outpatient oral antibiotic relative to inpatient parenteral antibiotic treatment differed between parent and professional respondents.

  19. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks and... RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.3 Risk management. (a) Risk management... all times a risk management policy that addresses the Bank's exposure to credit risk, market risk...

  20. Alcohol Risk Management Survey Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.; Anderson, David S.

    Results of the Alcohol Risk Management Survey, which was completed by 325 college chief student affairs officers at four-year institutions, are presented. Adapted from the "Collegiate Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide," the survey assesses the management of alcohol-related activities on the college campus, with a focus on policy, procedure,…

  1. Continuous Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelhaus, Phil

    2002-01-01

    Risk identification is an ongoing activity that takes place during the routine project work flow. Project activities such as programmatic and technical meetings, telecons, reviews, and other forms of communication often bring to light project risks. When this occurs, we record and analyze the risk on a Risk Information Sheet. This process helps the project team identify and cope with project risks throughout the life of the project.

  2. Legacy Risk Measure for Environmental Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S. A.; Nitschke, R. L.

    2002-02-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating the development of a comprehensive and quantitative risk model framework for environmental management activities at the site. Included are waste management programs (high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, mixed low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and special nuclear materials), major environmental restoration efforts, major decontamination and decommissioning projects, and planned long-term stewardship activities. Two basic types of risk estimates are included: risks from environmental management activities, and long-term legacy risks from wastes/materials. Both types of risks are estimated using the Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) developed at the INEEL. Given these two types of risk calculations, the following evaluations can be performed: risk evaluation of an entire program (covering waste/material as it now exists through disposal or other e nd states); risk comparisons of alternative programs or activities; comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost for activities or entire programs; ranking of programs or activities by risk; ranking of wastes/materials by risk; evaluation of site risk changes with time as activities progress; and integrated performance measurement using indicators such as injury/death and exposure rates. This paper discusses the definition and calculation of legacy risk measures and associated issues. The legacy risk measure is needed to support three of the seven types of evaluations listed above: comparisons of risk benefit versus risk cost, ranking of wastes/materials by risk, and evaluation of site risk changes with time.

  3. [What Surgeons Should Know about Risk Management].

    PubMed

    Strametz, R; Tannheimer, M; Rall, M

    2017-02-01

    Background: The fact that medical treatment is associated with errors has long been recognized. Based on the principle of "first do no harm", numerous efforts have since been made to prevent such errors or limit their impact. However, recent statistics show that these measures do not sufficiently prevent grave mistakes with serious consequences. Preventable mistakes such as wrong patient or wrong site surgery still frequently occur in error statistics. Methods: Based on insight from research on human error, in due consideration of recent legislative regulations in Germany, the authors give an overview of the clinical risk management tools needed to identify risks in surgery, analyse their causes, and determine adequate measures to manage those risks depending on their relevance. The use and limitations of critical incident reporting systems (CIRS), safety checklists and crisis resource management (CRM) are highlighted. Also the rationale for IT systems to support the risk management process is addressed. Results/Conclusion: No single tool of risk management can be effective as a standalone instrument, but unfolds its effect only when embedded in a superordinate risk management system, which integrates tailor-made elements to increase patient safety into the workflows of each organisation. Competence in choosing adequate tools, effective IT systems to support the risk management process as well as leadership and commitment to constructive handling of human error are crucial components to establish a safety culture in surgery.

  4. Managing Risk in Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaoli, Marilyn M.; And Others

    Stanford University's use of a risk assessment methodology to improve the management of systems development projects is discussed. After examining the concepts of hazard, peril, and risk as they relate to the system development process, three ways to assess risk are covered: size, structure, and technology. The overall objective for Stanford…

  5. Managing Risk in Systems Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaoli, Marilyn M.; And Others

    Stanford University's use of a risk assessment methodology to improve the management of systems development projects is discussed. After examining the concepts of hazard, peril, and risk as they relate to the system development process, three ways to assess risk are covered: size, structure, and technology. The overall objective for Stanford…

  6. Smart Grid Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  7. Risk Management Issues - An Aerospace Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Jeevan S.

    2011-01-01

    Phased-approach for implementation of risk management is necessary. Risk management system will be simple, accessible and promote communication of information to all relevant stakeholders for optimal resource allocation and risk mitigation. Risk management should be used by all team members to manage risks--risk office personnel. Each group is assigned Risk Integrators who are facilitators for effective risk management. Risks will be managed at the lowest-level feasible, elevate only those risks that require coordination or management from above. Risk reporting and communication is an essential element of risk management and will combine both qualitative and quantitative elements.. Risk informed decision making should be introduced to all levels of management. Provide necessary checks and balances to insure that risks are caught/identified and dealt with in a timely manner, Many supporting tools, processes & training must be deployed for effective risk management implementation. Process improvement must be included in the risk processes.

  8. Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    HODGES, ANN LOUISE; FROEHLICH, GARY K.; PILCH, MARTIN; PEERCY, DAVID E.

    2002-04-01

    This document describes a proactive plan for assessing and controlling sources of risk for the ASCI (Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative) V&V program at Sandia National Laboratories. It offers a graded approach for identifying, analyzing, prioritizing, responding to, and monitoring risks.

  9. COMMUNICATING PROBABILISTIC RISK OUTCOMES TO RISK MANAGERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasingly, risk assessors are moving away from simple deterministic assessments to probabilistic approaches that explicitly incorporate ecological variability, measurement imprecision, and lack of knowledge (collectively termed "uncertainty"). While the new methods provide an...

  10. Uses of risk importance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankamo, Tuomas; Porn, Kurt; Holmberg, Jan

    1991-05-01

    The definitions, relationships, and interpretations of the three most basic measures of risk importance measures are outlined: risk increase factor, risk decrease factor, and fractional contribution. Risk importance measures provide an understandable and practical way of presenting probabilistic safety analysis results which too often tend to remain abstract numbers without real insight into the content. The fundamental aspect of importance measures is that they express some specific influence of a basic event in the total risk. The basic failure or error events are the elements from which the reliability and risk models are constituted. The importance measures are relative, which is an advantage compared to absolute risk numbers, due to insensitivity with respect to quantification uncertainties. Therefore, they are particularly adapted to give first hand guidance on where to focus the main interest from the system's risk and reliability point of view, and from where to continue the analysis with more sophisticated methods requiring more effort.

  11. Human Research Risk Management

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) investigates and mitigates the highest risks to human health and per...

  12. Risk analysis and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. E.

    1990-01-01

    Present software development accomplishments are indicative of the emerging interest in and increasing efforts to provide risk assessment backbone tools in the manned spacecraft engineering community. There are indications that similar efforts are underway in the chemical processes industry and are probably being planned for other high risk ground base environments. It appears that complex flight systems intended for extended manned planetary exploration will drive this technology.

  13. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Elder, Matthew S.

    2004-03-20

    The relative hazard (RH) and risk measure (RM) methodology and computer code is a health risk-based tool designed to allow managers and environmental decision makers the opportunity to readily consider human health risks (i.e., public and worker risks) in their screening-level analysis of alternative cleanup strategies. Environmental management decisions involve consideration of costs, schedules, regulatory requirements, health hazards, and risks. The RH-RM tool is a risk-based environmental management decision tool that allows managers the ability to predict and track health hazards and risks over time as they change in relation to mitigation and cleanup actions. Analysis of the hazards and risks associated with planned mitigation and cleanup actions provides a baseline against which alternative strategies can be compared. This new tool allows managers to explore “what if scenarios,” to better understand the impact of alternative mitigation and cleanup actions (i.e., alternatives to the planned actions) on health hazards and risks. This new tool allows managers to screen alternatives on the basis of human health risk and compare the results with cost and other factors pertinent to the decision. Once an alternative or a narrow set of alternatives are selected, it will then be more cost-effective to perform the detailed risk analysis necessary for programmatic and regulatory acceptance of the selected alternative. The RH-RM code has been integrated into the PNNL developed Framework for Risk Analysis In Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) to allow the input and output data of the RH-RM code to be readily shared with the more comprehensive risk analysis models, such as the PNNL developed Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) model.

  14. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  15. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-04

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  16. Teaching Risk Management: Addressing ACGME Core Competencies.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Kiki; Angus, Steven V; Miller, Wendy; Silverman, Adam R

    2010-12-01

    Risk management is an important aspect of education for all residents. Unfortunately, few curricula currently exist to fulfill this educational need. We developed a curriculum that teaches residents basic principles of risk management with the goals of (1) educating residents about the medical-legal environment in which they operate, (2) helping residents identify common malpractice exposures, and (3) teaching practical risk management/patient safety interventions that can be implemented in their practice that could reduce malpractice exposure and improve patient safety. The curriculum was developed by Medical Risk Management, LLC, a Connecticut-based risk management firm, in conjunction with academic leadership at the University of Connecticut. The program uses 3 learning modalities: live lectures, web-based video modules, and e-mailed learning publications. Gains in resident knowledge through participation in the curriculum were measured using pretests and posttests. Learner satisfaction with the curriculum was measured through web-based surveys. We found a significant improvement in knowledge in residents who took the pretest and posttest (P < .001). Of the survey respondents, 97% said the content was relevant to their specialty practice and 95% responded that these sessions should be held annually. Most respondents indicated they would change their practice as a result of what they learned from the live lectures. This risk management curriculum has been successful in providing our residents with learning activities in risk management, improving their knowledge of risk management principles, and changing their attitudes and behaviors. These improvements may lead to fewer malpractice claims against them and the hospitals they train in.

  17. Flood Risk and Asset Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    WN911NF-10-2-0104 FLOOD RISK AND ASSET MANGEMENT PN 01 1 R. 1.0 WN911NF-10-2-0104 FLOOD RISK AND ASSET MANAGEMENT Progress Note 2... MANGEMENT PN 01 2 R. 1.0 Contents 1. Progress statement...0104 FLOOD RISK AND ASSET MANGEMENT PN 01 3 R. 1.0 The next stages in the project, until the end of July, are described below: • HR

  18. Risk management in waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M; Strube, I

    2005-01-01

    With the continuous restructuring of the water market due to liberalisation, privatisation and internationalisation processes, the requirements on waste water disposal companies have grown. Increasing competition requires a target-oriented and clearly structured procedure. At the same time it is necessary to meet the environment-relevant legal requirements and to design the processes to be environment-oriented. The implementation of risk management and the integration of such a management instrument in an existing system in addition to the use of modern technologies and procedures can help to make the operation of the waste water treatment safer and consequently strengthen market position. The risk management process consists of three phases, risk identification, risk analysis/risk assessment and risk handling, which are based on each other, as well as of the risk managing. To achieve an identification of the risks as complete as possible, a subdivision of the kind of risks (e.g. legal, financial, market, operational) is suggested. One possibility to assess risks is the portfolio method which offers clear representation. It allows a division of the risks into classes showing which areas need handling. The determination of the appropriate measures to handle a risk (e.g. avoidance, reduction, shift) is included in the concluding third phase. Different strategies can be applied here. On the one hand, the cause-oriented strategy, aiming at preventive measures which aim to reduce the probability of occurrence of a risk (e.g. creation of redundancy, systems with low susceptibility to malfunction). On the other hand, the effect-oriented strategy, aiming to minimise the level of damage in case of an undesired occurrence (e.g. use of alarm systems, insurance cover).

  19. Managing Corporate Risk through Better Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neef, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explain how progressive companies are using a combination of knowledge and risk management (KRM) systems and techniques in order to help them to prevent, or respond most effectively to, ethical or reputation-damaging incidents. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains KRM, develops a corporate integrity framework, and then…

  20. Managing Corporate Risk through Better Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neef, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explain how progressive companies are using a combination of knowledge and risk management (KRM) systems and techniques in order to help them to prevent, or respond most effectively to, ethical or reputation-damaging incidents. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explains KRM, develops a corporate integrity framework, and then…

  1. Managing Multiple Risk Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g

  2. Management of drought risk under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Han, Lanying; Jia, Jianying; Song, Lingling; Wang, Jinsong

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a serious ecological problem around the world, and its impact on crops and water availability for humans can jeopardize human life. Although drought has always been common, the drought risk has become increasingly prominent because of the climatic warming that has occurred during the past century. However, it still does not comprehensively understand the mechanisms that determine the occurrence of the drought risk it poses to humans, particularly in the context of global climate change. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on drought and the associated risk, introduce the principle of a drought "transition" from one stage to another, synthesize the characteristics of key factors and their interactions, discuss the potential effect of climatic warming on drought risk, and use this discussion to define the basic requirements for a drought risk management system. We also discuss the main measures that can be used to prevent or mitigate droughts in the context of a risk management strategy.

  3. Wildfire Risk Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.; Calkin, D. E.; Hand, M. S.; Kreitler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this presentation we address federal wildfire risk management largely through the lens of economics, targeting questions related to costs, effectiveness, efficiency, and tradeoffs. Beyond risks to resources and assets such as wildlife habitat, watersheds, and homes, wildfires present financial risk and budgetary instability for federal wildfire management agencies due to highly variable annual suppression costs. Despite its variability, the costs of wildfire management have continued to escalate and account for an ever-growing share of overall agency budgets, compromising abilities to attain other objectives related to forest health, recreation, timber management, etc. Trends associated with a changing climate and human expansion into fire-prone areas could lead to additional suppression costs in the future, only further highlighting the need for an ability to evaluate economic tradeoffs in investments across the wildfire management spectrum. Critically, these economic analyses need to accurately capture the complex spatial and stochastic aspects of wildfire, the inherent uncertainty associated with monetizing environmental impacts of wildfire, the costs and effectiveness of alternative management policies, and linkages between pre-fire investments and active incident management. Investing in hazardous fuels reduction and forest restoration in particular is a major policy lever for pre-fire risk mitigation, and will be a primary focus of our presentation. Evaluating alternative fuel management and suppression policies could provide opportunities for significant efficiency improvements in the development of risk-informed management fire management strategies. Better understanding tradeoffs of fire impacts and costs can help inform policy questions such as how much of the landscape to treat and how to balance investments in treating new areas versus maintaining previous investments. We will summarize current data needs, knowledge gaps, and other factors

  4. Prevention through health risk management.

    PubMed

    Friedman, G M

    1992-08-01

    Risk can lead to catastrophe. Risk-management systems are highly effective in preventing the catastrophes of fire, earthquakes, and work-site injuries. No such effective systems are present to prevent health and social problems. A practical, cost-effective system to manage risk in children is being developed by the nonprofit Arizona Health Evaluation and Longevity Planning (HELP) Foundation. Information regarding such risk is collected in the school setting. This voluntary information comes from the administration, the school nurse, physical fitness testing, blood testing by the local hospital, self-esteem instruments, and parent, teacher, and child questionnaires. The HELP Foundation then develops an individual child and class risk profile that is presented to the teacher, school nurse, principal, and parent. Those involved with each child then prioritize, plan, and implement programs and activities to manage the identified risk(s). Risks is tracked throughout the child's school career by periodic reassessment. Evaluation of change in problem outcome will be a natural extension of the process.

  5. Successful Acquisition Risk Management: A Concept,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    analysis, has recently been advocating a shift from a focus on risk assessment and risk acceptance analysis towards risk management . The purpose of this...risk managers fail to realize their true and productive role in the risk management process. Finally, it is possible that the Deming management...philosophy underlying his quality control concepts can be adapted to aid more effective DoD systems acquisition risk management . (Author)

  6. Risk Management Programs for Defense Acquisition Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of risk management programs for Defense acquisition systems. Specifically, we determined whether DoD risk management policies and procedures for Defense acquisition systems were effectively implemented and what impact risk management programs bad on reducing program risks and costs. We also reviewed management controls as they applied to the audit objectives.

  7. Risk Management: Realistic Training to Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    analysis and execution and allows commands to manaqe risk. Risk management is, in reality, smart decision making. It focuses on mission accomplishment...make decisions that entail hazardous operations, risk management techniques are applicable to soldiers at all levels. Leaders must be trained to use... risk management skills and techniques to establish "situational" standards that effectively balance risk with operational objectives.

  8. Obstetrics Hospitalists: Risk Management Implications.

    PubMed

    Veltman, Larry

    2015-09-01

    The concept of having an in-house obstetrician (serving as an obstetrics [OB] hospitalist) available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week provides a safety net for OB events that many need immediate intervention for a successful outcome. A key precept of risk management, that of loss prevention, fits perfectly with the addition of an OB hospitalist role in the perinatal department. Inherent in the role of OB hospitalists are the patient safety and risk management principles of improved communication, enhanced readiness, and immediate availability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk Management Concepts and Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Baillie, Allan S., "Management of Risk and Uncertainty," Research Management, Vol. 23, No. 2, March 1980, pp. 20-24. 34. Banash, Robert C., and...Monterey), 1974. 106. Edgar , J.D., LTC USAF, "Controlling Murphy: How to Budget for Program Risk, Concepts," - The Journal of Defense Systems...Secretary of Defense (OSD), 5-57 Point Cost Estimate ( POE ), 5-39 thru 5-43 OPERA, 5-33 Polaris Submarine Program, 5-29 Operating Cost, 5-35, 5-59, 6

  10. Cyber Insurance - Managing Cyber Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    regulations with respect to data breaches. The Health Insur - ance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) Breach Notification Rule 45 CFR §§ 164.400...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Cyber Insurance – Managing Cyber Risk Laura A. Odell, Project Leader...license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. Cyber Insurance – Managing Cyber Risk Data breaches involving

  11. Risk Management Structured for Today's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    In NPG (NASA Procedures and Guidelines) 7120.5A, we define risk management as "an organized, systematic decision-making process that efficiently identifies, analyzes, plans, tracks, controls, and communicates and documents risk in order to increase the likelihood of achieving program/project goals." Effective risk management depends upon a thorough understanding of the concept of risk, the principles of risk management and the formation of a disciplined risk management process. In human spaceflight programs, NASA has always maintained a rigorous and highly structured risk management effort. When lives are at stake, NASA's missions must be 100% safe; the risk management approach used in human spaceflight has always been comprehensive.

  12. Measures for Managing Operational Resilience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    contributes to REM team measurement work and is the co-author of Measuring Operational Resilience Using the CERT Resilience Management Model [Allen 2010...Members of the CERT® Resilient Enterprise Management ( REM ) team are conducting research to address these and other related questions. The team’s first...resilience measures, along with example measures. In this report, REM team members suggest a set of top ten strategic measures for managing opera- tional

  13. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF EDC RISK MANAGEMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Superfund risk management research, the performance of risk management techniques is typically evaluated by measuring "the concentrations of the chemicals of concern before and after risk management efforts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust und...

  14. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF EDC RISK MANAGEMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Superfund risk management research, the performance of risk management techniques is typically evaluated by measuring "the concentrations of the chemicals of concern before and after risk management efforts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust und...

  15. Structured prototyping as risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda SH.; Gardner, J. A.; Willoughby, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is presented for integrating the systems-engineering management recommendation of prototyping into the traditional project-management process for developing large-scale systems. The suggested methodology begins with the identification of life-cycle risk areas, outlines the structure and conduct of the prototyping process, and defines the composition of the prototyping team. The methodology includes a step-by-step procedure for creating, executing, and documenting a prototyping test plan to evaluate design alternatives. It is argued that managers who adopt this methodology and apply it rigorously will increase the likelihood that the systems they build will be operationally effective and will be accepted by the intended users.

  16. Ideology and Environmental Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the influence of ideology (including both psychological and political dimensions) on an individual's approach to environmental risk management. Compares and contrasts technocratic and humanist forms of environmental ideologies. Also reviews the implications of socio-political and psychological constraints on environmental decision…

  17. Risk Management for Wilderness Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimelpfenig, Tod

    This paper discusses subjective hazards in wilderness activities and suggests means of assessing and managing related risks. Wilderness educators conveniently group hazards into objective and subjective ones. Objective hazards such as rockfall, moving water, and weather, while not necessarily predictable, are visible and understandable. Subjective…

  18. Leader’s Guide to Force Protection through Risk Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    Risk Management is designed to serve as both a quick and a comprehensive reference on risk management and force protection in today’s force-projection Army. It is intended for use by commanders and other leaders, planners, and operators in brigades, battalions, and smaller units. The first section defines risk management and illustrates the relationship between force protection and operations. Section 2 provides examples of hazards associated with common tasks and missions along with control measures to reduce risks

  19. Overview of the Hanford risk management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, T.G.

    1998-03-26

    The Project Hanford Management Contract called for the enhancement of site-wide decision processes, and development of a Hanford Risk Management Plan to adopt or develop a risk management system for the Hanford Site. This Plan provides a consistent foundation for Site issues and addresses site-wide management of risks of all types. It supports the Department of Energy planning and sitewide decision making policy. Added to this requirement is a risk performance report to characterize the risk management accomplishments. This paper presents the development of risk management within the context of work planning and performance. Also discussed are four risk elements which add value to the context.

  20. Risk management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunreuther, Howard; Heal, Geoffrey; Allen, Myles; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Field, Christopher B.; Yohe, Gary

    2013-05-01

    The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes to be examined, as well as the uncertainty surrounding their likelihoods.

  1. Risk Management of NASA Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarper, Hueseyin

    1997-01-01

    Various NASA Langley Research Center and other center projects were attempted for analysis to obtain historical data comparing pre-phase A study and the final outcome for each project. This attempt, however, was abandoned once it became clear that very little documentation was available. Next, extensive literature search was conducted on the role of risk and reliability concepts in project management. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques are being used with increasing regularity both in and outside of NASA. The value and the usage of PRA techniques were reviewed for large projects. It was found that both civilian and military branches of the space industry have traditionally refrained from using PRA, which was developed and expanded by nuclear industry. Although much has changed with the end of the cold war and the Challenger disaster, it was found that ingrained anti-PRA culture is hard to stop. Examples of skepticism against the use of risk management and assessment techniques were found both in the literature and in conversations with some technical staff. Program and project managers need to be convinced that the applicability and use of risk management and risk assessment techniques is much broader than just in the traditional safety-related areas of application. The time has come to begin to uniformly apply these techniques. The whole idea of risk-based system can maximize the 'return on investment' that the public demands. Also, it would be very useful if all project documents of NASA Langley Research Center, pre-phase A through final report, are carefully stored in a central repository preferably in electronic format.

  2. USING BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE THE PERFORMANCE OF RISK MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Often, the performance of risk management techniques is evaluated by measuring the concentrations of the chemials of concern before and after risk management effoprts. However, using bioassays and chemical data provides a more robust understanding of the effectiveness of risk man...

  3. Managing the Risks of School District Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlonghi, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    A school district's risk manager must provide the leadership in risk management for district special events. Tables list the following: (1) seven reasons for event failures, and preventive measures to take; (2) risk analysis checklist; and (3) event planning outline. (MLF)

  4. Risk management of sediment stress: a framework for sediment risk management research.

    PubMed

    Nietch, Christopher T; Borst, Michail; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P

    2005-08-01

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk management research program relies heavily on model development and verification, and should be applied under an adaptive management approach. The framework is centered on using best management practices (BMPs), including eco-restoration. It is designed to encourage the development of numerical representations of the performance of these management options, the integration of this information into sediment transport simulation models that account for uncertainty in both input and output, and would use strategic environmental monitoring to guide sediment-related risk management decisions for mixed land use watersheds. The goal of this project was to provide a sound scientific framework based on recent state of the practice in sediment-related risk assessment and management for research and regulatory activities. As a result, shortcomings in the extant data and measurement and modeling tools were identified that can help determine future research direction. The compilation of information is beneficial to the coordination of related work being conducted within and across entities responsible for managing watershed-scale risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  5. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.3 Risk management. (a) Risk...

  6. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Risk management. 441.476 Section 441.476 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must... plan for how identified risks will be mitigated. (d) The State must ensure that the risk management...

  7. Health Risk Management for Bioenvironmental Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Health Risk Management ( HRM ). HRM is a decision-making process to evaluate and...4.1 Health Risk Management Interface HRM and RM decisions are based on operations and scenarios; therefore, an HRA may provide a COA that interferes... health risk estimate HRM health risk management OEH occupational and environmental health PH Public Health PPE personal protective

  8. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk management. 441.476 Section 441.476 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must... plan for how identified risks will be mitigated. (d) The State must ensure that the risk management...

  9. Risk Management and the Joint Military Commander.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    risk assessment, is the process called risk management . Practiced repeatedly, personal and professional risk management can become ’common sense...war and military operations other than war (MOOTW). This report discusses the USA Five Step Process, from which users develop tools, techniques, and procedures for applying risk management in their areas of responsibility.

  10. Risk taking and effective R&D management.

    PubMed

    Banholzer, William F; Vosejpka, Laura J

    2011-01-01

    Several key strategies can be used to manage the risk associated with innovation to create maximum value. These include balancing the timing of investments versus cash flows, management of fads, prioritization across the company, savvy portfolio management, and a system of metrics that measure real success. Successful R&D managers will do whatever is necessary to manage the risks associated with an R&D program and stick to their long-term strategy.

  11. Clinical risk management in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Holden, Deborah A; Quin, Maureen; Holden, Des P

    2004-04-01

    Over recent years there has been a growing appreciation that a small but significant proportion of patients experience (sometimes serious) adverse events in the hands of health care workers. Although research in this area is very much in its infancy there has been an increasing move towards applying principles of risk management from industry to health care organizations. With the particularly disastrous and costly nature of adverse outcomes in obstetrics it is appropriate to review clinical risk management issues in maternity. This review explores the appropriateness of applying lessons learned in industry to maternity. The classification of errors into individual and latent, or organizational, is examined. Furthermore, the way in which these errors can be identified and subsequently analysed, with examples from maternity units in the UK and USA, is discussed. The importance of an educational and supportive environment, rather than a blame culture, for both reporting of incidents and learning from adverse outcomes is emphasized. Improvement in patient experience of health care rests not just with improved treatments, but also with a reduction in the adverse events which occur in health care institutions. The principles by which risk can be identified prospectively and retrospectively, and the mechanisms for both local risk management and regional/national reporting and learning are considered.

  12. Managing risks and hazardous in industrial operations

    SciTech Connect

    Almaula, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that it makes good business sense to identify risks and hazards of an operation and take appropriate steps to manage them effectively. Developing and implementing an effective risk and hazard management plan also contibutes to other industry requirements and standards. Development of a risk management system, key elements of a risk management plan, and hazards and risk analysis methods are outlined. Comparing potential risk to the cost of prevention is also discussed. It is estimated that the cost of developing and preparing the first risk management plan varies between $50,000 to $200,000. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Hanford Tanks Initiative risk management guide

    SciTech Connect

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-10-29

    This project-specific Risk Management Guide describes the general approach and process being used by the HTI Project to manage risk associated with execution of the HTI mission. It includes the initial identification of risk and the quantification of its likelihood and severity of its consequences. It further addresses the formulation of risk mitigation plans, periodic statusing of the Risk Management List, and risk closure.

  14. Risk based management of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, M.J.; Aller, J.E.; Tallin, A.; Weber, B.J.

    1996-07-01

    The API Piping Inspection Code is the first such Code to require classification of piping based on the consequences of failure, and to use this classification to influence inspection activity. Since this Code was published, progress has been made in the development of tools to improve on this approach by determining not only the consequences of failure, but also the likelihood of failure. ``Risk`` is defined as the product of the consequence and the likelihood. Measuring risk provides the means to formally manage risk by matching the inspection effort (costs) to the benefits of reduced risk. Using such a cost/benefit analysis allows the optimization of inspection budgets while meeting societal demands for reduction of the risk associated with process plant piping. This paper presents an overview of the tools developed to measure risk, and the methods to determine the effects of past and future inspections on the level of risk. The methodology is being developed as an industry-sponsored project under the direction of an API committee. The intent is to develop an API Recommended Practice that will be linked to In-Service Inspection Standards and the emerging Fitness for Service procedures. Actual studies using a similar approach have shown that a very high percentage of the risk due to piping in an operating facility is associated with relatively few pieces of piping. This permits inspection efforts to be focused on those piping systems that will result in the greatest risk reduction.

  15. Collision risk management in geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkin, A. B.; Peterson, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic method has been developed for managing long-term collision risk posed to operational satellites in geosynchronous orbit. Long-term collision risk reduction is achieved by proper selection of local collision probability thresholds that trigger actions to reduce risk. Such actions can be requests for more accurate orbital data, special sensor tasking, or collision avoidance maneuvers. The cost of collision risk reduction is measured by the frequency of actions taken to reduce the collision risk. This action frequency is dependent on the accuracy of the orbital data and the frequency of close approaches. A case study was performed for a set of satellites. The analysis used position error models for two-line element sets. A conjunction simulation was used to process approximately three years of archived orbital data, including publicly available two-line element sets, in order to generate conjunction statistics. From these results, a graphical representation called a χ-plot was generated. This plot permits the selection of thresholds as a function of total risk reduction and tolerable action frequency. Results of the study indicate that collision risk management in geosynchronous orbit can be very costly using data of insufficiently high accuracy, because data errors induce high action frequency for even modest amounts of collision risk reduction.

  16. [Risk and risk management in aviation].

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred

    2004-10-01

    RISK MANAGEMENT: The large proportion of human errors in aviation accidents suggested the solution--at first sight brilliant--to replace the fallible human being by an "infallible" digitally-operating computer. However, even after the introduction of the so-called HITEC-airplanes, the factor human error still accounts for 75% of all accidents. Thus, if the computer is ruled out as the ultimate safety system, how else can complex operations involving quick and difficult decisions be controlled? OPTIMIZED TEAM INTERACTION/PARALLEL CONNECTION OF THOUGHT MACHINES: Since a single person is always "highly error-prone", support and control have to be guaranteed by a second person. The independent work of mind results in a safety network that more efficiently cushions human errors. NON-PUNITIVE ERROR MANAGEMENT: To be able to tackle the actual problems, the open discussion of intervened errors must not be endangered by the threat of punishment. It has been shown in the past that progress is primarily achieved by investigating and following up mistakes, failures and catastrophes shortly after they happened. HUMAN FACTOR RESEARCH PROJECT: A comprehensive survey showed the following result: By far the most frequent safety-critical situation (37.8% of all events) consists of the following combination of risk factors: 1. A complication develops. 2. In this situation of increased stress a human error occurs. 3. The negative effects of the error cannot be corrected or eased because there are deficiencies in team interaction on the flight deck. This means, for example, that a negative social climate has the effect of a "turbocharger" when a human error occurs. It needs to be pointed out that a negative social climate is not identical with a dispute. In many cases the working climate is burdened without the responsible person even noticing it: A first negative impression, too much or too little respect, contempt, misunderstandings, not expressing unclear concern, etc. can

  17. Measurement Decision Risk - The Importance of Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the more misunderstood areas of metrology is the Test Uncertainty Ratio (TUR) and the Test Accuracy Ratio (TAR). There have been many definitions over the years, but why are these definitions important to a discussion on measurement decision risk? The importance lies in the clarity of communication. Problems can immediately arise in the application (or misapplication) of the definition of these terms. In other words, while it is important to understand the definitions, it is more important to understand concepts behind the definitions and to be precise in how they are applied. The objective of any measurement is a decision. Measurement Decision Risk is a way to look at the quality of a measurement, and although it is not a new concept, it has generated a lot of attention since its addition as a requirement in the new U.S. National Standard, ANSIINCSL Z540.3-2006. In addition to Measurement Decision Risk as the prime method of managing measurement risk, Z540.3 has added, as a fall-back, an explicit definition for TUR. The impact these new requirements may have on calibration service providers has become the topic of much discussion and in some cases concern. This paper will look at the concepts behind the definitions and how they relate to Measurement Decision Risk. Using common examples, this paper will also provide a comparison of various elements of risk related to measurement science using the concepts of TAR, TUR, accuracy ratios, and Consumer Risk (False Accept Risk). The goal of this paper is to provide a better understanding of their relevance to the measurement decision process.

  18. Measurement Decision Risk - The Importance of Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the more misunderstood areas of metrology is the Test Uncertainty Ratio (TUR) and its cousin, the Test Accuracy Ratio (TAR). There have been many definitions over the years, but why are these definitions important to a discussion on measurement decision risk? The importance lies in the clarity of communication. Problems can immediately arise in the application (or misapplication) of the definition of these terms. In other words, while it is important to understand the definitions, it is more important to understand concepts behind the definitions and to be precise in how they are applied. The objective of any measurement is a decision. Measurement Decision Risk is a way to look at the quality of a measurement and although it is not a new concept, it has generated a lot of attention since its addition as a requirement in the new U.S. National Standard, ANSI/NCSL Z540.3-2006. In addition to Measurement Decision Risk as the prime method of managing measurement risk, Z540.3 has also added, as a fall-back, an explicit definition for TUR. The impact these changes might have on calibration service providers if these requirements are levied on them has become the topic of much discussion and in some cases concern. This paper looks at the concepts behind the definitions and how they relate to Measurement Decision Risk. Using common examples, this paper will also provide a comparison of various elements of risk related to measurement science using the concepts of TAR, TUR, accuracy ratios, and Consumer Risk (False Accept Risk). The goal is to provide a better understanding of their relevance to the measurement decision process.

  19. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications.

  20. Consumer evaluations of food risk management quality in Europe.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, E; Houghton, J R; Krystallis, A; Pfenning, U; Rowe, G; Van Dijk, H; Van der Lans, I A; Frewer, L J

    2007-12-01

    In developing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to understand how consumers evaluate the quality of food risk management practices. The aim of this study is to model the underlying psychological factors influencing consumer evaluations of food risk management quality using structural equation modeling techniques (SEM), and to examine the extent to which the influence of these factors is country-specific (comparing respondents from Denmark, Germany, Greece, Slovenia, and the United Kingdom). A survey was developed to model the factors that drive consumer evaluations of food risk management practices and their relative importance (n= 2,533 total respondents). The measurement scales included in the structural model were configurally and metrically invariant across countries. Results show that some factors appear to drive perceptions of effective food risk management in all the countries studied, such as proactive consumer protection, which was positively related to consumers' evaluation of food risk management quality, while opaque and reactive risk management was negatively related to perceived food risk management quality. Other factors appeared to apply only in certain countries. For example, skepticism in risk assessment and communication practices was negatively related to food risk management quality, particularly so in the UK. Expertise of food risk managers appeared to be a key factor in consumers' evaluation of food risk management quality in some countries. However, trust in the honesty of food risk managers did not have a significant effect on food risk management quality. From the results, policy implications for food risk management are discussed and important directions for future research are identified.

  1. Risk Management On-the-Run.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Daniel C.

    1985-01-01

    Presents the options available in risk management insurance and group health insurance programs, while outlining recent changes in the industry and their effects on school risk management programs. (MD)

  2. Risk Management Practices and Accounting Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Rita Hartung; Yahr, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews current school district risk management practices and the related accounting requirements. Summarizes the Governmental Accounting Standards Board's proposed accounting standards and the impact of these on school districts' risk management practices and on their financial statements. (11 references) (MLF)

  3. Risk Management On-the-Run.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Daniel C.

    1985-01-01

    Presents the options available in risk management insurance and group health insurance programs, while outlining recent changes in the industry and their effects on school risk management programs. (MD)

  4. Development and implementation of a business continuity management risk index.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Michael

    This paper will present the building blocks for developing and implementing the BCM risk index; whether it is used as a comprehensive metric for risk or preparedness. This paper introduces the concept of a business continuity management (BCM) risk index--a comprehensive metric that measures and reports the status of the primary 'intended outcome' of the BCM programme to top management. In addition to measuring the primary programme output,;the BCM risk index can be used to demonstrate the overall value of the BCM programme to executive management. This is accomplished because the BCM risk index allows quantitative measurement of current risk levels and their comparison with established risk tolerances. The BCM Risk Index can provide executive management with reports on the risk level of individual business units, departments, subsidiaries or the enterprise in a way that drives both risk management and BCM initiatives. The name 'risk index' can be misleading, however. The BCM risk index concept can also be used to measure preparedness levels. In fact, implementation at DTE Energy has resulted in calling it the 'preparedness index', which is used to measure and report preparedness levels rather than risk levels.

  5. You can manage construction risks.

    PubMed

    Macomber, J D

    1989-01-01

    A construction project is about the riskiest thing any company does in the normal course of business. Hundreds of things can go wrong, dozens will. But officers who analyze and manage every other sort of risk often ignore construction risk as if it were uncontrollable. The truth is, it can't be eliminated, but it can be controlled. Construction is not a product but a confusing and often exasperating service. A group of experts--architects, bankers, consultants, contractors, engineers, users, city officials--coordinate the activities of an army of suppliers, laborers, designers, subcontractors, and inspectors. The job of the company officers is to coordinate the coordinators; to make prompt, informed decisions as the work progresses; to take and retain project responsibility at the highest level; and to analyze and manage the entire process in the following seven stages: 1. Study the types and phases of construction risk. 2. Assess the risks of the company's particular project. 3. Match these risks with the in-house capabilities. 4. Define a building strategy. 5. Pick the right kind of contract. 6. Choose a contractor. 7. Monitor construction. Analyzing risk is largely a matter of assessing the complexity of the building, the site, the financing, the schedule, and the special uses and problems of the project. This analysis then drives the choice of contract and contractor. The range runs from low-cost providers, lump sum contracts and very little teamwork at one end of the spectrum to highly differentiated construction companies, guaranteed-maximum-prince contracts, and consultative coordination at the other.

  6. An Extensible Information Grid for Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Bell, David G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes recent work on developing an extensible information grid for risk management at NASA - a RISK INFORMATION GRID. This grid is being developed by integrating information grid technology with risk management processes for a variety of risk related applications. To date, RISK GRID applications are being developed for three main NASA processes: risk management - a closed-loop iterative process for explicit risk management, program/project management - a proactive process that includes risk management, and mishap management - a feedback loop for learning from historical risks that escaped other processes. This is enabled through an architecture involving an extensible database, structuring information with XML, schemaless mapping of XML, and secure server-mediated communication using standard protocols.

  7. An Extensible Information Grid for Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Bell, David G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes recent work on developing an extensible information grid for risk management at NASA - a RISK INFORMATION GRID. This grid is being developed by integrating information grid technology with risk management processes for a variety of risk related applications. To date, RISK GRID applications are being developed for three main NASA processes: risk management - a closed-loop iterative process for explicit risk management, program/project management - a proactive process that includes risk management, and mishap management - a feedback loop for learning from historical risks that escaped other processes. This is enabled through an architecture involving an extensible database, structuring information with XML, schemaless mapping of XML, and secure server-mediated communication using standard protocols.

  8. Pest measurement and management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest scouting, whether it is done only with ground scouting methods or using remote sensing with some ground-truthing, is an important tool to aid site-specific crop management. Different pests may be monitored at different times and using different methods. Remote sensing has the potential to provi...

  9. Risk Management for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    NASA requires continuous risk management for all programs and projects. The risk management process identifies risks, analyzes their impact, prioritizes them, develops and carries out plans to mitigate or accept them, tracks risks and mitigation plans, and communicates and documents risk information. Project risk management is driven by the project goal and is performed by the entire team. Risk management begins early in the formulation phase with initial risk identification and development of a risk management plan and continues throughout the project life cycle. This paper describes the risk management approach that is suggested for use in NASA's Human Support Technology Development. The first step in risk management is to identify the detailed technical and programmatic risks specific to a project. Each individual risk should be described in detail. The identified risks are summarized in a complete risk list. Risk analysis provides estimates of the likelihood and the qualitative impact of a risk. The likelihood and impact of the risk are used to define its priority location in the risk matrix. The approaches for responding to risk are either to mitigate it by eliminating or reducing the effect or likelihood of a risk, to accept it with a documented rationale and contingency plan, or to research or monitor the risk, The Human Support Technology Development program includes many projects with independently achievable goals. Each project must do independent risk management, considering all its risks together and trading them against performance, budget, and schedule. Since the program can succeed even if some projects fail, the program risk has a complex dependence on the individual project risks.

  10. Risk Management for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    NASA requires continuous risk management for all programs and projects. The risk management process identifies risks, analyzes their impact, prioritizes them, develops and carries out plans to mitigate or accept them, tracks risks and mitigation plans, and communicates and documents risk information. Project risk management is driven by the project goal and is performed by the entire team. Risk management begins early in the formulation phase with initial risk identification and development of a risk management plan and continues throughout the project life cycle. This paper describes the risk management approach that is suggested for use in NASA's Human Support Technology Development. The first step in risk management is to identify the detailed technical and programmatic risks specific to a project. Each individual risk should be described in detail. The identified risks are summarized in a complete risk list. Risk analysis provides estimates of the likelihood and the qualitative impact of a risk. The likelihood and impact of the risk are used to define its priority location in the risk matrix. The approaches for responding to risk are either to mitigate it by eliminating or reducing the effect or likelihood of a risk, to accept it with a documented rationale and contingency plan, or to research or monitor the risk, The Human Support Technology Development program includes many projects with independently achievable goals. Each project must do independent risk management, considering all its risks together and trading them against performance, budget, and schedule. Since the program can succeed even if some projects fail, the program risk has a complex dependence on the individual project risks.

  11. Managing Risk Assessment in Science Departments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter; Forlin, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Describes a health-and-safety risk-management audit in four Queensland, Australia high schools. One major outcome of this research project is the development of a comprehensive risk-management policy in compliance with the law. Other outcomes include the preparation of a professional-development package in risk-management policy for use as a…

  12. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.1 Risk management. Before its new capital plan may take...

  13. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.1 Risk management. Before its new capital plan may take...

  14. Determining hospital risk management staffing through analytics.

    PubMed

    Howard, Chrystina M; Felton, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the development of an independent research project to gather time data from hospital risk managers in order to establish an objective, justifiable means of determining staffing levels recommended to support risk management activities and department functions. © 2013 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  15. Risk Management in Student Personnel Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Edward H.; Hagan, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    A risk management plan is an effective tool for postsecondary institutions to utilize in organizing management of both personal and institutional liability. Important considerations involve criminal and civil liabilities, causes of risk, and integral elements of a good risk management plan. (NRB)

  16. Risk Management in High Adventure Outdoor Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinnamon, Jerry

    This paper outlines management guidelines for outdoor adventure pursuits based on analysis of accident case studies in the literature. Managing risk, to a large degree, involves managing human errors related to natural environmental hazards. The knowledge needed to manage risk may be gained through personal experience (the most dangerous way),…

  17. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must specify the risk assessment methods it uses to identify potential risks to the participant. (b) The State... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Risk management. 441.476 Section 441.476...

  18. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirement, and for the risk assessment procedures and controls (whether established as part of its risk... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS...

  19. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirement, and for the risk assessment procedures and controls (whether established as part of its risk... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS...

  20. 12 CFR 932.1 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirement, and for the risk assessment procedures and controls (whether established as part of its risk... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk management. 932.1 Section 932.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS...

  1. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must specify the risk assessment methods it uses to identify potential risks to the participant. (b) The State... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Risk management. 441.476 Section 441.476...

  2. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... risk, including contingency plans where appropriate. (c) Risk assessment. The senior management of each Bank shall perform, at least annually, a risk assessment that is reasonably designed to identify and... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks...

  3. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... risk, including contingency plans where appropriate. (c) Risk assessment. The senior management of each Bank shall perform, at least annually, a risk assessment that is reasonably designed to identify and... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk management. 917.3 Section 917.3 Banks...

  4. 42 CFR 441.476 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.476 Risk management. (a) The State must specify the risk assessment methods it uses to identify potential risks to the participant. (b) The State... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Risk management. 441.476 Section 441.476...

  5. Equipment management risk rating system based on engineering endpoints.

    PubMed

    James, P J

    1999-01-01

    The equipment management risk ratings system outlined here offers two significant departures from current practice: risk classifications are based on intrinsic device risks, and the risk rating system is based on engineering endpoints. Intrinsic device risks are categorized as physical, clinical and technical, and these flow from the incoming equipment assessment process. Engineering risk management is based on verification of engineering endpoints such as clinical measurements or energy delivery. This practice eliminates the ambiguity associated with ranking risk in terms of physiologic and higher-level outcome endpoints such as no significant hazards, low significance, injury, or mortality.

  6. The Role of Risk and Risk Management in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael

    A monograph examines the role of risk and risk management in experiential education, particularly stress/challenge programming. Definitions of risk are presented. The importance of risk and stress in experiential education is emphasized. Implications of subjective versus objective risk assessment in adventure education are discussed, with…

  7. Risk management and measuring productivity with POAS--Point of Act System--a medical information system as ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) for hospital management.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M

    2007-01-01

    The concept of our system is not only to manage material flows, but also to provide an integrated management resource, a means of correcting errors in medical treatment, and applications to EBM (evidence-based medicine) through the data mining of medical records. Prior to the development of this system, electronic processing systems in hospitals did a poor job of accurately grasping medical practice and medical material flows. With POAS (Point of Act System), hospital managers can solve the so-called, "man, money, material, and information" issues inherent in the costs of healthcare. The POAS system synchronizes with each department system, from finance and accounting, to pharmacy, to imaging, and allows information exchange. We can manage Man (Business Process), Material (Medical Materials and Medicine), Money (Expenditure for purchase and Receipt), and Information (Medical Records) completely by this system. Our analysis has shown that this system has a remarkable investment effect - saving over four million dollars per year - through cost savings in logistics and business process efficiencies. In addition, the quality of care has been improved dramatically while error rates have been reduced - nearly to zero in some cases.

  8. Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillaman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight study analyzes risk management in large enterprises and how to effectively communicate risks across organizations. The Calysto Risk Management tool developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center's SharePoint team is used and referenced throughout the study. Calysto is a web-base tool built on Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The risk management process at NASA is examined and incorporated in the study. Using risk management standards from industry and specific organizations at the Kennedy Space Center, three methods of communicating and elevating risk are examined. Each method describes details of the effectiveness and plausibility of using the method in the Calysto Risk Management Tool. At the end of the study suggestions are made for future renditions of Calysto.

  9. When outcome is a balance: methods to measure combined utility for the choice between induction of labour and expectant management in mild risk pregnancy at term.

    PubMed

    Bijlenga, Denise; Birnie, Erwin; Mol, Ben W J; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2007-07-04

    When the primary and secondary outcomes of clinical studies yield ambiguous or conflicting recommendations, preference or valuation studies may help to overcome the decision problem. The present preference study is attached to two clinical studies (DIGTAT, ISRCT10363217; HYPITAT, ISRCT08132825) that evaluate induction of labour versus expectant management in term pregnancies with a mild risk profile. The purpose of the present study is to compare four methods of valuation/preference measurement. Multidimensional health state descriptions ('vignettes') defined by attributes and levels are presented to different response groups: laypersons, (ex-) patients, and medical experts. Valuations/preferences are measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Time Trade-Off (TTO), Willingness to Pay (WTP) and Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) techniques. These methods are compared in terms of feasibility, reliability and validity. By comparing the four techniques, we aim to answer (1) which of the techniques is most feasible, reliable and valid for use in multidimensional decision problems; (2) which of the techniques can be recommended for use in economic evaluations, and (3) do different response groups produce systematically different valuations, and if so, how can these be used to interpret preference results and to contribute to the development of clinical guidelines.

  10. Measuring Attitudes toward Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorn, Gerald; Dubin, Samuel S.

    The attitudes of managers toward continuing education management development programs were analyzed, using the Fishbein technique; by this approach, the beliefs people have and their evaluation of these beliefs are measured separately. The evaluation of a belief is multiplied by its strength to get the direction of the attitude. A questionnaire,…

  11. Workload: Measurement and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Casner, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Poster: The workload research project has as its task to survey the available literature on: (1) workload measurement techniques; and (2) the effects of workload on operator performance. The first set of findings provides practitioners with a collection of simple-to-use workload measurement techniques along with characterizations of the kinds of tasks each technique has been shown reliably address. This allows design practitioners to select and use the most appropriate techniques for the task(s) at hand. The second set of findings provides practitioners with the guidance they need to design for appropriate kinds and amounts of workload across all tasks for which the operator is responsible. This guidance helps practitioners design systems and procedures that ensure appropriate levels of engagement across all tasks, and avoid designs and procedures that result in operator boredom, complacency, loss of awareness, undue levels of stress, or skill atrophy that can result from workload that distracts operators from the tasks they perform and monitor, workload levels that are too low, too high, or too consistent or predictable. Only those articles that were peer reviewed, long standing and generally accepted in the field, and applicable to a relevant range of conditions in a select domain of interest, in analogous "extreme" environments to those in space were included. In addition, all articles were reviewed and evaluated on uni-dimensional and multi-dimensional considerations. Casner & Gore also examined the notion of thresholds and the conditions that may benefit mostly from the various methodological approaches. Other considerations included whether the tools would be suitable for guiding a requirement-related and design-related question. An initial review of over 225 articles was conducted and entered into an EndNote database. The reference list included a range of conditions in the domain of interest (subjective/objective measures), the seminal works in workload, as

  12. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  13. Feedback on flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which

  14. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  15. Acquisition Program Risk Management: Does the Department of Defense Risk Management Practices Guide Provide an Effective Risk Tool for Program Managers in Today’s Acquisition Environment?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Management Definition ........................................................................................... 32 Table 16. Risk Management Tracking...Other (please specify) 5 Table 15. Risk Management Definition Question 7: Does your Program Office or Risk Management IPT track risks for cost...aligned to collect information on program risk definition. Question 6 was designed to collect information on risk management definition . Participants

  16. [The relevance of clinical risk management].

    PubMed

    Gulino, Matteo; Vergallo, Gianluca Montanari; Frati, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Medical activity includes a risk of possible injury or complications for the patients, that should drive the Health Care Institutions to introduce and/ or improve clinical Risk management instruments. Although Italy is still lacking a National project of Clinical Risk Management, a number of efforts have been made by different Italian Regions to introduce instruments of risk management. In addition, most of National Health Care Institutions include actually a Department specifically in charge to manage the clinical risk. Despite the practical difficulties, the results obtained until now suggest that the risk management may represent a useful instrument to contribute to the reduction of errors in clinical conduct. Indeed, the introduction of adequate instruments of prevention and management of clinical risk may help to ameliorate the quality of health care Institution services.

  17. United States Environmental Protection Agency: Use of risk assessment and risk management methodologies. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lamuro, R.J.

    1992-09-30

    Make a full investigation of the policy implications and appropriate uses of risk assessment and risk management in regulatory programs under various Federal laws to prevent cancer and other chronic health effects which may result from exposure to hazardous substances. This is the primary mission of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission (Risk Commission). The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), created the Risk Commission reflecting Congress' concern over agency use of risk assessment and risk management techniques and methodologies to implement federal laws protective of human health. The Risk Commission is to consider: methods for measuring and describing risks of chronic health effects from hazardous substances; methods to reflect uncertainties associated with estimation techniques, and whether it is possible or desirable to develop a consistent risk assessment methodology or a consistent standard of acceptable risk for various federal programs.

  18. Understanding managed care risk sharing arrangements.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J R

    1995-01-01

    A risk sharing agreement between a managed care organization and an employer can be used by employers to either guarantee a managed care plan's short-term success or mitigate its failure. Under such arrangements, the managed care organization financially shares the employer's risk of unfavorable claims experience.

  19. Manejo de riesgo (Risk Management). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest in Spanish discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to…

  20. Risk Management. ERIC Digest, Number 86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    The ordinary conduct of school business is accompanied today by risks that were rare or unknown a few decades ago. This ERIC Digest discusses how risk management, a concept long used by corporate decision makers, can help school boards and administrators conserve their districts' assets. Risk management is a coordinated effort to protect an…

  1. Risk Management (Is Not) for Dummies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    FEB 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Risk Management (Is Not) for Dummies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...recorded for each Open Forum Risk Management (Is Not) For Dummies February 2005 www.stsc.hill.af.mil 29 risk? Who will use the data and how? Now

  2. [GMOs in food: risk assessment, scientific management and regulatory aspects].

    PubMed

    Casse, F; Hervieu, F

    2003-03-01

    Genetic transformation constitutes a new tool for improvement of microorganisms, animals and plants used in food. We present foreseeable risks, as well as management measures to avoid unsuspected risks of GMOs. Few risks are specific to GMOs. Present elements of French and European regulations concerning placing on the market and follow up GMOs and other novel foods are described.

  3. Identification and Risk Assessment for Worldwide Invasion and Spread of Tuta absoluta with a Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Phytosanitary Measures and Management

    PubMed Central

    Tonnang, Henri E. Z.; Mohamed, Samira F.; Khamis, Fathiya; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    To support management decisions, molecular characterization of data and geo-reference of incidence records of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were combined with data on the biology and ecology of the pest to estimate its climatic suitability and potential spread at regional and global scale. A CLIMEX model was developed and used for the global prediction of current and future climate-induced changes in the distributional shifts of T. absoluta. Results revealed that temperature and moisture characterized T. absoluta population growth while the pest ability to survive the cold, hot, wet and dry stress conditions are the primary characteristics defining its range frontiers. Simulated irrigation also played an important role in the model optimization. Model predictions suggest that T. absoluta represents an important threat to Africa, Asia, Australia, Northern Europe, New Zealand, Russian Federation and the United States of America (USA). Under climate change context, future predictions on distribution of T. absoluta indicated that the invasive nature of this pest will result in significant crop losses in certain locations whereas some parts of Africa may witness diminution in ranges. The following scenarios may occur: 1) T. absoluta damage potential may upsurge moderately in areas of Africa where the pest currently exists; 2) a range diminution in temperate to Sahel region with moderate upsurge in damage potential; 3) a range expansion in tropical Africa with reasonable upsurge of damage potential. These possible outcomes could be explained by the fact that the continent is already warm, with the average temperature in majority of localities near the threshold temperatures for optimal development and survival of T. absoluta. Outputs from this study should be useful in helping decision-makers in their assessment of site-specific risks of invasion and spread of T. absoluta with a view to developing appropriate surveillance, phytosanitary measures and

  4. Identification and Risk Assessment for Worldwide Invasion and Spread of Tuta absoluta with a Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Phytosanitary Measures and Management.

    PubMed

    Tonnang, Henri E Z; Mohamed, Samira A; Mohamed, Samira F; Khamis, Fathiya; Ekesi, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    To support management decisions, molecular characterization of data and geo-reference of incidence records of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were combined with data on the biology and ecology of the pest to estimate its climatic suitability and potential spread at regional and global scale. A CLIMEX model was developed and used for the global prediction of current and future climate-induced changes in the distributional shifts of T. absoluta. Results revealed that temperature and moisture characterized T. absoluta population growth while the pest ability to survive the cold, hot, wet and dry stress conditions are the primary characteristics defining its range frontiers. Simulated irrigation also played an important role in the model optimization. Model predictions suggest that T. absoluta represents an important threat to Africa, Asia, Australia, Northern Europe, New Zealand, Russian Federation and the United States of America (USA). Under climate change context, future predictions on distribution of T. absoluta indicated that the invasive nature of this pest will result in significant crop losses in certain locations whereas some parts of Africa may witness diminution in ranges. The following scenarios may occur: 1) T. absoluta damage potential may upsurge moderately in areas of Africa where the pest currently exists; 2) a range diminution in temperate to Sahel region with moderate upsurge in damage potential; 3) a range expansion in tropical Africa with reasonable upsurge of damage potential. These possible outcomes could be explained by the fact that the continent is already warm, with the average temperature in majority of localities near the threshold temperatures for optimal development and survival of T. absoluta. Outputs from this study should be useful in helping decision-makers in their assessment of site-specific risks of invasion and spread of T. absoluta with a view to developing appropriate surveillance, phytosanitary measures and

  5. Identifying risks in the realm of enterprise risk management.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    An enterprise risk management (ERM) discipline is comprehensive and organization-wide. The effectiveness of ERM is governed in part by the strength and breadth of its practices and processes. An essential element in decision making is a thorough process by which organizational risks and value opportunities can be identified. This article will offer identification techniques that go beyond those used in traditional risk management programs and demonstrate how these techniques can be used to identify risks and opportunity in the ERM environment.

  6. Quick Fix for Managing Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Under a Phase II SBIR contract, Kennedy and Lumina Decision Systems, Inc., jointly developed the Schedule and Cost Risk Analysis Modeling (SCRAM) system, based on a version of Lumina's flagship software product, Analytica(R). Acclaimed as "the best single decision-analysis program yet produced" by MacWorld magazine, Analytica is a "visual" tool used in decision-making environments worldwide to build, revise, and present business models, minus the time-consuming difficulty commonly associated with spreadsheets. With Analytica as their platform, Kennedy and Lumina created the SCRAM system in response to NASA's need to identify the importance of major delays in Shuttle ground processing, a critical function in project management and process improvement. As part of the SCRAM development project, Lumina designed a version of Analytica called the Analytica Design Engine (ADE) that can be easily incorporated into larger software systems. ADE was commercialized and utilized in many other developments, including web-based decision support.

  7. Continuous Risk Management: A NASA Program Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  8. Managing Risk in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Armitage, James O; Chen, Robert W; Moskowitz, Craig H; Sweetenham, John

    2015-02-01

    Approximately 90% of patients with limited-stage Hodgkin lymphoma are cured. The cure rate in advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma is dramatically better than it once was, but it is still lower than the rate in patients with limited disease. The choice of treatment is based on several factors, including symptoms, disease stage, extent of tumor burden, and prognosis. Positron emission tomography scanning can be used to assess the patient's stage of disease, which can allow further individualization of therapy. Traditional frontline treatment options include doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and, for high-risk patients, bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP). Autologous stem cell transplantation cures approximately 50% of patients. The antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin is very active in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Data presented at the 2014 meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) showed that brentuximab vedotin was beneficial in several settings, including as consolidation therapy posttransplant in patients at high risk for relapse, as first-line salvage therapy in relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma prior to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation, and in combination with bendamustine in relapsed/refractory disease. The ASH meeting also offered promising data on novel agents, such as the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors. In this monograph, 4 experts in the management of Hodgkin lymphoma discuss various aspects of the disease and provide their perspectives on the new data presented at the ASH meeting.

  9. Emerging concepts in wildfire risk assessment and management (Publ.)

    Treesearch

    Joe H. Scott; Matthew P. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative measure of wildfire risk across a landscape - expected net change in value of resources and assets exposed to wildfire - was established nearly a decade ago. Assessments made using that measure have been completed at spatial extents ranging from an individual county to the continental United States. The science of wildfire risk assessment and management...

  10. Business resilience: Reframing healthcare risk management.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    The responsibility of risk management in healthcare is fractured, with multiple stakeholders. Most hospitals and healthcare systems do not have a fully integrated risk management system that spans the entire organizational and operational structure for the delivery of key services. This article provides insight toward utilizing a comprehensive Business Resilience program and associated methodology to understand and manage organizational risk leading to organizational effectiveness and operational efficiencies, with the fringe benefit of realizing sustainable operational capability during adverse conditions.

  11. Risk Management for Brigades and Battalions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-01

    This report describes a concept, with procedures and responsibilities, for risk management in brigades and battlalions during Mission Essential Task...FM 100-5, Operations. The risk management procedures and responsibilities are consistent with those presented in FM 101-5, Command and Control for... risk management tactics, techniques and procedures published in the Center for Army Lessons Learned Newsletter, "Force Protection (Safety)", No. 9, December 1993.

  12. Managing financial risk with options on futures.

    PubMed

    Bond, M T; Marshall, B S

    1995-05-01

    With the rise of managed care and capitation, more providers will be sharing in the financial risk of providing care. To help protect their organizations from the risk of unexpectedly high utilization under such a fixed-payment system, healthcare financial managers soon will be able to use options on futures contracts. These contracts provide wide profit potential but limited loss potential. Before investing in options on futures, however, healthcare financial managers should consider issues such as basis risk and trading costs.

  13. Rebalancing risk management--Part 2: The Active Risk Control (ARC) Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Card, Alan J; Ward, James R; Clarkson, P John

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of systems-focused risk assessment techniques has not led to measurable improvement in the rate of patient harm. Why? In part, because these tools focus solely on understanding problems and provide no direct support for designing and managing solutions (ie, risk control). This second installment of a 2-part series on rebalancing risk management describes a structured approach to bridging this gap: The Active Risk Control (ARC) Toolkit. A pilot study is presented to show how the ARC Toolkit can improve the quality of risk management practice.

  14. Managing Research in a Risk World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, W.; Havenhill, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Chief Medical Officer (OCHMO) owns all human health and performance risks managed by the Human System Risk Board (HSRB). While the HSRB manages the risks, the Human Research Program (HRP) manages the research portion of the overall risk mitigation strategy for these risks. The HSRB manages risks according to a process that identifies and analyzes risks, plans risk mitigation and tracks and reviews the implementation of these strategies according to its decisions pertaining to the OCHMO risk posture. HRP manages risk research work using an architecture that describes evidence-based risks, gaps in our knowledge about characterizing or mitigating the risk, and the tasks needed to produce deliverables to fill the gaps and reduce the risk. A planning schedule reflecting expected research milestones is developed, and as deliverables and new evidence are generated, research progress is tracked via the Path to Risk Reduction (PRR) that reflects a risk's research plan for a design reference mission. HRP's risk research process closely interfaces with the HSRB risk management process. As research progresses, new deliverables and evidence are used by the HSRB in conjunction with other operational and non-research evidence to inform decisions pertaining to the likelihood and consequence of the risk and risk posture. Those decisions in turn guide forward work for research as it contributes to overall risk mitigation strategies. As HRP tracks its research work, it aligns its priorities by assessing the effectiveness of its contributions and maintaining specific core competencies that would be invaluable for future work for exploration missions.

  15. Risk Management Questions for News Reporting Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiff, Cindy

    1995-01-01

    Reviews court rulings which demonstrate that the potential for liability is significant when students are injured on journalism assignments. Offers guidelines on risk management for journalism professors. (SR)

  16. Educational Risk Management: Eliminate, Assume, or Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoop, Robert J.; Dunklee, Dennis R.

    1989-01-01

    An Educational Risk Management Plan (ERMP) should be incorporated throughout every school district. Discusses property and liability insurance classifications and features of a good ERMP. (12 references) (MLF)

  17. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  18. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  19. Safety risk management for ESA space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. M.

    1991-08-01

    ESA's safety program as defined in ESA PSS-01-40, system safety requirements for ESA space systems, comprise the systematic identification and evaluation of space system hazardous characteristics and their associated risks, together with a process of safety optimization through hazard and risk reduction, and implementation verification. This safety optimization and verification process is termed safety risk management. The fundamental principles of safety risk management are discussed.

  20. Feedback on flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  1. Laser safety: Risks, hazards, and control measures

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Penny J.

    2011-01-01

    Now that laser technology has emerged from hospital operating rooms, and has become available to office practices, clinics, and private enterprises, the burden of responsibility for safety has shifted from hospital staff to the individual user, often without benefit of appropriate or adequate resources. What remains, regardless of the practice site, application, or system in use, is the constant goal of establishing and maintaining a laser safe environment for the patient, the staff, and the user, at all times. This should be the goal of all who are involved with the sale, purchase, application, and management of all medical laser systems–under all circumstances. Laser safety is EVERYONE'S concern! A laser is as safe or as hazardous as the user–and that user's knowledge and skill, defines how well laser safety is managed. Of all hazards, complacency is the most dangerous, and it is imperative to develop a risk management perspective on laser safety. Proper safety management requires a fourfold approach including: knowledge of standards, identification of hazards and risks, implementation of appropriate control measures, and consistent program audit to demonstrate quality assurance. PMID:24155518

  2. Measuring perinatal mental health risk.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M; Schmeid, V; Lupton, S J; Austin, M-P; Matthey, S M; Kemp, L; Meade, T; Yeo, A E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically analyse existing tools to measure perinatal mental health risk and report on the psychometric properties of the various approaches using defined criteria. An initial literature search revealed 379 papers, from which 21 papers relating to ten instruments were included in the final review. A further four papers were identified from experts (one excluded) in the field. The psychometric properties of six multidimensional tools and/or criteria were assessed. None of the instruments met all of the requirements of the psychometric properties defined. Some had used large sample sizes but reported low positive predictive values (Antenatal Risk Questionnaire (ANRQ)) or insufficient information regarding their clinical performance (Antenatal Routine Psychosocial Assessment (ARPA)), while others had insufficient sample sizes (Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment Tool, Camberwell Assessment of Need-Mothers and Contextual Assessment of Maternity Experience). The ANRQ has fulfilled the requirements of this analysis more comprehensively than any other instrument examined based on the defined rating criteria. While it is desirable to recommend a tool for clinical practice, it is important that clinicians are made aware of their limitations. The ANRQ and ARPA represent multidimensional instruments commonly used within Australia, developed within large samples with either cutoff scores or numbers of risk factors related to service outcomes. Clinicians can use these tools, within the limitations presented here, to determine the need for further intervention or to refer women to mental health services. However, the effectiveness of routine perinatal psychosocial assessment continues to be debated, with further research required.

  3. Measuring nutritional risk in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik H; Holst, Mette; Kondrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    About 20%–50% of patients in hospitals are undernourished. The number varies depending on the screening tool amended and clinical setting. A large number of these patients are undernourished when admitted to the hospital, and in most of these patients, undernutrition develops further during hospital stay. The nutrition course of the patient starts by nutritional screening and is linked to the prescription of a nutrition plan and monitoring. The purpose of nutritional screening is to predict the probability of a better or worse outcome due to nutritional factors and whether nutritional treatment is likely to influence this. Most screening tools address four basic questions: recent weight loss, recent food intake, current body mass index, and disease severity. Some screening tools, moreover, include other measurements for predicting the risk of malnutrition. The usefulness of screening methods recommended is based on the aspects of predictive validity, content validity, reliability, and practicability. Various tools are recommended depending on the setting, ie, in the community, in the hospital, and among elderly in institutions. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 seems to be the best validated screening tool, in terms of predictive validity ie, the clinical outcome improves when patients identified to be at risk are treated. For adult patients in hospital, thus, the NRS 2002 is recommended. PMID:21042553

  4. ESMD Risk Management Workshop: Systems Engineering and Integration Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale

    2005-01-01

    This report has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Risk Management team in close coordination with the Systems Engineering Team. This document provides a point-in-time, cumulative, summary of key lessons learned derived from the SE RFP Development process. Lessons learned invariably address challenges and risks and the way in which these areas have been addressed. Accordingly the risk management thread is woven throughout the document.

  5. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  6. Risk Management Model in Surface Exploitation of Mineral Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanović, Cvjetko

    2016-06-01

    Risk management is an integrative part of all types of project management. One of the main tasks of pre-investment studies and other project documentation is the tendency to protect investment projects as much as possible against investment risks. Therefore, the provision and regulation of risk information ensure the identification of the probability of the emergence of adverse events, their forms, causes and consequences, and provides a timely measures of protection against risks. This means that risk management involves a set of management methods and techniques used to reduce the possibility of realizing the adverse events and consequences and thus increase the possibilities of achieving the planned results with minimal losses. Investment in mining projects are of capital importance because they are very complex projects, therefore being very risky, because of the influence of internal and external factors and limitations arising from the socio-economic environment. Due to the lack of a risk management system, numerous organizations worldwide have suffered significant financial losses. Therefore, it is necessary for any organization to establish a risk management system as a structural element of system management system as a whole. This paper presents an approach to a Risk management model in the project of opening a surface coal mine, developed based on studies of extensive scientific literature and personal experiences of the author, and which, with certain modifications, may find use for any investment project, both in the mining industry as well as in investment projects in other areas.

  7. Health risk management matrix -- a medical planning tool.

    PubMed

    Bricknell, M C M; Moore, G W

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes the Health Risk Management Matrix. This is a planning tool, developed at the Defence Medical Services Training Centre, to teach students how to develop and write a Medical Force Protection Plan. The tool covers 5 stages: hazard identification, identification of the population at risk, risk assessment, control measures (divided into information training and policy, medical counter-measures, and treatment) and monitoring activities. The paper provides a worked example using malaria as a hazard.

  8. Risk Management In Perspective Of Knowledge Management A Brief Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Zobia; Kifor, Claudiu V.

    2015-09-01

    This article explains the application of knowledge management for project risk management in industry. Combination of knowledge management and risk management is becoming a dire need for industries nowadays, because it has become necessary to make information reach timely to its destined users to achieve the desired goals. Quick decisions are needed throughout a project life cycle to mitigate or avoid a risk, but they are only possible when knowledge about it is in hand and can be inferred for fruitful decisions. Quality engineers make huge effort in analyzing and mitigating the risk and prepare various documents about different risk management stages. But this knowledge resides in documents or underutilized databases without any relation to each other that makes it useless for complex decision making. This article shall explain how knowledge management activities are helpful in risk management and the advantages of their fusion. It will also present a conceptual architecture of an Information Technology based solution for risk management and knowledge management combination.

  9. [Profitability analysis of clinical risk management].

    PubMed

    Banduhn, C; Schlüchtermann, J

    2013-05-01

    Medical treatment entails many risks. Increasingly, the negative impact of these risks on patients' health is revealed and corresponding cases are reported to hospital insurances. A systematic clinical risk management can reduce risks. This analysis is designed to demonstrate the financial profitability of implementing a clinical risk management. The decision analysis of a clinical risk management includes information from published articles and studies, publicly available data from the Federal Statistical Office and expert interviews and was conducted in 2 scenarios. The 2 scenarios result from a maximum and minimum value of preventable adverse events reported in Germany. The planning horizon was a 1-year ­period. The analysis was performed from a hospital's perspective. Subsequently, a threshold-analysis of the reduction of preventable adverse events as an effect of clinical risk management was executed. Furthermore, a static capital budgeting over a 5-year period was added, complemented by a risk analysis. Regarding the given assumptions, the implementation of clinical risk management would save about 53 000 € or 175 000 €, respectively, for an average hospital within the first year. Only if the reduction of preventable adverse events is as low as 5.6 or 2.8%, respectively, will the implementation of clinical risk management produce losses. According to a comprehensive risk simulation this happens in less than one out of 1 million cases. The investment in a clinical risk management, based on a 5-year period and an interest rate of 5%, has an annually pay off of 81 000 € or 211 000 €, respectively. The implementation of clinical risk management in a hospital pays off within the first year. In the subsequent years the surplus is even higher due to the elimination of implementation costs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Management of Environmental Risks in Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Pagliarulo, R.; Scarano, M.; Mazzone, F.; Scognamiglio, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present work deals with the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions in a typical costal area of Southern Italy. This area, located in the Salento peninsula, is subject to recurrent widespread instability phenomena due to the presence of steep rocky cliffs. Along the coast there are numerous beach resorts that are very crowded in the summer season. The environmental hazard deriving from the possible rock falls is unacceptably high for the people safety. Moreover, the land-based mapping of the dangerous natural structures is very difficult and time and resources expending. In this context, we carried out an UAV survey along about 1 km of coast, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dell'Orso and Sant' Andrea ( Lecce, Southern Italy). The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (Agisoft Photoscan). The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with a GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental risks.

  11. Nano risk analysis: advancing the science for nanomaterials risk management.

    PubMed

    Shatkin, Jo Anne; Abbott, Linda Carolyn; Bradley, Ann E; Canady, Richard Alan; Guidotti, Tee; Kulinowski, Kristen M; Löfstedt, Ragnar E; Louis, Garrick; MacDonell, Margaret; Macdonell, Margaret; Maynard, Andrew D; Paoli, Greg; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Walker, Nigel; White, Ronald; Williams, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Scientists, activists, industry, and governments have raised concerns about health and environmental risks of nanoscale materials. The Society for Risk Analysis convened experts in September 2008 in Washington, DC to deliberate on issues relating to the unique attributes of nanoscale materials that raise novel concerns about health risks. This article reports on the overall themes and findings of the workshop, uncovering the underlying issues for each of these topics that become recurring themes. The attributes of nanoscale particles and other nanomaterials that present novel issues for risk analysis are evaluated in a risk analysis framework, identifying challenges and opportunities for risk analysts and others seeking to assess and manage the risks from emerging nanoscale materials and nanotechnologies. Workshop deliberations and recommendations for advancing the risk analysis and management of nanotechnologies are presented.

  12. Decisionmaking under risk in invasive species management: risk management theory and applications

    Treesearch

    Shefali V. Mehta; Robert G. Haight; Frances R. Homans

    2010-01-01

    Invasive species management is closely entwined with the assessment and management of risk that arises from the inherently random nature of the invasion process. The theory and application of risk management for invasive species with an economic perspective is reviewed in this synthesis. Invasive species management can be delineated into three general categories:...

  13. [Risk management project: reactive or proactive approach?].

    PubMed

    Vastola, Pasquale; Saracino, Donato M T

    2006-01-01

    Risk management in healthcare refers to the process of developing strategies aimed at preventing and controlling the risk of occurrence of errors and harmful events. The final objective is primarily that of increasing patient safety and secondarily, that of reducing the financial burden of adverse events. The implementation of a risk management system is therefore of vital strategic importance. Nevertheless, a fundamental question that needs to be answered in the operational phase is: should a proactive or reactive approach to risk management be taken? In our view, proactive risk management has many advantages over a reactive approach and is therefore preferable. The reactive approach should be taken exclusively to obtain information regarding risk and errors, in the preliminary, as well as monitoring and follow-up phases of the project.

  14. Risk management - What about software?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Risks in software systems arise from many directions. There are risks that the software is faulty, that the system may be attacked, that safety hazards exist, that the system may be inoperable or untimely, that an abnormal event may cause unexpected actions, etc. Risk analysis tools should support and document risk-mitigation decisions and facilitate understanding of residual risks. These tools must be based on a sound theory of risk, which does not exist today. Probabilistic risk assessment techniques apply to physically-based systems where failure modes and event dependence are fairly well understood. But they cannot be blindly applied to software systems, which do not share these characteristics. Moreover, we need to meld many diverse aspects of risk for software systems. This presentation will explore some thought-provoking ideas about modeling, problem spaces, solution approaches, math, decision friendly output, and the role of risk analysis in the software lifecycle.

  15. Systems approach to project risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Kindinger, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the need for better performance in the planning and execution of projects and examines the capabilities of two different project risk analysis methods for improving project performance. A quantitative approach based on concepts and tools adopted from the disciplines of systems analysis, probabilistic risk analysis, and other fields is advocated for managing risk in large and complex research & development projects. This paper also provides an overview of how this system analysis approach for project risk management is being used at Los Alamos National Laboratory along with examples of quantitative risk analysis results and their application to improve project performance.

  16. Occupational safety risk management in Australian mining.

    PubMed

    Joy, J

    2004-08-01

    In the past 15 years, there has been a major safety improvement in the Australian mining industry. Part of this change can be attributed to the development and application of risk assessment methods. These systematic, team-based techniques identify, assess and control unacceptable risks to people, assets, the environment and production. The outcomes have improved mine management systems. This paper discusses the risk assessment approach applied to equipment design and mining operations, as well as the specific risk assessment methodology. The paper also discusses the reactive side of risk management, incident and accident investigation. Systematic analytical methods have also been adopted by regulatory authorities and mining companies to investigate major losses.

  17. Risk-based underground pipeline safety management considering corrosion effect.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seolin; Lee, Gunhak; Ahmed, Usama; Lee, Yongkyu; Na, Jonggeol; Han, Chonghun

    2017-08-18

    Due to the long term usage and irregular maintenance for corrosion checks, catastrophic accidents have been increasing in underground pipelines. In this study, a new safety management methodology of underground pipeline, risk-based pipeline management, is introduced reflecting corrosion effect. First, principle of the risk-based pipeline management is presented compared with an original method, qualitative measure. It is distinguished from the qualitative measure by reflecting societal risk and corrosion in safety management of underground pipeline. And then, it is applied to an existing underground propylene pipeline in Ulsan Industrial Complex, South Korea. The consequence analysis is based on real information, and the frequency analysis reflects degree of corrosion. For calculation of corrosion rate, direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) and close interval potential survey (CIPS) are conducted. As a result of applying the risk-based pipeline management, risk integral is reduced by 56.8% compared to the qualitative measure. Finally, sensitivity analysis is conducted on variables, which affect the risk of the pipeline. This study would contribute to introduce quantitative measure to pipeline management and increase safety of pipeline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Communication: the connection between assessment and management of changing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Teresa; Prenger-Berninghoff, Kathrin; Charrière, Marie

    2013-04-01

    Working toward effective risk mitigation strategies amidst ever-present and increasingly changing risks requires first effective communication between assessment and management spheres. This notion permeates the spectrum of what can be considered the physical changing risk inputs that feed into the risk governance processes of assessment, management and communication of risks. Close connections and overlaps between assessment and management requires communication to serve as the crux for the close collaboration necessary for encouraging preventative, long-term strategies for reducing disaster risks.1 More specifically, communication of risk information plays this connective role by informing and advising policy and decision making processes conducted by actors such as spatial planners who receive this information. In this way, those who assess the risks provide information to those who must manage these risks. When this one-directional communication pathway is reciprocated, risk managers provide information to risk assessors, enabling two-way communication amongst actors working toward risk reduction. This communication and exchange of information enables development of strategies and actions taken toward creating and improving risk mitigation measures within a given territory and community. Further, management actions taken (especially for mitigative measures) can alter the physical and social elements of the spatial context of their territory.2 This demands an adjustment of the previous risk assessment information and communication of the change in potential risk. These conceptual underpinnings are addressed and presented through explanation of an analytical framework encompassing changing risk inputs into risk governance processes. The framework elaborates the risk communication component and is supported by practical examples from stakeholder meetings and site visits in the Polish and Romania case study areas of the Marie Curie ITN, CHANGES.3 Specific examples

  19. High Risk Pregnancy: Detection and Management

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, G. Fraser; Chance, Graham W.

    1982-01-01

    Risk in pregnancy relates to events which lead to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Numerous risk scoring systems have been devised to bring attention to risk factors so that problems can be prevented, identified and treated. However, by carrying out very few fundamental assessments at regular antenatal office visits: checking blood pressure, testing urine for protein, measuring the symphysis to fundus height and carefully establishing the expected date of confinement during the first trimester, the principal causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality—intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, congenital anomalies, infection, abruptio placentae and meconium aspiration—can be identified and treated. Appropriate perinatal management of the very premature fetus/neonate (less than 34 weeks gestation) is a critical factor which will influence outcome. Whenever possible the mother should be transferred to a centre equipped and staffed for all necessary intrapartum and neonatal care, to minimize the risk of adverse outcome: postnatal transfer of the deteriorating, sick, small neonate is at best hazardous. PMID:21286514

  20. Risk management model in road transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  1. The 2008 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part 1 – blood pressure measurement, diagnosis and assessment of risk

    PubMed Central

    Padwal, Raj S; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Khan, Nadia A; Grover, Steven; McAlister, Finlay A; McKay, Donald W; Wilson, Thomas; Penner, Brian; Burgess, Ellen; Bolli, Peter; Hill, Michael D; Mahon, Jeff; Myers, Martin G; Abbott, Carl; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Honos, George; Mann, Karen; Tremblay, Guy; Milot, Alain; Cloutier, Lyne; Chockalingam, Arun; Rabkin, Simon W; Dawes, Martin; Touyz, Rhian M; Bell, Chaim; Burns, Kevin D; Ruzicka, Marcel; Campbell, Norman RC; Lebel, Marcel; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and assessment of adults with hypertension. OPTIONS AND OUTCOMES: The diagnosis of hypertension is dependent on appropriate blood pressure measurement, the timely assessment of serially elevated readings, degree of blood pressure elevation, method of measurement (office, ambulatory, home) and associated comorbidities. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage should be ascertained to assess global cardiovascular risk and determine the urgency, intensity and type of treatment required. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE searches were conducted from November 2006 to October 2007 with the aid of a medical librarian. Reference lists were scanned, experts were contacted, and the personal files of authors and subgroup members were used to identify additional studies. Content and methodological experts assessed studies using prespecified, standardized evidence-based algorithms. Recommendations were based on evidence from peer-reviewed, full-text articles only. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations for blood pressure measurement, criteria for hypertension diagnosis and follow-up, assessment of global cardiovascular risk, diagnostic testing, diagnosis of renovascular and endocrine causes of hypertension, home and ambulatory monitoring, and the use of echocardiography in hypertensive individuals are outlined. Key messages in 2008 include continued emphasis on the expedited, accurate diagnosis of hypertension, the importance of global risk assessment and the need for ongoing monitoring of hypertensive patients to identify incident type 2 diabetes. PMID:18548142

  2. An Introduction to Team Risk Management. (Version 1.0)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    Team Risk Management defines the organizational structure and operational activities for managing risks throughout all phases of the life- cycle of a...program are participating team members. Through the adoption of team risk management , the government and contractor are provided with processes...introduces the team risk management approach for managing risks within a software-dependent development program.

  3. Risk management at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.G.; Stack, D.W.

    1993-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has risk management programs at a number of administrative levels. Each line organization has responsibility for risk management for routine operations. The Facility Risk Management group (HS-3) is the Los Alamos organization with the primary responsibility for risk management including providing input and expertise to facilities and line managers in the management and documentation of ES&H hazards and risks associated with existing and new activities. One of the major contributions this group has made to laboratory risk management program is to develop and implement a hazard identification and classification methodology that is readily adaptable to continuously changing classification guidelines such as DOE-STD-1027. The increased emphasis on safety at Los Alamos has led to the formation of additional safety oversight organization such as the Integration and Coordination Office (ICO), which is responsible for prioritization of risk management activities. In the fall of 1991, nearly 170 DOE inspectors spent 6 weeks analyzing the environmental, safety, and health activities at Los Alamos. The result of this audit was a list of over 1000 findings, each indicating some deficiency in current Laboratory operations relative to DOE and other government regulation. The audit team`s findings were consolidated and ``action plans`` were developed to address the findings. This resulted in over 200 action plans with a total estimated cost of almost $1 billion. The Laboratory adopted a risk-based prioritization process to attempt to achieve as much risk reduction as possible with the available resources. This paper describes the risk based prioritization model that was developed.

  4. Risk Management in Biologics Technology Transfer.

    PubMed

    Toso, Robert; Tsang, Jonathan; Xie, Jasmina; Hohwald, Stephen; Bain, David; Willison-Parry, Derek

    Technology transfer of biological products is a complex process that is important for product commercialization. To achieve a successful technology transfer, the risks that arise from changes throughout the project must be managed. Iterative risk analysis and mitigation tools can be used to both evaluate and reduce risk. The technology transfer stage gate model is used as an example tool to help manage risks derived from both designed process change and unplanned changes that arise due to unforeseen circumstances. The strategy of risk assessment for a change can be tailored to the type of change. In addition, a cross-functional team and centralized documentation helps maximize risk management efficiency to achieve a successful technology transfer. © PDA, Inc. 2016.

  5. The Xyrem risk management program.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David E; Hornfeldt, Carl S; Kelloway, Judy S; Stahl, Pamela J; Anderson, Todd F

    2004-01-01

    Sodium oxybate, also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), was discovered in 1960 and has been described both as a therapeutic agent with high medical value and, more recently, a substance of abuse. The naturally occurring form of this drug is found in various body tissues but has been studied most extensively in the CNS where its possible function as a neurotransmitter continues to be studied. Sodium oxybate has been approved in different countries for such varied uses as general anaesthesia, the treatment of alcohol withdrawal and addiction, and, most recently, cataplexy associated with narcolepsy. During the 1980s, easy access to GHB-containing products led to various unapproved uses, including weight loss, bodybuilding and the treatment of sleeplessness, sometimes with serious long-term effects. The availability of these unapproved and unregulated forms of the drug led to GHB and its analogues being popularised as substances of abuse and subsequent notoriety as agents used in drug-facilitated sexual assault, or 'date rape', eventually leading to the prohibition of GHB sales in the US. Legal efforts to control the sale and distribution of GHB and its analogues nearly prevented the clinical development of sodium oxybate for narcolepsy in the US. However, following extensive discussions with a variety of interested parties, a satisfactory solution was devised, including legislative action and the development of the Xyrem Risk Management Program. Amendments to the US Controlled Substances Act made GHB a schedule I drug, but also contained provisions that allow US FDA-approved products to be placed under schedule III. This unique, bifurcated schedule for sodium oxybate/GHB allowed the clinical development of sodium oxybate to proceed and, in July 2002, it was approved by the FDA as an orphan drug for the treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy as Xyrem(sodium oxybate) oral solution. To promote the safe use of sodium oxybate, as well as alleviate

  6. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  7. Risk perception as a driver for risk management policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, María; Mañez, María

    2016-04-01

    Risk is generally defined as the "combination of the probability of the occurrence of an event and its negative consequences" ( UNISDR, 2009). However, the perception of a risk differs among cultures regarding different features such as the context,causes, benefits or damage. Risk perception is the subjective valuation of the probability of an event happening and how concerned individuals or groups are with the consequences (Sjöberg, 2004). Our study is based on an existing framework for risk perception (Rehn and Rohrmann, 2000). We analyse the characteristics of the risk perception regarding extreme events (e.g.droughts) and how the perception of the group drives the action to manage the risk. We do this to achieve an overview of the conditions that let stakeholders join each other to improve risk management especially when governments are not reacting properly. For our research, attention is paid on risk perception of Multi-Sector Partnerships not taking into account the individual level of risk perception. We focus on those factors that make risk management effective and increase resilience. Multi-Sector Partnerships, considered as significant governance structures for risk management, might contribute to reduce vulnerability in prone areas to natural hazards and disasters. The Multi-Sector Partnerships used for our research are existing partnerships identified in the cases studies of the European project ENHANCE. We implement a survey to analyse the perception of risk in the case studies. That survey is based on the Cultural Theory (Douglas and Wildavsky, 1982)and the Protection Motivation Theory (Rogers, 1975). We analyse the results using the Qualitative-Comparative Analysis proposed by Ragin in 1987. The results show the main characteristics of a risk culture that are beneficial to manage a risk. Those characteristics are shaped by the perception of risk of the people involved in the partnership, which in turn shapes their risk management. Nevertheless, we

  8. Driving forces and risk management

    EPA Science Inventory

    From a public health perspective, food safety is the overall goal and there are two distinct areas where interventions to this end can take place – either pre- or post-harvest. In pre-harvest, water quality management is the focus whereas post-harvest quality management depends ...

  9. Driving forces and risk management

    EPA Science Inventory

    From a public health perspective, food safety is the overall goal and there are two distinct areas where interventions to this end can take place – either pre- or post-harvest. In pre-harvest, water quality management is the focus whereas post-harvest quality management depends ...

  10. Risk Management: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on risks and challenges of conducting adventure programming in foreign countries. Recommends actions to take before the crisis (involving assumptions, risk evaluation, emergency evacuation plans, awareness of medical-care costs, and foreign communications systems, family procedures plan, briefings); during the crisis (meeting staff and…

  11. Safety optimization through risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K.; Peltonen, P.

    The paper discusses the overall process of system safety optimization in the space program environment and addresses in particular methods that enhance the efficiency of this activity. Effective system safety optimization is achieved by concentrating the available engineering and safety assurance resouces on the main risk contributors. The qualitative risk contributor identification by means of the hazard analyses and the FMECA constitute the basis for the system safety process. The risk contributors are ranked firstly on a qualitative basis according to the consequence severities. This ranking is then refined by mishap propagation/recovery time considerations and by probabilistic means (PRA). Finally, in order to broaden and extend the use of risk contributor ranking as a managerial tool in project resource assignment, quality, manufacturing and operations related critical characteristics, i.e. risk influencing factors, are identified for managerial visibility.

  12. Balancing risks in the management of contaminated first nations fisheries.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Clare L S; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2002-12-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s, the Government of Canada closed and/or issued advisories for a number of shellfish fisheries in coastal areas of British Columbia because of dioxin contamination. Only the direct health risks (i.e., cancer) of consuming contaminated shellfish for the general population were considered by the Government in the formulation of risk management options. A focus on the direct risks does not provide an adequate basis for risk decisions as the countervailing risks which may be created from management measures may easily be overlooked. This study describes the potential health impacts of risk management options for aboriginal coastal peoples in the management of dioxin contamination. Gold River and Powell River in British Columbia, Canada, are the areas of focus. The cancer risks of consuming dioxin contaminated shellfish for these sites are estimated. To assess the countervailing risks of management decisions for comparison, a scenario was developed in which First Nations peoples substitute shellfish with store-bought foods in their diets in the event of a fishery closure or advisory. Increases in mortality due to coronary heart disease are estimated. The results suggest that the health risks of dietary changes among aboriginal peoples may be as significant as those related to eating dioxin contaminated shellfish.

  13. Intelligent adversary risk analysis: a bioterrorism risk management model.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Gregory S; Smith, Christopher M; Moxley, Frederick I

    2010-01-01

    The tragic events of 9/11 and the concerns about the potential for a terrorist or hostile state attack with weapons of mass destruction have led to an increased emphasis on risk analysis for homeland security. Uncertain hazards (natural and engineering) have been successfully analyzed using probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Unlike uncertain hazards, terrorists and hostile states are intelligent adversaries who can observe our vulnerabilities and dynamically adapt their plans and actions to achieve their objectives. This article compares uncertain hazard risk analysis with intelligent adversary risk analysis, describes the intelligent adversary risk analysis challenges, and presents a probabilistic defender-attacker-defender model to evaluate the baseline risk and the potential risk reduction provided by defender investments. The model includes defender decisions prior to an attack; attacker decisions during the attack; defender actions after an attack; and the uncertainties of attack implementation, detection, and consequences. The risk management model is demonstrated with an illustrative bioterrorism problem with notional data.

  14. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Elder, Matthew S.; Andrews, William B.; Walton, Terry L.

    2003-09-15

    The RHRM equations, as represented in methodology and code presented in this report, are primarily a collection of key factors normally used in risk assessment that are relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected mitigation, cleanup, and risk management activities. The RHRM code has broad application potential. For example, it can be used to compare one mitigation, cleanup, or risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to just the fixed baseline. If the appropriate source term data are available, it can be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated controlling hazards and risks. These estimated values of controlling hazards and risks can then be examined to help understand which mitigation, cleanup, or risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions and risk reduction potential at a site. Graphics can be generated from these absolute controlling hazard and risk values to graphically compare these high hazard and risk reduction potential conditions. If the RHRM code is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard and risk estimates) the resultant absolute controlling hazard and risk values.

  15. Small Business and the Risk Management Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This factsheet helps small businesses comply with the regulation requiring companies that use regulated substances, hazardous chemical such as ammonia and chlorine, to develop a risk management plan, to help prevent accidental toxic or flammable releases.

  16. Risk management integration into complex project organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, K.; Greanias, G.; Rose, J.; Dumas, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing and adapting the SIRTF prototype, discusses some of the lessons learned in developing the SIRTF prototype, and explains the adaptability of the risk management database to varying levels project complexity.

  17. Risk management integration into complex project organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, K.; Greanias, G.; Rose, J.; Dumas, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing and adapting the SIRTF prototype, discusses some of the lessons learned in developing the SIRTF prototype, and explains the adaptability of the risk management database to varying levels project complexity.

  18. Biosecurity and risk management for dairy replacements.

    PubMed

    Maunsell, Fiona; Donovan, G Arthur

    2008-03-01

    Biosecurity, biocontainment, and disease risk management on dairy replacement operations are time- and labor-intensive, planned programs. Oftentimes the value of these programs is realized only after disease is introduced to a facility or a disease outbreak occurs. There is no "one-plan-fits-all;" each plan must be tailored to meet the needs of management's goals and expectations and problems specific to a production enterprise or geographic region. A standard framework applicable to biosecurity programs includes: (1) hazard identification, (2) exposure assessment, (3) risk characterization, and (4) risk management. The discussion presented here helps lay the framework for development and implementation of biosecurity and risk-management programs within dairy replacement facilities.

  19. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  20. 76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity...

  1. The 2009 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part 1 – blood pressure measurement, diagnosis and assessment of risk

    PubMed Central

    Padwal, Raj S; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Khan, Nadia A; Grover, Steven; McKay, Donald W; Wilson, Thomas; Penner, Brian; Burgess, Ellen; McAlister, Finlay A; Bolli, Peter; Hill, Michael D; Mahon, Jeff; Myers, Martin G; Abbott, Carl; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Honos, George; Mann, Karen; Tremblay, Guy; Milot, Alain; Cloutier, Lyne; Chockalingam, Arun; Rabkin, Simon W; Dawes, Martin; Touyz, Rhian M; Bell, Chaim; Burns, Kevin D; Ruzicka, Marcel; Campbell, Norman RC; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and assessment of adults with hypertension. OPTIONS AND OUTCOMES: The diagnosis of hypertension is dependent on appropriate blood pressure measurement, the timely assessment of serially elevated readings, the degree of blood pressure elevation, the method of measurement (office, ambulatory, home) and associated comorbidities. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage should be ascertained to assess global cardiovascular risk and determine the urgency, intensity and type of treatment required. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE searches were conducted from November 2007 to October 2008 with the aid of a medical librarian. Reference lists were scanned, experts were contacted, and the personal files of authors and subgroup members were used to identify additional studies. Content and methodological experts assessed studies using prespecified, standardized evidence-based algorithms. Recommendations were based on evidence from peer-reviewed full-text articles only. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations for blood pressure measurement, criteria for hypertension diagnosis and follow-up, assessment of global cardiovascular risk, diagnostic testing, diagnosis of renovascular and endocrine causes of hypertension, home and ambulatory monitoring, and the use of echocardiography in hypertensive individuals are outlined. Key messages include continued emphasis on the expedited, accurate diagnosis of hypertension, the importance of global risk assessment and the need for ongoing monitoring of hypertensive patients to identify incident type 2 diabetes. VALIDATION: All recommendations were graded according to strength of the evidence and voted on by the 57 members of the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Evidence-Based Recommendations Task Force. All recommendations were required to be supported by at least 70% of task force members. These guidelines will continue to be updated annually. PMID

  2. Radiation risk management at DOE accelerator facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, O.B. van

    1997-01-01

    The DOE accelerator contractors have been discussing among themselves and with the Department how to improve radiation safety risk management. This activity-how to assure prevention of unplanned high exposures-is separate from normal exposure management, which historically has been quite successful. The ad-hoc Committee on the Accelerator Safety Order and Guidance [CASOG], formed by the Accelerator Section of the HPS, has proposed a risk- based approach, which will be discussed. Concepts involved are risk quantification and comparison (including with non-radiation risk), passive and active (reacting) protection systems, and probabilistic analysis. Different models of risk management will be presented, and the changing regulatory environment will also be discussed..

  3. Interdisciplinary task force designs risk management program.

    PubMed

    Van Sluyter, C K; Hays, P G

    1978-08-01

    When a hospital decided to self-insure, it also realized that it needed a more comprehensive risk management program to protect its operating assets. To develop this program, an interdisciplinary task force and its five subcommittees involved as many staff members as possible in studying and proposing risk management efforts related to policies and procedures, hiring practices, staffpatient interactions, staff and community education, and claims review.

  4. Operational Risk Management and Military Aviation Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    accidents has caused the leadership to seek to reduce its mishap rate. The Army’s Class A aviation mishap rate declined after it implemented risk management (RM...principles in 1987. This reduction caught the attention of Air Force leadership who have since stated that the application of operational risk ... management (ORM) is how the Air Force will reduce, even eliminate, mishaps. With current budget constraints, ORM is considered to be the most cost

  5. Flood Risk and Asset Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-14

    WN911NF-10-2-0104  FLOOD RISK AND ASSET MANGEMENT ----Approved for Public Release, distribution unlimited PN 01 1 R. 1.0 WN911NF-10-2-0104... MANGEMENT PN 01 2 R. 1.0 Contents 1. Progress statement...7 1. Progress statement Following the workshop at HR Wallingford in February 2011, a system flood risk model of the St Paul Minnesota

  6. Managing multihazards risk in metropolitan USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Comfort, Louise K.; Shanis, Donald S.

    2003-07-01

    This proposal outlines an action plan for risk management in the Delaware Valley Metropolitan Region. This plan is consistent with the goals for strengthening homeland security announced by President Bush, and is designed to complement efforts currently under development by Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency and Department of Health. This plan proposes the formation of a Delaware Valley Risk Management Consortium, representing the critical disciplines and organizations related to risk assessment and management. This group would have membership from academic institutions, government agencies, industry, and nonprofit organizations. This Consortium would develop a systemic scope of work with the appropriate recommendations for technology acquisition, development and integration with risk management policies and procedures. This scope of work would include the development of two related information systems for the Delaware Valley Region. The first would be a comprehensive 'health monitoring' system to assess the continuity of operations, which would use integrated remote sensing and imaging, information gathering, communication, computation, and, information processing and management over wide-area networks covering the entire metropolitan area. The second would use real-time information from the health monitoring system to support interactive communication, search and information exchange needed to coordinate action among the relevant agencies to mitigate risk, respond to hazards and manage its resources efficiently and effectively.

  7. Impact assessment of risk management interventions.

    PubMed

    Shryock, T R

    2012-04-01

    Much effort has been invested in the development and implementation of international recommendations to manage the risk of foodborne antimicrobial resistance, and monitoring programmes to measure bacterial antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial product volumes. A variety of approaches have been recommended for various stakeholders in the food animal and food production sectors. Interestingly, much less consideration has been given to the establishment of success criteria for the individual interventions and even less for the cumulative effects, when all interventions are considered together as consecutive 'hurdles' along the food chain. The author explores the outcome and unforeseen consequences of these various interventions and appropriate methods that could provide data to assess their impact, as well as key learning experiences that should lead to refinements of such interventions in the future.

  8. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  9. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  10. Managing Risk on the Final Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel, David M.; Newman, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has combined the Continuous Risk Management (CRM) discipline with innovative knowledge management (KM) practices to more effectively enable the accomplishment of work. CRM enables proactive problem identification and problem solving in the complex world of rocket science. while KM is used to improve this process.

  11. 12 CFR 917.3 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND... this section and to all applicable Finance Board regulations and policies. (2) Review and compliance... forth in this chapter, each Bank's risk management policy shall: (1) After the Finance Board has...

  12. Lessons Learned in Risk Management on NCSX

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson, C.O. Gruber, J.H. Harris, D.J. Rej, R.T. Simmons, and R.L. Strykowsky

    2009-07-21

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was designed to test physics principles of an innovative stellarator design developed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Construction of some of the major components and sub-assemblies was completed, but the estimated cost and schedule for completing the project grew as the technical requirements and risks became better understood, leading to its cancellation in 2008. The project's risks stemmed from its technical challenges, primarily the complex component geometries and tight tolerances that were required. The initial baseline, established in 2004, was supported by a risk management plan and risk-based contingencies, both of which proved to be inadequate. Technical successes were achieved in the construction of challenging components and subassemblies, but cost and schedule growth was experienced. As part of an effort to improve project performance, a new risk management program was devised and implemented in 2007-08. It led to a better understanding of project risks, a sounder basis for contingency estimates, and improved management tools. Although the risks ultimately were unacceptable to the sponsor, valuable lessons in risk management were learned through the experiences with the NCSX project.

  13. Lessons Learned in Risk Management on NCSX

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Neilson, C.O. Gruber, J.H. Harris, D.J. Rej, R.T. Simmons, and R.L. Strykowsky

    2009-02-11

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was designed to test physics principles of an innovative stellarator design developed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Construction of some of the major components and sub-assemblies was completed, but the estimated cost and schedule for completing the project grew as the technical requirements and risks became better understood, leading to its cancellation in 2008. The project's risks stemmed from its technical challenges, primarily the complex component geometries and tight tolerances that were required. The initial baseline, established in 2004, was supported by a risk management plan and risk-based contingencies, both of which proved to be inadequate. Technical successes were achieved in the construction of challenging components and subassemblies, but cost and schedule growth was experienced. As part of an effort to improve project performance, a new risk management program was devised and implemented in 2007-08. It led to a better understanding of project risks, a sounder basis for contingency estimates, and improved management tools. Although the risks ultimately were unacceptable to the sponsor, valuable lessons in risk management were learned through the experiences with the NCSX project.

  14. 76 FR 45724 - Clearing Member Risk Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... for adherence to the risk-based limits intra-day and overnight; (4) Conduct stress tests of all... intermediary's existing position or credit limits. Stress tests are an essential risk management tool. The purpose in conducting stress tests is to determine the potential for significant losses in the event...

  15. Risk management, derivatives and shariah compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath

    2013-04-01

    Despite the impressive growth of Islamic Banking and Finance (IBF), a number of weaknesses remain. The most important of this is perhaps the lack of shariah compliant risk management tools. While the risk sharing philosophy of Islamic Finance requires the acceptance of risk to justify returns, the shariah also requires adherents to avoid unnecessary risk-maysir. The requirement to avoid maysir is in essence a call for the prudent management of risk. Contemporary risk management revolves around financial engineering, the building blocks of which are financial derivatives. Despite the proven efficacy of derivatives in the management of risk in the conventional space, shariah scholars appear to be suspicious and uneasy with their use in IBF. Some have imposed outright prohibition of their use. This paper re-examines the issue of contemporary derivative instruments and shariah compliance. The shariah compatibility of derivatives is shown in a number of ways. First, by way of qualitative evaluation of whether derivatives can be made to comply with the key prohibitions of the sharia. Second, by way of comparing the payoff profiles of derivatives with risk sharing finance and Bai Salam contracts. Finally, the equivalence between shariah compliant derivatives like the IPRS and Islamic FX Currency Forwards with conventional ones is presented.

  16. Brugada Syndrome:Risk Stratification And Management.

    PubMed

    Letsas Md Fesc, Konstantinos P; Georgopoulos Md, Stamatis; Vlachos Md, Konstantinos; Karamichalakis Md, Nikolaos; Liatakis Md, Ioannis; Korantzopoulos Md PhD, Panagiotis; Liu Md PhD, Tong; Efremidis Md, Michael; Sideris Md, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an arrhythmogenic disease associated with an increased risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. The risk stratification and management of BrS patients, particularly of asymptomatic ones, still remains challenging. A previous history of aborted sudden cardiac death or arrhythmic syncope in the presence of spontaneous type 1 ECG pattern of BrS phenotype appear to be the most reliable predictors of future arrhythmic events. Several other ECG parameters have been proposed for risk stratification. Among these ECG markers, QRS-fragmentation appears very promising. Although the value of electrophysiological study still remains controversial, it appears to add important information on risk stratification, particularly when incorporated in multiparametric scores in combination with other known risk factors. The present review article provides an update on the pathophysiology, risk stratification and management of patients with BrS.

  17. CERTS; A Comparative Evaluation Method for Risk Management Methodologies and Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    This thesis develops a comparative evaluation method for computer security risk management methodologies and tools. The subjective biases inherent to...current comparison practices are reduced by measuring unique characteristics of computer security risk management methodologies. Standardized...methodologies and tools to each other. As a demonstration of its effectiveness, our method is applied to four distinct risk management methodologies and

  18. Measurement and pricing of risk in insurance markets.

    PubMed

    Tsanakas, Andreas; Desli, Evangelia

    2005-12-01

    The theory and practice of risk measurement provides a point of intersection between risk management, economic theories of choice under risk, financial economics, and actuarial pricing theory. This article provides a review of these interrelationships, from the perspective of an insurance company seeking to price the risks that it underwrites. We examine three distinct approaches to insurance risk pricing, all being contingent on the concept of risk measures. Risk measures can be interpreted as representations of risk orderings, as well as absolute (monetary) quantifiers of risk. The first approach can be called an "axiomatic" one, whereby the price for risks is calculated according to a functional determined by a set of desirable properties. The price of a risk is directly interpreted as a risk measure and may be induced by an economic theory of price under risk. The second approach consists in contextualizing the considerations of the risk bearer by embedding them in the market where risks are traded. Prices are calculated by equilibrium arguments, where each economic agent's optimization problem follows from the minimization of a risk measure. Finally, in the third approach, weaknesses of the equilibrium approach are addressed by invoking alternative valuation techniques, the leading paradigm among which is arbitrage pricing. Such models move the focus from individual decision takers to abstract market price systems and are thus more parsimonious in the amount of information that they require. In this context, risk measures, instead of characterizing individual agents, are used for determining the set of price systems that would be viable in a market.

  19. Information needs for risk management/communication

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.A.

    1990-12-31

    The hazardous waste cleanup program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) is delegated to the ten Regions of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and has, to date, identified more than 33,000 sites for consideration. The size and complexity of the program places great demands on those who would provide information to achieve national consistency in application of risk assessment while meeting site-specific needs for risk management and risk communication.

  20. Cost effective management of space venture risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuntini, Ronald E.; Storm, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a model for the cost-effective management of space venture risks is discussed. The risk assessment and control program of insurance companies is examined. A simplified system development cycle which consists of a conceptual design phase, a preliminary design phase, a final design phase, a construction phase, and a system operations and maintenance phase is described. The model incorporates insurance safety risk methods and reliability engineering, and testing practices used in the development of large aerospace and defense systems.

  1. Cost effective management of space venture risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuntini, Ronald E.; Storm, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a model for the cost-effective management of space venture risks is discussed. The risk assessment and control program of insurance companies is examined. A simplified system development cycle which consists of a conceptual design phase, a preliminary design phase, a final design phase, a construction phase, and a system operations and maintenance phase is described. The model incorporates insurance safety risk methods and reliability engineering, and testing practices used in the development of large aerospace and defense systems.

  2. Climate Change Risk Management: CRE Adaptation Projects and the Risk Management Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes National Estuary Program partner projects that demonstrate how risk management can be successfully applied to address environmental challenges in our country’s coastal areas.

  3. Public sector risk management: a specific model.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Ted

    2002-07-01

    Risk management programs for state mental health authorities are generally limited in scope and reactive in nature. Recent changes in how mental health care is provided render it necessary to redirect the risk management focus from its present institutional basis to a statewide, network-based paradigm that is integrated across public and private inpatient and community programs alike. These changes include treating an increasing number of individuals in less-secure settings and contracting for an increasing number of public mental health services with private providers. The model proposed here is closely linked to the Quality Management Process.

  4. National Ignition Facility Risk Management Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S J

    2002-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Risk Management Plan (LLNL, 1997a) was originally prepared in 1997 in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Life Cycle Asset Management Good Practice Guide (DOE, 1996a) and supported NIF Critical Decision 3, approval to initiate construction (DOE, 1997a). The plan was updated in 1998 to reflect realized risks such as the finding and successful clean up of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-filled electrical capacitors at the NIF excavation during initial construction and the litigation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship (DOE, 1996b) by a group of non-governmental organizations led by the Natural Resources Defense Council. The current update of the Risk Management Plan brings it into compliance with the applicable DOE Orders and Standards and addresses new risks, such as assuring safety during the period when construction, special equipment installation, and commissioning are occurring simultaneously at the NIF site, and the extensive use of models to manage technical performance risk. The objectives of the updated plan are to: (1) Identify the risks to the completion of the Project in terms of meeting performance and regulatory requirements, ES&H, cost, and schedule; (2) Assess or the risks in terms of likelihood of occurrence and their impact potential relative to technical performance, ES&H, costs, and schedule; and (3) Address suitable risk mitigation measures for each identified risk.

  5. 10 Commandments of Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworken, Bari S.

    1998-01-01

    Gives 10 strategies and examples for camp crisis-management: a written, implemented emergency plan; clear, honest communication; trained staff; good community relationships; learning from experience; knowing the local environment; preparing for the media; considering long-term impacts; avoiding adverse effects; and recognizing good things that…

  6. Recommendations for Insulin Dose Calculator Risk Management.

    PubMed

    Rees, Christen

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown the usefulness of an automated insulin dose bolus advisor (BA) in achieving improved glycemic control for insulin-using diabetes patients. Although regulatory agencies have approved several BAs over the past decades, these devices are not standardized in their approach to dosage calculation and include many features that may introduce risk to patients. Moreover, there is no single standard of care for diabetes worldwide and no guidance documents for BAs, specifically. Given the emerging and more stringent regulations on software used in medical devices, the approval process is becoming more difficult for manufacturers to navigate, with some manufacturers opting to remove BAs from their products altogether. A comprehensive literature search was performed, including publications discussing: diabetes BA use and benefit, infusion pump safety and regulation, regulatory submissions, novel BAs, and recommendations for regulation and risk management of BAs. Also included were country-specific and international guidance documents for medical device, infusion pump, medical software, and mobile medical application risk management and regulation. No definitive worldwide guidance exists regarding risk management requirements for BAs, specifically. However, local and international guidance documents for medical devices, infusion pumps, and medical device software offer guidance that can be applied to this technology. In addition, risk management exercises that are algorithm-specific can help prepare manufacturers for regulatory submissions. This article discusses key issues relevant to BA use and safety, and recommends risk management activities incorporating current research and guidance.

  7. Recommendations for Insulin Dose Calculator Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown the usefulness of an automated insulin dose bolus advisor (BA) in achieving improved glycemic control for insulin-using diabetes patients. Although regulatory agencies have approved several BAs over the past decades, these devices are not standardized in their approach to dosage calculation and include many features that may introduce risk to patients. Moreover, there is no single standard of care for diabetes worldwide and no guidance documents for BAs, specifically. Given the emerging and more stringent regulations on software used in medical devices, the approval process is becoming more difficult for manufacturers to navigate, with some manufacturers opting to remove BAs from their products altogether. A comprehensive literature search was performed, including publications discussing: diabetes BA use and benefit, infusion pump safety and regulation, regulatory submissions, novel BAs, and recommendations for regulation and risk management of BAs. Also included were country-specific and international guidance documents for medical device, infusion pump, medical software, and mobile medical application risk management and regulation. No definitive worldwide guidance exists regarding risk management requirements for BAs, specifically. However, local and international guidance documents for medical devices, infusion pumps, and medical device software offer guidance that can be applied to this technology. In addition, risk management exercises that are algorithm-specific can help prepare manufacturers for regulatory submissions. This article discusses key issues relevant to BA use and safety, and recommends risk management activities incorporating current research and guidance. PMID:24876550

  8. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  9. Managing the Library Fire Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John

    A discussion of fire risks, causes, prevention, and salvage in libraries is presented in text and photographs. A description of some historic library fires demonstrates the value of adequate protection and preparedness programs to minimize loss and damage. The need for fire retardant construction and protection from valdalism and arson are…

  10. Safety Risk Management for the Emerging Commercial Suborbital Space Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, Joram; Roelen, Alfred

    2013-09-01

    Commercial suborbital spaceflights will soon be a reality. Since fatal accidents will be disastrous for this emerging market, safety risk management must be adequate from the start. Safety risk management is aimed at the identification of hazards and the assessment of resulting safety risks. A proper hazard identification process assures all information available is used, as much data as possible is collected and no possible hazard is dismissed before analysis. A realistic risk assessment should take into account a peak in failure rates at the beginning of operation. Each unacceptable risk must be reduced to an acceptable level using mitigating measures. The results of the risk assessment should be completely and clearly shared with each potential suborbital space flight participant.

  11. Risk management in a university environment.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Ann; Walker, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Risk is an integral part of quality assurance in higher education in Australia. This paper describes a generic methodology for the identification and management of risk in a university or similar tertiary education environment and outlines a framework that enables the management of risk to be incorporated in the institution's governance cycle. The new approach here is that risk is embedded in the quality assurance framework and, in turn, in the strategic planning and budgeting processes. In many organisations, risk is implemented as a separate process and not considered in any meaningful way as integral to the strategic direction and performance of the university. The paper is based on work carried out by the authors and others between March 2008 and April 2009 to develop a comprehensive system for managing risk in a major Australian university, including processes whereby risk management could be integrated with, and add value to, the overall governance of the university. The case study is described in the appendix to this paper.

  12. Risk Management in the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Clinical laboratory tests play an integral role in medical decision-making and as such must be reliable and accurate. Unfortunately, no laboratory tests or devices are foolproof and errors can occur at pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases of testing. Evaluating possible conditions that could lead to errors and outlining the necessary steps to detect and prevent errors before they cause patient harm is therefore an important part of laboratory testing. This can be achieved through the practice of risk management. EP23-A is a new guideline from the CLSI that introduces risk management principles to the clinical laboratory. This guideline borrows concepts from the manufacturing industry and encourages laboratories to develop risk management plans that address the specific risks inherent to each lab. Once the risks have been identified, the laboratory must implement control processes and continuously monitor and modify them to make certain that risk is maintained at a clinically acceptable level. This review summarizes the principles of risk management in the clinical laboratory and describes various quality control activities employed by the laboratory to achieve the goal of reporting valid, accurate and reliable test results. PMID:24982831

  13. Integrating physical and financial approaches to manage environmental financial risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, Gregory; Meyer, Eliot; Foster, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Physical and/or engineered solutions have long been used to manage risks associated with adverse environmental events. Examples include reservoirs as a tool for mitigating drought-related supply risk, levees for managing flood risk and dredging of inland waterways to ensure navigability during low flow periods. These measures can reduce many types of risk (e.g., loss of life), but are often employed as a means of protecting against financial losses. When the focus is on managing environmental financial risk, physical solutions can be effective, but also costly. In many cases, non-physical tools can provide a less expensive means of managing financial risk, with these often taking the form of financial instruments such as hedging contracts, contingency funds or insurance. Some of these instruments, such as flood insurance, are widely available, but historically many environmental financial risks have been managed primarily (or solely) via physical solutions without much consideration of alternatives, thereby opening opportunities for innovation in developing financial solutions. Recent research has demonstrated that financial instruments can play a significant role in managing drought-related financial risk in sectors as diverse as water utilities, energy generation and inland navigation. Nonetheless, this work has largely considered the use of these instruments within systems in which physical solutions are already in place (but failing to achieve desired performance). The next step in the evolution of managing environmental financial risk involves developing methods for designing risk management strategies that do not assume an established physical system. Here the goal is to identify the relative role that physical solutions and financial instruments should play as they are integrated into a comprehensive risk management strategy. This is not a straightforward challenge as one approach reduces the risk of financial losses and the other redistributes those losses

  14. A Framework for Drought Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apurv, T.; Cai, X.

    2016-12-01

    Drought is one of the most expensive natural disasters as it affects many sectors of the economy. The threat posed by droughts is expected to further increase due to increasing water demands fuelled by increasing population and also due to climate change in many regions. Management of the increasing drought risk requires shift from traditional crisis management approaches to long term strategic planning for reduction of drought risk. This study proposes a framework for management of long term drought risk. The framework uses the system based approach proposed by Tsakiris et al. (2013), in which a watershed is considered as a system and different water sources in the watershed (like groundwater, reservoirs, streams etc.) are considered as subsystems associated with certain water requirements of different sectors. Droughts are defined separately for each subsystem considering water availability and requirement. The percentile based drought indicator framework proposed by Steinemann et al. (2015) is used for defining drought for each subsystem, allowing the selection of thresholds, variables of interest, and time scale which are most relevant for stakeholders dependent on a particular subsystem. Future drought risk under different drought management strategies are assessed using hydrologic models that model both hydrologic and human components of a watershed. The robustness of a management strategy is assessed by simulating system response across a wide range of stochastically generated future climate scenarios. The framework is useful for operational drought management as it allows direct management of drought risks with consideration of different water sources and water users. Steinemann, A., Iacobellis, S.F., Cayan, D.R., (2015) "Developing and evaluating drought indicators for decision-making" J. Hydrometeor. 16 (4), 1793-1803 Tsakiris, G, Nalbantis, I, Vangelis, H, Verbeiren, B, Huysmans, M, Tychon, B, Jacquemin, I, Canters, F, Vanderhaegen, S, Engelen, G

  15. Managing risk: An environmental engineering perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, M.A.; Weisberg, J.L.; Apel, S.R.

    1998-07-01

    Due to the nature of environmental investigation, remediation and design, the environmental engineer faces a large potential risk of receiving a claim on almost every project regardless of size. The liability for such a claim can be many times the negotiated fee for the project. While the risk of claims cannot be eliminated, the cost of such risk can be managed through an understanding of the nature of potential liabilities, the utilization of contractual allocation, and the purchase of insurance. Once claims are received, a proper use of appropriate legal defenses, will facilitate the resolution of such claims. While an exhaustive description of all risks encountered by an environmental engineer is beyond the scope of this paper, the following will address the risks most often encountered, which if not properly managed, can result in large costs to the engineer.

  16. Risk management in pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Burnhill, M S

    1986-03-01

    This chapter reminds those who provide abortion services that crises are inevitable in the medical, counselling and administrative areas of the facility. After more than 10 years of providing safe, legal abortions, the author notes that the different types of crises that occur are already known and that it is possible to prepare for them. Indeed, it is necessary to prepare for a crisis before it occurs. The essence of crisis management is to: (a) identify each possible crisis and prepare a plan to cope with it, (b) train personnel to avert and/or manage a crisis, and to be sure that this training is carried out at appropriate intervals to provide sufficient trained staff at all times and (c) have on hand an up-to-date, adequate stock of the appropriate supplies and equipment to deal with medical and other emergencies. Four crisis management 'dicta' are given: Prepare yourself, your personnel, and your facility to be able to handle crisis. When a medical crisis, as listed, has occurred, the patient should be rapidly transported to the hospital and observed there for a suitable period of time. A medical crisis must be treated as the life-threatening event that it is, regardless of personal ego damage, social disruptions and/or financial considerations. The more personnel trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the better.

  17. Health, safety and environmental risk management in laboratory fields

    PubMed Central

    Yarahmadi, Rasoul; Moridi, Parvin; Roumiani, YarAllah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research project risks are uncertain contingent events or situations that, if transpire, will have positive or negative effects on objectives of a project. The Management of Health and Safety at Work (MHSW) Regulations 1999 require all employers and the self-employed persons to assess the risks from their work on anyone who may be affected by their activities. Risk assessment is the first step in risk-management procedure, and due to its importance, it has been deemed to be a vital process while having a unique place in the researchbased management systems. Methods: In this research, a two-pronged study was carried out. Firstly, health and safety issues were studied and analyzed by means of ISO 14121. Secondly, environmental issues were examined with the aid of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Both processes were utilized to determine the risk level independently for each research laboratory and corrective measure priorities in each field (laboratory). Results: Data analysis showed that the total main and inherent risks in laboratory sites reduced by 38% to 86%. Upon comparing the average risk levels before and after implementing the control and protective actions utilizing risk management approaches which were separate from health, safety and environmental aspects, a highly effective significance (p<0.001) was obtained for inherent risk reduction. Analysis of health, safety and environmental control priorities with the purpose of comparing the ratio of the number of engineering measures to the amount of management ones showed a relatively significant increase. Conclusion: The large number of engineering measures was attributed to the employment of a variety of timeworn machinery (old technologies) along with using devices without basic protection components. PMID:27284544

  18. How Is Cancer Risk Measured?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer.gov on the Managing Cancer Care page. Contact Us More information about contacting us or receiving ... Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION ...

  19. Drought risk management in Mediterranean river basins.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Martín-Carrasco, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The Mediterranean region has an extensive hydraulic infrastructure and complex socioeconomic interactions among water users. In this region, competition for water among urban, agricultural, industrial, and environmental demands is strongest in times of water scarcity. Allocation of scarce water in the face of multiple demands is a challenging task that requires careful analysis. Precipitation decreases may likely be translated into drought periods in most cases. Nevertheless water scarcity (the shortage of water resources to serve water demands) not only depends on drought or precipitation deficits but also on water management. Adaptation options depend on the strategic contingency planning and management decisions that affect water resources systems. The risk management of water scarcity and drought depends on the level of water scarcity. Therefore, an adequate diagnosis of the water scarcity level is essential to anticipate the possible solutions. This study proposes a methodology for drought risk management based on the evaluation of 4 indicators of water scarcity to be used to define the thresholds of risk management actions. Based on the definition of thresholds, the study proposes the implementation of risk management actions that may be used for responding to each water scarcity situation.

  20. Uncertainty and risk in wildland fire management: a review.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew P; Calkin, Dave E

    2011-08-01

    Wildland fire management is subject to manifold sources of uncertainty. Beyond the unpredictability of wildfire behavior, uncertainty stems from inaccurate/missing data, limited resource value measures to guide prioritization across fires and resources at risk, and an incomplete scientific understanding of ecological response to fire, of fire behavior response to treatments, and of spatiotemporal dynamics involving disturbance regimes and climate change. This work attempts to systematically align sources of uncertainty with the most appropriate decision support methodologies, in order to facilitate cost-effective, risk-based wildfire planning efforts. We review the state of wildfire risk assessment and management, with a specific focus on uncertainties challenging implementation of integrated risk assessments that consider a suite of human and ecological values. Recent advances in wildfire simulation and geospatial mapping of highly valued resources have enabled robust risk-based analyses to inform planning across a variety of scales, although improvements are needed in fire behavior and ignition occurrence models. A key remaining challenge is a better characterization of non-market resources at risk, both in terms of their response to fire and how society values those resources. Our findings echo earlier literature identifying wildfire effects analysis and value uncertainty as the primary challenges to integrated wildfire risk assessment and wildfire management. We stress the importance of identifying and characterizing uncertainties in order to better quantify and manage them. Leveraging the most appropriate decision support tools can facilitate wildfire risk assessment and ideally improve decision-making.

  1. RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

  2. RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

  3. Case histories in pharmaceutical risk management.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Cynthia G; Henningfield, Jack E; Haddox, J David; Varughese, Sajan; Lindholm, Anders; Rosen, Susan; Wissel, Janne; Waxman, Deborah; Carter, Lawrence P; Seeger, Vickie; Johnson, Rolley E

    2009-12-01

    The development and implementation of programs in the U.S. to minimize risks and assess unintended consequences of new medications has been increasingly required by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since the mid 1990s. This paper provides four case histories of risk management and post-marketing surveillance programs utilized recently to address problems associated with possible abuse, dependence and diversion. The pharmaceutical sponsors of each of these drugs were invited to present their programs and followed a similar template for their summaries that are included in this article. The drugs and presenting companies were OxyContin, an analgesic marketed by Purdue Pharma L.P., Daytrana and Vyvanse, ADHD medications marketed by Shire Pharmaceuticals, Xyrem for narcolepsy marketed by Jazz Pharmaceuticals, and Subutex and Suboxone for opioid dependence marketed by Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals Inc. These case histories and subsequent discussions provide invaluable real-world examples and illustrate both the promise of risk management programs in providing a path to market and/or for keeping on the market drugs with serious potential risks. They also illustrate the limitations of such programs in actually controlling unintended consequences, as well as the challenge of finding the right balance of reducing risks without posing undue barriers to patient access. These experiences are highly relevant as the FDA increasingly requires pharmaceutical sponsors to develop and implement the more formalized and enforceable versions of the risk management term Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS).

  4. Hurricane risk management and climate information gatekeeping in southeast Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treuer, G.; Bolson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical storms provide fresh water necessary for healthy economies and health ecosystems. Hurricanes, massive tropical storms, threaten catastrophic flooding and wind damage. Sea level rise exacerbates flooding risks from rain and storm surge for coastal communities. Climate change adaptation measures to manage this risk must be implemented locally, but actions at other levels of government and by neighboring communities impact the options available to local municipalities. When working on adaptation local decision makers must balance multiple types of risk: physical or scientifically described risks, legal risks, and political risks. Generating usable or actionable climate science is a goal of the academic climate community. To do this we need to expand our analysis to include types of risk that constrain the use of objective science. Integrating physical, legal, and political risks is difficult. Each requires specific expertise and uses unique language. An opportunity exists to study how local decision makers manage all three on a daily basis and how their risk management impacts climate resilience for communities and ecosystems. South Florida's particular vulnerabilities make it an excellent case study. Besides physical vulnerabilities (low elevation, intense coastal development, frequent hurricanes, compromised ecosystems) it also has unique legal and political challenges. Federal and state property rights protections create legal risks for government action that restricts land use to promote climate adaptation. Also, a lack of cases that deal with climate change creates uncertainty about the nature of these legal risks. Politically Florida is divided ideologically and geographically. The regions in the southeast which are most vulnerable are predominantly Hispanic and under-represented at the state level, where leadership on climate change is functionally nonexistent. It is conventional wisdom amongst water managers in Florida that little climate adaptation

  5. Managing the Financial Risks of Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, Greg; Foster, Ben; Kern, Jordan; Meyer, Eliot; Zeff, Harrison

    2015-04-01

    Environmental uncertainty poses a growing number of financial risks to society, with droughts, floods, extreme temperatures and violent storms imposing costs that approach 500 billion per year. While structural forms of mitigation (i.e. levees, dams) will certainly play a role in limiting financial impacts, these are large investments whose full value is only rarely realized. Furthermore, the value of such long-lived measures becomes increasingly uncertain in a changing climate, raising the issue of whether they will be effective 20-30 years hence. Financial instruments, such as index insurance, can provide increased flexibility by providing compensation for losses only when they occur, and limited contract periods allow terms to be periodically rewritten in response to changing conditions. Financial instruments can also be effectively combined with other economic tools and infrastructure to create integrated solutions in which infrastructure mitigates losses from moderate events, while financial products compensate for more rare, but extreme, events. There is a long history of environmentally-related insurance and hedging instruments, but to date the actuarial analyses that underlie contract structure and pricing have been based on straightforward observations, such as cumulative rainfall. More recently, simple correlations between two time series have been used to develop index-based contracts. Links between temperature and electricity demand, for example, provide a basis for contracts that are used to limit the financial exposure of power generators to low revenues during unseasonably warm winters or cool summers. Unfortunately, few environmental risks can be so quickly and easily linked to a financial impact. However, with a more advanced understanding of the environmental systems that give rise to financial losses, opportunities exist to develop innovative contracts for a range of new applications. Recent research describes the characterization and mitigation

  6. Cardiovascular risk management in rheumatoid arthritis patients still suboptimal: the Implementation of Cardiovascular Risk Management in Rheumatoid Arthritis project.

    PubMed

    van den Oever, Inge A M; Heslinga, Maaike; Griep, Ed N; Griep-Wentink, Hanneke R M; Schotsman, Rob; Cambach, Walter; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Smulders, Yvo M; Lems, Willem F; Boers, Maarten; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Peters, Mike J L; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Nurmohamed, Micheal T

    2017-09-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk score and to identify treatment and undertreatment of CV risk factors in patients with established RA. Demographics, CV risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were assessed by questionnaire. To calculate the 10-year CV risk score according to the Dutch CV risk management guideline, systolic blood pressure was measured and cholesterol levels were determined from fasting blood samples. Patients were categorized into four groups: indication for treatment but not treated; inadequately treated, so not meeting goals (systolic blood pressure ⩽140 mmHg and/or low-density lipoprotein ⩽2.5 mmol/l); adequately treated; or no treatment necessary. A total of 720 consecutive RA patients were included, 375 from Reade and 345 from the Antonius Hospital. The mean age of patients was 59 years (s.d. 12) and 73% were female. Seventeen per cent of the patients had a low 10-year CV risk (<10%), 21% had an intermediate risk (10-19%), 53% a high risk (⩾20%) and 9% had CVD. In total, 69% had an indication for preventive treatment (cholesterol-lowering or antihypertensive drugs). Of those, 42% received inadequate treatment and 40% received no treatment at all. Optimal CV risk management remains a major challenge and better awareness and management are urgently needed to reduce the high risk of CVD in the RA population.

  7. 77 FR 13585 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery... Cybersecurity Risk Management Process guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is... build upon existing guidance and requirements to develop a flexible risk management process tuned to...

  8. 14 CFR 121.495 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.495... Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The Fatigue Risk Management System...

  9. 14 CFR 121.495 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.495... Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The Fatigue Risk Management System...

  10. Risk analysis and risk management in an uncertain world.

    PubMed

    Kunreuther, Howard

    2002-08-01

    The tragic attacks of September 11 and the bioterrorist threats with respect to anthrax that followed have raised a set of issues regarding how we deal with events where there is considerable ambiguity and uncertainty about the likelihood of their occurrence and their potential consequences. This paper discusses how one can link the tools of risk assessment and our knowledge of risk perception to develop risk management options for dealing with extreme events. In particular, it suggests ways that the members of the Society for Risk Analysis can apply their expertise and talent to the risks associated with terrorism and discusses the changing roles of the public and private sectors in dealing with extreme events.

  11. Managing dynamic epidemiological risks through trade

    PubMed Central

    Horan, Richard D.; Fenichel, Eli P.; Finnoff, David; Wolf, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern that trade, by connecting geographically isolated regions, unintentionally facilitates the spread of invasive pathogens and pests – forms of biological pollution that pose significant risks to ecosystem and human health. We use a bioeconomic framework to examine whether trade always increases private risks, focusing specifically on pathogen risks from live animal trade. When the pathogens have already established and traders bear some private risk, we find two results that run counter to the conventional wisdom on trade. First, uncertainty about the disease status of individual animals held in inventory may increase the incentives to trade relative to the disease-free case. Second, trade may facilitate reduced long-run disease prevalence among buyers. These results arise because disease risks are endogenous due to dynamic feedback processes involving valuable inventories, and markets facilitate the management of private risks that producers face with or without trade. PMID:25914431

  12. Technology Transfer and Risk Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Michael B.

    This pamphlet offers a series of self-assessment guidelines and questions which college and university officials can use to help determine the extent to which they are taking the appropriate measures to reasonably protect the institution's interests, maximize the economic value of technical discoveries made by faculty, and still maintain an…

  13. Injury risk management plan for volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    James, Lachlan P; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M

    2014-09-01

    Volleyball is an increasingly popular team sport. As with any competitive sport, there is an inherent risk of injury that must be recognized and collaboratively managed. This article provides a practical approach to the management of volleyball injuries within a team or organization. A brief review of the epidemiological data is presented which establishes (i) ankle sprain, (ii) shoulder overuse injury, (iii) patella tendinopathy, and (iv) anterior cruciate ligament injury as the primary injuries to address amongst these athletes. The interaction of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these injuries are used to classify athletes into high-, medium- and low-risk groups. Targeted training interventions are suggested, based upon the risk level of the athlete, to minimize the occurrence of these injuries. Practical methods for integrating these activities into a training plan are also discussed.

  14. Modeling and Managing Risk in Billing Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiardi, Fabrizio; Telmon, Claudio; Sgandurra, Daniele

    This paper discusses risk modeling and risk management in information and communications technology (ICT) systems for which the attack impact distribution is heavy tailed (e.g., power law distribution) and the average risk is unbounded. Systems with these properties include billing infrastructures used to charge customers for services they access. Attacks against billing infrastructures can be classified as peripheral attacks and backbone attacks. The goal of a peripheral attack is to tamper with user bills; a backbone attack seeks to seize control of the billing infrastructure. The probability distribution of the overall impact of an attack on a billing infrastructure also has a heavy-tailed curve. This implies that the probability of a massive impact cannot be ignored and that the average impact may be unbounded - thus, even the most expensive countermeasures would be cost effective. Consequently, the only strategy for managing risk is to increase the resilience of the infrastructure by employing redundant components.

  15. Managing cardiovascular risk inpatients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nesto, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors that contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD has been identified by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) as the primary clinical outcome of the metabolic syndrome. Although no algorithm is currently available for estimating the absolute risk of CVD for patients with the metabolic syndrome, screening for cardiovascular (CV) risk in these patients involves testing for lipoprotein abnormalities (namely, an analysis of specific low-density lipoprotein particle numbers) and an assessment of various surrogate markers for subclinical coronary artery disease. Such screening can be used to help predict the development of CVD and thereby allow for effective interventions to help prevent coronary events. Strategies for reducing CV risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome are multifactorial. In addition to placing an emphasis on therapeutic lifestyle changes that increase levels of physical activity, dietary modification, and weight reduction, several pharmacologic therapies are available. One novel approach for managing CV risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome involves the inhibition of the endocannabinoid system, including the use of rimonabant. A review of CV risk factors in patients with the metabolic syndrome is beneficial for clinicians to apply in the care of their patients, along with a discussion about strategies for identifying at-risk patients and managing CVD risk for these patients.

  16. [Clinical risk management in german hospitals - does size really matter?].

    PubMed

    Bohnet-Joschko, S; Jandeck, L M; Zippel, C; Andersen, M; Krummenauer, F

    2011-06-01

    In the last years, German hospitals have implemented different measures to increase patient safety. Special importance has been attached to near miss reporting systems (critical incident reporting system, CIRS) as instruments for risk identification in health care, instruments that promise high potential for organisational learning. To gain insight into the current status of critical incident reporting systems and other instruments for clinical risk management, a survey among 341 hospitals was carried out in 2009. Questions covered a process of six steps: from risk strategy to methods for risk identification, to risk analysis and risk assessment, to risk controlling and risk monitoring. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 341 German hospitals, featuring in their statutory quality reports certain predefined key terms that indicated the concluded or planned implementation of clinical risk management. The main objective of those interviews was to check the relation between status/organisation of self-reported risk management and both operator (private, public, NPO) and size of hospital. The implementation of near miss reporting systems (CIRS) in German hospitals has been constantly rising since 2004: in 2009, 54 % of the interviewed hospitals reported an implemented CIRS; of these, 72 % reported the system to be hospital-wide. An association between CIRS and private, public or NPO-operator could not be detected (Fisher p = 1.000); however, the degree of CIRS implementation was significantly increasing with the size of the hospital, i.e., the number of beds (Fisher p = 0.008): only 38 % of the hospitals with less than 100 beds reported CIRS implementation against 52 % of those between 100 to 500 beds, and 67 % of those with more than 500 beds. While 62 % of the hospitals interviewed reported the maintenance of a risk management committee, only 14 % reported the implementation of risk analysing techniques. As to clinical risk

  17. Linklng guidelines for case management to risk of institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Hadjistavropoulos, Heather; Bierlein, Cecily; Sagan, Mark; Quine, Allisson

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we developed time-and-need-based community case management guidelines by tracking case management activity for 234 elderly clients over their first 6 months of care. Clients were interviewed at the time services began and again 6 months later to determine physical, emotional, and cognitive status. We found that the Regina Risk Indicator Tool (RRIT), a brief measure of risk for requiring institutional care, differentiated clients needing varying amounts of case management. Using these results, an expert panel devised guidelines for ranges of case management time for clients at different levels of need: low risk, some risk, and high risk. Quality measures, response times for initial contact and assessment, and service review parameters were also incorporated into the guidelines. Tools for workload measurement, quality review, client satisfaction, and service provider communication were developed. Focus group analysis of the guidelines with various stakeholders and a pilot implementation guided further revision. Future directions are outlined in the article, including the need to focus on outcomes of the guidelines and study of guideline implementation processes.

  18. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer’s role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this “poor compliance” trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  19. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Litigation Management Submissions AGENCY: Departmental Offices. ACTION..., the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office is seeking comments regarding Litigation Management..., preferably an original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record,...

  20. Australian Defence Risk Management Framework: A Comparative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    contemplated well ahead of the traditional corporate and business - planning processes. There is also an upside to using risk management, i.e. improving...place to properly manage these risks; • To ensure that risk management is integrated into Defence�s business planning processes; and • To establish...and based on AS/NZS 4360:1999 and the Defence Risk Management Policy. It prescribes risk management to be integrated into the business planning process

  1. Influence of flood risk management measures on socio-economic and ecological vulnerabilities in a large water system - A case study of Lake Vänern and the Göta älv River, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, L.; Blumenthal, B.; Johansson, M.

    2009-04-01

    An important feature of flood risk management is to integrate ecological, economical and social aspects on prevention and mitigation measures. Protective measures could potentially be in conflict with sound functions of ecosystems or cause conflicts in upstream/downstream relations. A case study of a large water system in south-western Sweden - Lake Vänern and the Göta älv River - was used to analyse the relation between socio-economic and ecological vulnerabilities and to identify opposing interests regarding water level fluctuations and high-water-level situations in the lake. Lake Vänern with its area of 5,500 km2 is the largest lake in Sweden and within the European Union. The Göta älv River runs from the lake outlet 90 km down to the sea at Gothenburg. The total catchment area upstream of the river mouth is 51,000 km2. Vänern and Göta älv are used for hydropower production, shipping, tourism, fishing, drinking water supply, as waste water recipient, etc. The risk system is complex with flood risks in the lake and in Gothenburg which are connected to landslide risks and industrial risks in the river valley, and where the drinking water supply for 700,000 persons in the Gothenburg region is at stake. Because of the landslide risks along the downstream river, the water discharge from Lake Vänern is limited. During periods of high inflow to the lake, situations of high water-levels last at least for six months. Substantial increases in precipitation during the 21st century, according to IPCC, will give a corresponding increase in flood risks.

  2. Risk Management: Getting the Most for Your Insurance Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Analyze what insurance is intended to do by going through the risk management process: identify exposures to loss, measure their financial impact on the institution, rationalize the means of controlling exposures, prevent loss, and set up a program to minimize the impact of loss through insurance or other means. (Author)

  3. Risk Management: Getting the Most for Your Insurance Dollars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Analyze what insurance is intended to do by going through the risk management process: identify exposures to loss, measure their financial impact on the institution, rationalize the means of controlling exposures, prevent loss, and set up a program to minimize the impact of loss through insurance or other means. (Author)

  4. Uncertainty and risk in wildland fire management: A review

    Treesearch

    Matthew P. Thompson; Dave E. Calkin

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire management is subject to manifold sources of uncertainty. Beyond the unpredictability of wildfire behavior, uncertainty stems from inaccurate/missing data, limited resource value measures to guide prioritization across fires and resources at risk, and an incomplete scientific understanding of ecological response to fire, of fire behavior response to...

  5. NGNP Risk Management through Assessing Technology Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Collins

    2010-08-01

    Throughout the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project life cycle, technical risks are identified, analyzed, and mitigated and decisions are made regarding the design and selection of plant and sub-system configurations, components and their fabrication materials, and operating conditions. Risk resolution and decision making are key elements that help achieve project completion within budget and schedule constraints and desired plant availability. To achieve this objective, a formal decision-making and risk management process was developed for NGNP, based on proven systems engineering principles that have guided aerospace and military applications.

  6. The 2010 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for the management of hypertension: Part I – blood pressure measurement, diagnosis and assessment of risk

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Robert R; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Padwal, Raj S; Myers, Martin G; Cloutier, Lyne; Bolli, Peter; McKay, Donald W; Khan, Nadia A; Hill, Michael D; Mahon, Jeff; Hackam, Daniel G; Grover, Steven; Wilson, Thomas; Penner, Brian; Burgess, Ellen; McAlister, Finlay A; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; McLean, Donna; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Honos, George; Mann, Karen; Tremblay, Guy; Milot, Alain; Chockalingam, Arun; Rabkin, Simon W; Dawes, Martin; Touyz, Rhian M; Burns, Kevin D; Ruzicka, Marcel; Campbell, Norman RC; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, GV Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and assessment of adults with hypertension. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE searches were conducted from November 2008 to October 2009 with the aid of a medical librarian. Reference lists were scanned, experts were contacted, and the personal files of authors and subgroup members were used to identify additional studies. Content and methodological experts assessed studies using prespecified, standardized evidence-based algorithms. Recommendations were based on evidence from peer-reviewed full-text articles only. RECOMMENDATIONS: Recommendations for blood pressure measurement, criteria for hypertension diagnosis and follow-up, assessment of global cardiovascular risk, diagnostic testing, diagnosis of renovascular and endocrine causes of hypertension, home and ambulatory monitoring, and the use of echocardiography in hypertensive individuals are outlined. Changes to the recommendations for 2010 relate to automated office blood pressure measurements. Automated office blood pressure measurements can be used in the assessment of office blood pressure. When used under proper conditions, an automated office systolic blood pressure of 135 mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or higher should be considered analogous to a mean awake ambulatory systolic blood pressure of 135 mmHg or higher and diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or higher, respectively. VALIDATION: All recommendations were graded according to strength of the evidence and voted on by the 63 members of the Canadian Hypertension Education Program Evidence-Based Recommendations Task Force. To be approved, all recommendations were required to be supported by at least 70% of task force members. These guidelines will continue to be updated annually. PMID:20485688

  7. UTILITY DATA ARCHIVING FOR RISK MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA let a contract for a consultant to collect information about historical changes in operations and maintenance, design and construction, and planning and siting for water and wastewater infrastructure. The goal of this research study is to determine risk management alternativ...

  8. Managing wildland fire risk in Florida

    Treesearch

    J. Brenner; D. Carlton; S. McLellan; A. Dozier; T. Spencer; D. Buckley; A. Ralowicz

    2010-01-01

    Florida’s Wildland Fire Risk Assessment (FRA), which was completed in 2002, is a statewide effort to develop a comprehensive suite of standardized spatial data layers developed to support implementation of a statewide fuels management strategy. By maintaining focus on fire and fuel dynamics for use with scientifically credible local to statewide applications, the FRA...

  9. Improving Our Approach to Managing Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor education--be it canoe tripping, adventure programs, field studies or anything else--is inherently risky. Outdoor educators deal with unpredictable settings and situations, where change is constant and outcomes are sometimes uncertain. In this naturalistic environment, their risk management procedures have the potential to break down and…

  10. UTILITY DATA ARCHIVING FOR RISK MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA let a contract for a consultant to collect information about historical changes in operations and maintenance, design and construction, and planning and siting for water and wastewater infrastructure. The goal of this research study is to determine risk management alternativ...

  11. Risk management for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchbinder, Ben

    1993-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a quantitative engineering process that provides the analytic structure and decision-making framework for total programmatic risk management. Ideally, it is initiated in the conceptual design phase and used throughout the program life cycle. Although PRA was developed for assessment of safety, reliability, and availability risk, it has far greater application. Throughout the design phase, PRA can guide trade-off studies among system performance, safety, reliability, cost, and schedule. These studies are based on the assessment of the risk of meeting each parameter goal, with full consideration of the uncertainties. Quantitative trade-off studies are essential, but without full identification, propagation, and display of uncertainties, poor decisions may result. PRA also can focus attention on risk drivers in situations where risk is too high. For example, if safety risk is unacceptable, the PRA prioritizes the risk contributors to guide the use of resources for risk mitigation. PRA is used in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) Program. To meet the stringent requirements of the SEI mission, within strict budgetary constraints, the PRA structure supports informed and traceable decision-making. This paper briefly describes the SEI PRA process.

  12. An open framework for risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.; Vandewart, R.; Wyss, G.; Funkhouser, D.

    1998-08-01

    Risk assessment methodologies are ready to enter their third generation. In this next generation, assessment will be based on a whole system understanding of the system to be assessed. To realize this vision of risk management, the authors have begun development of an extensible software tool kit. This tool kit breaks with the traditional approach to assessment by having the analyst spend the majority of the assessment time building an explicit model that documents in a single framework the various facets of the system, such as the system`s behavior, structure, and history. Given this explicit model of the system, a computer is able to automatically produce a standard assessment products, such as fault trees and event trees. This brings with it a number of advantages relative to current risk management tools. Among these are a greater sense of completeness and correctness in assessment results and the ability to preserve and later employ lessons learned.

  13. Managing medicinal risks in self-medication.

    PubMed

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2014-05-01

    The practice of self-medication is exemplary in raising the question of medicinal uses and risks. In contrast to the biomedical or pharmacological view of self-medication, the anthropological approach looks to understand the logics that underpin it. Therefore, I wished to question how users choose the medicines they take and how they construct the modalities of their use. However, not only are the users conscious of the risks associated with pharmaceutical use, they even devise strategies that specifically aim to reduce these risks. Based on research carried out in France on how people use medicines in the context of self-medication, I examined the strategies they adopt in order to reduce the risks connected with such use. This study relies on qualitative research. It combines interviews with users and anthropological observation, both conducted at the participants' homes, to reveal their uses, their decisions, their hesitations and the precautions they take regarding their medicines. The logics underpinning the management of risks associated with medicinal consumption are varied. Thus we find quantitative and qualitative logics, in virtue of which users choose to limit their medicines depending on the number of different medicines or on their intrinsic qualities. Their choices hinge on a logic of cumulation and a logic of identity, where, in the former, users seek to increase or reduce their medicinal consumption to augment the efficacy of a medicine or, in the latter case, they aim to reduce the risks in relation to their personal characteristics. In the same way, the perception of risk that underpins consumption practices is organised according to the notions of risk in itself and risk for oneself, where risk is either considered to be inherent to the medicine or to be linked to the incompatibility between a given substance and a person's body. Managing risk is thus done in parallel to managing efficacy, where a balance is sought between maximising the latter

  14. RISK COMMUNICATION AS A RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL: A RISK COMMUNICATION WORKBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Communicating information about environmental risk to the people most affected by it is one of the major challenges faced by risk managers and community decision makers. Changing human behavior is a far more complex task than designing water retention systems or managing storm wa...

  15. RISK COMMUNICATION AS A RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL: A RISK COMMUNICATION WORKBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Communicating information about environmental risk to the people most affected by it is one of the major challenges faced by risk managers and community decision makers. Changing human behavior is a far more complex task than designing water retention systems or managing storm wa...

  16. Risk-trading in flood management: An economic model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung Ting

    2017-09-15

    Although flood management is no longer exclusively a topic of engineering, flood mitigation continues to be associated with hard engineering options. Flood adaptation or the capacity to adapt to flood risk, as well as a demand for internalizing externalities caused by flood risk between regions, complicate flood management activities. Even though integrated river basin management has long been recommended to resolve the above issues, it has proven difficult to apply widely, and sometimes even to bring into existence. This article explores how internalization of externalities as well as the realization of integrated river basin management can be encouraged via the use of a market-based approach, namely a flood risk trading program. In addition to maintaining efficiency of optimal resource allocation, a flood risk trading program may also provide a more equitable distribution of benefits by facilitating decentralization. This article employs a graphical analysis to show how flood risk trading can be implemented to encourage mitigation measures that increase infiltration and storage capacity. A theoretical model is presented to demonstrate the economic conditions necessary for flood risk trading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human System Risk Management for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This brief abstract reviews the development of the current day approach to human system risk management for space flight and the development of the critical components of this process over the past few years. The human system risk management process now provides a comprehensive assessment of each human system risk by design reference mission (DRM) and is evaluated not only for mission success but also for long-term health impacts for the astronauts. The discipline of bioastronautics is the study of the biological and medical effects of space flight on humans. In 1997, the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) initiated the Bioastronautics Roadmap (Roadmap) as the "Critical Path Roadmap", and in 1998 participation in the roadmap was expanded to include the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) and the external community. A total of 55 risks and 250 questions were identified and prioritized and in 2000, the Roadmap was base-lined and put under configuration control. The Roadmap took into account several major advisory committee reviews including the Institute of Medicine (IOM) "Safe Passage: Astronaut care for Exploration Missions", 2001. Subsequently, three collaborating organizations at NASA HQ (Chief Health and Medical Officer, Office of Space Flight and Office of Biological & Physical Research), published the Bioastronautics Strategy in 2003, that identified the human as a "critical subsystem of space flight" and noted that "tolerance limits and safe operating bands must be established" to enable human space flight. These offices also requested a review by the IOM of the Roadmap and that review was published in October 2005 as "A Risk Reduction Strategy for Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's Bioastronautics Roadmap", that noted several strengths and weaknesses of the Roadmap and made several recommendations. In parallel with the development of the Roadmap, the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) began a process in

  18. Quality risk management in pharmaceutical development.

    PubMed

    Charoo, Naseem Ahmad; Ali, Areeg Anwer

    2013-07-01

    The objective of ICH Q8, Q9 and Q10 documents is application of systemic and science based approach to formulation development for building quality into product. There is always some uncertainty in new product development. Good risk management practice is essential for success of new product development in decreasing this uncertainty. In quality by design paradigm, the product performance properties relevant to the patient are predefined in target product profile (TPP). Together with prior knowledge and experience, TPP helps in identification of critical quality attributes (CQA's). Initial risk assessment which identifies risks to these CQA's provides impetus for product development. Product and process are designed to gain knowledge about these risks, devise strategies to eliminate or mitigate these risks and meet objectives set in TPP. By laying more emphasis on high risk events the protection level of patient is increased. The process being scientifically driven improves the transparency and reliability of the manufacturer. The focus on risk to the patient together with flexible development approach saves invaluable resources, increases confidence on quality and reduces compliance risk. The knowledge acquired in analysing risks to CQA's permits construction of meaningful design space. Within the boundaries of the design space, variation in critical material characteristics and process parameters must be managed in order to yield a product having the desired characteristics. Specifications based on product and process understanding are established such that product will meet the specifications if tested. In this way, the product is amenable to real time release, since specifications only confirm quality but they do not serve as a means of effective process control.

  19. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  20. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Dabala, Dana; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia

    2013-11-13

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  1. Measurement Decision Risk - The Importance of Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The idea behind this presentation is how the difference in definitions can change the application. 1. Look at history, concepts, and definitions. 2. Link the test uncertainty ratio (TUR) to measurement decision risk.

  2. 77 FR 30517 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... to develop a flexible risk management process tuned to the diverse missions, equipment, and business... Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... Management Process guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to...

  3. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6... CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to a credit risk management policy that is commensurate with the investment risks and activities...

  4. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6... CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to a credit risk management policy that is commensurate with the investment risks and activities...

  5. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6... CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to a credit risk management policy that is commensurate with the investment risks and...

  6. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6... CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to a credit risk management policy that is commensurate with the investment risks and activities...

  7. Risk preferences, probability weighting, and strategy tradeoffs in wildfire management

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Hand; Matthew J. Wibbenmeyer; Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to...

  8. 14 CFR 121.527 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.527... § 121.527 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The Fatigue Risk...

  9. 14 CFR 121.527 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.527... § 121.527 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The Fatigue Risk...

  10. Rebalancing risk management--part 1: The Process for Active Risk Control (PARC).

    PubMed

    Card, Alan J; Ward, James R; Clarkson, P John

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment, by itself, does nothing to reduce risk or improve safety. It can only change outcomes by informing the design and management of effective risk control interventions. But current practice in healthcare risk management suffers from an almost complete lack of support for risk control. This first installment of a 2-part series on rebalancing risk management describes a new framework to guide risk control practice: The Process for Active Risk Control.

  11. Applications of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Risk Data to Military Combat Risk Management

    SciTech Connect

    Daxon, Eric G.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Melanson, Mark A.; Roszell, Laurie E.

    2009-03-01

    Risks to personnel engaged in military operations include not only the threat of enemy firepower but also risks from exposure to other hazards such as radiation. Combatant commanders of the U. S. Army carefully weigh risks of casualties before implementing battlefield actions using an established paradigm that take these risks into consideration. As a result of the inclusion of depleted uranium (DU) anti-armor ammunition in the conventional (non-nuclear) weapons arsenal, the potential for exposure to DU aerosols and its associated chemical and radiological effects becomes an element of the commanders’ risk assessment. The Capstone DU Aerosol Study measured the range of likely DU oxide aerosol concentrations created inside a combat vehicle perforated with a DU munition, and the Capstone Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) estimated the associated doses and calculated risks. This paper focuses on the development of a scientific approach to adapt the risks from DU’s non uniform dose distribution within the body using the current U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) radiation risk management approach. The approach developed equates the Radiation Exposure Status (RES) categories to the estimated radiological risks of DU and makes use of the Capstone-developed Renal Effects Group (REG) as a measure of chemical risk from DU intake. Recommendations are provided for modifying Army guidance and policy in order to better encompass the potential risks from DU aerosol inhalation during military operations.

  12. Applications of Capstone depleted uranium aerosol risk data to military combat risk management.

    PubMed

    Daxon, Eric G; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Melanson, Mark A; Roszell, Laurie E

    2009-03-01

    Risks to personnel engaged in military operations include not only the threat of enemy firepower but also risks from exposure to other hazards such as radiation. Combatant commanders of the U.S. Army carefully weigh risks of casualties before implementing battlefield actions using an established paradigm that takes these risks into consideration. As a result of the inclusion of depleted uranium (DU) anti-armor ammunition in the conventional (non-nuclear) weapons arsenal, the potential for exposure to DU aerosols and its associated chemical and radiological effects becomes an element of the commanders' risk assessment. The Capstone DU Aerosol Study measured the range of likely DU oxide aerosol concentrations created inside a combat vehicle perforated with a DU munition, and the Capstone Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) estimated the associated doses and calculated risks. This paper focuses on the development of a scientific approach to adapt the risks from DU's non-uniform dose distribution within the body using the current U.S. Department of Defense radiation risk management approach. The approach developed equates the Radiation Exposure Status categories to the estimated radiological risks of DU and makes use of the Capstone-developed Renal Effects Group as a measure of chemical risk from DU intake. Recommendations are provided for modifying Army guidance and policy in order to better encompass the potential risks from DU aerosol inhalation during military operations.

  13. Risk management activities at the DOE Class A reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.A. ); Hill, D.J. ); Linn, M.A. ); Atkinson, S.A. ); Hu, J.P. )

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management group of the Association for Excellence in Reactor Operation (AERO) develops risk management initiatives and standards to improve operation and increase safety of the DOE Class A reactor facilities. Principal risk management applications that have been implemented at each facility are reviewed. The status of a program to develop guidelines for risk management programs at reactor facilities is presented.

  14. Risk management activities at the DOE Class A reactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.A.; Hill, D.J.; Linn, M.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Hu, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    The probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and risk management group of the Association for Excellence in Reactor Operation (AERO) develops risk management initiatives and standards to improve operation and increase safety of the DOE Class A reactor facilities. Principal risk management applications that have been implemented at each facility are reviewed. The status of a program to develop guidelines for risk management programs at reactor facilities is presented.

  15. Systematic implementation of clinical risk management in a large university hospital: the impact of risk managers.

    PubMed

    Sendlhofer, Gerald; Brunner, Gernot; Tax, Christa; Falzberger, Gebhard; Smolle, Josef; Leitgeb, Karina; Kober, Brigitte; Kamolz, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    For health care systems in recent years, patient safety has increasingly become a priority issue. National and international strategies have been considered to attempt to overcome the most prominent hazards while patients are receiving health care. Thereby, clinical risk management (CRM) plays a dominant role in enabling the identification, analysis, and management of potential risks. CRM implementation into routine procedures within complex hospital organizations is challenging, as in the past, organizational change strategies using a top-down approach have often failed. Therefore, one of our main objectives was to educate a certain number of risk managers in facilitating CRM using a bottom-up approach. To achieve our primary purpose, five project strands were developed, and consequently followed, introducing CRM: corporate governance, risk management (RM) training, CRM process, information, and involvement. The core part of the CRM process involved the education of risk managers within each organizational unit. To account for the size of the existing organization, we assumed that a minimum of 1 % of the workforce had to be trained in RM to disseminate the continuous improvement of quality and safety. Following a roll-out plan, CRM was introduced in each unit and potential risks were identified. Alongside the changes in the corporate governance, a hospital-wide CRM process was introduced resulting in 158 trained risk managers correlating to 2.0 % of the total workforce. Currently, risk managers are present in every unit and have identified 360 operational risks. Among those, 176 risks were scored as strategic and clustered together into top risks. Effective meeting structures and opportunities to share information and knowledge were introduced. Thus far, 31 units have been externally audited in CRM. The CRM approach is unique with respect to its dimension; members of all health care professions were trained to be able to identify potential risks. A network of risk

  16. Breast cancer and spaceflight: risk and management.

    PubMed

    Barr, Yael R; Bacal, Kira; Jones, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, Douglas R

    2007-04-01

    Spaceflight exposes astronauts to a host of environmental factors which could increase their risk for cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of breast cancer in female commercial flight attendants, with occupational risk factors as one of the proposed mechanisms for the higher incidence in this cohort. Since female astronauts are exposed to similar occupational conditions as flight attendants, they too may be at an increased risk for breast cancer. With the planning of exploration class missions to the Moon and to Mars it is important to assess and minimize the risk for breast malignancy, and to have a well-defined protocol for the diagnosis and treatment of a breast mass discovered during a mission. Risk factors for development of breast cancer in the female astronaut include ionizing radiation, disrupted melatonin homeostasis secondary to circadian shifting, chemical exposure, and changes in immune function. Preflight, in-flight, and postflight screening and management modalities include imaging and fine needle aspiration (FNA). Employing such a strategy may provide a viable management approach in the case of a newly diagnosed breast mass inflight.

  17. Ecosystem services in risk assessment and management. ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ecosystem services (ES) concept holds much promise for environmental decision making. Even so, the concept has yet to gain full traction in the decisions and policies of environmental agencies in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere. Here we examine the opportunities for and implications of including ES in risk assessments and the risk management decisions that they inform. We assert that use of ES will: 1) lead to more comprehensive environmental protection; 2) help to articulate the benefits of environmental decisions, policies, and actions; 3) better inform the derivation of environmental quality standards; 4) enable integration of human health and ecological risk assessment; and 5) facilitate horizontal integration of policies, regulations, and programs. We provide the technical basis and supporting rationale for each assertion, relying on examples taken from experiences in the United States and European Union. Specific recommendations are offered for use of ES in risk assessment and risk management, and issues and challenges to advancing use of ES are described along with some of the science needed to improve the value of the ES concept to environmental protection. This paper is one of 4 papers generated from the 2014 Pellston Workshop “Ecosystem Services, Environmental Stressors and Decision Making,” organized jointly by the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the Ecological Society of America. The main workshop objective was

  18. Risk Analysis Related to Quality Management Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykydal, David; Halfarová, Petra; Nenadál, Jaroslav; Plura, Jiří; Hekelová, Edita

    2012-12-01

    Efficient and effective implementation of quality management principles asks for a responsible approach from top managers' perspectives. A study of the current state of affairs in Czech organizations discovers a lot of shortcomings in this field that can be changed to vary managerial risks. The article identifies and analyses some of them and gives short guidance for appropriate treatment. Text of the article reflects the authors' experience as well as knowledge obtained from the systematic analysis of industrial companies' environments.

  19. Risk management of domino effects considering dynamic consequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-06-01

    Domino effects are low-probability high-consequence accidents causing severe damage to humans, process plants, and the environment. Because domino effects affect large areas and are difficult to control, preventive safety measures have been given priority over mitigative measures. As a result, safety distances and safety inventories have been used as preventive safety measures to reduce the escalation probability of domino effects. However, these safety measures are usually designed considering static accident scenarios. In this study, we show that compared to a static worst-case accident analysis, a dynamic consequence analysis provides a more rational approach for risk assessment and management of domino effects. This study also presents the application of Bayesian networks and conflict analysis to risk-based allocation of chemical inventories to minimize the consequences and thus to reduce the escalation probability. It emphasizes the risk management of chemical inventories as an inherent safety measure, particularly in existing process plants where the applicability of other safety measures such as safety distances is limited. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. [New approach for managing microbial risks in food].

    PubMed

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the food legislation is to ensure the protection of human health. Traditionally, the food legislation requires food business operators to apply good hygiene practices and specific procedures to control foodborne pathogens. These regulations allowed reaching a high level of health protection. The improvement of the system will require risk-based approaches. Firstly, risk assessment should allow the identification of high-risk situations where resources should be allocated for a better targeting of risk management. Then, management measures should be adapted to the health objective. In this approach, the appropriate level of protection is converted intofood safety and performance objectives on the food chain, i.e., maximum microbial contamination to fulfil the acceptable risk level. When objectives are defined, the food business operators and competent authorities can identify control options to comply with the objectives and establish microbiological criteria to verify compliance with these objectives. This approach, described for approximately 10 years, operative thanks to the development of quantitative risk assessment techniques, is still difficult to use in practical terms since it requires a commitment of competent authorities to define the acceptable risk and needs also the implementation of sometimes complex risk models.

  1. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  2. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    PubMed

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible.

  3. Applied climate science: the risk management route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    While several Masters programmes on climate science exist in the British Isles, until recently there has been little regard for the requirements of business, local government and the insurance market in the provision of postgraduate taught programmes. This talk will discuss the issue of climate change risk management as a way of embedding climate science into the decision-making protocols for commercial and governmental organisations. It will outline several issues for business decision-making that have implications for climate change. These include: climate sensitivity, model uncertainty and rapid climate change. The experience of developing and running the MSc in Climate Change and Risk management at Exeter University will be used to highlight these issues.

  4. Improving interMediAte Risk management. MARK study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular risk functions fail to identify more than 50% of patients who develop cardiovascular disease. This is especially evident in the intermediate-risk patients in which clinical management becomes difficult. Our purpose is to analyze if ankle-brachial index (ABI), measures of arterial stiffness, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-measured blood pressure and presence of comorbidity are independently associated to incidence of vascular events and whether they can improve the predictive capacity of current risk equations in the intermediate-risk population. Methods/Design This project involves 3 groups belonging to REDIAPP (RETICS RD06/0018) from 3 Spanish regions. We will recruit a multicenter cohort of 2688 patients at intermediate risk (coronary risk between 5 and 15% or vascular death risk between 3-5% over 10 years) and no history of atherosclerotic disease, selected at random. We will record socio-demographic data, information on diet, physical activity, comorbidity and intermittent claudication. We will measure ABI, pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index at rest and after a light intensity exercise. Blood pressure and anthropometric data will be also recorded. We will also quantify lipids, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a fasting blood sample and postprandial capillary glucose. Eighteen months after the recruitment, patients will be followed up to determine the incidence of vascular events (later follow-ups are planned at 5 and 10 years). We will analyze whether the new proposed risk factors contribute to improve the risk functions based on classic risk factors. Discussion Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is a priority in public health policy of developed and developing countries. The fundamental strategy consists in identifying people in a high risk situation in which preventive measures are effective and efficient. Improvement of these predictions in our country will have an immediate

  5. Management and Measurement for Total Youth Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Roberta S.; Ramsey, Russell W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the program of the Turner Job Corps Center, Albany, Georgia, which provides a holistic setting for youth development emphasizing behavioral management and measurement. Academic and vocational management systems are self-paced individual mastery programs. The measurement function is carried out by computer in the Systems Support…

  6. Improving Measurement of Workplace Sexual Identity Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Teresa S.; Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance measurement of sexual identity management for lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Psychometric properties of a revised version of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; Anderson, Croteau, Chung, & DiStefano, 2001) were examined on a sample of 64 predominantly White K-12 teachers.…

  7. Quantifying fatigue risk in model-based fatigue risk management.

    PubMed

    Rangan, Suresh; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-02-01

    The question of what is a maximally acceptable level of fatigue risk is hotly debated in model-based fatigue risk management in commercial aviation and other transportation modes. A quantitative approach to addressing this issue, referred to by the Federal Aviation Administration with regard to its final rule for commercial aviation "Flightcrew Member Duty and Rest Requirements," is to compare predictions from a mathematical fatigue model against a fatigue threshold. While this accounts for duty time spent at elevated fatigue risk, it does not account for the degree of fatigue risk and may, therefore, result in misleading schedule assessments. We propose an alternative approach based on the first-order approximation that fatigue risk is proportional to both the duty time spent below the fatigue threshold and the distance of the fatigue predictions to the threshold--that is, the area under the curve (AUC). The AUC approach is straightforward to implement for schedule assessments in commercial aviation and also provides a useful fatigue metric for evaluating thousands of scheduling options in industrial schedule optimization tools.

  8. Cultural resource management: The risk of compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, S.A.

    1994-02-01

    The statutory mandate for federal agencies to involve American Indians in the management of cultural resources may create a cultural risk for the people those statutes are intended to protect. A conceptual framework is given to help understand this dilemma. Factors that can exacerbate the severity of the adverse cultural impacts for tribal people are also examined. Policy recommendations are offered for reducing tensions among an the participants in the statutory process.

  9. Risk Management in ETS-8 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, M.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering Test Satellite - 8 (ETS-8) is the Japanese largest geo-synchronous satellite of 3 tons in mass, of which mission is mobile communications and navigation experiment. It is now in the flight model manufacturing phase. This paper introduces the risk management taken in this project as a reference. The mission success criteria of ETS-8 are described at first. All the risk management activities are planned taking these criteria into consideration. ETS-8 consists of many new technologies such as the large deployable antenna (19m x 17m), 64-bit MPU, 100 V solar paddle and so on. We have to pay attention to control these risk through each phase of development. In system design of ETS - 8, almost components have redundancy and there is some back-up function to avoid fatal failure. What kind of back-up function should be taken is one of the hot issues in this project. The consideration process is described as an actual case. In addition to conventional risk management procedure, FMEA and identification of the critical items so on, we conducted the validation experiment in space by use of a scale model that was launched on Ariane 5. The decision to conduct this kind of experiment is taken after evaluation between risk and cost, because it takes a lot of resources of project. The effect of this experiment is also presented. Failure detection, isolation and reconfiguration in the flight software are more important as the satellite system becomes large and complicated. We did the independent verification and validation to the software. Some remarks are noted with respect to its effectiveness.

  10. Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection

    SciTech Connect

    Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

    2005-03-15

    This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

  11. Controlling Legal Risk for Effective Hospital Management.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Cho, Duk Young; Park, Yong Sug; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-04-01

    To analyze the types of medical malpractice, medical errors, and medical disputes in a university hospital for the proposal of countermeasures that maximize the efficiency of hospital management, medical departments, and healthcare providers. This study retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 55 closed civil lawsuits among 64 medical lawsuit cases carried out in Pusan National University Hospital from January 2000 to April 2013 using medical records, petitions, briefs, and data from the Medical Dispute Mediation Committee. Of 55 civil lawsuits, men were the main plaintiffs in 31 cases (56.4%). The average period from medical malpractice to malpractice proceeding was 16.5 months (range, 1 month to 6.4 years), and the average period from malpractice proceeding to the disposition of a lawsuit was 21.7 months (range, 1 month to 4 years and 11 months). Hospitals can effectively manage their legal risks by implementing a systematic medical system, eliminating risk factors in administrative service, educating all hospital employees on preventative strategies, and improving customer service. Furthermore, efforts should be made to establish standard coping strategies to manage medical disputes and malpractice lawsuits, operate alternative dispute resolution methods including the Medical Dispute Mediation Committee, create a compliance support center, deploy a specialized workforce including improved legal services for employees, and specialize the management-level tasks of the hospital.

  12. Risk management-an industry approach.

    PubMed

    Huggett, A C

    2001-06-01

    An effective risk management system covering the whole process of food production from "farm to fork" is required by the food industry in order to assure that the food provided to consumers is safe. Food safety and quality assurance begins with the design and development of food products starting with product conceptualisation and continuing with the selection, purchasing, and evaluation of raw materials and with the specifications for processing, packaging and distribution. Within a larger quality management framework a number of tools have been developed by the food industry, which when used in an integrated fashion facilitate the management of food safety. These include good manufacturing practice (GMP), good hygiene practice (GHP) and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point) as well as quality systems which allow the verification that all factors affecting the safety of a product are under control. Finally, regulations and systems can only function if they are applied. Everyone, from the farmer, the line operator in the manufacturing plant, to the person handling the food in distribution and sales, needs to be aware of his influence with regards safety. The effectiveness of safety awareness programs specific to each area is key to an industry approach to risk management.

  13. Bisphenol A and Risk Management Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliot, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely recognized that endocrine disrupting compounds, such as Bisphenol A, pose challenges for traditional paradigms in toxicology, insofar as these substances appear to have a wider range of low-dose effects than previously recognized. These compounds also pose challenges for ethics and policymaking. When a chemical does not have significant low-dose effects, regulators can allow it to be introduced into commerce or the environment, provided that procedures and rules are in place to keep exposures below an acceptable level. This option allows society to maximize the benefits from the use of the chemical while minimizing risks to human health or the environment, and it represents a compromise between competing values. When it is not possible to establish acceptable exposure levels for chemicals that pose significant health or environmental risks, the most reasonable options for risk management may be to enact either partial or complete bans on their use. These options create greater moral conflict than other risk management strategies, leaving policymakers difficult choices between competing values. PMID:24471646

  14. Bisphenol A and risk management ethics.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2015-03-01

    It is widely recognized that endocrine disrupting compounds, such as Bisphenol A, pose challenges for traditional paradigms in toxicology, insofar as these substances appear to have a wider range of low-dose effects than previously recognized. These compounds also pose challenges for ethics and policymaking. When a chemical does not have significant low-dose effects, regulators can allow it to be introduced into commerce or the environment, provided that procedures and rules are in place to keep exposures below an acceptable level. This option allows society to maximize the benefits from the use of the chemical while minimizing risks to human health or the environment, and it represents a compromise between competing values. When it is not possible to establish acceptable exposure levels for chemicals that pose significant health or environmental risks, the most reasonable options for risk management may be to enact either partial or complete bans on their use. These options create greater moral conflict than other risk management strategies, leaving policymakers difficult choices between competing values. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ecological risk assessment benefits environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbrother, A.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Glicken, J.

    1994-12-31

    The ecological risk assessment process in its ideal form is an unbiased approach for assessing the probability of harm to the environment as a consequence of a given action. This information can then be combined with other societal values and biases in the management of such risks. However, as the process currently is understood, decision makers often are accused of manipulating information in order to generate decisions or achieve buy in from the public in support of a particular political agenda. A clear understanding of the nature of the risk management process can help define areas where information should be free from social or personal bias, and areas where values and judgments are critical. The authors do not propose to discuss the individual`s decision-making process, but rather to address the social process of risk communication and environmentally-related decision-making, identifying which parts of that process require bias-free, scientifically generated information about the consequences of various actions and which parts need an understanding of the social values which underlie the informed choices among those possible actions.

  16. Natural-technological risk assessment and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burova, Valentina; Frolova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    EM-DAT statistical data on human impact and economic damages in the 1st semester 2015 are the highest since 2011: 41% of disasters were floods, responsible for 39% of economic damage and 7% of events were earthquakes responsible for 59% of total death toll. This suggests that disaster risk assessment and management still need to be improved and stay the principle issue in national and international related programs. The paper investigates the risk assessment and management practice in the Russian Federation at different levels. The method is proposed to identify the territories characterized by integrated natural-technological hazard. The maps of the Russian Federation zoning according to the integrated natural-technological hazard level are presented, as well as the procedure of updating the integrated hazard level taking into account the activity of separate processes. Special attention is paid to data bases on past natural and technological processes consequences, which are used for verification of current hazard estimation. The examples of natural-technological risk zoning for the country and some regions territory are presented. Different output risk indexes: both social and economic, are estimated taking into account requirements of end-users. In order to increase the safety of population of the Russian Federation the trans-boundaries hazards are also taken into account.

  17. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  18. Risk Management Is Everyone's Responsibility: Reminders for Entertainment Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talarico, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines for risk management to campus entertainers and their representatives, including options for insurance coverage, types of insurance policies, and risk management for non-insurable factors associated with concerts and novelty events. (MSE)

  19. Risk Management Is Everyone's Responsibility: Reminders for Entertainment Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talarico, Scott

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines for risk management to campus entertainers and their representatives, including options for insurance coverage, types of insurance policies, and risk management for non-insurable factors associated with concerts and novelty events. (MSE)

  20. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  1. A generalized Fourier transform approach to risk measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormetti, Giacomo; Cazzola, Valentina; Livan, Giacomo; Montagna, Guido; Nicrosini, Oreste

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of generalized Fourier transforms in the context of risk management. We develop a general framework in which to efficiently compute the most popular risk measures, value-at-risk and expected shortfall (also known as conditional value-at-risk). The only ingredient required by our approach is the knowledge of the characteristic function describing the financial data in use. This allows us to extend risk analysis to those non-Gaussian models defined in the Fourier space, such as Lévy noise driven processes and stochastic volatility models. We test our analytical results on data sets coming from various financial indexes, finding that our predictions outperform those provided by the standard log-normal dynamics and are in remarkable agreement with those of the benchmark historical approach.

  2. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  3. Science-Driven Approach to Disaster Risk and Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2014-12-01

    Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional

  4. Social and ethical perspectives of landslide risk mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalsnes, Bjørn; Vangelsten, Bjørn V.

    2015-04-01

    Landslide risk may be mitigated by use of a wide range of measures. Mitigation and prevention options may include (1) structural measures to reduce the frequency, severity or exposure to the hazard, (2) non-structural measures, such as land-use planning and early warning systems, to reduce the hazard frequency and consequences, and (3) measures to pool and transfer the risks. In a given situation the appropriate system of mitigation measures may be a combination of various types of measures, both structural and non-structural. In the process of choosing mitigation measures for a given landslide risk situation, the role of the geoscientist is normally to propose possible mitigation measures on basis of the risk level and technical feasibility. Social and ethical perspectives are often neglected in this process. However, awareness of the need to consider social as well as ethical issues in the design and management of mitigating landslide risk is rising. There is a growing understanding that technical experts acting alone cannot determine what will be considered the appropriate set of mitigation and prevention measures. Issues such as environment versus development, questions of acceptable risk, who bears the risks and benefits, and who makes the decisions, also need to be addressed. Policymakers and stakeholders engaged in solving environmental risk problems are increasingly recognising that traditional expert-based decision-making processes are insufficient. This paper analyse the process of choosing appropriate mitigation measures to mitigate landslide risk from a social and ethical perspective, considering technical, cultural, economical, environmental and political elements. The paper focus on stakeholder involvement in the decision making process, and shows how making strategies for risk communication is a key for a successful process. The study is supported by case study examples from Norway and Italy. In the Italian case study, three different risk mitigation

  5. Quality Risk Management: Putting GMP Controls First.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kevin; Greene, Anne; Zwitkovits, Michael; Calnan, Nuala

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a practical way in which current approaches to quality risk management (QRM) may be improved, such that they better support qualification, validation programs, and change control proposals at manufacturing sites. The paper is focused on the treatment of good manufacturing practice (GMP) controls during QRM exercises. It specifically addresses why it is important to evaluate and classify such controls in terms of how they affect the severity, probability of occurrence, and detection ratings that may be assigned to potential failure modes or negative events. It also presents a QRM process that is designed to directly link the outputs of risk assessments and risk control activities with qualification and validation protocols in the GMP environment. This paper concerns the need for improvement in the use of risk-based principles and tools when working to ensure that the manufacturing processes used to produce medicines, and their related equipment, are appropriate. Manufacturing processes need to be validated (or proven) to demonstrate that they can produce a medicine of the required quality. The items of equipment used in such processes need to be qualified, in order to prove that they are fit for their intended use. Quality risk management (QRM) tools can be used to support such qualification and validation activities, but their use should be science-based and subject to as little subjectivity and uncertainty as possible. When changes are proposed to manufacturing processes, equipment, or related activities, they also need careful evaluation to ensure that any risks present are managed effectively. This paper presents a practical approach to how QRM may be improved so that it better supports qualification, validation programs, and change control proposals in a more scientific way. This improved approach is based on the treatment of what are called good manufacturing process (GMP) controls during those QRM exercises. A GMP control can be considered

  6. Fuels Management-How to Measure Success: Conference Proceedings

    Treesearch

    Patricia L. Andrews; Bret W. Butler

    2006-01-01

    Fuels management programs are designed to reduce risks to communities and to improve and maintain ecosystem health. The International Association of Wildland Fire initiated the 1st Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference to address development, implementation, and evaluation of these programs. The focus was on how to measure success. Over 500 participants from several...

  7. A Risk Management Model for the Federal Acquisition Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    risk management in the acquisition process. This research explains the Federal Acquisition Process and each of the 78 tasks to be completed by the CO...and examines the concepts of risk and risk management . This research culminates in the development of a model that identifies prevalent risks in the...contracting professionals is used to gather opinions, ideas, and practical applications of risk management in the acquisition process, and refine the model

  8. Experiences and Lessons Learned in Project Risk Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    proceeds. A major task in project risk management is to assure that the ex- pected value of the projected outcome area does not materially deviate...Description of the bidder’s risk management plan covering cost, scheduling, and technical risks, together with the details of procedures and system for...Implementing the risk management plan. 4. As part of the bid evaluation, the government should compare the bidder’s risk analysis results with the

  9. Uncertainty in environmental risk assessment: implications for risk-based management of river basins.

    PubMed

    Ragas, Ad M J; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Henning-de Jong, Irmgard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2009-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment is typically uncertain due to different perceptions of the risk problem and limited knowledge about the physical, chemical, and biological processes underlying the risk. The present paper provides a systematic overview of the implications of different types of uncertainty for risk management, with a focus on risk-based management of river basins. Three different types of uncertainty are distinguished: 1) problem definition uncertainty, 2) true uncertainty, and 3) variability. Methods to quantify and describe these types of uncertainty are discussed and illustrated in 4 case studies. The case studies demonstrate that explicit regulation of uncertainty can improve risk management (e.g., by identification of the most effective risk reduction measures, optimization of the use of resources, and improvement of the decision-making process). It is concluded that the involvement of nongovernmental actors as prescribed by the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) provides challenging opportunities to address problem definition uncertainty and those forms of true uncertainty that are difficult to quantify. However, the WFD guidelines for derivation and application of environmental quality standards could be improved by the introduction of a probabilistic approach to deal with true uncertainty and a better scientific basis for regulation of variability.

  10. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to entering... monitored, funding availability, and program management risk. (c) Appropriate techniques should be applied...

  11. 12 CFR 704.21 - Enterprise risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... background; and at least five years experience in identifying, assessing, and managing risk exposures. The... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enterprise risk management. 704.21 Section 704... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.21 Enterprise risk management. (a) A corporate credit union must develop...

  12. 12 CFR 704.21 - Enterprise risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... background; and at least five years experience in identifying, assessing, and managing risk exposures. The... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enterprise risk management. 704.21 Section 704... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.21 Enterprise risk management. (a) A corporate credit union must develop...

  13. Operation Support Hope; Risk Management -- Leader’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    with the harsh environment. The solution is for commanders and other leaders to manage those risks. The risk - management process of hazard identification...policy cover, risk management is an effective tool to protect the force. That doesn’t mean we can throw away the book. What it does mean is that the

  14. 14 CFR 121.473 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.473...: Domestic Operations § 121.473 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The...

  15. 14 CFR 121.473 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 121.473...: Domestic Operations § 121.473 Fatigue risk management system. (a) No certificate holder may exceed any provision of this subpart unless approved by the FAA under a Fatigue Risk Management System. (b) The...

  16. 14 CFR 117.7 - Fatigue risk management system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fatigue risk management system. 117.7... LIMITATIONS AND REST REQUIREMENTS: FLIGHTCREW MEMBERS (EFF. 1-4-14) § 117.7 Fatigue risk management system. (a... Fatigue Risk Management System that provides at least an equivalent level of safety against...

  17. Factors Predicting Adherence to Risk Management Behaviors of Women at Increased Risk for Developing Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kerry A.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Roussi, Pagona; Taylor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Lymphedema affects 20-30% of women following breast cancer treatment. However, even when women are informed, they do not necessarily adhere to recommended lymphedema self-management regimens. Utilizing the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing framework, we assessed cognitive and emotional factors influencing adherence to lymphedema risk management. Methods Women with breast cancer who had undergone breast and lymph node surgery were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Centre breast clinic. Participants (N=103) completed measures of lymphedema-related perceived risk, beliefs and expectancies, distress, self-regulatory ability to manage distress, knowledge, and adherence to risk management behaviors. They then received the American Cancer Society publication “Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know”. Cognitive and affective variables were reassessed at 6- and 12-months post-baseline. Results Maximum likelihood multilevel model analyses indicated that overall adherence increased over time, with significant differences between baseline and 6- and 12- month assessments. Adherence to wearing gloves was significantly lower than that for all other behaviors except electric razor use. Distress significantly decreased, and knowledge significantly increased, over time. Greater knowledge, higher self-efficacy to enact behaviors, lower distress, and higher self-regulatory ability to manage distress were associated with increased adherence. Conclusions Women who understand lymphedema risk management and feel confident in managing this risk are more likely to adhere to recommended strategies. These factors should be rigorously assessed as part of routine care to ensure that women have the self-efficacy to seek treatment and the self-regulatory skills to manage distress, which may undermine attempts to seek medical assistance. PMID:24970542

  18. Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roskilde University hosted a November 2015 workshop on “Environmental Risk – Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World”. Thirty attendees from 9 countries developed consensus recommendations regarding: implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process involving both universal and site-, region-, or problem-specific protection goals; addressing societal issues; risk management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. We encourage both cross- and inter-disciplinary approaches to address 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk management process; 5) consider socio-economics and increase transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference con

  19. Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roskilde University hosted a November 2015 workshop on “Environmental Risk – Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World”. Thirty attendees from 9 countries developed consensus recommendations regarding: implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process involving both universal and site-, region-, or problem-specific protection goals; addressing societal issues; risk management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. We encourage both cross- and inter-disciplinary approaches to address 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk management process; 5) consider socio-economics and increase transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference con

  20. Managing risk in an unstable world.

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Ian

    2005-06-01

    With emerging markets like China and politically unstable countries like Saudi Arabia figuring more than ever into companies' investment calculations, business leaders are turning to political risk analysis to measure the impact of politics on potential markets, minimize risks, and make the most of global opportunities. But political risk is more subjective than its economic counterpart. It is influenced by the passage of laws, the foibles of government leaders, and the rise of popular movements. So corporate leaders must grapple not just with broad, easily observable trends but also with nuances of society and even quirks of personality. And those hard-to-quantify factors must constantly be pieced together into an ongoing narrative within historical and regional contexts. As goods, services, information, ideas, and people cross borders today with unprecedented velocity, corporations debating operational or infrastructural investments abroad increasingly need objective, rigorous assessments. One tool for measuring and presenting stability data, for example, incorporates 20 composite indicators of risk in emerging markets and scores risk variables according to both their structural and their temporal components. The indicators are then organized into four equally weighted subcategories whose ratings are aggregated into a single stability score. Countries are ranked on a scale of zero (a failed state) to100 (a fully institutionalized, stable democracy). Companies can buy political risk analyses from consultants or, as some large energy and financial services organizations have done, develop them in-house. Either way, a complete and accurate picture of any country's risk requires analysts with strong reportorial skills; timely, accurate data on a variety of social and political trends; and a framework for evaluating the impact of individual risks on stability.

  1. Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT)

    Treesearch

    Peter R. Robichaud

    2008-01-01

    Federal land management agencies have spent tens of millions of dollars on post-fire emergency watershed stabilization measures intended to minimize flood runoff, peakflows, onsite erosion, offsite sedimentation, and other hydrologic damage to natural habitats, roads, bridges, reservoirs, and irrigation systems (General Accounting Office 2003). The decision to apply...

  2. Health-risk appraisal with or without disease management for worksite cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Maron, David J; Forbes, Barbara L; Groves, Jay R; Dietrich, Mary S; Sells, Patrick; DiGenio, Andres G

    2008-01-01

    Worksite health promotion programs use health risk appraisal (HRA) surveys to identify employees at increased risk, then provide a range of interventions to encourage high-risk individuals to improve their health. Our objective was to determine how the intensity of intervention after HRA affected cardiovascular risk after 1 year, comparing individual follow-up counseling with environmental supports. 133 employees of Vanderbilt University with cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned to worksite HRA plus targeted disease management (DM group) or HRA plus information about worksite health promotion programs (HRA group). The DM group received longitudinal individualized counseling for risk reduction, whereas the HRA group members received one feedback session about their risk factors and information about free worksite health promotion programs. The main outcome measure was the difference between groups in the change in average Framingham risk score from baseline to 1 year. There was no significant baseline difference between groups in the Framingham risk score. Among DM participants, the mean (SD) Framingham risk score decreased by 22.6%; among HRA participants, the mean score rose by 4.3% (P = .017 for the difference between groups). In this study of employees with cardiovascular risk factors, HRA followed by individual counseling was more effective than providing information about free worksite health promotion programs.

  3. Striae gravidarum: Risk factors, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Farahnik, B; Park, K; Kroumpouzos, G; Murase, J

    2017-06-01

    Striae gravidarum (SG) are atrophic linear scars that represent one of the most common connective tissue changes during pregnancy. SG can cause emotional and psychological distress for many women. Research on risk factors, prevention, and management of SG has been often inconclusive. We conducted a literature search using textbooks, PubMed, and Medline databases to assess research performed on the risk factors, prevention, and management of SG. The search included the following key words: striae gravidarum, pregnancy stretch marks, and pregnancy stretch. We also reviewed citations within articles to identify relevant sources. Younger age, maternal and family history of SG, increased pre-pregnancy and pre-delivery weight, and increased birth weight were the most significant risk factors identified for SG. Although few studies have confirmed effective prevention methods, Centella asiatica extract, hyaluronic acid, and daily massages showed some promise. Treatment for general striae has greatly improved over the last few years. Topical tretinoin ≥ 0.05% has demonstrated up to 47% improvement of SG and non-ablative fractional lasers have consistently demonstrated 50 to 75% improvement in treated lesions of striae distensae. Overall, SG has seen a resurgence in research over the last few years with promising data being released. Results of recent studies provide dermatologists with new options for the many women who are affected by these disfiguring marks of pregnancy.

  4. Enterprise Risk Management in the Great City Schools, Spring 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Scott B.; DeCato, Kristen Devan; George, Dave; Henderson, Dana; Henry, Aston A., Jr.; Hoch, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Public schools have a mandate to educate children in a way that is safe, effective, and cost efficient. The risks involved in achieving that mandate have become increasingly complex, and the need to manage those risks has never been greater. The emergence of widespread, interconnected risks, such as cyber risks and data management, infrastructure…

  5. Mediterranean Storms: An Integrated Approach of Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgou, H.; Riza, E.; Linos, A.; Papanikolaou, D.

    2010-09-01

    response. The available and applied science and technology in prediction and early warning systems rely on the close collaboration between scientists and policy makers to achieve effective disaster prevention of human life and mitigation of damages. Developing agencies approach risk management as an integral part of development and encourage activities and measures to reduce the exposure and vulnerability to natural hazards through early warning systems, building codes, land use plans and disaster sensitive development plans. The human settlement and investment in high risk floodplains place greater numbers of people and economic assets in danger of being affected by storms and floods. Disasters and development are highly inter-related. Recurrent disasters and frequent localized disasters erode development and conversely the development processes can reduce disaster risk, or create new risks. The private sector participation in risk reduction efforts can help local communities mitigate disasters and increases the benefits of the businesses. The private insurance sector is highly involved in the prevention of disaster caused by natural hazards especially storms and floods. The collaboration between academic community and the insurance sector indicates the linkages between the mutual insurance actions and risk culture. Also tourism industry and private critical infrastructure sector get involved in prevention measures and activities against storm and flood risks to build sustainable functionality and keep public trust. NGOs focus on social, cultural, environmental, educational, or health issues in disaster management and their members are educated and experienced on their area of operations. The staff of local and national NGOs is familiar with culture, languages, governance structures, social networks, climate and geography of the affected area and holds a unique understanding of the specific problems of the affected population. Additionally, NGO’s operations do not

  6. Managing hazards in place: The risks of residual risks.

    PubMed

    Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2017-10-01

    Managing hazards in place (MHP) is a policy instrument in environmental health that allows less than complete removal, abatement, or remediation of environmental hazards. The practice of minimizing exposure to hazards rather than removing them is widely recognized as part of the toolbox of environmental protection for human and ecosystem health. The concept of managing hazards in place is embedded in several environmental statutes and regulations in the US notably the waste management regulations, as well as in the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act. While this commentary focuses largely on applications of MHP in the US, this policy is also utilized by agencies in many other countries for managing hazardous waste sites, lead in housing and drinking water systems, and environmental contamination of rivers and estuaries. The rationale for this concept is not difficult to understand: MHP policies can reduce the costs of meeting environmental goals; it can provide opportunities for access to resources that have been contaminated by past actions such as waste disposal, and it can enhance land and property values as well as tax revenues all of which are important to home owners and communities. The concerns related to this concept are also not difficult to understand: an incompletely abated or contained hazard may present future exposure risks to humans and environmental biota. Further, the compromise implicit in MHP is the assurance of indefinite oversight and monitoring to detect any releases. To that extent, MHP involves both sociology as well as toxicology and the exposure sciences. Because of the prevalence of managing hazards in place, this commentary suggests that evaluation of its performance is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological c

  8. Assessing and managing multiple risks in a changing world ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roskilde University (Denmark) hosted a November 2015 workshop, Environmental Risk—Assessing and Managing Multiple Risks in a Changing World. This Focus article presents the consensus recommendations of 30 attendees from 9 countries regarding implementation of a common currency (ecosystem services) for holistic environmental risk assessment and management; improvements to risk assessment and management in a complex, human-modified, and changing world; appropriate development of protection goals in a 2-stage process; dealing with societal issues; risk-management information needs; conducting risk assessment of risk management; and development of adaptive and flexible regulatory systems. The authors encourage both cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to address their 10 recommendations: 1) adopt ecosystem services as a common currency for risk assessment and management; 2) consider cumulative stressors (chemical and nonchemical) and determine which dominate to best manage and restore ecosystem services; 3) fully integrate risk managers and communities of interest into the risk-assessment process; 4) fully integrate risk assessors and communities of interest into the risk-management process; 5) consider socioeconomics and increased transparency in both risk assessment and risk management; 6) recognize the ethical rights of humans and ecosystems to an adequate level of protection; 7) determine relevant reference conditions and the proper ecological c

  9. Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-05-02

    Risk is a factor, element, constraint, or course of action that introduces an uncertainty of outcome that could impact project objectives. Risk is an inherent part of all activities, whether the activity is simple and small, or large and complex. Risk management is a process that identifies, evaluates, handles, and monitors risks that have the potential to affect project success. The risk management process spans the entire project, from its initiation to its successful completion and closeout, including both technical and programmatic (non-technical) risks. This Risk Management Plan (RMP) defines the process to be used for identifying, evaluating, handling, and monitoring risks as part of the overall management of the Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) ‘Project’. Given the changing nature of the project environment, risk management is essentially an ongoing and iterative process, which applies the best efforts of a knowledgeable project staff to a suite of focused and prioritized concerns. The risk management process itself must be continually applied throughout the project life cycle. This document was prepared in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, its associated guide for risk management DOE G 413.3-7, Risk Management Guide, and LANL ADPM AP-350-204, Risk and Opportunity Management.

  10. Solar Particle Events from a risk management perspective.

    PubMed

    Turner, R

    2000-12-01

    Solar Particle Events pose a health risk to astronauts in space. Today, SPE forecasts are inadequate to provide advance warning with sufficient credibility to lead operators to initiate protective measures. However, research on SPEs and Coronal Mass Ejections suggests that the space weather community is on the verge of substantial improvements in understanding solar energetic particle acceleration and propagation. This paper describes the impact of SPEs, reviews the physics of SPEs, discusses current SPE forecast tools, and describes an approach to provide the comprehensive space weather data necessary to implement physics-based SPE risk management.

  11. Managed retreat as a response to natural hazard risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Miyuki; Field, Christopher B.; Mach, Katharine J.

    2017-03-01

    Managed retreat is a potentially important climate change adaptation option, providing an alternative to structural protection or accommodation measures to manage natural hazard risk. However, its application faces challenges given the projected scale of climate-induced displacement and the difficulties of resettlement. We evaluate the drivers, barriers and outcomes of 27 recent cases of managed retreat that have resettled approximately 1.3 million people. A conceptual model based on two key factors--who benefits from retreat and who initiates it--organizes the diverse set of cases into four quadrants. Different sociopolitical dimensions emerge as particularly influential in each quadrant. The model establishes a foundation for understanding and anticipating case-specific complexities. It can be used to unpack the landscape of managed retreat and evaluate its potential future applications.

  12. Measuring the ROI on Knowledge Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickhorst, Vickie

    2002-01-01

    Defines knowledge management and corporate portals and provides a model that can be applied to assessing return on investment (ROI) for a knowledge management solution. Highlights include leveraging knowledge in an organization; assessing the value of human capital; and the Intellectual Capital Performance Measurement Model. (LRW)

  13. Risk assessment and risk management for safe foods: Assessment needs inclusion of variability and uncertainty, management needs discrete decisions.

    PubMed

    Zwietering, M H

    2015-11-20

    The introduction of relevant food safety changes in legislation, like time-temperature criteria for pasteurisation and sterilisation, microbiological criteria, HACCP and FSOs, generally took several decades. All these approaches have helped to define specific targets or systems to improve the management of food safety. More and more the measures could be related to specific efficiency in public health protection. With the use of quantitative risk assessment, theoretically the effect of all interventions on the final risk can be determined, which can help to design the appropriate controls in the food safety management system. In such an assessment in practice, however results have understandably large variability and also uncertainty. There is large variability and uncertainty in the biological parts of the assessment, the dose response (infectivity, human susceptibility) the micro-organism kinetics in the chain (growth, inactivation, stress response) and also in the more technological parts, the conditions in the chain and the consumer behaviour. Often the results of risk assessments are probability distributions of the variability in illness probability, also sometimes represented with their uncertainty. To make a link from these distributions to managerial decisions, that need to be black and white, should not be considered the job of risk managers. This link needs investment from both the assessor and the manager.

  14. Gender, Race, and Risk: Intersectional Risk Management in the Sale of Sex Online.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Jessica D; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    Sex worker experience of risk (e.g., physical violence or rape) is shaped by race, gender, and context. For web-based sex workers, experience of risk is comparatively minimal; what is unclear is how web-based sex workers manage risk and if online advertising plays a role in risk management. Building on intersectionality theory and research exploring risk management in sex work, we content-analyzed 600 escort advertisements from Backpage.com ( http://www.backpage.com ) to explore risk management in web-based sex work. To guide our research we asked: Do advertisements contain risk management messages? Does the use of risk management messaging differ by sex worker race or gender? Which groups have the highest overall use of risk management messages? Through a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) we found that advertisements contained risk management messages and that uses of these phrases varied by race and gender. Blacks, women, and transgender women drove the use of risk management messages. Black and White transgender women had the highest overall use of these phrases. We conclude that risk management is an intersectional practice and that the use of risk management messages is a venue-specific manifestation of broader risk management priorities found in all venues where sex is sold.

  15. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a “gold standard” for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable. PMID:26322307

  16. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a "gold standard" for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable.

  17. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  18. Risk management of liquefied natural gas installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, O. H.; Parsons, W. N.; Coutinho, J. De C.

    1976-01-01

    In connection with the construction of four major liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in New York City, the New York City Fire Commissioner has asked NASA for assistance. It was decided that the Kennedy Space Center should develop a risk management system (RMS) for the use of the New York Fire Department (NYFD). The RMS provides for a published set of safety regulations by the NYFD. A description of the RMS is presented as an example of an application of aerospace technology to a civilian sector, namely LNG facilities.

  19. Risk management in the dental office.

    PubMed

    Dym, Harry

    2012-01-01

    This article is devoted to risk-management strategies regarding oral surgical procedures in the general dental office. Lawsuits are more likely to be filed following poor outcomes related to oral surgical procedures rather than after operative or prosthetic dental procedures. The article is not meant to discourage practitioners from performing oral surgical procedures if they have the experience, training, and appropriate skill set to complete the planned procedure. Rather, it advises clinicians as to the steps one can take to limit the chances of litigation from occurring, and avoid the emotionally and painful time-consuming process associated with a malpractice lawsuit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. IT Operational Risk Measurement Model Based on Internal Loss Data of Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiaoling

    Business operation of banks relies increasingly on information technology (IT) and the most important role of IT is to guarantee the operational continuity of business process. Therefore, IT Risk management efforts need to be seen from the perspective of operational continuity. Traditional IT risk studies focused on IT asset-based risk analysis and risk-matrix based qualitative risk evaluation. In practice, IT risk management practices of banking industry are still limited to the IT department and aren't integrated into business risk management, which causes the two departments to work in isolation. This paper presents an improved methodology for dealing with IT operational risk. It adopts quantitative measurement method, based on the internal business loss data about IT events, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to predict the potential losses. We establish the correlation between the IT resources and business processes to make sure risk management of IT and business can work synergistically.

  1. Legal aspects of orthodontic practice: risk management concepts. Performing a risk management audit of your practice.

    PubMed

    Machen, D E

    1990-05-01

    In this and succeeding issues of the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS, factual risk management scenarios will be presented. These scenarios are based on composites of actual court cases that have been tried to verdict or decision. Valuable risk management lessons may be learned from careful analysis of the course of the events described. Please be advised that the standard of care determined in any case is specific for that jurisdiction and that set of facts as established by expert testimony for the prevailing party. Readers' comments may be addressed to Dr. Donald E. Machen, 5801 Beacon St., Pittsburgh, PA 15217.

  2. Risk management modeling and its application in maritime safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ting-Rong; Chen, Wei-Jiong; Zeng, Xiang-Kun

    2008-12-01

    Quantified risk assessment (QRA) needs mathematicization of risk theory. However, attention has been paid almost exclusively to applications of assessment methods, which has led to neglect of research into fundamental theories, such as the relationships among risk, safety, danger, and so on. In order to solve this problem, as a first step, fundamental theoretical relationships about risk and risk management were analyzed for this paper in the light of mathematics, and then illustrated with some charts. Second, man-machine-environment-management (MMEM) theory was introduced into risk theory to analyze some properties of risk. On the basis of this, a three-dimensional model of risk management was established that includes: a goal dimension; a management dimension; an operation dimension. This goal management operation (GMO) model was explained and then emphasis was laid on the discussion of the risk flowchart (operation dimension), which lays the groundwork for further study of risk management and qualitative and quantitative assessment. Next, the relationship between Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) and Risk Management was researched. This revealed that the FSA method, which the international maritime organization (IMO) is actively spreading, comes from Risk Management theory. Finally, conclusion were made about how to apply this risk management method to concrete fields efficiently and conveniently, as well as areas where further research is required.

  3. Meteorological risks as drivers of innovation for agroecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vyver, Hans; Zamani, Sepideh; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-04-01

    season. A methodology for identifying agro-ecosystem vulnerability was developed using spatially explicit information and was tested for arable crop production in Belgium. The different components of vulnerability for a region include spatial information on meteorology, soil available water content, soil erosion, the degree of waterlogging, crop share and the diversity of potato varieties. The level of vulnerability and resilience of an agro-ecosystem is also determined by risk management. The types of agricultural risk and their relative importance differ across sectors and farm types. Risk types are further distinguished according to production, market, institutional, financial and liability risks. Strategies are often combined in the risk management strategy of a farmer and include reduction and prevention, mitigation, coping and impact reduction. Based on an extensive literature review, a portfolio of potential strategies was identified at farm, market and policy level. Research hypotheses were tested using an on-line questionnaire on knowledge of agricultural risk, measuring the general risk aversion of the farmer and risk management strategies. The "chain of risk" approach adopted as a research methodology allows for investigating the hypothesis that meteorological risks act as drivers for agricultural innovation. Risks related to extreme weather events in Belgium are mainly caused by heat, frost, excess rainfall, drought and storms, and their impact is predominantly felt by arable, horticultural and extensive dairy farmers. Quantification of the risk is evaluated in terms of probability of occurrence, magnitude, frequency and extent of impact on several agro-ecosystems services. The spatial extent of vulnerability is developed by integrating different layers of geo-information, while risk management is analysed using questionnaires and economic modelling methods. Future work will concentrate on the further development and testing of the currently developed

  4. The risk management implications of NUREG--1150 methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, A.L.; Maloney, K.J.; Sype, T.T. )

    1989-09-01

    This report describes the potential uses of NUREG-1150 and similar Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) in NRC and industry risk management programs. NUREG-1150 uses state-of-the-art PRA techniques to estimate the risk from five nuclear power plants. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. While the development of plant-specific risk management strategies is beyond the scope of this document, examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management from prevention of initiating events though reduction of offsite consequences are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phase of accidents. 14 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Research on Risk Management and Power Supplying Enterprise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianfei; Wang, Yige

    2017-09-01

    This paper derived from the background that electric power enterprises strengthen their risk management under requirements of the government. For the power industry, we explained the risk management theory, analysed current macro environment as well as basic situation, then classified and interpreted the main risks. In a case study on a power bureau, we established a risk management system based on deep understanding about the characteristics of its organization system and risk management function. Then, we focused on risks in operation as well as incorrupt government construction to give a more effective framework of the risk management system. Finally, we came up with the problems and specific countermeasures in risk management, which provided a reference for other electric power enterprises.

  6. The application of risk analysis in aquatic animal health management.

    PubMed

    Peeler, E J; Murray, A G; Thebault, A; Brun, E; Giovaninni, A; Thrush, M A

    2007-09-14

    Risk analysis has only been regularly used in the management of aquatic animal health in recent years. The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) stimulated the application of risk analysis to investigate disease risks associated with international trade (import risk analysis-IRA). A majority (9 of 17) of the risk analyses reviewed were IRA. The other major focus has been the parasite of Atlantic salmon--Gyrodactylus salaris. Six studies investigated the spread of this parasite, between countries, rivers and from farmed to wild stocks, and clearly demonstrated that risk analysis can support aquatic animal health policy development, from international trade and biosecurity to disease interaction between wild and farmed stocks. Other applications of risk analysis included the spread of vertically transmitted pathogens and disease emergence in aquaculture. The Covello-Merkhofer, risk analysis model was most commonly used and appears to be a flexible tool not only for IRA but also the investigation of disease spread in other contexts. The limitations of the identified risk assessments were discussed. A majority were qualitative, partly due to the lack of data for quantitative analysis, and this, it can be argued, constrained their usefulness for trade purposes (i.e. setting appropriate sanitary measures); in other instances, a qualitative result was found to be adequate for decision making. A lack of information about the disease hazards of the large number of fish species traded is likely to constrain quantitative analysis for a number of years. The consequence assessment element of a risk analysis was most likely to be omitted, or limited in scope and depth, rarely extending beyond examining the evidence of susceptibility of farmed and wild species to the identified hazard. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations made to develop guidelines for a consistent, systematic and multi-disciplinary approach to consequence

  7. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  8. Managing Risk of Pest Introduction, Establishment and Spread in a Changing World

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers the topics of pest risk analysis, risk management, and host status, including the nonhost concept. Pest-free status and production areas as phytosanitary measures are also di...

  9. [Measurement in epidemiology: prevalence, incidence, risk, impact measures].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Measurement is essential in epidemiology, and this is why detailed knowledge of the different measures that are estimated in this discipline is necessary, since information interpretation and, most importantly, the decisions made in the care of patients depend on it. This article describes the three main groups of measures in epidemiology: frequency, association and potential impact; examples and instructions for their calculation are also provided. Incidence and prevalence are the most significant frequency measures, and can be obtained when both morbidity and mortality of diseases are studied. In descriptive epidemiology these measures are fundamental and involve studying how the disease is distributed in the population, in particular, the incidence according to the individual, place and time. The measures of association that are used in analytical epidemiology, such as prevalence ratio, odds ratio and relative risk, are also detailed. In addition, attributable risk, population and etiological fractions of exposed subjects and measures of potential impact are addressed. In general, it is important to consider that the relevance of calculating the frequency, association and potential impact measures depends on the study design.

  10. Probabilistic economic frameworks for disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulac, Guillaume; Forni, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Starting from the general concept of risk, we set up an economic analysis framework for Disaster Risk Management (DRM) investment. It builds on uncertainty management techniques - notably Monte Carlo simulations - and includes both a risk and performance metrics adapted to recurring issues in disaster risk management as entertained by governments and international organisations. This type of framework proves to be enlightening in several regards, and is thought to ease the promotion of DRM projects as "investments" rather than "costs to be born" and allow for meaningful comparison between DRM and other sectors. We then look at the specificities of disaster risk investments of medium to large scales through this framework, where some "invariants" can be identified, notably: (i) it makes more sense to perform analysis over long-term horizons -space and time scales are somewhat linked; (ii) profiling of the fluctuations of the gains and losses of DRM investments over long periods requires the ability to handle possibly highly volatile variables; (iii) complexity increases with the scale which results in a higher sensitivity of the analytic framework on the results; (iv) as the perimeter of analysis (time, theme and space-wise) is widened, intrinsic parameters of the project tend to weight lighter. This puts DRM in a very different perspective from traditional modelling, which usually builds on more intrinsic features of the disaster as it relates to the scientific knowledge about hazard(s). As models hardly accommodate for such complexity or "data entropy" (they require highly structured inputs), there is a need for a complementary approach to understand risk at global scale. The proposed framework suggests opting for flexible ad hoc modelling of specific issues consistent with one's objective, risk and performance metrics. Such tailored solutions are strongly context-dependant (time and budget, sensitivity of the studied variable in the economic framework) and can

  11. Planning to Execution Earned Value Risk Management Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Primavera P6 Enterprise Portfolio Management ) yes yes yes yes yes https://www.barbecana.com/ Integrated Risk Software Primavera Risk Analysis by Oracle...Utilized with P6 Enterprise Portfolio Management ) yes yes yes yes yes http://www.oracle.com/us/products/applications/primavera/ risk -analysis Open...distribution is unlimited PLANNING TO EXECUTION EARNED VALUE RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL by Team MERICA Cohort 311-141A September 2015 Project

  12. Managing the Risk of Command File Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Bryant, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    Command File Error (CFE), as defined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) is, regardless of the consequence on the spacecraft, either: an error in a command file sent to the spacecraft, an error in the process for developing and delivering a command file to the spacecraft, or the omission of a command file that should have been sent to the spacecraft. The risk consequence of a CFE can be mission ending and thus a concern to space exploration projects during their mission operations. A CFE during space mission operations is often the symptom of some kind of imbalance or inadequacy within the system that comprises the hardware & software used for command generation and the human experts involved in this endeavour. As we move into an era of enhanced collaboration with other NASA centers and commercial partners, these systems become more and more complex and hence it is all the more important to formally model and analyze CFEs in order to manage the risk of CFEs. Here we will provide a summary of the ongoing efforts at JPL in this area and also explain some more recent developments in the area of developing quantitative models for the purpose of managing CFE's.

  13. Managing the Risk of Command File Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Bryant, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    Command File Error (CFE), as defined by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mission Operations Assurance (MOA) is, regardless of the consequence on the spacecraft, either: an error in a command file sent to the spacecraft, an error in the process for developing and delivering a command file to the spacecraft, or the omission of a command file that should have been sent to the spacecraft. The risk consequence of a CFE can be mission ending and thus a concern to space exploration projects during their mission operations. A CFE during space mission operations is often the symptom of some kind of imbalance or inadequacy within the system that comprises the hardware & software used for command generation and the human experts involved in this endeavour. As we move into an era of enhanced collaboration with other NASA centers and commercial partners, these systems become more and more complex and hence it is all the more important to formally model and analyze CFEs in order to manage the risk of CFEs. Here we will provide a summary of the ongoing efforts at JPL in this area and also explain some more recent developments in the area of developing quantitative models for the purpose of managing CFE's.

  14. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide) complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (n = 122) indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers. PMID:21994837

  15. A heuristic risk assessment technique for birdstrike management at airports.

    PubMed

    Allan, John

    2006-06-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft (birdstrikes) have caused the loss of at least 88 aircraft and 243 lives in world civil aviation. Conservative estimates suggest that more routine damage and delays following birdstrikes cost the industry and its insurers US$1.2-1.5 billion per year. The majority of strikes happen close to airports and most countries have regulations that require airport managers to control the birdstrike risk on their property. Birdstrike prevention has, however, lagged behind other aspects of flight safety in the development and implementation of risk assessment protocols, possibly because of the inherent difficulty in quantifying the variability in the populations and behavior of the various bird species involved. This article presents a technique that uses both national and airport-specific data to evaluate risk by creating a simple probability-times-severity matrix. It uses the frequency of strikes reported for different bird species at a given airport over the preceding five years as a measure of strike probability, and the proportion of strikes with each species that result in damage to aircraft, in the national birdstrike database, as a measure of likely severity. Action thresholds for risk levels for particular bird species are then defined, above which the airport should take action to reduce the risk further. The assessment is designed for airports where the reporting and collation of birdstrike events is reasonably consistent over time and where a bird hazard management program of some sort is already in place. This risk assessment is designed to measure risk to the airport as a business rather than risk to the traveling passenger individually. It therefore takes no account of aircraft movement rate in the calculations and is aimed at minimizing the number of damaging incidents rather than concentrating on catastrophic events. Once set up at an airport, the technique is simple to implement for nonexperts, and it allows managers to

  16. Risk management: application of early warning systems to emergency plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, C.; Sterlacchini, S.; Pasuto, A.; de Amicis, M.

    2009-04-01

    Warning System and emergency plans are two fundamental elements of risk management and governance, but unfortunately, most of the times, they are developed independently one from the other, as sequential steps not necessary linked. The main goal of this research is to develop a methodology for applying Early Warning Systems - Community Based to the emergency plan using the results of social surveys and quantitative risk assessment, taking into account the administrative structure and the planning system of the study area, as well as the legislative obligations of each entity involved in the risk governance and emergency management. Using a integrative scientific and social approach to natural hazards the research aim to contribute to fill the gap between scientists, policy makers, stakeholders and community. Initially applied in Comunità Montana Valtellina di Tirano, Italy, the methodology involves the application of two comprehensive surveys. The first is addressed to stakeholders (including policy makers, emergency managers, emergency volunteers, consultants and scientists) in order to determine their needs, points of view, concerns and constraints. The second survey is addressed specifically to local community to assess risk perception, awareness, needs, capacity and level of trust towards stakeholders, besides asking for their willingness to participate in future risk communication activities. The Early Warning System developed includes all the stages of the early warning process (hazard evaluation and forecasting; warning and dissemination and public response) and would be based on a multidisciplinary partnership that takes into account the different actors involved in the risk management in order to accomplish a more reliable and credible result, including an emergency plan specifically designed for each study area. After evaluating the results of the surveys, information and education campaigns will be developed with the objective of reducing vulnerability

  17. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Groth, Katrina; Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Wheeler, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  18. Understanding risks and complications in the management of ankle fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Saurabh Sagar; Rees, Kishan; Cutler, Lucy; Mangwani, Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    Ankle fracture (AF) is a common injury with potentially significant morbidity associated with it. The most common age groups affected are young active patients, sustaining high energy trauma and elderly patients with comorbidities. Both these groups pose unique challenges for appropriate management of these injuries. Young patients are at risk of developing posttraumatic osteoarthritis, with a significant impact on quality of life due to pain and impaired function. Elderly patients, especially with poorly controlled diabetes and osteoporosis are at increased risk of wound complications, infection and failure of fixation. In the most severe cases, this can lead to amputation and mortality. Therefore, individualized approach to the management of AF is vital. This article highlights commonly encountered complications and discusses the measures needed to minimize them when dealing with these injuries. PMID:25298549

  19. Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management (DREAM) tool was developed as part of the effort to quantify the risk of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) under the U.S. Department of Energy's National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP). DREAM is an optimization tool created to identify optimal monitoring schemes that minimize the time to first detection of CO2 leakage from a subsurface storage formation. DREAM acts as a post-processer on user-provided output from subsurface leakage simulations. While DREAM was developed for CO2 leakage scenarios, it is applicable to any subsurface leakage simulation of the same output format. The DREAM tool is comprised of three main components: (1) a Java wizard used to configure and execute the simulations, (2) a visualization tool to view the domain space and optimization results, and (3) a plotting tool used to analyze the results. A secondary Java application is provided to aid users in converting common American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output data to the standard DREAM hierarchical data format (HDF5). DREAM employs a simulated annealing approach that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating potential monitoring schemes built of various configurations of monitoring locations and leak detection parameters. This approach has proven to be orders of magnitude faster than an exhaustive search of the entire solution space. The user's manual illustrates the program graphical user interface (GUI), describes the tool inputs, and includes an example application.

  20. Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The Designs for Risk Evaluation and Management (DREAM) tool was developed as part of the effort to quantify the risk of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP). DREAM is an optimization tool created to identify optimal monitoring schemes that minimize the time to first detection of CO2 leakage from a subsurface storage formation. DREAM acts as a post-processer on user-provided output from subsurface leakage simulations. While DREAM was developed for CO2 leakage scenarios, it is applicable to any subsurface leakage simulation of the same output format. The DREAM tool is comprised of three main components: (1) a Java wizard used to configure and execute the simulations, (2) a visualization tool to view the domain space and optimization results, and (3) a plotting tool used to analyze the results. A secondary Java application is provided to aid users in converting common American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) output data to the standard DREAM hierarchical data format (HDF5). DREAM employs a simulated annealing approach that searches the solution space by iteratively mutating potential monitoring schemes built of various configurations of monitoring locations and leak detection parameters. This approach has proven to be orders of magnitude faster than an exhaustive search of the entire solution space. The user’s manual illustrates the program graphical user interface (GUI), describes the tool inputs, and includes an example application.

  1. Clinical risk management of herb–drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Peter A G M

    2007-01-01

    The concomitant use of conventional and herbal medicines can lead to clinically relevant herb–drug interactions. Clinical risk management offers a systematic approach to minimize the untoward consequences of these interactions by paying attention to: (i) risk identification and assessment; (ii) development and execution of risk reduction strategies; and (iii) evaluation of risk reduction strategies. This paper reviews which steps should be explored or taken in these domains to improve the clinical risk management of adverse herb–drug interactions. PMID:17116126

  2. Does your equipment maintenance management program measure up?

    PubMed

    Deinstadt, Deborah C

    2003-01-01

    Identifying a clear maintenance philosophy is the first step toward choosing the right program for your healthcare organization. The second step is gaining a clear understanding of how proposed savings and improvements will be delivered. The third and last step is requiring that the proposed company or manager have specific tools in place for measuring and analyzing program performance. There are three primary philosophies underlying current equipment management options. These include risk-transfer philosophy (e.g., maintenance insurance, service contracts, multi-vendor and outsource programs), asset management philosophy (e.g., programs delivering a management system based on managed time-and-materials), and internal management (in-house managed programs). The last step in selecting the right program is insisting that proper performance measurements be built into the proposed management program. A well-managed program provides results in three general areas: financial outcomes, operational improvements and process improvements. Financial outcomes are the easiest to measure. Operational and process improvements are more challenging to assess but equally important to the program's overall success. To accurately identify results in these three areas, the overall management program should measure the following eight separate components: procedures and support for department staff; equipment inventory, benchmark costs, and budget guidelines; experienced equipment support team; objective, independent analysis of maintenance events; repair documentation and reporting; vendor relations; equipment acquisition analysis; and recommendations for improvement. Do everything you reasonably can to assure that the selected company can work side-by-side with you, providing objective, measurable advice that is ultimately in your best interest. You will then know that you have been thorough in your marketplace selection and can confidently move into implementation, expecting tangible

  3. Evaluation of volcanic risk management in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachri, S.; Stöetter, J.; Sartohadi, J.; Setiawan, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    Merapi (Central Java Province) and Bromo (East Java Province) volcanoes have human-environmental systems with unique characteristics, thus causing specific consequences on their risk management. Various efforts have been carried out by many parties (institutional government, scientists, and non-governmental organizations) to reduce the risk in these areas. However, it is likely that most of the actions have been done for temporary and partial purposes, leading to overlapping work and finally to a non-integrated scheme of volcanic risk management. This study, therefore, aims to identify and evaluate actions of risk and disaster reduction in Merapi and Bromo Volcanoes. To achieve this aims, a thorough literature review was carried out to identify earlier studies in both areas. Afterward, the basic concept of risk management cycle, consisting of risk assessment, risk reduction, event management and regeneration, is used to map those earlier studies and already implemented risk management actions in Merapi and Bromo. The results show that risk studies in Merapi have been developed predominantly on physical aspects of volcanic eruptions, i.e. models of lahar flows, hazard maps as well as other geophysical modeling. Furthermore, after the 2006 eruption of Merapi, research such on risk communication, social vulnerability, cultural vulnerability have appeared on the social side of risk management research. Apart from that, disaster risk management activities in the Bromo area were emphasizing on physical process and historical religious aspects. This overview of both study areas provides information on how risk studies have been used for managing the volcano disaster. This result confirms that most of earlier studies emphasize on the risk assessment and only few of them consider the risk reduction phase. Further investigation in this field work in the near future will accomplish the findings and contribute to formulate integrated volcanic risk management cycles for both

  4. 12 CFR 3.204 - Measure for market risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measure for market risk. 3.204 Section 3.204... Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 3.204 Measure for market risk. (a) General requirement. (1) A national bank or Federal savings association must calculate its standardized measure for market risk...

  5. Managing discovery risks--A Tevatron case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bakul Banerjee

    2004-07-28

    be implemented with current state of the art hardware and software technology is even more complex. The second most important risk is the risk of unavailability of the premiere high energy physics scientific facility to worldwide users. This paper presents a model of minimizing these risks using a phased model of project management. To complete the project successfully, it is essential to keep track of the constraints imposed by uncertainties in the discovery phase while maintaining the highest possible availability of the Tevatron. In this paper, a methodology based on earned value management system is explained to measure and manage discovery risks. Metrics based on the initial basis of estimate and familiar earned value measures are used to monitor risks of discovery. Subsequently, these metrics are used to refine the project and adjust tasks and resource assignments to minimize the unavailability of the user facility. One of the measures is the variance at phase completion. From the phased model of the WBS, variance at completion is examined for various project baselines at the end of project phases. This allowed for understanding the risk of not only cost and schedule, but also the discovery risks. Since similar risk measurement data is not available within the organization, these metrics will also allow us to define risk baselines for future scientific projects that involve discovery along with state of the art system development.

  6. Measurement of Software Project Management Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    the research hypothesis. In order to understand the measure of association between these two metrics, a parametric correlation analysis was conducted...Data Analysis of Risk Area Scores In order to understand the measure of association between project success ratings provided by the study...required including projects developed in other parts of the world. The studies included projects from both public and private

  7. Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Approach to Enterprise Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauder, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Division has implemented an innovative approach to Enterprise Risk Management under a unique governance structure and streamlined integration model. ESD's mission is to design and build the capability to extend human existence to deep space. The Enterprise consists of three Programs: Space Launch System (SLS), Orion, and Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO). The SLS is a rocket and launch system that will be capable of powering humans, habitats, and support systems to deep space. Orion will be the first spacecraft in history capable of taking humans to multiple destinations within deep space. GSDO is modernizing Kennedy's spaceport to launch spacecraft built and designed by both NASA and private industry. ESD's approach to Enterprise Risk Management is commensurate with affordability and a streamlined management philosophy. ESD Enterprise Risk Management leverages off of the primary mechanisms for integration within the Enterprise. The Enterprise integration approach emphasizes delegation of authority to manage and execute the majority of cross-program activities and products to the individual Programs, while maintaining the overall responsibility for all cross-program activities at the Division. The intent of the ESD Enterprise Risk Management approach is to improve risk communication, to avoid replication and/or contradictory strategies, and to minimize overhead process burden. This is accomplished by the facilitation and integration of risk information within ESD. The ESD Division risks, Orion risks, SLS risks, and GSDO risks are owned and managed by the applicable Program. When the Programs have shared risks with multiple consequences, they are jointly owned and managed. When a risk is associated with the integrated system that involves more than one Program in condition, consequence, or mitigation plan, it is considered an Exploration Systems Integration

  8. Nutrition measures for managed care report cards.

    PubMed

    Turner, M A; Dwyer, J T

    1996-04-01

    Health plan "report cards," that is, published summaries of health plan performance, are a new way to help consumers select a health plan on the basis of cost and quality. The Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) includes a set of health plan performance measures, standardized definitions, and methods for data collection. HEDIS is used as the basis for many report card initiatives and is the preferred tool of the managed care industry for measuring health plan performance. Nevertheless, the current list of HEDIS performance measures omits many health services, including medical nutrition therapy. Nutrition measures have the potential for wide appeal among health care stakeholders (ie, payers, consumers, and providers). Four measures related to medical nutrition therapy are proposed for managed care report cards: staffing for nutrition services and medical nutrition therapy for high cholesterol level, gestational diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Barriers to adopting medical nutrition therapy measures in HEDIS include the need to address technical issues before considering new measures and competition from other potential measures. Steps to create support for medical nutrition therapy measures in HEDIS should focus on influencing representatives of health plans and employers to include these measures. The involvement of registered dietitians in the dynamic process of health plan evaluation is an important extension of ongoing efforts for strategic positioning in the managed care market.

  9. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135 Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5135 Management of interest rate risk. The board of directors o...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135 Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5135 Management of interest rate risk. The board of directors o...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135 Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5135 Management of interest rate risk. The board of directors o...

  12. 12 CFR 615.5135 - Management of interest rate risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management of interest rate risk. 615.5135 Section 615.5135 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615.5135 Management of interest rate risk. The board of directors o...

  13. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are not limited to: prudent project management; use of modular contracting; thorough acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to entering...

  14. Risk Management in Australian Science Education: A Model for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Provides a framework that incorporates the diverse elements of risk management in science education into a systematic process and is adaptable to changing circumstances. Appendix contains risk management checklist for management, laboratory and storage, extreme biological and chemical hazards, protective equipment, waste disposal, electrical…

  15. Are You Ready for At-Risk Program Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echols, William C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of the At-Risk Program Management approach to project-delivery management, an approach that guarantees results for time, scope, quality, and cost for all components of project delivery while incorporating any combination of delivery methods. Explores its general parameters and the role of the at-risk program manager, as well as…

  16. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are not limited to: prudent project management; use of modular contracting; thorough acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to...

  17. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are not limited to: prudent project management; use of modular contracting; thorough acquisition... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to...

  18. Risk Management in Australian Science Education: A Model for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Provides a framework that incorporates the diverse elements of risk management in science education into a systematic process and is adaptable to changing circumstances. Appendix contains risk management checklist for management, laboratory and storage, extreme biological and chemical hazards, protective equipment, waste disposal, electrical…

  19. Training Manual for Human Service Risk Managers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frank W.; And Others

    This manual is designed to educate human service agency management personnel involved in transportation about basic risk management principles and insurance issues. Chapter I illustrates the liability factors that create the insurance and risk management needs. Both legal and humanitarian obligations of human service agencies involved in…

  20. Risk in fire management decisionmaking: techniques and criteria

    Treesearch

    Gail Blatternberger; William F. Hyde; Thomas J. Mills

    1984-01-01

    In the past, decisionmaking in wildland fire management generally has not included a full consideration of the risk and uncertainty that is inherent in evaluating alternatives. Fire management policies in some Federal land management agencies now require risk evaluation. The model for estimating the economic efficiency of fire program alternatives is the minimization...

  1. Risk Management and Crisis Response: Are You Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirick, Ed

    2002-01-01

    How a camp responds to a crisis may determine whether it can survive financially. Effective risk management requires total commitment from ownership and management, and staff involvement. Steps in formulating a risk management plan include identifying all potential crises and their frequency and severity potential, developing responses,…

  2. Integration of Risk Management Techniques into Outdoor Adventure Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Eric V.

    This paper is designed to acquaint the outdoor professional with the risk management decision making process required for the operation and management of outdoor adventure activities. The document examines the programming implications of fear in adventure activities; the risk management process in adventure programming; a definition of an…

  3. 48 CFR 1815.203-72 - Risk management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Risk management. 1815.203... Proposals and Information 1815.203-72 Risk management. In all RFPs and RFOs for supplies or services for... discuss risk factors and issues throughout the proposal where they are relevant, and describe their...

  4. Assessing natural hazards in forestry for risk management: a review

    Treesearch

    Marc Hanewinkel; Susan Hummel; Axel. Albrecht

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of how to integrate risk assessment into forest management and therefore provide a comprehensive review of recent and past literature on risk analysis and modeling and, moreover, an evaluation and summary on these papers. We provide a general scheme on how to integrate concepts of risk into forest management decisions. After an overview of the...

  5. 48 CFR 39.102 - Management of risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determine actual project cost, benefits and returns; and focusing on risks and returns using quantifiable... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management of risk. 39.102... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.102 Management of risk. (a) Prior to entering...

  6. Step 7: Choose the "Best" Risk Management Alternative

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ultimate purpose of the SRM tactical phase is to choose how to manage risk. Prior to this stage, we determined the sources of risk, identified the relevant management actions and estimated the likelihood of all known outcomes. Next, we combine this information with your personal risk preference...

  7. [GMOs in food: risk assessment and management; scientific and regulatory characteristics].

    PubMed

    Casse, Francine; Hervieu, François

    2002-01-01

    Genetic transformation constitutes a new tool for improvement of microorganisms, animals and plants used in food. Foreseeable risks are evoked, as well as management measures to avoid GMO unsuspected risks. Few risks are specific to GMOs. Present elements of french and european regulations concerning placing on the market and follow up GMOs and other novel foods are described.

  8. Implementation of Risk Management in NASA's CEV Project- Ensuring Mission Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Jeevan; Holsomback, Jerry D.

    2005-12-01

    comprehensive closure is assigned as the risk owner. Each mitigation plan includes the specific tasks that will be conducted to either decrease the likelihood of the risk occurring and/or lessen the severity of the consequences if they do occur. As each mitigation task is completed, the responsible managing organization records the completion of the task in the risk database and then re-scores the risk considering the task's results. By keeping scores updated, a managing organization's current top risks and risk posture can be readily identified including the status of any risk in the system.A number of metrics measure risk process trends from data contained in the database. This allows for trend analysis to further identify improvements to the process and assist in the management of all risks. The metrics will also scrutinize both the effectiveness and compliance of risk management requirements.The risk database is an evolving tool and will be continuously improved with capabilities requested by the NASA project community. This paper presents the basic foundations of risk management, the elements necessary for effective risk management, and the capabilities of this new risk database and how it is implemented to support NASA's risk management needs.

  9. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: An introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease r...

  10. Managing risks of market price uncertainty for a microgrid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram

    After deregulation of electricity in the United States, the day-ahead and real-time markets allow load serving entities and generation companies to bid and purchase/sell energy under the supervision of the independent system operator (ISO). The electricity market prices are inherently uncertain, and can be highly volatile. The main objective of this thesis is to hedge against the risk from the uncertainty of the market prices when purchasing/selling energy from/to the market. The energy manager can also schedule distributed generators (DGs) and storage of the microgrid to meet the demand, in addition to energy transactions from the market. The risk measure used in this work is the variance of the uncertain market purchase/sale cost/revenue, assuming the price following a Gaussian distribution. Using Markowitz optimization, the risk is minimized to find the optimal mix of purchase from the markets. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer quadratic program. The microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, IL was used as a case study. The result of this work reveals the tradeoff faced by the microgrid energy manager between minimizing the risk and minimizing the mean of the total operating cost (TOC) of the microgrid. With this information, the microgrid energy manager can make decisions in the day-ahead and real-time markets according to their risk aversion preference. The assumption of market prices following Gaussian distribution is also verified to be reasonable for the purpose of hedging against their risks. This is done by comparing the result of the proposed formulation with that obtained from the sample market prices randomly generated using the distribution of actual historic market price data.

  11. Risk management of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Heim, D; Kihm, U

    2003-04-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was first described in the United Kingdom (UK) in November 1986. After the introduction of an active surveillance system, most countries in Europe have reported BSE cases in the cattle population. This indicates that the use of active surveillance in addition to passive surveillance is important to assess the true BSE status in a country. Scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in sheep and goats, has been reported in countries throughout the world with a few notable exceptions. Concern was expressed that BSE could have been introduced into sheep and goats. Currently, distinguishing between scrapie and BSE in small ruminants is only possible through lengthy experiments in mice. Preliminary results of active surveillance, introduced in 2002, show that significant under-reporting occurred. The history of BSE in cattle shows that risk assessments concerning the risk in a given country were often ignored and subsequent risk management decisions were inaccurate, i.e. although the risk was probable, no measures were taken in terms of either animal or human health. Furthermore, the effect of the measures taken was often overestimated and these had to be amended several times. The most important action to prevent new cases of TSEs occurring is by banning the feeding meat-and-bone meal (MBM) to ruminants. Further measures to be considered are the exclusion of specified risk material and carcasses from rendering, the process parameters for rendering of animal waste and the prevention of cross-contamination of feed with MBM. The most important measures to protect the consumer are the ban on specified risk material, such as brain and spinal cord, which may contain particularly high concentrations of the BSE agent, and the ban on mechanically recovered meat. The most important measures taken in Europe and the scientific background thereof are described and discussed.

  12. Borderline personality disorder and the ethics of risk management.

    PubMed

    Warrender, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder are frequent users of inpatient mental health units, with inpatient crisis intervention often used based on the risk of suicide. However, this can present an ethical dilemma for nursing and medical staff, with these clinician responses shifting between the moral principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, dependent on the outcomes of the actions of containing or tolerating risk. This article examines the use of crisis intervention through moral duties, intentions and consequences, culminating in an action/consequence model of risk management, used to explore potential outcomes. This model may be useful in measuring adherence and violation of the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence and therefore an aid to clinical decision making.

  13. Risk factors, health risks, and risk management for aircraft personnel and frequent flyers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoum Nam; Lee, Byung Mu

    2007-01-01

    Health risks associated with long periods of time in flight are of concern to astronauts, crew members, and passengers. Many epidemiological studies showed that occupational and frequent flyers may be susceptible to ocular, cardiovascular, neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, sensory, immunological, physiological, and even developmental disorders. In addition, the incidences of cancer and food poisoning are expected to be higher in such individuals. This article reviews health risks and risk factors associated with air travel, and discusses risk management strategies. To reduce adverse health risks, risk factors such as radiation, infection, stress, temperature, pressure, and circadian rhythm need to be avoided or reduced to levels that are as low as technologically achievable to protect flight personnel and passengers.

  14. Integrating weather derivatives for managing risks

    SciTech Connect

    Bilski, B.

    1999-11-01

    As deregulation and customer choice loom on the horizon, many energy utilities and other energy suppliers are scrambling to find new services that add value for consumers. Many are also seeking opportunities for increasing efficiency to ensure that costs remain competitive. Integrating weather derivatives with marketing programs and financial management can produce attractive new services and increase efficiency. Weather derivatives can be used to create innovative consumer services, such as a guaranteed annual energy bill which is unaffected by weather and energy price changes. They can also be used to protect the earnings of energy suppliers from one of their most significant financial risks, unpredictable weather. There are three basic types of weather derivatives available today. Option or insurance based derivatives (options), swaps or hedge based derivatives (swaps) and packages where other services are combined with one or both of the above.

  15. Ventilator risk management using a programmed monitor.

    PubMed

    Silvern, D A; Gupte, P M

    1989-01-01

    A computer program was written to improve quality control and risk management of patients on ventilators. The software was designed to run on the new-generation Spacelabs PC Monitor interfaced to the Puritan-Bennett 7200a ventilator. Before the program allows connection of the ventilator to a patient, the ventilator is polled for initial hardware status, alarm statuses and alarm limit settings. If there are no hardware failures, alarm violations, or improperly set alarm limits, the program prompts the clinician to connect the ventilator to the patient. Polling is done periodically after patient ventilation begins, and patient data, alarm conditions, or changes to the ventilator settings are automatically written to disk. In addition, real-time data can be displayed at any time during the ventilation session by using a set of touch-screen options. After the ventilation session is complete, the clinician can print the final report in hard copy or to disk.

  16. Risk Management Issues When Taking Locum Tenens Assignments.

    PubMed

    Cash, Charles D

    2017-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to providing information to our readers on managing legal risks associated with medical practice. We invite questions from our readers. The answers are provided by PRMS, Inc. (www.prms.com), a manager of medical professional liability insurance programs with services that include risk management consultation, education and onsite risk management audits, and other resources to healthcare providers to help improve patient outcomes and reduce professional liability risk. The answers published in this column represent those of only one risk management consulting company. Other risk management consulting companies or insurance carriers may provide different advice, and readers should take this into consideration. The information in this column does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice, contact your personal attorney. Note: The information and recommendations in this article are applicable to physicians and other healthcare professionals so "clinician" is used to indicate all treatment team members.

  17. Risk Management Issues When Taking Locum Tenens Assignments

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    This ongoing column is dedicated to providing information to our readers on managing legal risks associated with medical practice. We invite questions from our readers. The answers are provided by PRMS, Inc. (www.prms.com), a manager of medical professional liability insurance programs with services that include risk management consultation, education and onsite risk management audits, and other resources to healthcare providers to help improve patient outcomes and reduce professional liability risk. The answers published in this column represent those of only one risk management consulting company. Other risk management consulting companies or insurance carriers may provide different advice, and readers should take this into consideration. The information in this column does not constitute legal advice. For legal advice, contact your personal attorney. Note: The information and recommendations in this article are applicable to physicians and other healthcare professionals so “clinician” is used to indicate all treatment team members. PMID:28386523

  18. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs.

  19. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk…

  20. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk…

  1. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Risks and Management during and after Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Thomas A.; Xiang, Anny H.; Page, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents glucose levels in the high end of the population distribution during pregnancy. GDM carries a small but potentially important risk of adverse perinatal outcomes and a longer-term risk of obesity and glucose intolerance in offspring. Mothers with GDM have an excess of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and a high risk of diabetes mellitus thereafter. Diagnosing and treating GDM can reduce perinatal complications, but only a small fraction of pregnancies benefit. Nutritional management is the cornerstone of treatment; insulin, glyburide and metformin can be used to intensify treatment. Fetal measurements compliment maternal glucose measurements in identifying pregnancies that need such intensification. Glucose testing shortly after pregnancy can stratify the near-term diabetes risk in mothers, Thereafter, annual glucose and HbA1C testing can detect deteriorating glycaemic control, a harbinger of future diabetes, usually type 2. Interventions that mitigate obesity or its metabolic effects are most potent in preventing or delaying diabetes. Lifestyle modification is the primary approach; use of medications for diabetes prevention after GDM remains controversial. Family planning allows optimization of health in subsequent pregnancies. Breastfeeding may reduce obesity in children and is recommended. Families should be encouraged to help children adopt lifestyles that reduce the risk of obesity. PMID:22751341

  2. Sustainability appraisal and flood risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jeremy G. White, Iain Richards, Juliet

    2009-01-15

    This research establishes that sustainability appraisal (SA) has a role to play in strengthening spatial plans in the context of flooding issues. Indeed, evidence has been gathered to indicate that tentative steps are being taken in this direction during the SA of English regional spatial plans, which are used as an illustrative case study. In England as in many other countries, appraisal procedures including SA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are enshrined in planning law. An opportunity therefore exists to utilise existing and familiar planning tools to embed flooding considerations within spatial plans at an early stage in the planning process. SA (and similar appraisal tools such as SEA) can therefore usefully aid in the implementation of decision making principles and government policy relating to flooding. Moreover, with the threats associated with climate change becoming increasingly apparent, of which increased flood risk is a particular concern in many countries, there is a need develop appropriate adaptation responses. This article emphasizes the role that SA can play in managing future flood risk in this context.

  3. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  4. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabutola, W.

    2009-04-01

    opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  5. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Development Risk Management Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Snowberg, David; Weber, Jochem

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, the global marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry has suffered a number of serious technological and commercial setbacks. To help reduce the risks of industry failures and advance the development of new technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an MHK Risk Management Framework. By addressing uncertainties, the MHK Risk Management Framework increases the likelihood of successful development of an MHK technology. It covers projects of any technical readiness level (TRL) or technical performance level (TPL) and all risk types (e.g. technological risk, regulatory risk, commercial risk) over the development cycle. This framework is intended for the development and deployment of a single MHK technology—not for multiple device deployments within a plant. This risk framework is intended to meet DOE’s risk management expectations for the MHK technology research and development efforts of the Water Power Program (see Appendix A). It also provides an overview of other relevant risk management tools and documentation.1 This framework emphasizes design and risk reviews as formal gates to ensure risks are managed throughout the technology development cycle. Section 1 presents the recommended technology development cycle, Sections 2 and 3 present tools to assess the TRL and TPL of the project, respectively. Section 4 presents a risk management process with design and risk reviews for actively managing risk within the project, and Section 5 presents a detailed description of a risk registry to collect the risk management information into one living document. Section 6 presents recommendations for collecting and using lessons learned throughout the development process.

  6. Suicide risk assessment and suicide risk formulation: essential components of the therapeutic risk management model.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Morton M

    2014-09-01

    Suicide and other suicidal behaviors are often associated with psychiatric disorders and dysfunctions. Therefore, psychiatrists have significant opportunities to identify at-risk individuals and offer treatment to reduce that risk. Although a suicide risk assessment is a core competency requirement, many clinical psychiatrists lack the requisite training and skills to appropriately assess for suicide risk. Moreover, the standard of care requires psychiatrists to foresee the possibility that a patient might engage in suicidal behavior, hence to conduct a suicide risk formulation sufficient to guide triage and treatment planning. Based on data collected via a suicide risk assessment, a suicide risk formulation is a process whereby the psychiatrist forms a judgment about a patient's foreseeable risk of suicidal behavior in order to inform triage decisions, safety and treatment planning, and interventions to reduce risk. This paper addresses the components of this process in the context of the model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient developed at the Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) 19 Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center by Wortzel et al.

  7. Risk Management Associated with Weapon System Warranties and Component Breakout

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    co (0 I EL-ECTE O DTIC OF D0EC 211988 H RISK MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH WEAPON SYSTEM WARRANTIES AND COMPONENT BREAKOUT THESIS Raymond B. Zaun...Ohio (3 3 D TILBLTTION STAT12F A Approved fo 88~ elaw 12 21 A3 DIstribution Unlimited RISK MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH WEAPON SYSTEM WARRANTIES AND...Logistics, the Air University, the United States Air Force, or the Department of Defense. AFIT/GSM/LSY/88S-29 RISK MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH WEAPON

  8. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers.

  9. Back to basics--just how much should a risk manager know about risk financing?

    PubMed

    Miller, Vivian B

    2011-01-01

    Whether directly involved in development and implementation of the organization's risk financing program or not, risk management professionals, at the very least, need to be familiar with and understand the various risk financing strategies available to address all areas of exposure. This article addresses the types of coverages and risk financing options that should be considered when developing a comprehensive risk-financing program, and why it is important for risk management professionals to have some knowledge about these products, in order for their true value to be fully appreciated. © 2011 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  10. Climate Leadership webinar on Integrating Energy and Climate Risk Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Allergan, a multi-specialty healthcare company and pharmaceutical manufacturer, discusses how it manages climate and energy risks, how these areas are linked, and how energy and climate management strategies pervade critical business decisions.

  11. Managing risk: clinical decision-making in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Gerace, Adam; Mosel, Krista; O'Kane, Debra; Barkway, Patricia; Curren, David; Oster, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment and management is a major component of contemporary mental health practice. Risk assessment in health care exists within contemporary perspectives of management and risk aversive practices in health care. This has led to much discussion about the best approach to assessing possible risks posed by people with mental health problems. In addition, researchers and commentators have expressed concern that clinical practice is being dominated by managerial models of risk management at the expense of meeting the patient's health and social care needs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the risk assessment practices of a multidisciplinary mental health service. Findings indicate that mental health professionals draw on both managerial and therapeutic approaches to risk management, integrating these approaches into their clinical practice. Rather than being dominated by managerial concerns regarding risk, the participants demonstrate professional autonomy and concern for the needs of their clients.

  12. [Anesthesiological management of the high-risk surgical patient].

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, G; Avalle, M

    1980-03-01

    Evaluation of the anaesthesiological risk in surgical patients is described and an account is given of results obtained with an association of ketamin and NLA II in 57 high-risk patients subjected to general surgical management.

  13. Therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient: safety planning.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Bridget B; Homaifar, Beeta Y; Wortzel, Hal S

    2014-05-01

    This column is the fourth in a series describing a model for therapeutic risk management of the suicidal patient. Previous columns presented an overview of the therapeutic risk management model, provided recommendations for how to augment risk assessment using structured assessments, and discussed the importance of risk stratification in terms of both severity and temporality. This final column in the series discusses the safety planning intervention as a critical component of therapeutic risk management of suicide risk. We first present concerns related to the relatively common practice of using no-suicide contracts to manage risk. We then present the safety planning intervention as an alternative approach and provide recommendations for how to use this innovative strategy to therapeutically mitigate risk in the suicidal patient.

  14. The effectiveness of risk management: an analysis of project risk planning across industries and countries.

    PubMed

    Zwikael, Ofer; Ahn, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of current risk management practices to reduce project risk using a multinational, multi-industry study across different scenarios and cultures. A survey was administered to 701 project managers, and their supervisors, in seven industries and three diverse countries (New Zealand, Israel, and Japan), in multiple languages during the 2002-2007 period. Results of this study show that project context--industry and country where a project is executed--significantly impacts perceived levels of project risk, and the intensity of risk management processes. Our findings also suggest that risk management moderates the relationship between risk level and project success. Specifically, we found that even moderate levels of risk management planning are sufficient to reduce the negative effect risk levels have on project success. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Risk management of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in North America.

    PubMed

    Kellar, J A; Lees, V W

    2003-04-01

    As North American Free Trade Agreement partners, Canada, the United States of America (USA) and Mexico apply independent but harmonised transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) risk management strategies in observance of Office International des Epizooties guidelines. The divergence between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) risk management approaches in North American and Europe reflects comparatively reduced external and internal BSE risks in North America. The external quarantine and internal surveillance measures adopted for BSE respond to several iterations of national risk assessments initiated in the early 1990s and revised as recently as 2002. Feed bans applied since 1997 to preclude establishment of BSE also bear the potential to limit intra-species and inter-species exposure to scrapie, chronic wasting disease (CWD) and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Surveillance continues for the four TSEs through collaborative efforts of national and sub-national veterinary infrastructures and accompanying laboratory networks. Mexico has never identified the presence of any TSE. The last diagnosed case of TME in North America dates back to 1985. Since the only recognised appearance in Canada through an import from Great Britain in 1993, BSE has not been detected in North America. Scrapie and CWD remain at generally low prevalence in Canada and the USA. Independent but harmonised eradication programmes target elimination of the latter two diseases.

  16. Application of data mining to medical risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumoto, Shusaku; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Yokoyama, Shigeki

    2008-03-01

    This paper proposes an application of data mining to medical risk management, where data mining techniques were applied to detection, analysis and evaluation of risks potentially existing in clinical environments. We applied this technique to the following two medical domains: risk aversion of nurse incidents and infection control. The results show that data mining methods were effective to detection and aversion of risk factors.

  17. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…

  18. Decision Making and Risk Management in Adventure Sports Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…

  19. 12 CFR 217.204 - Measure for market risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measure for market risk. 217.204 Section 217... ADEQUACY OF BOARD-REGULATED INSTITUTIONS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 217.204 Measure for market risk... for market risk by following the steps described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. An...

  20. Risk management for buildings -- Has the time come?

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.; Hunter, R.L.

    1997-08-01

    There are both incentives and challenges for applying formal risk management processes to buildings and other structures, including bridges, highways, dams, stadiums, shopping centers, and private dwellings. Based on an assessment of several issues, the authors conclude that for certain types of buildings and structures the time has come for the use of a formal risk-management approach, including probabilistic risk assessment methods, to help identify dominant risks to public health, safety, and security and to help manage these risks in a cost-effective manner.