Sample records for management program amp

  1. AMPED Program Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Gur, Ilan

    2018-01-16

    An overview presentation about ARPA-E's AMPED program. AMPED projects seek to develop advanced sensing, control, and power management technologies that redefine the way we think about battery management. Energy storage can significantly improve U.S. energy independence, efficiency, and security by enabling a new generation of electric vehicles. While rapid progress is being made in new battery materials and storage technologies, few innovations have emerged in the management of advanced battery systems. AMPED aims to unlock enormous untapped potential in the performance, safety, and lifetime of today's commercial battery systems exclusively through system-level innovations, and is thus distinct from existing efforts to enhance underlying battery materials and architectures.

  2. AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

  3. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study. Volume 4. Part 1, AMPS program specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    The AMPS Program Specification delineates the AMPS Program requirements consistent with the resources defined in the AMPS Project Plan. All subsidiary specifications and requirements shall conform to the requirements presented. The requirements hierarchy for the AMPS program is illustrated. A brief description of each of the requirements documents and their intended use is provided.

  4. AMPS data management concepts. [Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasma in Space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzelaar, P. N.

    1975-01-01

    Five typical AMPS experiments were formulated to allow simulation studies to verify data management concepts. Design studies were conducted to analyze these experiments in terms of the applicable procedures, data processing and displaying functions. Design concepts for AMPS data management system are presented which permit both automatic repetitive measurement sequences and experimenter-controlled step-by-step procedures. Extensive use is made of a cathode ray tube display, the experimenters' alphanumeric keyboard, and the computer. The types of computer software required by the system and the possible choices of control and display procedures available to the experimenter are described for several examples. An electromagnetic wave transmission experiment illustrates the methods used to analyze data processing requirements.

  5. AMP: A platform for managing and mining data in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Linstead, Erik; Burns, Ryan; Duy Nguyen; Tyler, David

    2016-08-01

    We introduce AMP (Autism Management Platform), an integrated health care information system for capturing, analyzing, and managing data associated with the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children. AMP's mobile application simplifies the means by which parents, guardians, and clinicians can collect and share multimedia data with one another, facilitating communication and reducing data redundancy, while simplifying retrieval. Additionally, AMP provides an intelligent web interface and analytics platform which allow physicians and specialists to aggregate and mine patient data in real-time, as well as give relevant feedback to automatically learn data filtering preferences over time. Together AMP's mobile app, web client, and analytics engine implement a rich set of features that streamline the data collection and analysis process in the context of a secure and easy-to-use system so that data may be more effectively leveraged to guide treatment.

  6. 7 CFR 772.14 - Reamortization of AMP loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reamortization of AMP loans. 772.14 Section 772.14... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.14 Reamortization of AMP loans. The Agency may approve reamortization of AMP loans provided: (a) There is no extension of the final maturity date...

  7. 7 CFR 772.10 - Transfer and assumption-AMP loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and assumption-AMP loans. 772.10 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.10 Transfer and assumption—AMP loans. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may approve transfers and assumptions of AMP loans when: (1) The...

  8. 42 CFR 447.504 - Determination of AMP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of AMP. 447.504 Section 447.504 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payment for Drugs § 447.504 Determination of AMP. (a) AMP means, with respect to a covered...

  9. Aging management program of the reactor building concrete at Point Lepreau Generating Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, C.-M.; Shenton, B.; Demerchant, M. M.; Gendron, T.

    2011-04-01

    In order for New Brunswick Power Nuclear (NBPN) to control the risks of degradation of the concrete reactor building at the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) the development of an aging management plan (AMP) was initiated. The intention of this plan was to determine the requirements for specific structural components of concrete of the reactor building that require regular inspection and maintenance to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the plant. The document is currently in draft form and presents an integrated methodology for the application of an AMP for the concrete of the reactor building. The current AMP addresses the reactor building structure and various components, such as joint sealant and liners that are integral to the structure. It does not include internal components housed within the structure. This paper provides background information regarding the document developed and the strategy developed to manage potential degradation of the concrete of the reactor building, as well as specific programs and preventive and corrective maintenance activities initiated.

  10. Atmosphere, Magnetosphere and Plasmas in Space (AMPS). Spacelab payload definition study. Volume 7, book 2: AMPS phase C/D analysis and planning document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of the AMPS Phase C/D (Design, Development, and Operations) program analysis and planning effort. Cost and schedule estimates are included. Although the AMPS program has been specifically addressed, these task descriptions are basically adaptable to a broader-based program incorporating additional or different Spacelab/orbiter payloads.

  11. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study - program analysis and planning for phase C/D document - Volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Typical missions identified for AMPS flights in the arly 1980's are described. Experiment objectives and typical scientific instruments selected to accomplish these objectives are discussed along with mission requirements and shuttle and Spacelab capabilities assessed to determine any AMPS unique requirements. Preliminary design concepts for the first two AMPS flights form the basis for the Phase C/D program plan. This plan implements flights 1 and 2 and indicates how both the scientific and flight support hardware can be systematically evolved for future AMPS flights.

  12. Designing Higher Education Curriculum to Increase Graduate Outcomes and Work Readiness: The Assessment and Mentoring Program (AMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkinson, Kate A.; Benson, Amanda C.

    2016-01-01

    Pre-service teacher programs have a responsibility to equip graduating students with more than the minimum skill sets required by governing bodies. The Assessment and Mentoring Program (AMP) is a four-way collaborative mentoring learning community underpinned by social constructivism. Conducted in Victoria, Australia during the 2014-2016 academic…

  13. The United Kingdom's School Asset Management Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Examines the U.K.'s Asset Management Plans (AMPs) designed to help Local Education Authorities (LEAs) identify and address the most important priorities in their school capital programs, and to help in their longer term planning and management of the school estate. Discusses AMP objectives, the stages of developing an AMP, and how the Department…

  14. PMC's Florida Bay & Adjacent Marine Systems Science Program

    Science.gov Websites

    Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Program Inverted image, click link below to view actual image and caption click to display actual image and caption Program Overview Management &amp - January 2002 >For more, click here to view the What's New Page... | Main | Overview | Management &amp

  15. In Vivo Cardiovascular Pharmacology of 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, and 3′-AMP in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Zaichuan

    2013-01-01

    The naturally occurring purine 2′,3′-cAMP is metabolized in vitro to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP, which are subsequently metabolized to adenosine. Whether in vivo 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, or 3′-AMP are rapidly converted to adenosine and exert rapid effects via adenosine receptors is unknown. To address this question, we compared the cardiovascular and renal effects of 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, 3′,5′-cAMP, 5′-AMP, and adenosine in vivo in the rat. Purines were infused intravenously while monitoring mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output, and renal and mesenteric blood flows. Total peripheral (TPR), renal vascular (RVR), and mesenteric vascular (MVR) resistances were calculated. Urine was collected for determination of urine excretion rate [urine volume (UV)]. When sufficient urine was available, the sodium excretion rate (Na+ER) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were determined. 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, and 3′-AMP dose-dependently and profoundly reduced MABP, HR, TPR, and MVR with efficacy and potency similar to adenosine and 5′-AMP. These effects of 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, and 3′-AMP were attenuated by blockade of adenosine receptors with 1,3-dipropyl-8-(p-sulfophenyl)xanthine. 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, adenosine, and 5′-AMP variably affected RVR, but profoundly (nearly 100%) decreased UV at higher doses. GFR and Na+ER could be measured at the lower doses and were suppressed by 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, and 3′-AMP, but not by adenosine or 5′-AMP. 2′,3′-cAMP increased urinary excretion rates of 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and adenosine. 3′,5′-cAMP exerted no adverse hemodynamic effects yet increased urinary adenosine as efficiently as 2′,3′-cAMP. Conclusions: In vivo 2′,3′-cAMP is rapidly converted to adenosine. Because both cAMPs increase adenosine in the urinary compartment, these agents may provide unique therapeutic opportunities. PMID:23759508

  16. Fibroblast growth factor and cyclic AMP (cAMP) synergistically activate gene expression at a cAMP response element.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Y; Low, K G; Boccia, C; Grossman, J; Comb, M J

    1994-01-01

    Growth factors and cyclic AMP (cAMP) are known to activate distinct intracellular signaling pathways. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activates ras-dependent kinase cascades, resulting in the activation of MAP kinases, whereas cAMP activates protein kinase A. In this study, we report that growth factors and cAMP act synergistically to stimulate proenkephalin gene expression. Positive synergy between growth factor- and cAMP-activated signaling pathways on gene expression has not been previously reported, and we suggest that these synergistic interactions represent a useful model for analyzing interactions between these pathways. Transfection and mutational studies indicate that both FGF-dependent gene activation and cAMP-dependent gene activation require cAMP response element 2 (CRE-2), a previously characterized cAMP-dependent regulatory element. Furthermore, multiple copies of this element are sufficient to confer FGF regulation upon a minimal promoter, indicating that FGF and cAMP signaling converge upon transcription factors acting at CRE-2. Among many different ATF/AP-1 factors tested, two factors, ATF-3 and c-Jun, stimulate proenkephalin transcription in an FGF- or Ras-dependent fashion. Finally, we show that ATF-3 and c-Jun form heterodimeric complexes in SK-N-MC cells and that the levels of both proteins are increased in response to FGF but not cAMP. Together, these results indicate that growth factor- and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways converge at CRE-2 to synergistically stimulate gene expression and that ATF-3 and c-Jun regulate proenkephalin transcription in response to both growth factor- and cAMP-dependent intracellular signaling pathways. Images PMID:7935470

  17. A randomized, controlled study to evaluate the role of an in-home asthma disease management program provided by respiratory therapists in improving outcomes and reducing the cost of care.

    PubMed

    Shelledy, David C; Legrand, Terry S; Gardner, Donna D; Peters, Jay I

    2009-03-01

    Asthma management programs (AMP) may reduce costs and improve outcomes in patients with moderate to severe asthma. However, it is not known which personnel are best able to deliver such interventions and what settings are most effective. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an in-home AMP provided by respiratory therapists (RTs) to an AMP provided by nurses (RNs) and to usual care (UC) provided in physician offices or clinics. Subjects (age 18-64) who had been admitted to the emergency department (ED) or hospital for acute asthma exacerbation were randomized to three groups: AMP-RT, AMP-RN or UC. The AMP groups received five (5) weekly home visits to provide assessment and instruction; the UC group was instructed to return to their physician for routine follow-up. Outcomes assessed at 6 months included hospitalizations, in patient days, hospitalization cost, ED visits and cost, clinic visits, pulmonary function, symptoms, health related quality of life (HRQOL), asthma episode self-management score (AESM), environmental assessment, and patient satisfaction (PS). Variables were compared using ANOVA with a Neuman-Keuls follow-up for multiple comparisons using an intent-to-treat approach. Upon enrollment, (n = 159) there were no differences (p > .05) between groups for age, gender, pulmonary function or HRQOL (SF-36 and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire - SGRQ). At 6 months, both AMP groups (AMP-RN n = 54; AMP-RT n = 46) had significantly fewer (p < 0.05) hospitalizations and in-patient days, lower hospitalization costs, and greater HRQOL physical component summary change scores (PCS) and PS than UC (n = 59). AMP-RT also had greater PEFR, SGRQ Total and SGRQ Symptoms change scores when compared to UC and significantly better AESM and PS scores as compared to AMP-RN and UC. An in-home asthma management program can be effectively delivered by respiratory therapists and may reduce hospitalizations, in-patient days, cost and improve measures of HRQOL

  18. Purification, characterization, and sequencing of antimicrobial peptides, Cy-AMP1, Cy-AMP2, and Cy-AMP3, from the Cycad (Cycas revoluta) seeds.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Seiya; Kato, Kouji; Koba, Atsuko; Minami, Yuji; Watanabe, Keiichi; Yagi, Fumio

    2008-12-01

    Novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP), designated Cy-AMP1, Cy-AMP2, and Cy-AMP3, were purified from seeds of the cycad (Cycas revoluta) by a CM cellulofine column, ion-exchange HPLC on SP COSMOGEL, and reverse-phase HPLC. They had molecular masses of 4583.2 Da, 4568.9 Da and 9275.8 Da, respectively, by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Half of the amino acid residues of Cy-AMP1 and Cy-AMP2 were cysteine, glycine and proline, and their sequences were similar. The sequence of Cy-AMP3 showed high homology to various lipid transfer proteins. For Cy-AMP1 and Cy-AMP2, the concentrations of peptides required for 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 7.0-8.9 microg/ml. The Cy-AMP3 had weak antimicrobial activity. The structural and antimicrobial characteristics of Cy-AMP1 and Cy-AMP2 indicated that they are a novel type of antimicrobial peptide belonging to a plant defensin family.

  19. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was...-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a... the AMP. To view a copy of the agenda and documents related to the above meeting, please visit...

  20. EVALUATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS IN NEW JERSEY SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) required all schools to develop and implement an asbestos management plan (AMP). The key component of the AMP is the operations and maintenance (O&M) program. A study was conducted to evaluate the implementation of O&M programs a...

  1. Schwann Cells Metabolize Extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP

    PubMed Central

    Verrier, Jonathan D.; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The 3′,5′-cAMP–adenosine pathway (3′,5′-cAMP→5′-AMP→adenosine) and the 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway (2′,3′-cAMP→2′-AMP/3′-AMP→adenosine) are active in the brain. Oligodendrocytes participate in the brain 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway via their robust expression of 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase; converts 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP). Because Schwann cells also express CNPase, it is conceivable that the 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway exists in the peripheral nervous system. To test this and to compare the 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway to the 3′,5′-cAMP–adenosine pathway in Schwann cells, we examined the metabolism of 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, 3′,5′-cAMP, and 5′-AMP in primary rat Schwann cells in culture. Addition of 2′,3′-cAMP (3, 10, and 30 µM) to Schwann cells increased levels of 2′-AMP in the medium from 0.006 ± 0.002 to 21 ± 2, 70 ± 3, and 187 ± 10 nM/µg protein, respectively; in contrast, Schwann cells had little ability to convert 2′,3′-cAMP to 3′-AMP or 3′,5′-cAMP to either 3′-AMP or 5′-AMP. Although Schwann cells slightly converted 2′,3′-cAMP and 2′-AMP to adenosine, they did so at very modest rates (e.g., 5- and 3-fold, respectively, more slowly compared with our previously reported studies in oligodendrocytes). Using transected myelinated rat sciatic nerves in culture medium, we observed a time-related increase in endogenous intracellular 2′,3′-cAMP and extracellular 2′-AMP. These findings indicate that Schwann cells do not have a robust 3′,5′-cAMP–adenosine pathway but do have a 2′,3′-cAMP–adenosine pathway; however, because the pathway mostly involves 2′-AMP formation rather than 3′-AMP, and because the conversion of 2′-AMP to adenosine is slow, metabolism of 2′,3′-cAMP mostly results in the accumulation of 2′-AMP. Accumulation of 2′-AMP in peripheral nerves postinjury could have

  2. Study Protocol--Alcohol Management Plans (AMPs) in remote indigenous communities in Queensland: their impacts on injury, violence, health and social indicators and their cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Fitts, Michelle S; Robertson, Jan A; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Miller, Adrian; Doran, Christopher M; Muller, Reinhold; Ypinazar, Valmae; Martin, David; McDermott, Robyn; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Towle, Simon; Margolis, Stephen A; West, Caryn

    2014-01-09

    In 2002/03 the Queensland Government responded to high rates of alcohol-related harm in discrete Indigenous communities by implementing alcohol management plans (AMPs), designed to include supply and harm reduction and treatment measures. Tighter alcohol supply and carriage restrictions followed in 2008 following indications of reductions in violence and injury. Despite the plans being in place for over a decade, no comprehensive independent review has assessed to what level the designed aims were achieved and what effect the plans have had on Indigenous community residents and service providers. This study will describe the long-term impacts on important health, economic and social outcomes of Queensland's AMPs. The project has two main studies, 1) outcome evaluation using de-identified epidemiological data on injury, violence and other health and social indicators for across Queensland, including de-identified databases compiled from relevant routinely-available administrative data sets, and 2) a process evaluation to map the nature, timing and content of intervention components targeting alcohol. Process evaluation will also be used to assess the fidelity with which the designed intervention components have been implemented, their uptake and community responses to them and their perceived impacts on alcohol supply and consumption, injury, violence and community health. Interviews and focus groups with Indigenous residents and service providers will be used. The study will be conducted in all 24 of Queensland's Indigenous communities affected by alcohol management plans. This evaluation will report on the impacts of the original aims for AMPs, what impact they have had on Indigenous residents and service providers. A central outcome will be the establishment of relevant databases describing the parameters of the changes seen. This will permit comprehensive and rigorous surveillance systems to be put in place and provided to communities empowering them with the

  3. Discovery of a cAMP Deaminase That Quenches Cyclic AMP-Dependent Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Goble, Alissa M.; Feng, Youjun; Raushel, Frank M.; Cronan, John E.

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme of unknown function within the amidohydrolase superfamily was discovered to catalyze the hydrolysis of the universal second messenger, cyclic-3’, 5’-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The enzyme, which we have named CadD, is encoded by the human pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Although CadD is annotated as an adenosine deaminase, the protein specifically deaminates cAMP to cyclic-3’, 5’-inosine monophosphate (cIMP) with a kcat/Km of 2.7 ± 0.4 × 105 M−1 s−1 and has no activity on adenosine, adenine, or 5’-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This is the first identification of a deaminase specific for cAMP. Expression of CadD in Escherichia coli mimics the loss of adenylate cyclase in that it blocks growth on carbon sources that require the cAMP-CRP transcriptional activator complex for expression of the cognate genes. The cIMP reaction product cannot replace cAMP as the ligand for CRP binding to DNA in vitro and cIMP is a very poor competitor of cAMP activation of CRP for DNA binding. Transcriptional analyses indicate that CadD expression represses expression of several cAMP-CRP dependent genes. CadD adds a new activity to the cAMP metabolic network and may be a useful tool in intracellular study of cAMP-dependent processes. PMID:24074367

  4. AMP deaminase 3 deficiency enhanced 5'-AMP induction of hypometabolism.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Isadora Susan; O Brien, William G; Nath, Vinay; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2013-01-01

    A hypometabolic state can be induced in mice by 5'-AMP administration. Previously we proposed that an underlying mechanism for this hypometabolism is linked to reduced erythrocyte oxygen transport function due to 5'-AMP uptake altering the cellular adenylate equilibrium. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice deficient in adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3 (AMPD3), the key catabolic enzyme for 5'-AMP in erythrocytes. Mice deficient in AMPD3 maintained AMPD activities in all tissues except erythrocytes. Developmentally and morphologically, the Ampd3(-/-) mice were indistinguishable from their wild type siblings. The levels of ATP, ADP but not 5'-AMP in erythrocytes of Ampd3(-/-) mice were significantly elevated. Fasting blood glucose levels of the Ampd3(-/-) mice were comparable to wild type siblings. In comparison to wild type mice, the Ampd3(-/-) mice displayed a deeper hypometabolism with a significantly delayed average arousal time in response to 5'-AMP administration. Together, these findings demonstrate a central role of AMPD3 in the regulation of 5'-AMP mediated hypometabolism and further implicate erythrocytes in this behavioral response.

  5. 75 FR 20381 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... call). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of... AMP includes a Federal advisory committee (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a monitoring and... visit Reclamation's Web site at: http://www.usbr.gov/uc/rm/amp/amwg/mtgs/10may06CC/index.html...

  6. Nondestructive Examination for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Glass, Samuel W.; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable’s ability to perform safely over the initial 40 year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found inmore » an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program (AMP) to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. This paper addresses various NDE technologies that constitute the essence of an acceptable aging management program.« less

  7. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of... consultation requirements of the Grand Canyon Protection Act (Pub. L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a.../amp/amwg/mtgs/13may08/index.html . Time will be allowed for any individual or organization wishing to...

  8. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of Decision on the Operation of... Grand Canyon Protection Act (Pub. L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee... administrative and resource issues pertaining to the AMP. To view a copy of the agenda and documents related to...

  9. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of Decision on the Operation of... Grand Canyon Protection Act (Pub. L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee... related to the above meeting, please visit Reclamation's Web site at: http://www.usbr.gov/uc/rm/amp/amwg...

  10. 75 FR 44809 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of Decision on the... of the Grand Canyon Protection Act (Pub. L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory... other administrative and resource issues pertaining to the AMP. To view a copy of the agenda and...

  11. 75 FR 439 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of Decision on the... of the Grand Canyon Protection Act (Pub. L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory... addition, other administrative and resource issues pertaining to the AMP may be discussed as necessary. To...

  12. 2′,3′-cAMP, 3′-AMP, and 2′-AMP inhibit human aortic and coronary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via A2B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jin; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2011-01-01

    Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from renal microvessels metabolize 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP, and these AMPs are converted to adenosine that inhibits microvascular VSMC proliferation via A2B receptors. The goal of this study was to test whether this mechanism also exists in VSMCs from conduit arteries and whether it is similarly expressed in human vs. rat VSMCs. Incubation of rat and human aortic VSMCs with 2′,3′-cAMP concentration-dependently increased levels of 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP in the medium, with a similar absolute increase in 2′-AMP vs. 3′-AMP. In contrast, in human coronary VSMCs, 2′,3′-cAMP increased 2′-AMP levels yet had little effect on 3′-AMP levels. In all cell types, 2′,3′-cAMP increased levels of adenosine, but not 5′-AMP, and 2′,3′-AMP inhibited cell proliferation. Antagonism of A2B receptors (MRS-1754), but not A1 (1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine), A2A (SCH-58261), or A3 (VUF-5574) receptors, attenuated the antiproliferative effects of 2′,3′-cAMP. In all cell types, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP increased adenosine levels, and inhibition of ecto-5′-nucleotidase blocked this effect of 5′-AMP but not that of 2′-AMP nor 3′-AMP. Also, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 5′-AMP, like 2′,3′-cAMP, exerted antiproliferative effects that were abolished by antagonism of A2B receptors with MRS-1754. In conclusion, VSMCs from conduit arteries metabolize 2′,3′-cAMP to AMPs, which are metabolized to adenosine. In rat and human aortic VSMCs, both 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP are involved in this process, whereas, in human coronary VSMCs, 2′,3′-cAMP is mainly converted to 2′-AMP. Because adenosine inhibits VSMC proliferation via A2B receptors, local vascular production of 2′,3′-cAMP may protect conduit arteries from atherosclerosis. PMID:21622827

  13. Applications of AMPS-1D for solar cell simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong; Kalkan, Ali Kaan; Hou, Jingya; Fonash, Stephen J.

    1999-03-01

    The AMPS-1D PC computer program is now used by over 70 groups world-wide for detector and solar cell analysis. It has proved to be a very powerful tool in understanding device operation and physics for single crystal, poly-crystalline and amorphous structures. For example, AMPS-1D has been successful in explaining the "red kink" [1] and the "transient effect" in CdS/CIGS poly-crystalline solar cells. It has been used to show that thin film poly-Si structures, with reasonable light trapping, are capable of competitive solar cell conversion efficiencies. In the case of a-Si:H structures, it has been used, for example, to settle the discrepancies in bandgap measurement, to predict the effective QE>1 phenomenon later seen in these materials [2], to determine the relative roles of interface and bulk properties, and to point the direction toward 16% triple junction structures. In general AMPS-1D is used for cell and detector design, material parameter sensitivity studies, and parameter extraction. Recently we have shown that it can be used to determine optimum structure and light and voltage biasing conditions in the material parameter extraction function. Information on AMPS can be found at www.psu.edu/dept/AMPS/amps_web/AMPS.html and at other web sites set up by user groups.

  14. Metformin and phenformin activate AMP-activated protein kinase in the heart by increasing cytosolic AMP concentration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; He, Huamei; Balschi, James A

    2007-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor: it responds to an increase in AMP concentration ([AMP]) or the AMP-to-ATP ratio (AMP/ATP). Metformin and phenformin, which are biguanides, have been reported to increase AMPK activity without increasing AMP/ATP. This study tests the hypothesis that these biguanides increase AMPK activity in the heart by increasing cytosolic [AMP]. Groups of isolated rat hearts (n = 5-7 each) were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer with or without 0.2 mM phenformin or 10 mM metformin, and (31)P-NMR-measured phosphocreatine, ATP, and intracellular pH were used to calculate cytosolic [AMP]. At various times, hearts were freeze-clamped and assayed for AMPK activity, phosphorylation of Thr(172) on AMPK-alpha, and phosphorylation of Ser(79) on acetyl-CoA carboxylase, an AMPK target. In hearts treated with phenformin for 18 min and then perfused for 20 min with Krebs-Henseleit buffer, [AMP] began to increase at 26 min and AMPK activity was elevated at 36 min. In hearts treated with metformin, [AMP] was increased at 50 min and AMPK activity, phosphorylated AMPK, and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase were elevated at 61 min. In metformin-treated hearts, HPLC-measured total AMP content and total AMP/ATP did not increase. In summary, phenformin and metformin increase AMPK activity and phosphorylation in the isolated heart. The increase in AMPK activity was always preceded by and correlated with increased cytosolic [AMP]. Total AMP content and total AMP/ATP did not change. Cytosolic [AMP] reported metabolically active AMP, which triggered increased AMPK activity, but measures of total AMP did not.

  15. The glutamate carboxypeptidase AMP1 mediates abscisic acid and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yiting; Wang, Zheng; Meng, Pei; Tian, Siqi; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-07-01

    ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1) encodes a glutamate carboxypeptidase that plays an important role in shoot apical meristem development and phytohormone homeostasis. We isolated a new mutant allele of AMP1, amp1-20, from a screen for abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitive mutants and characterized the function of AMP1 in plant stress responses. amp1 mutants displayed ABA hypersensitivity, while overexpression of AMP1 caused ABA insensitivity. Moreover, endogenous ABA concentration was increased in amp1-20- and decreased in AMP1-overexpressing plants under stress conditions. Application of ABA reduced the AMP1 protein level in plants. Interestingly, amp1 mutants accumulated excess superoxide and displayed hypersensitivity to oxidative stress. The hypersensitivity of amp1 to ABA and oxidative stress was partially rescued by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging agent. Furthermore, amp1 was tolerant to freezing and drought stress. The ABA hypersensitivity and freezing tolerance of amp1 was dependent on ABA signaling. Moreover, amp1 had elevated soluble sugar content and showed hypersensitivity to high concentrations of sugar. By contrast, the contents of amino acids were changed in amp1 mutant compared to the wild-type. This study suggests that AMP1 modulates ABA, oxidative and abotic stress responses, and is involved in carbon and amino acid metabolism in Arabidopsis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. AMP Deaminase 3 Deficiency Enhanced 5′-AMP Induction of Hypometabolism

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Isadora Susan; O′Brien, William G.; Nath, Vinay; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2013-01-01

    A hypometabolic state can be induced in mice by 5′-AMP administration. Previously we proposed that an underlying mechanism for this hypometabolism is linked to reduced erythrocyte oxygen transport function due to 5′-AMP uptake altering the cellular adenylate equilibrium. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice deficient in adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3 (AMPD3), the key catabolic enzyme for 5′-AMP in erythrocytes. Mice deficient in AMPD3 maintained AMPD activities in all tissues except erythrocytes. Developmentally and morphologically, the Ampd3−/− mice were indistinguishable from their wild type siblings. The levels of ATP, ADP but not 5′-AMP in erythrocytes of Ampd3−/− mice were significantly elevated. Fasting blood glucose levels of the Ampd3−/− mice were comparable to wild type siblings. In comparison to wild type mice, the Ampd3−/− mice displayed a deeper hypometabolism with a significantly delayed average arousal time in response to 5′-AMP administration. Together, these findings demonstrate a central role of AMPD3 in the regulation of 5′-AMP mediated hypometabolism and further implicate erythrocytes in this behavioral response. PMID:24066180

  17. 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 production from activated primary murine microglia via A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Newell, Elizabeth A; Exo, Jennifer L; Verrier, Jonathan D; Jackson, Travis C; Gillespie, Delbert G; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-01-12

    Some cells, tissues and organs release 2',3'-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP plus 3'-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 μM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 μM; selective A1 agonist), 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 μM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 μM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. (1) 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; (4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. 2',3'-cAMP and its metabolites (3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. cAMP and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Federica; Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier S.; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for metabolic adaptation. cAMP signaling and PKA phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins have just started to be investigated, and the presence of cAMP-generating enzymes and PKA inside mitochondria is still controversial. Here, we discuss the role of cAMP in regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics through protein phosphorylation and the evidence for soluble adenylyl cyclase as the source of cAMP inside mitochondria. PMID:23636265

  19. Cyclic AMP- and (Rp)-cAMPS-induced Conformational Changes in a Complex of the Catalytic and Regulatory (RIα) Subunits of Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ganesh S.; Krishnamurthy, Srinath; Bishnoi, Tanushree; Kornev, Alexandr; Taylor, Susan S.; Johnson, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We took a discovery approach to explore the actions of cAMP and two of its analogs, one a cAMP mimic ((Sp)-adenosine cyclic 3′:5′-monophosphorothioate ((Sp)-cAMPS)) and the other a diastereoisomeric antagonist ((Rp)-cAMPS), on a model system of the type Iα cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme, RIα(91–244)·C-subunit, by using fluorescence spectroscopy and amide H/2H exchange mass spectrometry. Specifically, for the fluorescence experiments, fluorescein maleimide was conjugated to three cysteine single residue substitution mutants, R92C, T104C, and R239C, of RIα(91–244), and the effects of cAMP, (Sp)-cAMPS, and (Rp)-cAMPS on the kinetics of R-C binding and the time-resolved anisotropy of the reporter group at each conjugation site were measured. For the amide exchange experiments, ESI-TOF mass spectrometry with pepsin proteolytic fragmentation was used to assess the effects of (Rp)-cAMPS on amide exchange of the RIα(91–244)·C-subunit complex. We found that cAMP and its mimic perturbed at least parts of the C-subunit interaction Sites 2 and 3 but probably not Site 1 via reduced interactions of the linker region and αC of RIα(91–244). Surprisingly, (Rp)-cAMPS not only increased the affinity of RIα(91–244) toward the C-subunit by 5-fold but also produced long range effects that propagated through both the C- and R-subunits to produce limited unfolding and/or enhanced conformational flexibility. This combination of effects is consistent with (Rp)-cAMPS acting by enhancing the internal entropy of the R·C complex. Finally, the (Rp)-cAMPS-induced increase in affinity of RIα(91–244) toward the C-subunit indicates that (Rp)-cAMPS is better described as an inverse agonist because it decreases the fractional dissociation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme and in turn its basal activity. PMID:20167947

  20. Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Philip, Bobby

    2012-06-01

    The Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) code, in its present form, will allow a user to build a multi-physics application code for existing mechanics and diffusion operators and extend them with user-defined material models and new physics operators. There are examples that demonstrate mechanics, thermo-mechanics, coupled diffusion, and mechanical contact. The AMP code is designed to leverage a variety of mathematical solvers (PETSc, Trilinos, SUNDIALS, and AMP solvers) and mesh databases (LibMesh and AMP) in a consistent interchangeable approach.

  1. Rp-cAMPS Prodrugs Reveal the cAMP Dependence of First-Phase Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Frank; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Kaufholz, Melanie; Bertinetti, Daniela; Leech, Colin A.; Cabrera, Over; Zhu, Yingmin; Mei, Fang; Cheng, Xiaodong; Manning Fox, Jocelyn E.; MacDonald, Patrick E.; Genieser, Hans-G.; Herberg, Friedrich W.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-elevating agents such as the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. However, a debate has existed since the 1970s concerning whether or not cAMP signaling is essential for glucose alone to stimulate insulin secretion. Here, we report that the first-phase kinetic component of GSIS is cAMP-dependent, as revealed through the use of a novel highly membrane permeable para-acetoxybenzyl (pAB) ester prodrug that is a bioactivatable derivative of the cAMP antagonist adenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-cAMPS). In dynamic perifusion assays of human or rat islets, a step-wise increase of glucose concentration leads to biphasic insulin secretion, and under these conditions, 8-bromoadenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer, 4-acetoxybenzyl ester (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB) inhibits first-phase GSIS by up to 80%. Surprisingly, second-phase GSIS is inhibited to a much smaller extent (≤20%). Using luciferase, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays performed in living cells, we validate that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB does in fact block cAMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Novel effects of Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB to block the activation of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Epac1, Epac2) are also validated using genetically encoded Epac biosensors, and are independently confirmed in an in vitro Rap1 activation assay using Rp-cAMPS and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. Thus, in addition to revealing the cAMP dependence of first-phase GSIS from human and rat islets, these findings establish a pAB-based chemistry for the synthesis of highly membrane permeable prodrug derivatives of Rp-cAMPS that act with micromolar or even nanomolar potency to inhibit cAMP signaling in living cells. PMID:26061564

  2. Parallel Allostery by cAMP and PDE Coordinates Activation and Termination Phases in cAMP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Srinath; Tulsian, Nikhil Kumar; Chandramohan, Arun; Anand, Ganesh S

    2015-09-15

    The second messenger molecule cAMP regulates the activation phase of the cAMP signaling pathway through high-affinity interactions with the cytosolic cAMP receptor, the protein kinase A regulatory subunit (PKAR). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes responsible for catalyzing hydrolysis of cAMP to 5' AMP. It was recently shown that PDEs interact with PKAR to initiate the termination phase of the cAMP signaling pathway. While the steps in the activation phase are well understood, steps in the termination pathway are unknown. Specifically, the binding and allosteric networks that regulate the dynamic interplay between PKAR, PDE, and cAMP are unclear. In this study, PKAR and PDE from Dictyostelium discoideum (RD and RegA, respectively) were used as a model system to monitor complex formation in the presence and absence of cAMP. Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to monitor slow conformational transitions in RD, using disordered regions as conformational probes. Our results reveal that RD regulates its interactions with cAMP and RegA at distinct loci by undergoing slow conformational transitions between two metastable states. In the presence of cAMP, RD and RegA form a stable ternary complex, while in the absence of cAMP they maintain transient interactions. RegA and cAMP each bind at orthogonal sites on RD with resultant contrasting effects on its dynamics through parallel allosteric relays at multiple important loci. RD thus serves as an integrative node in cAMP termination by coordinating multiple allosteric relays and governing the output signal response. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Public Meeting for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of... AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon... other administrative and resource issues pertaining to the AMP. To view a copy of the agenda and...

  4. National Weather- RFC Development Management

    Science.gov Websites

    Map News Organization Search NWS ALL NOAA Go RFC Development Management Presentations Projects &amp ; Plans RFC Development Program RFC Archive Database Documentation Outline Workshops Contact Us resources and services. Description Graphic The RFC Development Management component of the Office of

  5. 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and Adenosine Inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 Production From Activated Primary Murine Microglia via A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Elizabeth A.; Exo, Jennifer L.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Gillespie, Delbert G.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some cells, tissues and organs release 2’,3’-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3’,5’-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP to 2’-AMP plus 3’-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Methods Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 µM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 µM; selective A1 agonist), 5’-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 µM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 µM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Results 1) 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; 4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Conclusions 2’,3’-cAMP and its metabolites (3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. PMID:25451117

  6. Multiple Facets of cAMP Signalling and Physiological Impact: cAMP Compartmentalization in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburger, Anouk; Maarsingh, Harm; Schmidt, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Therapies involving elevation of the endogenous suppressor cyclic AMP (cAMP) are currently used in the treatment of several chronic inflammatory disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Characteristics of COPD are airway obstruction, airway inflammation and airway remodelling, processes encompassed by increased airway smooth muscle mass, epithelial changes, goblet cell and submucosal gland hyperplasia. In addition to inflammatory cells, airway smooth muscle cells and (myo)fibroblasts, epithelial cells underpin a variety of key responses in the airways such as inflammatory cytokine release, airway remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and airway barrier function. Cigarette smoke, being next to environmental pollution the main cause of COPD, is believed to cause epithelial hyperpermeability by disrupting the barrier function. Here we will focus on the most recent progress on compartmentalized signalling by cAMP. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, cAMP-specific phospho-diesterases (PDEs) maintain compartmentalized cAMP signalling. Intriguingly, spatially discrete cAMP-sensing signalling complexes seem also to involve distinct members of the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP) superfamily and IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein (IQGAPs). In this review, we will highlight the interaction between cAMP and the epithelial barrier to retain proper lung function and to alleviate COPD symptoms and focus on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Future studies should include the development of cAMP-sensing multiprotein complex specific disruptors and/or stabilizers to orchestrate cellular functions. Compartmentalized cAMP signalling regulates important cellular processes in the lung and may serve as a therapeutic target. PMID:24281338

  7. Experiment definition studies for AMPS Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, H.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical charging of the space shuttle orbiter is discussed in relation to the AMPS Spacelab payload along with an operations research technique for the selection of AMPS Spacelab experiments. Experiments proposed for AMPS include: hydromagnetic wave experiments; bistatic sounder of AMPS wake; and an artificial meteor gun. Experiment objectives and instrument functions are given for all experiments.

  8. Enzymatic Characterization of AMP Phosphorylase and Ribose-1,5-Bisphosphate Isomerase Functioning in an Archaeal AMP Metabolic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Aono, Riku; Sato, Takaaki; Yano, Ayumu; Yoshida, Shosuke; Nishitani, Yuichi; Miki, Kunio; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2012-01-01

    AMP phosphorylase (AMPpase), ribose-1,5-bisphosphate (R15P) isomerase, and type III ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) have been proposed to constitute a novel pathway involved in AMP metabolism in the Archaea. Here we performed a biochemical examination of AMPpase and R15P isomerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis. R15P isomerase was specific for the α-anomer of R15P and did not recognize other sugar compounds. We observed that activity was extremely low with the substrate R15P alone but was dramatically activated in the presence of AMP. Using AMP-activated R15P isomerase, we reevaluated the substrate specificity of AMPpase. AMPpase exhibited phosphorylase activity toward CMP and UMP in addition to AMP. The [S]-v plot (plot of velocity versus substrate concentration) of the enzyme toward AMP was sigmoidal, with an increase in activity observed at concentrations higher than approximately 3 mM. The behavior of the two enzymes toward AMP indicates that the pathway is intrinsically designed to prevent excess degradation of intracellular AMP. We further examined the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from AMP, CMP, and UMP in T. kodakarensis cell extracts. 3-Phosphoglycerate generation was observed from AMP alone, and from CMP or UMP in the presence of dAMP, which also activates R15P isomerase. 3-Phosphoglycerate was not formed when 2-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate, a Rubisco inhibitor, was added. The results strongly suggest that these enzymes are actually involved in the conversion of nucleoside monophosphates to 3-phosphoglycerate in T. kodakarensis. PMID:23065974

  9. Measurement of cAMP in an undergraduate teaching laboratory, using ALPHAscreen technology.

    PubMed

    Bartho, Joseph D; Ly, Kien; Hay, Debbie L

    2012-02-14

    Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is a cellular second messenger with central relevance to pharmacology, cell biology, and biochemistry teaching programs. cAMP is produced from adenosine triphosphate by adenylate cyclase, and its production is reduced or enhanced upon activation of many G protein-coupled receptors. Therefore, the measurement of cAMP serves as an indicator of receptor activity. Although there are many assays available for measuring cAMP, few are suitable for large class teaching, and even fewer seem to have been adapted for this purpose. Here, we describe the use of bead-based ALPHAscreen (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogenous Assay) technology for teaching a class of more than 300 students the practical aspects of detecting signal transduction. This technology is applicable to the measurement of many different signaling pathways. This resource is designed to provide a practical guide for instructors and a useful model for developing other classes using similar technologies.

  10. Mechanisms Restricting Diffusion of Intracellular cAMP.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shailesh R; Clancy, Colleen E; Harvey, Robert D

    2016-01-22

    Although numerous receptors stimulate cAMP production in a wide array of cells, many elicit distinct, highly localized responses, implying that the subcellular distribution of cAMP is not uniform. One often used explanation is that phosphodiesterases, which breakdown cAMP, act as functional barriers limiting diffusion. However, several studies refute the notion that this is sufficient, suggesting that phosphodiesterase-independent movement of cAMP must occur at rates slower than free diffusion. But, until now this has never been demonstrated. Using Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy (RICS), we measured the diffusion coefficient of a fluorescently-labeled cAMP derivative (φ450-cAMP) as well as other fluorescent molecules in order to investigate the role that molecular size, cell morphology, and buffering by protein kinase A (PKA) play in restricting cAMP mobility in different cell types. Our results demonstrate that cytosolic movement of cAMP is indeed much slower than the rate of free diffusion and that interactions with PKA, especially type II PKA associated with mitochondria, play a significant role. These findings have important implications with respect to cAMP signaling in all cells.

  11. Mechanisms Restricting Diffusion of Intracellular cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh R.; Clancy, Colleen E.; Harvey, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous receptors stimulate cAMP production in a wide array of cells, many elicit distinct, highly localized responses, implying that the subcellular distribution of cAMP is not uniform. One often used explanation is that phosphodiesterases, which breakdown cAMP, act as functional barriers limiting diffusion. However, several studies refute the notion that this is sufficient, suggesting that phosphodiesterase-independent movement of cAMP must occur at rates slower than free diffusion. But, until now this has never been demonstrated. Using Raster Image Correlation Spectroscopy (RICS), we measured the diffusion coefficient of a fluorescently-labeled cAMP derivative (φ450-cAMP) as well as other fluorescent molecules in order to investigate the role that molecular size, cell morphology, and buffering by protein kinase A (PKA) play in restricting cAMP mobility in different cell types. Our results demonstrate that cytosolic movement of cAMP is indeed much slower than the rate of free diffusion and that interactions with PKA, especially type II PKA associated with mitochondria, play a significant role. These findings have important implications with respect to cAMP signaling in all cells. PMID:26795432

  12. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    An equipment list, instrument baseline data, engineering drawings, mass properties computer printouts, electrical energy management, and control and display functional analysis pertinent to the AMPS (Satellite Payload) are presented.

  13. 77 FR 41457 - Aging Management Associated With Wall Thinning Due to Erosion Mechanisms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0170] Aging Management Associated With Wall Thinning Due... management program (AMP) in NUREG-1801, Revision 2, ``Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report,'' and the NRC staff's aging management review procedure and acceptance criteria contained in NUREG-1800...

  14. AMP sensing by DEAD-box RNA helicases

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Andrea A.; Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotes, cellular levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) signal the metabolic state of the cell. AMP concentrations increase significantly upon metabolic stress, such as glucose deprivation in yeast. Here we show that several DEAD-box RNA helicases are sensitive to AMP, which is not produced during ATP hydrolysis by these enzymes. We find that AMP potently inhibits RNA binding and unwinding by the yeast DEAD-box helicases Ded1p, Mss116p, and eIF4A. However, the yeast DEAD-box helicases Sub2p and Dbp5p are not inhibited by AMP. Our observations identify a subset of DEAD-box helicases as enzymes with the capacity to directly link changes in AMP concentrations to RNA metabolism. PMID:23702290

  15. AMP is an adenosine A1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Rittiner, Joseph E; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P; Frye, Stephen V; Zylka, Mark J

    2012-02-17

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A(1) receptor (A(1)R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A(1)R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A(1)R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A(1)R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A(1)R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine.

  16. AMP sensing by DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Andrea A; Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2013-10-23

    In eukaryotes, cellular levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) signal the metabolic state of the cell. AMP concentrations increase significantly upon metabolic stress, such as glucose deprivation in yeast. Here, we show that several DEAD-box RNA helicases are sensitive to AMP, which is not produced during ATP hydrolysis by these enzymes. We find that AMP potently inhibits RNA binding and unwinding by the yeast DEAD-box helicases Ded1p, Mss116p, and eIF4A. However, the yeast DEAD-box helicases Sub2p and Dbp5p are not inhibited by AMP. Our observations identify a subset of DEAD-box helicases as enzymes with the capacity to directly link changes in AMP concentrations to RNA metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Our recent studies employing HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry to analyze venous perfusate from isolated, perfused kidneys demonstrate that intact kidneys produce and release into the extracellular compartment 2′,3′-cAMP, a positional isomer of the second messenger 3′,5′-cAMP. To our knowledge, this represents the first detection of 2′,3′-cAMP in any cell/tissue/organ/organism. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with isolated RNases and experiments in isolated, perfused kidneys suggest that 2′,3′-cAMP likely arises from RNase-mediated transphosphorylation of mRNA. Both in vitro and in vivo kidney experiments demonstrate that extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP is efficiently metabolized to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP, both of which can be further metabolized to adenosine. This sequence of reactions is called the 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2′,3′-cAMP → 2′-AMP/3′-AMP → adenosine). Experiments in rat and mouse kidneys show that metabolic poisons increase extracellular levels of 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and adenosine; however, little is known regarding the pharmacology of 2′,3′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, and 3′-AMP. What is known is that 2′,3′-cAMP facilitates activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, a process that can lead to apoptosis and necrosis, and inhibits proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and glomerular mesangial cells. In summary, there is mounting evidence that at least some types of cellular injury, by triggering mRNA degradation, engage the 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway, and therefore this pathway should be added to the list of biochemical pathways that produce adenosine. Although speculative, it is possible that the 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway may protect against some forms of acute organ injury, for example acute kidney injury, by both removing an intracellular toxin (2′,3′-cAMP) and increasing an extracellular renoprotectant (adenosine). PMID:21937608

  18. Understanding cAMP-dependent allostery by NMR spectroscopy: comparative analysis of the EPAC1 cAMP-binding domain in its apo and cAMP-bound states.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Das, Rahul; Fotheringham, Steven A; SilDas, Soumita; Chowdhury, Somenath; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2007-11-21

    cAMP (adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate) is a ubiquitous second messenger that activates a multitude of essential cellular responses. Two key receptors for cAMP in eukaryotes are protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), which is a recently discovered guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPases Rap1 and Rap2. Previous attempts to investigate the mechanism of allosteric activation of eukaryotic cAMP-binding domains (CBDs) at atomic or residue resolution have been hampered by the instability of the apo form, which requires the use of mixed apo/holo systems, that have provided only a partial picture of the CBD apo state and of the allosteric networks controlled by cAMP. Here, we show that, unlike other eukaryotic CBDs, both apo and cAMP-bound states of the EPAC1 CBD are stable under our experimental conditions, providing a unique opportunity to define at an unprecedented level of detail the allosteric interactions linking two critical functional sites of this CBD. These are the phosphate binding cassette (PBC), where cAMP binds, and the N-terminal helical bundle (NTHB), which is the site of the inhibitory interactions between the regulatory and catalytic regions of EPAC. Specifically, the combined analysis of the cAMP-dependent changes in chemical shifts, 2 degrees structure probabilities, hydrogen/hydrogen exchange (H/H) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/D) protection factors reveals that the long-range communication between the PBC and the NTHB is implemented by two distinct intramolecular cAMP-signaling pathways, respectively, mediated by the beta2-beta3 loop and the alpha6 helix. Docking of cAMP into the PBC perturbs the NTHB inner core packing and the helical probabilities of selected NTHB residues. The proposed model is consistent with the allosteric role previously hypothesized for L273 and F300 based on site-directed mutagenesis; however, our data show that such a contact is part of a

  19. AMP Is an Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist*

    PubMed Central

    Rittiner, Joseph E.; Korboukh, Ilia; Hull-Ryde, Emily A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous receptors for ATP, ADP, and adenosine exist; however, it is currently unknown whether a receptor for the related nucleotide adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) exists. Using a novel cell-based assay to visualize adenosine receptor activation in real time, we found that AMP and a non-hydrolyzable AMP analog (deoxyadenosine 5′-monophosphonate, ACP) directly activated the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R). In contrast, AMP only activated the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) after hydrolysis to adenosine by ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E, CD73) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, ACPP). Adenosine and AMP were equipotent human A1R agonists in our real-time assay and in a cAMP accumulation assay. ACP also depressed cAMP levels in mouse cortical neurons through activation of endogenous A1R. Non-selective purinergic receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid and suramin) did not block adenosine- or AMP-evoked activation. Moreover, mutation of His-251 in the human A1R ligand binding pocket reduced AMP potency without affecting adenosine potency. In contrast, mutation of a different binding pocket residue (His-278) eliminated responses to AMP and to adenosine. Taken together, our study indicates that the physiologically relevant nucleotide AMP is a full agonist of A1R. In addition, our study suggests that some of the physiological effects of AMP may be direct, and not indirect through ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze this nucleotide to adenosine. PMID:22215671

  20. Purification, characterization, and sequencing of novel antimicrobial peptides, Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2, from bulbs of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.).

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Masatoshi; Ideguchi, Mineo; Minami, Yuji; Watanabe, Keiichi; Tadera, Kenjiro

    2004-03-01

    Novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP), designated Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2, were purified from the bulbs of tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L.) by chitin affinity chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). They bind to chitin in a reversible way. They were basic peptides having isoelectric points of over 12. Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2 had molecular masses of 4,988 Da and 5,006 Da on MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and their extinction coefficients of 1% aqueous solutions at 280 nm were 3.3 and 3.4, respectively. Half of all amino acid residues of Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2 were occupied by cysteine, arginine, lysine, and proline. The concentrations of peptides required for 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of the growth of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi were 2 to 20 microg/ml. The structural characteristics of Tu-AMP 1 and Tu-AMP 2 indicated that they were novel thionin-like antimicrobial peptides, though Tu-AMP 2 was a heterodimer composes of two short peptides joined with disulfide bonds.

  1. Phase A conceptual design study of the Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The 12 month Phase A Conceptual Design Study of the Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) payload performed within the Program Development Directorate of the Marshall Space Flight Center is presented. The AMPS payload makes use of the Spacelab pressurized module and pallet, is launched by the space shuttle, and will have initial flight durations of 7 days. Scientific instruments including particle accelerators, high power transmitters, optical instruments, and chemical release devices are mounted externally on the Spacelab pallet and are controlled by the experimenters from within the pressurized module. The capability of real-time scientist interaction on-orbit with the experiment is a major characteristic of AMPS.

  2. 78 FR 21980 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Service Level III and Other Coatings, Atmospheric Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0068] Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Service Level... Interim Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2012-02, ``Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Service Level... proposes to revise NRC staff-recommended aging management programs (AMP) and aging management review (AMR...

  3. Evaluation of the Implementation of Operations and Maintenance Programs in New Jersey Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominsky, John R.; Freyberg, Ronald W.; Gerber, Donald R.; Centifonti, Gary J.

    All schools are required to develop and implement an asbestos management plan (AMP). The key component of this plan is each school's operations and maintenance (O&M) program. This report outlines the importance of such programs. It describes an O&M program as an administrative framework that prescribes specific activities and work…

  4. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (epac): a multidomain cAMP mediator in the regulation of diverse biological functions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martina; Dekker, Frank J; Maarsingh, Harm

    2013-04-01

    Since the discovery nearly 60 years ago, cAMP is envisioned as one of the most universal and versatile second messengers. The tremendous feature of cAMP to tightly control highly diverse physiologic processes, including calcium homeostasis, metabolism, secretion, muscle contraction, cell fate, and gene transcription, is reflected by the award of five Nobel prizes. The discovery of Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) has ignited a new surge of cAMP-related research and has depicted novel cAMP properties independent of protein kinase A and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. The multidomain architecture of Epac determines its activity state and allows cell-type specific protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions that control fine-tuning of pivotal biologic responses through the "old" second messenger cAMP. Compartmentalization of cAMP in space and time, maintained by A-kinase anchoring proteins, phosphodiesterases, and β-arrestins, contributes to the Epac signalosome of small GTPases, phospholipases, mitogen- and lipid-activated kinases, and transcription factors. These novel cAMP sensors seem to implement certain unexpected signaling properties of cAMP and thereby to permit delicate adaptations of biologic responses. Agonists and antagonists selective for Epac are developed and will support further studies on the biologic net outcome of the activation of Epac. This will increase our current knowledge on the pathophysiology of devastating diseases, such as diabetes, cognitive impairment, renal and heart failure, (pulmonary) hypertension, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Further insights into the cAMP dynamics executed by the Epac signalosome will help to optimize the pharmacological treatment of these diseases.

  5. cAMP signalling in the vasculature: the role of Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Owain Llŷr; Dart, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    The second messenger cAMP plays a central role in mediating vascular smooth muscle relaxation in response to vasoactive transmitters and in strengthening endothelial cell-cell junctions that regulate the movement of solutes, cells and macromolecules between the blood and the surrounding tissue. The vasculature expresses three cAMP effector proteins: PKA (protein kinase A), CNG (cyclic-nucleotide-gated) ion channels, and the most recently discovered Epacs (exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP). Epacs are a family of GEFs (guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors) for the small Ras-related GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, and are being increasingly implicated as important mediators of cAMP signalling, both in their own right and in parallel with the prototypical cAMP target PKA. In the present paper, we review what is currently known about the role of Epac within blood vessels, particularly with regard to the regulation of vascular tone, endothelial barrier function and inflammation.

  6. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study, technical summary document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Some 60 instrument candidates and 80 possible science investigations were evaluated. The early analysis emphasized the science aspect in terms of the functional requirements for each of the potential experiments identified by the AMPS science working group. These requirements were then used for the grouping of instruments into practical payloads which would fit the capabilities of the Shuttle/Spacelab. This analysis resulted in the definition of eleven different AMPS configurations. The data were then used to define a typical set of requirements for a flexible AMPS laboratory. The data gathered to this point showed that a planned sequential buildup of the laboratory would be necessary to meet both physical and funding limitations. This led to the definition of five strawman payloads by the science working group, which were used to establish a conceptual laboratory and to define preliminary design of a configuration which could satisfy AMPS needs during the early program period.

  7. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 4: Graphical status display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (4 of 4) contains the description, structured flow charts, prints of the graphical displays, and source code to generate the displays for the AMPS graphical status system. The function of these displays is to present to the manager of the AMPS system a graphical status display with the hot boxes that allow the manager to get more detailed status on selected portions of the AMPS system. The development of the graphical displays is divided into two processes; the creation of the screen images and storage of them in files on the computer, and the running of the status program which uses the screen images.

  8. Cyclic AMP Inhibits the Activity and Promotes the Acetylation of Acetyl-CoA Synthetase through Competitive Binding to the ATP/AMP Pocket.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaobiao; Shen, Liqiang; Wang, Qijun; Cen, Xufeng; Wang, Jin; Wu, Meng; Li, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Guoping

    2017-01-27

    The high-affinity biosynthetic pathway for converting acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is catalyzed by the central metabolic enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs), which is finely regulated both at the transcriptional level via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-driven trans-activation and at the post-translational level via acetylation inhibition. In this study, we discovered that cAMP directly binds to Salmonella enterica Acs (SeAcs) and inhibits its activity in a substrate-competitive manner. In addition, cAMP binding increases SeAcs acetylation by simultaneously promoting Pat-dependent acetylation and inhibiting CobB-dependent deacetylation, resulting in enhanced SeAcs inhibition. A crystal structure study and site-directed mutagenesis analyses confirmed that cAMP binds to the ATP/AMP pocket of SeAcs, and restrains SeAcs in an open conformation. The cAMP contact residues are well conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, suggesting a general regulatory mechanism of cAMP on Acs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) spacelab payload definition study. Volume 3: Interface control documents. Part 2: AMPS payload to spacelab ICD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The AMPS to Spacelab Interface Control Document which is to be used as a guide for format and information content in generating specific AMPS Mission ICDs is presented. This document is meant to supplement the Spacelab Payload Accommodations Handbook in that it only defines interfaces which are not discussed in the handbook to the level required for design purposes. The AMPS Top Level Requirements Tree, illustrates this ICD by a shaded area and its relationship to the other AMPS technical documents. Other interface documents shown are the Level II, AMPS to Space Shuttle Vehicle ICD and the Level III, AMPS to Instruments ICD.

  10. AMP kinase promotes glioblastoma bioenergetics and tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Fan, Qiang; Anderson, Jane; Muraleedharan, Ranjithmenon; Huang, Yan; Ciraolo, Georgianne; Chen, Xiaoting; Waclaw, Ronald; Chow, Lionel M; Khuchua, Zaza; Kofron, Matthew; Weirauch, Matthew T; Kendler, Ady; McPherson, Christopher; Ratner, Nancy; Nakano, Ichiro; Dasgupta, Nupur; Komurov, Kakajan; Dasgupta, Biplab

    2018-06-18

    Stress is integral to tumour evolution, and cancer cell survival depends on stress management. We found that cancer-associated stress chronically activates the bioenergetic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK) and, to survive, tumour cells hijack an AMPK-regulated stress response pathway conserved in normal cells. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data revealed that AMPK isoforms are highly expressed in the lethal human cancer glioblastoma (GBM). We show that AMPK inhibition reduces viability of patient-derived GBM stem cells (GSCs) and tumours. In stressed (exercised) skeletal muscle, AMPK is activated to cooperate with CREB1 (cAMP response element binding protein-1) and promote glucose metabolism. We demonstrate that oncogenic stress chronically activates AMPK in GSCs that coopt the AMPK-CREB1 pathway to coordinate tumour bioenergetics through the transcription factors HIF1α and GABPA. Finally, we show that adult mice tolerate systemic deletion of AMPK, supporting the use of AMPK pharmacological inhibitors in the treatment of GBM.

  11. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) mediates cAMP-dependent but protein kinase A-insensitive modulation of vascular ATP-sensitive potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Purves, Gregor I; Kamishima, Tomoko; Davies, Lowri M; Quayle, John M; Dart, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Exchange proteins directly activated by cyclic AMP (Epacs or cAMP-GEF) represent a family of novel cAMP-binding effector proteins. The identification of Epacs and the recent development of pharmacological tools that discriminate between cAMP-mediated pathways have revealed previously unrecognized roles for cAMP that are independent of its traditional target cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Here we show that Epac exists in a complex with vascular ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel subunits and that cAMP-mediated activation of Epac modulates KATP channel activity via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism involving the activation of Ca2+-sensitive protein phosphatase 2B (PP-2B, calcineurin). Application of the Epac-specific cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP, at concentrations that activate Epac but not PKA, caused a 41.6 ± 4.7% inhibition (mean ±s.e.m.; n= 7) of pinacidil-evoked whole-cell KATP currents recorded in isolated rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Importantly, similar results were obtained when cAMP was elevated by addition of the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in the presence of the structurally distinct PKA inhibitors, Rp-cAMPS or KT5720. Activation of Epac by 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP caused a transient 171.0 ± 18.0 nm (n= 5) increase in intracellular Ca2+ in Fura-2-loaded aortic myocytes, which persisted in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Inclusion of the Ca2+-specific chelator BAPTA in the pipette-filling solution or preincubation with the calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A or ascomycin, significantly reduced the ability of 8-pCPT-2′-O-Me-cAMP to inhibit whole-cell KATP currents. These results highlight a previously undescribed cAMP-dependent regulatory mechanism that may be essential for understanding the physiological and pathophysiological roles ascribed to arterial KATP channels in the control of vascular tone and blood flow. PMID:19491242

  12. Program Management Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawadiak, Yuri; Wong, Alan; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Gurram, Mohana; Tran, Khai Peter; Hsu, Jennifer; Yagi, Kenji; Patel, Hemil

    2007-01-01

    The Program Management Tool (PMT) is a comprehensive, Web-enabled business intelligence software tool for assisting program and project managers within NASA enterprises in gathering, comprehending, and disseminating information on the progress of their programs and projects. The PMT provides planning and management support for implementing NASA programmatic and project management processes and requirements. It provides an online environment for program and line management to develop, communicate, and manage their programs, projects, and tasks in a comprehensive tool suite. The information managed by use of the PMT can include monthly reports as well as data on goals, deliverables, milestones, business processes, personnel, task plans, monthly reports, and budgetary allocations. The PMT provides an intuitive and enhanced Web interface to automate the tedious process of gathering and sharing monthly progress reports, task plans, financial data, and other information on project resources based on technical, schedule, budget, and management criteria and merits. The PMT is consistent with the latest Web standards and software practices, including the use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) for exchanging data and the WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning) protocol for collaborative management of documents. The PMT provides graphical displays of resource allocations in the form of bar and pie charts using Microsoft Excel Visual Basic for Application (VBA) libraries. The PMT has an extensible architecture that enables integration of PMT with other strategic-information software systems, including, for example, the Erasmus reporting system, now part of the NASA Integrated Enterprise Management Program (IEMP) tool suite, at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The PMT data architecture provides automated and extensive software interfaces and reports to various strategic information systems to eliminate duplicative human entries and minimize data integrity

  13. Intracellular tortuosity underlies slow cAMP diffusion in adult ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark; Lomas, Oliver; Jalink, Kees; Ford, Kerrie L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-06-01

    3',5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signals in the heart are often confined to concentration microdomains shaped by cAMP diffusion and enzymatic degradation. While the importance of phosphodiesterases (degradative enzymes) in sculpting cAMP microdomains is well established in cardiomyocytes, less is known about cAMP diffusivity (DcAMP) and factors affecting it. Many earlier studies have reported fast diffusivity, which argues against sharply defined microdomains. [cAMP] dynamics in the cytoplasm of adult rat ventricular myocytes were imaged using a fourth generation genetically encoded FRET-based sensor. The [cAMP]-response to the addition and removal of isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) quantified the rates of cAMP synthesis and degradation. To obtain a read out of DcAMP, a stable [cAMP] gradient was generated using a microfluidic device which delivered agonist to one half of the myocyte only. After accounting for phosphodiesterase activity, DcAMP was calculated to be 32 µm(2)/s; an order of magnitude lower than in water. Diffusivity was independent of the amount of cAMP produced. Saturating cAMP-binding sites with the analogue 6-Bnz-cAMP did not accelerate DcAMP, arguing against a role of buffering in restricting cAMP mobility. cAMP diffused at a comparable rate to chemically unrelated but similar sized molecules, arguing for a common physical cause of restricted diffusivity. Lower mitochondrial density and order in neonatal cardiac myocytes allowed for faster diffusion, demonstrating the importance of mitochondria as physical barriers to cAMP mobility. In adult cardiac myocytes, tortuosity due to physical barriers, notably mitochondria, restricts cAMP diffusion to levels that are more compatible with microdomain signalling. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  14. C++ Coding Standards for the AMP Project

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Evans, Thomas M; Clarno, Kevin T

    2009-09-01

    This document provides an initial starting point to define the C++ coding standards used by the AMP nuclear fuel performance integrated code project and a part of AMP's software development process. This document draws from the experiences, and documentation [1], of the developers of the Marmot Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Much of the software in AMP will be written in C++. The power of C++ can be abused easily, resulting in code that is difficult to understand and maintain. This document gives the practices that should be followed on the AMP project for all new code that ismore » written. The intent is not to be onerous but to ensure that the code can be readily understood by the entire code team and serve as a basis for collectively defining a set of coding standards for use in future development efforts. At the end of the AMP development in fiscal year (FY) 2010, all developers will have experience with the benefits, restrictions, and limitations of the standards described and will collectively define a set of standards for future software development. External libraries that AMP uses do not have to meet these requirements, although we encourage external developers to follow these practices. For any code of which AMP takes ownership, the project will decide on any changes on a case-by-case basis. The practices that we are using in the AMP project have been in use in the Denovo project [2] for several years. The practices build on those given in References [3-5]; the practices given in these references should also be followed. Some of the practices given in this document can also be found in [6].« less

  15. 14 CFR 91.1017 - Amending program manager's management specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... proposed amendment. (2) The Flight Standards District Office that issued the program manager's management... presented, the Flight Standards District Office that issued the program manager's management specifications... Standards District Office that issued the program manager's management specifications issues an amendment of...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1017 - Amending program manager's management specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... proposed amendment. (2) The Flight Standards District Office that issued the program manager's management... presented, the Flight Standards District Office that issued the program manager's management specifications... Standards District Office that issued the program manager's management specifications issues an amendment of...

  17. Repository-Based Software Engineering Program: Working Program Management Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Repository-Based Software Engineering Program (RBSE) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored program dedicated to introducing and supporting common, effective approaches to software engineering practices. The process of conceiving, designing, building, and maintaining software systems by using existing software assets that are stored in a specialized operational reuse library or repository, accessible to system designers, is the foundation of the program. In addition to operating a software repository, RBSE promotes (1) software engineering technology transfer, (2) academic and instructional support of reuse programs, (3) the use of common software engineering standards and practices, (4) software reuse technology research, and (5) interoperability between reuse libraries. This Program Management Plan (PMP) is intended to communicate program goals and objectives, describe major work areas, and define a management report and control process. This process will assist the Program Manager, University of Houston at Clear Lake (UHCL) in tracking work progress and describing major program activities to NASA management. The goal of this PMP is to make managing the RBSE program a relatively easy process that improves the work of all team members. The PMP describes work areas addressed and work efforts being accomplished by the program; however, it is not intended as a complete description of the program. Its focus is on providing management tools and management processes for monitoring, evaluating, and administering the program; and it includes schedules for charting milestones and deliveries of program products. The PMP was developed by soliciting and obtaining guidance from appropriate program participants, analyzing program management guidance, and reviewing related program management documents.

  18. Positive Effect of Carbon Sources on Natural Transformation in Escherichia coli: Role of Low-Level Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein in the Derepression of rpoS

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengyue; Wang, Huanyu; Xie, Nengbin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural plasmid transformation of Escherichia coli is a complex process that occurs strictly on agar plates and requires the global stress response factor σS. Here, we showed that additional carbon sources could significantly enhance the transformability of E. coli. Inactivation of phosphotransferase system genes (ptsH, ptsG, and crr) caused an increase in the transformation frequency, and the addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) neutralized the promotional effect of carbon sources. This implies a negative role of cAMP in natural transformation. Further study showed that crp and cyaA mutations conferred a higher transformation frequency, suggesting that the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex has an inhibitory effect on transformation. Moreover, we observed that rpoS is negatively regulated by cAMP-CRP in early log phase and that both crp and cyaA mutants show no transformation superiority when rpoS is knocked out. Therefore, it can be concluded that both the crp and cyaA mutations derepress rpoS expression in early log phase, whereby they aid in the promotion of natural transformation ability. We also showed that the accumulation of RpoS during early log phase can account for the enhanced transformation aroused by additional carbon sources. Our results thus demonstrated that the presence of additional carbon sources promotes competence development and natural transformation by reducing cAMP-CRP and, thus, derepressing rpoS expression during log phase. This finding could contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between nutrition state and competence, as well as the mechanism of natural plasmid transformation in E. coli. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli, which is not usually considered to be naturally transformable, was found to spontaneously take up plasmid DNA on agar plates. Researching the mechanism of natural transformation is important for understanding the role of transformation in evolution, as well as in the transfer of pathogenicity and

  19. Cyclic AMP efflux inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for leukemia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Dominique R; Smagley, Yelena; Garcia, Matthew; Carter, Mark B; Evangelisti, Annette; Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia; Winter, Stuart S; Sklar, Larry A; Chigaev, Alexandre

    2016-06-07

    Apoptotic evasion is a hallmark of cancer. We propose that some cancers may evade cell death by regulating 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which is associated with pro-apoptotic signaling. We hypothesize that leukemic cells possess mechanisms that efflux cAMP from the cytoplasm, thus protecting them from apoptosis. Accordingly, cAMP efflux inhibition should result in: cAMP accumulation, activation of cAMP-dependent downstream signaling, viability loss, and apoptosis. We developed a novel assay to assess cAMP efflux and performed screens to identify inhibitors. In an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model, several identified compounds reduced cAMP efflux, appropriately modulated pathways that are responsive to cAMP elevation (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, and deactivation of Very Late Antigen-4 integrin), and induced mitochondrial depolarization and caspase activation. Blocking adenylyl cyclase activity was sufficient to reduce effects of the most potent compounds. These compounds also decreased cAMP efflux and viability of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines and primary patient samples, but not of normal primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our data suggest that cAMP efflux is a functional feature that could be therapeutically targeted in leukemia. Furthermore, because some of the identified drugs are currently used for treating other illnesses, this work creates an opportunity for repurposing.

  20. AMPS Supporting Research and Technology (SR and T) report. Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas in Space (AMPS) definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A listing of candidate technology areas that require additional study is presented. These candidate tasks, identified during the AMPS Phase B studies, are requisites to the design, development, and operation of the AMPS concept selected for preliminary design.

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Global Regulator AmpR

    PubMed Central

    Caille, Olivier; Zincke, Diansy; Merighi, Massimo; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Kumari, Hansi; Kong, Kok-Fai; Silva-Herzog, Eugenia; Narasimhan, Giri; Schneper, Lisa; Lory, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a dreaded pathogen in many clinical settings. Its inherent and acquired antibiotic resistance thwarts therapy. In particular, derepression of the AmpC β-lactamase is a common mechanism of β-lactam resistance among clinical isolates. The inducible expression of ampC is controlled by the global LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AmpR. In the present study, we investigated the genetic and structural elements that are important for ampC induction. Specifically, the ampC (PampC) and ampR (PampR) promoters and the AmpR protein were characterized. The transcription start sites (TSSs) of the divergent transcripts were mapped using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR), and strong σ54 and σ70 consensus sequences were identified at PampR and PampC, respectively. Sigma factor RpoN was found to negatively regulate ampR expression, possibly through promoter blocking. Deletion mapping revealed that the minimal PampC extends 98 bp upstream of the TSS. Gel shifts using membrane fractions showed that AmpR binds to PampC in vitro whereas in vivo binding was demonstrated using chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR). Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis of the AmpR helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif identified residues critical for binding and function (Ser38 and Lys42) and critical for function but not binding (His39). Amino acids Gly102 and Asp135, previously implicated in the repression state of AmpR in the enterobacteria, were also shown to play a structural role in P. aeruginosa AmpR. Alkaline phosphatase fusion and shaving experiments suggest that AmpR is likely to be membrane associated. Lastly, an in vivo cross-linking study shows that AmpR dimerizes. In conclusion, a potential membrane-associated AmpR dimer regulates ampC expression by direct binding. PMID:25182487

  2. Scheduling Guide for Program Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    58 Chapter 8 TIME MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................... 59...8.1 Time Management and the Program...60 8.2 Time Management and the Program Manager

  3. Interplay among Membrane-Bound Lytic Transglycosylase D1, the CreBC Two-Component Regulatory System, the AmpNG-AmpDI-NagZ-AmpR Regulatory Circuit, and L1/L2 β-Lactamase Expression in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Wei; Wu, Chao-Jung; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Lin, Yi-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Lytic transglycosylases (LTs) are an important class of enzymes involved in peptidoglycan (PG) cleavage, with the concomitant formation of an intramolecular 1,6-anhydromuramoyl reaction product. There are six annotated LT genes in the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia genome, including genes for five membrane-bound LTs (mltA, mltB1, mltB2, mltD1, and mltD2) and a gene for soluble LT (slt). Six LTs of S. maltophilia KJ were systematically mutated, yielding the ΔmltA, ΔmltB1, ΔmltB2, ΔmltD1, ΔmltD2, and Δslt mutants. Inactivation of mltD1 conferred a phenotype of elevated uninduced β-lactamase activity. The underlying mechanism responsible for this phenotype was elucidated by the construction of several mutants and determination of β-lactamase activity. The expression of the genes assayed was assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and a promoter transcription fusion assay. The results demonstrate that ΔmltD1 mutant-mediated L1/L2 β-lactamase expression involved the creBC two-component regulatory system (TCS) and the ampNG-ampDI-nagZ-ampR regulatory circuit. The inactivation of mltD1 resulted in mltB1 and mltD2 upexpression in a creBC- and ampNG-dependent manner. The overexpressed MltB1 and MltD2 activity contributed to the expression of the L1/L2 β-lactamase genes via the ampNG-ampDI-nagZ-ampR regulatory circuit. These findings reveal, for the first time, a linkage between LTs, the CreBC TCS, the ampNG-ampDI-nagZ-ampR regulatory circuit, and L1/L2 β-lactamase expression in S. maltophilia. PMID:26282431

  4. Inhibition of basolateral cAMP permeability in the toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Boom, A; Golstein, P E; Frerotte, M; Sande, J V; Beauwens, R

    2000-10-01

    1. The effect of sulphonylurea drugs on hydrosmotic flow across toad urinary bladder epithelium was re-evaluated in the present study. Glibenclamide, added to the basolateral medium, significantly enhanced the osmotic flow induced by low doses of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or forskolin (FK), while it inhibited the effect of exogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or its non-hydrolysable bromo derivative, 8-Br-cAMP, added to the basolateral medium. These opposite effects of glibenclamide on the transepithelial osmotic flow can be explained by a reduction of cAMP permeability across the basolateral membrane of the epithelium. The decrease in cAMP permeability leads, according to the direction of the cAMP gradient, to firstly an enhanced osmotic flow when cAMP is generated intracellularly by addition of ADH and FK, glibenclamide reducing cAMP exit from the cell, and secondly a decreased osmotic flow in response to cAMP (and 8-Br-cAMP) added to the basolateral medium, glibenclamide inhibiting, in this case, their entry into the cell. 2. The demonstration that glibenclamide actually inhibits the basolateral cAMP permeability rests on the fact that firstly it decreases the release of cAMP into the basolateral medium by about 40 %, at each concentration of ADH or forskolin tested, secondly it increases the cAMP content of paired hemibladders incubated in the presence of ADH or FK, when intracellular degradation was prevented by phosphodiesterase inhibition, and thirdly it decreases also the uptake of basolateral 8-Br-[3H]cAMP into paired toad hemibladders. 3. Taken together, the present data demonstrate that glibenclamide inhibits the toad urinary bladder basolateral membrane permeability to cAMP, most probably by a direct interaction with a membrane protein not yet indentified but distinct from the sulphonylurea receptor.

  5. [Physiopathology of cAMP/PKA signaling in neurons].

    PubMed

    Castro, Liliana; Yapo, Cedric; Vincent, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulate a plethora of cellular functions in virtually all eukaryotic cells. In neurons, the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade controls a number of biological properties such as axonal growth, synaptic transmission, regulation of excitability or long term changes in the nucleus. Genetically-encoded optical biosensors for cAMP or PKA considerably improved our understanding of these processes by providing a real-time measurement in living neurons. In this review, we describe the recent progresses made in the creation of biosensors for cAMP or PKA activity. These biosensors revealed profound differences in the amplitude of the cAMP signal evoked by neuromodulators between various neuronal preparations. These responses can be resolved at the level of individual neurons, also revealing differences related to the neuronal type. At the subcellular level, biosensors reported different signal dynamics in domains like dendrites, cell body, nucleus and axon. Combining this imaging approach with pharmacology or genetical models points at phosphodiesterases and phosphatases as critical regulatory proteins. Biosensor imaging will certainly help understand the mechanism of action of current drugs as well as help in devising novel therapeutic strategies for neuropsychiatric diseases. © Société de Biologie, 2017.

  6. Expression profiles of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their regulation by Relish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Wen, Rong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as key immune effectors, play important roles in the innate immune system of invertebrates. Different types of AMPs, including Penaeidin, Crustin, ALF (antilipopolysaccharide factor) have been identified in different penaeid shrimp; however, systematic analyses on the function of different AMPs in shrimp responsive to different types of bacteria are very limited. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiles of AMPs in the Chinese shrimps, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, simultaneously by real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) when shrimp were challenged with Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram-positive, G+) or Vibrio anguillarium (Gram-negative, G-). Different AMPs showed different expression profiles when shrimp were injected with one type of bacterium, and one AMP also showed different expression profiles when shrimp were challenged with different bacteria. Furthermore, the expression of these AMPs showed temporal expression profiles, suggesting that different AMPs function coordinately in bacteria-infected shrimp. An RNA interference approach was used to study the function of the Relish transcription factor in regulating the transcription of different AMPs. The current study showed that Relish could regulate the transcription of different AMPs in shrimp. Differential expression profiles of AMPs in shrimp injected with different types of bacteria indicated that a complicated antimicrobial response network existed in shrimp. These data contribute to our understanding of immunity in shrimp and may provide a strategy for the control of disease in shrimp.

  7. Cyclic AMP regulates formation of mammary epithelial acini in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nedvetsky, Pavel I.; Kwon, Sang-Ho; Debnath, Jayanta; Mostov, Keith E.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cells form tubular and acinar structures notable for a hollow lumen. In three-dimensional culture utilizing MCF10A mammary epithelial cells, acini form due to integrin-dependent polarization and survival of cells contacting extracellular matrix (ECM), and the apoptosis of inner cells of acini lacking contact with the ECM. In this paper, we report that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) promotes acinus formation via two mechanisms. First, cAMP accelerates redistribution of α6-integrin to the periphery of the acinus and thus facilitates the polarization of outer acinar cells. Blocking of α6-integrin function by inhibitory antibody prevents cAMP-dependent polarization. Second, cAMP promotes the death of inner cells occupying the lumen. In the absence of cAMP, apoptosis is delayed, resulting in perturbed luminal clearance. cAMP-dependent apoptosis is accompanied by a posttranscriptional PKA-dependent increase in the proapoptotic protein Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death. These data demonstrate that cAMP regulates lumen formation in mammary epithelial cells in vitro, both through acceleration of polarization of outer cells and apoptosis of inner cells of the acinus. PMID:22675028

  8. The Brain In Vivo Expresses the 2′,3′-cAMP-Adenosine Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Bansal, Rashmi; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Puccio, Ava M.; Okonkwo, David O.; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2012-01-01

    Although multiple biochemical pathways produce adenosine, studies suggest that the 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2′,3′-cAMP → 2′-AMP/3′-AMP → adenosine) contributes to adenosine production in some cells/tissues/organs. To determine whether the 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway exists in vivo in the brain, we delivered to the brain (gray matter and white matter separately) via the inflow perfusate of a microdialysis probe either 2′,3′-cAMP, 3′,5′-cAMP, 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, or 5′-AMP and measured the recovered metabolites in the microdialysis outflow perfusate with mass spectrometry. In both gray and white matter, 2′,3′-cAMP increased 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP and adenosine, and 3′,5′-cAMP increased 5′-AMP and adenosine. In both brain regions, 2′-AMP, 3-AMP and 5′-AMP were converted to adenosine. Microdialysis experiments in 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) wild-type mice demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI; controlled cortical impact model) activated the brain 2,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway; similar experiments in CNPase knockout mice indicated that CNPase was involved in the metabolism of endogenous 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and to adenosine. In CSF from TBI patients, 2′,3′-cAMP was significantly increased in the initial 12 hours after injury and strongly correlated with CSF levels of 2′-AMP, 3′-AMP, adenosine and inosine. We conclude that in vivo, 2′,3′-cAMP is converted to 2′-AMP/3′-AMP, and these AMPs are metabolized to adenosine. This pathway exists endogenously in both mice and humans. PMID:22360621

  9. The therapeutic applications of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): a patent review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Cheolmin; Seo, Chang Ho; Park, Yoonkyung

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecules with a broad spectrum of antibiotic activities against bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and viruses and cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, in addition to anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Therefore, AMPs have garnered interest as novel therapeutic agents. Because of the rapid increase in drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms, AMPs from synthetic and natural sources have been developed using alternative antimicrobial strategies. This article presents a broad analysis of patents referring to the therapeutic applications of AMPs since 2009. The review focuses on the universal trends in the effective design, mechanism, and biological evolution of AMPs.

  10. AMP-18 Targets p21 to Maintain Epithelial Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peili; Li, Yan Chun; Toback, F Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD.

  11. Acquisition-Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Don E.; Vann, A. Vernon; Jones, Richard H.; Rew, William E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA Acquisition Management Subsystem (AMS) program integrated NASA-wide standard automated-procurement-system program developed in 1985. Designed to provide each NASA installation with procurement data-base concept with on-line terminals for managing, tracking, reporting, and controlling contractual actions and associated procurement data. Subsystem provides control, status, and reporting for various procurement areas. Purpose of standardization is to decrease costs of procurement and operation of automatic data processing; increases procurement productivity; furnishes accurate, on-line management information and improves customer support. Written in the ADABAS NATURAL.

  12. The effectiveness and efficiency of disease management programs for patients with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hisashige, Akinori

    2012-11-26

    Disease management (DM) approach is increasingly advocated as a means of improving effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare for chronic diseases. To evaluate the evidence on effectiveness and efficiency of DM, evidence synthesis was carried out. To locate eligible meta-analyses and systematic reviews, we searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, A&amp;HCI, DARE, HTA and NHS EED from 1995 to 2010. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed a study quality. Twenty-eight meta-analyses and systematic reviews were included for synthesizing evidence. The proportion of articles which observed improvement with a reasonable amount of evidence was the highest at process (69%), followed by health services (63%), QOL (57%), health outcomes (51%), satisfaction (50%), costs (38%) and so on. As to mortality, statistically significant results were observed only in coronary heart disease. Important components in DM, such as a multidisciplinary approach, were identified. The evidence synthesized shows considerable evidence in the effectiveness and efficiency of DM programs in process, health services, QOL and so on. The question is no longer whether DM programs work, but rather which type or component of DM programs works best and efficiently in the context of each healthcare system or country.

  13. Automatic programming of simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1990-01-01

    The concepts of software engineering were used to improve the simulation modeling environment. Emphasis was placed on the application of an element of rapid prototyping, or automatic programming, to assist the modeler define the problem specification. Then, once the problem specification has been defined, an automatic code generator is used to write the simulation code. The following two domains were selected for evaluating the concepts of software engineering for discrete event simulation: manufacturing domain and a spacecraft countdown network sequence. The specific tasks were to: (1) define the software requirements for a graphical user interface to the Automatic Manufacturing Programming System (AMPS) system; (2) develop a graphical user interface for AMPS; and (3) compare the AMPS graphical interface with the AMPS interactive user interface.

  14. Sharing Perspectives and Learning from One Another: Southern Paiutes, Scientists, and Policymakers in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, D. E.; Bulletts, K.; Bulletts, C.

    2017-12-01

    The traditional lands of the Southern Paiute people in the United States are bounded by more than 600 miles of the Colorado River from the Kaiparowits Plateau in the north to Blythe, California in the south. According to Southern Paiute traditional knowledge, Southern Paiutes were the first inhabitants of this region and are responsible for protecting and managing this land along with the water and all that is upon and within it. In 1963, the Bureau of Reclamation completed construction of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, and in 1972, the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area was established, encompassing Lake Mead above the Dam and a world class trout fishery on the Colorado River between the Dam and Lees Ferry. Below Lees Ferry on its way to Lake Mead and Hoover Dam, the Colorado River flows through Grand Canyon National Park and the Navajo and Hualapai reservations. U.S. federal law requires that Glen Canyon Dam be operated with minimal impact to the natural, recreational, and cultural resources of the region of the Colorado River that is potentially impacted by flows from the Dam. The Grand Canyon Protection Act and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Operation of the Glen Canyon Dam established a program of long-term research and monitoring of the effects of the Dam on these resources. In 1991, three Southern Paiute tribes - the Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians, the Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah, and the San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe - agreed to participate in studies to identify cultural resources impacted by Glen Canyon Dam and to recommend strategies for their protection, In 1995, the EIS was completed and transition to the Adaptive Management Program (AMP) called for in the Grand Canyon Protection Act was begun. At that time, Southern Paiute activities expanded to include assessing potential environmental and cultural impacts of the dam, developing monitoring procedures, and interacting with scientists, other tribal representatives, and

  15. cAMP Regulation of Airway Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Charlotte K.; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.; Penn, Raymond B.; Ito, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Agonists activating β2-adrenoceptors (β2ARs) on airway smooth muscle (ASM) are the drug of choice for rescue from acute bronchoconstriction in patients with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, the use of long-acting β-agonists combined with inhaled corticosteroids constitutes an important maintenance therapy for these diseases. β-Agonists are effective bronchodilators due primarily to their ability to antagonize ASM contraction. The presumed cellular mechanism of action involves the generation of intracellular cAMP, which in turn can activate the effector molecules cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Epac. Other agents such as prostaglandin E2 and phosphodiesterase inhibitors that also increase intracellular cAMP levels in ASM, can also antagonize ASM contraction, and inhibit other ASM functions including proliferation and migration. Therefore, β2ARs and cAMP are key players in combating the pathophysiology of airway narrowing and remodeling. However, limitations of β-agonist therapy due to drug tachyphylaxis related to β2AR desensitization, and recent findings regarding the manner in which β2ARs and cAMP signal, have raised new and interesting questions about these well-studied molecules. In this review we discuss current concepts regarding β2ARs and cAMP in the regulation of ASM cell functions and their therapeutic roles in asthma and COPD. PMID:22634112

  16. cAMP regulation of airway smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Billington, Charlotte K; Ojo, Oluwaseun O; Penn, Raymond B; Ito, Satoru

    2013-02-01

    Agonists activating β(2)-adrenoceptors (β(2)ARs) on airway smooth muscle (ASM) are the drug of choice for rescue from acute bronchoconstriction in patients with both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Moreover, the use of long-acting β-agonists combined with inhaled corticosteroids constitutes an important maintenance therapy for these diseases. β-Agonists are effective bronchodilators due primarily to their ability to antagonize ASM contraction. The presumed cellular mechanism of action involves the generation of intracellular cAMP, which in turn can activate the effector molecules cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Epac. Other agents such as prostaglandin E(2) and phosphodiesterase inhibitors that also increase intracellular cAMP levels in ASM, can also antagonize ASM contraction, and inhibit other ASM functions including proliferation and migration. Therefore, β(2)ARs and cAMP are key players in combating the pathophysiology of airway narrowing and remodeling. However, limitations of β-agonist therapy due to drug tachyphylaxis related to β(2)AR desensitization, and recent findings regarding the manner in which β(2)ARs and cAMP signal, have raised new and interesting questions about these well-studied molecules. In this review we discuss current concepts regarding β(2)ARs and cAMP in the regulation of ASM cell functions and their therapeutic roles in asthma and COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 48 CFR 1401.370 - Acquisition Managers' Partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Acquisition Managers' Partnership. (a) The Acquisition Managers' Partnership (AMP) is a forum for DOI's senior... and effectiveness of its procurement services in support of DOI's mission. (b) The AMP consists of the...

  18. Mechanism of cAMP Partial Agonism in Protein Kinase G (PKG)*♦

    PubMed Central

    VanSchouwen, Bryan; Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Giri, Rajanish; Lorenz, Robin; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Kim, Choel; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase G (PKG) is a major receptor of cGMP and controls signaling pathways often distinct from those regulated by cAMP. Hence, the selective activation of PKG by cGMP versus cAMP is critical. However, the mechanism of cGMP-versus-cAMP selectivity is only limitedly understood. Although the C-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain B of PKG binds cGMP with higher affinity than cAMP, the intracellular concentrations of cAMP are typically higher than those of cGMP, suggesting that the cGMP-versus-cAMP selectivity of PKG is not controlled uniquely through affinities. Here, we show that cAMP is a partial agonist for PKG, and we elucidate the mechanism for cAMP partial agonism through the comparative NMR analysis of the apo, cGMP-, and cAMP-bound forms of the PKG cyclic nucleotide-binding domain B. We show that although cGMP activation is adequately explained by a two-state conformational selection model, the partial agonism of cAMP arises from the sampling of a third, partially autoinhibited state. PMID:26370085

  19. Managing Mentoring Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IUME Briefs, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Some programs for helping at-risk youth achieve excellent results, while others do not. One reason for program success can be proper management. Mentoring is a promising strategy for helping at-risk youth. Planners who want to create effective mentoring programs should look at the implementation experiences of other youth programs. Evaluations…

  20. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) with antiviral activity against fish nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Chia, Ta-Jui; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chen, Jyh-Yih; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2010-03-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is classified as betanodavirus of Nodaviridae, and has caused mass mortality of numerous marine fish species at larval stage. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role of innate immunity either against bacterial pathogens or viruses. Up to date, little is known if any AMP could effectively inhibit fish nodaviruses and its mechanism. In this study, the antiviral activities of three antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) against grouper NNV (GNNV) were screened in the fish cell line. Two of the three AMPs, tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5) and cyclic shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (cSALF), were able to agglutinate purified NNV particles into clump, and the clumps were further confirmed to be viral proteins by TEM and Western blot. The NNV solution, separately pre-mixed with AMP (TH 1-5 or cSALF) or deionized-distilled water for 1 h, was used to infect GF-1 cells, and the levels of capsid protein in the GNNV-AMP-infected cells at 1 h post infection were much lower than that in the GNNV-H(2)O-infected cells, indicating that only a small portion of viral particles in the GNNV-AMP mixture could successfully infected the cells. Treatment of cBB cells with TH 1-5 and cSALF did not induce Mx gene expression; however, grouper epinecidin-1 (CP643-1) could induce the expression of Mx in the pre-treated cBB cells. This study revealed three AMPs with anti-NNV activity through two different mechanisms, and shed light on the future application in aquaculture. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium-dependent mitochondrial cAMP production enhances aldosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Katona, Dávid; Rajki, Anikó; Di Benedetto, Giulietta; Pozzan, Tullio; Spät, András

    2015-09-05

    Glomerulosa cells secrete aldosterone in response to agonists coupled to Ca(2+) increases such as angiotensin II and corticotrophin, coupled to a cAMP dependent pathway. A recently recognized interaction between Ca(2+) and cAMP is the Ca(2+)-induced cAMP formation in the mitochondrial matrix. Here we describe that soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is expressed in H295R adrenocortical cells. Mitochondrial cAMP formation, monitored with a mitochondria-targeted fluorescent sensor (4mtH30), is enhanced by HCO3(-) and the Ca(2+) mobilizing agonist angiotensin II. The effect of angiotensin II is inhibited by 2-OHE, an inhibitor of sAC, and by RNA interference of sAC, but enhanced by an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase PDE2A. Heterologous expression of the Ca(2+) binding protein S100G within the mitochondrial matrix attenuates angiotensin II-induced mitochondrial cAMP formation. Inhibition and knockdown of sAC significantly reduce angiotensin II-induced aldosterone production. These data provide the first evidence for a cell-specific functional role of mitochondrial cAMP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: ampCNG Puts Conventional Fuels Out to

    Science.gov Websites

    ; Steve Josephs, co-founder and director of engineering at ampCNG, Chicago, Illinois When ampCNG isn't the process. ampCNG's Cow-Powered Trucks ampCNG, a CNG station developer based in Chicago, Illinois interest in using more sustainable forms of fuel began in 2010, when the company partnered with Fair Oaks

  3. The role of the case manager in a disease management program.

    PubMed

    Huston, Carol J

    2002-01-01

    Disease management programs provide new opportunities and roles for case managers to provide population-based healthcare to the chronically ill. This article identifies common components of disease management programs and examines roles assumed by case managers in disease management programs such as baseline assessment, performing economic analyses of diseases and their respective associated resource utilization, developing and/or implementing care guidelines or algorithms, educational interventions, disease management program implementation, and outcomes assessment. Areas of expertise needed to be an effective case manager in a disease management program are also identified.

  4. The role of the case manager in a disease management program.

    PubMed

    Huston, C J

    2001-01-01

    Disease management programs provide new opportunities and roles for case managers to provide population-based healthcare to the chronically ill. This article identifies common components of disease management programs and examines roles assumed by case managers in disease management programs such as baseline assessment, performing economic analyses of diseases and their respective associated resource utilization, developing and/or implementing care guidelines or algorithms, educational interventions, disease management program implementation, and outcomes assessment. Areas of expertise needed to be an effective case manager in a disease management program are also identified.

  5. Hamiltonian structure of real Monge - Ampère equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutku, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The variational principle for the real homogeneous Monge - Ampère equation in two dimensions is shown to contain three arbitrary functions of four variables. There exist two different specializations of this variational principle where the Lagrangian is degenerate and furthermore contains an arbitrary function of two variables. The Hamiltonian formulation of these degenerate Lagrangian systems requires the use of Dirac's theory of constraints. As in the case of most completely integrable systems the constraints are second class and Dirac brackets directly yield the Hamiltonian operators. Thus the real homogeneous Monge - Ampère equation in two dimensions admits two classes of infinitely many Hamiltonian operators, namely a family of local, as well as another family non-local Hamiltonian operators and symplectic 2-forms which depend on arbitrary functions of two variables. The simplest non-local Hamiltonian operator corresponds to the Kac - Moody algebra of vector fields and functions on the unit circle. Hamiltonian operators that belong to either class are compatible with each other but between classes there is only one compatible pair. In the case of real Monge - Ampère equations with constant right-hand side this compatible pair is the only pair of Hamiltonian operators that survives. Then the complete integrability of all these real Monge - Ampère equations follows by Magri's theorem. Some of the remarkable properties we have obtained for the Hamiltonian structure of the real homogeneous Monge - Ampère equation in two dimensions turn out to be generic to the real homogeneous Monge - Ampère equation and the geodesic flow for the complex homogeneous Monge - Ampère equation in arbitrary number of dimensions. Hence among all integrable nonlinear evolution equations in one space and one time dimension, the real homogeneous Monge - Ampère equation is distinguished as one that retains its character as an integrable system in multiple dimensions.

  6. AMP-guided tumour-specific nanoparticle delivery via adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Dai, Tongcheng; Li, Na; Han, Fajun; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yuanxing; Liu, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Active targeting-ligands have been increasingly used to functionalize nanoparticles for tumour-specific clinical applications. Here we utilize nucleotide adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a novel ligand to functionalize polymer-based fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for tumour-targeted imaging. We demonstrate that AMP-conjugated NPs (NPs-AMP) efficiently bind to and are following internalized into colon cancer cell CW-2 and breast cancer cell MDA-MB-468 in vitro. RNA interference and inhibitor assays reveal that the targeting effects mainly rely on the specific binding of AMP to adenosine A1 receptor (A1R), which is greatly up-regulated in cancer cells than in matched normal cells. More importantly, NPs-AMP specifically accumulate in the tumour site of colon and breast tumour xenografts and are further internalized into the tumour cells in vivo via tail vein injection, confirming that the high in vitro specificity of AMP can be successfully translated into the in vivo efficacy. Furthermore, NPs-AMP exhibit an active tumour-targeting behaviour in various colon and breast cancer cells, which is positively related to the up-regulation level of A1R in cancer cells, suggesting that AMP potentially suits for more extensive A1R-overexpressing cancer models. This work establishes AMP to be a novel tumour-targeting ligand and provides a promising strategy for future diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. S6 Kinase Inhibits Intrinsic Axon Regeneration Capacity via AMP Kinase in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Thomas; Wu, Zilu; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of axons to regrow after injury is determined by the complex interplay of intrinsic growth programs and external cues. In Caenorhabditis elegans mechanosensory neuron, axons exhibit robust regenerative regrowth following laser axotomy. By surveying conserved metabolic signaling pathways, we have identified the ribosomal S6 kinase RSKS-1 as a new cell-autonomous inhibitor of axon regeneration. RSKS-1 is not required for axonal development but inhibits axon regrowth after injury in multiple neuron types. Loss of function in rsks-1 results in more rapid growth cone formation after injury and accelerates subsequent axon extension. The enhanced regrowth of rsks-1 mutants is partly dependent on the DLK-1 MAPK cascade. An essential output of RSKS-1 in axon regrowth is the metabolic sensor AMP kinase, AAK-2. We further show that the antidiabetic drug phenformin, which activates AMP kinase, can promote axon regrowth. Our data reveal a new function for an S6 kinase acting through an AMP kinase in regenerative growth of injured axons. PMID:24431434

  8. AmpC β-lactamases in nosocomial isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varsha; Kumarasamy, Karthikeyan; Gulati, Neelam; Garg, Ritu; Krishnan, Padma; Chander, Jagdish

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: AmpC β-lactamases are clinically significant since these confer resistance to cephalosporins in the oxyimino group, 7-α methoxycephalosporins and are not affected by available β-lactamase inhibitors. In this study we looked for both extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates. Methods: One hundred consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae collected over a period of one year (June 2008 - June 2009) were included in the study. An antibiotic susceptibility method was used with 10 antibiotics for Gram-negative infections which helped in screening for ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases and also in confirmation of ESBL production. The detection of AmpC β-lactamases was done based on screening and confirmatory tests. For screening, disc diffusion zones of cefoxitin <18 mm was taken as cefoxitin resistant. All cefoxitin resistant isolates were tested further by AmpC disk test and modified three dimensional test. Multiplex-PCR was performed for screening the presence of plasmid-mediated AmpC genes. Results: Of the 100 isolates of K. pneumoniae studied, 48 were resistant to cefoxitin on screening. AmpC disk test was positive in 32 (32%) isolates. This was also confirmed with modified three dimensional test. Indentation indicating strong AmpC producer was observed in 25 isolates whereas little distortion (weak AmpC) was observed in 7 isolates. ESBL detection was confirmed by a modification of double disk synergy test in 56 isolates. Cefepime was the best cephalosporin in synergy with tazobactam for detecting ESBL production in isolates co-producing AmpC β-lactamases. The subsets of isolates phenotypically AmpC β-lactamase positive were subjected to amplification of six different families of AmpC gene using multiplex PCR. The sequence analysis revealed 12 CMY-2 and eight DHA-1 types. Interpretation & conclusions: Tazobactam was the best β-lactamase inhibitor for detecting

  9. Anticonvulsant effect of AMP by direct activation of adenosine A1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Muzzi, Mirko; Coppi, Elisabetta; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Purinergic neurotransmission mediated by adenosine (Ado) type 1 receptors (A1Rs) plays pivotal roles in negative modulation of epileptic seizures, and Ado is thought to be a key endogenous anticonvulsant. Recent evidence, however, indicates that AMP, the metabolic precursor of Ado, also activate A1Rs. Here, we evaluated the antiepileptic effects of AMP adopting in vitro and in vivo models of epilepsy. We report that AMP reversed the increase in population spike (PS) amplitude and the decrease in PS latency induced by a Mg(2+)-free extracellular solution in CA1 neurons of mouse hippocampal slices. The AMP effects were inhibited by the A1R antagonist DPCPX, but not prevented by inhibiting conversion of AMP into Ado, indicating that AMP inhibited per se sustained hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission by directly activating A1Rs. AMP also reduced seizure severity and mortality in a model of audiogenic convulsion. Of note, the anticonvulsant effects of AMP were potentiated by preventing its conversion into Ado and inhibited by DPCPX. When tested in a model of kainate-induced seizure, AMP prolonged latency of convulsions but had no effects on seizure severity and mortality. Data provide the first evidence that AMP is an endogenous anticonvulsant acting at A1Rs. © 2013.

  10. Activation of AMP-kinase by Policosanol Requires Peroxisomal Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Ghoshal, Sarbani

    2011-01-01

    Policosanol, a well-defined mixture of very long chain primary alcohols that is available as a nutraceutical product, has been reported to lower blood cholesterol levels. The present studies demonstrate that policosanol promotes the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase in hepatoma cells and in mouse liver after intragastric administration, providing a possible means by which policosanol might lower blood cholesterol levels. Treatment of hepatoma cells with policosanol produced a 2.5-fold or greater increase in the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase, and increased the phosphorylation of Ca++/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK), an upstream AMP-kinase kinase. Intra-gastric administration of policosanol to mice similarly increased the phosphorylation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and AMP-kinase by greater than 2-fold. siRNA-mediated suppression of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4, and acyl-CoA acetyltransferase expression in hepatoma cells prevented the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase by policosanol, indicating that metabolism of these very long chain alcohols to activated fatty acids is necessary for the suppression of cholesterol synthesis, presumably by increasing cellular AMP levels. Subsequent peroxisomal β-oxidation probably augments this effect. PMID:21359855

  11. AmpH, a bifunctional DD-endopeptidase and DD-carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    González-Leiza, Silvia M; de Pedro, Miguel A; Ayala, Juan A

    2011-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs) are important for correct cell morphogenesis. These enzymes display DD-carboxypeptidase and/or dd-endopeptidase activities associated with maturation and remodeling of peptidoglycan (PG). AmpH has been classified as an AmpH-type class C LMM PBP, a group closely related to AmpC β-lactamases. AmpH has been associated with PG recycling, although its enzymatic activity remained uncharacterized until now. Construction and purification of His-tagged AmpH from E. coli permitted a detailed study of its enzymatic properties. The N-terminal export signal of AmpH is processed, but the protein remains membrane associated. The PBP nature of AmpH was demonstrated by its ability to bind the β-lactams Bocillin FL (a fluorescent penicillin) and cefmetazole. In vitro assays with AmpH and specific muropeptides demonstrated that AmpH is a bifunctional DD-endopeptidase and DD-carboxypeptidase. Indeed, the enzyme cleaved the cross-linked dimers tetrapentapeptide (D45) and tetratetrapeptide (D44) with efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) of 1,200 M(-1) s(-1) and 670 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, and removed the terminal D-alanine from muropeptides with a C-terminal D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide. Both DD-peptidase activities were inhibited by 40 μM cefmetazole. AmpH also displayed a weak β-lactamase activity for nitrocefin of 1.4 × 10(-3) nmol/μg protein/min, 1/1,000 the rate obtained for AmpC under the same conditions. AmpH was also active on purified sacculi, exhibiting the bifunctional character that was seen with pure muropeptides. The wide substrate spectrum of the DD-peptidase activities associated with AmpH supports a role for this protein in PG remodeling or recycling.

  12. AmpH, a Bifunctional dd-Endopeptidase and dd-Carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Leiza, Silvia M.; de Pedro, Miguel A.; Ayala, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs) are important for correct cell morphogenesis. These enzymes display dd-carboxypeptidase and/or dd-endopeptidase activities associated with maturation and remodeling of peptidoglycan (PG). AmpH has been classified as an AmpH-type class C LMM PBP, a group closely related to AmpC β-lactamases. AmpH has been associated with PG recycling, although its enzymatic activity remained uncharacterized until now. Construction and purification of His-tagged AmpH from E. coli permitted a detailed study of its enzymatic properties. The N-terminal export signal of AmpH is processed, but the protein remains membrane associated. The PBP nature of AmpH was demonstrated by its ability to bind the β-lactams Bocillin FL (a fluorescent penicillin) and cefmetazole. In vitro assays with AmpH and specific muropeptides demonstrated that AmpH is a bifunctional dd–endopeptidase and dd-carboxypeptidase. Indeed, the enzyme cleaved the cross-linked dimers tetrapentapeptide (D45) and tetratetrapeptide (D44) with efficiencies (kcat/Km) of 1,200 M−1 s−1 and 670 M−1 s−1, respectively, and removed the terminal d-alanine from muropeptides with a C-terminal d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptide. Both dd-peptidase activities were inhibited by 40 μM cefmetazole. AmpH also displayed a weak β-lactamase activity for nitrocefin of 1.4 × 10−3 nmol/μg protein/min, 1/1,000 the rate obtained for AmpC under the same conditions. AmpH was also active on purified sacculi, exhibiting the bifunctional character that was seen with pure muropeptides. The wide substrate spectrum of the dd-peptidase activities associated with AmpH supports a role for this protein in PG remodeling or recycling. PMID:22001512

  13. A winged helix forkhead (FOXD2) tunes sensitivity to cAMP in T lymphocytes through regulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha.

    PubMed

    Johansson, C Christian; Dahle, Maria K; Blomqvist, Sandra Rodrigo; Grønning, Line M; Aandahl, Einar M; Enerbäck, Sven; Taskén, Kjetil

    2003-05-09

    Forkhead/winged helix (FOX) transcription factors are essential for control of the cell cycle and metabolism. Here, we show that spleens from Mf2-/- (FOXD2-/-) mice have reduced mRNA (50%) and protein (35%) levels of the RIalpha subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In T cells from Mf2-/- mice, reduced levels of RIalpha translates functionally into approximately 2-fold less sensitivity to cAMP-mediated inhibition of proliferation triggered through the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. In Jurkat T cells, FOXD2 overexpression increased the endogenous levels of RIalpha through induction of the RIalpha1b promoter. FOXD2 overexpression also increased the sensitivity of the promoter to cAMP. Finally, co-expression experiments demonstrated that protein kinase Balpha/Akt1 work together with FOXD2 to induce the RIalpha1b promoter (10-fold) and increase endogenous RIalpha protein levels further. Taken together, our data indicate that FOXD2 is a physiological regulator of the RIalpha1b promoter in vivo working synergistically with protein kinase B to induce cAMP-dependent protein kinase RIalpha expression, which increases cAMP sensitivity and sets the threshold for cAMP-mediated negative modulation of T cell activation.

  14. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    .... SUMMARY: By operation of Alaska State law, the federally approved Alaska Coastal Management Program... partner in the National Coastal Management Program. The ACMP expired by operation of Alaska Statutes 44.66... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management...

  15. Copper Regulates Cyclic AMP-Dependent Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi; Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Chan, Jefferson; Kaluarachchi, Harini; Muchenditsi, Abigael; Pendyala, Venkata S.; Jia, Shang; Aron, Allegra T.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Vander Wal, Mark N.; Guan, Timothy; Smaga, Lukas P.; Farhi, Samouil L.; New, Elizabeth J.; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Chang, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Cell signaling relies extensively on dynamic pools of redox-inactive metal ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and zinc, but their redox-active transition metal counterparts such as copper and iron have been studied primarily as static enzyme cofactors. Here we report that copper is an endogenous regulator of lipolysis, the breakdown of fat, which is an essential process in maintaining the body's weight and energy stores. Utilizing a murine model of genetic copper misregulation, in combination with pharmacological alterations in copper status and imaging studies in a 3T3-L1 white adipocyte model, we demonstrate that copper regulates lipolysis at the level of the second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), by altering the activity of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase PDE3B. Biochemical studies of the copper-PDE3B interaction establish copper-dependent inhibition of enzyme activity and identify a key conserved cysteine residue within a PDE3-specific loop that is essential for the observed copper-dependent lipolytic phenotype. PMID:27272565

  16. Management Internship Program: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabezensky, Ferne; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines the Maricopa Community College District's management internship program, detailing the history and operation of the program. Describes program eligibility criteria, the intern's role as Vice Chancellor for Human Services, the provision of a graduate course in management, the rotation of assignments, intern projects, and evaluation.…

  17. 14 CFR 1214.1706 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program management. 1214.1706 Section 1214... Participants § 1214.1706 Program management. The Associate Administrator for Space Flight is responsible for program management under the direction of the Committee chairperson. ...

  18. 14 CFR 1214.1706 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program management. 1214.1706 Section 1214... Participants § 1214.1706 Program management. The Associate Administrator for Space Flight is responsible for program management under the direction of the Committee chairperson. ...

  19. 14 CFR 1214.1706 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Program management. 1214.1706 Section 1214... Participants § 1214.1706 Program management. The Associate Administrator for Space Flight is responsible for program management under the direction of the Committee chairperson. ...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.1706 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program management. 1214.1706 Section 1214... Participants § 1214.1706 Program management. The Associate Administrator for Space Flight is responsible for program management under the direction of the Committee chairperson. ...

  1. Communicating Risk to Program Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Program Managers (PM) can protect program resources and improve chances of success by anticipating, understanding and managing risks. Understanding the range of potential risks helps one to avoid or manage the risks. A PM must choose which risks to accept to reduce fire fighting, must meet the expectations of stakeholders consistently, and avoid falling into costly "black holes" that may open. A good risk management process provides the PM more confidence to seize opportunities save money, meet schedule, even improve relationships with people important to the program. Evidence of managing risk and sound internal controls can mean better support from superiors for the program by building a trust and reputation from being on top of issues. Risk managers have an obligation to provide the PM with the best information possible to allow the benefits to be realized (Small Business Consortium, 2004). The Institute for Chartered Accountants in England and Wales sees very important benefits for companies in providing better information about what they do to assess and manage key business risks. Such information will: a) provide practical forward-looking information; b) reduce the cost of capital; c) encourage better risk management; and d) improve accountability for stewardship, investor protection and the usefulness of financial reporting. We are particularly convinced that enhanced risk reporting will help listed companies obtain capital at the lowest possible cost (The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England &Wales, June 2002). Risk managers can take a significant role in quantifying the success of their department and communicating those figures to executive (program) management levels while pushing for a broader risk management role. Overall, risk managers must show that risk management work matters in the most crucial place-the bottom line- as they prove risk management can be a profit center (Sullivan, 2004).

  2. Career Management Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jack H.

    1974-01-01

    A re-examination of career management programs, particularly civilian career programs in the Department of Defense, is advocated by the author. He suggests their contents be reviewed for effectiveness, adequacy, and utility every three to five years. (AG)

  3. 20 CFR 632.76 - Program management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.76 Program management systems. (a) All Native American grantees shall establish management information systems to... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program management systems. 632.76 Section...

  4. Quality Management Program

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    According to {section} 35.32, Quality Management Program,'' of 10 CFR Part 35, Medical Use of Byproduct Material,'' applicants or licensees, as applicable, are required to establish a quality management (QM) program. This regulatory guide provides guidance to licensees and applicants for developing policies and procedures for the QM program. This guide does not restrict or limit the licensee from using other guidance that may be equally useful in developing a QM program, e.g., information available from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or the American College of Radiology. Any information collection activities mentioned in this regulatory guide aremore » contained as requirements in 10 CFR Part 35, which provides the regulatory basis for this guide. This information collection requirements in 10 CFR Part 35 have been cleared under OMB Clearance No. 3150-0010.« less

  5. Real-time monitoring of intracellular cAMP during acute ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ratna; Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Yoshimura, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous studies we have shown that ethanol enhances the activity of Gs-stimulated membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase (AC). The effect is AC isoform specific and the type 7 AC (AC7) is most responsive to ethanol. In this study, we employed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based cAMP sensor, Epac1-camps, to examine real-time temporal dynamics of ethanol effects on cAMP concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first report on real-time detection of the ethanol effect on intracellular cAMP. Methods Hela cells were transfected with Epac1-camps, dopamine D1A receptor, and one isoform of AC (AC7 or AC3). Fluorescent images were captured using a specific filter set for cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and FRET, respectively and FRET intensity was calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis to examine changes in cAMP. Results During 2-minute stimulation with dopamine (DA), the cytoplasmic cAMP level quickly increased, then decreased to a plateau, where the cAMP level was higher than the level prior to stimulation with DA. Ethanol concentration dependently increased cytoplasmic cAMP in cells transfected with AC7, while ethanol did not have effect on cells transfected with AC3. Similar trends were observed for cAMP at the plasma membrane and in the nucleus during 2-minute stimulation with DA. Unexpectedly, when cells expressing AC7 were stimulated with DA or other Gs protein-coupled receptor’s ligand plus ethanol for 5 seconds, ethanol reduced cAMP concentration. Conclusion These results suggest that ethanol has two opposing effects on the cAMP generating system in an AC isoform specific manner, the enhancing effect on AC activity and the short lived inhibitory effect. Thus, ethanol may have a different effect on cAMP depending on not only AC isoform but also the duration of exposure. PMID:23731206

  6. Forskolin and derivatives as tools for studying the role of cAMP.

    PubMed

    Alasbahi, R H; Melzig, M F

    2012-01-01

    Forskolin (7beta-acetoxy-1alpha,6beta,9alpha-trihydroxy-8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one) is the first main labdane diterpenoid isolated from the roots of the Indian Plectranthus barbatus ANDREWS and one of the most extensively studied constituents of this plant. The unique character of forskolin as a general direct, rapid and reversible activator of adenylyl cyclase not only underlies its wide range of pharmacological effects but also renders it as a valuable tool in the study of the role of cAMP. The purpose of this review is to provide data presenting the utility of forskolin--as a cAMP activator--for studying the function of cAMP from different biological viewpoints as follows: 1) Investigation on the role of cAMP in various cellular processes in different organs such as gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, reproductive organs, endocrine system, urinary system, olfactory system, nervous system, platelet aggregating system, skin, bones, eyes, and smooth muscles. 2) Studies on the role of cAMP activation and inhibition to understand the pathogenesis (e.g. thyroid autoimmune disorders, leukocyte signal transduction defect in depression, acute malaria infection, secretory dysfunction in inflammatory diseases) as well as its possibly beneficial role for curing diseases such as the regulation of coronary microvascular NO production after heart failure, the attenuation of the development or progression of fibrosis in the heart and lungs, the augmentation of myo-protective effects of ischemic preconditioning especially in the failing hearts after myocardial infarction, the stimulation of the regeneration of injured retinal ganglion cells, the curing of glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, the reducing of cyst formation early in the polycystic kidney disease, and the management of autoimmune disorders by enhancing Fas-mediated apoptosis. 3) Studies on the role of cAMP in the mechanism of actions of a number of drugs and substances such as the effect of the

  7. 10 CFR 800.002 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program management. 800.002 Section 800.002 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE General § 800.002 Program management. Program management responsibility for...

  8. 10 CFR 800.002 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program management. 800.002 Section 800.002 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE General § 800.002 Program management. Program management responsibility for...

  9. 10 CFR 800.002 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program management. 800.002 Section 800.002 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE General § 800.002 Program management. Program management responsibility for...

  10. 10 CFR 800.002 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program management. 800.002 Section 800.002 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE General § 800.002 Program management. Program management responsibility for...

  11. 10 CFR 800.002 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program management. 800.002 Section 800.002 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LOANS FOR BID OR PROPOSAL PREPARATION BY MINORITY BUSINESS ENTERPRISES SEEKING DOE CONTRACTS AND ASSISTANCE General § 800.002 Program management. Program management responsibility for...

  12. 30 CFR 401.12 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program management. 401.12 Section 401.12 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM Application and Management Procedures § 401.12 Program management. (a) Upon approval of each fiscal year's...

  13. 30 CFR 401.12 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program management. 401.12 Section 401.12 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM Application and Management Procedures § 401.12 Program management. (a) Upon approval of each fiscal year's...

  14. 30 CFR 401.12 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program management. 401.12 Section 401.12 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM Application and Management Procedures § 401.12 Program management. (a) Upon approval of each fiscal year's...

  15. 30 CFR 401.12 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program management. 401.12 Section 401.12 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM Application and Management Procedures § 401.12 Program management. (a) Upon approval of each fiscal year's...

  16. 30 CFR 401.12 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Program management. 401.12 Section 401.12 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM Application and Management Procedures § 401.12 Program management. (a) Upon approval of each fiscal year's...

  17. Mechanism for iron control of the Vibrio fischeri luminescence system: involvement of cyclic AMP and cyclic AMP receptor protein and modulation of DNA level.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, P V

    1992-07-01

    Iron controls luminescence in Vibrio fischeri by an indirect but undefined mechanism. To gain insight into that mechanism, the involvement of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and of modulation of DNA levels in iron control of luminescence were examined in V. fischeri and in Escherichia coli containing the cloned V. fischeri lux genes on plasmids. For V. fischeri and E. coli adenylate cyclase (cya) and CRP (crp) mutants containing intact lux genes (luxR luxICDABEG), presence of the iron chelator ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid) (EDDHA) increased expression of the luminescence system like in the parent strains only in the cya mutants in the presence of added cAMP. In the E. coli strains containing a plasmid with a Mu dl(lacZ) fusion in luxR, levels of beta-galactosidase activity (expression from the luxR promoter) and luciferase activity (expression from the lux operon promoter) were both 2-3-fold higher in the presence of EDDHA in the parent strain, and for the mutants this response to EDDHA was observed only in the cya mutant in the presence of added cAMP. Therefore, cAMP and CRP are required for the iron restriction effect on luminescence, and their involvement in iron control apparently is distinct from the known differential control of transcription from the luxR and luxICDABEG promoters by cAMP-CRP. Furthermore, plasmid and chromosomal DNA levels were higher in E. coli and V. fischeri in the presence of EDDHA. The higher DNA levels correlated with an increase in expression of chromosomally encoded beta-galactosidase in E. coli and with a higher level of autoinducer in cultures of V. fischeri. These results implicate cAMP-CRP and modulation of DNA levels in the mechanism of iron control of the V. fischeri luminescence system.

  18. Extracellular cyclic AMP-adenosine pathway in isolated adipocytes and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Strouch, Marci B; Jackson, Edwin K; Mi, Zaichuan; Metes, Nicole A; Carey, Gale B

    2005-06-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the presence and lipolytic impact of the extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-adenosine pathway in adipose tissue. Sixteen miniature Yucatan swine (Sus scrofa) were used for these in vitro and in situ experiments. Four microdialysis probes were implanted into subcutaneous adipose tissue and perfused at 2 microL/min with Ringer's solution containing no addition, varying levels of cyclic AMP, 10 microM isoproterenol, or 10 microM isoproterenol plus 1 mM alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-diphosphate (AMPCP), a 5'-nucleotidase inhibitor. Dialysate was assayed for AMP, adenosine, inosine, hypoxanthine, and glycerol. Freshly isolated adipocytes were incubated with buffer, 1 microM isoproterenol, or 1 microM isoproterenol plus 0.1 mM AMPCP, and extracellular levels of AMP, adenosine, inosine, hypoxanthine, and glycerol were measured. Perfusion of adipose tissue with exogenous cyclic AMP caused a significant increase in AMP and adenosine appearance. Perfusion with AMPCP, in the presence or absence of isoproterenol, significantly increased the levels of AMP and glycerol, whereas it significantly reduced the level of adenosine and its metabolites. However, the AMPCP-provoked increase in lipolysis observed in situ and in vitro was not temporally associated with a decrease in adenosine. These data suggest the existence of a cyclic AMP-adenosine pathway in adipocytes and adipose tissue. The role of this pathway in the regulation of lipolysis remains to be clarified.

  19. Amp Synthesis in Aqueous Solution of Adenosine and Phosphorus Pentoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, Y.; Kojima, H.; Ejiri, K.; Inomata, K.

    1982-12-01

    Possible formation of a P4O10 molecule in magma, the stability of the molecule in hydrous volcanic gas at high temperatures and a possible prebiotic phosphate cycle were discussed in relation to chemical evolution. To demonstrate the utility of phosphorus pentoxide as a phosphorylating agent, aqueous solutions of adenosine (0.02M) and phosphorus pentoxide (0.2M) were incubated at 37°C for 5 months. The pH of the solutions was adjusted every day or every few days to each fixed value (9.0, 10.5, 11.5, 12.5) with 10 N NaOH. The HPLC analysis showed the formation of 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, 5'-AMP, cyclic (2' 3')-AMP and cyclic (3' 5')-AMP. The main components of the products were 2'- and 3'-AMP, though cyclic (2' 3')-AMP was the main component in the early period of the incubation at pH 9.0. The yields (conversion rate of adenosine to AMPs) were increased almost linearly with the incubation time for 5 months in the case of pH 9.0. The final yields were about 3% (pH 9.0), 6% (pH 9.0, 1 M NaCl), 5% (pH 9.0, 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.01 M MgCl2), 7% (pH 9.0, 0.5 M NaCl, 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.01 M MgCl2), 9% (pH 9.0, 1 M NaCl, 0.01 M CaCl2, 0.01 M MgCl2), 32% (pH 10.5), 43% (pH 11.5), 35% (pH 12.5).

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cAMP Receptor Protein (Rv3676) Differs from the Escherichia coli Paradigm in Its cAMP Binding and DNA Binding Properties and Transcription Activation Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Melanie; Haq, Ihtshamul; Hunt, Debbie M.; Arnvig, Kristine B.; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Buxton, Roger S.; Green, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a burst of cAMP upon infection of macrophages. Bacterial cyclic AMP receptor proteins (CRP) are transcription factors that respond to cAMP by binding at target promoters when cAMP concentrations increase. Rv3676 (CRPMt) is a CRP family protein that regulates expression of genes (rpfA and whiB1) that are potentially involved in M. tuberculosis persistence and/or emergence from the dormant state. Here, the CRPMt homodimer is shown to bind two molecules of cAMP (one per protomer) at noninteracting sites. Furthermore, cAMP binding by CRPMt was relatively weak, entropy driven, and resulted in a relatively small enhancement in DNA binding. Tandem CRPMt-binding sites (CRP1 at −58.5 and CRP2 at −37.5) were identified at the whiB1 promoter (PwhiB1). In vitro transcription reactions showed that CRP1 is an activating site and that CRP2, which was only occupied in the presence of cAMP or at high CRPMt concentrations in the absence of cAMP, is a repressing site. Binding of CRPMt to CRP1 was not essential for open complex formation but was required for transcription activation. Thus, these data suggest that binding of CRPMt to the PwhiB1 CRP1 site activates transcription at a step after open complex formation. In contrast, high cAMP concentrations allowed occupation of both CRP1 and CRP2 sites, resulting in inhibition of open complex formation. Thus, M. tuberculosis CRP has evolved several distinct characteristics, compared with the Escherichia coli CRP paradigm, to allow it to regulate gene expression against a background of high concentrations of cAMP. PMID:20028978

  1. 20 CFR 638.800 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program management. 638.800 Section 638.800... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.800 Program management. (a) The Job Corps Director shall establish and use internal program management procedures sufficient...

  2. 20 CFR 638.800 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program management. 638.800 Section 638.800... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.800 Program management. (a) The Job Corps Director shall establish and use internal program management procedures sufficient...

  3. 20 CFR 638.800 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program management. 638.800 Section 638.800... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.800 Program management. (a) The Job Corps Director shall establish and use internal program management procedures sufficient...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1003 - Management contract between owner and program manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management contract between owner and... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations § 91.1003 Management contract between owner and program manager... the program manager pertaining to the operational safety of the program and those records required to...

  5. Negative feedback exerted by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cAMP phosphodiesterase on subsarcolemmal cAMP signals in intact cardiac myocytes: an in vivo study using adenovirus-mediated expression of CNG channels.

    PubMed

    Rochais, Francesca; Vandecasteele, Grégoire; Lefebvre, Florence; Lugnier, Claire; Lum, Hazel; Mazet, Jean-Luc; Cooper, Dermot M F; Fischmeister, Rodolphe

    2004-12-10

    Intracardiac cAMP levels are modulated by hormones and neuromediators with specific effects on contractility and metabolism. To understand how the same second messenger conveys different information, mutants of the rat olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel alpha-subunit CNGA2, encoded into adenoviruses, were used to monitor cAMP in adult rat ventricular myocytes. CNGA2 was not found in native myocytes but was strongly expressed in infected cells. In whole cell patch-clamp experiments, the forskolin analogue L-858051 (L-85) elicited a non-selective, Mg2+ -sensitive current observed only in infected cells, which was thus identified as the CNG current (ICNG). The beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (ISO) also activated ICNG, although the maximal efficiency was approximately 5 times lower than with L-85. However, ISO and L-85 exerted a similar maximal increase of the L-type Ca2+ current. The use of a CNGA2 mutant with a higher sensitivity for cAMP indicated that this difference is caused by the activation of a localized fraction of CNG channels by ISO. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) blockade with H89 or PKI, or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition with IBMX, dramatically potentiated ISO- and L-85-stimulated ICNG. A similar potentiation of beta-adrenergic stimulation occurred when PDE4 was blocked, whereas PDE3 inhibition had a smaller effect (by 2-fold). ISO and L-85 increased total PDE3 and PDE4 activities in cardiomyocytes, although this effect was insensitive to H89. However, in the presence of IBMX, H89 had no effect on ISO stimulation of ICNG. This study demonstrates that subsarcolemmal cAMP levels are dynamically regulated by a negative feedback involving PKA stimulation of subsarcolemmal cAMP-PDE.

  6. Role of CNPase in the Oligodendrocytic Extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-Adenosine Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Gillespie, Delbert G.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Bansal, Rashmi; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (3′,5′-cAMP) is an endogenous source of localized adenosine production in many organs. Recent studies suggest that extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP (positional isomer of 3′,5′-cAMP) is also a source of adenosine, particularly in the brain in vivo post-injury. Moreover, in vitro studies show that both microglia and astrocytes can convert extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP to adenosine. Here we examined the ability of primary mouse oligodendrocytes and neurons to metabolize extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP and their respective adenosine monophosphates (2′-AMP and 3′-AMP). Cells were also isolated from mice deficient in 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Oligodendrocytes metabolized 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP with 10-fold greater efficiency than did neurons (and also more than previously examined microglia and astrocytes); whereas, the production of 3′-AMP was minimal in both oligodendrocytes and neurons. The production of 2′-AMP from 2′,3′-cAMP was reduced by 65% in CNPase -/- versus CNPase +/+ oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocytes also converted 2′-AMP to adenosine, and this was also attenuated in CNPase -/- oligodendrocytes. Inhibition of classic 3′,5′-cAMP-3′-phosphodiesterases with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine did not block metabolism of 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and inhibition of classic ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) with α,β-methylene-adenosine-5′-diphosphate did not attenuate the conversion of 2′-AMP to adenosine. These studies demonstrate that oligodendrocytes express the extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2′,3′-cAMP → 2′-AMP → adenosine). This pathway is more robustly expressed in oligodendrocytes than in all other CNS cell types because CNPase is the predominant enzyme that metabolizes 2′,3′-cAMP to 2-AMP in CNS cells. By reducing levels of 2′,3′-cAMP (a mitochondrial toxin) and increasing levels of adenosine (a neuroprotectant

  7. Atmosphere, Magnetosphere and Plasmas in Space (AMPS). Spacelab payload definition study. Volume 3, book 2: AMPS equipment to Spacelab ICD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The interfaces between AMPS Payload No.(TBD) and Spacelab are described. The interfaces specified cover the AMPS physical, electrical, and thermal interfaces that are established to prescribe the standard Spacelab configuration required to perform the mission. If the configuration definition changes due to change of Spacelab equipment model, or serial numbers, then reidentification of the Labcraft payload may be required.

  8. Blockade of beta-adrenoceptors enhances cAMP signal transduction in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the blockade of beta-adrenoceptors would enhance cAMP-mediated signal transduction processes in vivo. The administration of the membrane permeable cAMP analogue, 8-(4-chlorophenylthiol)-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP, 10 micromol/kg, i.v.) produced an increase in heart rate (+27 +/- 2%, P < 0.05), a fall in mean arterial blood pressure (-21 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) and falls in hindquarter (-12 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) and mesenteric (-32 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) vascular resistances in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) lowered heart rate (-12 +/- 3%, P < 0.05) but did not affect mean arterial blood pressure or vascular resistances. The tachycardia, hypotension and vasodilation produced by 8-CPT-cAMP were exaggerated after administration of propranolol (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). The nitric oxide-donor, sodium nitroprusside (2 microg/kg, i.v.), produced falls in mean arterial blood pressure and vascular resistances of similar magnitude to those produced by 8-CPT-cAMP. These sodium nitroprusside-induced responses were unaffected by propranolol (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Sodium nitroprusside also produced a minor increase in heart rate (+5 +/- 1%, P < 0.05) which was abolished by propranolol. These findings suggest that 8-CPT-cAMP directly increases heart rate and that blockade of beta-adrenoceptors enhances the potency of cAMP within the heart and vasculature.

  9. Deconvoluting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) adenine nucleotide binding and sensing

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xin; Yan, Yan; Novick, Scott J.; Kovach, Amanda; Goswami, Devrishi; Ke, Jiyuan; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Wang, Lili; Li, Xiaodan; de Waal, Parker W.; Webb, Martin R.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Xu, H. Eric

    2017-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central cellular energy sensor that adapts metabolism and growth to the energy state of the cell. AMPK senses the ratio of adenine nucleotides (adenylate energy charge) by competitive binding of AMP, ADP, and ATP to three sites (CBS1, CBS3, and CBS4) in its γ-subunit. Because these three binding sites are functionally interconnected, it remains unclear how nucleotides bind to individual sites, which nucleotides occupy each site under physiological conditions, and how binding to one site affects binding to the other sites. Here, we comprehensively analyze nucleotide binding to wild-type and mutant AMPK protein complexes by quantitative competition assays and by hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS. We also demonstrate that NADPH, in addition to the known AMPK ligand NADH, directly and competitively binds AMPK at the AMP-sensing CBS3 site. Our findings reveal how AMP binding to one site affects the conformation and adenine nucleotide binding at the other two sites and establish CBS3, and not CBS1, as the high affinity exchangeable AMP/ADP/ATP-binding site. We further show that AMP binding at CBS4 increases AMP binding at CBS3 by 2 orders of magnitude and reverses the AMP/ATP preference of CBS3. Together, these results illustrate how the three CBS sites collaborate to enable highly sensitive detection of cellular energy states to maintain the tight ATP homeostastis required for cellular metabolism. PMID:28615457

  10. Assessing program efficiency: a time and motion study of the Mental Health Emergency Care - Rural Access Program in NSW Australia.

    PubMed

    Saurman, Emily; Lyle, David; Kirby, Sue; Roberts, Russell

    2014-07-31

    The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP) is a telehealth solution providing specialist emergency mental health care to rural and remote communities across western NSW, Australia. This is the first time and motion (T&amp;M) study to examine program efficiency and capacity for a telepsychiatry program. Clinical services are an integral aspect of the program accounting for 6% of all activities and 50% of the time spent conducting program activities, but half of this time is spent completing clinical paperwork. This finding emphasizes the importance of these services to program efficiency and the need to address variability of service provision to impact capacity. Currently, there is no efficiency benchmark for emergency telepsychiatry programs. Findings suggest that MHEC-RAP could increase its activity without affecting program responsiveness. T&amp;M studies not only determine activity and time expenditure, but have a wider application assessing program efficiency by understanding, defining, and calculating capacity. T&amp;M studies can inform future program development of MHEC-RAP and similar telehealth programs, both in Australia and overseas.

  11. Do employee health management programs work?

    PubMed

    Serxner, Seth; Gold, Daniel; Meraz, Angela; Gray, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Current peer review literature clearly documents the economic return and Return-on-Investment (ROI) for employee health management (EHM) programs. These EHM programs are defined as: health promotion, self-care, disease management, and case management programs. The evaluation literature for the sub-set of health promotion and disease management programs is examined in this article for specific evidence of the level of economic return in medical benefit cost reduction or avoidance. The article identifies the methodological challenges associated with determination of economic return for EHM programs and summarizes the findings from 23 articles that included 120 peer review study results. The article identifies the average ROI and percent health plan cost impact to be expected for both types of EHM programs, the expected time period for its occurrence, and caveats related to its measurement.

  12. cAMP enhances BMP2-signaling through PKA and MKP1-dependent mechanisms

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ghayor, Chafik; Ehrbar, Martin; Miguel, Blanca San

    2009-04-03

    Recent studies suggest that the elevation of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the activation of the protein kinase A regulate BMP-induced osteogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the enhancing effect of cAMP on BMP2 signaling were not completely revealed. In this study we investigated the effect of elevated cAMP level and PKA activation on the BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation in pluripotent C2C12 cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity and its mRNA were consistently induced by BMP2 treatment. The pretreatment of C2C12 cells with Forskolin, a cAMP generating agent, dbcAMP, an analogue of cAMP, or IBMX (3-isobutyl 1-methyl xanthine), and a nonspecific inhibitormore » of phosphodiesterases elicited further activation of alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, elevated intracellular cAMP level increased BMP2-induced MKP1. On the other hand, BMP2-induced Erk phosphorylation (p44/p42) and cell proliferation were suppressed in the presence of cAMP. Thus, cAMP might enhance BMP2-induced osteoblastic differentiation by a MKP1-Erk-dependent mechanism.« less

  13. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  14. High glucose enhances cAMP level and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in Chinese hamster ovary cell: Usage of Br-cAMP in foreign protein β-galactosidase expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsien; Lee, Tsung-Yih; Liu, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Glucose is a carbon source for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, while low growth rate is considered to enhance the production of recombinant proteins. The present study reveals that glucose concentrations higher than 1 g/L reduce the growth rate and substantially increase in cAMP (∼300%) at a high glucose concentration (10 g/L). High glucose also enhances the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p27 kip by Western blot analysis. To determine whether the phosphorylation of ERK is involved in the mechanism, a cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H-8) or MEK (MAPKK) inhibitor (PD98059) was added to block ERK phosphorylation. We show that both the high glucose-induced ERK phosphorylation and growth rate return to baseline levels. These results suggest that the cAMP/PKA and MAP signaling pathways are involved in the abovementioned mechanism. Interestingly, the direct addition of 8-bromo-cAMP (Br-cAMP), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, can mimic the similar effects produced by high glucose. Subsequently Br-cAMP could induce β-galactosidase (β-Gal) recombinant protein expression by 1.6-fold. Furthermore, Br-cAMP can additionally enhance the β-Gal production (from 2.8- to 4.5-fold) when CHO cells were stimulated with glycerol, thymidine, dimethyl sulfoxide, pentanoic acid, or sodium butyrate. Thus, Br-cAMP may be used as an alternative agent in promoting foreign protein expression for CHO cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. 5D imaging approaches reveal the formation of distinct intracellular cAMP spatial gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Thomas C.; Annamdevula, Naga; Trinh, Kenny; Britain, Andrea L.; Mayes, Samuel A.; Griswold, John R.; Deal, Joshua; Hoffman, Chase; West, Savannah; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger known to differentially regulate many cellular functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the distribution of cAMP within cells is not uniform. However, to date, no studies have measured the kinetics of 3D cAMP distributions within cells. This is largely due to the low signal-tonoise ratio of FRET-based probes. We previously reported that hyperspectral imaging improves the signal-to-noise ratio of FRET measurements. Here we utilized hyperspectral imaging approaches to measure FRET signals in five dimensions (5D) - three spatial (x, y, z), wavelength (λ), and time (t) - allowing us to visualize cAMP gradients in pulmonary endothelial cells. cAMP levels were measured using a FRET-based sensor (H188) comprised of a cAMP binding domain sandwiched between FRET donor and acceptor - Turquoise and Venus fluorescent proteins. We observed cAMP gradients in response to 0.1 or 1 μM isoproterenol, 0.1 or 1 μM PGE1, or 50 μM forskolin. Forskolin- and isoproterenol-induced cAMP gradients formed from the apical (high cAMP) to basolateral (low cAMP) face of cells. In contrast, PGE1-induced cAMP gradients originated from both the basolateral and apical faces of cells. Data suggest that 2D (x,y) studies of cAMP compartmentalization may lead to erroneous conclusions about the existence of cAMP gradients, and that 3D (x,y,z) studies are required to assess mechanisms of signaling specificity. Results demonstrate that 5D imaging technologies are powerful tools for measuring biochemical processes in discrete subcellular domains.

  16. Impact of the Intensive Program of Emotional Intelligence (IPEI) on work supervisors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez García, Gustavo A; López-Pérez, Belén; Férreo Cruzado, Manuel A; Fernández Carrascoso, María E; Fernández, Juan

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the Intensive Program of Emotional Intelligence (IPEI; Fernández, 2016; Férreo, 2016) on middle managers’ emotional intelligence, as this variable may have a significant impact on personal satisfaction, task performance, and the work environment. The intervention was applied to work team supervisors in a large call center, as it is an overlooked sector in this topic. Two-hundred and eighty-two supervisors from a Madrid-based, Spanish multinational (51.4% men and 48.6% women) participated in this study. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n = 190) or the control group (n = 92) by availability, according to management decision. All supervisors filled in two questionnaires to evaluate the different components of intrapersonal emotional intelligence (i.e., attention, clarity, and repair; TMMS-24; Fernández-Berrocal, Extremera, &amp; Ramos, 2004) and cognitive and affective empathy (i.e., perspective taking, emotion understanding, empathic joy, and personal distress; TECA; López-Pérez, Fernández, &amp; Abad, 2008). The findings showed an increase in the studied variables for the experimental group. The results obtained support middle managers’ training in emotional competences through short, efficient, economic programs. Potential limitations and implications of the results are discussed.

  17. Tribal Waste Management Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  18. Recent Advances in the Development of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs): Attempts for Sustainable Medicine?

    PubMed

    Kokel, Anne; Torok, Marianna

    2018-01-17

    Since the first isolation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) they have attracted extensive interest in medicinal chemistry. However, only a few AMP-based drugs are currently available on the market. Despite their effectiveness, biodegradability, and versatile mode of action that is less likely to induce resistance compared to conventional antibiotics, AMPs suffer from major issues that need to be addressed to broaden their use. Notably, AMPs can lack selectivity leading to side effects and cytotoxicity, and also exhibit in vivo instability. Several strategies are being actively considered to overcome the limitations that restrain the success of AMPs. In the current work, recent strategies reported for improving AMPs in the context of drug design and delivery were surveyed, and also their possible impact on patients and the environment was assessed. As a major advantage AMPs possess an easily tunable skeleton offering opportunities to improve their properties. Strategic structural modifications and the beneficial properties of cyclic or branched AMPs in term of stability have been reported. The conjugation of AMPs with nanoparticles has also been explored to increase their in vivo stability. Other techniques such as the coupling of AMPs with specific antibodies aim to increase the selectivity of the potential drug towards the target. These strategies were evaluated for their effect on the environment highlighting green technologies. Although further research is needed taking into account both environmental and human health consequences of novel AMPs several of these compounds are promising drug candidates for use in sustainable medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Actions of cAMP on calcium sensitization in human detrusor smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Maya; Kajioka, Shunichi; Itsumi, Momoe; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shahab, Nouval; Ishigami, Takao; Takeda, Masahiro; Masuda, Noriyuki; Yamaguchi, Akito; Naito, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the effect of cAMP on the Ca(2+) -sensitized smooth muscle contraction in human detrusor, as well as the role of novel exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in cAMP-mediated relaxation. All experimental protocols to record isometric tension force were performed using α-toxin-permeabilized human detrusor smooth muscle strips. The mechanisms of cAMP-mediated suppression of Ca(2+) sensitization activated by 10 μm carbachol (CCh) and 100 μm GTP were studied using a selective rho kinase (ROK) inhibitor, Y-27632, and a selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, GF-109203X. The relaxation mechanisms were further probed using a selective protein kinase A (PKA) activator, 6-Bnz-cAMP and a selective Epac activator, 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. We observed that CCh-induced Ca(2+) sensitization was inhibited by cAMP in a concentration-dependent manner. GF-109203X (10 μm) but not Y-27632 (10 μm) significantly enhanced the relaxation effect induced by cAMP (100 μm). 6-Bnz-cAMP (100 μm) predominantly decreased the tension force in comparison with 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (100 μm). We showed that cAMP predominantly inhibited the ROK pathway but not the PKC pathway. The PKA-dependent pathway is dominant, while Epac plays a minor role in human detrusor smooth muscle Ca(2+) sensitization. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Navigator program risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Padilla, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, program risk management as applied to the Navigator Program: In Search of New Worlds will be discussed. The Navigator Program's goals are to learn how planetary systems form and to search for those worlds that could or do harbor life.

  1. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-associated AmpC Escherichia coli outbreak.

    PubMed

    Wendorf, Kristen A; Kay, Meagan; Baliga, Christopher; Weissman, Scott J; Gluck, Michael; Verma, Punam; D'Angeli, Marisa; Swoveland, Jennifer; Kang, Mi-Gyeong; Eckmann, Kaye; Ross, Andrew S; Duchin, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    We identified an outbreak of AmpC-producing Escherichia coli infections resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems (CR) among 7 patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography at hospital A during November 2012-August 2013. Gene sequencing revealed a shared novel mutation in a bla CMY gene and a distinctive fumC/ fimH typing profile. To determine the extent and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreak, identify potential sources of transmission, design and implement infection control measures, and determine the association between the CR E. coli and AmpC E. coli circulating at hospital A. We reviewed laboratory, medical, and endoscopy reports, and endoscope reprocessing procedures. We obtained cultures from endoscopes after reprocessing as well as environmental samples and conducted pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gene sequencing on phenotypic AmpC isolates from patients and endoscopes. Cases were those infected with phenotypic AmpC isolates (both carbapenem-susceptible and CR) and identical bla CMY-2, fumC, and fimH alleles or related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Thirty-five of 49 AmpC E. coli tested met the case definition, including all CR isolates. All cases had complicated biliary disease and had undergone at least 1 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography at hospital A. Mortality at 30 days was 16% for all patients and 56% for CR patients. Two of 8 reprocessed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography scopes harbored AmpC that matched case isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental cultures were negative. No breaches in infection control were identified. Endoscopic reprocessing exceeded manufacturer's recommended cleaning guidelines. Recommended reprocessing guidelines are not sufficient.

  2. Structural basis of DNA folding and recognition in an AMP-DNA aptamer complex: distinct architectures but common recognition motifs for DNA and RNA aptamers complexed to AMP.

    PubMed

    Lin, C H; Patel, D J

    1997-11-01

    Structural studies by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of RNA and DNA aptamer complexes identified through in vitro selection and amplification have provided a wealth of information on RNA and DNA tertiary structure and molecular recognition in solution. The RNA and DNA aptamers that target ATP (and AMP) with micromolar affinity exhibit distinct binding site sequences and secondary structures. We report below on the tertiary structure of the AMP-DNA aptamer complex in solution and compare it with the previously reported tertiary structure of the AMP-RNA aptamer complex in solution. The solution structure of the AMP-DNA aptamer complex shows, surprisingly, that two AMP molecules are intercalated at adjacent sites within a rectangular widened minor groove. Complex formation involves adaptive binding where the asymmetric internal bubble of the free DNA aptamer zippers up through formation of a continuous six-base mismatch segment which includes a pair of adjacent three-base platforms. The AMP molecules pair through their Watson-Crick edges with the minor groove edges of guanine residues. These recognition G.A mismatches are flanked by sheared G.A and reversed Hoogsteen G.G mismatch pairs. The AMP-DNA aptamer and AMP-RNA aptamer complexes have distinct tertiary structures and binding stoichiometries. Nevertheless, both complexes have similar structural features and recognition alignments in their binding pockets. Specifically, AMP targets both DNA and RNA aptamers by intercalating between purine bases and through identical G.A mismatch formation. The recognition G.A mismatch stacks with a reversed Hoogsteen G.G mismatch in one direction and with an adenine base in the other direction in both complexes. It is striking that DNA and RNA aptamers selected independently from libraries of 10(14) molecules in each case utilize identical mismatch alignments for molecular recognition with micromolar affinity within binding-site pockets containing common structural elements.

  3. 40 CFR 130.11 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program management. 130.11 Section 130... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.11 Program management. (a) State agencies may apply for grants under sections 106, 205(j) and 205(g) to carry out water quality planning and management activities. Interstate...

  4. 40 CFR 130.11 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program management. 130.11 Section 130... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.11 Program management. (a) State agencies may apply for grants under sections 106, 205(j) and 205(g) to carry out water quality planning and management activities. Interstate...

  5. 40 CFR 130.11 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Program management. 130.11 Section 130... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.11 Program management. (a) State agencies may apply for grants under sections 106, 205(j) and 205(g) to carry out water quality planning and management activities. Interstate...

  6. 40 CFR 130.11 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program management. 130.11 Section 130... PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.11 Program management. (a) State agencies may apply for grants under sections 106, 205(j) and 205(g) to carry out water quality planning and management activities. Interstate...

  7. Developing an Information and Records Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Juli G.; Kartis, Alexia M.

    1984-01-01

    The need for information controls for college records management programs and the elements of program organization, planning, and management are discussed. Conditions at institutions that indicate a flaw in information control are identified, along with the benefits of a sound records management program. The management of an information and…

  8. Dynamics of β-adrenergic/cAMP signaling and morphological changes in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Vardjan, Nina; Kreft, Marko; Zorec, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The morphology of astrocytes, likely regulated by cAMP, determines the structural association between astrocytes and the synapse, consequently modulating synaptic function. β-Adrenergic receptors (β-AR), which increase cytosolic cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i ), may affect cell morphology. However, the real-time dynamics of β-AR-mediated cAMP signaling in single live astrocytes and its effect on cell morphology have not been studied. We used the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP biosensor Epac1-camps to study time-dependent changes in [cAMP]i ; morphological changes in primary rat astrocytes were monitored by real-time confocal microscopy. Stimulation of β-AR by adrenaline, noradrenaline, and isoprenaline, a specific agonist of β-AR, rapidly increased [cAMP]i (∼15 s). The FRET signal response, mediated via β-AR, was faster than in the presence of forskolin (twofold) and dibutyryl-cAMP (>35-fold), which directly activate adenylyl cyclase and Epac1-camps, respectively, likely due to slow entry of these agents into the cytosol. Oscillations in [cAMP]i have not been recorded, indicating that cAMP-dependent processes operate in a slow time domain. Most Epac1-camps expressing astrocytes revealed a morphological change upon β-AR activation and attained a stellate morphology within 1 h. The morphological changes exhibited a bell-shaped dependency on [cAMP]i . The 5-10% decrease in cell cross-sectional area and the 30-50% increase in cell perimeter are likely due to withdrawal of the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region and the appearance of protrusions on the surface of astrocytes. Because astrocyte processes ensheath neurons, β-AR/cAMP-mediated morphological changes can modify the geometry of the extracellular space, affecting synaptic, neuronal, and astrocyte functions in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reciprocal regulation of insulin and plasma 5'-AMP in glucose homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lin; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xiao; Zhan, Yibei; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Shiming; Zhang, Jianfa

    2015-03-01

    A previous investigation has demonstrated that plasma 5'-AMP (pAMP) exacerbates and causes hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. However, the crosstalk between pAMP and insulin signaling to regulate glucose homeostasis has not been investigated in depth. In this study, we showed that the blood glucose level was more dependent on the ratio of insulin to pAMP than on the absolute level of these two factors. Administration of 5'-AMP significantly attenuated the insulin-stimulated insulin receptor (IR) autophosphorylation in the liver and muscle tissues, resulting in the inhibition of downstream AKT phosphorylation. A docking analysis indicated that adenosine was a potential inhibitor of IR tyrosine kinase. Moreover, the 5'-AMP treatment elevated the ATP level in the pancreas and in the isolated islets, stimulating insulin secretion and increasing the plasma level of insulin. The insulin administration decreased the 5'-AMP-induced hyper-adenosine level by the up-regulation of adenosine kinase activities. Our results indicate that blood glucose homeostasis is reciprocally regulated by pAMP and insulin. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. A novel cysteine-rich antifungal peptide ToAMP4 from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers.

    PubMed

    Astafieva, A A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Odintsova, T I; Kozlov, S A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2013-09-01

    A novel peptide named ToAMP4 was isolated from Taraxacum officinale Wigg. flowers by a combination of acetic acid extraction and different types of chromatography: affinity, size-exclusion, and RP-HPLC. The amino acid sequence of ToAMP4 was determined by automated Edman degradation. The peptide is basic, consists of 41 amino acids, and incorporates three disulphide bonds. Due to the unusual cysteine spacing pattern, ToAMP4 does not belong to any known plant AMP family, but classifies together with two other antimicrobial peptides ToAMP1 and ToAMP2 previously isolated from the dandelion flowers. To study the biological activity of ToAMP4, it was successfully produced in a prokaryotic expression system as a fusion protein with thioredoxin. The recombinant peptide was shown to be identical to the native ToAMP4 by chromatographic behavior, molecular mass, and N-terminal amino acid sequence. The peptide displays broad-spectrum antifungal activity against important phytopathogens. Two ToAMP4-mediated inhibition strategies depending on the fungus were demonstrated. The results obtained add to our knowledge on the structural and functional diversity of AMPs in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Suppression of Virulence of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae by Anethole through the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein Signaling System

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chatterjee, Shruti; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Faruque, Shah M.; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Use of natural compounds as antivirulence drugs could be an alternative therapeutic approach to modify the outcome of bacterial infections, particularly in view of growing resistance to available antimicrobials. Here, we show that sub-bactericidal concentration of anethole, a component of sweet fennel seed, could suppress virulence potential in O1 El Tor biotype strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic. The expression of cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), the major virulence factors of V. cholerae, is controlled through a regulatory cascade involving activation of ToxT with synergistic coupling interaction of ToxR/ToxS with TcpP/TcpH. We present evidence that anethole inhibits in vitro expression of CT and TCP in a toxT-dependent but toxR/toxS-independent manner and through repression of tcpP/tcpH, by using bead-ELISA, western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a well-studied global signaling system in bacterial pathogens, and this complex is known to suppress expression of tcpP/tcpH in V. cholerae. We find that anethole influences the virulence regulatory cascade by over-expressing cyaA and crp genes. Moreover, suppression of toxigenic V. cholerae-mediated fluid accumulation in ligated ileum of rabbit by anethole demonstrates its potentiality as an antivirulence drug candidate against the diseases caused by toxigenic V. cholerae. Taken altogether, these results revealing a mechanism of virulence inhibition in V. cholerae by the natural compound anethole, may have relevance in designing antivirulence compounds, particularly against multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:26361388

  12. Suppression of Virulence of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae by Anethole through the Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein Signaling System.

    PubMed

    Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Chatterjee, Shruti; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Faruque, Shah M; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Use of natural compounds as antivirulence drugs could be an alternative therapeutic approach to modify the outcome of bacterial infections, particularly in view of growing resistance to available antimicrobials. Here, we show that sub-bactericidal concentration of anethole, a component of sweet fennel seed, could suppress virulence potential in O1 El Tor biotype strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the ongoing 7th cholera pandemic. The expression of cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), the major virulence factors of V. cholerae, is controlled through a regulatory cascade involving activation of ToxT with synergistic coupling interaction of ToxR/ToxS with TcpP/TcpH. We present evidence that anethole inhibits in vitro expression of CT and TCP in a toxT-dependent but toxR/toxS-independent manner and through repression of tcpP/tcpH, by using bead-ELISA, western blotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) is a well-studied global signaling system in bacterial pathogens, and this complex is known to suppress expression of tcpP/tcpH in V. cholerae. We find that anethole influences the virulence regulatory cascade by over-expressing cyaA and crp genes. Moreover, suppression of toxigenic V. cholerae-mediated fluid accumulation in ligated ileum of rabbit by anethole demonstrates its potentiality as an antivirulence drug candidate against the diseases caused by toxigenic V. cholerae. Taken altogether, these results revealing a mechanism of virulence inhibition in V. cholerae by the natural compound anethole, may have relevance in designing antivirulence compounds, particularly against multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens.

  13. The cyclic AMP cascade is altered in the fragile X nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Daniel J; Davidson, Richard J; Elliott, Jamie L; Lahvis, Garet P; Yin, Jerry C P; Bhattacharyya, Anita

    2007-09-26

    Fragile X syndrome (FX), the most common heritable cause of mental retardation and autism, is a developmental disorder characterized by physical, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. FX results from a trinucleotide expansion mutation in the fmr1 gene that reduces levels of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Although research efforts have focused on FMRP's impact on mGluR signaling, how the loss of FMRP leads to the individual symptoms of FX is not known. Previous studies on human FX blood cells revealed alterations in the cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) cascade. We tested the hypothesis that cAMP signaling is altered in the FX nervous system using three different model systems. Induced levels of cAMP in platelets and in brains of fmr1 knockout mice are substantially reduced. Cyclic AMP induction is also significantly reduced in human FX neural cells. Furthermore, cAMP production is decreased in the heads of FX Drosophila and this defect can be rescued by reintroduction of the dfmr gene. Our results indicate that a robust defect in cAMP production in FX is conserved across species and suggest that cAMP metabolism may serve as a useful biomarker in the human disease population. Reduced cAMP induction has implications for the underlying causes of FX and autism spectrum disorders. Pharmacological agents known to modulate the cAMP cascade may be therapeutic in FX patients and can be tested in these models, thus supplementing current efforts centered on mGluR signaling.

  14. Newly emerging resource efficiency manager programs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wolf, S.; Howell, C.

    1997-12-31

    Many facilities in the northwest such as K--12 schools, community colleges, and military installations are implementing resource-efficiency awareness programs. These programs are generally referred to as resource efficiency manager (REM) or resource conservation manager (RCM) programs. Resource efficiency management is a systems approach to managing a facility`s energy, water, and solid waste. Its aim is to reduce utility budgets by focusing on behavioral changes, maintenance and operation procedures, resource accounting, education and training, and a comprehensive awareness campaign that involves everyone in the organization.

  15. Involvement of hippocampal cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathways in a late memory consolidation phase of aversively motivated learning in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bernabeu, Ramon; Bevilaqua, Lia; Ardenghi, Patricia; Bromberg, Elke; Schmitz, Paulo; Bianchin, Marino; Izquierdo, Ivan; Medina, Jorge H.

    1997-01-01

    cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway has been recently proposed to participate in both the late phase of long term potentiation in the hippocampus and in the late, protein synthesis-dependent phase of memory formation. Here we report that a late memory consolidation phase of an inhibitory avoidance learning is regulated by an hippocampal cAMP signaling pathway that is activated, at least in part, by D1/D5 receptors. Bilateral infusion of SKF 38393 (7.5 μg/side), a D1/D5 receptor agonist, into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, enhanced retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance when given 3 or 6 h, but not immediately (0 h) or 9 h, after training. In contrast, full retrograde amnesia was obtained when SCH 23390 (0.5 μg/side), a D1/D5 receptor antagonist, was infused into the hippocampus 3 or 6 h after training. Intrahippocampal infusion of 8Br-cAMP (1.25 μg/side), or forskolin (0.5 μg/side), an activator of adenylyl cyclase, enhanced memory when given 3 or 6 h after training. KT5720 (0.5 μg/side), a specific inhibitor of PKA, hindered memory consolidation when given immediately or 3 or 6 h posttraining. Rats submitted to the avoidance task showed learning-specific increases in hippocampal 3H-SCH 23390 binding and in the endogenous levels of cAMP 3 and 6 h after training. In addition, PKA activity and P-CREB (phosphorylated form of cAMP responsive element binding protein) immunoreactivity increased in the hippocampus immediately and 3 and 6 h after training. Together, these findings suggest that the late phase of memory consolidation of an inhibitory avoidance is modulated cAMP/PKA signaling pathways in the hippocampus. PMID:9192688

  16. Spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP signaling controls the human trophoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Gerbaud, Pascale; Taskén, Kjetil; Pidoux, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    During human placentation, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts fuse to form multinucleated syncytia ensuring hormonal production and nutrient exchanges between the maternal and fetal circulation. Syncytial formation is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and for fetal growth. The cAMP signaling pathway is the major route to trigger trophoblast fusion and its activation results in phosphorylation of specific intracellular target proteins, in transcription of fusogenic genes and assembly of macromolecular protein complexes constituting the fusogenic machinery at the plasma membrane. Specificity in cAMP signaling is ensured by generation of localized pools of cAMP controlled by cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and by discrete spatial and temporal activation of protein kinase A (PKA) in supramolecular signaling clusters inside the cell organized by A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and by organization of signal termination by protein phosphatases (PPs). Here we present original observations on the available components of the cAMP signaling pathway in the human placenta including PKA, PDE, and PP isoforms as well as AKAPs. We continue to discuss the current knowledge of the spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP signaling triggering trophoblast fusion. PMID:26441659

  17. The MBA--Tribal Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bread, Donald J.

    The only graduate program in the United States devoted entirely to tribal management is designed to educate and prepare students for employment with Indian tribes and organizations and with federal and state agencies. The highly academically structured 34-hour program addresses concerns often ignored in corporate management and public…

  18. Riboswitches in eubacteria sense the second messenger c-di-AMP

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, James W.; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Weinberg, Zasha; Wang, Joy X.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a recently discovered bacterial second messenger implicated in the control of cell wall metabolism, osmotic stress responses, and sporulation. However, the mechanisms by which c-di-AMP triggers these physiological responses have remained largely unknown. Intriguingly, a candidate riboswitch class called ydaO associates with numerous genes involved in these same processes. Although a representative ydaO motif RNA recently was reported to weakly bind ATP, we report that numerous members of this noncoding RNA class selectively respond to c-di-AMP with sub-nanomolar affinity. Our findings resolve the mystery regarding the primary ligand for this extremely common riboswitch class and expose a major portion of the super-regulon of genes that are controlled by the widespread bacterial second messenger c-di-AMP. PMID:24141192

  19. Application of AirCell Cellular AMPS Network and Iridium Satellite System Dual Mode Service to Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The AirCell/Iridium dual mode service is evaluated for potential applications to Air Traffic Management (ATM) communication needs. The AirCell system which is largely based on the Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) technology, and the Iridium FDMA/TDMA system largely based on the Global System for Mobile Communications(GSM) technology, can both provide communication relief for existing or future aeronautical communication links. Both have a potential to serve as experimental platforms for future technologies via a cost effective approach. The two systems are well established in the entire CONUS and globally hence making it feasible to utilize in all regions, for all altitudes, and all classes of aircraft. Both systems have been certified for air usage. The paper summarizes the specifications of the AirCell/Iridium system, as well as the ATM current and future links, and application specifications. the paper highlights the scenarios, applications, and conditions under which the AirCell/Iridium technology can be suited for ATM Communication.

  20. 76 FR 74842 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee... RTCA Program Management Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Program Management Committee DATES: The meeting will be held December 13, 2011...

  1. A possible signal-coupling role for cyclic AMP during endocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Prusch, R D; Roscoe, J C

    1993-01-01

    Cytoplasmic levels of cAMP in Amoeba proteus were measured utilizing radioimmunoassays under control conditions and when stimulated by inducers of either pinocytosis or phagocytosis. In control cells, cytoplasmic cAMP levels were approximately 0.39 pM/mg cells. When exposed to either chemotactic peptide or mannose which stimulate phagocytosis in the amoeba, there is a rapid doubling of the cAMP level within 45 sec of stimulation which then returns to the control level within 3-5 min. Theophylline prolongs the elevation of cytoplasmic cAMP in stimulated cells and is also capable of eliciting food vacuole formation in the amoeba. In addition isoproterenol also causes food vacuole formation in the amoeba as well as a large and prolonged increase in cytoplasmic cAMP levels. Inducers of pinocytosis (BSA and Na Cl) also elicit changes in cytoplasmic cAMP in the amoeba, but the response appears to differ from that elicited by inducers of phagocytosis in that the peak cAMP levels are broader and biphasic. It is concluded that cAMP plays a signal-coupling role during the early phases of both forms of endocytosis in Amoeba proteus.

  2. Environmental Management Science Program Workshop. Proceedings

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), in partnership with the Office of Energy Research (ER), designed, developed, and implemented the Environmental Management Science Program as a basic research effort to fund the scientific and engineering understanding required to solve the most challenging technical problems facing the government's largest, most complex environmental cleanup program. The intent of the Environmental Management Science Program is to: (1) Provide scientific knowledge that will revolutionize technologies and cleanup approaches to significantly reduce future costs, schedules, and risks. (2) Bridge the gap between broad fundamental research that has wide-ranging applications such as thatmore » performed in the Department's Office of Energy Research and needs-driven applied technology development that is conducted in Environmental Management's Office of Science and Technology. (3) Focus the nation's science infrastructure on critical Department of Energy environmental problems. In an effort to share information regarding basic research efforts being funded by the Environmental Management Science Program and the Environmental Management/Energy Research Pilot Collaborative Research Program (Wolf-Broido Program), this CD includes summaries for each project. These project summaries, available in portable document format (PDF), were prepared in the spring of 1998 by the principal investigators and provide information about their most recent project activities and accomplishments.« less

  3. Total School Energy Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Education Programs, Woodstock, IL.

    This energy management program is intended to give school administrators some ideas about how to get started in managing energy conservation. An Implementation Guide provides options and step-by-step approaches for marshaling resources and organizing to get a program off the ground. A Curriculum Review and Development Guide includes general…

  4. 14 CFR § 1214.1706 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Program management. § 1214.1706 Section Â... Participants § 1214.1706 Program management. The Associate Administrator for Space Flight is responsible for program management under the direction of the Committee chairperson. ...

  5. cAMP-responsive Element-binding Protein (CREB) and cAMP Co-regulate Activator Protein 1 (AP1)-dependent Regeneration-associated Gene Expression and Neurite Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Thong C.; Barco, Angel; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Willis, Dianna E.

    2014-01-01

    To regenerate damaged axons, neurons must express a cassette of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) that increases intrinsic growth capacity and confers resistance to extrinsic inhibitory cues. Here we show that dibutyrl-cAMP or forskolin combined with constitutive-active CREB are superior to either agent alone in driving neurite growth on permissive and inhibitory substrates. Of the RAGs examined, only arginase 1 (Arg1) expression correlated with the increased neurite growth induced by the cAMP/CREB combination, both of which were AP1-dependent. This suggests that cAMP-induced AP1 activity is necessary and interacts with CREB to drive expression of RAGs relevant for regeneration and demonstrates that combining a small molecule (cAMP) with an activated transcription factor (CREB) stimulates the gene expression necessary to enhance axonal regeneration. PMID:25296755

  6. Effect of cAMP on short-circuit current in isolated human ciliary body.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ren-yi; Ma, Ning; Hu, Qian-qian

    2013-07-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current, Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change. In an Ussing-type chamber system, the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed. The involvement of Cl(-) component in the bath solution was investigated. The effect of Cl(-) channel (10 µmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)), K(+) channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)), or Na(+) channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied. Dose-dependently, 8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 µmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 µmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue. Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side. When the tissue was bathed in low Cl(-) solutions, the Isc increase was significantly inhibited. Finally, niflumic acid and DIDS, but not TEA or amiloride, significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP. cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes. Chloride is likely to be among the ions, the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP, suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.

  7. cAMP Stimulates Transepithelial Short-Circuit Current and Fluid Transport Across Porcine Ciliary Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Angela King-Wah; Civan, Mortimer M; To, Chi-Ho; Do, Chi-Wai

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of cAMP on transepithelial electrical parameters and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium. Transepithelial electrical parameters were determined by mounting freshly isolated porcine ciliary epithelium in a modified Ussing chamber. Similarly, fluid movement across intact ciliary body was measured with a custom-made fluid flow chamber. Addition of 1, 10, and 100 μM 8-Br-cAMP (cAMP) to the aqueous side (nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, NPE) induced a sustained increase in short-circuit current (Isc). Addition of niflumic acid (NFA) to the aqueous surface effectively blocked the cAMP-induced Isc stimulation. The administration of cAMP to the stromal side (pigmented ciliary epithelium, PE) triggered a significant stimulation of Isc only at 100 μM. No additive effect was observed with bilateral application of cAMP. Likewise, forskolin caused a significant stimulation of Isc when applied to the aqueous side. Concomitantly, cAMP and forskolin increased fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium, and this stimulation was effectively inhibited by aqueous NFA. Depleting Cl- in the bathing solution abolished the baseline Isc and inhibited the subsequent stimulation by cAMP. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) blockers (H89/KT5720) significantly inhibited the cAMP- and forskolin-induced Isc responses. Our results suggest that cAMP triggers a sustained stimulation of Cl- and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium; Cl- channels in the NPE cells are potentially a cellular site for this PKA-sensitive cAMP-mediated response.

  8. Atrazine acts as an endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kucka, Marek; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana

    2012-11-15

    Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, acts as an endocrine disruptor, but the mechanism of its action has not been characterized. In this study, we show that atrazine rapidly increases cAMP levels in cultured rat pituitary and testicular Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but less effectively than 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a competitive non-specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase)- and probenecid (an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide transporters)-treated cells, but not in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-treated cells, atrazine further increased cAMP levels, indicating that inhibition of PDEs accounts for accumulation of cAMP. In contrast to cAMP, atrazinemore » did not alter cGMP levels, further indicating that it inhibits cAMP-specific PDEs. Atrazine-induced changes in cAMP levels were sufficient to stimulate prolactin release in pituitary cells and androgen production in Leydig cells, indicating that it acts as an endocrine disrupter both in cells that secrete by exocytosis of prestored hormones and in cells that secrete by de novo hormone synthesis. Rolipram abolished the stimulatory effect of atrazine on cAMP release in both cell types, suggesting that it acts as an inhibitor of PDE4s, isoforms whose mRNA transcripts dominate in pituitary and Leydig cells together with mRNA for PDE8A. In contrast, immortalized lacto-somatotrophs showed low expression of these mRNA transcripts and several fold higher cAMP levels compared to normal pituitary cells, and atrazine was unable to further increase cAMP levels. These results indicate that atrazine acts as a general endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific PDE4s. -- Highlights: ► Atrazine stimulates cAMP accumulation in pituitary and Leydig cells. ► Atrazine also stimulates PRL and androgens secretion. ► Stimulatory effects of atrazine were abolished in cells with IBMX-inhibited PDEs. ► Atrazine specificity toward

  9. The role of the RAS pathway in iAMP21-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, S L; Matheson, E; Grossmann, V; Sinclair, P; Bashton, M; Schwab, C; Towers, W; Partington, M; Elliott, A; Minto, L; Richardson, S; Rahman, T; Keavney, B; Skinner, R; Bown, N; Haferlach, T; Vandenberghe, P; Haferlach, C; Santibanez-Koref, M; Moorman, A V; Kohlmann, A; Irving, J A E; Harrison, C J

    2016-01-01

    Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21) identifies a high-risk subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), requiring intensive treatment to reduce their relapse risk. Improved understanding of the genomic landscape of iAMP21-ALL will ascertain whether these patients may benefit from targeted therapy. We performed whole-exome sequencing of eight iAMP21-ALL samples. The mutation rate was dramatically disparate between cases (average 24.9, range 5–51) and a large number of novel variants were identified, including frequent mutation of the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway. Targeted sequencing of a larger cohort revealed that 60% (25/42) of diagnostic iAMP21-ALL samples harboured 42 distinct RAS pathway mutations. High sequencing coverage demonstrated heterogeneity in the form of multiple RAS pathway mutations within the same sample and diverse variant allele frequencies (VAFs) (2–52%), similar to other subtypes of ALL. Constitutive RAS pathway activation was observed in iAMP21 samples that harboured mutations in the predominant clone (⩾35% VAF). Viable iAMP21 cells from primary xenografts showed reduced viability in response to the MEK1/2 inhibitor, selumetinib, in vitro. As clonal (⩾35% VAF) mutations were detected in 26% (11/42) of iAMP21-ALL, this evidence of response to RAS pathway inhibitors may offer the possibility to introduce targeted therapy to improve therapeutic efficacy in these high-risk patients. PMID:27168466

  10. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of the cAMP/Protein Kinase A Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To define the proteins whose expression is regulated by cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), we used a quantitative proteomics approach in studies of wild-type (WT) and kin- (PKA-null) S49 murine T lymphoma cells. We also compared the impact of endogenous increases in the level of cAMP [by forskolin (Fsk) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX)] or by a cAMP analogue (8-CPT-cAMP). We identified 1056 proteins in WT and kin- S49 cells and found that 8-CPT-cAMP and Fsk with IBMX produced differences in protein expression. WT S49 cells had a correlation coefficient of 0.41 between DNA microarray data and the proteomics analysis in cells incubated with 8-CPT-cAMP for 24 h and a correlation coefficient of 0.42 between the DNA microarray data obtained at 6 h and the changes in protein expression after incubation with 8-CPT-cAMP for 24 h. Glutathione reductase (Gsr) had a higher level of basal expression in kin- S49 cells than in WT cells. Consistent with this finding, kin- cells are less sensitive to cell killing and generation of malondialdehyde than are WT cells incubated with H2O2. Cyclic AMP acting via PKA thus has a broad impact on protein expression in mammalian cells, including in the regulation of Gsr and oxidative stress. PMID:23110364

  11. 14 CFR 91.1411 - Continuous airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... program use by fractional ownership program manager. 91.1411 Section 91.1411 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... airworthiness maintenance program use by fractional ownership program manager. Fractional ownership program... through 91.1443. Any program manager who elects to maintain the program aircraft using a continuous...

  12. About the Federal Energy Management Program

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Richard Kidd

    2009-04-23

    Richard Kidd, Program Manager for the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), presents a discussion on FEMP direction and its future role, federal funding trends, future financing trends, and Earth Day observations.

  13. Children/Youth Physical Fitness Program Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozzini, Lou; And Others

    Intended for physical fitness program managers, this book presents a system through which these professionals can justify, evaluate, develop, supervise, and promote a sound physical fitness program. Sections address the management stages of: (1) program assessment; (2) program commitment; (3) physical fitness program planning; (4) program…

  14. Issues in NASA program and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This new collection of papers on aerospace management issues contains a history of NASA program and project management, some lessons learned in the areas of management and budget from the Space Shuttle Program, an analysis of tools needed to keep large multilayer programs organized and on track, and an update of resources for NASA managers. A wide variety of opinions and techniques are presented.

  15. Environmental Management Science Program Workshop

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None

    1998-07-01

    This program summary book is a compendium of project summaries submitted by principal investigators in the Environmental Management Science Program and Environmental Management/Energy Research Pilot Collaborative Research Program (Wolf-Broido Program). These summaries provide information about the most recent project activities and accomplishments. All projects will be represented at the workshop poster sessions, so you will have an opportunity to meet with the researchers. The projects will be presented in the same order at the poster session as they are presented in this summary book. Detailed questions about an individual project may be directed to the investigators involved.

  16. Intrasteric control of AMPK via the gamma1 subunit AMP allosteric regulatory site.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julian; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Van Denderen, Bryce J W; Morton, Craig J; Parker, Michael W; Witters, Lee A; Stapleton, David; Kemp, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a alphabetagamma heterotrimer that is activated in response to both hormones and intracellular metabolic stress signals. AMPK is regulated by phosphorylation on the alpha subunit and by AMP allosteric control previously thought to be mediated by both alpha and gamma subunits. Here we present evidence that adjacent gamma subunit pairs of CBS repeat sequences (after Cystathionine Beta Synthase) form an AMP binding site related to, but distinct from the classical AMP binding site in phosphorylase, that can also bind ATP. The AMP binding site of the gamma(1) CBS1/CBS2 pair, modeled on the structures of the CBS sequences present in the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase crystal structure, contains three arginine residues 70, 152, and 171 and His151. The yeast gamma homolog, snf4 contains a His151Gly substitution, and when this is introduced into gamma(1), AMP allosteric control is substantially lost and explains why the yeast snf1p/snf4p complex is insensitive to AMP. Arg70 in gamma(1) corresponds to the site of mutation in human gamma(2) and pig gamma(3) genes previously identified to cause an unusual cardiac phenotype and glycogen storage disease, respectively. Mutation of any of AMP binding site Arg residues to Gln substantially abolishes AMP allosteric control in expressed AMPK holoenzyme. The Arg/Gln mutations also suppress the previously described inhibitory properties of ATP and render the enzyme constitutively active. We propose that ATP acts as an intrasteric inhibitor by bridging the alpha and gamma subunits and that AMP functions to derepress AMPK activity.

  17. Emergency management training program: Guide to good practice

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Emergency Management Training Program Guide to Good Practice is a project of the Training Resources and Data Exchange (TRADE) Emergency Management Issues Special Interest Group (EMI SIG). EMI SIG members expressed interest in a resource to assist in development of a comprehensive emergency management training program. This publication provides guidelines, methods, and materials for EMI SIG members to use, assisting in complete and effective emergency management programs. The purposes of the Emergency Management Training Program Guide to Good Practice are: Provide guidance in the development and management of Emergency Management (EM) training programs; Assist EM trainers to incorporate componentsmore » of the DOE Emergency Management System philosophy of planning, preparedness, readiness assurance, and response into EM training programs; Help EM training managers meet EM training requirements and conditions established by current regulations and policies; Supplement other TRADE EMI SIG documents and complement individual facility training documents. This program is designed for emergency management personnel who are responsible for providing or overseeing EM training but who do not necessarily possess expertise in developing training. It provides good practices from the manager`s point of view on how to produce, administer, and document facility EM training programs in the spirit of the DOE EM system philosophy. Basic guidance is also included for personnel who design, develop, deliver, and/or evaluate EM training programs or parts. This guidance includes key points of EM training programs and identifies other documents that contain useful and/or more detailed training information.« less

  18. Cyclic AMP Enhances TGFβ Responses of Breast Cancer Cells by Upregulating TGFβ Receptor I Expression

    PubMed Central

    Oerlecke, Ilka; Bauer, Elke; Dittmer, Angela; Leyh, Benjamin; Dittmer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Cellular functions are regulated by complex networks of many different signaling pathways. The TGFβ and cAMP pathways are of particular importance in tumor progression. We analyzed the cross-talk between these pathways in breast cancer cells in 2D and 3D cultures. We found that cAMP potentiated TGFβ-dependent gene expression by enhancing Smad3 phosphorylation. Higher levels of total Smad3, as observed in 3D-cultured cells, blocked this effect. Two Smad3 regulating proteins, YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TβRI (TGFβ receptor 1), were responsive to cAMP. While YAP had little effect on TGFβ-dependent expression and Smad3 phosphorylation, a constitutively active form of TβRI mimicked the cAMP effect on TGFβ signaling. In 3D-cultured cells, which show much higher levels of TβRI and cAMP, TβRI was unresponsive to cAMP. Upregulation of TβRI expression by cAMP was dependent on transcription. A proximal TβRI promoter fragment was moderately, but significantly activated by cAMP suggesting that cAMP increases TβRI expression at least partially by activating TβRI transcription. Neither the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) nor the TβRI-regulating transcription factor Six1 was required for the cAMP effect. An inhibitor of histone deacetylases alone or together with cAMP increased TβRI expression by a similar extent as cAMP alone suggesting that cAMP may exert its effect by interfering with histone acetylation. Along with an additive stimulatory effect of cAMP and TGFβ on p21 expression an additive inhibitory effect of these agents on proliferation was observed. Finally, we show that mesenchymal stem cells that interact with breast cancer cells can simultaneously activate the cAMP and TGFβ pathways. In summary, these data suggest that combined effects of cAMP and TGFβ, as e.g. induced by mesenchymal stem cells, involve the upregulation of TβRI expression on the transcriptional level, likely due to changes in histone acetylation. As a consequence

  19. Unstable slope management program.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-01

    This Rapid Response Project gathered information on existing unstable slope management programs, with a : focus on asset management practices in the United States and overseas. On the basis of this study, the research : team summarized and recommende...

  20. Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle growth via signaling crosstalk between AMP-activated protein kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Joshua D.; Narine, Avinash; Tulis, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle (VSM) growth is central in the pathophysiology of vascular disease yet fully effective therapies to curb this growth are lacking. Recent findings from our lab and others support growth control of VSM by adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-based approaches including the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Molecular crosstalk between AMPK and PKA has been previously suggested, yet the extent to which this occurs and its biological significance in VSM remain unclear. Considering their common AMP backbone and similar signaling characteristics, we hypothesized that crosstalk exists between AMPK and PKA in the regulation of VSM growth. Using rat primary VSM cells (VSMC), the AMPK agonist AICAR increased AMPK activity and phosphorylation of the catalytic Thr172 site on AMPK. Interestingly, AICAR also phosphorylated a suspected PKA-inhibitory Ser485 site on AMPK, and these cumulative events were reversed by the PKA inhibitor PKI suggesting possible PKA-mediated regulation of AMPK. AICAR also increased PKA activity in a reversible fashion. The cAMP stimulator forskolin increased PKA activity and completely ameliorated Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-2C activity, suggesting a potential mechanism of AMPK modulation by PKA since inhibition of PKA by PKI reduced AMPK activity. Functionally, AMPK inhibited serum-stimulated cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation; however, PKA failed to do so. Moreover, AMPK and PKA reduced PDGF-β-stimulated VSMC migration. Collectively, these results show that AMPK is capable of reducing VSM growth in both anti-proliferative and anti-migratory fashion. Furthermore, these data suggest that AMPK may be modulated by PKA and that positive feedback may exist between these two systems. These findings reveal a discrete nexus between AMPK and PKA in VSM and provide basis for metabolically-directed targets in reducing pathologic VSM growth. PMID:23112775

  1. Cyclic AMP system in muscle tissue during prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipenko, Y. A.; Bubeyev, Y. A.; Korovkin, B. F.; Mikhaleva, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Components of the cyclic Adenosine-cyclic-35-monophosphate (AMP) system in the muscle tissue of white rats were studied during 70-75 days of hypokinesia, created by placing the animals in small booths which restricted their movements, and during the readaptation period. In the initial period, cyclic AMP levels and the activities of phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue were increased. The values for these indices were roughly equal for controls and experimental animals during the adaptation period, but on the 70th day of the experiment cAMP levels dropped, phosphodiesterase activity increased, and the stimulative effect of epinephrine on the activity of adenylate cyclase decreased. The indices under study normalized during the readaptation period.

  2. The cAMP analogs have potent anti-proliferative effects on medullary thyroid cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Dicitore, Alessandra; Grassi, Elisa Stellaria; Caraglia, Michele; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Gaudenzi, Germano; Hofland, Leo J; Persani, Luca; Vitale, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic activation of the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene has a main role in the pathogenesis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Several lines of evidence suggest that RET function could be influenced by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity. We evaluated the in vitro anti-tumor activity of 8-chloroadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Cl-cAMP) and PKA type I-selective cAMP analogs [equimolar combination of the 8-piperidinoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-PIP-cAMP) and 8-hexylaminoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-HA-cAMP) in MTC cell lines (TT and MZ-CRC-1)]. 8-Cl-cAMP and the PKA I-selective cAMP analogs showed a potent anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. In detail, 8-Cl-cAMP blocked significantly the transition of TT cell population from G2/M to G0/G1 phase and from G0/G1 to S phase and of MZ-CRC-1 cells from G0/G1 to S phase. Moreover, 8-Cl-cAMP induced apoptosis in both cell lines, as demonstrated by FACS analysis for annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide, the activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. On the other hand, the only effect induced by PKA I-selective cAMP analogs was a delay in G0/G1-S and S-G2/M progression in TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells, respectively. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that cAMP analogs, particularly 8-Cl-cAMP, significantly suppress in vitro MTC proliferation and provide rationale for a potential clinical use of cAMP analogs in the treatment of advanced MTC.

  3. Program audit, A management tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. J.

    1971-01-01

    Program gives in-depth view of organizational performance at all levels of the management structure, and provides means by which managers can effectively and efficiently evaluate adequacy of management direction, policies, and procedures.

  4. 20 CFR 632.76 - Program management systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program management systems. 632.76 Section... management systems. (a) All Native American grantees shall establish management information systems to... for the overall management of all programs including: (1) Eligibility verification systems as...

  5. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People's Republic of China

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks NF-{kappa}B activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1more » (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We

  6. Emergency management training program: Guide to good practice

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The Emergency Management Training Program Guide to Good Practice is a project of the Training Resources and Data Exchange (TRADE) Emergency Management Issues Special Interest Group (EMI SIG). EMI SIG members expressed interest in a resource to assist in development of a comprehensive emergency management training program. This publication provides guidelines, methods, and materials for EMI SIG members to use, assisting in complete and effective emergency management programs. The purposes of the Emergency Management Training Program Guide to Good Practice are: Provide guidance in the development and management of Emergency Management (EM) training programs; Assist EM trainers to incorporate componentsmore » of the DOE Emergency Management System philosophy of planning, preparedness, readiness assurance, and response into EM training programs; Help EM training managers meet EM training requirements and conditions established by current regulations and policies; Supplement other TRADE EMI SIG documents and complement individual facility training documents. This program is designed for emergency management personnel who are responsible for providing or overseeing EM training but who do not necessarily possess expertise in developing training. It provides good practices from the manager's point of view on how to produce, administer, and document facility EM training programs in the spirit of the DOE EM system philosophy. Basic guidance is also included for personnel who design, develop, deliver, and/or evaluate EM training programs or parts. This guidance includes key points of EM training programs and identifies other documents that contain useful and/or more detailed training information.« less

  7. Cyclic AMP Affects Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development in Prepubertal and Adult Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bernal-Ulloa, Sandra Milena; Heinzmann, Julia; Herrmann, Doris; Hadeler, Klaus-Gerd; Aldag, Patrick; Winkler, Sylke; Pache, Dorit; Baulain, Ulrich; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Niemann, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    High cAMP levels during in vitro maturation (IVM) have been related to improved blastocyst yields. Here, we employed the cAMP/cGMP modulators, forskolin, IBMX, and cilostamide, during IVM to unravel the role of high cAMP in early embryonic development produced from prepubertal and adult bovine oocytes. Oocytes were collected via transvaginal aspiration and randomly assigned to three experimental groups: TCM24 (24h IVM/control), cAMP30 (2h pre-IVM (forskolin-IBMX), 30h IVM-cilostamide), and DMSO30 (Dimethyl Sulfoxide/vehicle control). After IVM, oocytes were fertilized in vitro and zygotes were cultured in vitro to blastocysts. Meiotic progression, cAMP levels, mRNA abundance of selected genes and DNA methylation were evaluated in oocytes. Blastocysts were used for gene expression or DNA methylation analyses. Blastocysts from the cAMP30 groups were transferred to recipients. The cAMP elevation delayed meiotic progression, but developmental rates were not increased. In immature oocytes, mRNA abundance of PRKACA was higher for cAMP30 protocol and no differences were found for PDE3A, SMAD2, ZAR1, PRDX1 and SLC2A8. EGR1 gene was up-regulated in prepubertal cAMP30 immature oocytes and down-regulated in blastocysts from all in vitro treatments. A similar gene expression profile was observed for DNMT3b, BCL2L1, PRDX1 and SLC2A8 in blastocysts. Satellite DNA methylation profiles were different between prepubertal and adult oocytes and blastocysts derived from the TCM24 and DMSO30 groups. Blastocysts obtained from prepubertal and adult oocytes in the cAMP30 treatment displayed normal methylation profiles and produced offspring. These data indicate that cAMP regulates IVM in prepubertal and adult oocytes in a similar manner, with impact on the establishment of epigenetic marks and acquisition of full developmental competency. PMID:26926596

  8. AMP-Conjugated Quantum Dots: Low Immunotoxicity Both In Vitro and In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Tongcheng; Li, Na; Liu, Lu; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-11-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are engineered nanoparticles that possess special optical and electronic properties and have shown great promise for future biomedical applications. In this work, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), a small biocompatible molecular, was conjugated to organic QDs to produce hydrophilic AMP-QDs. Using macrophage J774A.1 as the cell model, AMP-QDs exhibited both prior imaging property and low toxicity, and more importantly, triggered limited innate immune responses in macrophage, indicating low immunotoxicity in vitro. Using BALB/c mice as the animal model, AMP-QDs were found to be detained in immune organs but did not evoke robust inflammation responses or obvious histopathological abnormalities, which reveals low immunotoxicity in vivo. This work suggests that AMP is an excellent surface ligand with low immunotoxicity, and potentially used in surface modification for more extensive nanoparticles.

  9. Inhibition of Rho Is Required for cAMP-induced Melanoma Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Buscà, Roser; Bertolotto, Corine; Abbe, Patricia; Englaro, Walter; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Narumiya, Shuh; Boquet, Patrice; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Ballotti, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Up-regulation of the cAMP pathway by forskolin or α-melanocyte stimulating hormone induces melanocyte and melanoma cell differentiation characterized by stimulation of melanin synthesis and dendrite development. Here we show that forskolin-induced dendricity is associated to a disassembly of actin stress fibers. Since Rho controls actin organization, we studied the role of this guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein in cAMP-induced dendrite formation. Clostridium botulinum C3 exotransferase, which inhibits Rho, mimicked the effect of forskolin in promoting dendricity and stress fiber disruption, while the Escherichia coli toxin cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF-1), which activates Rho and the expression of a constitutively active Rho mutant, blocked forskolin-induced dendrite outgrowth. In addition, overexpression of a constitutively active form of the Rho target p160 Rho-kinase (P160ROCK) prevented the dendritogenic effects of cAMP. Our results suggest that inhibition of Rho and of its target p160ROCK are required events for cAMP-induced dendrite outgrowth in B16 cells. Furthermore, we present evidence that Rho is involved in the regulation of melanogenesis. Indeed, Rho inactivation enhanced the cAMP stimulation of tyrosinase gene transcription and protein expression, while Rho constitutive activation impaired these cAMP-induced effects. This reveals that, in addition to controlling dendricity, Rho also participates in the regulation of melanin synthesis by cAMP. PMID:9614180

  10. New insight into the binding modes of TNP-AMP to human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xinya; Huang, Yunyuan; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, San; Zhu, Shuaihuan; Qin, Nian; Hong, Zongqin; Wei, Lin; Feng, Jiangtao; Ren, Yanliang; Feng, Lingling; Wan, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) contains two binding sites, a substrate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) active site and an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) allosteric site. The FBP active site works by stabilizing the FBPase, and the allosteric site impairs the activity of FBPase through its binding of a nonsubstrate molecule. The fluorescent AMP analogue, 2‧,3‧-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5‧-monophosphate (TNP-AMP) has been used as a fluorescent probe as it is able to competitively inhibit AMP binding to the AMP allosteric site and, therefore, could be used for exploring the binding modes of inhibitors targeted on the allosteric site. In this study, we have re-examined the binding modes of TNP-AMP to FBPase. However, our present enzyme kinetic assays show that AMP and FBP both can reduce the fluorescence from the bound TNP-AMP through competition for FBPase, suggesting that TNP-AMP binds not only to the AMP allosteric site but also to the FBP active site. Mutagenesis assays of K274L (located in the FBP active site) show that the residue K274 is very important for TNP-AMP to bind to the active site of FBPase. The results further prove that TNP-AMP is able to bind individually to the both sites. Our present study provides a new insight into the binding mechanism of TNP-AMP to the FBPase. The TNP-AMP fluorescent probe can be used to exam the binding site of an inhibitor (the active site or the allosteric site) using FBPase saturated by AMP and FBP, respectively, or the K247L mutant FBPase.

  11. New insight into the binding modes of TNP-AMP to human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinya; Huang, Yunyuan; Zhang, Rui; Xiao, San; Zhu, Shuaihuan; Qin, Nian; Hong, Zongqin; Wei, Lin; Feng, Jiangtao; Ren, Yanliang; Feng, Lingling; Wan, Jian

    2016-08-05

    Human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) contains two binding sites, a substrate fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) active site and an adenosine monophosphate (AMP) allosteric site. The FBP active site works by stabilizing the FBPase, and the allosteric site impairs the activity of FBPase through its binding of a nonsubstrate molecule. The fluorescent AMP analogue, 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-monophosphate (TNP-AMP) has been used as a fluorescent probe as it is able to competitively inhibit AMP binding to the AMP allosteric site and, therefore, could be used for exploring the binding modes of inhibitors targeted on the allosteric site. In this study, we have re-examined the binding modes of TNP-AMP to FBPase. However, our present enzyme kinetic assays show that AMP and FBP both can reduce the fluorescence from the bound TNP-AMP through competition for FBPase, suggesting that TNP-AMP binds not only to the AMP allosteric site but also to the FBP active site. Mutagenesis assays of K274L (located in the FBP active site) show that the residue K274 is very important for TNP-AMP to bind to the active site of FBPase. The results further prove that TNP-AMP is able to bind individually to the both sites. Our present study provides a new insight into the binding mechanism of TNP-AMP to the FBPase. The TNP-AMP fluorescent probe can be used to exam the binding site of an inhibitor (the active site or the allosteric site) using FBPase saturated by AMP and FBP, respectively, or the K247L mutant FBPase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management. Part 1

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities in the operational phase. Portions of this standard are also useful for other DOE processes, activities, and programs. This Part 1 contains foreword, glossary, acronyms, bibliography, and Chapter 1 on operational configuration management program principles. Appendices are included on configuration management program interfaces, and background material and concepts for operational configuration management.

  13. Asset Management Plans, Appraisal Guidance for 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This document is one in a series which aims to assist Local Authorities in Britain with asset management planning (AMPs) for schools. AMPs set out the information needed, and the criteria used, to make decisions about spending on school premises. The document provides guidance on the appraisal of school AMPs in 2002 to inform 3-year formulaic…

  14. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-02

    Technology November 2, 2011 The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) Frank Castaneda, III, P.E. APIMS Program Manager AFCEE/TDNQ APIMS...NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS... Information   Management   System : Sustainability of  Enterprise air quality management system • Aspects and Impacts to Process • Auditing and Measurement

  15. Is This Op-Amp Any Good?: Lab-Built Checker Removes All Doubt!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Electronics instructors and students find it very helpful to be able to check an operational amplifier at the proto-board stage. Most students lack the experience or knowledge that it takes to recognize whether an op-amp is operating normally or not. This article discusses a handy op-amp checker that allows one to check and/or test op-amps at the…

  16. Data warehousing in disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Ramick, D C

    2001-01-01

    Disease management programs offer the benefits of lower disease occurrence, improved patient care, and lower healthcare costs. In such programs, the key mechanism used to identify individuals at risk for targeted diseases is the data warehouse. This article surveys recent warehousing techniques from HMOs to map out critical issues relating to the preparation, design, and implementation of a successful data warehouse. Discussions of scope, data cleansing, and storage management are included in depicting warehouse preparation and design; data implementation options are contrasted. Examples are provided of data warehouse execution in disease management programs that identify members with preexisting illnesses, as well as those exhibiting high-risk conditions. The proper deployment of successful data warehouses in disease management programs benefits both the organization and the member. Organizations benefit from decreased medical costs; members benefit through an improved quality of life through disease-specific care.

  17. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-timemore » for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.« less

  18. Joint Program Management Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    service networks , and unique requirements, such as in the special opeations area, require a special effort by joint program managers Figure 3-3...the Engieermg and Manufacuring Devopment Phase. Nfilestoae HI- Develommen Annros Devopment approval marks a significant step for any program, but it is

  19. Covariant symplectic structure of the complex Monge-Ampère equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutku, Y.

    2000-04-01

    The complex Monge-Ampère equation is invariant under arbitrary holomorphic changes of the independent variables with unit Jacobian. We present its variational formulation where the action remains invariant under this infinite group. The new Lagrangian enables us to obtain the first symplectic 2-form for the complex Monge-Ampère equation in the framework of the covariant Witten-Zuckerman approach to symplectic structure. We base our considerations on a reformulation of the Witten-Zuckerman theory in terms of holomorphic differential forms. The first closed and conserved Witten-Zuckerman symplectic 2-form for the complex Monge-Ampère equation is obtained in arbitrary dimension and for all cases elliptic, hyperbolic and homogeneous. The connection of the complex Monge-Ampère equation with Ricci-flat Kähler geometry suggests the use of the Hilbert action principle as an alternative variational formulation. However, we point out that Hilbert's Lagrangian is a divergence for Kähler metrics and serves as a topological invariant rather than yielding the Euclideanized Einstein field equations. Nevertheless, since the Witten-Zuckerman theory employs only the boundary terms in the first variation of the action, Hilbert's Lagrangian can be used to obtain the second Witten-Zuckerman symplectic 2-form. This symplectic 2-form vanishes on shell, thus defining a Lagrangian submanifold. In its derivation the connection of the second symplectic 2-form with the complex Monge-Ampère equation is indirect but we show that it satisfies all the properties required of a symplectic 2-form for the complex elliptic, or hyperbolic Monge-Ampère equation when the dimension of the complex manifold is 3 or higher. The complex Monge-Ampère equation admits covariant bisymplectic structure for complex dimension 3, or higher. However, in the physically interesting case of n=2 we have only one symplectic 2-form. The extension of these results to the case of complex Monge-Amp

  20. The NASA Risk Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchbinder, Benjamin

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the NASA Risk Management Program established by the Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Quality (MSQ). Current agency policy is outlined, risk management assistance to the field is described, and examples are given of independent risk assessments conducted by SMQ. The motivation for and the structure of the program is placed in the historical context of pre- and post-Challenger environments.

  1. Dual contradictory roles of cAMP signaling pathways in hydroxyl radical production in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Hara, Shuichi; Kobayashi, Masamune; Kuriiwa, Fumi; Mukai, Toshiji; Mizukami, Hajime

    2012-03-15

    Studies have suggested that cAMP signaling pathways may be associated with the production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we examined how modifications in cAMP signaling affected the production of hydroxyl radicals in rat striatum using microdialysis to measure extracellular 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,3-DHBA), which is a hydroxyl radical adduct of salicylate. Up to 50 nmol of the cell-permeative cAMP mimetic 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) increased 2,3-DHBA in a dose-dependent manner (there was no additional increase in 2,3-DHBA at 100 nmol). Another cAMP mimetic, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), caused a nonsignificant increase in 2,3-DHBA at 50 nmol and a significant decrease at 100 nmol. Up to 20 nmol of forskolin, which is a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase, increased 2,3-DHBA, similar to the effect of 8-Br-cAMP; however, forskolin resulted in a much greater increase in 2,3-DHBA. A potent inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), H89 (500 μM), potentiated the 8-Br-cAMP- and forskolin-induced increases in 2,3-DHBA and antagonized the inhibitory effect of 100 nmol of db-cAMP. Interestingly, the administration of 100 nmol of 8-bromo-cGMP alone or in combination with H89 had no significant effect on 2,3-DHBA levels. Doses of 100 nmol of a preferential PKA activator (6-phenyl-cAMP) or a preferential PKA inhibitor (8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothionate, Rp-isomer; Rp-8-Br-cAMPS), which also inhibits the cAMP-mediated activation of Epac (the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP), suppressed or enhanced, respectively, the formation of 2,3-DHBA. Up to 100 nmol of 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-cAMP, which is a selective activator of Epac, dose-dependently stimulated the formation of 2,3-DHBA. These findings suggest that cAMP signaling plays contradictory roles (stimulation and inhibition) in the production of hydroxyl radicals in rat striatum by differential actions of Epac and PKA. These roles might contribute to the production of

  2. Cardiac Hypertrophy Is Inhibited by a Local Pool of cAMP Regulated by Phosphodiesterase 2.

    PubMed

    Zoccarato, Anna; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Aronsen, Jan M; Fields, Laura A; Mancuso, Luisa; Dodoni, Giuliano; Stangherlin, Alessandra; Livie, Craig; Jiang, He; Sin, Yuan Yan; Gesellchen, Frank; Terrin, Anna; Baillie, George S; Nicklin, Stuart A; Graham, Delyth; Szabo-Fresnais, Nicolas; Krall, Judith; Vandeput, Fabrice; Movsesian, Matthew; Furlan, Leonardo; Corsetti, Veronica; Hamilton, Graham; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Sjaastad, Ivar; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2015-09-25

    Chronic elevation of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels has been associated with cardiac remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy. However, enhancement of particular aspects of cAMP/protein kinase A signaling seems to be beneficial for the failing heart. cAMP is a pleiotropic second messenger with the ability to generate multiple functional outcomes in response to different extracellular stimuli with strict fidelity, a feature that relies on the spatial segregation of the cAMP pathway components in signaling microdomains. How individual cAMP microdomains affect cardiac pathophysiology remains largely to be established. The cAMP-degrading enzymes phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a key role in shaping local changes in cAMP. Here we investigated the effect of specific inhibition of selected PDEs on cardiac myocyte hypertrophic growth. Using pharmacological and genetic manipulation of PDE activity, we found that the rise in cAMP resulting from inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4 induces hypertrophy, whereas increasing cAMP levels via PDE2 inhibition is antihypertrophic. By real-time imaging of cAMP levels in intact myocytes and selective displacement of protein kinase A isoforms, we demonstrate that the antihypertrophic effect of PDE2 inhibition involves the generation of a local pool of cAMP and activation of a protein kinase A type II subset, leading to phosphorylation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells. Different cAMP pools have opposing effects on cardiac myocyte cell size. PDE2 emerges as a novel key regulator of cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo, and its inhibition may have therapeutic applications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Metabolic benefits of inhibiting cAMP-PDEs with resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jay H

    2012-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan in species ranging from yeast to mammals. There is evidence that CR also protects against aging-related diseases in non-human primates. This has led to an intense interest in the development of CR-mimetics to harness the beneficial effects of CR to treat aging-related diseases. One CR-mimetic that has received a great deal of attention is resveratrol. Resveratrol extends the lifespan of obese mice and protects against obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The specific mechanism of resveratrol action has been difficult to elucidate because resveratrol has a promiscuous target profile. A recent finding indicates that the metabolic effects of resveratrol may result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which increases cAMP levels. The cAMP-dependent pathways activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is essential for the metabolic effects of resveratrol. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including protection against diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina and glucose tolerance in mice. This discovery suggests that PDE inhibitors may be useful for treating metabolic diseases associated with aging.

  4. Does your equipment maintenance management program measure up?

    PubMed

    Deinstadt, Deborah C

    2003-01-01

    Identifying a clear maintenance philosophy is the first step toward choosing the right program for your healthcare organization. The second step is gaining a clear understanding of how proposed savings and improvements will be delivered. The third and last step is requiring that the proposed company or manager have specific tools in place for measuring and analyzing program performance. There are three primary philosophies underlying current equipment management options. These include risk-transfer philosophy (e.g., maintenance insurance, service contracts, multi-vendor and outsource programs), asset management philosophy (e.g., programs delivering a management system based on managed time-and-materials), and internal management (in-house managed programs). The last step in selecting the right program is insisting that proper performance measurements be built into the proposed management program. A well-managed program provides results in three general areas: financial outcomes, operational improvements and process improvements. Financial outcomes are the easiest to measure. Operational and process improvements are more challenging to assess but equally important to the program's overall success. To accurately identify results in these three areas, the overall management program should measure the following eight separate components: procedures and support for department staff; equipment inventory, benchmark costs, and budget guidelines; experienced equipment support team; objective, independent analysis of maintenance events; repair documentation and reporting; vendor relations; equipment acquisition analysis; and recommendations for improvement. Do everything you reasonably can to assure that the selected company can work side-by-side with you, providing objective, measurable advice that is ultimately in your best interest. You will then know that you have been thorough in your marketplace selection and can confidently move into implementation, expecting tangible

  5. Disease management: findings from leading state programs.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Ben

    2002-12-01

    Disease management programs are designed to contain costs by improving health among the chronically ill. More than 20 states are now engaged in developing and implementing Medicaid disease management programs for their primary care case management and fee-for-service populations.

  6. Role of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in the renal 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Edwin K; Gillespie, Delbert G; Mi, Zaichuan; Cheng, Dongmei; Bansal, Rashmi; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2014-07-01

    Energy depletion increases the renal production of 2',3'-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP that opens mitochondrial permeability transition pores) and 2',3'-cAMP is converted to 2'-AMP and 3'-AMP, which in turn are metabolized to adenosine. Because the enzymes involved in this "2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway" are unknown, we examined whether 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) participates in the renal metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP. Western blotting and real-time PCR demonstrated expression of CNPase in rat glomerular mesangial, preglomerular vascular smooth muscle and endothelial, proximal tubular, thick ascending limb and collecting duct cells. Real-time PCR established the expression of CNPase in human glomerular mesangial, proximal tubular and vascular smooth muscle cells; and the level of expression of CNPase was greater than that for phosphodiesterase 4 (major enzyme for the metabolism of 3',5'-cAMP). Overexpression of CNPase in rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells increased the metabolism of exogenous 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP. Infusions of 2',3'-cAMP into isolated CNPase wild-type (+/+) kidneys increased renal venous 2'-AMP, and this response was diminished by 63% in CNPase knockout (-/-) kidneys, whereas the conversion of 3',5'-cAMP to 5'-AMP was similar in CNPase +/+ vs. -/- kidneys. In CNPase +/+ kidneys, energy depletion (metabolic poisons) increased kidney tissue levels of adenosine and its metabolites (inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) without accumulation of 2',3'-cAMP. In contrast, in CNPase -/- kidneys, energy depletion increased kidney tissue levels of 2',3'-cAMP and abolished the increase in adenosine and its metabolites. In conclusion, kidneys express CNPase, and renal CNPase mediates in part the renal 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Strategies in disability management. Corporate disability management programs implemented at the work site.

    PubMed

    Kalina, C M

    1999-10-30

    Managers are challenged to demonstrate all programs as economically essential to the business, generating an appreciable return on investment. Further challenge exists to blend and integrate clinical and business objectives in program development. Disability management programs must be viewed as economically essential to the financial success of the business to assure management support for clinical interventions and return-to-work strategies essential for a successful program. This paper discusses a disability management program integrating clinical and business goals and objectives in return-to-work strategies to effect positive clinical, social-cultural, and business results. Clinical, educational, social, and economic challenges in the development, implementation, and continued management of a disability program at a large corporation with multiple global work sites are defined. Continued discussion addresses the effective clinical interventions and educational strategies utilized successfully within the workplace environment in response to each defined challenge. A multiple disciplinary team approach, clinical and business outcome measures, and quality assurance indicators are discussed as major program components. This article discusses a successful program approach focusing on business process and methodology. These parameters are used to link resources to strategy, developing a product for implementing and managing a program demonstrating economic value added through effective clinical medical case management.

  8. Issues in NASA program and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the eighth in an ongoing series addressing current topics and lessons learned in NASA program and project management. Articles in this volume cover the following topics: (1) power sources for the Galileo and Ulysses Missions; (2) managing requirements; (3) program control of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission; (4) project management method; (5) career development for project managers; and (6) resources for NASA managers.

  9. Aerobic Methane Generation From Plants (AMP)? Yes, Mostly!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiticar, M. J.; Ednie, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    In 2006, Keppler et al. (K) published an intriguing and revolutionary idea that aerobic methane is produced in plants (AMP) and released to the atmosphere. Their initial scaling calculations estimated the amount of AMP fluxing from living plants to range from 62-236 Tg/y and 1-7 Tg/y for plant litter. Houweling et al. (2006) (H) refined this flux to ca. 85 Tg/y PIH and 125 Tg/y present day. More recently, Dueck et al. (2007) (D) challenged the claim of AMP from intact plants. Their experiments cited "...No evidence for substantial aerobic methane emission by terrestrial plants..." (max. 0.4 ng/g h-1). Due to the significance of AMP in understanding present and palaeo-atmospheric budgets (e.g., Whiticar and Schaefer, 2007), we conducted a wide range of experiments to confirm or refute the existence and magnitude of AMP. For explanation, experiments of K were time-series batch samples measured by gas chromatography on purged and ambient samples, whereas D used continuous-flow cuvettes and measured by optical PAS with time series single injections. Our longer-term experiments with corn, wheat, tomato, red cedar, chestnut, moss and lichen (3-97 h, 32 °C) used a plant chamber, flow-through system with a GYRO, an optical spectrometer that enables continuous 1 Hz CH4 measurements with a precision of ca. 1 ppbv. We conducted over 100 chamber experiments on sterilized and non-sterilized (Cs-137 radiation) samples of: 1) intact living plants (IP), 2) fresh leaves (FL) and 3) dried leaves (DL); under both 1) high and 2) low light conditions (HL, LL), and with 1) ambient CH4 (AM, ca. 1.92 ppmv) and 2) purged methane (PM, 10 and 96 ppbv) levels. Our results demonstrate that IP-AMs have CH4 flux rates of 0.74-3.48 ng/g h-1. In contrast, IP-PMs show intense CH4 uptake rates of -28.5 to -57.9 ng/g h-1 (substantially different than K's reported emissions of 12-370 ng/g h-1 values). Our FL-AM-LL have CH4 flux rates of 0.36-2.05 ng/g h-1, whereas FL-AM-HL have significant CH4

  10. Proliferation kinetics and cyclic AMP as prognostic factors in adult acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Paietta, E; Mittermayer, K; Schwarzmeier, J

    1980-07-01

    In 41 adult patients with acute leukemia (myeloblastic, lymphoblastic, and undifferentiated), proliferation kinetics (as determined by double-label autoradiography) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration were studied for their significance in the prediction of responsiveness to cytostatic therapy. Patients with good clinical response had significantly shorter turnover times and higher labeling indices in the bone marrow than did those who failed to respond to treatment. Cases for which cell kinetics did not correlate with clinical response were explained by variance in the distribution of leukemic blasts between the proliferative cell cycle and the resting pool. Good clinical response was also found to be associated with low levels of cAMP in leukemic cells prior to therapy, whereas high cAMP contents predicted failure. Low cAMP concentrations, however, did not necessarily correlate with short turnover times and vice versa. This might be due to fluctuations of the cAMP concentrations during the cell cycle.

  11. Improved cell disruption of Pichia pastoris utilizing aminopropyl magnesium phyllosilicate (AMP) clay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Il; Wu, Yuanzheng; Kim, Ka-Lyun; Kim, Geun-Joong; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2013-06-01

    An efficient method for Pichia cell disruption that employs an aminopropyl magnesium phyllosilicate (AMP) clay-assisted glass beads mill is presented. AMP clay is functionalized nanocomposite resembling the talc parent structure Si8Mg6O20(OH)4 that has been proven to permeate the bacterial membrane and cause cell lysis. The recombinant capsid protein of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 was used as demonstration system for their ability of self-assembly into icosahedral virus-like particles (VLPs). The total protein concentration reached 4.24 mg/ml after 4 min treatment by glass beads mill combined with 0.2 % AMP clay, which was 11.2 % higher compared to glass beads mill only and the time was half shortened. The stability of purified CCMV VLPs illustrated AMP clay had no influence on virus assembly process. Considering the tiny amount added and simple approach of AMP clay, it could be a reliable method for yeast cell disruption.

  12. Microwave assisted coating of bioactive amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) on polyetheretherketone (PEEK).

    PubMed

    Ren, Yufu; Sikder, Prabaha; Lin, Boren; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2018-04-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) with great thermal and chemical stability, desirable mechanical properties and promising biocompatibility is being widely used as orthopedic and dental implant materials. However, the bioinert surface of PEEK can hinder direct osseointegration between the host tissue and PEEK based implants. The important signatures of this paper are as follows. First, we report for the formation of osseointegrable amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) coating on PEEK surface using microwave energy. Second, coatings consist of nano-sized AMP particles with a stacked thickness of 800nm. Third, coatings enhance bioactivity in-vitro and induce significantly high amount of bone-like apatite coating, when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). Fourth, the as-deposited AMP coatings present no cytotoxicity effects and are beneficial for cell adhesion at early stage. Finally, the high levels of expression of osteocalcin (OCN) in cells cultured on AMP coated PEEK samples indicate that AMP coatings can promote new bone formation and hence osseointegration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of ventral striatal cAMP signaling in stress-induced behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Plattner, Florian; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Hernandez, Adan; Benavides, David R.; Tassin, Tara C.; Tan, Chunfeng; Day, Jonathan; Fina, Maggy W.; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Yan, Zhen; Goldberg, Matthew S.; Nairn, Angus C.; Greengard, Paul; Nestler, Eric J.; Taussig, Ronald; Nishi, Akinori; Houslay, Miles D.; Bibb, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signaling cascade is a ubiquitous pathway acting downstream of multiple neuromodulators. We found that the phosphorylation of phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) facilitates cAMP degradation and homeostasis of cAMP/PKA signaling. In mice, loss of Cdk5 throughout the forebrain elevated cAMP levels and increased PKA activity in striatal neurons, and altered behavioral responses to acute or chronic stressors. Ventral striatum- or D1 dopamine receptor-specific conditional knockout of Cdk5, or ventral striatum infusion of a small interfering peptide that selectively targets the regulation of PDE4 by Cdk5, all produced analogical effects on stress-induced behavioral responses. Together, our results demonstrate that altering cAMP signaling in medium spiny neurons of the ventral striatum can effectively modulate stress-induced behavioral states. We propose that targeting the Cdk5 regulation of PDE4 could be a new therapeutic approach for clinical conditions associated with stress, such as depression. PMID:26192746

  14. Dibutyryl cAMP effects on thromboxane and leukotriene production in decompression-induced lung injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, T. M.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Decompression-induced venous bubble formation has been linked to increased neutrophil counts, endothelial cell injury, release of vasoactive eicosanoids, and increased vascular membrane permeability. These actions may account for inflammatory responses and edema formation. Increasing the intracellular cAMP has been shown to decrease eicosanoid production and edema formation in various models of lung injury. Reduction of decompression-induced inflammatory responses was evaluated in decompressed rats pretreated with saline (controls) or dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP, an analog of cAMP). After pretreatment, rats were exposed to either 616 kPa for 120 min or 683 kPa for 60 min. The observed increases in extravascular lung water ratios (pulmonary edema), bronchoalveolar lavage, and pleural protein in the saline control group (683 kPa) were not evident with DBcAMP treatment. DBcAMP pretreatment effects were also seen with the white blood cell counts and the percent of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Urinary levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were significantly increased with the 683 kPa saline control decompression exposure. DBcAMP reduced the decompression-induced leukotriene E4 production in the urine. Plasma levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were increased with the 683-kPa exposure groups. DBcAMP treatment did not affect these changes. The 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 and leukotriene E4 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage were increased with the 683 kPa exposure and were reduced with the DBcAMP treatment. Our results indicate that DBcAMP has the capability to reduce eicosanoid production and limit membrane permeability and subsequent edema formation in rats experiencing decompression sickness.

  15. 78 FR 72747 - Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management...: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Program Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held December...

  16. 77 FR 12905 - Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management...: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of the RTCA Program Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  17. 78 FR 43962 - Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management...: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Program Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held August...

  18. 78 FR 57673 - RTCA Program Management Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee...: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Program Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held October...

  19. Temporal Analysis of the Magnaporthe Oryzae Proteome During Conidial Germination and Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-mediated Appressorium Formation*

    PubMed Central

    Franck, William L.; Gokce, Emine; Oh, Yeonyee; Muddiman, David C.; Dean, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious threats to global rice production. During the earliest stages of rice infection, M. oryzae conidia germinate on the leaf surface and form a specialized infection structure termed the appressorium. The development of the appressorium represents the first critical stage of infectious development. A total of 3200 unique proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS in a temporal study of conidial germination and cAMP-induced appressorium formation in M. oryzae. Using spectral counting based label free quantification, observed changes in relative protein abundance during the developmental process revealed changes in the cell wall biosynthetic machinery, transport functions, and production of extracellular proteins in developing appressoria. One hundred and sixty-six up-regulated and 208 down-regulated proteins were identified in response to cAMP treatment. Proteomic analysis of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A mutant that is compromised in the ability to form appressoria identified proteins whose developmental regulation is dependent on cAMP signaling. Selected reaction monitoring was used for absolute quantification of four regulated proteins to validate the global proteomics data and confirmed the germination or appressorium specific regulation of these proteins. Finally, a comparison of the proteome and transcriptome was performed and revealed little correlation between transcript and protein regulation. A subset of regulated proteins were identified whose transcripts show similar regulation patterns and include many of the most strongly regulated proteins indicating a central role in appressorium formation. A temporal quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed a strong correlation between transcript and protein abundance for some but not all genes. Collectively, the data presented here provide the first comprehensive view of the M. oryzae proteome during early infection-related development and

  20. Evaluation of uridine 5'-eicosylphosphate as a stimulant of cyclic AMP-dependent cellular function.

    PubMed

    Yutani, Masahiro; Ogita, Akira; Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Usuki, Yoshinosuke; Tanaka, Toshio

    2011-03-01

    Sporulation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is negatively regulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). This microbial cell differentiation process was applied for the screening of a substance that can elevate the intracellular cAMP level. Among nucleoside 5'-alkylphosphates, uridine 5'-eicosylphosphate (UMPC20) selectively and predominantly inhibited ascospore formation of the yeast cells. We suppose the inhibitory effect of UMPC20 could indeed reflect the elevation of the cellular cAMP level.

  1. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  2. AC coupled three op-amp biopotential amplifier with active DC suppression.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, E M; Mayosky, M A

    2000-12-01

    A three op-amps instrumentation amplifier (I.A) with active dc suppression is presented. dc suppression is achieved by means of a controlled floating source at the input stage, to compensate electrode and op-amps offset voltages. This isolated floating source is built around an optical-isolated device using a general-purpose optocoupler, working as a photovoltaic generator. The proposed circuit has many interesting characteristics regarding simplicity and cost, while preserving common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) and high input impedance characteristics of the classic three op-amps I.A. As an example, a biopotential amplifier with a gain of 80 dB, a lower cutoff frequency of 0.1 Hz, and a dc input range of +/- 8 mV was built and tested. Using general-purpose op-amps, a CMRR of 105 was achieved without trimmings.

  3. 76 FR 34124 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee... Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held June 22, 2011 from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. ADDRESSES...

  4. 76 FR 58077 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee... Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held September 28, 2011 from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m...

  5. 75 FR 71182 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee... Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held December 8, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. ADDRESSES...

  6. 76 FR 11847 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee... Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held March 17, 2011 from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. ADDRESSES...

  7. 75 FR 9017 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee... Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held March 17, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. ADDRESSES...

  8. 75 FR 29811 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee... Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held June 10, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. ADDRESSES...

  9. 75 FR 52590 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee... Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held September 15, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m...

  10. 76 FR 27743 - RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee... Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held May 26, 2011 from 12 p.m. to 1 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  11. 18 CFR 260.400 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash management... Cash management programs. Natural gas companies subject to the provisions of the Commission's Uniform... management programs must file these agreements with the Commission. The documentation establishing the cash...

  12. Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    mêçÅÉÉÇáåÖë= çÑ=íÜÉ= bfdeqe=^kkr^i=^`nrfpfqflk== obpb^o`e=pvjmlpfrj== qeropa^v=pbppflkp== slirjb ff Developing Program Management Leadership for...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Developing Program Management Leadership for Acquisition Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Developing Program  Management   Leadership   for Acquisition Reform    The 8th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Panel #20: Investing in People

  13. Constitutional abnormalities of chromosome 21 predispose to iAMP21-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christine J; Schwab, Claire

    2016-03-01

    In addition to Down syndrome, individuals with other constitutional abnormalities of chromosome 21 have an increased risk of developing childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Specifically, carriers of the Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 15 and 21, rob(15;21) (q10; q10)c, have ∼2,700 increased risk of developing ALL with iAMP21 (intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21). In these patients, chromosome 15 as well as chromosome 21 is involved in the formation of iAMP21, referred to here as der(21)(15;21). Individuals with constitutional ring chromosomes involving chromosome 21, r(21)c, are also predisposed to iAMP21-ALL, involving the same series of mutational processes as seen in sporadic- and der(21)(15;21)-iAMP21 ALL. Evidence is accumulating that the dicentric nature of the Robertsonian and ring chromosome is the initiating factor in the formation of the complex iAMP21 structure. Unravelling these intriguing predispositions to iAMP21-ALL may provide insight into how other complex rearrangements arise in cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. 78 FR 14151 - Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management...: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Program Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held March 20...

  15. 77 FR 31421 - Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management...: Notice of RTCA Program Management Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of the RTCA Program Management Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held June...

  16. Extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway in proximal tubular, thick ascending limb, and collecting duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that human proximal tubular epithelial cells obtained from a commercial source metabolized extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP and extracellular 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP to adenosine (the extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway; extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP → 2′-AMP + 3′-AMP → adenosine). The purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolism of extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP in proximal tubular vs. thick ascending limb vs. collecting duct epithelial cells freshly isolated from their corresponding nephron segments obtained from rat kidneys. In epithelial cells from all three nephron segments, 1) extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP was metabolized to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP, with 2′-AMP > 3′-AMP, 2) the metabolism of extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP was not inhibited by either 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) or 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (ecto-phosphodiesterase inhibitor), 3) extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP increased extracellular adenosine levels, 4) 3′-AMP and 2′-AMP were metabolized to adenosine with an efficiency similar to that of 5′-AMP, and 5) the metabolism of 5′-AMP, 3′-AMP, and 2′-AMP was not inhibited by α,β-methylene-adenosine-5′-diphosphate (CD73 inhibitor). These results support the conclusion that renal epithelial cells all along the nephron can metabolize extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP to 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP and can efficiently metabolize extracellular 2′-AMP and 3′-AMP to adenosine and that the metabolic enzymes involved are not the classical phosphodiesterases nor ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73). Because 2′,3′-cAMP is released by injury and because previous studies demonstrate that the extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway stimulates epithelial cell proliferation via adenosine A2B receptors, the present results suggest that the extracellular 2′,3′-cAMP-adenosine pathway may help restore epithelial

  17. Absorption performance for CO2 capture process using MDEA-AMP aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Kou, Liqing; Li, Chao

    2017-03-01

    The absorption capacity and the absorption rate of CO2 in 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)-N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) aqueous solution were measured. The temperatures ranged from 303.2K to 323.2K. The mass fractions of AMP and MDEA respectively ranged from 0 to 0.03 and 0.2 to 0.3. The influence of temperature and w AMP on the absorption capacity and absorption rate of CO2 was illustrated.

  18. Hospitality Management. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide is intended for the implementation of a hospitality management program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, describes jobs under the program, and includes a curriculum framework and student performance standards for…

  19. modlAMP: Python for antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Müller, Alex T; Gabernet, Gisela; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2017-09-01

    We have implemented the lecular esign aboratory's nti icrobial eptides package ( ), a Python-based software package for the design, classification and visual representation of peptide data. modlAMP offers functions for molecular descriptor calculation and the retrieval of amino acid sequences from public or local sequence databases, and provides instant access to precompiled datasets for machine learning. The package also contains methods for the analysis and representation of circular dichroism spectra. The modlAMP Python package is available under the BSD license from URL http://doi.org/10.5905/ethz-1007-72 or via pip from the Python Package Index (PyPI). gisbert.schneider@pharma.ethz.ch. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Effective Program Management: A Cornerstone of Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Gosling, Jonathan; Case, Peter; Tulloch, Jim; Chandramohan, Daniel; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Newby, Gretchen; Gueye, Cara Smith; Koita, Kadiatou; Gosling, Roly

    2015-01-01

    Effective program management is essential for successful elimination of malaria. In this perspective article, evidence surrounding malaria program management is reviewed by management science and malaria experts through a literature search of published and unpublished gray documents and key informant interviews. Program management in a malaria elimination setting differs from that in a malaria control setting in a number of ways, although knowledge and understanding of these distinctions are lacking. Several core features of successful health program management are critical to achieve elimination, including effective leadership and supervision at all levels, sustained political and financial commitment, reliable supply and control of physical resources, effective management of data and information, appropriate incentives, and consistent accountability. Adding to the complexity, the requirements of an elimination program may conflict with those of a control regimen. Thus, an additional challenge is successfully managing program transitions along the continuum from control to elimination to prevention of reintroduction. This article identifies potential solutions to these challenges by exploring managerial approaches that are flexible, relevant, and sustainable in various cultural and health system contexts. PMID:26013372

  1. Isolation of novel ribozymes that ligate AMP-activated RNA substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, A. J.; Szostak, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The protein enzymes RNA ligase and DNA ligase catalyze the ligation of nucleic acids via an adenosine-5'-5'-pyrophosphate 'capped' RNA or DNA intermediate. The activation of nucleic acid substrates by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) may be a vestige of 'RNA world' catalysis. AMP-activated ligation seems ideally suited for catalysis by ribozymes (RNA enzymes), because an RNA motif capable of tightly and specifically binding AMP has previously been isolated. RESULTS: We used in vitro selection and directed evolution to explore the ability of ribozymes to catalyze the template-directed ligation of AMP-activated RNAs. We subjected a pool of 10(15) RNA molecules, each consisting of long random sequences flanking a mutagenized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer, to ten rounds of in vitro selection, including three rounds involving mutagenic polymerase chain reaction. Selection was for the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the 5'-capped active pool RNA species. Many different ligase ribozymes were isolated; these ribozymes had rates of reaction up to 0.4 ligations per hour, corresponding to rate accelerations of approximately 5 x10(5) over the templated, but otherwise uncatalyzed, background reaction rate. Three characterized ribozymes catalyzed the formation of 3'-5'-phosphodiester bonds and were highly specific for activation by AMP at the ligation site. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a new class of ligase ribozymes is consistent with the hypothesis that the unusual mechanism of the biological ligases resulted from a conservation of mechanism during an evolutionary replacement of a primordial ribozyme ligase by a more modern protein enzyme. The newly isolated ligase ribozymes may also provide a starting point for the isolation of ribozymes that catalyze the polymerization of AMP-activated oligonucleotides or mononucleotides, which might have been the prebiotic analogs of nucleoside triphosphates.

  2. Inhibition of AMP deaminase as therapeutic target in cardiovascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Zabielska, Magdalena A; Borkowski, Tomasz; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2015-08-01

    AMP deaminase (AMPD; EC 3.5.4.6) catalyzes hydrolysis of the amino group from the adenine ring of AMP resulting in production of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and ammonia. This reaction helps to maintain healthy cellular energetics by removing excess AMP that accumulates in energy depleted cells. Furthermore, AMPD permits the synthesis of guanine nucleotides from the larger adenylate pool. This enzyme competes with cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases (c5NT) for AMP. Adenosine, a product of c5NT is a vasodilator, antagonizes inotropic effects of catecholamines and exerts anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. The ratio of AMPD/c5NT defines the amount of adenosine produced in adenine nucleotide catabolic pathway. Inhibition of AMPD could alter this ratio resulting in increased adenosine production. Besides the potential effect on adenosine production, elevation of AMP due to inhibition of AMPD could also lead to activation of AMP regulated protein kinase (AMPK) with myriad of downstream events including enhanced energetic metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis and cytoprotection. While the benefits of these processes are well appreciated in cells such as skeletal or cardiac myocytes its role in protection of endothelium could be even more important. Therapeutic use of AMPD inhibition has been limited due to difficulties with obtaining compounds with adequate characteristics. However, endothelium seems to be the easiest target as effective inhibition of AMPD could be achieved at much lower concentration than in the other types of cells. New generation of AMPD inhibitors has recently been established and its testing in context of endothelial and organ protection could provide important basic knowledge and potential therapeutic tools. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular cAMP uptake as trigger for electrotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an electric field. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. By investigating the migration in the electric field of cell strains unable to migrate chemotactically (Amib-null) and with defective cAMP relay (ACA-null) we show that the starvation-induced transcription of a set of genes involved in the early developmental stage is not necessary for electrotaxis. However, the analysis of electrotaxis of vegetative cells as well as shortly starved cells shows that cells need to be stimulated with cAMP in order for them to migrate electrotactically. Indeed 30 minutes stimulation with cAMP pulses is enough to let cells orienting with the electric field although during this time the expression of receptors and the beginning of the development has not happened yet. We believe that the reason for this observed phenomenon lies on the endocytosis of the external cAMP which triggers electrotaxis as long as endocytosis and exocytosis are not balanced. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  4. Crystal structures of the adenylate sensor from fission yeast AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Townley, Robert; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2007-03-23

    The 5'-AMP (adenosine monophosphate)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) coordinates metabolic function with energy availability by responding to changes in intracellular ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and AMP concentrations. Here, we report crystal structures at 2.9 and 2.6 A resolution for ATP- and AMP-bound forms of a core alphabetagamma adenylate-binding domain from the fission yeast AMPK homolog. ATP and AMP bind competitively to a single site in the gamma subunit, with their respective phosphate groups positioned near function-impairing mutants. Unexpectedly, ATP binds without counterions, amplifying its electrostatic effects on a critical regulatory region where all three subunits converge.

  5. Evaluating and Selecting Sport Management Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuneen, Jacquelyn; Sidwell, M. Joy

    1998-01-01

    States that the accelerated growth of sport management undergraduate programs that began in the 1980s has continued into the current decade. There are currently 180 sport management major programs in American colleges and universities. Describes the sports management approval process and suggests useful strategies to evaluate sport management…

  6. Issues in NASA program and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This volume is the third in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover the attitude of the program manager, program control and performance measurement, risk management, cost plus award fee contracting, lessons learned from the development of the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrometer (FIRAS), small projects management, and age distribution of NASA scientists and engineers. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.

  7. Issues in NASA program and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This volume is the third in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover the attitude of the program manager, program control and performance measurement, risk management, cost plus award fee contracting, lessons learned from the development of the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrometer (FIRAS), small projects management, and age distribution of NASA scientists and engineers. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.

  8. Program Evaluation: Two Management-Oriented Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Kenneth Ray

    2010-01-01

    Two Management-Oriented Samples details two examples of the management-oriented approach to program evaluation. Kenneth Alford, a doctorate candidate at the University of the Cumberlands, details two separate program evaluations conducted in his school district and seeks to compare and contrast the two evaluations based upon the characteristics of…

  9. The relationship between pulsatile GnRH secretion and cAMP production in immortalized GnRH neurons.

    PubMed

    Frattarelli, John L; Krsmanovic, Lazar Z; Catt, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    In perifused immortalized GnRH neurons (GT1-7), simultaneous measurements of GnRH and cAMP revealed that the secretory profiles for both GnRH and cAMP are pulsatile. An analysis of GnRH and cAMP pulses in 16 independent experiments revealed that 25% of pulses coincide. Inversion of the peak and nadir levels was found in 33% and random relationship between GnRH and cAMP found in 42% of analyzed pulses. The random relation between GnRH and cAMP pulse resets to synchronous after an inverse relation between pulses occurred during the major GnRH release, indicating that GnRH acts as a switching mechanism to synchronize cAMP and GnRH release in perifused GT1-7 neurons. Activation of GnRH receptors with increasing agonist concentrations caused a biphasic change in cAMP levels. Low nanomolar concentrations increased cAMP production, but at high concentrations the initial increase was followed by a rapid decline to below the basal level. Blockade of the GnRH receptors by peptide and nonpeptide antagonists generated monotonic nonpulsatile increases in both GnRH and cAMP production. These findings indicate that cAMP positively regulates GnRH secretion but does not participate in the mechanism of pulsatile GnRH release.

  10. Selective Phosphonylation of 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate (5'-AMP) via Pyrophosphite [PPi(III)].

    PubMed

    Kaye, Karl; Bryant, David E; Marriott, Katie E R; Ohara, Shohei; Fishwick, Colin W G; Kee, Terence P

    2016-11-01

    We describe here experiments which demonstrate the selective phospho-transfer from a plausibly prebiotic condensed phosphorus (P) salt, pyrophosphite [H 2 P 2 O 5 2- ; PPi(III)], to the phosphate group of 5'-adenosine mono phosphate (5'-AMP). We show further that this P-transfer process is accelerated both by divalent metal ions (M 2+ ) and by organic co-factors such as acetate (AcO - ). In this specific case of P-transfer from PPi(III) to 5'-AMP, we show a synergistic enhancement of transfer in the combined presence of M 2+ & AcO - . Isotopic labelling studies demonstrate that hydrolysis of the phosphonylated 5'-AMP, [P(III)P(V)-5'-AMP], proceeds via nuceophilic attack of water at the Pi(III) terminus.

  11. AMP: a science-driven web-based application for the TeraGrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitaszek, M.; Metcalfe, T.; Shorrock, I.

    The Asteroseismic Modeling Portal (AMP) provides a web-based interface for astronomers to run and view simulations that derive the properties of Sun-like stars from observations of their pulsation frequencies. In this paper, we describe the architecture and implementation of AMP, highlighting the lightweight design principles and tools used to produce a functional fully-custom web-based science application in less than a year. Targeted as a TeraGrid science gateway, AMP's architecture and implementation are intended to simplify its orchestration of TeraGrid computational resources. AMP's web-based interface was developed as a traditional standalone database-backed web application using the Python-based Django web development framework, allowing us to leverage the Django framework's capabilities while cleanly separating the user interface development from the grid interface development. We have found this combination of tools flexible and effective for rapid gateway development and deployment.

  12. [Prognostic significance of the cyclic AMP concentration in acute leukemias].

    PubMed

    Paietta, E; Mittermayer, K; Schwarzmeier, J D

    1979-01-01

    In patients with acute leukemia (myeloblastic, lymphoblastic, undifferentiated) proliferation kinetics and cyclic adenosine-3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) concentration of the leukemic cells were studied for their significance in the prediction of responsiveness to cytostatic therapy. Patients with good clinical response had significantly faster turnover and lower cAMP-levels than those who failed to respond to treatment.

  13. TWRS Configuration management program plan

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vann, J.M.

    The TWRS Configuration Management Program Plan (CMPP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain consistency among requirements, product configuration, and product information for TWRS products during all life cycle phases. This CMPP will be used by TWRS management and configuration management personnel to establish and manage the technical and integrated baselines and controls and status changes to those baselines.

  14. Program/project management resource lists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Program/Project Management Collection at NASA Headquarters Library is part of a larger initiative by the Training and Development Division, Code FT, NASA Headquarters. The collection is being developed to support the Program/Project Management Initiative which includes the training of NASA managers. These PPM Resource Lists have proven to be a useful method of informing NASA employees nationwide about the subject coverage of the library collection. All resources included on the lists are available at or through NASA Headquarters Library. NASA employees at other Centers may request listed books through interlibrary loan, and listed articles by contacting me by phone, mail, or e-mail.

  15. Effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the kinetics of myo-inositol transport in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Isaacks, R E; Bender, A S; Reuben, J S; Kim, C Y; Shi, Y F; Norenberg, M D

    1999-07-01

    Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dBcAMP) is known to induce maturation and differentiation in astrocytes. As myo-inositol is an important osmoregulator in astrocytes, we examined the effects of maturation and biochemical differentiation on the kinetic properties of myo-inositol transport. Treatment of astrocytes with dBcAMP significantly decreased the Vmax of myo-inositol uptake, but the effect on Km was not significant. The myo-inositol content of astrocytes was significantly decreased in cells treated for 5 days with dBcAMP as compared with untreated controls. Maximum suppression of myo-inositol uptake occurred 7 days after exposure of astrocytes to dBcAMP; this was gradually reversible when dBcAMP was removed from the medium. After exposure to hypertonic medium for 6 h, mRNA expression of the myo-inositol co-transporter was diminished by approximately 36% in astrocytes treated with dBcAMP as compared with untreated cells. It appears that myo-inositol transporters in astrocytes treated with dBcAMP are either decreased in number or inactivated during maturation and differentiation, suggesting that the stage of differentiation and biochemical maturation of astrocytes is an important factor in osmoregulation.

  16. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adaptive management program. 385... Incorporating New Information Into the Plan § 385.31 Adaptive management program. (a) General. The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall, in consultation with the Department of the...

  17. Alaska Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov Websites

    Department of Natural Resources logo Department of Natural Resources Office of Project Management &amp Restoration Coastal Impact Assistance Program Natural Resources / Office of Project Management &amp ; Permitting Welcome to the Office of Project Management & Permitting Large Project Coordination The

  18. Economic value evaluation in disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Reicher, Sima; Shani, Mordechai

    2008-05-01

    Chronic disease management has been a rapidly growing entity in the 21st century as a strategy for managing chronic illnesses in large populations. However, experience has shown that disease management programs have not been able to demonstrate their financial value. The objectives of disease management programs are to create quality benchmarks, such as principles and guidelines, and to establish a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them. In order to illuminate the essence of disease management and its components, as well as the complexity and the problematic nature of performing economic calculations of their profitability and value, we collected data from several reports that dealt with the economic intervention of disease management programs. The disease management economic evaluation is composed of a series of steps, including the following major categories: data/information technology, information generation, assessment/recommendations, actionable customer plans, and program assessment/reassessment. We demonstrate the elements necessary for economic analysis. Disease management is one of the most innovative tools in the managed care environment and is still in the process of being defined. Therefore, objectives should include the creation of quality measures, such as principles and guidelines, and the establishment of a uniform set of metrics and a standardized methodology for evaluating them.

  19. Dose and Chemical Modification Considerations for Continuous Cyclic AMP Analog Delivery to the Injured CNS

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Karim; Ghosh, Mousumi; Vavrek, Romana; Tse, Arthur D.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this investigation, two cell-permeable synthetic analogs of cAMP, dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) and 8-bromo-cAMP, which are widely used to elevate intracellular cAMP levels under experimental conditions, were investigated for their ability to dose-dependently improve histological and functional outcomes following continuous delivery in two models of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The cAMP analogs were delivered via osmotic minipumps at 1–250 mM through an indwelling cortical cannula or by intrathecal infusion for up to 4 weeks after either a T8 unilateral over-hemisection or a C2-3 dorsolateral quadrant lesion, respectively. In both SCI models, continuous db-cAMP delivery was associated with histopathological changes that included sporadic micro-hemorrhage formation and cavitation, enhanced macrophage infiltration and tissue damage at regions beyond the immediate application site; no deleterious or beneficial effect of agent delivery was observed at the spinal injury site. Furthermore, these changes were accompanied by pronounced behavioral deficits that included an absence of progressive locomotor recovery, increased extensor tone, paralysis, and sensory abnormalities. These deleterious effects were not observed in saline-treated animals, in animals in which the db-cAMP dose did not exceed 1 mM, or in those animals that received a high dose (250 mM) of the alternative cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP. These results demonstrate that, for continuous intraparenchymal or intrathecal administration of cAMP analogs for the study of biological or therapeutic effects within the central nervous system (CNS), consideration of the effective concentration applied as well as the potential toxicity of chemical moieties on the parent molecule and/or their activity needs to be taken into account. PMID:19397425

  20. Epidemiology and risk factors for infections due to AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Vanesa; Ortiz, Gabriel; Simó, Maria; Alonso, Noemí; Garcia, Maria Consol; Xercavins, Mariona; Rivera, Alba; Morera, Maria Antonia; Miró, Elisenda; Espejo, Elena; Navarro, Ferran; Gurguí, Mercè; Pérez, Josefa; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Mónica; Garau, Javier; Calbo, Esther

    2015-03-01

    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for infection due to AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (AmpC-EC). For the prevalence study, all clinical isolates of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins were prospectively included from June 2010 to November 2011. For risk factor analysis, a case-control study was conducted. Cases were patients with an infection due to AmpC-EC. Controls were patients infected with cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli, matched 1 : 2. Detection of blaAmpC genes was done with a multiplex AmpC-PCR, and hyperproduction of E. coli chromosomal blaAmpC by quantitative RT-PCR. Alteration of the blaAmpC promoter was studied by PCR and sequencing. We identified 243 (1.1%) AmpC-EC strains out of 21 563 clinical isolates. Three cases with strains carrying ESBLs, 18 strains that were considered due to colonization and 8 cases lost to clinical follow-up were excluded. Finally, 214 cases were included in the analysis. Ninety-one cases (42.5%) and 269 (62.8%) controls were strictly community acquired (P < 0.001). Thirty-five (16.3%) cases and 186 controls (43.5%) did not have any identifiable risk factor (P < 0.001). Among cases, 158 (73.8%) were found to harbour an acquired AmpC (73.4% CMY-2). Previous use of fluoroquinolones [OR 2.6 (95% CI 1.12-3.36); P = 0.008] was independently associated with AmpC-EC in the multivariate analysis. Prevalence of AmpC in E. coli remains low in our area. Plasmid acquisition (CMY type) represents the main mechanism of AmpC production. A high proportion of community-acquired isolates and patients with no identifiable risk factors were found. Previous use of fluoroquinolones was identified as a risk factor. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Research of the Rio Grande Ecosystem Management Program

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the mission, objectives, and preliminary results of the Middle Rio Grande Ecosystem Management Research Program managed at the Rocky Mountain Research Station's Albuquerque laboratory. This program was initiated in 1994 to address growing pressures to effectively manage the limited resources of the middle Rio Grande Basin. The program is...

  2. Management of major system programs and projects. Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Handbook establishes the detailed policies and processes for implementing NMI 7120.4, 'Management of Major System Programs and Projects'. It constitutes a comprehensive source of the specific policies and processes governing management of major development programs/projects and is intended as a resource to the entire program/project management (PPM) community.

  3. Analysis of Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project is developing a modular approach to spacecraft power systems for exploration beyond Earth orbit. AMPS is intended to meet the need of reducing the cost of design development, test and integration and also reducing the operational logistics cost of supporting exploration missions. AMPS seeks to establish modular power building blocks with standardized electrical, mechanical, thermal and data interfaces that can be applied across multiple exploration vehicles. The presentation discusses the results of a cost analysis that compares the cost of the modular approach against a traditional non-modular approach.

  4. 18 CFR 141.500 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management... OF 1978 STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.500 Cash management programs. Public utilities and... and § 141.1 or § 141.2 of this title that participate in cash management programs must file these...

  5. 18 CFR 357.5 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management...: CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.5 Cash management programs. Oil pipeline... and § 357.2 of this title that participate in cash management programs must file these agreements with...

  6. 18 CFR 141.500 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash management... OF 1978 STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 141.500 Cash management programs. Public utilities and... and § 141.1 or § 141.2 of this title that participate in cash management programs must file these...

  7. 18 CFR 357.5 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cash management...: CARRIERS SUBJECT TO PART I OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 357.5 Cash management programs. Oil pipeline... and § 357.2 of this title that participate in cash management programs must file these agreements with...

  8. cAMP signaling in skeletal muscle adaptation: hypertrophy, metabolism, and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Among organ systems, skeletal muscle is perhaps the most structurally specialized. The remarkable subcellular architecture of this tissue allows it to empower movement with instructions from motor neurons. Despite this high degree of specialization, skeletal muscle also has intrinsic signaling mechanisms that allow adaptation to long-term changes in demand and regeneration after acute damage. The second messenger adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) not only elicits acute changes within myofibers during exercise but also contributes to myofiber size and metabolic phenotype in the long term. Strikingly, sustained activation of cAMP signaling leads to pronounced hypertrophic responses in skeletal myofibers through largely elusive molecular mechanisms. These pathways can promote hypertrophy and combat atrophy in animal models of disorders including muscular dystrophy, age-related atrophy, denervation injury, disuse atrophy, cancer cachexia, and sepsis. cAMP also participates in muscle development and regeneration mediated by muscle precursor cells; thus, downstream signaling pathways may potentially be harnessed to promote muscle regeneration in patients with acute damage or muscular dystrophy. In this review, we summarize studies implicating cAMP signaling in skeletal muscle adaptation. We also highlight ligands that induce cAMP signaling and downstream effectors that are promising pharmacological targets. PMID:22354781

  9. Labor characteristics and program costs of a successful diabetes disease management program.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Russell L; So, Stephanie A; Shin, John; Malone, Robert M; Bryant, Betsy; Dewalt, Darren A; Pignone, Michael P; Dittus, Robert S

    2006-05-01

    Organizations have invested in disease management programs to improve quality and to reduce costs, but little is known about the labor characteristics and the program costs necessary to implement a program. To examine the labor characteristics and the program costs of a successful diabetes disease management program. We performed a labor and cost analysis within a randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based diabetes disease management intervention. Participants included 217 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin levels, > or = 8.0%). The intervention group received 12 months of intensive management from clinical pharmacists and a diabetes care coordinator who provided education, applied algorithms for medication management, and addressed barriers to care. The control group attended a single session led by pharmacists, followed by usual care from their primary providers. The process outcomes included the number of patient care-related activities, time spent per patient, and number of drug titrations or additions. The program costs were calculated based on Bureau of Labor Statistics wage data using a sensitivity analysis. The disease management team performed a mean of 4.0 care-related activities for a mean of 38.6 minutes per patient per month for intervention patients and performed a mean of 1.1 care-related activities for a mean of 10.7 minutes per patient per month for control patients (P < .001). Intervention patients had a median of 7 drug titrations or additions during the study. The incremental program cost for the intervention was 36.97 dollars (sensitivity analysis, 6.22 dollars-88.56 dollars) per patient per month. A successful diabetes disease management program can be integrated into an academic clinic for modest labor and cost.

  10. An Analysis of the Radio Program Manager Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Jerry; Stella, Phillip.

    This occupational analysis data was assembled to help broadcasting arts teachers develop a course of study in program management for junior and senior high school students. Following a job description for a program manager, the remainder of the content in standard task analysis format presents an analysis of nine program management duties (tasks).…

  11. The localization and concentration of the PDE2-encoded high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase is regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Liu, Enkai; Bai, Xiaojia; Zhang, Aili

    2010-03-01

    The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes two cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterases, a low-affinity one, Pde1, and a high-affinity one, Pde2. Pde1 has been ascribed a function for downregulating agonist-induced cAMP accumulation in a protein kinase A (PKA)-governed negative feedback loop, whereas Pde2 controls the basal cAMP level in the cell. Here we show that PKA regulates the localization and protein concentration of Pde2. Pde2 is accumulated in the nucleus in wild-type cells growing on glucose, or in strains with hyperactive PKA. In contrast, in derepressed wild-type cells or cells with attenuated PKA activity, Pde2 is distributed over the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also show evidence indicating that the Pde2 protein level is positively correlated with PKA activity. The increase in the Pde2 protein level in high-PKA strains and in cells growing on glucose was due to its increased half-life. These results suggest that, like its low-affinity counterpart, the high-affinity phosphodiesterase may also play an important role in the PKA-controlled feedback inhibition of intracellular cAMP.

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Evaluation of Localized Cable Test Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Glass, Samuel W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hartman, Trenton S.

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test (NDE) methods focusing particularly on local measurements that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As NPPs consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal (SLR) to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs (AMPs) to assure continuedmore » safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. Most utilities already have a program associated with their first life extension from 40 to 60 years. Regrettably, there is neither a clear guideline nor a single NDE that can assure cable function and integrity for all cables. Thankfully, however, practical implementation of a broad range of tests allows utilities to develop a practical program that assures cable function to a high degree. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other NDE tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. These cable NDE programs vary in rigor and methodology. As the industry gains experience with the efficacy of these programs, it is expected that implementation practice will converge to a more common approach. This report addresses the range of local NDE cable tests

  13. [The German program for disease management guidelines--implementation with pathways and quality management].

    PubMed

    Ollenschläger, Günter; Lelgemann, Monika; Kopp, Ina

    2007-07-15

    In Germany, physicians enrolled in disease management programs are legally obliged to follow evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. That is why a Program for National Disease Management Guidelines (German DM-CPG Program) was established in 2002 aiming at implementation of best-practice evidence-based recommendations for nationwide as well as regional disease management programs. Against this background the article reviews programs, methods and tools for implementing DM-CPGs via clinical pathways as well as regional guidelines for outpatient care. Special reference is given to the institutionalized program of adapting DM-CPGs for regional use by primary-care physicians in the State of Hesse.

  14. cAMP controls rod photoreceptor sensitivity via multiple targets in the phototransduction cascade

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Luba A.; Samoiliuk, Evgeniia V.; Govardovskii, Victor I.

    2012-01-01

    In early studies, both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cGMP were considered as potential secondary messengers regulating the conductivity of the vertebrate photoreceptor plasma membrane. Later discovery of the cGMP specificity of cyclic nucleotide–gated channels has shifted attention to cGMP as the only secondary messenger in the phototransduction cascade, and cAMP is not considered in modern schemes of phototransduction. Here, we report evidence that cAMP may also be involved in regulation of the phototransduction cascade. Using a suction pipette technique, we recorded light responses of isolated solitary rods from the frog retina in normal solution and in the medium containing 2 µM of adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. Under forskolin action, flash sensitivity rose more than twofold because of a retarded photoresponse turn-off. The same concentration of forskolin lead to a 2.5-fold increase in the rod outer segment cAMP, which is close to earlier reported natural day/night cAMP variations. Detailed analysis of cAMP action on the phototransduction cascade suggests that several targets are affected by cAMP increase: (a) basal dark phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity decreases; (b) at the same intensity of light background, steady background-induced PDE activity increases; (c) at light backgrounds, guanylate cyclase activity at a given fraction of open channels is reduced; and (d) the magnitude of the Ca2+ exchanger current rises 1.6-fold, which would correspond to a 1.6-fold elevation of [Ca2+]in. Analysis by a complete model of rod phototransduction suggests that an increase of [Ca2+]in might also explain effects (b) and (c). The mechanism(s) by which cAMP could regulate [Ca2+]in and PDE basal activity is unclear. We suggest that these regulations may have adaptive significance and improve the performance of the visual system when it switches between day and night light conditions. PMID:23008435

  15. Technology Program Management Model (TPMM) Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-10

    1 1 “Secure the High Ground” Jeff Craver Project Manager Space and Missile Defense Technical Center Jeff.Craver@US.Army.Mil ff r r r j t r i il...f i l t r ff. r r . r . il UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Technology Program Management Model (TPMM) Overview 05-10-2006 Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technology Program Management Model (TPMM) Overview 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  16. Demodulation RFI statistics for a 3-stage op amp LED circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, James J.

    An experiment has been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of combining several methods of electromagnetic-compatibility analysis. The part of the experiment that demonstrates how RF signals cause interference in an audio-frequency (AF) circuit and how the interference can be suppressed is described. The circuit includes three operational amplifiers (op amps) and a light-emitting diode (LED). A 50 percent amplitude-modulated (AM) radio-frequency-interference (RFI) signal is used, varied over the range from 0.1 to 400 MHz. The AM frequency is 1 kHz. The RFI is injected into the inverting input of the first op amp, and the 1-kHz demodulation response of the amplifier is amplified by the second and third op amps and lights the LED to provide a visual display of the existence of RFI. An RFI suppression capacitor was added to reduce the RFI. The demodulation RFI results are presented as scatter plots for 35 741 op amps. Mean values and standard deviations are also shown.

  17. Increase in Ca2+ current by sustained cAMP levels enhances proliferation rate in GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andréia Laura; Brescia, Marcella; Koschinski, Andreas; Moreira, Thaís Helena; Cameron, Ryan T; Baillie, George; Beirão, Paulo S L; Zaccolo, Manuela; Cruz, Jader S

    2018-01-01

    Ca 2+ and cAMP are important intracellular modulators. In order to generate intracellular signals with various amplitudes, as well as different temporal and spatial properties, a tightly and precise control of these modulators in intracellular compartments is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of elevated and sustained cAMP levels on voltage-dependent Ca 2+ currents and proliferation in pituitary tumor GH3 cells. Effect of long-term exposure to forskolin and dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) on Ca 2+ current density and cell proliferation rate were determined by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and real time cell monitoring system. The cAMP levels were assayed, after exposing transfected GH3 cells with the EPAC-1 cAMP sensor to forskolin and dbcAMP, by FRET analysis. Sustained forskolin treatment (24 and 48h) induced a significant increase in total Ca 2+ current density in GH3 cells. Accordingly, dibutyryl-cAMP incubation (dbcAMP) also elicited increase in Ca 2+ current density. However, the maximum effect of dbcAMP occurred only after 72h incubation, whereas forskolin showed maximal effect at 48h. FRET-experiments confirmed that the time-course to elevate intracellular cAMP was distinct between forskolin and dbcAMP. Mibefradil inhibited the fast inactivating current component selectively, indicating the recruitment of T-type Ca 2+ channels. A significant increase on cell proliferation rate, which could be related to the elevated and sustained intracellular levels of cAMP was observed. We conclude that maintaining high levels of intracellular cAMP will cause an increase in Ca 2+ current density and this phenomenon impacts proliferation rate in GH3 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chertkov, Michael

    2012-07-24

    Increased deployment of new technologies, e.g., renewable generation and electric vehicles, is rapidly transforming electrical power networks by crossing previously distinct spatiotemporal scales and invalidating many traditional approaches for designing, analyzing, and operating power grids. This trend is expected to accelerate over the coming years, bringing the disruptive challenge of complexity, but also opportunities to deliver unprecedented efficiency and reliability. Our Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS) Center will discover, enable, and solve emerging mathematics challenges arising in power systems and, more generally, in complex engineered networks. We will develop foundational applied mathematics resulting in rigorous algorithms and simulation toolboxesmore » for modern and future engineered networks. The AMPS Center deconstruction/reconstruction approach 'deconstructs' complex networks into sub-problems within non-separable spatiotemporal scales, a missing step in 20th century modeling of engineered networks. These sub-problems are addressed within the appropriate AMPS foundational pillar - complex systems, control theory, and optimization theory - and merged or 'reconstructed' at their boundaries into more general mathematical descriptions of complex engineered networks where important new questions are formulated and attacked. These two steps, iterated multiple times, will bridge the growing chasm between the legacy power grid and its future as a complex engineered network.« less

  19. Microgravity changes in heart structure and cyclic-AMP metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Fine, A.; Kato, K.; Egnor, R.; Cheng, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on cardiac ultrastructure and cyclic AMP metabolism in tissues of rats flown on Spacelab 3 are reported. Light and electron microscope studies of cell structure, measurements of low and high Km phosphodiesterase activity, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and regulatory subunit compartmentation show significant deviations in flight animals when compared to ground controls. The results indicate that some changes have occurred in cellular responses associated with catecholamine receptor interactions and intracellular signal processing.

  20. Program management model study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, J. J.; Russell, J. E.; Seline, J. R.; Sumner, N. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Two models, a system performance model and a program assessment model, have been developed to assist NASA management in the evaluation of development alternatives for the Earth Observations Program. Two computer models were developed and demonstrated on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computer Facility. Procedures have been outlined to guide the user of the models through specific evaluation processes, and the preparation of inputs describing earth observation needs and earth observation technology. These models are intended to assist NASA in increasing the effectiveness of the overall Earth Observation Program by providing a broader view of system and program development alternatives.

  1. cAMP modulates multiple K+ currents, increasing spike duration and excitability in Aplysia sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, B A; Abrams, T W

    1992-12-01

    Enhancement of the defensive withdrawal reflex of Aplysia involves a prolongation of the action potentials of mechanosensory neurons, which contributes to facilitation of transmitter release from these cells. Recent reports have suggested that whereas cAMP-dependent modulation of K+ current increases sensory neuron excitability, a cAMP-independent decrease in K+ current may increase the action potential duration and, thus, facilitate transmitter release. We have tested this proposal using Walsh cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor or activators of the cAMP cascade and found that cAMP plays a major role in the spike-broadening effects of facilitatory transmitter; however, broadening requires higher levels of activation of the cAMP-dependent kinase than does increasing excitability. A steeply voltage-dependent transient K+ current, termed IKV,early, and the slowly activating S-type K+ (S-K+) current are both reduced by activation of the cAMP cascade, although with different sensitivities to the second messenger, enabling excitability and spike duration to be regulated independently. Differences in cAMP sensitivity also suggested that the originally described S-K+ current actually consists of two independent components, a slowly activating component and a time-independent, "steady-state" current that is activated at rest.

  2. Rising out-of-pocket costs in disease management programs.

    PubMed

    Chernew, Michael E; Rosen, Allison B; Fendrick, A Mark

    2006-03-01

    To document the rise in copayments for patients in disease management programs and to call attention to the inherent conflicts that exist between these 2 approaches to benefit design. Data from 2 large health plans were used to compare cost sharing in disease management programs with cost sharing outside of disease management programs. The copayments charged to participants in disease management programs usually do not differ substantially from those charged to other beneficiaries. Cost sharing and disease management result in conflicting approaches to benefit design. Increasing copayments may lead to underuse of recommended services, thereby decreasing the clinical effectiveness and increasing the overall costs of disease management programs. Policymakers and private purchasers should consider the use of targeted benefit designs when implementing disease management programs or redesigning cost-sharing provisions. Current information systems and health services research are sufficiently advanced to permit these benefit designs.

  3. The cAMP Pathway as Therapeutic Target in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raker, Verena Katharina; Becker, Christian; Steinbrink, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide signaling molecules contribute to the regulation of cellular pathways. In the immune system, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is well established as a potent regulator of innate and adaptive immune cell functions. Therapeutic strategies to interrupt or enhance cAMP generation or effects have immunoregulatory potential in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Here, we provide an overview of the cyclic AMP axis and its role as a regulator of immune functions and discuss the clinical and translational relevance of interventions with these processes. PMID:27065076

  4. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf01 (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light–dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene perS ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the perS protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf01 circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF. PMID:24707054

  5. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf(01) (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light-dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene per(S) ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the per(S) protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf(01) circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF.

  6. Cyclic AMP-receptor protein activates aerobactin receptor IutA expression in Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Seong-Jung; Shin, Sung-Heui

    2012-04-01

    The ferrophilic bacterium Vibrio vulnificus can utilize the siderophore aerobactin of Escherichia coli for iron acquisition via its specific receptor IutA. This siderophore piracy by V. vulnificus may contribute to its survival and proliferation, especially in mixed bacterial environments. In this study, we examined the effects of glucose, cyclic AMP (cAMP), and cAMP-receptor protein (Crp) on iutA expression in V. vulnificus. Glucose dose-dependently repressed iutA expression. A mutation in cya encoding adenylate cyclase required for cAMP synthesis severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by in trans complementing cya or the addition of exogenous cAMP. Furthermore, a mutation in crp encoding Crp severely repressed iutA expression, and this change was recovered by complementing crp. Accordingly, glucose deprivation under iron-limited conditions is an environmental signal for iutA expression, and Crp functions as an activator that regulates iutA expression in response to glucose availability.

  7. 5′-AMP impacts lymphocyte recirculation through activation of A2B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Mandl, Judith N.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Boerema, Ate S.; Kok, Jan-Willem; van Dam, Annie; IJzerman, Ad; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Henning, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Natural hibernation consists of torpid phases with metabolic suppression alternating with euthermic periods. Induction of torpor holds substantial promise in various medical conditions, including trauma, major surgery, and transplantation. Torpor in mice can be induced pharmacologically by 5′-AMP. Previously, we showed that during natural torpor, the reduction in body temperature results in lymphopenia via a reduction in plasma S1P. Here, we show that during torpor induced by 5′-AMP, there is a similar reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes that is a result of their retention in secondary lymphoid organs. This lymphopenia could be mimicked by engagement of A2BRs by a selective A2BR agonist (LUF6210) in the absence of changes in temperature and prevented by A2BR antagonists during 5′-AMP-induced torpor. In addition, forced cooling of mice led to peripheral blood lymphopenia, independent of A2BR signaling. The induction of torpor using 5′-AMP impacted the migration of lymphocytes within and between secondary lymphoid organs. During torpor, the homing into LNs was impaired, and two-photon intravital microscopy revealed that cell motility was decreased significantly and rapidly upon 5′-AMP administration. Furthermore, the S1P plasma concentration was reduced by 5′-AMP but not by LUF6210. S1P plasma levels restored upon arousal. Likely, the reduced migration in LNs combined with the reduced S1P plasma level substantially reduces lymphocyte egress after injection of 5′-AMP. In conclusion, 5′-AMP induces a state of pharmacological torpor in mice, during which, lymphopenia is governed primarily by body temperature-independent suppression of lymphocyte egress from LNs. PMID:23682128

  8. Biatriosporin D displays anti-virulence activity through decreasing the intracellular cAMP levels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Ming; Chang, Wenqiang; Shi, Hongzhuo

    Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Of note is the high efficacy of BD in preventing filamentation with a much lower dose than its MIC value. Furthermore, BD prolonged the survival of worms infectedmore » by C. albicans in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis, exogenous cAMP rescue experiments and intracellular cAMP measurements revealed that BD regulates the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway by reducing cAMP levels to inhibit the hyphal formation. Further investigation showed that BD could upregulate Dpp3 to synthesize much more farnesol, which could inhibit the activity of Cdc35 and reduce the generation of cAMP. Taken together, these findings indicate that BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol that directly inhibits the Cdc35 activity, reducing intracellular cAMP and thereby disrupting the morphologic transition and attenuating the virulence of C. albicans. Our study uncovers the underlying mechanism of BD as a prodrug in fighting against pathogenic C. albicans and provides a potential application of BD in fighting clinically relevant fungal infections by targeting fungal virulence. - Highlights: • BD inhibits the filamentation of C. albicans in multiple hypha-inducing conditions. • BD can prolong the survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. • BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol. • BD reduces intracellular cAMP and regulates Ras1-cAMP-PKA pathway.« less

  9. Extracellular cAMP activates molecular signalling pathways associated with sperm capacitation in bovines.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Carlos Agustín I; Osycka-Salut, Claudia E; Castellano, Luciana; Cesari, Andreína; Di Siervi, Nicolás; Mutto, Adrián; Johannisson, Anders; Morrell, Jane M; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2017-08-01

    Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? Extracellular cAMP induces sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation. This correlates with a number of membrane and metabolic modifications that include an increased influx of bicarbonate and Ca2+, activation of a soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) to produce cAMP, PKA activation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the development of hyperactivated motility. We previously reported that cAMP efflux by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4) occurs during sperm capacitation and the pharmacological blockade of this inhibits the process. Moreover, the supplementation of incubation media with cAMP abolishes the inhibition and leads to sperm capacitation, suggesting that extracellular cAMP regulates crucial signalling cascades involved in this process. Bovine sperm were selected by the wool glass column method, and washed by centrifugation in BSA-Free Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (sp-TALP). Pellets were resuspended then diluted for each treatment. For in vitro capacitation, 10 to 15 × 106 SPZ/ml were incubated in 0.3% BSA sp-TALP at 38.5°C for 45 min under different experimental conditions. To evaluate the role of extracellular cAMP on different events associated with sperm capacitation, 10 nM cAMP was added to the incubation medium as well as different inhibitors of enzymes associated with signalling transduction pathways: U73122 (PLC inhibitor, 10 μM), Gö6983 (PKC inhibitor, 10 μM), PD98059 (ERK-1/2 inhibitor, 30 μM), H89 and KT (PKA inhibitors, 50 μM and 100 nM, respectively), KH7 (sAC inhibitor, 10 μM), BAPTA

  10. N-Acetyl-D- and L-esters of 5'-AMP hydrolyze at different rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. S.; Lacey, J. C. Jr; Lacey JC, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the properties of aminoacyl derivatives of 5'-AMP are aimed at understanding the origin of the process of protein synthesis. Aminoacyl (2',3') esters of 5'-AMP can serve as models of the 3'-terminus of aminoacyl tRNA. We report here on the relative rates of hydrolysis of Ac-D- and L-Phe AMP esters as a function of pH. At all pHs above 3, the rate constant of hydrolysis of the Ac-L-Phe ester is 1.7 to 2.1 times that of Ac-D-Phe ester. The D-isomer seems partially protected from hydrolysis by a stronger association with the adenine ring of the 5'-AMP.

  11. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver: a new strategy for the management of metabolic hepatic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Viollet, Benoit; Foretz, Marc; Guigas, Bruno; Horman, Sandrine; Dentin, Renaud; Bertrand, Luc; Hue, Louis; Andreelli, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    It is now becoming evident that the liver has an important role in the control of whole body metabolism of energy nutrients. In this review, we focus on recent findings showing that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a major role in the control of hepatic metabolism. AMPK integrates nutritional and hormonal signals to promote energy balance by switching on catabolic pathways and switching off ATP-consuming pathways, both by short-term effects on phosphorylation of regulatory proteins and by long-term effects on gene expression. Activation of AMPK in the liver leads to the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and inhibition of lipogenesis, glucose production and protein synthesis. Medical interest in the AMPK system has recently increased with the demonstration that AMPK could mediate some of the effects of the fat cell-derived adiponectin and the antidiabetic drugs metformin and thiazolidinediones. These findings reinforce the idea that pharmacological activation of AMPK may provide, through signalling and metabolic and gene expression effects, a new strategy for the management of metabolic hepatic disorders linked to type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:16644802

  12. 48 CFR 1301.671 - Assignment of program and project managers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... project managers. 1301.671 Section 1301.671 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE..., and Responsibilities 1301.671 Assignment of program and project managers. The Department's Program and Project Manager certification program for the assignment and certification of Program and Project Managers...

  13. Investigation of cAMP microdomains as a path to novel cancer diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Desman, Garrett; Waintraub, Caren; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of cAMP signaling has greatly improved over the past decade. The advent of live cell imaging techniques and more specific pharmacologic modulators has led to an improved understanding of the intricacies by which cAMP is able to modulate such a wide variety of cellular pathways. It is now appreciated that cAMP is able to activate multiple effector proteins at distinct areas in the cell leading to the activation of very different downstream targets. The investigation of signaling proteins in cancer is a common route to the development of diagnostic tools, prognostic tools, and/or therapeutic targets, and in this review we highlight how investigation of cAMP signaling microdomains driven by the soluble adenylyl cyclase in different cancers has led to the development of a novel cancer biomarker. Antibodies directed against the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) are highly specific markers for melanoma especially for lentigo maligna melanoma and are being described as "second generation" cancer diagnostics, which are diagnostics that determine the 'state' of a cell and not just identify the cell type. Due to the wide presence of cAMP signaling pathways in cancer, we predict that further investigation of both sAC and other cAMP microdomains will lead to additional cancer biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of soluble adenylyl cyclase in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. AMP and adenosine are both ligands for adenosine 2B receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Holien, Jessica K; Seibt, Benjamin; Roberts, Veena; Salvaris, Evelyn; Parker, Michael W; Cowan, Peter J; Dwyer, Karen M

    2018-01-15

    Adenosine is considered the canonical ligand for the adenosine 2B receptor (A 2B R). A 2B R is upregulated following kidney ischemia augmenting post ischemic blood flow and limiting tubular injury. In this context the beneficial effect of A 2B R signaling has been attributed to an increase in the pericellular concentration of adenosine. However, following renal ischemia both kidney adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine levels are substantially increased. Using computational modeling and calcium mobilization assays, we investigated whether AMP could also be a ligand for A 2B R. The computational modeling suggested that AMP interacts with more favorable energy to A 2B R compared with adenosine. Furthermore, AMPαS, a non-hydrolyzable form of AMP, increased calcium uptake by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the human A 2B R, indicating preferential signaling via the G q pathway. Therefore, a putative AMP-A 2B R interaction is supported by the computational modeling data and the biological results suggest this interaction involves preferential G q activation. These data provide further insights into the role of purinergic signaling in the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Essential role of the cAMP-cAMP response-element binding protein pathway in opiate-induced homeostatic adaptations of locus coeruleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun-Li; Vialou, Vincent F; Lobo, Mary Kay; Robison, Alfred J; Neve, Rachael L; Cooper, Donald C; Nestler, Eric J; Han, Ming-Hu

    2010-09-28

    Excessive inhibition of brain neurons in primary or slice cultures can induce homeostatic intrinsic plasticity, but the functional role and underlying molecular mechanisms of such plasticity are poorly understood. Here, we developed an ex vivo locus coeruleus (LC) slice culture system and successfully recapitulated the opiate-induced homeostatic adaptation in electrical activity of LC neurons seen in vivo. We investigated the mechanisms underlying this adaptation in LC slice cultures by use of viral-mediated gene transfer and genetic mutant mice. We found that short-term morphine treatment of slice cultures almost completely abolished the firing of LC neurons, whereas chronic morphine treatment increased LC neuronal excitability as revealed during withdrawal. This increased excitability was mediated by direct activation of opioid receptors and up-regulation of the cAMP pathway and accompanied by increased cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB) activity. Overexpression of a dominant negative CREB mutant blocked the increase in LC excitability induced by morphine- or cAMP-pathway activation. Knockdown of CREB in slice cultures from floxed CREB mice similarly decreased LC excitability. Furthermore, the ability of morphine or CREB overexpression to up-regulate LC firing was blocked by knockout of the CREB target adenylyl cyclase 8. Together, these findings provide direct evidence that prolonged exposure to morphine induces homeostatic plasticity intrinsic to LC neurons, involving up-regulation of the cAMP-CREB signaling pathway, which then enhances LC neuronal excitability.

  16. Crystal structures of RIalpha subunit of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase complexed with (Rp)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate and (Sp)-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate, the phosphothioate analogues of cAMP.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Jones, John M; Nguyen-Huu, Xuong; Ten Eyck, Lynn F; Taylor, Susan S

    2004-06-01

    Cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is an ancient signaling molecule, and in vertebrates, a primary target for cAMP is cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). (R(p))-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate ((R(p))-cAMPS) and its analogues are the only known competitive inhibitors and antagonists for cAMP activation of PKA, while (S(p))-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphothioate ((S(p))-cAMPS) functions as an agonist. The crystal structures of a Delta(1-91) deletion mutant of the RIalpha regulatory subunit of PKA bound to (R(p))-cAMPS and (S(p))-cAMPS were determined at 2.4 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively. While the structures are similar to each other and to the crystal structure of RIalpha bound to cAMP, differences in the dynamical properties of the protein when (R(p))-cAMPS is bound are apparent. The structures highlight the critical importance of the exocyclic oxygen's interaction with the invariant arginine in the phosphate binding cassette (PBC) and the importance of this interaction for the dynamical properties of the interactions that radiate out from the PBC. The conformations of the phosphate binding cassettes containing two invariant arginine residues (Arg209 on domain A, and Arg333 on domain B) are somewhat different due to the sulfur interacting with this arginine. Furthermore, the B-site ligand together with the entire domain B show significant differences in their overall dynamic properties in the crystal structure of Delta(1-91) RIalpha complexed with (R(p))-cAMPS phosphothioate analogue ((R(p))-RIalpha) compared to the cAMP- and (S(p))-cAMPS-bound type I and II regulatory subunits, based on the temperature factors. In all structures, two structural solvent molecules exist within the A-site ligand binding pocket; both mediate water-bridged interactions between the ligand and the protein. No structured waters are in the B-site pocket. Owing to the higher resolution data, the N-terminal segment (109-117) of the RIalpha subunit can also be traced

  17. 77 FR 8219 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and... of Decision (ROD) for Federal Approval of the Illinois Coastal Management Program (ICMP). SUMMARY...

  18. AmpC-BETA Lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae Isolated at a Tertiary Hospital, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nakaye, Martha; Bwanga, Freddie; Itabangi, Herbert; Stanley, Iramiot J.; Bashir, Mwambi; Bazira, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Aim To characterize AmpC-beta lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical samples at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. Study Design Laboratory-based descriptive cross-sectional study Place and Duration of Study Microbiology Department, Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital and MBN clinical Laboratories, between May to September 2013. Methodology This study included 293 Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from clinical specimens that included blood, urine, stool and aspirates. AmpC Beta lactamase production was determined using disc placement method for cefoxitin at a break point of <18mm. Common AmpC plasmid mediated genes were EBC, ACC, FOX, DHA, CIT and MOX were; was determined by Multiplex PCR as described by Hanson and Perez-Perez. Results Plasmid mediated AmpC phenotype was confirmed in 107 of the 293 (36.5%) cefoxitin resistant isolates with 30 isolates having more than one gene coding for resistance. The commonest source that harbored AmpC beta lactamases was urine and E. coli was the most common AmpC producer (59.5%). The genotypes detected in this study, included EBC (n=36), FOX (n=18), ACC (n=11), CIT (n=10), DHA (n=07) and MOX (n=1). Conclusion Our findings showed that prevalence of AmpC beta-lactamase at MRRH was high (39.6), with EBC as the commonest genotype among Enterobacteriaceae Urine and E. coli were the commonest source and organism respectively that harbored AmpC beta-lactamases. There‘s rational antimicrobial therapy and antibiotic susceptibility tests should be requested by health workers especially patients presenting with urinary tract infections and bacteraemias. PMID:26078920

  19. Project management in the Apollo program: An interdisciplinary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drucker, E. E.; Pooler, W. S.; Wilemon, D. L.; Wood, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    Findings concerning project management in the NASA Apollo program are presented. The Apollo program in the context of the total NASA organization is examined along with the nature of project management and the manner in which project managers functioned in the Apollo program. The utilization of the in-house technical competence in the support of the Apollo program, and the formal and informal relationships between Apollo managers and the contractors are discussed.

  20. A large contribution of a cyclic AMP-independent pathway to turtle olfactory transduction

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Although multiple pathways are involved in the olfactory transduction mechanism, cAMP-dependent pathway has been considered to contribute mainly to the transduction. We examined the degree of contribution of cAMP-independent pathway to the turtle olfactory response by recording inward currents from isolated cells, nerve impulses from cilia and olfactory bulbar responses. The results obtained by the three recordings were essentially consistent with each other, but detail studies were carried out by recording the bulbar response to obtain quantitative data. Application of an odorant cocktail to the isolated olfactory neuron after injection of 1 mM cAMP from the patch pipette elicited a large inward current. Mean amplitude of inward currents evoked by the cocktail with 1 mM cAMP in the patch pipette was similar to that without cAMP in the pipette. Application of the cocktail after the response to 50 microM forskolin was adapted also induced a large inward current. Application of the odorant cocktail to the olfactory epithelium, after the response to 50 microM forskolin was adapted, brought about an appreciable increase in the impulse frequency. The bulbar response to forskolin alone reached a saturation level around 10 microM. After the response to 50 microM forskolin was adapted, 11 species of odorants were applied to the olfactory epithelium. The magnitudes of responses to the odorants after forskolin were 45-80% of those of the control responses. There was no essential difference in the degree of the suppression by forskolin between cAMP- and IP3- producing odorants classified in the rat, suggesting that certain part of the forskolin-suppressive component was brought about by nonspecific action of forskolin. Application of a membrane permeant cAMP analogue, cpt-cAMP elicited a large response, and 0.1 mM citralva after 3 mM cpt- cAMP elicited 51% of the control response which was close to the response to citralva after 50 microM forskolin. A membrane permeant c

  1. Program Management for Tank Crewman Skills Training Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    RESEARCH PRODUCT 79-16 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT FOR TANK CREWMAN SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAM ARI Field Unit at Fort Knox, Kentucky f hadocumr-e r- has~ bean a4...40121, and monitored by Donald F . Haggard, Chief, ARI Field I - -Unit-Fort Knox. It. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side If necessary end identify by...TRAINING PROGRAM Richard E. O’Brien William J. Crum Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) Submitted by-. Donald F . Haggard, Chief ARI Field

  2. A Program on Hazardous Waste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kummler, Ralph H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Provides an overview of the "Hazardous Waste Management Graduate Certificate" program at Wayne State University. Describes four required courses and nine optional courses. Discusses the development of a Master program and the curriculum of the Master program. (YP)

  3. Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime,more » (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site.« less

  4. ChAMP: updated methylation analysis pipeline for Illumina BeadChips.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Morris, Tiffany J; Webster, Amy P; Yang, Zhen; Beck, Stephan; Feber, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E

    2017-12-15

    The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylationEPIC BeadChip is the new platform for high-throughput DNA methylation analysis, effectively doubling the coverage compared to the older 450 K array. Here we present a significantly updated and improved version of the Bioconductor package ChAMP, which can be used to analyze EPIC and 450k data. Many enhanced functionalities have been added, including correction for cell-type heterogeneity, network analysis and a series of interactive graphical user interfaces. ChAMP is a BioC package available from https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/ChAMP.html. a.teschendorff@ucl.ac.uk or s.beck@ucl.ac.uk or a.feber@ucl.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-06

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation.

  6. 78 FR 1264 - CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, MN; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,646] CalAmp Wireless Networks...; CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca, Minnesota; expires on December 2, 2013). Conclusion Due to the eligibility of workers and former workers of CalAmp Wireless Networks Corporation, Waseca...

  7. AMP Affects Intracellular Ca2+ Signaling, Migration, Cytokine Secretion and T Cell Priming Capacity of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Panther, Elisabeth; Dürk, Thorsten; Ferrari, Davide; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Grimm, Melanie; Sorichter, Stephan; Cicko, Sanja; Herouy, Yared; Norgauer, Johannes; Idzko, Marco; Müller, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP) can be released by various cell types and has been shown to elicit different cellular responses. In the extracellular space AMP is dephosphorylated to the nucleoside adenosine which can then bind to adenosine receptors. However, it has been shown that AMP can also activate A1 and A2a receptors directly. Here we show that AMP is a potent modulator of mouse and human dendritic cell (DC) function. AMP increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a time and dose dependent manner. Furthermore, AMP stimulated actin-polymerization in human DCs and induced migration of immature human and bone marrow derived mouse DCs, both via direct activation of A1 receptors. AMP strongly inhibited secretion of TNF-α and IL-12p70, while it enhanced production of IL-10 both via activation of A2a receptors. Consequently, DCs matured in the presence of AMP and co-cultivated with naive CD4+CD45RA+ T cells inhibited IFN-γ production whereas secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 was up-regulated. An enhancement of Th2-driven immune response could also be observed when OVA-pulsed murine DCs were pretreated with AMP prior to co-culture with OVA-transgenic naïve OTII T cells. An effect due to the enzymatic degradation of AMP to adenosine could be ruled out, as AMP still elicited migration and changes in cytokine secretion in bone-marrow derived DCs generated from CD73-deficient animals and in human DCs pretreated with the ecto-nucleotidase inhibitor 5′-(alpha,beta-methylene) diphosphate (APCP). Finally, the influence of contaminating adenosine could be excluded, as AMP admixed with adenosine desaminase (ADA) was still able to influence DC function. In summary our data show that AMP when present during maturation is a potent regulator of dendritic cell function and point out the role for AMP in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. PMID:22624049

  8. Obesity weight management and bariatric surgery case management programs: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Echols, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of Americans with clinically severe obesity has vast implications for the nation's healthcare system since this population have twice as many chronic medical conditions as people with normal weight. Through the use of review of literature, this article (a) describes the types of weight loss programs; (b) reviews the results from studies on effectiveness of bariatric surgery; and (c) identifies recommendations for obesity and bariatric surgery case management programs. Disease management companies appear to be concentrating on general weight loss strategies associated with wellness and other condition-specific disease management products, whereas larger national healthcare companies with at-risk and insurance products offer specific bariatric surgery management products. Case management programs within healthcare systems, health management organizations, and insurance companies are frequently faced with the management of individuals with morbid obesity and, increasingly, those who are requesting or have undergone bariatric surgery. Research shows that morbid obesity is a disease that remains generally unresponsive to diet and drug therapy but appears to respond well to bariatric surgery. Research findings suggest that surgical treatment is more effective than pharmacological treatment of weight loss and the control of some comorbidities associated with obesity. The number of Americans having weight loss surgery increased by 804% between 1998 and 2004, which appears to be a driver for the recent development of obesity disease management and bariatric surgery case management programs. Although the immaturity and lack of studies citing outcomes of obesity disease and case management programs limit the identification of best practices based on outcomes, emerging practices can be identified and recommendations for case management can be formulated. In addition to primary prevention and treatment programs for obesity, this article describes program

  9. Primary Care Physicians' Experience with Disease Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Alicia; Grumbach, Kevin; Vranizan, Karen; Osmond, Dennis H; Bindman, Andrew B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine primary care physicians' perceptions of how disease management programs affect their practices, their relationships with their patients, and overall patient care. DESIGN Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING The 13 largest urban counties in California. PARTICIPANTS General internists, general pediatricians, and family physicians. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Physicians' self-report of the effects of disease management programs on quality of patient care and their own practices. Respondents included 538 (76%) of 708 physicians: 183 (34%) internists, 199 (38%) family practitioners, and 156 (29%) pediatricians. Disease management programs were available 285 to (53%) physicians; 178 had direct experience with the programs. Three quarters of the 178 physicians believed that disease management programs increased the overall quality of patient care and the quality of care for the targeted disease. Eighty-seven percent continued to provide primary care for their patients in these programs, and 70% reported participating in major patient care decisions. Ninety-one percent reported that the programs had no effect on their income, decreased (38%) or had no effect (48%) on their workload, and increased (48%)) their practice satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Practicing primary care physicians have generally favorable perceptions of the effect of voluntary, primary care-inclusive, disease management programs on their patients and on their own practice satisfaction. PMID:11318911

  10. 75 FR 68418 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...-Time System Management Information Program AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION...) to establish a Real-Time System Management Information Program that provides, in all States, the... traveler information. The purposes of the Real-Time System Management Information Program are to: (1...

  11. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...-Time System Management Information Program AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Real-Time System Management Information Program and general information about current and planned... establishing requirements for the Real-Time System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR...

  12. Issues in NASA program and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This collection of papers and resources on aerospace management issues is inspired by a desire to benefit from the lessons learned from past projects and programs. Inherent in the NASA culture is a respect for divergent viewpoints and innovative ways of doing things. This publication presents a wide variety of views and opinions. Good management is enhanced when program and project managers examine the methods of veteran managers, considering the lessons they have learned and reflected on their own guiding principles.

  13. Sustained signalling by PTH modulates IP3 accumulation and IP3 receptors through cyclic AMP junctions

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Abha; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates adenylyl cyclase through type 1 PTH receptors (PTH1R) and potentiates the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol, which stimulates formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). We confirmed that in HEK cells expressing PTH1R, acute stimulation with PTH(1-34) potentiated carbachol-evoked Ca2+ release. This was mediated by locally delivered cyclic AMP (cAMP), but unaffected by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP, cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) or substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) causes internalization of PTH1R–adenylyl cyclase signalling complexes, but the consequences for delivery of cAMP to IP3R within cAMP signalling junctions are unknown. Here, we show that sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) or with PTH analogues that do not evoke receptor internalization reduced the potentiated Ca2+ signals and attenuated carbachol-evoked increases in cytosolic IP3. Similar results were obtained after sustained stimulation with NKH477 to directly activate adenylyl cyclase, or with the membrane-permeant analogue of cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP. These responses were independent of PKA and unaffected by substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. During prolonged stimulation with PTH(1-34), hyperactive cAMP signalling junctions, within which cAMP is delivered directly and at saturating concentrations to its targets, mediate sensitization of IP3R and a more slowly developing inhibition of IP3 accumulation. PMID:25431134

  14. Gene Expression Patterns Define Key Transcriptional Events InCell-Cycle Regulation By cAMP And Protein Kinase A

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zambon, Alexander C.; Zhang, Lingzhi; Minovitsky, Simon

    Although a substantial number of hormones and drugs increase cellular cAMP levels, the global impact of cAMP and its major effector mechanism, protein kinase A (PKA), on gene expression is not known. Here we show that treatment of murine wild-type S49 lymphoma cells for 24 h with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-CPTcAMP), a PKA-selective cAMP analog, alters the expression of approx equal to 4,500 of approx. equal to 13,600 unique genes. By contrast, gene expression was unaltered in Kin- S49 cells (that lack PKA) incubated with 8-CPTcAMP. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of several cell cycle regulators accompanied cAMP-induced G1-phase cell-cycle arrestmore » of wild-type S49 cells. Within 2h, 8-CPT-cAMP altered expression of 152 genes that contain evolutionarily conserved cAMP-response elements within 5 kb of transcriptional start sites, including the circadian clock gene Per1. Thus, cAMP through its activation of PKA produces extensive transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic cells. These transcriptional networks include a primary group of cAMP-response element-containing genes and secondary networks that include the circadian clock.« less

  15. Enzymatic production of 5'-inosinic acid by AMP deaminase from a newly isolated Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Shubo; Chen, Leitao; Hu, Yangjun; Fang, Guohui; Zhao, Mouming; Guo, Yuan; Pang, Zongwen

    2017-02-01

    5'-adenylic acid deaminase (AMP deaminase), an important enzyme for the food industry, can catalyze the irreversible hydrolysis of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to inosine monophosphate (IMP) and ammonia. In this study, a new strain was screened that efficiently produces 3191.6U/g of AMP deaminase at 32°C. After purification, the optimal temperature and pH of the AMP deaminase were found to be 40°C and 6.0, respectively, but it was partially inhibited by Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Al(3+), and Zn(2+). With amplification of the AMP deaminase production system, 6mL of crude enzyme could produce 2.00mg/g of IMP from 2.04mg/g of dried yeast with an 84.8% molar yield after 40min. These results provide a new insight into AMP deaminase production and offer a potential platform for producing 5'-IMP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Earl Sutherland (1915-1974) [corrected] and the discovery of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Stanley A

    2012-01-01

    In 1945, Earl Sutherland (1915-1974) [corrected] and associates began studies of the mechanism of hormone-induced glycogen breakdown in the liver. In 1956, their efforts culminated in the identification of cyclic AMP, an ancient molecule generated in many cell types in response to hormonal and other extracellular signals. Cyclic AMP, the original "second messenger," transmits such signals through pathways that regulate a diversity of cellular functions and capabilities: metabolic processes such as lipolysis and glycogenolysis; hormone secretion; the permeability of ion channels; gene expression; cell proliferation and survival. Indeed, it can be argued that the discovery of cyclic AMP initiated the study of intracellular signaling pathways, a major focus of contemporary biomedical inquiry. This review presents relevant details of Sutherland's career; summarizes key contributions of his mentors, Carl and Gerti Cori, to the knowledge of glycogen metabolism (contributions that were the foundation for his own research); describes the experiments that led to his identification, isolation, and characterization of cyclic AMP; assesses the significance of his work; and considers some aspects of the impact of cyclic nucleotide research on clinical medicine.

  17. Major Management Challenges and Program Risks. Department of Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    GAO United States General Accounting Office Performance and Accountability SeriesJanuary 2001 Major Management Challenges and Program Risks ...34) Title and Subtitle Major Management Challenges and Program Risks Department of Education Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors...Accountability Series: Major Management Challenges and Program Risks . In that series, GAO advised the Congress that it planned to reassess the

  18. Of smuts, blasts, mildews, and blights: cAMP signaling in phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy; D'Souza, Cletus A; Kronstad, James W

    2003-01-01

    cAMP regulates morphogenesis and virulence in a wide variety of fungi including the plant pathogens. In saprophytic yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cAMP signaling plays an important role in nutrient sensing. In filamentous saprophytes, the cAMP pathway appears to play an integral role in vegetative growth and sporulation, with possible connections to mating. Infection-related morphogenesis includes sporulation (conidia and teliospores), formation of appressoria, infection hyphae, and sclerotia. Here, we review studies of cAMP signaling in a variety of plant fungal pathogens. The primary fungi to be considered include Ustilago maydis, Magnaporthe grisea, Cryphonectria parasitica, Colletotrichum and Fusarium species, and Erisyphe graminis. We also include related information on Trichoderma species that act as mycoparasites and biocontrol agents of phytopathogenic fungi. We point out similarities in infection mechanisms, conservation of signaling components, as well as instances of cross-talk with other signaling pathways.

  19. Effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Intervention in the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Nursing Workers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Shirlene Aparecida; Vannucchi, Bruna Pesce; Demarzo, Marcelo; Cunha, Ângelo Geraldo José; Nunes, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório

    2018-05-17

    Chronic pain is a prevalent disorder in nursing workers worldwide. Several studies have proposed measures to mitigate this critical scenario. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have been found to have promising results in the treatment of this disorder. To quantify the effectiveness of an adapted mindfulness program (AMP) in the management of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in nursing technicians of a Brazilian university hospital. This study was a clinical, prospective, open, repeated measures trial, with data collection between January and July 2015. Brazilian university hospital. Participants/Subjects: Sixty-four female nursing technicians with a mean age of 47.01 years (standard deviation = 9.50) with chronic pain symptoms. Sixty-four female nursing technicians with a mean age of 47.01 years (standard deviation = 9.50) and MSP participated in this prospective study. Before the intervention (T0), scores of anxiety, depression, mindfulness, musculoskeletal complaints, pain catastrophizing, self-compassion, and perception of quality of life were quantified. These scores were reevaluated after 8 weeks (T1) and 12 weeks (T2) of weekly AMP sessions (60 minutes each). The variables were evaluated by analysis of variance for repeated measures, followed by the Bonferroni test. AMP reduced the scores of musculoskeletal symptoms, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing (p < .001). A significant increase was identified in self-compassion scores and perception of quality of life in the physical, psychological, and overall assessment (p ≤ .04). Positive effects of AMP occurred at T1 and remained unchanged at T2. AMP contributed to a reduction in painful symptoms and improved the quality of life of nursing workers, with a lasting effect until the 20th week of follow-up, indicating utility as an effective strategy for the management of MSP in the group studied. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. 49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management programs. Each bridge management program adopted in compliance with this part...

  1. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program to...

  2. 49 CFR 237.31 - Adoption of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of bridge management programs. 237.31... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.31 Adoption of bridge management programs. Each track owner shall adopt a bridge safety management program to...

  3. 49 CFR 237.33 - Content of bridge management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of bridge management programs. 237.33... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Railroad Bridge Safety Assurance § 237.33 Content of bridge management programs. Each bridge management program adopted in compliance with this part...

  4. Space Station Freedom NiH2 cell testing program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Bruce; Frate, Dave

    1994-01-01

    Testing for the Space Station Freedom Nickel Hydrogen Cell Test Program began in 1990 at Crave Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center. The program has included receipt inspection, random vibration, acceptance, characterization, and life cycle testing of Ni-H2 cells in accordance with the NASA LeRC Interagency Order C-31001-J. A total of 400 Ni-H2 cells have been received at NAVSURFWARCENDIV Crane from three separate manufacturers; Yardney Technical Products (Yardney), Eagle Picher Industries (Eagle Picher), and Gates Energy Products (Gates). Of those, 308 cells distributed among 39 packs have undergone life cycle testing under a test regime simulating low earth orbit conditions. As of 30 September 1993, there are 252 cells assembled into 32 packs still on life cycle test. Since the beginning of the program, failed cells have been detected in all phases of testing. The failures include the following; seven 65 AmpHr and 81 AmpHr Yardney cells were found to be leaking KOH on receipt, one 65 AmpHr Eagle Picher cell failed the acceptance test, one 65 AmpHr Gates cell failed during the characterization test, and six 65 AmpHr Gates cells failed the random vibration test. Of the 39 life cycle packs, testing on seven packs, 56 cells, has been suspended because of low end of discharge voltages. All of the failed life cycle packs were cycled at 60% depth of discharge.

  5. Issues in NASA program and project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This volume is the fifth in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover: an overview of the project cycle; SE&I management for manned space flight programs; shared experiences from NASA Programs and Projects - 1975; cost control for Mariner Venus/Mercury 1973; and the Space Shuttle - a balancing of design and politics. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.

  6. Maximization of transcription of the serC (pdxF)-aroA multifunctional operon by antagonistic effects of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex and Lrp global regulators of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Man, T K; Pease, A J; Winkler, M E

    1997-06-01

    The arrangement of the Escherichia coli serC (pdxF) and aroA genes into a cotranscribed multifunctional operon allows coregulation of two enzymes required for the biosynthesis of L-serine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, chorismate, and the aromatic amino acids and vitamins. RNase T2 protection assays revealed two major transcripts that were initiated from a promoter upstream from serC (pdxF). Between 80 to 90% of serC (pdxF) transcripts were present in single-gene mRNA molecules that likely arose by Rho-independent termination between serC (pdxF) and aroA. serC (pdxF)-aroA cotranscripts terminated at another Rho-independent terminator near the end of aroA. We studied operon regulation by determining differential rates of beta-galactosidase synthesis in a merodiploid strain carrying a single-copy lambda[phi(serC [pdxF]'-lacZYA)] operon fusion. serC (pdxF) transcription was greatest in bacteria growing in minimal salts-glucose medium (MMGlu) and was reduced in minimal salts-glycerol medium, enriched MMGlu, and LB medium. serC (pdxF) transcription was increased in cya or crp mutants compared to their cya+ crp+ parent in MMGlu or LB medium. In contrast, serC (pdxF) transcription decreased in an lrp mutant compared to its lrp+ parent in MMGlu. Conclusions obtained by using the operon fusion were corroborated by quantitative Western immunoblotting of SerC (PdxF), which was present at around 1,800 dimers per cell in bacteria growing in MMGlu. RNase T2 protection assays of serC (pdxF)-terminated and serC (pdxF)-aroA cotranscript amounts supported the conclusion that the operon was regulated at the transcription level under the conditions tested. Results with a series of deletions upstream of the P(serC (pdxF)) promoter revealed that activation by Lrp was likely direct, whereas repression by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex (CRP-cAMP) was likely indirect, possibly via a repressor whose amount or activity was stimulated by CRP-cAMP.

  7. Cyclic AMP and alkaline pH downregulate carbonic anhydrase 2 in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Pablo; Chang, Jung Chin; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J

    2014-06-01

    The hydration of CO2 catalyzed by the ubiquitous carbonic anhydrase 2 (Ca2) is central for bicarbonate transport, bone metabolism and acid-base homeostasis in metazoans. There is evidence that in some tissues Ca2 expression can be acutely induced by cAMP, whereas in other cell types it is unresponsive to cAMP-mediated transcriptional activation. We isolated fibroblasts from wild type and mice lacking the ubiquitous chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (Ae2a,b(-/-) mice). In these cells the regulation of carbonic anhydrase 2 by cAMP was studied. We show that Ca2 expression is strongly inhibited by chronic incubation with dibutyryl-cAMP, forskolin or alkaline pH in cultured mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, fibroblasts obtained from anion exchanger 2 deficient (Ae2a,b(-/-)) mice, which display intracellular alkalosis and increased cAMP production, express less than 10% of control Ca2 mRNA and protein. Surprisingly, inhibition of the bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was found to reduce CA2 expression instead of increasing it. CA2 expression is strongly regulated by intracellular pH and by cAMP, suggesting a role for soluble adenylyl cyclase. Regulation occurs in opposite directions which may be explained by an incoherent feedforward loop consisting of activation by pCREB and repression by ICER. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide and cAMP modify placental calcitriol biosynthesis reducing antimicrobial peptides gene expression.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; García-Quiroz, Janice; Avila, Euclides; Caldiño-Soto, Felipe; Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2018-06-01

    Calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D 3 (VD), stimulates placental antimicrobial peptides expression; nonetheless, the regulation of calcitriol biosynthesis in the presence of bacterial products and its consequence on placental innate immunity have scarcely been addressed. We investigated how some bacterial products modify placental VD metabolism and its ability to induce antimicrobial peptides gene expression. Cultured human trophoblasts biosynthesized calcitriol only in the presence of its precursor calcidiol, a process that was inhibited by cyclic-AMP but stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Intracrine calcitriol upregulated cathelicidin, S100A9, and β-defensins (HBDs) gene expression, while LPS further stimulated HBD2 and S100A9. Unexpectedly, LPS significantly repressed cathelicidin basal mRNA levels and drastically diminished calcidiol ability to induce it. Meanwhile, cyclic-AMP, which is used by many microbes to avoid host defenses, suppressed calcitriol biosynthesis, resulting in significant inhibition of most VD-dependent microbicidal peptides gene expression. While LPS stimulated calcitriol biosynthesis, cyclic-AMP inhibited it. LPS downregulated cathelicidin mRNA expression, whereas cyclic-AMP antagonized VD-dependent-upregulation of most antimicrobial peptides. These findings reveal LPS and cyclic-AMP involvement in dampening placental innate immunity, highlighting the importance of cyclic-AMP in the context of placental infection and suggesting its participation to facilitate bacterial survival. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Management of patients brought in by ambulance to the emergency department: role of the Advanced Musculoskeletal Physiotherapist.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Rita; Collins, Tom; Shaw, Bridget; Sayer, James; Cary, Belinda; Walby, Andrew; Cowan, Sallie

    2017-05-09

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of the Advanced Musculoskeletal Physiotherapist (AMP) in managing patients brought in by ambulance to the emergency department (ED). Methods This study was a dual-centre observational study. Patients brought in by ambulance to two Melbourne hospitals over a 12-month period and seen by an AMP were compared with a matched group seen by other ED staff. Primary outcome measures were wait time and length of stay (LOS) in the ED. Results Data from 1441 patients within the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) Categories 3-5 with musculoskeletal complaints were included in the analysis. Subgroup analysis of 825 patients aged ≤65 years demonstrated that for Category 4 (semi-urgent) patients, the median wait time to see the AMP was 9.5min (interquartile range (IQR) 3.25-18.00min) compared with 25min (IQR 10.00-56.00min) to see other ED staff (P ≤ 0.05). LOS analysis was undertaken on patients discharged home and demonstrated that there was a 1.20 greater probability (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.35) that ATS Category 4 patients managed by the AMP were discharged within the 4-hour public hospital target compared with patients managed by other ED staff: 87.04% (94/108) of patients managed by the AMPs met this standard compared with 72.35% (123/170) of patients managed by other ED staff (P=0.002). Conclusions Patients aged ≤65 years with musculoskeletal complaints brought in by ambulance to the ED and triaged to ATS Category 4 are likely to wait less time to be seen and are discharged home more quickly when managed by an AMP. This study has added to the evidence that AMPs improve patient flow in the ED, freeing up time for other ED staff to see higher-acuity, more complex patients. What is known about the topic? There is a growing body of evidence establishing that AMPs improve the flow of patients presenting with musculoskeletal conditions to the ED through reduced wait times and LOS and, at the same time

  10. Epac2 Mediates cAMP-Dependent Potentiation of Neurotransmission in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Herman B.; Riordan, Sean; Nomura, Toshihiro; Remmers, Christine L.; Kraniotis, Stephen; Marshall, John J.; Kukreja, Lokesh; Vassar, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Presynaptic terminal cAMP elevation plays a central role in plasticity at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapse of the hippocampus. Prior studies have identified protein kinase A as a downstream effector of cAMP that contributes to mossy fiber LTP (MF-LTP), but the potential contribution of Epac2, another cAMP effector expressed in the MF synapse, has not been considered. We investigated the role of Epac2 in MF-CA3 neurotransmission using Epac2−/− mice. The deletion of Epac2 did not cause gross alterations in hippocampal neuroanatomy or basal synaptic transmission. Synaptic facilitation during short trains was not affected by loss of Epac2 activity; however, both long-term plasticity and forskolin-mediated potentiation of MFs were impaired, demonstrating that Epac2 contributes to cAMP-dependent potentiation of transmitter release. Examination of synaptic transmission during long sustained trains of activity suggested that the readily releasable pool of vesicles is reduced in Epac2−/− mice. These data suggest that cAMP elevation uses an Epac2-dependent pathway to promote transmitter release, and that Epac2 is required to maintain the readily releasable pool at MF synapses in the hippocampus. PMID:25904804

  11. Epac2 Mediates cAMP-Dependent Potentiation of Neurotransmission in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Herman B; Riordan, Sean; Nomura, Toshihiro; Remmers, Christine L; Kraniotis, Stephen; Marshall, John J; Kukreja, Lokesh; Vassar, Robert; Contractor, Anis

    2015-04-22

    Presynaptic terminal cAMP elevation plays a central role in plasticity at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapse of the hippocampus. Prior studies have identified protein kinase A as a downstream effector of cAMP that contributes to mossy fiber LTP (MF-LTP), but the potential contribution of Epac2, another cAMP effector expressed in the MF synapse, has not been considered. We investigated the role of Epac2 in MF-CA3 neurotransmission using Epac2(-/-) mice. The deletion of Epac2 did not cause gross alterations in hippocampal neuroanatomy or basal synaptic transmission. Synaptic facilitation during short trains was not affected by loss of Epac2 activity; however, both long-term plasticity and forskolin-mediated potentiation of MFs were impaired, demonstrating that Epac2 contributes to cAMP-dependent potentiation of transmitter release. Examination of synaptic transmission during long sustained trains of activity suggested that the readily releasable pool of vesicles is reduced in Epac2(-/-) mice. These data suggest that cAMP elevation uses an Epac2-dependent pathway to promote transmitter release, and that Epac2 is required to maintain the readily releasable pool at MF synapses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356544-10$15.00/0.

  12. 30 CFR 402.13 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program management. 402.13 Section 402.13 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE... these programs. (c) Contracts. Administrative requirements for performance of research contracts will be...

  13. 30 CFR 402.13 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Program management. 402.13 Section 402.13 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE... these programs. (c) Contracts. Administrative requirements for performance of research contracts will be...

  14. 30 CFR 402.13 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program management. 402.13 Section 402.13 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE... these programs. (c) Contracts. Administrative requirements for performance of research contracts will be...

  15. 30 CFR 402.13 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program management. 402.13 Section 402.13 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE... these programs. (c) Contracts. Administrative requirements for performance of research contracts will be...

  16. 30 CFR 402.13 - Program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program management. 402.13 Section 402.13 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE... these programs. (c) Contracts. Administrative requirements for performance of research contracts will be...

  17. A simple electrostatic switch important in the activation of type I protein kinase A by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Dominico; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Pennypacker, Juniper K; McCammon, J Andrew; Taylor, Susan S

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic AMP activates protein kinase A by binding to an inhibitory regulatory (R) subunit and releasing inhibition of the catalytic (C) subunit. Even though crystal structures of regulatory and catalytic subunits have been solved, the precise molecular mechanism by which cyclic AMP activates the kinase remains unknown. The dynamic properties of the cAMP binding domain in the absence of cAMP or C-subunit are also unknown. Here we report molecular-dynamics simulations and mutational studies of the RIalpha R-subunit that identify the C-helix as a highly dynamic switch which relays cAMP binding to the helical C-subunit binding regions. Furthermore, we identify an important salt bridge which links cAMP binding directly to the C-helix that is necessary for normal activation. Additional mutations show that a hydrophobic "hinge" region is not as critical for the cross-talk in PKA as it is in the homologous EPAC protein, illustrating how cAMP can control diverse functions using the evolutionarily conserved cAMP-binding domains.

  18. 18 CFR 260.400 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cash management programs. 260.400 Section 260.400 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... or entry into the program. Subsequent changes to the cash management agreement must be filed with the...

  19. 18 CFR 260.400 - Cash management programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash management programs. 260.400 Section 260.400 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... or entry into the program. Subsequent changes to the cash management agreement must be filed with the...

  20. Integrated Financial Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pho, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Having worked in the Employees and Commercial Payments Branch of the Financial Management Division for the past 3 summers, I have seen the many changes that have occurred within the NASA organization. As I return each summer, I find that new programs and systems have been adapted to better serve the needs of the Center and of the Agency. The NASA Agency has transformed itself the past couple years with the implementation of the Integrated Financial Management Program (IFMP). IFMP is designed to allow the Agency to improve its management of its Financial, Physical, and Human Resources through the use of multiple enterprise module applications. With my mentor, Joseph Kan, being the branch chief of the Employees and Commercial Payments Branch, I have been exposed to several modules, such as Travel Manager, WebTads, and Core Financial/SAP, which were implemented in the last couple of years under the IFMP. The implementation of these agency-wide systems has sometimes proven to be troublesome. Prior to IFMP, each NASA Center utilizes their own systems for Payroll, Travel, Accounts Payable, etc. But with the implementation of the Integrated Financial Management Program, all the "legacy" systems had to be eliminated. As a result, a great deal of enhancement and preparation work is necessary to ease the transformation from the old systems to the new. All this work occurs simultaneously; for example, e-Payroll will "go live" in several months, but a system like Travel Manager will need to have information upgraded within the system to meet the requirements set by Headquarters. My assignments this summer have given me the opportunity to become involved with such work. So far, I have been given the opportunity to participate in projects resulting from a congressional request, several bankcard reconciliations, updating routing lists for Travel Manager, updating the majordomo list for Travel Manager approvers and point of contacts, and a NASA Headquarters project involving

  1. Comparative Effects of Angiotensin and ACTH on Cyclic AMP and Steroidogenesis in Isolated Bovine Adrenal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peytremann, Andre; Nicholson, Wendell E.; Brown, Ronald D.; Liddle, Grant W.; Hardman, Joel G.

    1973-01-01

    The comparative effects of angiotensin II and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on cyclic AMP and steroidogenesis were investigated employing isolated bovine adrenal cells from the zona fasciculata. Like ACTH, angiotensin produced a prompt increase in cyclic AMP which preceded the increase in corticosteroid production. Although this increase in cyclic AMP was small when compared to that induced by ACTH, it correlated with the amount of steroidogenesis. This observation is consistent with the view that cyclic AMP is the intracellular mediator of the steroidogenic action of angiotensin. Angiotensin acted synergistically with ACTH on cyclic AMP levels. This synergism was not explained by inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity. Unlike ACTH, angiotensin failed to stimulate adenylate cyclase in broken cell preparations. The observations suggest that more than one mechanism may be involved in effects of ACTH and angiotensin on cyclic AMP levels. PMID:4348344

  2. Epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase, AmpC, and carbapenemase production in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Datta, Priya; Gupta, Varsha; Arora, Shilpa; Garg, Shivani; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase pose potential threats to patient care because most clinical diagnostic laboratories may not attempt to detect these three major groups of enzymes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to ascertain if P. mirabilis isolates collected from our heathcare facility possess various mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams (i.e., ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemases) and to additionally arrive at conclusions regarding concurrent testing for these three mechanism of drug resistance in order to reduce cost and time in routine diagnostic testing. Between January 2011 and June 2011, 60 consecutive non-repeated strains of P. mirabilis were evaluated for production of ESBLs, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases. Of these, 36 isolates were found to be ESBL producers, and 7 (12%) were positive for production of AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs. Therefore, 19.4% of ESBL-producing Proteus strains coproduced AmpC enzymes. The modified Hodge test confirmed carbapenemase production in only 1 isolate (1.7%), which was also ESBL- and AmpC-positive. The clinical impact of additional AmpC expression in ESBL-producing P. mirabilis results in a newly acquired resistance to β-lactamase inhibitors. In addition, to save time and costs, we recommend the use of cefepime/cefepime-clavulanate or boronic acid for the ESBL detection but in only those strains that were positive for ESBL by screening and negative by confirmatory tests.

  3. Automated distribution system management for multichannel space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, G. W.; Decker, D. K.; Graves, J.

    1983-01-01

    A NASA sponsored study of space power distribution system technology is in progress to develop an autonomously managed power system (AMPS) for large space power platforms. The multichannel, multikilowatt, utility-type power subsystem proposed presents new survivability requirements and increased subsystem complexity. The computer controls under development for the power management system must optimize the power subsystem performance and minimize the life cycle cost of the platform. A distribution system management philosophy has been formulated which incorporates these constraints. Its implementation using a TI9900 microprocessor and FORTH as the programming language is presented. The approach offers a novel solution to the perplexing problem of determining the optimal combination of loads which should be connected to each power channel for a versatile electrical distribution concept.

  4. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP induces differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells into a noradrenergic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kume, Toshiaki; Kawato, Yuka; Osakada, Fumitaka; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji; Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Akaike, Akinori

    2008-10-10

    Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) and retinoic acid (RA) have been demonstrated to be the inducers of morphological differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, a human catecholaminergic neuroblastoma cell line. However, it remains unclear whether morphologically differentiated SH-SY5Y cells by these compounds acquire catecholaminergic properties. We focused on the alteration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and intracellular content of noradrenaline (NA) as the indicators of functional differentiation. Three days treatment with dbcAMP (1mM) and RA (10microM) induced morphological changes and an increase of TH-positive cells using immunocytochemical analysis in SH-SY5Y cells. The percentage of TH-expressing cells in dbcAMP (1mM) treatment was larger than that in RA (10microM) treatment. In addition, dbcAMP increased intracellular NA content, whereas RA did not. The dbcAMP-induced increase in TH-expressing cells is partially inhibited by KT5720, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. We also investigated the effect of butyrate on SH-SY5Y cells, because dbcAMP is enzymatically degraded by intracellular esterase, thereby resulting in the formation of butyrate. Butyrate induced the increase of NA content at lower concentrations than dbcAMP, although the increase in TH-expressing cells by butyrate was smaller than that by dbcAMP. The dbcAMP (1mM)- and butyrate (0.3mM)-induced increase in NA content was completely suppressed by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (1mM), an inhibitor of TH. These results suggest that dbcAMP induces differentiation into the noradrenergic phenotype through both PKA activation and butyrate.

  5. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  6. Co-Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC β-Lactamase Activity Among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Daw, Hiyam; Sufya, Najib; Bashein, Abdullah; Elahmer, Omar; Chouchani, Chedly

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), including the AmpC type, are important mechanisms of resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of AmpC-type β-lactamase producers isolated from two hospitals in Tripoli, Libya. Methods: All clinical isolates (76 K. pneumoniae and 75 E. coli) collected over two years (2013-2014) were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials and were analyzed phenotypically for the ESBL and AmpC phenotype using E-test and ESBL and AmpC screen disc test. Both ESBL and AmpC-positive isolates were then screened for the presence of genes encoding plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Of the K. pneumoniae and E. coli tested, 75% and 16% were resistant to gentamicin, 74% and 1.3% to imipenem, 71% and 12% to cefoxitin, 80% and 12% to cefepime, 69% and 22.6% to ciprofloxacin, respectively. None of the E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant compared with K. pneumoniae (65.8%). K. pneumoniae ESBL producers were significantly higher (85.5%) compared with (17.3%) E. coli isolates (P <0.0001, OR=4.93). Plasmid-mediated AmpC genes were detected in 7.9% of K. pneumoniae, and 4% E. coli isolates. There was low agreement between phenotypic and genotypic methods, phenotypic testing underestimated detection of AmpC enzyme and did not correlate well with molecular results. The gene encoding CMY enzyme was the most prevalent (66.6%) of AmpC positive isolates followed by MOX, DHA and EBC. Only one AmpC gene was detected in 5/9 isolates, i.e, blaCMY (n=3), bla MOX (n=1), blaDHA (n=1). However, co-occurrence of AmpC genes were evident in 3/9 isolates with the following distribution: bla CMY and blaEBC (n=1), and blaCMY and blaMOX (n=2). Neither blaFOX nor blaACC was detected in all tested isolates. All AmpC positive strains were resistant to cefoxitin and isolated from patients admitted to

  7. Co-Occurrence of Plasmid-Mediated AmpC β-Lactamase Activity Among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia Coli.

    PubMed

    Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Daw, Hiyam; Sufya, Najib; Bashein, Abdullah; Elahmer, Omar; Chouchani, Chedly

    2017-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), including the AmpC type, are important mechanisms of resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of AmpC-type β-lactamase producers isolated from two hospitals in Tripoli, Libya. All clinical isolates (76 K. pneumoniae and 75 E. coli ) collected over two years (2013-2014) were evaluated for susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials and were analyzed phenotypically for the ESBL and AmpC phenotype using E-test and ESBL and AmpC screen disc test. Both ESBL and AmpC-positive isolates were then screened for the presence of genes encoding plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the K. pneumoniae and E. coli tested, 75% and 16% were resistant to gentamicin, 74% and 1.3% to imipenem, 71% and 12% to cefoxitin, 80% and 12% to cefepime, 69% and 22.6% to ciprofloxacin, respectively. None of the E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant compared with K. pneumoniae (65.8%). K. pneumoniae ESBL producers were significantly higher (85.5%) compared with (17.3%) E. coli isolates (P <0.0001, OR=4.93). Plasmid-mediated AmpC genes were detected in 7.9% of K. pneumoniae , and 4% E. coli isolates. There was low agreement between phenotypic and genotypic methods, phenotypic testing underestimated detection of AmpC enzyme and did not correlate well with molecular results. The gene encoding CMY enzyme was the most prevalent (66.6%) of AmpC positive isolates followed by MOX, DHA and EBC. Only one AmpC gene was detected in 5/9 isolates, i.e, bla CMY (n=3), bla MOX (n=1), bla DHA (n=1). However, co-occurrence of AmpC genes were evident in 3/9 isolates with the following distribution: bla CMY and bla EBC (n=1), and bla CMY and bla MOX (n=2). Neither bla FOX nor bla ACC was detected in all tested isolates. All AmpC positive strains were resistant to cefoxitin and isolated from patients admitted to intensive care units. Further studies are

  8. Impact of managed MediCal on California family practice programs.

    PubMed

    Zweifler, J A

    2001-05-01

    An important source of patients for California's family practice program is MediCal. During the past 5 years, MediCal has established a variety of capitated managed care plans. To assess the impact of California's managed MediCal program on the state's 38 family practice training programs. A cross-sectional, retrospective descriptive survey. A 3-page, 11-question survey was developed by family practice residency directors and staff from the California Academy of Family Physicians, San Francisco. The 38 family practice programs in existence in California in September 1997 were stratified by type of managed MediCal in their county and by type of sponsoring institution--university, county, community based, staff-model health maintenance organization, or managed care system. Of the 38 family practice programs, 27 responded; 19 of 27 programs participated in managed MediCal. The total number of family health center patients, and the percentage of MediCal patients (48%-60%) at family practice programs was similar when stratified by programs with and without managed MediCal and by type of sponsorship. Most programs reported that they were able to compete effectively, although most also reported increased administrative, nursing, and front office costs. Managed MediCal patients were directly assigned to residents in only 3 of 19 programs. The introduction of managed MediCal has not adversely affected the number of patients cared for in California's family practice programs. Continued vigilance regarding California family practice programs' involvement in managed MediCal, including collection of accurate data on the number of MediCal patients and the financial and educational implications for California's family practice programs, is warranted.

  9. Tapping into the Forest Management Assistance Programs

    Treesearch

    John L. Greene; Terry K. Haines

    1998-01-01

    Use of federal and state forest management assistance programs can enable nonindustial private forest owners to reduce their management expenses and practice better stewardship. This paper summarizes six federal and twelve state assistance programs available to owners in the North Central states. It also describes how to calculate the amount of a government...

  10. Guide for Managers of Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson River Center for Program Development, Glenmont, NY.

    This document is intended to help adult education program managers throughout New York become oriented to the world of adult education, handle their new responsibilities as program managers, and obtain up-to-date information to assist them in making educational and administrative decisions. The following are among the topics discussed in the…

  11. Nuclease-resistant c-di-AMP derivatives that differentially recognize RNA and protein receptors

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, Robert E.; Torgerson, Chad D.; Gaffney, Barbara L.; Jones, Roger A.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to sense environmental cues and adapt is essential for their survival. The use of second-messenger signaling molecules to translate these cues into a physiological response is a common mechanism employed by bacteria. The second messenger 3’-5’-cyclic diadenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has been linked to a diverse set of biological processes involved in maintaining cell viability and homeostasis, as well as pathogenicity. A complex network of both protein and RNA receptors inside the cell activate specific pathways and mediate phenotypic outputs in response to c-di-AMP. Structural analysis of these RNA and protein receptors has revealed the different recognition elements employed by these effectors to bind the same small molecule. Herein, using a series of c-di-AMP analogs, we probed the interactions made with a riboswitch and a phosphodiesterase protein to identify the features important for c-di-AMP binding and recognition. We found that the ydaO riboswitch binds c-di-AMP in two discrete sites with near identical affinity and a Hill coefficient of 1.6. The ydaO riboswitch distinguishes between c-di-AMP and structurally related second messengers by discriminating against an amine at the C2 position, more than a carbonyl at the C6 position. We also identified phosphate-modified analogs that bind both the ydaO RNA and GdpP protein with high affinity, while symmetrically-modified ribose analogs exhibited a substantial decrease in ydaO affinity, but retained high affinity for GdpP. These ligand modifications resulted in increased resistance to enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis by the GdpP enzyme. Together, these data suggest that these c-di-AMP analogs could be useful as chemical tools to specifically target subsections of the second-messenger signaling pathways. PMID:26789423

  12. 48 CFR 1401.370 - Acquisition Managers' Partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition management community to work cooperatively and continuously to improve the management, efficiency... Associate Chairperson are leadership roles that will rotate annually. The AMP Chairperson determines when...

  13. Disease management programs for CKD patients: the potential and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V

    2009-03-01

    Disease management describes the use of a number of approaches to identify and treat patients with chronic health conditions, especially those that are expensive to treat. Disease management programs have grown rapidly in the United States in the past several years. These programs have been established for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but some have been discontinued because of the high cost of the program. Disease management programs for CKD face unique challenges. Identification of patients with CKD is hampered by incomplete use of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for CKD by physicians and the less than universal use of estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine measurements to identify patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). CKD affects multiple organ systems. Thus, a comprehensive disease management program will need to manage each of these aspects of CKD. These multiple interventions likely will make a CKD disease management program more costly than similar disease management programs designed for patients with diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, or other chronic diseases. The lack of data that can be used to develop effective disease management programs in CKD makes it difficult to determine goals for the management of each organ system affected by CKD. Finally, long periods of observation will be needed to determine whether a particular disease management program is effective in not only improving patient outcomes, but also decreasing both resource use and health care dollars. This long-term observation period is contrary to how most disease management contracts are written, which usually are based on meeting goals during a 1- to 3-year period. Until these challenges are resolved, it likely will be difficult to maintain effective disease management programs for CKD.

  14. cAMP-Signalling Regulates Gametocyte-Infected Erythrocyte Deformability Required for Malaria Parasite Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Eloise; Breil, Florence; Lorthiois, Audrey; Dupuy, Florian; Cummings, Ross; Duffier, Yoann; Corbett, Yolanda; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Vernick, Kenneth; Taramelli, Donatella; Baker, David A.; Langsley, Gordon; Lavazec, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Blocking Plasmodium falciparum transmission to mosquitoes has been designated a strategic objective in the global agenda of malaria elimination. Transmission is ensured by gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIE) that sequester in the bone marrow and at maturation are released into peripheral blood from where they are taken up during a mosquito blood meal. Release into the blood circulation is accompanied by an increase in GIE deformability that allows them to pass through the spleen. Here, we used a microsphere matrix to mimic splenic filtration and investigated the role of cAMP-signalling in regulating GIE deformability. We demonstrated that mature GIE deformability is dependent on reduced cAMP-signalling and on increased phosphodiesterase expression in stage V gametocytes, and that parasite cAMP-dependent kinase activity contributes to the stiffness of immature gametocytes. Importantly, pharmacological agents that raise cAMP levels in transmissible stage V gametocytes render them less deformable and hence less likely to circulate through the spleen. Therefore, phosphodiesterase inhibitors that raise cAMP levels in P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, such as sildenafil, represent new candidate drugs to block transmission of malaria parasites. PMID:25951195

  15. [Occurrence of AmpC-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in patients with haematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Chromá, Magdaléna; Kolár, Milan; Sauer, Pavel; Faber, Edgar; Stosová, Tatána; Koukalová, Dagmar; Indrák, Karel

    2008-10-01

    Currently, important bacterial beta-lactamases of increasing clinical significance include AmpC enzymes. The aim was to assess their occurrence in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from patients with haematological malignancies in a prospective study. Over a 2-month period, strains of the species were isolated from clinical material obtained from patients hospitalized at the Department of Haemato-Oncology of the University Hospital Olomouc. The strains were identified using standard microbiological techniques and the Vitek 2 automated system. Production of AmpC beta-lactamases was roughly determined by phenotypic tests and subsequently confirmed by PCR detection of genes encoding these enzymes. During the above-mentioned period, a total of 35 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected. In 7 of them, production of AmpC beta-lactamases was preliminarily detected by phenotypic test. The multiplex PCR method confirmed phenotyping and determined DHA types in all the isolates. All AmpC-positive isolates were false-susceptible to at least one of the tested third-generation cephalosporins. In one patient, clinically apparent infection caused by this strain was documented. The reported results suggest the possibility of occurrence of AmpC-beta-lactamases in K. pneumoniae strains with clinical significance.

  16. 30 CFR 256.20 - Consideration of coastal zone management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of coastal zone management... SHELF Oil and Gas Leasing Program § 256.20 Consideration of coastal zone management program. In the development of the leasing program, consideration shall be given to the coastal zone management program being...

  17. Disease Management, Case Management, Care Management, and Care Coordination: A Framework and a Brief Manual for Care Programs and Staff.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osman I

    2016-01-01

    With the changing landscape of health care delivery in the United States since the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010, health care organizations have struggled to keep pace with the evolving paradigm, particularly as it pertains to population health management. New nomenclature emerged to describe components of the new environment, and familiar words were put to use in an entirely different context. This article proposes a working framework for activities performed in case management, disease management, care management, and care coordination. The author offers standard working definitions for some of the most frequently used words in the health care industry with the goal of increasing consistency for their use, especially in the backdrop of the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services offering a "chronic case management fee" to primary care providers for managing the sickest, high-cost Medicare patients. Health care organizations performing case management, care management, disease management, and care coordination. Road map for consistency among users, in reporting, comparison, and for success of care management/coordination programs. This article offers a working framework for disease managers, case and care managers, and care coordinators. It suggests standard definitions to use for disease management, case management, care management, and care coordination. Moreover, the use of clear terminology will facilitate comparing, contrasting, and evaluating all care programs and increase consistency. The article can improve understanding of care program components and success factors, estimate program value and effectiveness, heighten awareness of consumer engagement tools, recognize current state and challenges for care programs, understand the role of health information technology solutions in care programs, and use information and knowledge gained to assess and improve care programs to design the "next generation" of programs.

  18. 22 CFR 518.20 - Purpose of financial and program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Purpose of financial and program management. 518... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 518.20 Purpose of financial and program management. Sections 518.21 through 518.28 prescribe standards for financial management systems, methods for...

  19. 34 CFR 74.20 - Purpose of financial and program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of financial and program management. 74.20... Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.20 Purpose of financial and program management. Sections 74.21 through 74.28 prescribe standards for financial management systems, methods for making payments...

  20. 22 CFR 145.20 - Purpose of financial and program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of financial and program management... Financial and Program Management § 145.20 Purpose of financial and program management. Sections 145.21 through 145.28 prescribe standards for financial management systems, methods for making payments and rules...

  1. 2 CFR 215.20 - Purpose of financial and program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose of financial and program management... Financial and Program Management § 215.20 Purpose of financial and program management. Sections 215.21 through 215.28 prescribe standards for financial management systems, methods for making payments and rules...

  2. Interaction of 2',3'-cAMP with Rbp47b Plays a Role in Stress Granule Formation.

    PubMed

    Kosmacz, Monika; Luzarowski, Marcin; Kerber, Olga; Leniak, Ewa; Gutiérrez-Beltrán, Emilio; Moreno, Juan Camilo; Gorka, Michał; Szlachetko, Jagoda; Veyel, Daniel; Graf, Alexander; Skirycz, Aleksandra

    2018-05-01

    2',3'-cAMP is an intriguing small molecule that is conserved among different kingdoms. 2',3'-cAMP is presumably produced during RNA degradation, with increased cellular levels observed especially under stress conditions. Previously, we observed the presence of 2',3'-cAMP in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) protein complexes isolated from native lysate, suggesting that 2',3'-cAMP has potential protein partners in plants. Here, affinity purification experiments revealed that 2',3'-cAMP associates with the stress granule (SG) proteome. SGs are aggregates composed of protein and mRNA, which enable cells to selectively store mRNA for use in response to stress such as heat whereby translation initiation is impaired. Using size-exclusion chromatography and affinity purification analyses, we identified Rbp47b, the key component of SGs, as a potential interacting partner of 2',3'-cAMP. Furthermore, SG formation was promoted in 2',3'-cAMP-treated Arabidopsis seedlings, and interactions between 2',3'-cAMP and RNA-binding domains of Rbp47b, RRM2 and RRM3, were confirmed in vitro using microscale thermophoresis. Taken together, these results (1) describe novel small-molecule regulation of SG formation, (2) provide evidence for the biological role of 2',3'-cAMP, and (3) demonstrate an original biochemical pipeline for the identification of protein-metabolite interactors. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-03-15

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase.

  4. Disease management programs for the underserved.

    PubMed

    Horswell, Ronald; Butler, Michael K; Kaiser, Michael; Moody-Thomas, Sarah; McNabb, Shannon; Besse, Jay; Abrams, Amir

    2008-06-01

    Disease management has become an important tool for improving population patient outcomes. The Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division (HCSD) has used this tool to provide care to a largely uninsured population for approximately 10 years. Eight programs currently exist within the HCSD focusing on diabetes, asthma, congestive heart failure, HIV, cancer screening, smoking cessation, chronic kidney disease, and diet, exercise, and weight control. These programs operate at hospital and clinic sites located in 8 population centers throughout southern Louisiana. The programs are structured to be managed at the system level with a clinical expert for each area guiding the scope of the program and defining new goals. Care largely adheres to evidence-based guidelines set forth by professional organizations. To monitor quality of care, indicators are defined within each area and benchmarked to achieve the most effective measures in our population. For example, hemoglobin A1c levels have shown improvements with nearly 54% of the population <7.0%. To support these management efforts, HCSD utilizes an electronic data repository that allows physicians to track patient labs and other tests as well as reminders. To ensure appropriate treatment, patients are able to enroll in the Medication Assistance program. This largely improves adherence to medications for those patients unable to afford them otherwise.

  5. The Marshall Islands Data Management Program

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stoker, A.C.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a resource document of the methods and procedures used currently in the Data Management Program of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. Since 1973, over 60,000 environmental samples have been collected. Our program includes relational database design, programming and maintenance; sample and information management; sample tracking; quality control; and data entry, evaluation and reduction. The usefulness of scientific databases involves careful planning in order to fulfill the requirements of any large research program. Compilation of scientific results requires consolidation of information from several databases, and incorporation of new information as it is generated. The successmore » in combining and organizing all radionuclide analysis, sample information and statistical results into a readily accessible form, is critical to our project.« less

  6. Microtubule-regulating proteins and cAMP-dependent signaling in neuroblastoma differentiation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Llancao, Pablo; de Gregorio, Cristian; Las Heras, Macarena; Meinohl, Christopher; Noorman, Kevin; Boddeke, Erik; Cheng, Xiaodong; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Schmidt, Martina; Gonzalez-Billault, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Neurons are highly differentiated cells responsible for the conduction and transmission of information in the nervous system. The proper function of a neuron relies on the compartmentalization of their intracellular domains. Differentiated neuroblastoma cells have been extensively used to study and understand the physiology and cell biology of neuronal cells. Here, we show that differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells is more pronounced upon exposure of a chemical analog of cyclic AMP (cAMP), db-cAMP. We next analysed the expression of key microtubule-regulating proteins in differentiated cells and the expression and activation of key cAMP players such as EPAC, PKA and AKAP79/150. Most of the microtubule-promoting factors were up regulated during differentiation of N1E-115 cells, while microtubule-destabilizing proteins were down regulated. We observed an increase in tubulin post-translational modifications related to microtubule stability. As expected, db-cAMP increased PKA- and EPAC-dependent signalling. Consistently, pharmacological modulation of EPAC activity instructed cell differentiation, number of neurites, and neurite length in N1E-115 cells. Moreover, disruption of the PKA-AKAP interaction reduced these morphometric parameters. Interestingly, PKA and EPAC act synergistically to induce neuronal differentiation in N1E-115. Altogether these results show that the changes observed in the differentiation of N1E-115 cells proceed by regulating several microtubule-stabilizing factors, and the acquisition of a neuronal phenotype is a process involving concerted although independent functions of EPAC and PKA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Interplay between adenylate metabolizing enzymes and amp-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Camici, Marcella; Allegrini, Simone; Tozzi, Maria Grazia

    2018-05-18

    Purine nucleotides are involved in a variety of cellular functions, such as energy storage and transfer, and signalling, in addition to being the precursors of nucleic acids and cofactors of many biochemical reactions. They can be generated through two separate pathways, the de novo biosynthesis pathway and the salvage pathway. De novo purine biosynthesis leads to the formation of IMP, from which the adenylate and guanylate pools are generated by two additional steps. The salvage pathways utilize hypoxanthine, guanine and adenine to generate the corresponding mononucleotides. Despite several decades of research on the subject, new and surprising findings on purine metabolism are constantly being reported, and some aspects still need to be elucidated. Recently, purine biosynthesis has been linked to the metabolic pathways regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is the master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, and its activity depends on the AMP:ATP ratio. The cellular energy status and AMPK activation are connected by AMP, an allosteric activator of AMPK. Hence, an indirect strategy to affect AMPK activity would be to target the pathways that generate AMP in the cell. Herein, we report an up-to-date review of the interplay between AMPK and adenylate metabolizing enzymes. Some aspects of inborn errors of purine metabolism are also discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of the hepatitis C self-management program.

    PubMed

    Groessl, Erik J; Weingart, Kimberly R; Gifford, Allen L; Asch, Steven M; Ho, Samuel B

    2011-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C infection (HCV) is a major health problem that disproportionately affects people with limited resources. Many people with HCV are ineligible or refuse antiviral treatment, but less curative treatment options exist. These options include adhering to follow-up health visits, lifestyle changes, and avoiding hepatotoxins like alcohol. Herein, we describe a recently developed self-management program designed to assist HCV-infected patients with adherence and improve their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The development of the Hepatitis C Self-Management Program (HCV-SMP) was informed by scientific literature, qualitative interviews with HCV-infected patients, self-management training, and feedback from HCV clinical experts. The Hepatitis C Self-Management Program (HCV-SMP) is a multi-faceted program that employs cognitive-behavioral principles and is designed to provide HCV-infected people with knowledge and skills for improving their HRQOL. The program consists of six 2-h workshop sessions which are held weekly. The sessions consist of a variety of group activities, including disease-specific information dissemination, action planning, and problem-solving. The intervention teaches skills for adhering to challenging treatment recommendations using a validated theoretical model. A randomized trial will test the efficacy of this novel HCV self-management program for improving HRQOL in a difficult to reach population. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowell, Louis

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Computer-Aided Corrosion Program Management at John F. Kennedy Space Center. The contents include: 1) Corrosion at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC); 2) Requirements and Objectives; 3) Program Description, Background and History; 4) Approach and Implementation; 5) Challenges; 6) Lessons Learned; 7) Successes and Benefits; and 8) Summary and Conclusions.

  10. The analysis of the program to develop the Nuclear Waste Management System: Allocated requirements for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Woods, T.W.

    1991-09-01

    This report is volume 3, part B, of the program to satisfy the allocated requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, in the development of the nuclear waste management system. The report is divided into the following sections: regulatory compliance; external relations; international programs; strategic and contingency planning; contract business management; and administrative services. (CS)

  11. AKAPs: The Architectural Underpinnings of Local cAMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kritzer, Michael D.; Li, Jinliang; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly; Kapiloff, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is targeted to specific compartments in the cardiac myocyte by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a diverse set of scaffold proteins that have been implicated in the regulation of excitation-contraction coupling and cardiac remodeling. AKAPs bind not only PKA, but also a large variety of structural and signaling molecules. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts underlying compartmentation of cAMP and PKA signaling, as well as a few of the individual AKAPs that have been shown to be functionally relevant in the heart. PMID:21600214

  12. A diabetes self-management program designed for urban American Indians.

    PubMed

    Castro, Sarah; O'Toole, Mary; Brownson, Carol; Plessel, Kimberly; Schauben, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Although the American Indian population has a disproportionately high rate of type 2 diabetes, little has been written about culturally sensitive self-management programs in this population. Community and clinic partners worked together to identify barriers to diabetes self-management and to provide activities and services as part of a holistic approach to diabetes self-management, called the Full Circle Diabetes Program. The program activities and services addressed 4 components of holistic health: body, spirit, mind, and emotion. Seven types of activities or services were available to help participants improve diabetes self-management; these included exercise classes, educational classes, and talking circles. Ninety-eight percent of program enrollees participated in at least 1 activity, and two-thirds participated in 2 or more activities. Program participation resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge of resources for managing diabetes. The Full Circle Diabetes Program developed and implemented culturally relevant resources and supports for diabetes self-management in an American Indian population. Lessons learned included that a holistic approach to diabetes self-management, community participation, and stakeholder partnerships are needed for a successful program.

  13. Program and Project Management Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Cassandra D.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a framework and system architecture for integrating program and project management tools that may be applied consistently throughout Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to optimize planning, cost estimating, risk management, and project control. Project management methodology used in building interactive systems to accommodate the needs of the project managers is applied as a key component in assessing the usefulness and applicability of the framework and tools developed. Research for the project included investigation and analysis of industrial practices, KSC standards, policies, and techniques, Systems Management Office (SMO) personnel, and other documented experiences of project management experts. In addition, this project documents best practices derived from the literature as well as new or developing project management models, practices, and techniques.

  14. Activation of Exchange Protein Activated by Cyclic-AMP Enhances Long-Lasting Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Banko, Jessica L.; Peters, Melinda M.; Klann, Eric; Weeber, Edwin J.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    cAMP is a critical second messenger implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory in the mammalian brain. Substantial evidence links increases in intracellular cAMP to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream effectors (transcription factors, receptors, protein kinases) necessary for long-term…

  15. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report February 2008.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Environmental Management System program manual.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2012-03-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004and Department of Energy (DOE) Order 436.1. Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) has maintained functional environmental programs to assist with regulatory compliance for more than 30 years. During 2005, these existing programs were rolled into a formal environmental management system (EMS) that expands beyond the traditional compliance focus to managing and improving environmental performance and stewardship practices for all site activities. An EMS is a setmore » of inter-related elements that represent a continuing cycle of planning, implementing, evaluating, and improving processes and actions undertaken to achieve environmental policy and goals. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard for Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004 (ISO 2004). The site first received ISO 14001 certification in September 2006 and recertification in 2009. SNL/CA's EMS Program is applicable to the Sandia, Livermore site only. Although SNL/CA operates as one organizational division of the overall Sandia National Laboratories, the EMS Program is site-specific, with site-specific objectives and targets. SNL/CA (Division 8000) benefits from the organizational structure as it provides corporate level policies, procedures, and standards, and established processes that connect to and support elements of the SNL/CA EMS Program. Additionally, SNL/CA's EMS Program benefits from two corporate functional programs (Facilities Energy and Water Resource Management and Fleet Services programs) that maintain responsibility for energy management and fleet services for all Sandia locations. Each EMS element is further enhanced with site-specific processes and standards. Division 8000 has

  17. Structural basis for the mutual antagonism of cAMP and TRIP8b in regulating HCN channel function

    PubMed Central

    Saponaro, Andrea; Pauleta, Sofia R.; Cantini, Francesca; Matzapetakis, Manolis; Hammann, Christian; Donadoni, Chiara; Hu, Lei; Thiel, Gerhard; Banci, Lucia; Santoro, Bina; Moroni, Anna

    2014-01-01

    cAMP signaling in the brain mediates several higher order neural processes. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels directly bind cAMP through their cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD), thus playing a unique role in brain function. Neuronal HCN channels are also regulated by tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b interacting protein (TRIP8b), an auxiliary subunit that antagonizes the effects of cAMP by interacting with the channel CNBD. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dual regulation of HCN channel activity by cAMP/TRIP8b, we determined the NMR solution structure of the HCN2 channel CNBD in the cAMP-free form and mapped on it the TRIP8b interaction site. We reconstruct here the full conformational changes induced by cAMP binding to the HCN channel CNBD. Our results show that TRIP8b does not compete with cAMP for the same binding region; rather, it exerts its inhibitory action through an allosteric mechanism, preventing the cAMP-induced conformational changes in the HCN channel CNBD. PMID:25197093

  18. Controlling fertilization and cAMP signaling in sperm by optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Vera; Alvarez, Luis; Balbach, Melanie; Strünker, Timo; Hegemann, Peter; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Wachten, Dagmar

    2015-01-20

    Optogenetics is a powerful technique to control cellular activity by light. The light-gated Channelrhodopsin has been widely used to study and manipulate neuronal activity in vivo, whereas optogenetic control of second messengers in vivo has not been examined in depth. In this study, we present a transgenic mouse model expressing a photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (bPAC) in sperm. In transgenic sperm, bPAC mimics the action of the endogenous soluble adenylyl cyclase (SACY) that is required for motility and fertilization: light-stimulation rapidly elevates cAMP, accelerates the flagellar beat, and, thereby, changes swimming behavior of sperm. Furthermore, bPAC replaces endogenous adenylyl cyclase activity. In mutant sperm lacking the bicarbonate-stimulated SACY activity, bPAC restored motility after light-stimulation and, thereby, enabled sperm to fertilize oocytes in vitro. We show that optogenetic control of cAMP in vivo allows to non-invasively study cAMP signaling, to control behaviors of single cells, and to restore a fundamental biological process such as fertilization.

  19. DC-10-10 winglet flight test program management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agar, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the McDonnell Douglas/NASA DC-10-10 winglet flight test program from a program management viewpoint. The program was conducted to obtain flight test data on the same airplane with and without winglets for direct comparison. As occasionally happens in flight tests, unexpected events occur. This program was encumbered by a low-speed buffet anomaly that required several configuration modifications before satisfactory performance could be attained. This paper relates the management techniques utilized to accommodate the unplanned increases in program scope and still complete the program on time and below the budgeted cost.

  20. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase as a Reprogramming Strategy for Hypertension and Kidney Disease of Developmental Origin.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2018-06-12

    Suboptimal early-life conditions affect the developing kidney, resulting in long-term programming effects, namely renal programming. Adverse renal programming increases the risk for developing hypertension and kidney disease in adulthood. Conversely, reprogramming is a strategy aimed at reversing the programming processes in early life. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in normal renal physiology and the pathogenesis of hypertension and kidney disease. This review discusses the regulation of AMPK in the kidney and provides hypothetical mechanisms linking AMPK to renal programming. This will be followed by studies targeting AMPK activators like metformin, resveratrol, thiazolidinediones, and polyphenols as reprogramming strategies to prevent hypertension and kidney disease. Further studies that broaden our understanding of AMPK isoform- and tissue-specific effects on renal programming are needed to ultimately develop reprogramming strategies. Despite the fact that animal models have provided interesting results with regard to reprogramming strategies targeting AMPK signaling to protect against hypertension and kidney disease with developmental origins, these results await further clinical translation.

  1. 78 FR 7477 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... in the Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program authorized by the Safe, Accountable... projects to improve multimodal transportation system management and operations. This notice seeks... Multistate Corridor Operations and Management (MCOM) programs and projects. The purpose of these investments...

  2. Opposing actions of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and GMP on temperature in conscious guinea-pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williaes, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the intracerebroventricular administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Db-cAMP) induced hyperthermia in guinea pigs which was not mediated through prostaglandins or norepinephrine since a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor and an alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking agent did not antagonize the hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to Db-cAMP was attenuated by the central administration of a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, which indicates that cAMP may be involved, through beta-adrenergic receptors, in the central regulation of heat production and conservation. The central administration of Db-cGMP produced hypothermia which was not mediated via histamine H1 or H2 receptors and serotonin. The antagonism of hypothermia induced by Db-cGMP and acetylcholine + physostigmine by central administration of a cholinergic muscarine receptor antagonist and not by a cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist suggests that cholinoceptive neurons and endogenous cGMP may regulate heat loss through cholinergic muscarine receptors. It is concluded that these results indicate a regulatory role in thermoregulation provided by a balance between opposing actions of cAMP and cGMP in guinea pigs.

  3. Binding of the cyclic AMP receptor protein of Escherichia coli to RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkney, M; Hoggett, J G

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence polarization studies were used to study the interaction of a fluorescein-labelled conjugate of the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (F-CRP) and RNA polymerase. Under conditions of physiological ionic strength, F-CRP binds to RNA polymerase holoenzyme in a cyclic AMP-dependent manner; the dissociation constant was about 3 microM in the presence of cyclic AMP and about 100 microM in its absence. Binding to core RNA polymerase under the same conditions was weak (Kdiss. approx. 80-100 microM) and independent of cyclic AMP. Competition experiments established that native CRP and F-CRP compete for the same binding site on RNA polymerase holoenzyme and that the native protein binds about 3 times more strongly than does F-CRP. Analytical ultracentrifuge studies showed that CRP binds predominantly to the monomeric rather than the dimeric form of RNA polymerase. PMID:2839152

  4. Elevated Cyclic AMP Levels in T Lymphocytes Transformed by Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1▿

    PubMed Central

    Kress, Andrea K.; Schneider, Grit; Pichler, Klemens; Kalmer, Martina; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Grassmann, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the cause of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), transforms CD4+ T cells to permanent growth through its transactivator Tax. HTLV-1-transformed cells share phenotypic properties with memory and regulatory T cells (T-reg). Murine T-reg-mediated suppression employs elevated cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels as a key regulator. This led us to determine cAMP levels in HTLV-1-transformed cells. We found elevated cAMP concentrations as a consistent feature of all HTLV-1-transformed cell lines, including in vitro-HTLV-1-transformed, Tax-transformed, and patient-derived cells. In transformed cells with conditional Tax expression, high cAMP levels coincided with the presence of Tax but were lost without it. However, transient ectopic expression of Tax alone was not sufficient to induce cAMP. We found specific downregulation of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) in HTLV-1-transformed cells, which was independent of Tax in transient expression experiments. This is in line with the notion that PDE3B transcripts and cAMP levels are inversely correlated. Overexpression of PDE3B led to a decrease of cAMP in HTLV-1-transformed cells. Decreased expression of PDE3B was associated with inhibitory histone modifications at the PDE3B promoter and the PDE3B locus. In summary, Tax transformation and its continuous expression contribute to elevated cAMP levels, which may be regulated through PDE3B suppression. This shows that HTLV-1-transformed cells assume biological features of long-lived T-cell populations that potentially contribute to viral persistence. PMID:20573814

  5. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase/AmpC- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in animals: a threat for humans?

    PubMed

    Madec, J-Y; Haenni, M; Nordmann, P; Poirel, L

    2017-11-01

    There has been a great and long-term concern that extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae occurring in animals may constitute a public-health issue. A large number of factors with complex interrelations contribute to the spread of those bacteria among animals and humans. ESBL/AmpC- or carbapenemase-encoding genes are most often located on mobile genetic elements favouring their dissemination. Some shared reservoirs of ESBL/AmpC or carbapenemase genes, plasmids or clones have been identified and suggest cross-transmissions. Even though exposure to animals is regarded as a risk factor, evidence for a direct transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria from animals to humans through close contacts is limited. Nonetheless, the size of the commensal ESBL/AmpC reservoir in non-human sources is dramatically rising. This may constitute an indirect risk to public health by increasing the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase genes. The extent to which food contributes to potential transmission of ESBL/AmpC producers to humans is also not well established. Overall, events leading to the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC- and carbapenemase-encoding genes in animals seem very much multifactorial. The impact of animal reservoirs on human health still remains debatable and unclear; nonetheless, there are some examples of direct links that have been identified. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of theta-antigen expression by agents altering cyclic AMP level and by thymic factor.

    PubMed

    Bach, M A; Fournier, C; Bach, J F

    1975-02-28

    Thymic factor, cyclic AMP, and products increasing its cellular level, such as Prostaglandin E1, induce the appearance of the theta-antigen on T-cell precursors whether assessed by a rossette-inhibition assay or a cytotoxic assay after cell fractionation on BSA discontinuous gradiet. Synergism has been demonstrated between cyclic AMPT and TF for that effect. Conversely, decrease of theta expression has been obtained by altering cyclic AMP level in theta-positive cells either increasing it by dibutyryl cAMP treatment or decreasing it by indomethacin treatment. Finally, these data suggest the involvement of cyclic AMP in the regulation of theta expression under thymic hormone control.

  7. Decoding spatial and temporal features of neuronal cAMP/PKA signaling with FRET biosensors.

    PubMed

    Castro, Liliana R V; Guiot, Elvire; Polito, Marina; Paupardin-Tritsch, Daniéle; Vincent, Pierre

    2014-02-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulate a plethora of cellular functions in virtually all eukaryotic cells. In neurons, the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade controls a number of biological properties such as axonal growth, pathfinding, efficacy of synaptic transmission, regulation of excitability, or long term changes. Genetically encoded optical biosensors for cAMP or PKA are considerably improving our understanding of these processes by providing a real-time measurement in living neurons. In this review, we describe the recent progress made in the creation of biosensors for cAMP or PKA activity. These biosensors revealed profound differences in the amplitude of the cAMP signal evoked by neuromodulators between various neuronal preparations. These responses can be resolved at the level of individual neurons, also revealing differences related to the neuronal type. At the sub-cellular level, biosensors reported different signal dynamics in domains like dendrites, cell body, nucleus, and axon. Combining this imaging approach with pharmacology or genetic models points at phosphodiesterases and phosphatases as critical regulatory proteins. Biosensor imaging will certainly emerge as a forefront tool to decipher the subtle mechanics of intracellular signaling. This will certainly help us to understand the mechanism of action of current drugs and foster the development of novel molecules for neuropsychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. An Odor-Specific Threshold Deficit Implicates Abnormal Intracellular Cyclic AMP Signaling in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Turetsky, Bruce I.; Moberg, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although olfactory deficits are common in schizophrenia, their underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent evidence has suggested that cAMP signaling may be disrupted in schizophrenia. Since cAMP mediates signal transduction in olfactory receptor neurons, this could contribute to the etiology of observed olfactory deficits. This study was designed to test this hypothesis by determining odor detection threshold sensitivities to two odorants that differ in their relative activations of this intracellular cAMP signaling cascade. Method Thirty schizophrenia patients, 25 healthy comparison subjects, and 19 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients were studied. Odor detection threshold sensitivities were measured for the two odorants citralva and lyral. Although both have fruity/floral scents, citralva strongly activates adenylyl cyclase to increase cAMP levels, while lyral is a very weak activator of adenylyl cyclase. Results There was a significant group-by-odor interaction. Both schizophrenia patients and unaffected first-degree relatives were impaired in their ability to detect lyral versus citralva. Comparison subjects were equally sensitive to both odorants. This selective deficit could not be explained by differences in age, sex, smoking, clinical symptom profile, or medication use. Conclusions This study establishes the presence of an odor-specific hyposmia that may denote a disruption of cAMP-mediated signal transduction in schizophrenia. The presence of a parallel deficit in the patients’ unaffected first-degree relatives suggests that this deficit is genetically mediated. Although additional physiological studies are needed to confirm the underlying mechanism, these results offer strong inferential support for the hypothesis that cAMP signaling is dys-regulated in schizophrenia. PMID:19074977

  9. An odor-specific threshold deficit implicates abnormal intracellular cyclic AMP signaling in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Turetsky, Bruce I; Moberg, Paul J

    2009-02-01

    Although olfactory deficits are common in schizophrenia, their underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent evidence has suggested that cAMP signaling may be disrupted in schizophrenia. Since cAMP mediates signal transduction in olfactory receptor neurons, this could contribute to the etiology of observed olfactory deficits. This study was designed to test this hypothesis by determining odor detection threshold sensitivities to two odorants that differ in their relative activations of this intracellular cAMP signaling cascade. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 25 healthy comparison subjects, and 19 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients were studied. Odor detection threshold sensitivities were measured for the two odorants citralva and lyral. Although both have fruity/floral scents, citralva strongly activates adenylyl cyclase to increase cAMP levels, while lyral is a very weak activator of adenylyl cyclase. There was a significant group-by-odor interaction. Both schizophrenia patients and unaffected first-degree relatives were impaired in their ability to detect lyral versus citralva. Comparison subjects were equally sensitive to both odorants. This selective deficit could not be explained by differences in age, sex, smoking, clinical symptom profile, or medication use. This study establishes the presence of an odor-specific hyposmia that may denote a disruption of cAMP-mediated signal transduction in schizophrenia. The presence of a parallel deficit in the patients' unaffected first-degree relatives suggests that this deficit is genetically mediated. Although additional physiological studies are needed to confirm the underlying mechanism, these results offer strong inferential support for the hypothesis that cAMP signaling is dysregulated in schizophrenia.

  10. Management practices in substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    McConnell, K John; Hoffman, Kim A; Quanbeck, Andrew; McCarty, Dennis

    2009-07-01

    Efforts to understand how to improve the delivery of substance abuse treatment have led to a recent call for studies on the "business of addiction treatment." This study adapts an innovative survey tool to collect baseline management practice data from 147 addiction treatment programs enrolled in the Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment 200 project. Measures of "good" management practice were strongly associated with days to treatment admission. Management practice scores were weakly associated with revenues per employee but were not correlated with operating margins. Better management practices were more prevalent among programs with a higher number of competitors in their catchment area.

  11. cAMP inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and NF-kappaB-binding activity in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Harbrecht, B G; Taylor, B S; Xu, Z; Ramalakshmi, S; Ganster, R W; Geller, D A

    2001-08-01

    The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is strongly expressed following inflammatory stimuli. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) increases iNOS expression and activity in a number of cell types but decreases cytokine-stimulated iNOS expression in hepatocytes. The mechanisms for this effect are unknown. Rat hepatocytes were stimulated with cytokines to induce iNOS and cultured with cAMP agonists dibutyryl-cAMP (dbcAMP), 8-bromo-cAMP, and forskolin (FSK). Nitric oxide synthesis was assessed by supernatant nitrite levels and iNOS expression was measured by Northern and Western blot analyses. Nuclear factor kappaB binding was assessed by electromobility shift assay. Cyclic AMP dose dependently decreased NO synthesis in response to a combination of proinflammatory cytokines or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) alone. The adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ 22,536 increased cytokine- or IL-1beta-stimulated NO synthesis. dbcAMP decreased iNOS mRNA expression and iNOS protein expression. Both dbcAMP and glucagon decreased iNOS promoter activity in rat hepatocytes transfected with the murine iNOS promoter and decreased DNA binding of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. These data suggest that cAMP is important in hepatocyte iNOS expression and agents that alter cAMP levels may profoundly alter the response of hepatocytes to inflammatory stimuli through effects onthe iNOS promoter region and NF-kappaB. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Molecular basis for the recognition of cyclic-di-AMP by PstA, a PII-like signal transduction protein.

    PubMed

    Choi, Philip H; Sureka, Kamakshi; Woodward, Joshua J; Tong, Liang

    2015-06-01

    Cyclic-di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a broadly conserved bacterial second messenger that is of importance in bacterial physiology. The molecular receptors mediating the cellular responses to the c-di-AMP signal are just beginning to be discovered. PstA is a previously uncharacterized PII -like protein which has been identified as a c-di-AMP receptor. PstA is widely distributed and conserved among Gram-positive bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we report the biochemical, structural, and functional characterization of PstA from Listeria monocytogenes. We have determined the crystal structures of PstA in the c-di-AMP-bound and apo forms at 1.6 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively, which provide the molecular basis for its specific recognition of c-di-AMP. PstA forms a homotrimer structure that has overall similarity to the PII protein family which binds ATP. However, PstA is markedly different from PII proteins in the loop regions, and these structural differences mediate the specific recognition of their respective nucleotide ligand. The residues composing the c-di-AMP binding pocket are conserved, suggesting that c-di-AMP recognition by PstA is of functional importance. Disruption of pstA in L. monocytogenes affected c-di-AMP-mediated alterations in bacterial growth and lysis. Overall, we have defined the PstA family as a conserved and specific c-di-AMP receptor in bacteria. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Temporal-Specific and Transient cAMP Increase Characterizes Odorant Classical Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Wen; Smith, Andrew; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are proposed to initiate learning in a wide variety of species. Here, we measure changes in cAMP in the olfactory bulb prior to, during, and following a classically conditioned odor preference trial in rat pups. Measurements were taken up to the point of maximal CREB phosphorylation in olfactory…

  14. Genotypic and Phenotypic Detection of AmpC β-lactamases in Enterobacter spp. Isolated from a Teaching Hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Khari, Fatin Izzati; Karunakaran, Rina; Rosli, Roshalina; Tee Tay, Sun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated β-lactamases (AmpC) genes in a collection of Malaysian isolates of Enterobacter species. Several phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production of Enterobacter spp. were evaluated and the agreements between tests were determined. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 117 Enterobacter clinical isolates obtained from the Medical Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from November 2012-February 2014 were determined in accordance to CLSI guidelines. AmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting the MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene) and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. The AmpC β-lactamase production of the isolates was assessed using cefoxitin disk screening test, D69C AmpC detection set, cefoxitin-cloxacillin double disk synergy test (CC-DDS) and AmpC induction test. Among the Enterobacter isolates in this study, 39.3% were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 23.9% were resistant to ceftazidime. Ten (8.5%) of the isolates were resistant to cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to meropenem. Chromosomal EBC family gene was amplified from 36 (47.4%) E. cloacae and three (25%) E. asburiae. A novel blaDHA type plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was identified for the first time from an E. cloacae isolate. AmpC β-lactamase production was detected in 99 (89.2%) of 111 potential AmpC β-lactamase producers (positive in cefoxitin disk screening) using D69C AmpC detection set. The detection rates were lower with CC-DDS (80.2%) and AmpC induction tests (50.5%). There was low agreement between the D69C AmpC detection set and the other two phenotypic tests. Of the 40 isolates with AmpC genes detected in this study, 87.5%, 77.5% and 50.0% of these isolates were positive by the D69C AmpC detection set, CC-DDS and AmpC induction tests, respectively

  15. Genotypic and Phenotypic Detection of AmpC β-lactamases in Enterobacter spp. Isolated from a Teaching Hospital in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Khari, Fatin Izzati; Karunakaran, Rina; Rosli, Roshalina; Tee Tay, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of chromosomal and plasmid-mediated β-lactamases (AmpC) genes in a collection of Malaysian isolates of Enterobacter species. Several phenotypic tests for detection of AmpC production of Enterobacter spp. were evaluated and the agreements between tests were determined. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 117 Enterobacter clinical isolates obtained from the Medical Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratory, University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from November 2012—February 2014 were determined in accordance to CLSI guidelines. AmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting the MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene) and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. The AmpC β-lactamase production of the isolates was assessed using cefoxitin disk screening test, D69C AmpC detection set, cefoxitin-cloxacillin double disk synergy test (CC-DDS) and AmpC induction test. Results Among the Enterobacter isolates in this study, 39.3% were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 23.9% were resistant to ceftazidime. Ten (8.5%) of the isolates were resistant to cefepime, and one isolate was resistant to meropenem. Chromosomal EBC family gene was amplified from 36 (47.4%) E. cloacae and three (25%) E. asburiae. A novel blaDHA type plasmid-mediated AmpC gene was identified for the first time from an E. cloacae isolate. AmpC β-lactamase production was detected in 99 (89.2%) of 111 potential AmpC β-lactamase producers (positive in cefoxitin disk screening) using D69C AmpC detection set. The detection rates were lower with CC-DDS (80.2%) and AmpC induction tests (50.5%). There was low agreement between the D69C AmpC detection set and the other two phenotypic tests. Of the 40 isolates with AmpC genes detected in this study, 87.5%, 77.5% and 50.0% of these isolates were positive by the D69C AmpC detection set, CC-DDS and Amp

  16. cAMP-dependent chloride secretion mediates tubule enlargement and cyst formation by cultured mammalian collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Roberto; Ghzili, Hafida; Carrozzino, Fabio; Rossier, Bernard C; Féraille, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases result from disruption of the genetically defined program that controls the size and geometry of renal tubules. Cysts which frequently arise from the collecting duct (CD) result from cell proliferation and fluid secretion. From mCCD(cl1) cells, a differentiated mouse CD cell line, we isolated a clonal subpopulation (mCCD-N21) that retains morphogenetic capacity. When grown in three-dimensional gels, mCCD-N21 cells formed highly organized tubular structures consisting of a palisade of polarized epithelial cells surrounding a cylindrical lumen. Subsequent addition of cAMP-elevating agents (forskolin or cholera toxin) or of membrane-permeable cAMP analogs (CPT-cAMP) resulted in rapid and progressive dilatation of existing tubules, leading to the formation of cystlike structures. When grown on filters, mCCD-N21 cells exhibited a high transepithelial resistance as well as aldosterone- and/or vasopressin-induced amiloride-sensitive and -insensitive current. The latter was in part inhibited by Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (bumetanide) and chloride channel (NPPB) inhibitors. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the expression of NKCC1, the ubiquitous Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) in mCCD-N21 cells. Tubule enlargement and cyst formation were prevented by inhibitors of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (bumetanide or ethacrynic acid) or CFTR (NPPB or CFTR inhibitor-172). These results further support the notion that cAMP signaling plays a key role in renal cyst formation, at least in part by promoting chloride-driven fluid secretion. This new in vitro model of tubule-to-cyst conversion affords a unique opportunity for investigating the molecular mechanisms that govern the architecture of epithelial tubes, as well as for dissecting the pathophysiological processes underlying cystic kidney diseases.

  17. An integrable family of Monge-Ampère equations and their multi-Hamiltonian structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutku, Y.; Sarioǧlu, Ö.

    1993-02-01

    We have identified a completely integrable family of Monge-Ampère equations through an examination of their Hamiltonian structure. Starting with a variational formulation of the Monge-Ampère equations we have constructed the first Hamiltonian operator through an application of Dirac's theory of constraints. The completely integrable class of Monge-Ampère equations are then obtained by solving the Jacobi identities for a sufficiently general form of the second Hamiltonian operator that is compatible with the first.

  18. 76 FR 65561 - Multistate Corridor Operations and Management Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... participation in the Multistate Corridor Operations and Management (MCOM) Program authorized by the Safe... transportation system management and operations. This notice seeks applications for available fiscal year (FY... system management and operations. Since the MCOM program is funded by the DOT Intelligent Transportation...

  19. Preparing health care organizations for successful case management programs.

    PubMed

    Bonvissuto, C A; Kastens, J M; Atwell, S R

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of four hospital-based providers in varying stages of implementing case management programs. Three of the providers had most of the necessary elements in place to ensure success, such as a mix of reimbursement sources, an effective and integrated information management system, a full range of clinical services, and continuous quality improvement programs. The authors make several suggestions for key activities that must be pursued by any health care organization seeking to implement a case management program in an era of managed care, tightening reimbursement, and consumer demand for quality care. These include the need to (a) organize essential case management functions under a centralized structure; (b) set realistic, quantifiable targets, and (c) design a communications plan for the program.

  20. Plasmids encoding PKI(1-31), a specific inhibitor of cAMP-stimulated gene expression, inhibit the basal transcriptional activity of some but not all cAMP-regulated DNA response elements in JEG-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Grove, J R; Deutsch, P J; Price, D J; Habener, J F; Avruch, J

    1989-11-25

    Plasmids that encode a bioactive amino-terminal fragment of the heat-stable inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKI(1-31), were employed to characterize the role of this protein kinase in the control of transcriptional activity mediated by three DNA regulatory elements in the JEG-3 human placental cell line. The 5'-flanking sequence of the human collagenase gene contains the heptameric sequence, 5'-TGAGTCA-3', previously identified as a "phorbol ester" response element. Reporter genes containing either the intact 1.2-kilobase 5'-flanking sequence from the human collagenase gene or just the 7-base pair (bp) response element, when coupled to an enhancerless promoter, each exhibit both cAMP and phorbol ester-stimulated expression in JEG-3 cells. Cotransfection of either construct with plasmids encoding PKI(1-31) inhibits cAMP-stimulated but not basal- or phorbol ester-stimulated expression. Pretreatment of cells with phorbol ester for 1 or 2 days abrogates completely the response to rechallenge with phorbol ester but does not alter the basal expression of either construct; cAMP-stimulated expression, while modestly inhibited, remains vigorous. The 5'-flanking sequence of the human chorionic gonadotropin-alpha subunit (HCG alpha) gene has two copies of the sequence, 5'-TGACGTCA-3', contained in directly adjacent identical 18-bp segments, previously identified as a cAMP-response element. Reporter genes containing either the intact 1.5 kilobase of 5'-flanking sequence from the HCG alpha gene, or just the 36-bp tandem repeat cAMP response element, when coupled to an enhancerless promoter, both exhibit a vigorous cAMP stimulation of expression but no response to phorbol ester in JEG-3 cells. Cotransfection with plasmids encoding PKI(1-31) inhibits both basal and cAMP-stimulated expression in a parallel fashion. The 5'-flanking sequence of the human enkephalin gene mediates cAMP-stimulated expression of reporter genes in both JEG-3 and CV-1 cells. Plasmids

  1. Keeping the home fires burning†: AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Living cells obtain energy either by oxidizing reduced compounds of organic or mineral origin or by absorbing light. Whichever energy source is used, some of the energy released is conserved by converting adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which are analogous to the chemicals in a rechargeable battery. The energy released by the conversion of ATP back to ADP is used to drive most energy-requiring processes, including cell growth, cell division, communication and movement. It is clearly essential to life that the production and consumption of ATP are always maintained in balance, and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of the key cellular regulatory systems that ensures this. In eukaryotic cells (cells with nuclei and other internal membrane-bound structures, including human cells), most ATP is produced in mitochondria, which are thought to have been derived by the engulfment of oxidative bacteria by a host cell not previously able to use molecular oxygen. AMPK is activated by increasing AMP or ADP (AMP being generated from ADP whenever ADP rises) coupled with falling ATP. Relatives of AMPK are found in essentially all eukaryotes, and it may have evolved to allow the host cell to monitor the output of the newly acquired mitochondria and step their ATP production up or down according to the demand. Structural studies have illuminated how AMPK achieves the task of detecting small changes in AMP and ADP, despite the presence of much higher concentrations of ATP. Recently, it has been shown that AMPK can also sense the availability of glucose, the primary carbon source for most eukaryotic cells, via a mechanism independent of changes in AMP or ADP. Once activated by energy imbalance or glucose lack, AMPK modifies many target proteins by transferring phosphate groups to them from ATP. By this means, numerous ATP-producing processes are switched on (including the production of new mitochondria) and ATP-consuming processes are switched

  2. Forskolin-free cAMP assay for Gi-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Gilissen, Julie; Geubelle, Pierre; Dupuis, Nadine; Laschet, Céline; Pirotte, Bernard; Hanson, Julien

    2015-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the most successful receptor family for treating human diseases. Many are poorly characterized with few ligands reported or remain completely orphans. Therefore, there is a growing need for screening-compatible and sensitive assays. Measurement of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels is a validated strategy for measuring GPCRs activation. However, agonist ligands for Gi-coupled receptors are difficult to track because inducers such as forskolin (FSK) must be used and are sources of variations and errors. We developed a method based on the GloSensor system, a kinetic assay that consists in a luciferase fused with cAMP binding domain. As a proof of concept, we selected the succinate receptor 1 (SUCNR1 or GPR91) which could be an attractive drug target. It has never been validated as such because very few ligands have been described. Following analyses of SUCNR1 signaling pathways, we show that the GloSensor system allows real time, FSK-free detection of an agonist effect. This FSK-free agonist signal was confirmed on other Gi-coupled receptors such as CXCR4. In a test screening on SUCNR1, we compared the results obtained with a FSK vs FSK-free protocol and were able to identify agonists with both methods but with fewer false positives when measuring the basal levels. In this report, we validate a cAMP-inducer free method for the detection of Gi-coupled receptors agonists compatible with high-throughput screening. This method will facilitate the study and screening of Gi-coupled receptors for active ligands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Management philosophies as applied to major NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.

    1974-01-01

    A definition of 'management philosophies' is discussed explaining the position of NASA in the planning and control of space programs and technology. The impact of these philosophies on the Apollo and Saturn 1 programs are described along with the need for the Saturn 5 spacecraft and launch site development. Case studies are included and describe unscheduled events where management decisions were necessary to keep programs on track.

  4. NASA management of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, F.

    1975-01-01

    The management system and management technology described have been developed to meet stringent cost and schedule constraints of the Space Shuttle Program. Management of resources available to this program requires control and motivation of a large number of efficient creative personnel trained in various technical specialties. This must be done while keeping track of numerous parallel, yet interdependent activities involving different functions, organizations, and products all moving together in accordance with intricate plans for budgets, schedules, performance, and interaction. Some techniques developed to identify problems at an early stage and seek immediate solutions are examined.

  5. cAMP signalling in mushroom bodies modulates temperature preference behaviour in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Hyun, Seogang; Kang, Jongkyun; Jeong, Kyunghwa; Paik, Donggi; Chung, Jongkyeong; Kim, Jaeseob

    2008-08-07

    Homoiotherms, for example mammals, regulate their body temperature with physiological responses such as a change of metabolic rate and sweating. In contrast, the body temperature of poikilotherms, for example Drosophila, is the result of heat exchange with the surrounding environment as a result of the large ratio of surface area to volume of their bodies. Accordingly, these animals must instinctively move to places with an environmental temperature as close as possible to their genetically determined desired temperature. The temperature that Drosophila instinctively prefers has a function equivalent to the 'set point' temperature in mammals. Although various temperature-gated TRP channels have been discovered, molecular and cellular components in Drosophila brain responsible for determining the desired temperature remain unknown. We identified these components by performing a large-scale genetic screen of temperature preference behaviour (TPB) in Drosophila. In parallel, we mapped areas of the Drosophila brain controlling TPB by targeted inactivation of neurons with tetanus toxin and a potassium channel (Kir2.1) driven with various brain-specific GAL4s. Here we show that mushroom bodies (MBs) and the cyclic AMP-cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway are essential for controlling TPB. Furthermore, targeted expression of cAMP-PKA pathway components in only the MB was sufficient to rescue abnormal TPB of the corresponding mutants. Preferred temperatures were affected by the level of cAMP and PKA activity in the MBs in various PKA pathway mutants.

  6. Renal Epithelial Cyst Formation and Enlargement in vitro: Dependence on cAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangoo-Karim, Roberto; Uchic, Marie; Lechene, Claude; Grantham, Jared J.

    1989-08-01

    Cysts, a common abnormality of kidneys, are collections of urine-like fluid enclosed by a continuous layer of epithelial cells. Renal cysts derive from nephrons and collecting ducts and progressively enlarge as a consequence of epithelial proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion. The initiation of cyst formation and the factors that control cyst enlargement are unknown. We used an in vitro model of renal cysts to explore the role of the cAMP signal transduction system in the formation and expansion of cysts. MDCK cells, cultured in hydrated-collagen gel, produced polarized monolayered epithelial cysts when intracellular cAMP was increased by prostaglandin E1, arginine vasopressin, cholera toxin, forskolin, or 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate. All agonists were potentiated by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The cell proliferation component of cyst enlargement was accelerated by cAMP agonists, as shown by the increased growth of MDCK cells in subconfluent monolayers. The fluid secretion component, reflected by the transepithelial movement of fluid across polarized monolayers of MDCK cells grown on permeable supports, was stimulated by cAMP agonists in the basolateral medium. Chloride levels were higher in the cyst fluid and the secreted fluid than in the bathing medium. We conclude that the development of MDCK cysts is dependent on cAMP. This signal transduction system may be an important modulator of epithelial cell proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion in the kidney.

  7. cAMP-secretion coupling is impaired in diabetic GK/Par rat β-cells: a defect counteracted by GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Manuel; Movassat, Jamileh; Bailbé, Danielle; Le Stunff, Hervé; Giroix, Marie-Hélène; Fradet, Magali; Kergoat, Micheline; Portha, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    cAMP-raising agents with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as the first in class, exhibit multiple actions that are beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, including improvement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). To gain additional insight into the role of cAMP in the disturbed stimulus-secretion coupling within the diabetic β-cell, we examined more thoroughly the relationship between changes in islet cAMP concentration and insulin release in the GK/Par rat model of T2D. Basal cAMP content in GK/Par islets was significantly higher, whereas their basal insulin release was not significantly different from that of Wistar (W) islets. Even in the presence of IBMX or GLP-1, their insulin release did not significantly change despite further enhanced cAMP accumulation in both cases. The high basal cAMP level most likely reflects an increased cAMP generation in GK/Par compared with W islets since 1) forskolin dose-dependently induced an exaggerated cAMP accumulation; 2) adenylyl cyclase (AC)2, AC3, and G(s)α proteins were overexpressed; 3) IBMX-activated cAMP accumulation was less efficient and PDE-3B and PDE-1C mRNA were decreased. Moreover, the GK/Par insulin release apparatus appears less sensitive to cAMP, since GK/Par islets released less insulin at submaximal cAMP levels and required five times more cAMP to reach a maximal secretion rate no longer different from W. GLP-1 was able to reactivate GK/Par insulin secretion so that GIIS became indistinguishable from that of W. The exaggerated cAMP production is instrumental, since GLP-1-induced GIIS reactivation was lost in the presence the AC blocker 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine. This GLP-1 effect takes place in the absence of any improvement of the [Ca(2+)](i) response and correlates with activation of the cAMP-dependent PKA-dependent pathway.

  8. Modulation of adhesion-dependent cAMP signaling by echistatin and alendronate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, J. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We measured intracellular cAMP levels in cells during attachment and spreading on different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increases in cAMP were observed within minutes when cells attached to fibronectin, vitronectin, and a synthetic RGD-containing fibronectin peptide (Petite 2000), but not when they adhered to another integrin alpha nu beta 3 ligand, echistatin. Because echistatin also inhibits bone resorption, we measured the effects of adding another osteoporosis inhibitor, alendronate, in this system. Alendronate inhibited the cAMP increase induced by ligands that primarily utilize integrin alpha nu beta 3 (vitronectin, Peptite 2000), but not by fibronectin which can also use integrin alpha 5 beta 1. These results show that cell adhesion to ECM can increase intracellular cAPM levels and raise the possibility that inhibitors of osteoporosis may act, in part, by preventing activation of this pathway by integrins.

  9. Mechanism of N6-threonylcarbamoyladenonsine (t(6)A) biosynthesis: isolation and characterization of the intermediate threonylcarbamoyl-AMP.

    PubMed

    Lauhon, Charles T

    2012-11-06

    Genetic and biochemical studies have recently implicated four proteins required in bacteria for the biosynthesis of the universal tRNA modified base N6-threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t(6)A). In this work, t(6)A biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis has been reconstituted in vitro and found to indeed require the four proteins YwlC (TsaC), YdiB (TsaE), YdiC (TsaB) and YdiE (TsaD). YwlC was found to catalyze the conversion of L-threonine, bicarbonate/CO(2) and ATP to give the intermediate L-threonylcarbamoyl-AMP (TC-AMP) and pyrophosphate as products. TC-AMP was isolated by HPLC and characterized by mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR. NMR analysis showed that TC-AMP decomposes to give AMP and a nearly equimolar mixture of L-threonine and 5-methyl-2-oxazolidinone-4-carboxylate as final products. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.5, 37 °C, 2 mM MgCl(2)), the half-life of TC-AMP was measured to be 3.5 min. Both YwlC (in the presence of pyrophosphatase) and its Escherichia coli homologue YrdC catalyze the formation of TC-AMP while producing only a small molar fraction of AMP. This suggests that CO(2) and not an activated form of bicarbonate is the true substrate for these enzymes. In the presence of pyrophosphate, both enzymes catalyze clean conversion of TC-AMP back to ATP. Purified TC-AMP is efficiently processed to t(6)A by the YdiBCE proteins in the presence of tRNA substrates. This reaction is ATP independent in vitro, despite the known ATPase activity of YdiB. The estimated rate of conversion of TC-AMP by YdiBCE to t(6)A is somewhat lower than the initial rate from L-threonine, bicarbonate and ATP, which together with the stability data, is consistent with previous studies that suggest channeling of this intermediate.

  10. 45 CFR 2543.20 - Purpose of financial and program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose of financial and program management. 2543... OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.20 Purpose of financial and program management. Sections 2543.21 through 2543.25 prescribe standards for...

  11. 30 CFR 256.20 - Consideration of coastal zone management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of coastal zone management....20 Consideration of coastal zone management program. In the development of the leasing program, consideration shall be given to the coastal zone management program being developed or administered by an...

  12. The Central Role of cAMP in Regulating Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Invasion of Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    More, Kunal R.; Siddiqui, Faiza Amber; Pachikara, Niseema; Ramdani, Ghania; Langsley, Gordon; Chitnis, Chetan E.

    2014-01-01

    All pathogenesis and death associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria is due to parasite-infected erythrocytes. Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands that are localized in apical organelles called micronemes. Here, we identify cAMP as a key regulator that triggers the timely secretion of microneme proteins enabling receptor-engagement and invasion. We demonstrate that exposure of merozoites to a low K+ environment, typical of blood plasma, activates a bicarbonate-sensitive cytoplasmic adenylyl cyclase to raise cytosolic cAMP levels and activate protein kinase A, which regulates microneme secretion. We also show that cAMP regulates merozoite cytosolic Ca2+ levels via induction of an Epac pathway and demonstrate that increases in both cAMP and Ca2+ are essential to trigger microneme secretion. Our identification of the different elements in cAMP-dependent signaling pathways that regulate microneme secretion during invasion provides novel targets to inhibit blood stage parasite growth and prevent malaria. PMID:25522250

  13. A Program Management Framework for Facilities Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The challenge faced by senior facility leaders is not how to execute a single project, but rather, how to successfully execute a large program consisting of hundreds of projects. Senior facilities officers at universities, school districts, hospitals, airports, and other organizations with extensive facility inventories, typically manage project…

  14. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  15. Developing a pain management program through continuous improvement strategies.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Dora

    2005-01-01

    Pain affects more than one third of cancer patients in the early stages of their disease, dramatically rising above 70% in the advanced stages. Numerous studies have been conducted in the pursuit of cancer pain relief, yet the prevalence of pain persists. This article focuses on a pain management program, developed by a performance improvement team, which addressed the inadequacies of current pain management. Performance improvement activities are described through the process of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation of the pain management program. This pain management program is uniquely derived from a unit core value that all staff is responsible and accountable for pain management.

  16. Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Marvin

    This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

  17. 40 CFR 30.20 - Purpose of financial and program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Program Management § 30.20 Purpose of financial and program management. Sections 30.21 through 30.28 prescribe standards for financial management systems, methods for making payments and rules for: satisfying... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of financial and program...

  18. 24 CFR 84.20 - Purpose of financial and program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Program Management § 84.20 Purpose of financial and program management. Sections 84.21 through 84.28 prescribe standards for financial management systems, methods for making payments and rules for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of financial and program...

  19. An evaluation of Washington's Medicaid disease-management program.

    PubMed

    Lind, Alice; Kaplan, Louise

    2007-10-01

    In 2002, Washington State Medicaid implemented a disease-management program for clients with diagnoses of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and diabetes. The program represented a unique attempt to manage disabled clients in a fee-for-services environment, and at its onset, was one of the first statewide programs in the United States. This article reviews the effectiveness of the program based on the results from two independent evaluations. Results of cost-savings measurements and health outcomes are presented for each of the conditions. These results were used to make program changes, which began in 2007.

  20. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management. Part 2

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. This Part 2 includes chapters on implementation guidance for operational configuration management, implementation guidance for design reconstitution, and implementation guidance for material condition and aging management. Appendices are included on design control, examples of design information, conduct of walkdowns, and content of design information summaries.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... measure the level of adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in plasma, urine, and other body fluids...

  2. cAMP-dependent activation of protein kinase A attenuates respiratory syncytial virus-induced human airway epithelial barrier disruption

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Terri J.; Linfield, Debra T.; Altawallbeh, Ghaith; Midura, Ronald J.; Ivanov, Andrei I.; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Airway epithelium forms a barrier to the outside world and has a crucial role in susceptibility to viral infections. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important second messenger acting via two intracellular signaling molecules: protein kinase A (PKA) and the guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, Epac. We sought to investigate effects of increased cAMP level on the disruption of model airway epithelial barrier caused by RSV infection and the molecular mechanisms underlying cAMP actions. Human bronchial epithelial cells were infected with RSV-A2 and treated with either cAMP releasing agent, forskolin, or cAMP analogs. Structure and functions of the Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) were evaluated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability to FITC-dextran, and determining localization of AJC proteins by confocal microscopy. Increased intracellular cAMP level significantly attenuated RSV-induced disassembly of AJC. These barrier-protective effects of cAMP were due to the activation of PKA signaling and did not involve Epac activity. Increased cAMP level reduced RSV-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, including apical accumulation of an essential actin-binding protein, cortactin, and inhibited expression of the RSV F protein. These barrier-protective and antiviral-function of cAMP signaling were evident even when cAMP level was increased after the onset of RSV infection. Taken together, our study demonstrates that cAMP/PKA signaling attenuated RSV-induced disruption of structure and functions of the model airway epithelial barrier by mechanisms involving the stabilization of epithelial junctions and inhibition of viral biogenesis. Improving our understanding of the mechanisms involved in RSV-induced epithelial dysfunction and viral pathogenesis will help to develop novel anti-viral therapeutic approaches. PMID:28759570

  3. IPM: Integrated Pest Management Kit for Building Managers. How To Implement an Integrated Pest Management Program in Your Building(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Brad

    This management kit introduces building managers to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and provides the knowledge and tools needed to implement an IPM program in their buildings. It discusses the barriers to implementing an IPM program, why such a program should be used, and the general guidelines for its implementation. Managerial…

  4. Major Management Challenges and Program Risks. Department of State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Major Management Challenges and Program Risks Department of StateGAO-01-252 Form SF298 Citation Data Report Date ("DD MON YYYY") 00JAN2001 Report...Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) ("DD MON YYYY") Title and Subtitle Major Management Challenges and Program Risks Department of State Contract or...special series, first issued in January 1999, entitled the Performance and Accountability Series: Major Management Challenges and Program Risks . In

  5. Protein kinase Cδ differentially regulates cAMP-dependent translocation of NTCP and MRP2 to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Won; Schonhoff, Christopher M.; Webster, Cynthia R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic AMP stimulates translocation of Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) from the cytosol to the sinusoidal membrane and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) to the canalicular membrane. A recent study suggested that protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) may mediate cAMP-induced translocation of Ntcp and Mrp2. In addition, cAMP has been shown to stimulate NTCP translocation in part via Rab4. The aim of this study was to determine whether cAMP-induced translocation of NTCP and MRP2 require kinase activity of PKCδ and to test the hypothesis that cAMP-induced activation of Rab4 is mediated via PKCδ. Studies were conducted in HuH-NTCP cells (HuH-7 cells stably transfected with NTCP). Transfection of cells with wild-type PKCδ increased plasma membrane PKCδ and NTCP and increased Rab4 activity. Paradoxically, overexpression of kinase-dead dominant-negative PKCδ also increased plasma membrane PKCδ and NTCP as well as Rab4 activity. Similar results were obtained in PKCδ knockdown experiments, despite a decrease in total PKCδ. These results raised the possibility that plasma membrane localization rather than kinase activity of PKCδ is necessary for NTCP translocation and Rab4 activity. This hypothesis was supported by results showing that rottlerin, which has previously been shown to inhibit cAMP-induced membrane translocation of PKCδ and NTCP, inhibited cAMP-induced Rab4 activity. In addition, LY294002 (a phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor), which has been shown to inhibit cAMP-induced NTCP translocation, also inhibited cAMP-induced PKCδ translocation. In contrast to the results with NTCP, cAMP-induced MRP2 translocation was inhibited in cells transfected with DN-PKCδ and small interfering RNA PKCδ. Taken together, these results suggest that the plasma membrane localization rather than kinase activity of PKCδ plays an important role in cAMP-induced NTCP translocation and Rab4 activity, whereas the kinase activity of PKCδ is necessary for cAMP

  6. Protein kinase Cδ differentially regulates cAMP-dependent translocation of NTCP and MRP2 to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Won; Schonhoff, Christopher M; Webster, Cynthia R L; Anwer, M Sawkat

    2012-09-01

    Cyclic AMP stimulates translocation of Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) from the cytosol to the sinusoidal membrane and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) to the canalicular membrane. A recent study suggested that protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) may mediate cAMP-induced translocation of Ntcp and Mrp2. In addition, cAMP has been shown to stimulate NTCP translocation in part via Rab4. The aim of this study was to determine whether cAMP-induced translocation of NTCP and MRP2 require kinase activity of PKCδ and to test the hypothesis that cAMP-induced activation of Rab4 is mediated via PKCδ. Studies were conducted in HuH-NTCP cells (HuH-7 cells stably transfected with NTCP). Transfection of cells with wild-type PKCδ increased plasma membrane PKCδ and NTCP and increased Rab4 activity. Paradoxically, overexpression of kinase-dead dominant-negative PKCδ also increased plasma membrane PKCδ and NTCP as well as Rab4 activity. Similar results were obtained in PKCδ knockdown experiments, despite a decrease in total PKCδ. These results raised the possibility that plasma membrane localization rather than kinase activity of PKCδ is necessary for NTCP translocation and Rab4 activity. This hypothesis was supported by results showing that rottlerin, which has previously been shown to inhibit cAMP-induced membrane translocation of PKCδ and NTCP, inhibited cAMP-induced Rab4 activity. In addition, LY294002 (a phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor), which has been shown to inhibit cAMP-induced NTCP translocation, also inhibited cAMP-induced PKCδ translocation. In contrast to the results with NTCP, cAMP-induced MRP2 translocation was inhibited in cells transfected with DN-PKCδ and small interfering RNA PKCδ. Taken together, these results suggest that the plasma membrane localization rather than kinase activity of PKCδ plays an important role in cAMP-induced NTCP translocation and Rab4 activity, whereas the kinase activity of PKCδ is necessary for

  7. Facilities Management: A Program for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    1980-01-01

    Successful facilities management is described as based on a 10-point comprehensive program including: (1) physical planning policy; (2) facilities analysis; (3) management audit; (4) space utilization; (5) capital programs; (6) deferred maintenance; (7) controlled maintenance; (8) energy conservation; (9) environmental quality, health, and safety;…

  8. High Heterogeneity of Escherichia coli Sequence Types Harbouring ESBL/AmpC Genes on IncI1 Plasmids in the Colombian Poultry Chain

    PubMed Central

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; León, Maribel; Clavijo, Viviana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Bernal, Johan F.; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Mevius, Dik J.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Hordijk, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli producing ESBL/AmpC enzymes are unwanted in animal production chains as they may pose a risk to human and animal health. Molecular characterization of plasmids and strains carrying genes that encode these enzymes is essential to understand their local and global spread. Objectives To investigate the diversity of genes, plasmids and strains in ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli from the Colombian poultry chain isolated within the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (Coipars). Methods A total of 541 non-clinical E. coli strains from epidemiologically independent samples and randomly isolated between 2008 and 2013 within the Coipars program were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Poultry isolates resistant to cefotaxime (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L) were screened for ESBL/AmpC genes including blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCMY and blaOXA. Plasmid and strain characterization was performed for a selection of the ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. Plasmids were purified and transformed into E. coli DH10B cells or transferred by conjugation to E. coli W3110. When applicable, PCR Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), plasmid Multi Locus Sequence Typing (pMLST), plasmid Double Locus Sequence Typing (pDLST) and/or plasmid Replicon Sequence Typing (pRST) was performed on resulting transformants and conjugants. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used for strain characterization. Results In total, 132 of 541 isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and 122 were found to carry ESBL/AmpC genes. Ninety-two harboured blaCMY-2 (75%), fourteen blaSHV-12 (11%), three blaSHV-5 (2%), five blaCTX-M-2 (4%), one blaCTX-M-15 (1%), one blaCTX-M-8 (1%), four a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-12 (4%) and two a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-5 (2%). A selection of 39 ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates was characterized at the plasmid and strain level. ESBL/AmpC genes from 36 isolates were transferable by transformation or conjugation of which 22 were located

  9. High Heterogeneity of Escherichia coli Sequence Types Harbouring ESBL/AmpC Genes on IncI1 Plasmids in the Colombian Poultry Chain.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Luis Ricardo; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; León, Maribel; Clavijo, Viviana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Bernal, Johan F; Timmerman, Arjen J; Mevius, Dik J; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hordijk, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli producing ESBL/AmpC enzymes are unwanted in animal production chains as they may pose a risk to human and animal health. Molecular characterization of plasmids and strains carrying genes that encode these enzymes is essential to understand their local and global spread. To investigate the diversity of genes, plasmids and strains in ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli from the Colombian poultry chain isolated within the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (Coipars). A total of 541 non-clinical E. coli strains from epidemiologically independent samples and randomly isolated between 2008 and 2013 within the Coipars program were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Poultry isolates resistant to cefotaxime (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L) were screened for ESBL/AmpC genes including blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCMY and blaOXA. Plasmid and strain characterization was performed for a selection of the ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. Plasmids were purified and transformed into E. coli DH10B cells or transferred by conjugation to E. coli W3110. When applicable, PCR Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), plasmid Multi Locus Sequence Typing (pMLST), plasmid Double Locus Sequence Typing (pDLST) and/or plasmid Replicon Sequence Typing (pRST) was performed on resulting transformants and conjugants. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used for strain characterization. In total, 132 of 541 isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and 122 were found to carry ESBL/AmpC genes. Ninety-two harboured blaCMY-2 (75%), fourteen blaSHV-12 (11%), three blaSHV-5 (2%), five blaCTX-M-2 (4%), one blaCTX-M-15 (1%), one blaCTX-M-8 (1%), four a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-12 (4%) and two a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-5 (2%). A selection of 39 ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates was characterized at the plasmid and strain level. ESBL/AmpC genes from 36 isolates were transferable by transformation or conjugation of which 22 were located on IncI1 plasmids. These IncI1

  10. Sensitivity of GBM cells to cAMP agonist-mediated apoptosis correlates with CD44 expression and agonist resistance with MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Paul M; Filiz, Gulay; Mantamadiotis, Theo

    2016-12-01

    In some cell types, activation of the second messenger cAMP leads to increased expression of proapoptotic Bim and subsequent cell death. We demonstrate that suppression of the cAMP pathway is a common event across many cancers and that pharmacological activation of cAMP in glioblastoma (GBM) cells leads to enhanced BIM expression and apoptosis in specific GBM cell types. We identified the MAPK signaling axis as the determinant of cAMP agonist sensitivity in GBM cells, with high MAPK activity corresponding to cAMP resistance and low activity corresponding to sensitization to cAMP-induced apoptosis. Sensitive cells were efficiently killed by cAMP agonists alone, while targeting both the cAMP and MAPK pathways in resistant GBM cells resulted in efficient apoptosis. We also show that CD44 is differentially expressed in cAMP agonist-sensitive and -resistant cells. We thus propose that CD44 may be a useful biomarker for distinguishing tumors that may be sensitive to cAMP agonists alone or cAMP agonists in combination with other pathway inhibitors. This suggests that using existing chemotherapeutic compounds in combination with existing FDA-approved cAMP agonists may fast track trials toward improved therapies for difficult-to-treat cancers, such as GBM.

  11. Pendrin protein abundance in the kidney is regulated by nitric oxide and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Thumova, Monika; Pech, Vladimir; Froehlich, Otto; Agazatian, Diana; Wang, Xiaonan; Verlander, Jill W; Kim, Young Hee; Wall, Susan M

    2012-09-15

    Pendrin is a Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger, expressed in the apical regions of some intercalated cell subtypes, and is critical in the pressor response to angiotensin II. Since angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibitors reduce renal pendrin protein abundance in mice in vivo through a mechanism that is dependent on nitric oxide (NO), we asked if NO modulates renal pendrin expression in vitro and explored the mechanism by which it occurs. Thus we quantified pendrin protein abundance by confocal fluorescent microscopy in cultured mouse cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) and connecting tubules (CNTs). After overnight culture, CCDs maintain their tubular structure and maintain a solute gradient when perfused in vitro. Pendrin protein abundance increased 67% in CNT and 53% in CCD when NO synthase was inhibited (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 100 μM), while NO donor (DETA NONOate, 200 μM) application reduced pendrin protein by ∼33% in the CCD and CNT. When CNTs were cultured in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 μM), NO donors did not alter pendrin abundance. Conversely, pendrin protein abundance rose when cAMP content was increased by the application of an adenylyl cyclase agonist (forskolin, 10 μM), a cAMP analog (8-bromo-cAMP, 1 mM), or a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (BAY60-7550, 50 μM). Since NO reduces cellular cAMP in the CNT, we asked if NO reduces pendrin abundance by reducing cAMP. With blockade of cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase II, NO did not alter pendrin protein abundance. We conclude that NO acts through cAMP to reduce pendrin total protein abundance by enhancing cAMP degradation.

  12. Pendrin protein abundance in the kidney is regulated by nitric oxide and cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Thumova, Monika; Pech, Vladimir; Froehlich, Otto; Agazatian, Diana; Wang, Xiaonan; Verlander, Jill W.; Kim, Young Hee

    2012-01-01

    Pendrin is a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger, expressed in the apical regions of some intercalated cell subtypes, and is critical in the pressor response to angiotensin II. Since angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibitors reduce renal pendrin protein abundance in mice in vivo through a mechanism that is dependent on nitric oxide (NO), we asked if NO modulates renal pendrin expression in vitro and explored the mechanism by which it occurs. Thus we quantified pendrin protein abundance by confocal fluorescent microscopy in cultured mouse cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) and connecting tubules (CNTs). After overnight culture, CCDs maintain their tubular structure and maintain a solute gradient when perfused in vitro. Pendrin protein abundance increased 67% in CNT and 53% in CCD when NO synthase was inhibited (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, 100 μM), while NO donor (DETA NONOate, 200 μM) application reduced pendrin protein by ∼33% in the CCD and CNT. When CNTs were cultured in the presence of the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 μM), NO donors did not alter pendrin abundance. Conversely, pendrin protein abundance rose when cAMP content was increased by the application of an adenylyl cyclase agonist (forskolin, 10 μM), a cAMP analog (8-bromo-cAMP, 1 mM), or a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (BAY60-7550, 50 μM). Since NO reduces cellular cAMP in the CNT, we asked if NO reduces pendrin abundance by reducing cAMP. With blockade of cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase II, NO did not alter pendrin protein abundance. We conclude that NO acts through cAMP to reduce pendrin total protein abundance by enhancing cAMP degradation. PMID:22811483

  13. Transcription activation mediated by a cyclic AMP receptor protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Akeo; Kira, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kashihara, Aiko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-05-01

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8, which belongs to the phylum Deinococcus-Thermus, has an open reading frame encoding a protein belonging to the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) family present in many bacteria. The protein named T. thermophilus CRP is highly homologous to the CRP family proteins from the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria, and it forms a homodimer and interacts with cAMP. CRP mRNA and intracellular cAMP were detected in this strain, which did not drastically fluctuate during cultivation in a rich medium. The expression of several genes was altered upon disruption of the T. thermophilus CRP gene. We found six CRP-cAMP-dependent promoters in in vitro transcription assays involving DNA fragments containing the upstream regions of the genes exhibiting decreased expression in the CRP disruptant, indicating that the CRP is a transcriptional activator. The consensus T. thermophilus CRP-binding site predicted upon nucleotide sequence alignment is 5'-(C/T)NNG(G/T)(G/T)C(A/C)N(A/T)NNTCACAN(G/C)(G/C)-3'. This sequence is unique compared with the known consensus binding sequences of CRP family proteins. A putative -10 hexamer sequence resides at 18 to 19 bp downstream of the predicted T. thermophilus CRP-binding site. The CRP-regulated genes found in this study comprise clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (cas) ones, and the genes of a putative transcriptional regulator, a protein containing the exonuclease III-like domain of DNA polymerase, a GCN5-related acetyltransferase homolog, and T. thermophilus-specific proteins of unknown function. These results suggest a role for cAMP signal transduction in T. thermophilus and imply the T. thermophilus CRP is a cAMP-responsive regulator.

  14. Neurological basis of AMP-dependent thermoregulation and its relevance to central and peripheral hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Muzzi, Mirko; Blasi, Francesco; Masi, Alessio; Coppi, Elisabetta; Traini, Chiara; Felici, Roberta; Pittelli, Maria; Cavone, Leonardo; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Moroni, Flavio; Chiarugi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is of relevance to treatment of increased body temperature and brain injury, but drugs inducing selective, rapid, and safe cooling in humans are not available. Here, we show that injections of adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), an endogenous nucleotide, promptly triggers hypothermia in mice by directly activating adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) within the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. Inhibition of constitutive degradation of brain extracellular AMP by targeting ecto 5′-nucleotidase, also suffices to prompt hypothermia in rodents. Accordingly, sensitivity of mice and rats to the hypothermic effect of AMP is inversely related to their hypothalamic 5′-nucleotidase activity. Single-cell electrophysiological recording indicates that AMP reduces spontaneous firing activity of temperature-insensitive neurons of the mouse POA, thereby retuning the hypothalamic thermoregulatory set point towards lower temperatures. Adenosine 5′-monophosphate also suppresses prostaglandin E2-induced fever in mice, having no effects on peripheral hyperthermia triggered by dioxymetamphetamine (ecstasy) overdose. Together, data disclose the role of AMP, 5′-nucleotidase, and A1R in hypothalamic thermoregulation, as well and their therapeutic relevance to treatment of febrile illness. PMID:23093068

  15. Competencies for Graduate Culinary Management Degree Programs: Stakeholders' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Annette A.

    2009-01-01

    Available literature on graduate hospitality education was highly focused on required competencies for hospitality management degree programs but not on culinary management. One possible explanation is that the culinary sector still lags behind in the formation of graduate culinary management programs in the United States. This causal comparative…

  16. Predictors of Response to an Attention Modification Program in Generalized Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Nader; Taylor, Charles T.; Donohue, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: At least 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies have supported the efficacy of computerized attention modification programs (AMPs) in reducing symptoms of anxiety in patients diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In this study we examined patient characteristics that predicted response to AMP in a large sample of…

  17. cAMP and forskolin decrease gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride flux in rat brain synaptoneurosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Heuschneider, G; Schwartz, R D

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the cyclic nucleotide cAMP on gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channel function were investigated. The membrane-permeant cAMP analog N6,O2'-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibited muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake into rat cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 1.3 mM). The inhibition was due to a decrease in the maximal effect of muscimol, with no change in potency. Similar effects were observed with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine. The effect of endogenous cAMP accumulation on the gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated Cl- channel was studied with forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. Under identical conditions, in the intact synaptoneurosomes, forskolin inhibited muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake and generated cAMP with similar potencies (IC50 = 14.3 microM; EC50 = 6.2 microM, respectively). Surprisingly, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, which does not activate adenylate cyclase, also inhibited the muscimol response, suggesting that forskolin and its lipophilic derivatives may interact with the Cl- channel directly. Indeed, forskolin inhibition of muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake was extremely rapid (within 5 sec), preceding the accumulation of sufficient levels of cAMP. After 5 min, a slower phase of inhibition was seen, similar to the time course for cAMP accumulation. The data suggest that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor function in brain can be regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation. PMID:2468163

  18. Green campus management based on conservation program in Universitas Negeri Semarang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prihanto, Teguh

    2018-03-01

    Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) has a great commitment in the development of higher education programs in line with its vision as a conservation - minded and internationally reputable university. Implementation of conservation programs with respect to the rules or conservation aspects of sustainable use, preservation, provisioning, protection, restoration and conservation of nature. In order to support the implementation of UNNES conservation program more focused, development strategies and development programs for each conservation scope are covered: (1) Biodiversity management; (2) Internal transportation management; (3) energy management; (4) Green building management; (5) Waste and water management; (6) Cultural conservation management. All related to conservation development strategies and programs are managed in the form of green campus management aimed at realizing UNNES as a green campus, characterized and reputable at the regional and global level.

  19. NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blythe, Michael P.; Saunders, Mark P.; Pye, David B.; Voss, Linda D.; Moreland, Robert J.; Symons, Kathleen E.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is a companion to NPR 7120.5E, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements and supports the implementation of the requirements by which NASA formulates and implements space flight programs and projects. Its focus is on what the program or project manager needs to know to accomplish the mission, but it also contains guidance that enhances the understanding of the high-level procedural requirements. (See Appendix C for NPR 7120.5E requirements with rationale.) As such, it starts with the same basic concepts but provides context, rationale, guidance, and a greater depth of detail for the fundamental principles of program and project management. This handbook also explores some of the nuances and implications of applying the procedural requirements, for example, how the Agency Baseline Commitment agreement evolves over time as a program or project moves through its life cycle.

  20. One System for Blood Program Information Management

    PubMed Central

    Gero, Michael G.; Klickstein, Judith S.; Hurst, Timm M.

    1980-01-01

    A system which integrates the diverse functions of a Blood Program within one structure is being assembled at the American National Red Cross Blood Services, Northeast Region. When finished, it will provide technical support for collection scheduling, donor recruitment, recordkeeping, laboratory processing, inventory management, HLA typing and matching, distribution, and administration within the Program. By linking these applications, a reporting structure useful to top management will be provided.

  1. cAMP dependent and independent regulation of thyroglobulin synthesis by two clones of the OVNIS 6H thyroid cell line.

    PubMed

    Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S; Fayet, G

    1987-07-01

    The hormonal regulation of thyroglobulin synthesis has been studied using two independent clones of the OVNIS 6H cell line. Insulin, hydrocortisone and TSH were able to stimulate thyroglobulin synthesis, whereas transferrin, somatostatin and glycyl-histidyl-lysine were without effect. Insulin stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis without affecting cAMP production. Hydrocortisone, when combined with insulin was a stimulator too; this stimulation was not accompanied by an increase in cAMP. TSH alone was unable to stimulate either cAMP or thyroglobulin synthesis. The stimulatory effect of TSH on thyroglobulin synthesis took place only when combined with insulin or insulin plus hydrocortisone, and was mediated by cAMP. Consequently, insulin and hydrocortisone stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis by cAMP-independent mechanisms, whereas TSH acted via the cAMP system. Forskolin mimicked TSH effects on cAMP and thyroglobulin synthesis. Calf serum inhibited cAMP and thyroglobulin production. Optimal cAMP and thyroglobulin synthesis as well as TSH responsiveness were obtained in serum-free medium supplemented with 5 micrograms/ml insulin, 100 nM hydrocortisone and 1 mU/ml TSH.

  2. Residue Management: A Computer Program About Conservation Tillage Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Steve J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, Residue Management, which is designed to supplement discussions on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the impact of tillage on soil properties for introductory soil courses. The program advances the user through three stages of residue management. Information on obtaining the program is also included. (ML)

  3. Defense Acquisition University (DAU) Program Managers Tool Kit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    SUBTITLE Program Managers Tool Kit 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e . TASK...strve for optmal solutons, seek better ways to manage, and provde lessons -learned to those who follow; • be candd about program status, ncludng...practces, lessons learned, and rsks to avod; • valdated practces wth consstent, verfiable nformaton; • an actve knowledge base to help wth

  4. Regulation of cAMP on the first mitotic cell cycle of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Yu, Aiming; Zhang, Zhe; Bi, Qiang; Sun, Bingqi; Su, Wenhui; Guan, Yifu; Mu, Runqing; Miao, Changsheng; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Bingzhi

    2008-03-01

    Mitosis promoting factor (MPF) plays a central role during the first mitosis of mouse embryo. We demonstrated that MPF activity increased when one-cell stage mouse embryo initiated G2/M transition following the decrease of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. When cAMP and PKA activity increases again, MPF activity decreases and mouse embryo starts metaphase-anaphase transition. In the downstream of cAMP/PKA, there are some effectors such as polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), Cdc25, Mos (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase), MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Wee1, anaphase-promoting complex (APC), and phosphoprotein phosphatase that are involved in the regulation of MPF activity. Here, we demonstrated that following activation of MPF, MAPK activity was steady, whereas Plk1 activity fluctuated during the first cell cycle. Plk1 activity was the highest at metaphase and decreased at metaphase-anaphase transition. Further, we established a mathematical model using Gepasi algorithm and the simulation was in agreement with the experimental data. Above all the evidences, we suggested that cAMP and PKA might be the upstream factors which were included in the regulation of the first cell cycle development of mouse embryo. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Fashion Production and Management Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents the standard fashion production and management curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. It is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed to become a qualified alterationist, clothing design assistant, home textiles assistant, fashion management assistant, or tailoring assistant. A…

  6. The effect of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) on tenderness, microstructure and chemical-physical index of duck breast meat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoying; Deng, Shaoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-30

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is often used in meat and poultry soups as a flavor enhancer (flavor modifier), or as food additives for specific nutritional purposes. Our previous research as well as evidence from others showed that actomyosin could be dissociated into myosin and actin by AMP in extracted muscle solution. However, there is no report available on the application of AMP to dissociate actomyosin and to improve meat tenderness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMP on duck meat tenderness and other quality traits and to explore the mechanism of the action of AMP on meat tenderness. Duck breast muscle was treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mmol L(-1) AMP at 5 °C for 10 h and examined for shear force, microstructure, actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), pH, water content, cooking loss, CIE* color (L*, a*, b*), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Results showed that shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* of the muscles significantly decreased after AMP treatment (P < 0.05); actomyosin dissociation, MFI, pH, water content, fiber diameter, sarcomere length, IMP and ammonia significantly increased (P < 0.05); no significant change in a* or other FAA content was observed (P > 0.05), and muscle shrinkage in transverse and longitudinal directions were restrained after AMP treatment. The results suggest that AMP could notably improve meat tenderness, and this effect was probably mainly through increasing muscle pH, promoting actomyosin dissociation and disrupting the Z-line; meanwhile, the conversion of AMP to IMP may contribute to the flavor of meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Export Management Specialist. A Training Program. Instructor's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication provides instructors with materials for an export management specialist (EMS) training program. The objective of the training program is to assist companies in reaching their export goals by educating current and potential managers about the basics of exporting. It provides a foundation for considering international trade and for…

  8. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  9. GTP-Binding Proteins Inhibit cAMP Activation of Chloride Channels in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwiebert, Erik M.; Kizer, Neil; Gruenert, Dieter C.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    1992-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterized, in part, by defective regulation of Cl^- secretion by airway epithelial cells. In CF, cAMP does not activate Cl^- channels in the apical membrane of airway epithelial cells. We report here whole-cell patch-clamp studies demonstrating that pertussis toxin, which uncouples heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) from their receptors, and guanosine 5'-[β-thio]diphosphate, which prevents G proteins from interacting with their effectors, increase Cl^- currents and restore cAMP-activated Cl^- currents in airway epithelial cells isolated from CF patients. In contrast, the G protein activators guanosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate and AlF^-_4 reduce Cl^- currents and inhibit cAMP from activating Cl^- currents in normal airway epithelial cells. In CF cells treated with pertussis toxin or guanosine 5'-[β-thio]diphosphate and in normal cells, cAMP activates a Cl^- conductance that has properties similar to CF transmembrane-conductance regulator Cl^- channels. We conclude that heterotrimeric G proteins inhibit cAMP-activated Cl^- currents in airway epithelial cells and that modulation of the inhibitory G protein signaling pathway may have the therapeutic potential for improving cAMP-activated Cl^- secretion in CF.

  10. [Characteristics of case management programs and their potential for patient empowerment].

    PubMed

    Grün, Oskar; Maier, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Different types of case management programs have been increasingly developed for health care systems. This study, therefore, aimed to identify similarities and differences of case management programs, to estimate their shaping with special emphasis on patient empowerment, and to develop an instrument for their differentiation. During an interdisciplinary seminar for students, eight different case management programs were selected and analyzed. Five characteristics of case management programs were identified: type of case, extent of functions, players involved, limits of availability and need for resources. The programs were categorized into information-, provider-, disease- or patient centred. With these characteristics the selected programs could be exactly described and their potential for patient empowerment could be assessed. This newly developed tool for describing case management programs allows for their sufficient differentiation. The potential for patient empowerment apparently is most prominent in patient centred programs.

  11. Continuous Risk Management: A NASA Program Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.; Rosenberg, Linda

    1999-01-01

    NPG 7120.5A, "NASA Program and Project Management Processes and Requirements" enacted in April, 1998, requires that "The program or project manager shall apply risk management principles..." The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA GSFC has been tasked with the responsibility for developing and teaching a systems level course for risk management that provides information on how to comply with this edict. The course was developed in conjunction with the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, then tailored to the NASA systems community. This presentation will briefly discuss the six functions for risk management: (1) Identify the risks in a specific format; (2) Analyze the risk probability, impact/severity, and timeframe; (3) Plan the approach; (4) Track the risk through data compilation and analysis; (5) Control and monitor the risk; (6) Communicate and document the process and decisions.

  12. The Zen of Government Program Management (aka Lessons Learned from a Defense Program Manager)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    acquisition, we get a lot of education and training in managing research and development, much of which is the best in the world. But most of it is nuts and...Money. Over the years, I’ve provided these to my col- leagues, both inside the government and outside such as at the Marine Technology Society’s...in high- technology programs usually involves more coaching and less directing. Program offices most often consist of skilled specialists in

  13. Conservation and divergence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway in two plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Breakspear, Andrew; Zhao, Guoyi; Gao, Lixin; Kistler, H Corby; Xu, Jin-Rong; Ma, Li-Jun

    2016-02-01

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) pathway is a central signalling cascade that transmits extracellular stimuli and governs cell responses through the second messenger cAMP. The importance of cAMP signalling in fungal biology has been well documented and the key conserved components, adenylate cyclase (AC) and the catalytic subunit of PKA (CPKA), have been functionally characterized. However, other genes involved in this signalling pathway and their regulation are not well understood in filamentous fungi. Here, we performed a comparative transcriptomics analysis of AC and CPKA mutants in two closely related fungi: Fusarium graminearum (Fg) and F. verticillioides (Fv). Combining available Fg transcriptomics and phenomics data, we reconstructed the Fg cAMP signalling pathway. We developed a computational program that combines sequence conservation and patterns of orthologous gene expression to facilitate global transcriptomics comparisons between different organisms. We observed highly correlated expression patterns for most orthologues (80%) between Fg and Fv. We also identified a subset of 482 (6%) diverged orthologues, whose expression under all conditions was at least 50% higher in one genome than in the other. This enabled us to dissect the conserved and unique portions of the cAMP-PKA pathway. Although the conserved portions controlled essential functions, such as metabolism, the cell cycle, chromatin remodelling and the oxidative stress response, the diverged portions had species-specific roles, such as the production and detoxification of secondary metabolites unique to each species. The evolution of the cAMP-PKA signalling pathway seems to have contributed directly to fungal divergence and niche adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Induction of chinook salmon growth hormone promoter activity by the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway involves two cAMP-response elements with the CGTCA motif and the pituitary-specific transcription factor Pit-1.

    PubMed

    Wong, A O; Le Drean, Y; Liu, D; Hu, Z Z; Du, S J; Hew, C L

    1996-05-01

    In this study, the functional role of two cAMP-response elements (CRE) in the promoter of the chinook salmon GH gene and their interactions with the transcription factor Pit-1 in regulating GH gene expression were examined. A chimeric construct of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene with the CRE-containing GH promoter (pGH.CAT) was transiently transfected into primary cultures of rainbow trout pituitary cells. The expression of CAT activity was stimulated by an adenylate cyclase activator forskolin as well as a membrane-permeant cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP. Furthermore, these stimulatory responses were inhibited by a protein kinase A inhibitor H89, suggesting that these CREs are functionally coupled to the adenylate cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A cascade. This hypothesis is supported by parallel studies using GH4ZR7 cells, a rat pituitary cell line stably transfected with dopamine D2 receptors. In this cell line, D2 receptor activation is known to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity and cAMP synthesis. Stimulation with a nonselective dopamine agonist, apomorphine, or a D2-specific agonist, Ly171555, suppressed the expression of pGH.CAT in GH4ZR7 cells, and this inhibition was blocked by simultaneous treatment with forskolin. These results indicate that inhibition of the cAMP-dependent pathway reduces the basal promoter activity of the CRE-containing pGH.CAT. The functionality of these CREs was further confirmed by deletion analysis and site-specific mutagenesis. In trout pituitary cells, the cAMP inducibility of pGH.CAT was inhibited after deleting the CRE-containing sequence from the GH promoter. When the CRE-containing sequence was cloned into a CAT construct with a viral thymidine kinase promoter, a significant elevation of cAMP inducibility was observed. This stimulatory response, however, was abolished by mutating the core sequence, CGTCA, in these CREs, suggesting that these cis-acting elements confer cAMP inducibility to the salmon GH gene

  15. cAMP Level Modulates Scleral Collagen Remodeling, a Critical Step in the Development of Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shufeng; Fang, Fang; Lu, Runxia; Lu, Chanyi; Zheng, Min; An, Jianhong; Xu, Hongjia; Zhao, Fuxin; Chen, Jiang-fan; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2013-01-01

    The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs). Form-deprived myopia (FDM) was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and returned to normal levels after unmasking and recovery. Unilateral subconjunctival treatment with the adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin resulted in a myopic shift accompanied by reduced collagen mRNA levels, but it did not affect retinal electroretinograms. The AC inhibitor SQ22536 attenuated the progression of FDM. Moreover, forskolin inhibited collagen mRNA levels and collagen secretion by HSFs. The inhibition was reversed by SQ22536. These results demonstrate a critical role of cAMP in control of myopia development. Selective regulation of cAMP to control scleral collagen synthesis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating myopia. PMID:23951163

  16. TRU Waste Management Program. Cost/schedule optimization analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Detamore, J.A.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office Rockwell International (JIO/RI) during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, taskmore » guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short-term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. Systems models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions.« less

  17. Do Program Implementation Factors or Fidelity Affect Chronic Disease Self-Management Education Programs' Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; O'Colmain, Benita J; Hobson, Reeti Desai

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate whether implementation factors or fidelity moderate chronic disease self-management education program outcomes. Meta-analysis of 34 Arthritis Self-Management Program and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program studies. Community. N = 10 792. Twelve implementation factors: program delivery fidelity and setting and leader and participant characteristics. Eighteen program outcomes: self-reported health behaviors, physical health status, psychological health status, and health-care utilization. Meta-analysis using pooled effect sizes. Modest to moderate statistically significant differences for 4 of 6 implementation factors; these findings were counterintuitive with better outcomes when leaders and participants were unpaid, leaders had less than minimum training, and implementation did not meet fidelity requirements. Exploratory study findings suggest that these interventions tolerate some variability in implementation factors. Further work is needed to identify key elements where fidelity is essential for intervention effectiveness.

  18. Reduced sensitivity of the hepatic adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system to glucagon during sustained hormonal stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    DeRubertis, F R; Craven, P

    1976-01-01

    Hormone-induced desensitization of hormonal regulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) content has been described in a number of tissues. In the present study, we examined responses of rat liver to glucagon after periods of sustained exposure to the hormone in vivo and in vitro. In intact anesthetized rats infused with glucagon (50 ng/min) for 1 h or more and in liver slices incubated with the hormone (10 muM) for this period, hepatic cAMP responsiveness to glucagon was significantly blunted compared with that of tissue exposed to the hormone for shorter periods. The reduction in hepatic cAMP responsiveness to glucagon appeared to be fully expressed by 2 h. With the doses of hormone employed, the sequential alterations in hepatic responsiveness seemed to be limited to the cAMP system, since other parameters of glucagon action did not wane with time. Diminished hepatic cAMP responsiveness during sustained hormonal exposure could not be attributed to decreased glucagon availability, accelerated extracellular release of cAMP, hepatic ATP depletion, or enhanced phosphodiesterase activity. Studies in vitro suggested that modulation of the cAMP response occurred at the level of adenylate cyclase (AC). During sustained exposure of hepatic slices to glucagon, reductions in glucagon-responsive AC correlated temporally with those in cAMP and both changes were reversible. Alterations in glucagon-responsive AC were demonstrated over a wide range of ATP (10 muM-0.1 mM) and glucagon (10 nM-5 MM) concentrations in the cyclase reaction mixture, and appeared to be a noncompetitive phenomenon relative to glucagon. Maximal NaF-responsive AC did not fall concomitantly with time. Thus, the reduction in glucagon-responsive AC was probably not related to a reduction in the catalytic unit of the enzyme, but could have been due to an alteration in glucagon binding to its receptor sites, or in the coupling mechanism involved in transmission of the hormonal signal to the catalytic unit. Images PMID

  19. c-di-AMP: An Essential Molecule in the Signaling Pathways that Regulate the Viability and Virulence of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fahmi, Tazin; Port, Gary C.

    2017-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways enable organisms to monitor their external environment and adjust gene regulation to appropriately modify their cellular processes. Second messenger nucleotides including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP), cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), and cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) play key roles in many signal transduction pathways used by prokaryotes and/or eukaryotes. Among the various second messenger nucleotides molecules, c-di-AMP was discovered recently and has since been shown to be involved in cell growth, survival, and regulation of virulence, primarily within Gram-positive bacteria. The cellular level of c-di-AMP is maintained by a family of c-di-AMP synthesizing enzymes, diadenylate cyclases (DACs), and degradation enzymes, phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Genetic manipulation of DACs and PDEs have demonstrated that alteration of c-di-AMP levels impacts both growth and virulence of microorganisms. Unlike other second messenger molecules, c-di-AMP is essential for growth in several bacterial species as many basic cellular functions are regulated by c-di-AMP including cell wall maintenance, potassium ion homeostasis, DNA damage repair, etc. c-di-AMP follows a typical second messenger signaling pathway, beginning with binding to receptor molecules to subsequent regulation of downstream cellular processes. While c-di-AMP binds to specific proteins that regulate pathways in bacterial cells, c-di-AMP also binds to regulatory RNA molecules that control potassium ion channel expression in Bacillus subtilis. c-di-AMP signaling also occurs in eukaryotes, as bacterially produced c-di-AMP stimulates host immune responses during infection through binding of innate immune surveillance proteins. Due to its existence in diverse microorganisms, its involvement in crucial cellular activities, and its stimulating activity in host immune responses, c-di-AMP signaling pathway has become an

  20. Interdisciplinary Programs Focused Populations: The Case of Health Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Yavich, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The Ariel University has a unique interdisciplinary program in healthcare management that targets experienced healthcare professionals who wish to earn an academic degree. Only one academic study has been held so far on the integration of graduates of an academic university-level school in healthcare management in the field. In the current study,…

  1. Scheduling: A guide for program managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed concerning scheduling: (1) milestone scheduling; (2) network scheduling; (3) program evaluation and review technique; (4) critical path method; (5) developing a network; (6) converting an ugly duckling to a swan; (7) network scheduling problem; (8) (9) network scheduling when resources are limited; (10) multi-program considerations; (11) influence on program performance; (12) line-of-balance technique; (13) time management; (14) recapitulization; and (15) analysis.

  2. Functional desensitization to isoproterenol without reducing cAMP production in canine failing cardiocytes.

    PubMed

    Laurent, C E; Cardinal, R; Rousseau, G; Vermeulen, M; Bouchard, C; Wilkinson, M; Armour, J A; Bouvier, M

    2001-02-01

    To corroborate alterations in the functional responses to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation with changes in beta-AR signaling in failing cardiomyocytes, contractile and L-type Ca(2+) current responses to isoproterenol along with stimulated cAMP generation were compared among cardiomyocytes isolated from canines with tachycardia-induced heart failure or healthy hearts. The magnitude of shortening of failing cardiomyocytes was significantly depressed (by 22 +/- 4.4%) under basal conditions, and the maximal response to isoproterenol was significantly reduced (by 45 +/- 18%). Similar results were obtained when the responses in the rate of contraction and rate of relaxation to isoproterenol were considered. The L-type Ca(2+) current amplitude measured in failing cardiomyocytes under basal conditions was unchanged, but the responses to isoproterenol were significantly reduced compared with healthy cells. Isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP generation was similar in sarcolemmal membranes derived from the homogenates of failing (45 +/- 6.8) and healthy cardiomyocytes (52 +/- 8.5 pmol cAMP. mg protein(-1). min(-1)). However, stimulated cAMP generation was found to be significantly reduced when the membranes were derived from the homogenates of whole tissue (failing: 67 +/- 8.1 vs. healthy: 140 +/- 27.8 pmol cAMP. mg protein(-1). min(-1)). Total beta-AR density was not reduced in membranes derived from either whole tissue or isolated cardiomyocyte homogenates, but the beta(1)/beta(2) ratio was significantly reduced in the former (failing: 45/55 vs. healthy: 72/28) without being altered in the latter (failing: 72/28, healthy: 77/23). We thus conclude that, in tachycardia-induced heart failure, reduction in the functional responses of isolated cardiomyocytes to beta-AR stimulation may be attributed to alterations in the excitation-contraction machinery rather than to limitation of cAMP generation.

  3. Stable, sensitive, fluorescence-based method for detecting cAMP.

    PubMed

    Hesley, Jayne; Daijo, Janet; Ferguson, Anne T

    2002-09-01

    cAMP is a universal secondary messenger that connects changes in the extracellular environment, as detected by cell surface receptors, to transcriptional changes in the nucleus. Since cAMP-mediated signal transduction plays a role in critical cell functions and human diseases, monitoring its activity can aid in understanding these responses and the process of drug discovery. This report examines the performance of a fluorescence-based competitive immunoassay in 384-well microplate format. Using purified cAMP as a competitor the estimated detection limit was determined to be 0.1 nM and Z'-factor was greater than 0.83, which indicates that the assay is of high quality and one of the most sensitive assays currently on the market. Of note, the results obtained were similar whether the reaction was allowed to proceed for 10 min or up to 60 min. Next, HEK 293 cells were treated with the promiscuous adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and the beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol. The resultant average EC50 values were 11 microM and 123 nM, respectively, which correspond to those found in the literature. Together, these results demonstrate that this assay is afast, accurate, non-radioactive method that is ideal for high-throughput screening.

  4. Protective features of resveratrol on human spermatozoa cryopreservation may be mediated through 5' AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Shabani Nashtaei, M; Amidi, F; Sedighi Gilani, M A; Aleyasin, A; Bakhshalizadeh, Sh; Naji, M; Nekoonam, S

    2017-03-01

    Biochemical and physical modifications during the freeze-thaw process adversely influence the restoration of energy-dependent sperm functions required for fertilization. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin, has been introduced to activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase which is a cell energy sensor and a cell metabolism regulator. The cryoprotection of resveratrol on sperm cryoinjury via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase also remains to be elucidated. Our aim, thus, was to investigate: (i) the presence and intracellular localization of AMP-activated protein kinase protein; (ii) whether resveratrol may exert a protective effect on certain functional properties of fresh and post-thaw human spermatozoa through modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Spermatozoa from normozoospermic men were incubated with or without different concentrations of Compound C as an AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor or resveratrol as an AMP-activated protein kinase activator for different lengths of time and were then cryopreserved. AMP-activated protein kinase is expressed essentially in the entire flagellum and the post-equatorial region. Viability of fresh spermatozoa was not significantly affected by the presence of Compound C or resveratrol. However, although Compound C caused a potent inhibition of spermatozoa motility parameters, resveratrol did not induce negative effect, except a significant reduction in motility at 25 μm for 1 h. Furthermore, resveratrol significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis-like changes in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Nevertheless, it was not able to compensate decreased sperm viability and motility parameters following cryopreservation. In contrast, Compound C showed opposite effects to resveratrol on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis-like changes, mitochondrial membrane potential, and

  5. Multimodal Self-Management for Children: An Holistic Program for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Edward J.

    This paper describes an innovative program for teaching self-management to children in elementary and secondary schools. The background of techniques for teaching self-management is briefly reviewed, the application of self-management techniques is noted, deficits in self-management programs are considered, and Lazarus's multimodal model of…

  6. Highway rock slope management program.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-06-30

    Development of a comprehensive geotechnical database for risk management of highway rock slope problems is described. Computer software selected to program the client/server application in windows environment, components and structure of the geote...

  7. Role of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC1) in breast cancer cell migration and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naveen; Gupta, Sonal; Dabral, Surbhi; Singh, Shailja; Sehrawat, Seema

    2017-06-01

    Despite the current progress in cancer research and therapy, breast cancer remains the leading cause of mortality among half a million women worldwide. Migration and invasion of cancer cells are associated with prevalent tumor metastasis as well as high mortality. Extensive studies have powerfully established the role of prototypic second messenger cAMP and its two ubiquitously expressed intracellular cAMP receptors namely the classic protein kinaseA/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the more recently discovered exchange protein directly activated by cAMP/cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (EPAC/cAMP-GEF) in cell migration, cell cycle regulation, and cell death. Herein, we performed the analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset to evaluate the essential role of cAMP molecular network in breast cancer. We report that EPAC1, PKA, and AKAP9 along with other molecular partners are amplified in breast cancer patients, indicating the importance of this signaling network. To evaluate the functional role of few of these proteins, we used pharmacological modulators and analyzed their effect on cell migration and cell death in breast cancer cells. Hence, we report that inhibition of EPAC1 activity using pharmacological modulators leads to inhibition of cell migration and induces cell death. Additionally, we also observed that the inhibition of EPAC1 resulted in disruption of its association with the microtubule cytoskeleton and delocalization of AKAP9 from the centrosome as analyzed by in vitro imaging. Finally, this study suggests for the first time the mechanistic insights of mode of action of a primary cAMP-dependent sensor, Exchange protein activated by cAMP 1 (EPAC1), via its interaction with A-kinase anchoring protein 9 (AKAP9). This study provides a new cell signaling cAMP-EPAC1-AKAP9 direction to the development of additional biotherapeutics for breast cancer.

  8. Seizure Suppression by High Temperature via cAMP Modulation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Saras, Arunesh; Tanouye, Mark A

    2016-10-13

    Bang-sensitive (BS) Drosophila mutants display characteristic seizure-like activity (SLA) and paralysis after mechanical shock . After high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the brain, they generate robust seizures at very low threshold voltage. Here we report an important phenomenon, which effectively suppresses SLA in BS mutants. High temperature causes seizure suppression in all BS mutants (para bss1 , eas, sda) examined in this study. This effect is fully reversible and flies show complete recovery from BS paralysis once the temperature effect is nullified. High temperature induces an increase in seizure threshold after a brief pulse of heat shock (HS). By genetic screening, we identified the involvement of cAMP in the suppression of seizures by high temperature. We propose that HS induces adenylyl cyclase which in turn increases cAMP concentration which eventually suppresses seizures in mutant flies. In summary, we describe an unusual phenomenon, where high temperature can suppress SLA in flies by modulating cAMP concentration. Copyright © 2016 Saras and Tanouye.

  9. Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L; Kim, Myung K; Beaven, Michael A; Burgin, Alex B; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H

    2012-02-03

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and activates the CamKKβ-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD(+) and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of a managed psychiatric disability program.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, J; Ozminkowski, R J; Cuffel, B; Dunn, R L; Goldman, W; Kelleher, D; Comporato, A

    2001-02-01

    The cost of mental illness to employers has been well documented; however, efforts to effectively reduce the costs of psychiatric disability are adversely affected by the fragmentation of health care services. This report is a case study of a program in which a managed behavioral health care organization managed the psychiatric disability of a telecommunications company. Compared with a non-random cohort of claimants not managed under the pilot, the duration of disability was reduced by 23% (17.1 days). Patient and provider satisfaction with the program was high. This study illustrates the potential for effectively reducing the cost of psychiatric disability and the challenges in coordinating health care.

  11. Gαs regulates Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor-mediated cyclic AMP generation at Rab5 endosomal compartment.

    PubMed

    Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S; Bele, Shilpak; Zhu, Zhimeng; Chakravarthi, N R; DiMarchi, Richard D; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2017-10-01

    Upon activation, G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) associate with heterotrimeric G proteins at the plasma membrane to initiate second messenger signaling. Subsequently, the activated receptor experiences desensitization, internalization, and recycling back to the plasma membrane, or it undergoes lysosomal degradation. Recent reports highlight specific cases of persistent cyclic AMP generation by internalized GPCRs, although the functional significance and mechanistic details remain to be defined. Cyclic AMP generation from internalized Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) has previously been reported from our laboratory. This study aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanism by which internalized GLP-R supports sustained cyclic AMP generation upon receptor activation in pancreatic beta cells. We studied the time course of cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation with particular emphasis on defining the location where cyclic AMP is generated. Detection involved a novel GLP-1 conjugate coupled with immunofluorescence using specific endosomal markers. Finally, we employed co-immunoprecipitation as well as immunofluorescence to assess the protein-protein interactions that regulate GLP-1R mediated cyclic AMP generation at endosomes. Our data reveal that prolonged association of G protein α subunit Gαs with activated GLP-1R contributed to sustained cyclic AMP generation at Rab 5 endosomal compartment. The findings provide the mechanism of endosomal cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation. We identified the specific compartment that serves as an organizing center to generate endosomal cyclic AMP by internalized activated receptor complex. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. iAMP-2L: a two-level multi-label classifier for identifying antimicrobial peptides and their functional types.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuan; Wang, Pu; Lin, Wei-Zhong; Jia, Jian-Hua; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2013-05-15

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response and are found among all classes of life. According to their special functions, AMPs are generally classified into ten categories: Antibacterial Peptides, Anticancer/tumor Peptides, Antifungal Peptides, Anti-HIV Peptides, Antiviral Peptides, Antiparasital Peptides, Anti-protist Peptides, AMPs with Chemotactic Activity, Insecticidal Peptides, and Spermicidal Peptides. Given a query peptide, how can we identify whether it is an AMP or non-AMP? If it is, can we identify which functional type or types it belong to? Particularly, how can we deal with the multi-type problem since an AMP may belong to two or more functional types? To address these problems, which are obviously very important to both basic research and drug development, a multi-label classifier was developed based on the pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) and fuzzy K-nearest neighbor (FKNN) algorithm, where the components of PseAAC were featured by incorporating five physicochemical properties. The novel classifier is called iAMP-2L, where "2L" means that it is a 2-level predictor. The 1st-level is to answer the 1st question above, while the 2nd-level is to answer the 2nd and 3rd questions that are beyond the reach of any existing methods in this area. For the conveniences of users, a user-friendly web-server for iAMP-2L was established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iAMP-2L. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Federal Energy Management Program Overview

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None

    Brochure offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  14. Structural insights into Cn-AMP1, a short disulfide-free multifunctional peptide from green coconut water.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mábio J; de Oliveira, Aline L; Queiroz Júnior, Luiz H K; Mandal, Santi M; Matos, Carolina O; Dias, Renata de O; Franco, Octavio L; Lião, Luciano M

    2015-02-27

    Multifunctional and promiscuous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can be used as an efficient strategy to control pathogens. However, little is known about the structural properties of plant promiscuous AMPs without disulfide bonds. CD and NMR were used to elucidate the structure of the promiscuous peptide Cn-AMP1, a disulfide-free peptide isolated from green coconut water. Data here reported shows that peptide structure is transitory and could be different according to the micro-environment. In this regard, Cn-AMP1 showed a random coil in a water environment and an α-helical structure in the presence of SDS-d25 micelles. Moreover, deuterium exchange experiments showed that Gly4, Arg5 and Met9 residues are less accessible to solvent, suggesting that flexibility and cationic charges seem to be essential for Cn-AMP1 multiple activities. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Global Role of Cyclic AMP Signaling in pH-Dependent Responses in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hollomon, Jeffrey M; Grahl, Nora; Willger, Sven D; Koeppen, Katja; Hogan, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans behaviors are affected by pH, an important environmental variable. Filamentous growth is a pH-responsive behavior, where alkaline conditions favor hyphal growth and acid conditions favor growth as yeast. We employed filamentous growth as a tool to study the impact of pH on the hyphal growth regulator Cyr1, and we report that downregulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by acidic pH contributes to the inhibition of hyphal growth in minimal medium with GlcNAc. Ras1 and Cyr1 are generally required for efficient hyphal growth, and the effects of low pH on Ras1 proteolysis and GTP binding are consistent with diminished cAMP output. Active alleles of ras1 do not suppress the hyphal growth defect at low pH, while dibutyryl cAMP partially rescues filamentous growth at low pH in a cyr1 mutant. These observations are consistent with Ras1-independent downregulation of Cyr1 by low pH. We also report that extracellular pH leads to rapid and prolonged decreases in intracellular pH, and these changes may contribute to reduced cAMP signaling by reducing intracellular bicarbonate pools. Transcriptomics analyses found that the loss of Cyr1 at either acidic or neutral pH leads to increases in transcripts involved in carbohydrate catabolism and protein translation and glycosylation and decreases in transcripts involved in oxidative metabolism, fluconazole transport, metal transport, and biofilm formation. Other pathways were modulated in pH-dependent ways. Our findings indicate that cAMP has a global role in pH-dependent responses, and this effect is mediated, at least in part, through Cyr1 in a Ras1-independent fashion. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans is a human commensal and the causative agent of candidiasis, a potentially invasive and life-threatening infection. C. albicans experiences wide changes in pH during both benign commensalism (a common condition) and pathogenesis, and its morphology changes in response to this stimulus. Neutral pH is considered an

  16. Global Role of Cyclic AMP Signaling in pH-Dependent Responses in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hollomon, Jeffrey M.; Grahl, Nora; Willger, Sven D.; Koeppen, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans behaviors are affected by pH, an important environmental variable. Filamentous growth is a pH-responsive behavior, where alkaline conditions favor hyphal growth and acid conditions favor growth as yeast. We employed filamentous growth as a tool to study the impact of pH on the hyphal growth regulator Cyr1, and we report that downregulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling by acidic pH contributes to the inhibition of hyphal growth in minimal medium with GlcNAc. Ras1 and Cyr1 are generally required for efficient hyphal growth, and the effects of low pH on Ras1 proteolysis and GTP binding are consistent with diminished cAMP output. Active alleles of ras1 do not suppress the hyphal growth defect at low pH, while dibutyryl cAMP partially rescues filamentous growth at low pH in a cyr1 mutant. These observations are consistent with Ras1-independent downregulation of Cyr1 by low pH. We also report that extracellular pH leads to rapid and prolonged decreases in intracellular pH, and these changes may contribute to reduced cAMP signaling by reducing intracellular bicarbonate pools. Transcriptomics analyses found that the loss of Cyr1 at either acidic or neutral pH leads to increases in transcripts involved in carbohydrate catabolism and protein translation and glycosylation and decreases in transcripts involved in oxidative metabolism, fluconazole transport, metal transport, and biofilm formation. Other pathways were modulated in pH-dependent ways. Our findings indicate that cAMP has a global role in pH-dependent responses, and this effect is mediated, at least in part, through Cyr1 in a Ras1-independent fashion. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans is a human commensal and the causative agent of candidiasis, a potentially invasive and life-threatening infection. C. albicans experiences wide changes in pH during both benign commensalism (a common condition) and pathogenesis, and its morphology changes in response to this stimulus. Neutral pH is considered an

  17. 45 CFR 74.20 - Purpose of financial and program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose of financial and program management. 74.20... Management § 74.20 Purpose of financial and program management. Sections 74.21 through 74.28 prescribe standards for financial management systems, methods for making payments, and rules for satisfying cost...

  18. Distinct pools of cAMP centre on different isoforms of adenylyl cyclase in pituitary-derived GH3B6 cells.

    PubMed

    Wachten, Sebastian; Masada, Nanako; Ayling, Laura-Jo; Ciruela, Antonio; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Lohse, Martin J; Cooper, Dermot M F

    2010-01-01

    Microdomains have been proposed to explain specificity in the myriad of possible cellular targets of cAMP. Local differences in cAMP levels can be generated by phosphodiesterases, which control the diffusion of cAMP. Here, we address the possibility that adenylyl cyclases, the source of cAMP, can be primary architects of such microdomains. Distinctly regulated adenylyl cyclases often contribute to total cAMP levels in endogenous cellular settings, making it virtually impossible to determine the contribution of a specific isoform. To investigate cAMP dynamics with high precision at the single-isoform level, we developed a targeted version of Epac2-camps, a cAMP sensor, in which the sensor was tagged to a catalytically inactive version of the Ca(2+)-stimulable adenylyl cyclase 8 (AC8). This sensor, and less stringently targeted versions of Epac2-camps, revealed opposite regulation of cAMP synthesis in response to Ca(2+) in GH(3)B(6) pituitary cells. Ca(2+) release triggered by thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulated the minor endogenous AC8 species. cAMP levels were decreased by inhibition of AC5 and AC6, and simultaneous activation of phosphodiesterases, in different compartments of the same cell. These findings demonstrate the existence of distinct adenylyl-cyclase-centered cAMP microdomains in live cells and open the door to their molecular micro-dissection.

  19. Presence of ESBL/AmpC -Producing Escherichia coli in the Broiler Production Pyramid: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Dierikx, Cindy M.; van der Goot, Jeanet A.; Smith, Hilde E.; Kant, Arie; Mevius, Dik J.

    2013-01-01

    Broilers and broiler meat products are highly contaminated with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and are considered to be a source for human infections. Both horizontal and vertical transmission might play a role in the presence of these strains in broilers. As not much is known about the presence of these strains in the whole production pyramid, the epidemiology of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the Dutch broiler production pyramid was examined. Cloacal swabs of Grandparent stock (GPS) birds (one−/two-days (breed A and B), 18 and 31 weeks old (breed A)), one-day old Parent stock birds (breed A and B) and broiler chickens of increasing age (breed A) were selectively cultured to detect ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates were found at all levels in the broiler production pyramid in both broiler breeds examined. Prevalence was already relatively high at the top of the broiler production pyramid. At broiler farms ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli were still present in the environment of the poultry house after cleaning and disinfection. Feed samples taken in the poultry house also became contaminated with ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli after one or more production weeks. The prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-positive birds at broiler farms increased within the first week from 0–24% to 96–100% independent of the use of antibiotics and stayed 100% until slaughter. In GPS breed A, prevalence at 2 days, 18 weeks and 31 weeks stayed below 50% except when beta-lactam antibiotics were administered. In that case prevalence increased to 100%. Interventions minimizing ESBL/AmpC contamination in broilers should focus on preventing horizontal and vertical spread, especially in relation to broiler production farms. PMID:24244401

  20. Ca2+-regulated-cAMP/PKA signaling in cardiac pacemaker cells links ATP supply to demand.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Yael; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Spurgeon, Harold A; Sollott, Steven J; Lakatta, Edward G

    2011-11-01

    In sinoatrial node cells (SANC), Ca(2+) activates adenylate cyclase (AC) to generate a high basal level of cAMP-mediated/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation of Ca(2+) cycling proteins. These result in spontaneous sarcoplasmic-reticulum (SR) generated rhythmic Ca(2+) oscillations during diastolic depolarization, that not only trigger the surface membrane to generate rhythmic action potentials (APs), but, in a feed-forward manner, also activate AC/PKA signaling. ATP is consumed to pump Ca(2+) to the SR, to produce cAMP, to support contraction and to maintain cell ionic homeostasis. Since feedback mechanisms link ATP-demand to ATP production, we hypothesized that (1) both basal ATP supply and demand in SANC would be Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA dependent; and (2) due to its feed-forward nature, a decrease in flux through the Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA signaling axis will reduce the basal ATP production rate. O(2) consumption in spontaneous beating SANC was comparable to ventricular myocytes (VM) stimulated at 3 Hz. Graded reduction of basal Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA signaling to reduce ATP demand in rabbit SANC produced graded ATP depletion (r(2)=0.96), and reduced O(2) consumption and flavoprotein fluorescence. Neither inhibition of glycolysis, selectively blocking contraction nor specific inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) flux reduced the ATP level. Feed-forward basal Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA signaling both consumes ATP to drive spontaneous APs in SANC and is tightly linked to mitochondrial ATP production. Interfering with Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA signaling not only slows the firing rate and reduces ATP consumption, but also appears to reduce ATP production so that ATP levels fall. This distinctly differs from VM, which lack this feed-forward basal cAMP/PKA signaling, and in which ATP level remains constant when the demand changes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.