Science.gov

Sample records for management strategies applied

  1. Ecologically Significant Monitoring Strategies for Watershed Managers and Applied Ecohydrologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, B. P.; Walter, T.

    2007-12-01

    Upper Klamath Lake in Southern Oregon is home to a unique and increasingly rare strain of redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii). Populations connected to perennial lake systems such as the Upper Klamath have evolved adfluvial life histories and may possess unique adaptations that underscore their importance as units of conservation. Anthropogenic disturbance including stream channelization, timber harvest, livestock grazing and irrigation diversion have resulted in a 41 percent reduction in the redband's historic habitat and the disappearance of 11 redband trout populations throughout Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. In an effort to actively conserve this sensitive subspecies, a stream creation project was undertaken with the goal of increasing viable spawning and rearing habitat in Crooked Creek, a tributary to Upper Klamath Lake. A combination of analogue, empirical and analytical techniques were employed in the design of the created channel morphology (i.e. channel planform, profile, and cross-section), the sizing of bed substrate and spawning gravels and the design of in-stream habitat and scour structures. The project, completed in the fall of 1996, was qualitatively judged a success (e.g. trout were observed actively spawning and young-of-the-year were collected during unsystematic surveys). Unfortunately, as is often the case in the stream enhancement/restoration field, funding and personnel time were lacking for the implementation of a robust post-construction monitoring plan. Thus, project success was ascertained through cursory analyses and anecdotal reports. An opportunity to implement a similar stream creation project in a nearby watershed has afforded us the chance to return to the project site and conduct a more comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the project's success. A discussion of the original design methods and a review of several state of the art monitoring strategies are provided to assist watershed managers and applied

  2. Applying change management metaphors to a national e-Health strategy.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Chad; Scott, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Recent attempts at a collective understanding of how to develop an e-Health strategy have addressed the individual organisation, collection of organisations, and national levels. At the national level the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit serves as an exemplar that consolidates knowledge in this area, guides practical implementations, and identifies areas for future research. A key implication of this toolkit is the considerable number of organisational changes required to successfully apply their ideas in practice. This study looks critically at the confluence of change management and e-Health strategy using metaphors that underpin established models of change management. Several of Morgan's organisational metaphors are presented (highlighting varied beliefs and assumptions regarding how change is enacted, who is responsible for the change, and guiding principles for that change), and used to provide a framework. Attention is then directed to several prominent models of change management that exemplify one or more of these metaphors, and these theoretical insights are applied to evaluate the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit. The paper presents areas for consideration when using the WHO/ITU toolkit, and suggestions on how to improve its use in practice. The goal is to seek insight regarding the optimal sequence of steps needed to ensure successful implementation and integration of e-health into health systems using change management models. No single model, toolkit, or guideline will offer all the needed answers, but clarity around the underlying metaphors informing the change management models being used provides valuable insight so potentially challenging areas can be avoided or mitigated.

  3. Applying change management metaphors to a national e-Health strategy.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Chad; Scott, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Recent attempts at a collective understanding of how to develop an e-Health strategy have addressed the individual organisation, collection of organisations, and national levels. At the national level the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit serves as an exemplar that consolidates knowledge in this area, guides practical implementations, and identifies areas for future research. A key implication of this toolkit is the considerable number of organisational changes required to successfully apply their ideas in practice. This study looks critically at the confluence of change management and e-Health strategy using metaphors that underpin established models of change management. Several of Morgan's organisational metaphors are presented (highlighting varied beliefs and assumptions regarding how change is enacted, who is responsible for the change, and guiding principles for that change), and used to provide a framework. Attention is then directed to several prominent models of change management that exemplify one or more of these metaphors, and these theoretical insights are applied to evaluate the World Health Organisation's National eHealth Strategy Toolkit. The paper presents areas for consideration when using the WHO/ITU toolkit, and suggestions on how to improve its use in practice. The goal is to seek insight regarding the optimal sequence of steps needed to ensure successful implementation and integration of e-health into health systems using change management models. No single model, toolkit, or guideline will offer all the needed answers, but clarity around the underlying metaphors informing the change management models being used provides valuable insight so potentially challenging areas can be avoided or mitigated. PMID:25365672

  4. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Brainard, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  5. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Brainard, Russell E

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated 'full regulation' scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario. PMID:27023183

  6. Management Strategy Evaluation Applied to Coral Reef Ecosystems in Support of Ecosystem-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Weijerman, Mariska; Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Brainard, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling is increasingly used to explore ecosystem-level effects of changing environmental conditions and management actions. For coral reefs there has been increasing interest in recent decades in the use of ecosystem models for evaluating the effects of fishing and the efficacy of marine protected areas. However, ecosystem models that integrate physical forcings, biogeochemical and ecological dynamics, and human induced perturbations are still underdeveloped. We applied an ecosystem model (Atlantis) to the coral reef ecosystem of Guam using a suite of management scenarios prioritized in consultation with local resource managers to review the effects of each scenario on performance measures related to the ecosystem, the reef-fish fishery (e.g., fish landings) and coral habitat. Comparing tradeoffs across the selected scenarios showed that each scenario performed best for at least one of the selected performance indicators. The integrated ‘full regulation’ scenario outperformed other scenarios with four out of the six performance metrics at the cost of reef-fish landings. This model application quantifies the socio-ecological costs and benefits of alternative management scenarios. When the effects of climate change were taken into account, several scenarios performed equally well, but none prevented a collapse in coral biomass over the next few decades assuming a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions scenario. PMID:27023183

  7. Power management strategy for vehicular-applied hybrid fuel cell/battery power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangjun; Xu, Liangfei; Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    In this paper, a control strategy for a hybrid PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell/BES (battery energy system) vehicular power system is presented. The strategy, based on fuzzy logic control, incorporates the slow dynamics of fuel cells and the state of charge (SOC) of the BES. Fuel cell output power was determined according to the driving load requirement and the SOC, using fuzzy dynamic decision-making and fuzzy self-organizing concepts. An analysis of the simulation results was conducted using Matlab/Simulink/Stateflow software in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. It was confirmed that the control scheme can be used to improve the operational efficiency of the hybrid power system.

  8. Strategy for introduction of rainwater management facility considering rainfall event applied on new apartment complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, H.; Lee, D. K.; Yoo, S.

    2014-12-01

    As regional torrential rains become frequent due to climate change, urban flooding happens very often. That is why it is necessary to prepare for integrated measures against a wide range of rainfall. This study proposes introduction of effective rainwater management facilities to maximize the rainwater runoff reductions and recover natural water circulation for unpredictable extreme rainfall in apartment complex scale. The study site is new apartment complex in Hanam located in east of Seoul, Korea. It has an area of 7.28ha and is analysed using the EPA-SWMM and STORM model. First, it is analyzed that green infrastructure(GI) had efficiency of flood reduction at the various rainfall events and soil characteristics, and then the most effective value of variables are derived. In case of rainfall event, Last 10 years data of 15 minutes were used for analysis. A comparison between A(686mm rainfall during 22days) and B(661mm/4days) knew that soil infiltration of A is 17.08% and B is 5.48% of the rainfall. Reduction of runoff after introduction of the GI of A is 24.76% and B is 6.56%. These results mean that GI is effective to small rainfall intensity, and artificial rainwater retarding reservoir is needed at extreme rainfall. Second, set of target year is conducted for the recovery of hydrological cycle at the predevelopment. And an amount of infiltration, evaporation, surface runoff of the target year and now is analysed on the basis of land coverage, and an arrangement of LID facilities. Third, rainwater management scenarios are established and simulated by the SWMM-LID. Rainwater management facilities include GI(green roof, porous pavement, vegetative swale, ecological pond, and raingarden), and artificial rainwater. Design scenarios are categorized five type: 1)no GI, 2)conventional GI design(current design), 3)intensive GI design, 4)GI design+rainwater retarding reservoir 5)maximized rainwater retarding reservoir. Intensive GI design is to have attribute value to

  9. Participant-Driven Managed Supports: Breaking New Ground. A Handbook on Applying Managed Care Strategies to Developmental Disabilities Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melda, Kerri, Ed.

    This guide discusses participant-driven managed support in which people with disabilities and their families steer their own futures by having more control over the money used to provide long-term supports. After an introductory chapter, chapter 2, "What Is Managed Care," describes managed care, traditional managed care players, and the 10 tools…

  10. Management strategies for fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Le Marshall, Kim Francis; Littlejohn, Geoffrey Owen

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question What are the effective, evidence-based strategies available for the management of fibromyalgia? Conclusion There are a number of management strategies available with robust evidence to support their use in clinical practice. Definition Fibromyalgia is a complex pain syndrome characterized by widespread, chronic muscular pain and tenderness, disordered sleep, emotional distress, cognitive disturbance, and fatigue. Its prevalence is estimated to be 3%–5% in the population and higher yet in patients with comorbid rheumatic diseases. Level of evidence Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Search sources PubMed, Cochrane Library, manual search Consumer summary Key messages for patients and clinicians are: There are many effective pharmacological management strategies available for fibromyalgia.A nonpharmacological, multicomponent approach utilizing education, aerobic exercise, psychological therapy, and other strategies is also effective for fibromyalgia.Despite the significant and, at times, disabling physical and psychological symptoms, fibromyalgia can be a manageable condition with a potentially good outcome.

  11. Fault Management Design Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  12. Strategies in managing asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, A F

    1989-01-01

    The management of adult asthma involves a concerted effort to identify and remove or mollify inciting or triggering stimuli such as respiratory tract infections, gastric reflux, aspirin, beta-antagonists, and environmental agents; educate patients, using written treatment plans and pulmonary function monitoring; and properly use the antiasthmatic medications including beta-agonists, theophylline, anticholinergics, and corticosteroids, with an emphasis on aerosol delivery and the use of corticosteroids during exacerbations. This strategy is summarized with suggestions on therapy in emergency departments, during the transition from hospital to ambulatory care, before exercise, and during pregnancy. PMID:2660411

  13. Applying talent management to nursing.

    PubMed

    Haines, Sue

    To deliver the chief nursing officer for England's vision for compassionate care and embed the 6Cs effectively, the NHS must attract, develop and retain talented nurses with a diverse range of skills. This is particularly important given the predicted shortage of nurses and evidence that NHS providers need to increase skill mix ratios to deliver safe patient care. "Talent management" is increasingly discussed within the health service; we recently asked nurses and student nurses to identify their priorities for talent development. They highlighted the importance of strong ward leadership, effective personal appraisal, clearer career pathways, increased staff engagement and involvement in decision making, as well as a need for greater emphasis on the recognition and reward of nursing achievements. We concluded that these factors are crucial to attracting, retaining and developing talent in nursing. Nurse leaders can learn approaches to developing talent from business and wider healthcare settings.

  14. Applying talent management to nursing.

    PubMed

    Haines, Sue

    To deliver the chief nursing officer for England's vision for compassionate care and embed the 6Cs effectively, the NHS must attract, develop and retain talented nurses with a diverse range of skills. This is particularly important given the predicted shortage of nurses and evidence that NHS providers need to increase skill mix ratios to deliver safe patient care. "Talent management" is increasingly discussed within the health service; we recently asked nurses and student nurses to identify their priorities for talent development. They highlighted the importance of strong ward leadership, effective personal appraisal, clearer career pathways, increased staff engagement and involvement in decision making, as well as a need for greater emphasis on the recognition and reward of nursing achievements. We concluded that these factors are crucial to attracting, retaining and developing talent in nursing. Nurse leaders can learn approaches to developing talent from business and wider healthcare settings. PMID:24380172

  15. The office of strategy management.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    There is a disconnect in most companies between strategy formulation and strategy execution. On average, 95% of a company's employees are unaware of, or do not understand, its strategy. If employees are unaware of the strategy, they surely cannot help the organization implement it effectively. It doesn't have to be like this. For the past 15 years, the authors have studied companies that achieved performance breakthroughs by adopting the Balanced Scorecard and its associated tools to help them better communicate strategy to their employees and to guide and monitor the execution of that strategy. Some companies, of course, have achieved better, longer-lasting improvements than others. The organizations that have managed to sustain their strategic focus have typically established a new corporate-level unit to oversee all activities related to strategy: an office of strategy management (OS M). The OSM, in effect, acts as the CEO's chief of staff. It coordinates an array of tasks: communicating corporate strategy; ensuring that enterprise-level plans are translated into the plans of the various units and departments; executing strategic initiatives to deliver on the grand design; aligning employees' plans for competency development with strategic objectives; and testing and adapting the strategy to stay abreast of the competition. The OSM does not do all the work, but it facilitates the processes so that strategy is executed in an integrated fashion across the enterprise. Although the companies that Kaplan and Norton studied use the Balanced Scorecard as the framework for their strategy management systems, the authors say the lessons of the OSM are applicable even to companies that do not use it.

  16. The office of strategy management.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    There is a disconnect in most companies between strategy formulation and strategy execution. On average, 95% of a company's employees are unaware of, or do not understand, its strategy. If employees are unaware of the strategy, they surely cannot help the organization implement it effectively. It doesn't have to be like this. For the past 15 years, the authors have studied companies that achieved performance breakthroughs by adopting the Balanced Scorecard and its associated tools to help them better communicate strategy to their employees and to guide and monitor the execution of that strategy. Some companies, of course, have achieved better, longer-lasting improvements than others. The organizations that have managed to sustain their strategic focus have typically established a new corporate-level unit to oversee all activities related to strategy: an office of strategy management (OS M). The OSM, in effect, acts as the CEO's chief of staff. It coordinates an array of tasks: communicating corporate strategy; ensuring that enterprise-level plans are translated into the plans of the various units and departments; executing strategic initiatives to deliver on the grand design; aligning employees' plans for competency development with strategic objectives; and testing and adapting the strategy to stay abreast of the competition. The OSM does not do all the work, but it facilitates the processes so that strategy is executed in an integrated fashion across the enterprise. Although the companies that Kaplan and Norton studied use the Balanced Scorecard as the framework for their strategy management systems, the authors say the lessons of the OSM are applicable even to companies that do not use it. PMID:16250626

  17. Knowledge management: an innovative risk management strategy.

    PubMed

    Zipperer, Lorri; Amori, Geri

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management effectively lends itself to the enterprise risk process. The authors introduce the concept of knowledge management as a strategy to drive innovation and support risk management. They align this work with organizational efforts to improve patient safety and quality through the effective sharing of experience and lessons learned. The article closes with suggestions on how to develop a knowledge management initiative at an organization, who should be on the team, and how to sustain this effort and build the culture it requires to drive success.

  18. Knowledge management: an innovative risk management strategy.

    PubMed

    Zipperer, Lorri; Amori, Geri

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management effectively lends itself to the enterprise risk process. The authors introduce the concept of knowledge management as a strategy to drive innovation and support risk management. They align this work with organizational efforts to improve patient safety and quality through the effective sharing of experience and lessons learned. The article closes with suggestions on how to develop a knowledge management initiative at an organization, who should be on the team, and how to sustain this effort and build the culture it requires to drive success. PMID:21506198

  19. Strategies for managing fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lesley M

    2009-12-01

    The presentation of fibromyalgia is heterogeneous, and the treatment approach should be individualized for each patient, depending on the severity of the patient's pain, the presence of other symptoms or comorbidities, and the degree of functional impairment. The management of fibromyalgia includes the identification and treatment of all pain sources that may be present in addition to fibromyalgia, such as peripheral pain generators (e.g., comorbid osteoarthritis or neuropathic pain) or visceral pain (e.g., comorbid irritable bowel syndrome). It is also important to address other symptoms or disorders that commonly occur in patients with fibromyalgia, such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairment, stiffness, and mood or anxiety disorders. Finally, the treatment should strive to improve the patient's function and global health status. In most cases, the management of fibromyalgia involves both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments. This report provides an in-depth review of randomized, controlled trials for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches to fibromyalgia therapy.

  20. Crisis management strategies.

    PubMed

    Koster, Maria C; Politis-Norton, Helen

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the different facets of crisis as experienced within the pharmaceutical industry but which are also prevalent throughout other industries. It highlights the importance of early identification and management of crises and issues, which in return are strongly intertwined with a fundamental positive internal corporate climate. A corporate philosophy should always embrace crisis management with the attitude of 'when' and not 'if'; therefore, a company should act today and not tomorrow once a crisis is on its doorstep. Preparation is of utmost importance and there are several items that can be addressed even before a crisis has arisen. Further, this paper also provides guidance on how to deal with the media, what to do and what not to do, and how to appoint the appropriate spokesperson. In this era of fast exchange of information, crisis, which previously may have stayed behind corporate doors, may not do so any longer. Image is very important and should therefore not be risked. Crisis and issue management should therefore be integrated in every company's philosophy and standard operating procedures.

  1. Managing incontinence: women's normalizing strategies.

    PubMed

    Skoner, M M; Haylor, M J

    1993-01-01

    Women's strategies for managing urinary incontinence were examined in a grounded-theory study. The women's basic social concern was dealing with incontinence in a manner that enabled them to feel normal. Feeling normal meant being able to do what they wanted to do and needed to do to have a normal life-style as they perceived it. This goal was accomplished by normalizing incontinence and its management. Normalization was achieved by directing its course through self-management, accounting for it in terms of personal history and life experiences, and delaying medical counsel. These strategies are described. The findings provide fresh insights about women's response to incontinence and their practice of self-managing its consequences. PMID:8138472

  2. Applying Learning Strategy Questionnaires: Problems and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellings, Gonny

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses measuring learning strategies by means of questionnaires. In "multi-method" research, in which think-aloud measures are compared with questionnaires, low or moderate correlations are found. A conclusion often drawn is that learners are not able to verbally report on their learning activities. Alternative explanations concern…

  3. "Applied" Aspects of the Drug Resistance Strategies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Miller-Day, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the applied aspects of our Drug Resistance Strategies Project. We argue that a new definitional distinction is needed to expand the notion of "applied" from the traditional notion of utilizing theory, which we call "applied.1," in order to consider theory-grounded, theory testing and theory developing applied research. We…

  4. Applying genetic ecology to environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B.H.; Goldstein, R.A. )

    1988-04-01

    Methods for the use of biotechnology based on genetic ecology for the enhancement of pollution cleanup are described. Genetic ecology suggests control of an ecosystem compartment (i.e., soil, sediment, or water column) through the amplification of a given set of genes and through enhanced expression. Management strategies based on microbial genetic systems may be considerably more effective, efficient, and less costly than conventional biotechnologies and chemical and physical processes for waste cleanup. An additional advantage of these strategies is the negation of the need to introduce genetically engineered organisms.

  5. Dietary strategies for weight management.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    In an 'obesogenic' environment, getting people to eat appropriate amounts is challenging. Several food-based strategies have the potential to promote satiety and moderate energy intake. Components of foods such as macronutrients and functional ingredients can affect satiety; however, for weight management a more comprehensive approach is needed that emphasizes behavioral strategies to improve the overall diet. Research shows that large portions of energy-dense foods facilitate overconsumption and that reductions in portion size and energy density are associated with reduced energy intake. While this suggests that people should eat smaller portions, recent data show that if people lower the energy density of their diet, they can continue to eat their usual amount of food while limiting calories. Furthermore, serving larger portions of low-energy-dense foods can be used strategically to encourage their consumption and reduce dietary energy density, and this has been shown to be associated with decreased energy intake while maintaining satiety. This new understanding of how portion size can be used positively to manage energy intake has the potential to help people achieve sustainable improvements in their energy intake and bodyweight. Science-based strategies that increase the availability of affordable nutrient-rich, lower energy-dense foods are urgently needed. PMID:23128764

  6. Relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma: Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Francesca; Diefenbach, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Although Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is largely curable with first-line therapy, approximately one-third of patients will not have a complete response to frontline treatment or will subsequently relapse. Only 50 % of these patients will be effectively salvaged with conventional therapies. The prognosis is particularly poor for those patients with chemotherapy refractory disease, who are unable to obtain even transient disease control, and for patients who relapse following high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. In this review, we summarize the most recent updates on the management of patients with relapsed HL, the role of novel therapies such as brentuximab vedotin, and an overview of promising new agents currently under investigation. We also discuss the role of consolidation strategies such as high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, and the need for new strategies in the elderly patient population. PMID:24942298

  7. Applying business management models in health care.

    PubMed

    Trisolini, Michael G

    2002-01-01

    Most health care management training programmes and textbooks focus on only one or two models or conceptual frameworks, but the increasing complexity of health care organizations and their environments worldwide means that a broader perspective is needed. This paper reviews five management models developed for business organizations and analyses issues related to their application in health care. Three older, more 'traditional' models are first presented. These include the functional areas model, the tasks model and the roles model. Each is shown to provide a valuable perspective, but to have limitations if used in isolation. Two newer, more 'innovative' models are next discussed. These include total quality management (TQM) and reengineering. They have shown potential for enabling dramatic improvements in quality and cost, but have also been found to be more difficult to implement. A series of 'lessons learned' are presented to illustrate key success factors for applying them in health care organizations. In sum, each of the five models is shown to provide a useful perspective for health care management. Health care managers should gain experience and training with a broader set of business management models. PMID:12476639

  8. Population communication management training strategy.

    PubMed

    Bayan Salas, E

    1985-01-01

    The discussion presents some thoughts on a general training strategy in information/education/communication (IEC) management which might meet the needs of 3rd world countries. Management by objectives (MBO) has emerged as the central doctrine in management theory and practice since its initial formulation in 1954. Yet, little evidence exists to date of its successful application in IEC activities. Population IEC activities, being staff activities in a nonprofit, public sector program, are in the "twilight zone" of MBO where hasty efforts to comply with the form if not the substance of this management technique can lead to lower levels of performance and achievement than before the goal setting system was implemented. Yet, clearly, IEC managers need the benefits that management by objectives can bring if done properly. It is essential that IEC managers and workers stop looking at IEC materials as end products in themselves but rather as inputs to be combined with other inputs in realizing the desired output of voluntary behavioral change on a mass level. To overcome tendencies toward provincialism, all IEC managers should initially spend time working in other areas of the population program. The experience of using IEC materials and approaches in face-to-face transactions with potential acceptors is a prerequisite to the successful formulation of such materials and approaches. Training programs for IEC managers and supervisors should emphasize development of consensual decision making skills. The success or failure of the program depends on the ability of its workers to resolve potential conflicts between an individual's priorities and national priorities in a noncoercive manner. The social dynamics approach that seeks a conscious, voluntary, nonmanipulated shift of shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, and actions is the approach underlying the most successful population programs. All IEC managers and supervisors should be systematically trained in norm shifting

  9. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  10. Configuration Management Process Assessment Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a strategy for assessing the development and effectiveness of configuration management systems within Programs, Projects, and Design Activities performed by technical organizations and their supporting development contractors. Scope: Various entities CM Systems will be assessed dependent on Project Scope (DDT&E), Support Services and Acquisition Agreements. Approach: Model based structured against assessing organizations CM requirements including best practices maturity criteria. The model is tailored to the entity being assessed dependent on their CM system. The assessment approach provides objective feedback to Engineering and Project Management of the observed CM system maturity state versus the ideal state of the configuration management processes and outcomes(system). center dot Identifies strengths and risks versus audit gotcha's (findings/observations). center dot Used "recursively and iteratively" throughout program lifecycle at select points of need. (Typical assessments timing is Post PDR/Post CDR) center dot Ideal state criteria and maturity targets are reviewed with the assessed entity prior to an assessment (Tailoring) and is dependent on the assessed phase of the CM system. center dot Supports exit success criteria for Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews. center dot Gives a comprehensive CM system assessment which ultimately supports configuration verification activities.*

  11. Applying e-health to case management.

    PubMed

    Adams, J M

    2000-01-01

    The healthcare industry is only beginning to understand e-health. E-health can be defined as the use of technology to directly improve healthcare delivery-affording patients the opportunity to participate in their own healthcare management, provider, and institution. The market is changing rapidly, and innovations, partnerships, and mergers are taking place daily. For healthcare institutions, setting a long-term, yet adaptable e-health strategy is of vital importance for the continued success of the organization. For clinicians, an understanding of and familiarity with technologies can significantly improve workflow, organization, and patient interaction. For the patient, technology can be leveraged as a means to take initiative and responsibility for his/her own health. This article defines e-health and explains the implications and benefits of e-health to nurses and their patients. The article also identifies unique opportunities e-health/e-commerce can provide case managers in promoting patient connectivity, care management, and economy in cost of care. PMID:16397993

  12. An improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, Q. H.; Song, S. Y.; Mao, W.

    2016-08-01

    Traditional AVC strategy is mainly used in wind farm and only concerns about grid connection point, which is not suitable for distributed wind power system. Therefore, this paper comes up with an improved AVC strategy applied in distributed wind power system. The strategy takes all nodes of distribution network into consideration and chooses the node having the most serious voltage deviation as control point to calculate the reactive power reference. In addition, distribution principles can be divided into two conditions: when wind generators access to network on single node, the reactive power reference is distributed according to reactive power capacity; when wind generators access to network on multi-node, the reference is distributed according to sensitivity. Simulation results show the correctness and reliability of the strategy. Compared with traditional control strategy, the strategy described in this paper can make full use of generators reactive power output ability according to the distribution network voltage condition and improve the distribution network voltage level effectively.

  13. Homosexuality in Turkey: strategies for managing heterosexism.

    PubMed

    Bakacak, Ayça Gelgeç; Oktem, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the strategies used by young homosexuals to manage their sexual minority status in Turkey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 self-identified homosexual university students. The data on the strategies employed by homosexuals suggested a categorization of these strategies into four interrelated areas: strategies employed in the process of self-acceptance; strategies to manage sexual stigma and prejudice; strategies specific to the coming-out process; and the strategies used while openly expressing their sexual identities.

  14. Managing Change: Attitudes, Targets, Problems, and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Posner, Barry Z.

    1980-01-01

    Managers need to be skilled at diagnosing the demands of a situation and flexible in selecting and implementing a change strategy tailored to the demands. A model for selecting appropriate change strategies is presented. (Author)

  15. Universal optimization of water quality management strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unami, K.; Kawachi, T.

    Although many optimization models for water quality problems have been developed, methodology for judging the necessity of applying them is scarcely worked out. The universal optimization scheme presented here is to determine a management strategy for controlling water quality in a generic body of water. Dynamics of a water quality index is represented by an ordinary differential equation, and a linear system model is deduced. The H∞ control theory, which summarizes system stabilization and error minimization, is applied to a generalized water quality control problem including the linear system model. A class of H∞ controllers is identified, and a temporal discretization scheme for a controller is proposed. Three application examples demonstrate the conception of universal optimization and the validity of its implementation using an H∞ controller.

  16. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource and social impacts caused by recreationists and tourists have become a management concern in national parks and equivalent protected areas. The need to contain visitor impacts within acceptable limits has prompted park and protected area managers to implement a wide variety of strategies and actions, many of which are spatial in nature. This paper classifies and illustrates the basic spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in parks and protected areas. A typology of four spatial strategies was proposed based on the recreation and park management literature. Spatial segregation is a common strategy for shielding sensitive resources from visitor impacts or for separating potentially conflicting types of use. Two forms of spatial segregation are zoning and closure. A spatial containment strategy is intended to minimize the aggregate extent of visitor impacts by confining use to limited designated or established Iocations. In contrast, a spatial dispersal strategy seeks to spread visitor use, reducing the frequency of use to levels that avoid or minimize permanent resource impacts or visitor crowding and conflict. Finally, a spatial configuration strategy minimizes impacting visitor behavior though the judicious spatial arrangement of facilities. These four spatial strategics can be implemented separately or in combination at varying spatial scales within a single park. A survey of national park managers provides an empirical example of the diversity of implemented spatial strategies in managing visitor impacts. Spatial segregation is frequently applied in the form of camping restrictions or closures to protect sensitive natural or cultural resources and to separate incompatible visitor activities. Spatial containment is the most widely applied strategy for minimizing the areal extent of resource impacts. Spatial dispersal is commonly applied to reduce visitor crowding or conflicts in popular destination areas but is less frequently applied or

  17. Applying the ID Process to the Guided Design Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coscarelli, William C.; White, Gregory P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the application of the instructional development process to a teaching technique called Guided Design in a Production-Operations Management course. In Guided Design, students are self-instructed in course content and use class time to apply this knowledge to self-instruction; in-class problem-solving is stressed. (JJD)

  18. Performance Management Applied at the Performer Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilley, Jerry W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses performance management and its application at the organizational and the performer level to help manage individual employees. Topics include stakeholders' needs; linking jobs to strategic business goals; material resources; establishing performance goals; selecting employees; determining tasks; performance activities; performance…

  19. Leadership Strategies for Managing Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormanski, Chuck

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of conflict in small group development theory. Views conflict as a positive, normally occurring behavior and presents leadership strategies involving withdrawal, suppression, integration, compromise, and power. Examines situational contingencies and presents a rationale for strategy selection and intervention. (Author)

  20. Biofilms in wounds: management strategies.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, D D; Wolcott, R D; Percival, S L

    2008-11-01

    Biofilms probably induce a chronic and/or 'quiet' inflammation in the chronic wound and so delay healing. This paper reviews current strategies that can be used to suppress biofilms in chronic wounds until better options are available.

  1. Contemporary management strategies for fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Robert P

    2009-06-01

    A roundtable meeting that comprised clinical, patient advocacy, and managed care experts discussed issues regarding the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia. The panel agreed that earlier diagnosis and treatment, additional education for the medical community, and appropriate management by health plans, including patient access to US Food and Drug Administration-approved fibromyalgia medications, are needed. In addition, physicians, payers, and patient advocates must work to improve clinical, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes for fibromyalgia patients. Finally, treatment and diagnostic guidelines must be updated as advances in disease management are made (including approvals of 3 new pharmacologic agents), and development of a therapeutic category for "fibromyalgia" on payer formularies is needed.

  2. Speed Management Strategies; A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Saadati, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63%) had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA), speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies. PMID:27540546

  3. Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

  4. Comprehensive Self-Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, J; Lavoie, K L; Sedeno, M

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we provide a review of the literature on self-management interventions and we are giving some thought to how, when, and by whom they should be offered to patients. The present literature based on randomized clinical trials has demonstrated benefits (reduced hospital admissions and improved health status) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoing self-management interventions, although there are still problems with the heterogeneity among interventions, study populations, follow-up time, and outcome measures that make generalization difficult in real life. Key to the success, self-management intervention has to target behavior change. Proper self-management support is a basic prerequisite, for example, techniques and skills used by health care providers "case manager" to instrument patients with the knowledge, confidence, and skills required to effectively self-manage their disease. To improve health behaviors and engagement in self-management, self-management interventions need to target enhancing intrinsic motivation to change. This will best be done using client-centered communication (motivational communication) that encourages patients to express what intrinsically motivates them (e.g., consistent with their values or life goals) to adopt certain health behavior, with the goal of helping them overcome their ambivalence about change. Finally, if we want to be able to design and implement self-management interventions that are integrated, coherent, and have a strong likelihood of success, we need to take a more careful look and give more attention at the case manager, the patient (patient evaluation), and the quality assurance.

  5. Comprehensive Self-Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Bourbeau, J; Lavoie, K L; Sedeno, M

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we provide a review of the literature on self-management interventions and we are giving some thought to how, when, and by whom they should be offered to patients. The present literature based on randomized clinical trials has demonstrated benefits (reduced hospital admissions and improved health status) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients undergoing self-management interventions, although there are still problems with the heterogeneity among interventions, study populations, follow-up time, and outcome measures that make generalization difficult in real life. Key to the success, self-management intervention has to target behavior change. Proper self-management support is a basic prerequisite, for example, techniques and skills used by health care providers "case manager" to instrument patients with the knowledge, confidence, and skills required to effectively self-manage their disease. To improve health behaviors and engagement in self-management, self-management interventions need to target enhancing intrinsic motivation to change. This will best be done using client-centered communication (motivational communication) that encourages patients to express what intrinsically motivates them (e.g., consistent with their values or life goals) to adopt certain health behavior, with the goal of helping them overcome their ambivalence about change. Finally, if we want to be able to design and implement self-management interventions that are integrated, coherent, and have a strong likelihood of success, we need to take a more careful look and give more attention at the case manager, the patient (patient evaluation), and the quality assurance. PMID:26238647

  6. Applying business intelligence innovations to emergency management.

    PubMed

    Schlegelmilch, Jeffrey; Albanese, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The use of business intelligence (BI) is common among corporations in the private sector to improve business decision making and create insights for competitive advantage. Increasingly, emergency management agencies are using tools and processes similar to BI systems. With a more thorough understanding of the principles of BI and its supporting technologies, and a careful comparison to the business model of emergency management, this paper seeks to provide insights into how lessons from the private sector can contribute to the development of effective and efficient emergency management BI utilisation. PMID:25193454

  7. Applying business intelligence innovations to emergency management.

    PubMed

    Schlegelmilch, Jeffrey; Albanese, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The use of business intelligence (BI) is common among corporations in the private sector to improve business decision making and create insights for competitive advantage. Increasingly, emergency management agencies are using tools and processes similar to BI systems. With a more thorough understanding of the principles of BI and its supporting technologies, and a careful comparison to the business model of emergency management, this paper seeks to provide insights into how lessons from the private sector can contribute to the development of effective and efficient emergency management BI utilisation.

  8. The VERB campaign: applying a branding strategy in public health.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed.

  9. The VERB campaign: applying a branding strategy in public health.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed. PMID:18471598

  10. Antimicrobial and antiseptic strategies in wound management.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, Georg

    2013-12-01

    Wounds, especially chronic wounds, represent a global problem costing millions of dollars per year in developed countries and are characterised by microbial complications including local or overt infection, delayed healing and spread of multiresistant germs. Therefore, antimicrobial wound management is a major challenge that continues to require new solutions against microbes and their biofilms. As systemic antibiotics can barely penetrate into wound biofilms and topically applied ones can easily lead to sensitisation, antisepsis is the method of choice to treat germs in wounds. This brief review discusses the role of antiseptics in reducing bioburden in chronic wounds. Balancing antimicrobial potency and tolerability of antiseptic procedures is critical in wound therapy. However, antiseptics alone may not be able to achieve wound healing without addressing other factors regarding the patient's general health or the wound's physical environment. Although the precise role of bioburden in chronic wounds remains to be evaluated, planktonic as well as biofilm-bound microbes are indications for antiseptic intervention. Octenidine dihydrochloride and polyhexanide are the most effective, as well as best tolerated, antiseptics in wound management today, and new strategies to reduce bacterial wound burden and support the body's immune response are being developed.

  11. Board and Senior Management Alignment on School Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.; Cooper, Brian K.; Santora, Joseph C.; Baker, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the degree to which senior executive members of a school's decision-making team (senior management team and board of directors) are aligned on fundamental principles of school strategy. Our study is based on a conceptual framework of strategic leadership as it applies in an Australian independent school context. We also examine…

  12. Designs, Management Tactics, and Strategies in Asynchronous Learning Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Corry, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses effective designs, management tactics, and strategies to produce ideal asynchronous network discussions that allow contemplation and encourage the development of critical thinking. A model of an online collaborative learning community is applied to implement the designs. A sample of online collaborative moderation guidelines is…

  13. Optimizing diabetes management: managed care strategies.

    PubMed

    Tzeel, E Albert

    2013-06-01

    Both the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated costs have been rising over time and are projected to continue to escalate. Therefore, type 2 DM (T2DM) management costs represent a potentially untenable strain on the healthcare system unless substantial, systemic changes are made. Managed care organizations (MCOs) are uniquely positioned to attempt to make the changes necessary to reduce the burdens associated with T2DM by developing policies that align with evidence-based DM management guidelines and other resources. For example, MCOs can encourage members to implement healthy lifestyle choices, which have been shown to reduce DM-associated mortality and delay comorbidities. In addition, MCOs are exploring the strengths and weaknesses of several different benefit plan designs. Value-based insurance designs, sometimes referred to as value-based benefit designs, use both direct and indirect data to invest in incentives that change behaviors through health information technologies, communications, and services to improve health, productivity, quality, and financial trends. Provider incentive programs, sometimes referred to as "pay for performance," represent a payment/delivery paradigm that places emphasis on rewarding value instead of volume to align financial incentives and quality of care. Accountable care organizations emphasize an alignment between reimbursement and implementation of best practices through the use of disease management and/ or clinical pathways and health information technologies. Consumer-directed health plans, or high-deductible health plans, combine lower premiums with high annual deductibles to encourage members to seek better value for health expenditures. Studies conducted to date on these different designs have produced mixed results.

  14. The Changing Career Strategies of Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Tony; Davies, Goronwy

    1999-01-01

    Faced with reduced employment security, managers are redefining careers to include work/personal life balance. Changes in any area can cause revision of career strategies. Depending on how they define careers, managers recognize career development as an individual, not an organizational, responsibility. (SK)

  15. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J. P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; SRL; Savi Technology; DOE

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness.

  16. Managing Careers. Strategies for Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Andrew

    This book is a practical handbook of ideas and tools to set up and implement a framework of "career management." A glossary of terms is provided. Chapter 1 considers what the organization needs. Chapter 2 focuses on the importance of organizational culture in successful change. It looks at sources of influence on an organization's culture and…

  17. Selecting habitat management strategies on refuges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.; King, Wayne J.; Cornely, John E.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Biological Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to provide National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) managers guidance on the selection and evaluation of habitat management strategies to meet stated objectives. The FWS recently completed a handbook on writing refuge management goals and objectives (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996a). the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires that National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands be managed according to approved Comprehensive Conservation Plans to guide management decisions and devise strategies for achieving refuge unit purposes and meeting the NWRS mission. It is expected that over the next several years most refuges will develop new or revised refuge goals and objectives for directing their habitat management strategies. This paper outlines the steps we recommend in selecting and evaluating habitat management strategies to meet specific refuge habitat objectives. We selected two examples to illustrate the process. Although each refuge is unique and will require specific information and solutions, these two examples can be used as guidance when selecting and evaluating habitat management strategies for other refuge resources: Example 1. Management of floodplain woods habitat for forest interior birds. The biological recourse of concern is the quality and quantity of floodplain woods habitat for eastern forest interior birds in the Cypress Creek NWR (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996b). Example 2. Management of habitat for biodiversity: Historical landscape proportions. The biological resource of concern is the change in diversity associated with man-induced changes in the distribution and abundance of habitat types at the Minnesota Valley NWR (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1996c).

  18. Applying Total Quality Management to Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Daniel J.; Koenig, Harold F.

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 390 business school alumni (60%) show that students want educators to consider their opinions about their overall educational experience and what happens after graduation. A total quality management approach can help discover customer/student needs, establish a focus on improvement, and implement a process orientation. (SK)

  19. Restructuring Schools by Applying Deming's Management Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Charles A., III

    1991-01-01

    Four school districts adopted a school restructuring project using Deming's business management method. Deming offered alternative views of organizations based on psychology, systems, perceptual framework, and causes of variance. He listed 14 points for quality improvement. Evaluation indicated that key staff members willingly engaged in…

  20. Applying Knowledge Management in Teacher Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essandoh, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluations are underused in public schools, resulting in the loss of knowledge critical to professional development. Knowledge management (KM) theory offers approaches that can lead to improvements in the effectiveness of evaluations and teacher performance. This multiple case study of 9 campuses in an exemplary school district…

  1. Osteoporosis: Prevention and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Susan; Myers, Anita

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in post-menopausal women. Strategies to prevent or delay bone loss in normal post-menopausal women and to reduce the risk of fractures in women with osteoporosis are within the scope of family practice. Certain factors, such as inadequate calcium intake, estrogen deficiency, cigarette smoking and lack of physical activity can be modified in peri- and post-menopausal women. For patients with osteoporosis, there is potential for lowering the risk of fractures by means of calcium supplements or other therapies, physical training and rehabilitation, and modification of factors associated with risk of falling. PMID:21267348

  2. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer

    2009-09-01

    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Applying Content Management to Automated Provenance Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Gibson, Tara D.; Stephan, Eric G.; Chin, George

    2008-04-10

    Workflows and data pipelines are becoming increasingly valuable in both computational and experimen-tal sciences. These automated systems are capable of generating significantly more data within the same amount of time than their manual counterparts. Automatically capturing and recording data prove-nance and annotation as part of these workflows is critical for data management, verification, and dis-semination. Our goal in addressing the provenance challenge was to develop and end-to-end system that demonstrates real-time capture, persistent content management, and ad-hoc searches of both provenance and metadata using open source software and standard protocols. We describe our prototype, which extends the Kepler workflow tools for the execution environment, the Scientific Annotation Middleware (SAM) content management software for data services, and an existing HTTP-based query protocol. Our implementation offers several unique capabilities, and through the use of standards, is able to pro-vide access to the provenance record to a variety of commonly available client tools.

  4. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  5. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kristen M; Ditre, Chérie M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s) for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne? Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients. Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of child-bearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral. PMID:21691566

  6. Case study: applying management policies to manage distributed queuing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumair, Bernhard; Wies, René

    1996-06-01

    The increasing deployment of workstations and high performance endsystems in addition to the operation of mainframe computers leads to a situation where many companies can no longer afford for their expensive workstations to run idle for long hours during the night or with little load during daytime. Distributed queuing systems and batch systems (DQSs) provide an efficient basis to make use of these unexploited resources and allow corporations to replace expensive supercomputers with clustered workstations running DQSs. To employ these innovative DQSs on a large scale, the management policies for scheduling jobs, configuring queues, etc must be integrated in the overall management process for the IT infrastructure. For this purpose, the concepts of application management and management policies are introduced and discussed. The definition, automatic transformation, and implementation of policies on management platforms to effectively manage DQSs will show that policy-based application management is already possible using the existing management functionality found in today's systems.

  7. Applying Knowledge Management to an Organization's Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Shannon; Gill, Tracy; Fritsche, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Although workers in the information age have more information at their fingertips than ever before, the ability to effectively capture and reuse actual knowledge is still a surmounting challenge for many organizations. As high tech organizations transform from providing complex products and services in an established domain to providing them in new domains, knowledge remains an increasingly valuable commodity. This paper explores the supply and demand elements of the "knowledge market" within the International Space Station and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (ISSSPD) of NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It examines how knowledge supply and knowledge demand determine the success of an organization's knowledge management (KM) activities, and how the elements of a KM infrastructure (tools, culture, and training), can be used to create and sustain knowledge supply and demand

  8. Multidimensional Simulation Applied to Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, A. S.; Ferreira, F. C.; Loucks, D. P.; Seixas, M. J.

    1990-09-01

    A framework for an integrated decision aiding simulation (IDEAS) methodology using numerical, linguistic, and pictorial entities and operations is introduced. IDEAS relies upon traditional numerical formulations, logical rules to handle linguistic entities with linguistic values, and a set of pictorial operations. Pictorial entities are defined by their shape, size, color, and position. Pictorial operators include reproduction (copy of a pictorial entity), mutation (expansion, rotation, translation, change in color), fertile encounters (intersection, reunion), and sterile encounters (absorption). Interaction between numerical, linguistic, and pictorial entities is handled through logical rules or a simplified vector calculus operation. This approach is shown to be applicable to various environmental and water resources management analyses using a model to assess the impacts of an oil spill. Future developments, including IDEAS implementation on parallel processing machines, are also discussed.

  9. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  10. Integrated preclinical photosafety testing strategy for systemically applied pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Schümann, Jens; Boudon, Stéphanie; Ulrich, Peter; Loll, Nathalie; Garcia, Déborah; Schaffner, René; Streich, Jeannine; Kittel, Birgit; Bauer, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Phototoxic properties of systemically applied pharmaceuticals may be the cause of serious adverse drug reactions. Therefore, a reliable preclinical photosafety assessment strategy, combining in vitro and in vivo approaches in a quantitative manner, is important and has not been described so far. Here, we report the establishment of an optimized modified murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), adapted for phototoxicity assessment of systemically applied compounds, as well as the test results for 34 drug candidates in this in vivo photo-LLNA. The drug candidates were selected based on their ability to absorb ultraviolet/visible light and the photo irritation factors (PIFs) determined in the well-established in vitro 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test. An in vivo phototoxic potential was identified for 13 of these drug candidates. The use of multiple dose levels in the described murine in vivo phototoxicity studies enabled the establishment of no- and/or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs/LOAELs), also supporting human photosafety assessment. An in vitro-in vivo correlation demonstrated that a drug candidate classified as "phototoxic" in vitro is not necessarily phototoxic in vivo. However, the probability for a drug candidate to cause phototoxicity in vivo clearly correlated with the magnitude of the phototoxicity identified in vitro.

  11. Workforce management strategies in a disaster scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelic, Andjelka; Turk, Adam L.

    2008-08-01

    A model of the repair operations of the voice telecommunications network is used to study labor management strategies under a disaster scenario where the workforce is overwhelmed. The model incorporates overtime and fatigue functions and optimizes the deployment of the workforce based on the cost of the recovery and the time it takes to recover. The analysis shows that the current practices employed in workforce management in a disaster scenario are not optimal and more strategic deployment of that workforce is beneficial.

  12. Strategies and tools for managing change.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, Maura

    2007-09-01

    Continuous change in complex healthcare environments is a challenge for nurse leaders, but it can also be a boon. Change can leverage the introduction of innovations that improve the quality of care delivery. It all depends on how change is managed. The author describes major leadership strategies and tools to effectively manage change, particularly innovative changes that result in better outcomes for patients, staff, and the organization.

  13. Strategies for Managing a Multigenerational Workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iden, Ronald

    The multigenerational workforce presents a critical challenge for business managers, and each generation has different expectations. A human resource management study of organizations with more than 500 employees reported 58% of the managers experiencing conflict between younger and older workers. The purpose of this single case study was to explore the multigenerational strategies used by 3 managers from a Franklin County, Ohio manufacturing facility with a population size of 6 participants. The conceptual framework for this study was built upon generational theory and cohort group theory. The data were collected through face-to-face semistructured interviews, company documents, and a reflexive journal. Member checking was completed to strengthen the credibility and trustworthiness of the interpretation of participants' responses. A modified van Kaam method enabled separation of themes following the coding of data. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) required multigenerational managerial skills, (b) generational cohort differences, (c) most effective multigenerational management strategies, and (d) least effective multigenerational management strategies. Findings from this study may contribute to social change through better understanding, acceptance, and appreciation of the primary generations in the workforce, and, in turn, improve community relationships.

  14. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  15. Setting priorities for waste management strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Paul H; Fellner, Johann

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the waste management systems, that are presently applied in affluent countries are appropriate solutions for waste management in less developed regions. For this purpose, three cities (Vienna, Damascus and Dhaka) which differ greatly in their gross domestic product and waste management were compared. The criteria for evaluation were economic parameters, and indicators as to whether the goals of waste management (protection of human health and the environment, the conservation of resources) were reached. Based on case studies, it was found that for regions spending 1-10 Euro capita(-1) year(-1) for waste management, the 'waste hierarchy' of prevention, recycling and disposal is not an appropriate strategy. In such regions, the improvement of disposal systems (complete collection, upgrading to sanitary landfilling) is the most cost-effective method to reach the objectives of solid waste management. Concepts that are widely applied in developed countries such as incineration and mechanical waste treatment are not suitable methods to reach waste management goals in countries where people cannot spend more than 10 Euro per person for the collection, treatment and disposal of their waste. It is recommended that each region first determines its economic capacity for waste management and then designs its waste management system according to this capacity and the goals of waste management. PMID:17612323

  16. Management Strategy for Extending Services to Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevelacqua, Joan

    1983-01-01

    Describes the College of DuPage's Business and Professional Institute, which emphasizes nontraditional education/training methods and support from the business and professional communities. Discusses the Institute's assumptions, implementation strategies, and analysis of applicable program models. Explains the matrix management model that was…

  17. Seeking sustainability: Israel's evolving water management strategy.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2006-08-25

    The water management policies adopted to address Israel's chronic scarcity have not been without environmental consequences. Yet, through a trial-and-error process, a combined strategy of water transport, rainwater harvesting, and wastewater reuse and desalination, along with a variety of water conservation measures, have put the country on a more sustainable path for the future.

  18. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  19. Classroom Management Strategies for Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivia, Joe S.

    2007-01-01

    Classroom management strategies designed to improve problem behavior directly affect student achievement. Researchers have demonstrated positive behavior supports (PBS) can reduce problem behavior. However, researchers have also found evidence that PBS may not always be successful and further studies are needed to improve the use of PBS as a…

  20. Energy Management Strategies for Home Economics Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver.

    This energy activity guide, developed and field tested in Colorado, presents teaching units and strategies to aid home economics teachers to teach energy management. The guide is divided into six subject areas: introduction (background information on energy use and conservation); foods and nutrition; clothing and textiles; housing and home…

  1. Time Management: Strategies for Achieving Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cvach, Peggy A.

    Intended for adults with learning disabilities, this paper offers time management strategies in a work-sheet format. The paper, which was written with the assistance of adults with learning disabilities, explains setting goals, planning, organizing time, and avoiding stress. Guidelines for goal setting include: focus on the present; set goals that…

  2. Group-Oriented Behavior Management Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of group oriented behavior management strategies to modify classroom behavior problems is suggested. Advantages, disadvantages, and implementation guidelines for the group response cost system, the good behavior game, the group timeout ribbon, hero method, peer-mediated extinction, and peer confrontation. (DB)

  3. Assessment of two BWR accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Petek, M.

    1991-01-01

    Candidate mitigative strategies for management of in-vessel events during the late phase (after core degradation has occurred) of postulated BWR severe accidents were considered at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during 1990. The identification of new strategies was subject to the constraint that they should, to the maximum extent possible, make use of the existing equipment and water resources of the BWR facilities and not require major equipment modifications or additions. As a result of this effort, two of these candidate strategies were recommended for additional assessment. The first is a strategy for containment flooding to maintain the core and structural debris within the reactor vessel in the event that vessel injection cannot be restored to terminate a severe accident sequence. The second strategy pertains to the opposite case, for which vessel injection would be restored after control blade melting had begun; its purpose is to provide an injection source of borated water at the concentration necessary to preclude criticality upon recovering a damaged BWR core. Assessments of these two strategies have been performed during 1991 under the auspices of the Detailed Assessment of BWR In-Vessel Strategies Program. This paper provides a discussion of the motivation for and purpose of these strategies and the potential for their success. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome.

  5. Managing strategy to enhance care for children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron; Mainland, Jeff; Blais, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of the Balanced Scorecard philosophy of measure, monitor and manage by The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) has resulted in SickKids' staff understanding, appreciating and ultimately being able to accept the enhanced transparency and accountability around performance, at both the system and hospital levels. The leadership of the organization observed these differences after initial SickKids scorecard update meetings, realizing this was not a flavour of the month but a totally new way of operating in a quest to achieve SickKids' vision and mission. Almost immediately, the internal culture began to shift as staff better understood how their roles actively contribute to the organization's ability to execute on its strategy. Based on 2010 staff engagement results, 70% of staff "see a direct link between personal work objectives and SickKids' strategy," while 60% were familiar with the newly released strategic plan, unprecedented results based on current benchmarks. This article provides an overview of the SickKids strategy management system, outlining both best practices and the journey from its launch to induction into the Balanced Scorecard Hall of Fame. Performance, at all levels across the enterprise, has shown measureable improvement with the introduction of the comprehensive strategy management system. PMID:22008569

  6. Applying the Ecosystem Services Concept to Public Land Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the challenges opportunities involved in applying ecosystem services to public lands management, with an emphasis on the work of the USDA Forest Service. We review the history of economics approaches to landscape management, outline a conceptual framework defining the ...

  7. Applying Corporate Knowledge Management Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Jillinda J.; Vander Linde, Karen; Johnson, Sandra L.

    2000-01-01

    Asserting that there is tremendous value to higher education institutions that develop initiatives to share knowledge to achieve business objectives, this article outlines the basic concepts of knowledge management as it is applied in the corporate sector, considers trends, and explores how it might be applied in higher education and whether…

  8. Environmental management strategy: four forces analysis.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Martin W; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy. PMID:25331643

  9. Environmental Management Strategy: Four Forces Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

  10. Heat management strategies for MSW landfills.

    PubMed

    Yeşiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L; Kopp, Kevin B; Yee, Emma H

    2016-10-01

    Heat is a primary byproduct of landfilling of municipal solid waste. Long-term elevated temperatures have been reported for MSW landfills under different operational conditions and climatic regions around the world. A conceptual framework is presented for management of the heat generated in MSW landfills. Three main strategies are outlined: extraction, regulation, and supplementation. Heat extraction allows for beneficial use of the excess landfill heat as an alternative energy source. Two approaches are provided for the extraction strategy: extracting all of the excess heat above baseline equilibrium conditions in a landfill and extracting only a part of the excess heat above equilibrium conditions to obtain target optimum waste temperatures for maximum gas generation. Heat regulation allows for controlling the waste temperatures to achieve uniform distribution at target levels at a landfill facility. Two approaches are provided for the regulation strategy: redistributing the excess heat across a landfill to obtain uniform target optimum waste temperatures for maximum gas generation and redistributing the excess heat across a landfill to obtain specific target temperatures. Heat supplementation allows for controlling heat generation using external thermal energy sources to achieve target waste temperatures. Two approaches are provided for the supplementation strategy: adding heat to the waste mass using an external energy source to increase waste temperatures and cooling the waste mass using an external energy source to decrease waste temperatures. For all strategies, available landfill heat energy is determined based on the difference between the waste temperatures and the target temperatures. Example analyses using data from landfill facilities with relatively low and high heat generation indicated thermal energy in the range of -48.4 to 72.4MJ/m(3) available for heat management. Further modeling and experimental analyses are needed to verify the effectiveness

  11. LIFAC ash--strategies for management.

    PubMed

    Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

    2005-01-01

    LIFAC is a more recent addition to flue gas desulphurization methods for reducing sulphur emissions during coal combustion for the production of electricity. Ashes from the combustion of a low-sulphur lignite coal using LIFAC technology were used to evaluate different ash management strategies. The ashes, as produced and after treatment by the CERCHAR hydration process, were examined for their disposal characteristics and their utilization potential in concrete. They were also evaluated as underground disposal material using the AWDS process. PMID:15823742

  12. LIFAC ash--strategies for management.

    PubMed

    Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

    2005-01-01

    LIFAC is a more recent addition to flue gas desulphurization methods for reducing sulphur emissions during coal combustion for the production of electricity. Ashes from the combustion of a low-sulphur lignite coal using LIFAC technology were used to evaluate different ash management strategies. The ashes, as produced and after treatment by the CERCHAR hydration process, were examined for their disposal characteristics and their utilization potential in concrete. They were also evaluated as underground disposal material using the AWDS process.

  13. Management strategies for promoting successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bear, K; Tigges, B B

    1993-06-01

    Clinicians can promote a successful breastfeeding experience by providing support, anticipatory guidance and practical information. This article presents the components of early follow-up and guidelines for assessment. Management strategies for common problems are discussed, such as nipple soreness, cracked nipples, plugged ducts and mastitis, insufficient infant weight gain, perceived inadequacy of milk supply, breast-milk jaundice, sexual adjustment and failure at breastfeeding. Breastfeeding guidelines for employed mothers and adoptive mothers are indicated. PMID:8341432

  14. Strategies for Management of Synchronous Colorectal Metastases.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Jason A; Merchant, Nipun B

    2014-06-01

    The management of synchronous presentation of colorectal cancer and liver metastases has long been a topic of debate and discussion for surgeons due to the unique dilemma of balancing operative timing along with treatment strategy. Operative strategies for resection include staged resection with colon first approach, "reverse" staged resection with liver metastases resected first, and one-stage, or simultaneous, resection of both the primary tumor and liver metastases approach. These operative strategies can be further augmented with perioperative chemotherapy and other novel approaches that may improve resectability and patient survival. The decision on operative timing and approach, however, remains largely dependent on the surgeon's determination of disease resectability, patient fitness, and the need for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  15. Diabetes benefit management: evolving strategies for payers.

    PubMed

    Tzeel, Albert L

    2011-11-01

    Over the next quarter century, the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is expected to at least double. Currently, 1 in every 10 healthcare dollars is spent on diabetes management; by 2050, it has been projected that the annual costs of managing T2DM will rise to $336 billion. Without substantial, systemic changes, T2DM management costs will lead to a potentially untenable strain on the healthcare system. However, the appropriate management of diabetes can reduce associated mortality and delay comorbidities. In addition, adequate glycemic control can improve patient outcomes and significantly reduce diabetes-related complications. This article provides an overview of key concepts associated with a value-based insurance design (VBID) approach to T2DM coverage. By promoting the use of services or treatments that provide high benefits relative to cost, and by alternatively discouraging patients from utilizing services whose benefits do not justify their cost, VBID improves the quality of healthcare while simultaneously reining in spending. VBID initiatives tend to focus on chronic disease management and generally target prescription drug use. However, some programs have expanded their scope by incorporating services traditionally offered by wellness and disease management programs. The concept of VBID is growing, and it is increasingly being implemented by a diverse and growing number of public and private entities, including pharmacy benefit managers, health plans, and employers. This article provides key background on VBID strategies, with a focus on T2DM management. It also provides a road map for health plans seeking to implement VBID as part of their programs.

  16. Blood Management Strategies in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Michael; Martinez Martos, Sara; Beller, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A perioperative blood management program is one of a number of important elements for successful patient care in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and surgeons should be proactive in its application. The aims of blood conservation are to reduce the risk of blood transfusion whilst at the same time maximizing hemoglobin (Hb) in the postoperative period, leading to a positive effect on outcome and cost. An individualized strategy based on patient specific risk factors, anticipated blood loss and comorbidities are useful in achieving this aim. Multiple blood conservation strategies are available in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods and can be employed in various combinations. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of preoperative Hb optimization, minimizing blood loss and evidence-based transfusion guidelines. Given TKA is an elective procedure, a zero allogenic blood transfusion rate should be the aim and an achievable goal.

  17. Blood Management Strategies in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Michael; Martinez Martos, Sara; Beller, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    A perioperative blood management program is one of a number of important elements for successful patient care in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and surgeons should be proactive in its application. The aims of blood conservation are to reduce the risk of blood transfusion whilst at the same time maximizing hemoglobin (Hb) in the postoperative period, leading to a positive effect on outcome and cost. An individualized strategy based on patient specific risk factors, anticipated blood loss and comorbidities are useful in achieving this aim. Multiple blood conservation strategies are available in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods and can be employed in various combinations. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of preoperative Hb optimization, minimizing blood loss and evidence-based transfusion guidelines. Given TKA is an elective procedure, a zero allogenic blood transfusion rate should be the aim and an achievable goal. PMID:27595070

  18. Blood Management Strategies in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Liu, David; Dan, Michael; Martinez Martos, Sara; Beller, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    A perioperative blood management program is one of a number of important elements for successful patient care in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and surgeons should be proactive in its application. The aims of blood conservation are to reduce the risk of blood transfusion whilst at the same time maximizing hemoglobin (Hb) in the postoperative period, leading to a positive effect on outcome and cost. An individualized strategy based on patient specific risk factors, anticipated blood loss and comorbidities are useful in achieving this aim. Multiple blood conservation strategies are available in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods and can be employed in various combinations. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of preoperative Hb optimization, minimizing blood loss and evidence-based transfusion guidelines. Given TKA is an elective procedure, a zero allogenic blood transfusion rate should be the aim and an achievable goal. PMID:27595070

  19. Key Strategies to Improve Schools: How to Apply Them Contextually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, school improvement initiatives have been the focus of political agendas, professional conferences, and publication topics. While a plethora of school improvement resources and techniques exist, most explanations regarding how to employ school improvement strategies in differing contexts is extremely vague at best, and non-existent…

  20. Cultivating Kuumba: Applying Art Based Strategies to Any Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Auburn Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    There are many contemporary issues to address in adult education. This paper explores art-based strategies and the utilization of creativity (Kuumba) to expand learning for global communities in any field of practice. Benefits of culturally grounded approaches to adult education are discussed. Images from ongoing field research can be viewed at…

  1. Reading Comprehension Strategies as Applied by Iranian EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shokrpour, Nasrin; Fotovatian, Sepide

    2006-01-01

    To enhance reading comprehension, several strategies have been identified in previous research conducted (Naiman et al. 1978; O'Malley & Chamot 1990; O'Malley, Chamot, Manzanares, Russo and Kypper 1985; Politzer and McGroarty 1985; Prokop 1989; Oxford 1990; Salataci and Akyel 2002; Tercanlioglu 2004). However, using different types of Reading…

  2. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  3. Chance-constrained model predictive control applied to inventory management in hospitalary pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Jose Maria; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This extended abstract addresses the preliminary results of applying uncertainty handling strategies and advanced control techniques to the inventary management of hospitality pharmacy. Inventory management is one of the main tasks that a pharmacy department has to carry out in a hospital. It is a complex problem because it requires to establish a tradeoff between contradictory optimization criteria. The final goal of the proposed research is to update the inventory management system of hospitals such that it is possible to reduce the average inventory while maintaining preestablished clinical guarantees.

  4. Chance-constrained model predictive control applied to inventory management in hospitalary pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Jose Maria; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This extended abstract addresses the preliminary results of applying uncertainty handling strategies and advanced control techniques to the inventary management of hospitality pharmacy. Inventory management is one of the main tasks that a pharmacy department has to carry out in a hospital. It is a complex problem because it requires to establish a tradeoff between contradictory optimization criteria. The final goal of the proposed research is to update the inventory management system of hospitals such that it is possible to reduce the average inventory while maintaining preestablished clinical guarantees. PMID:25488247

  5. Applying Operant Conditioning Principles to the Management of Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; Jablonsky, Stephen F.

    Following Walter Nord (1969), the present article contains a predictive model of individual behavior based on both operant conditioning and management literatures. The behavior of an organizational member is seen as a function of the reinforcement contingencies applied by various groups in his environment and of his cognitive assessment of such…

  6. Principles of Empirically Supported Interventions Applied to Anger Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Oetting, Eugene R.; DiGiuseppe, Raymond A.

    2002-01-01

    This article applies the Principles of Empirically Supported Interventions (PESI) in counseling psychology to anger management with adults. The review suggests that there is empirical support for cognitive-behavioral interventions generally and for four specific interventions (relaxation, cognitive, behavioral skill enhancement, and combinations…

  7. Strategy Guideline: Quality Management in Existing Homes; Cantilever Floor Example

    SciTech Connect

    Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2011-12-01

    This guideline is designed to highlight the QA process that can be applied to any residential building retrofit activity. The cantilevered floor retrofit detailed in this guideline is included only to provide an actual retrofit example to better illustrate the QA activities being presented. The goal of existing home high performing remodeling quality management systems (HPR-QMS) is to establish practices and processes that can be used throughout any remodeling project. The research presented in this document provides a comparison of a selected retrofit activity as typically done versus that same retrofit activity approached from an integrated high performance remodeling and quality management perspective. It highlights some key quality management tools and approaches that can be adopted incrementally by a high performance remodeler for this or any high performance retrofit. This example is intended as a template and establishes a methodology that can be used to develop a portfolio of high performance remodeling strategies.

  8. Interdisciplinary Instructional Reading Strategies: An Applied Application for Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polkinghorne, Frederick W.; Bland, Zinna L.

    2011-01-01

    The contemporary workforce requires technical and reading skills (Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008; The Conference Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, Society of Human Resource Management, 2006). Technical skills allow workers to perform specific workforce tasks, while reading skills are generally needed by…

  9. Barrett's Esophagus: Emerging Knowledge and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Atul; Stairs, Douglas B.; Mani, Haresh; McGarrity, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased exponentially in the last 3 decades. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of EAC. Patients with BE have a greater than 40 folds higher risk of EAC compared with the general population. Recent years have witnessed a revolution in the clinical and molecular research related to BE. However, several aspects of this condition remain controversial. Data regarding the true prevalence of BE have varied widely. Recent studies have suggested a lower incidence of EAC in nondysplastic BE (NDBE) than previously reported. There is paucity of prospective data showing a survival benefit of screening or surveillance for BE. Furthermore, the ever-increasing emphasis on healthcare cost containment has called for reexamination of the screening and surveillance strategies for BE. There is a need for identification of reliable clinical predictors or molecular biomarkers to risk-stratify patients who might benefit the most from screening or surveillance for BE. Finally, new therapies have emerged for the management of dysplastic BE. In this paper, we highlight the key areas of controversy and uncertainty surrounding BE. The paper discusses, in detail, the current literature about the molecular pathogenesis, biomarkers, histopathological diagnosis, and management strategies for BE. PMID:22701199

  10. Teaching Preschool Children To Generate and Apply Mnemonic Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Robert N.; And Others

    Two studies explored conditions in which preschoolers can understand and apply effective elaboration mnemonics. In the first experiment, 24 preschoolers ranging in age from 3 years, 10 months, to 5 years, 5 months were randomly assigned to interaction, no interaction, and control conditions. The experiment was designed to determine whether…

  11. Proposal and Evaluation of Management Method for College Mechatronics Education Applying the Project Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yoshinobu; Eguchi, Yuya; Mizukawa, Makoto

    In this research, we proposed and evaluated a management method of college mechatronics education. We applied the project management to college mechatronics education. We practiced our management method to the seminar “Microcomputer Seminar” for 3rd grade students who belong to Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology. We succeeded in management of Microcomputer Seminar in 2006. We obtained the good evaluation for our management method by means of questionnaire.

  12. Applying the Concepts of Innovation Strategies to Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yirong; Kotsis, Sandra V.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plastic surgery has a well-known history of innovative procedures and products. However, with the rise in competition, such as aesthetic procedures being performed by other medical specialties, there is a need for continued innovation in plastic surgery to create novel treatments to advance this specialty. Although many articles introduce innovative technologies and procedures, there is a paucity of publications to highlight the application of principles of innovation in plastic surgery. Methods: We review the literature regarding business strategies for innovation. Results: We evaluate concepts of innovation, process of innovation (idea generation, idea evaluation, idea conversion, idea diffusion and adoption), ethical issues, and the application to plastic surgery. Conclusions: Adopting a business model of innovation is helpful to promote a new paradigm of progress to propel plastic surgery to new avenues of creativity. PMID:23897344

  13. Relationship-Driven Classroom Management: Strategies That Promote Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitto, John M.

    This book combines information about resiliency, classroom management, and discipline into a user-friendly discussion suitable for all teachers. The material covers both preventive strategies and reactive strategies. The chapters of part 1, "Reinventive Strategies," are: (1) "Relationship-Driven Classroom Management and Resilience"; (2)…

  14. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies.

    PubMed

    Marchettini, N; Ridolfi, R; Rustici, M

    2007-01-01

    The debate on different waste management practices has become an issue of utmost importance as human activities have overloaded the assimilative capacity of the biosphere. Recent Italian law on solid waste management recommends an increase in material recycling and energy recovery, and only foresees landfill disposal for inert materials and residues from recovery and recycling. A correct waste management policy should be based on the principles of sustainable development, according to which our refuse is not simply regarded as something to eliminate but rather as a potential resource. This requires the creation of an integrated waste management plan that makes full use of all available technologies. In this context, eMergy analysis is applied to evaluate three different forms of waste treatment and construct an approach capable of assessing the whole strategy of waste management. The evaluation included how much investment is needed for each type of waste management and how much "utility" is extracted from wastes, through the use of two indicators: Environmental yield ratio (EYR) and Net eMergy. Our results show that landfill is the worst system in terms of eMergy costs and eMergy benefits. Composting is the most efficient system in recovering eMergy (highest EYR) from municipal solid waste (MSW) while incineration is capable of saving the greatest quantity of eMergy per gram of MSW (highest net eMergy). This analysis has made it possible to assess the sustainability and the efficiency of individual options but could also be used to assess a greater environmental strategy for waste management, considering a system that might include landfills, incineration, composting, etc. PMID:16765586

  15. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts applied to instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Nuccio, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    Drawing on DOE Order 5700.6C and other industry standards, this document presents several concepts and tools of Total Quality Management (TQM), a brief history of their use at EG G Rocky Flats, and how they are being applied to address processes of instruction common to TAP. Concepts presented and applied include: statistical process control (SPC), e.g. using control charts, as an evaluation methodology for learners and instructors; TQM conceptual tools, e.g. brainstorming, affinity diagrams, and interrelationship digraphs, as a methodology for planning programs of instruction such as TAP; and team activities to construct instructional process systems.

  16. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts applied to instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Nuccio, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    Drawing on DOE Order 5700.6C and other industry standards, this document presents several concepts and tools of Total Quality Management (TQM), a brief history of their use at EG&G Rocky Flats, and how they are being applied to address processes of instruction common to TAP. Concepts presented and applied include: statistical process control (SPC), e.g. using control charts, as an evaluation methodology for learners and instructors; TQM conceptual tools, e.g. brainstorming, affinity diagrams, and interrelationship digraphs, as a methodology for planning programs of instruction such as TAP; and team activities to construct instructional process systems.

  17. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    PubMed

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting.

  18. Risk Preferences, Probability Weighting, and Strategy Tradeoffs in Wildfire Management.

    PubMed

    Hand, Michael S; Wibbenmeyer, Matthew J; Calkin, David E; Thompson, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires present a complex applied risk management environment, but relatively little attention has been paid to behavioral and cognitive responses to risk among public agency wildfire managers. This study investigates responses to risk, including probability weighting and risk aversion, in a wildfire management context using a survey-based experiment administered to federal wildfire managers. Respondents were presented with a multiattribute lottery-choice experiment where each lottery is defined by three outcome attributes: expenditures for fire suppression, damage to private property, and exposure of firefighters to the risk of aviation-related fatalities. Respondents choose one of two strategies, each of which includes "good" (low cost/low damage) and "bad" (high cost/high damage) outcomes that occur with varying probabilities. The choice task also incorporates an information framing experiment to test whether information about fatality risk to firefighters alters managers' responses to risk. Results suggest that managers exhibit risk aversion and nonlinear probability weighting, which can result in choices that do not minimize expected expenditures, property damage, or firefighter exposure. Information framing tends to result in choices that reduce the risk of aviation fatalities, but exacerbates nonlinear probability weighting. PMID:26269258

  19. An analysis of the New Technical Strategy Flowsheet applied to the watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.

    1994-09-01

    The New Technical Strategy Flowsheet is currently chosen for cleanup of the tanks on the Hanford Reservation. In this study, it is applied to a set of nine single shell tanks on the site. These tanks are considered to have a high potential for uncontrolled releases and have been placed on a watch list. Accordingly, it appears that any waste remediation strategy such as the New Technical Strategy Flowsheet might first be applied to these tanks.

  20. Evaluation of strategy for testing thyroid function applied to hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Corns, C M; Miller, A L

    1986-01-01

    A strategy for testing thyroid function with discretionary assay of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) following initial measurement of total plasma thyroxine (tT4) was retrospectively evaluated in relation to the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Over a two year period 14 641 tT4 assays were done and 6887 TSH assays, of which 29% were initiated in the laboratory. The percentage of raised TSH values (over 5 mU/1) was similar to those for clinician and pathologist initiated requests (23.2% and 23.6%). Some TSH requests (1620) were cancelled; when 212 of these were subsequently analysed the TSH value was raised in 5.7% The incidence of raised TSH values in 188 patients with a tT4 below 100 nmol/1 (7.8 micrograms/100 ml), in whom TSH was not requested, was 5.3% Most of these raised TSH results could be readily explained by information available to the requesting clinician but not given on the request form. PMID:3082940

  1. Preparing Future Leaders: Project Management Strategies for Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Roger; Gutowski, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This article makes a case for teaching project management strategies in service-learning courses. The authors describe three specific documents students can create to help them manage a service-learning project and then present strategies that can help students manage their project teams. Such skills, the authors argue, provide the tools students…

  2. Data management and processing plan, Department of Applied Geodesy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This plan outlines Data Management and Data Processing requirements of the Department of Applied Geodesy (DAG) and presents the plan to meet these requirements (These requirements are derived from the functional needs of the Department to meet the SSCL alignment tolerances and schedules). In addition, this document presents a schedule for the implementation of this plan. This document is an integral part of the Alignment Plan of the SSCL.

  3. Applying computer simulation models as learning tools in fishery management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Computer models can be powerful tools for addressing many problems in fishery management, but uncertainty about how to apply models and how they should perform can lead to a cautious approach to modeling. Within this approach, we expect models to make quantitative predictions but only after all model inputs have been estimated from empirical data and after the model has been tested for agreement with an independent data set. I review the limitations to this approach and show how models can be more useful as tools for organizing data and concepts, learning about the system to be managed, and exploring management options. Fishery management requires deciding what actions to pursue to meet management objectives. Models do not make decisions for us but can provide valuable input to the decision-making process. When empirical data are lacking, preliminary modeling with parameters derived from other sources can help determine priorities for data collection. When evaluating models for management applications, we should attempt to define the conditions under which the model is a useful, analytical tool (its domain of applicability) and should focus on the decisions made using modeling results, rather than on quantitative model predictions. I describe an example of modeling used as a learning tool for the yellow perch Perca flavescens fishery in Green Bay, Lake Michigan.

  4. Apply TQM to E-Government Outsourcing Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huai, Jinmei

    This paper developed an approach to e-government outsourcing quality management. E-government initiatives have rapidly increased in the last decades and the success of these activities will largely depend on their operation quality. As an instrument to improve operation quality, outsourcing can be applied to e-government. This paper inspected process of e-government outsourcing and discussed how to improve the outsourcing performance through total quality management (TQM). The characteristics and special requirements of e-government outsourcing were analyzed as the basis for discussion. Then the principles and application of total quality management were interpreted. Finally the process of improving performance of e-government was analyzed in the context of outsourcing.

  5. Applying total quality management techniques to improve software development.

    PubMed

    Mezher, T; Assem Abdul Malak, M; el-Medawar, H

    1998-01-01

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is a new management philosophy and a set of guiding principles that represent the basis of a continuously improving organization. This paper sheds light on the application of TQM concepts for software development. A fieldwork study was conducted on a Lebanese software development firm and its customers to determine the major problems affecting the organization's operation and to assess the level of adoption of TQM concepts. Detailed questionnaires were prepared and handed out to the firm's managers, programmers, and customers. The results of the study indicate many deficiencies in applying TQM concepts, especially in the areas of planning, defining customer requirements, teamwork, relationship with suppliers, and adopting standards and performance measures. One of the major consequences of these deficiencies is considerably increased programming errors and delays in delivery. Recommendations on achieving quality are discussed.

  6. Applying evolutionary concepts to wildlife disease ecology and management

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, Eric; Garant, Dany; Calmé, Sophie; Chapman, Colin A; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Millien, Virginie; Rioux-Paquette, Sébastien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2014-01-01

    Existing and emerging infectious diseases are among the most pressing global threats to biodiversity, food safety and human health. The complex interplay between host, pathogen and environment creates a challenge for conserving species, communities and ecosystem functions, while mediating the many known ecological and socio-economic negative effects of disease. Despite the clear ecological and evolutionary contexts of host–pathogen dynamics, approaches to managing wildlife disease remain predominantly reactionary, focusing on surveillance and some attempts at eradication. A few exceptional studies have heeded recent calls for better integration of ecological concepts in the study and management of wildlife disease; however, evolutionary concepts remain underused. Applied evolution consists of four principles: evolutionary history, genetic and phenotypic variation, selection and eco-evolutionary dynamics. In this article, we first update a classical framework for understanding wildlife disease to integrate better these principles. Within this framework, we explore the evolutionary implications of environment–disease interactions. Subsequently, we synthesize areas where applied evolution can be employed in wildlife disease management. Finally, we discuss some future directions and challenges. Here, we underscore that despite some evolutionary principles currently playing an important role in our understanding of disease in wild animals, considerable opportunities remain for fostering the practice of evolutionarily enlightened wildlife disease management. PMID:25469163

  7. Applying evolutionary concepts to wildlife disease ecology and management.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Eric; Garant, Dany; Calmé, Sophie; Chapman, Colin A; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Millien, Virginie; Rioux-Paquette, Sébastien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2014-08-01

    Existing and emerging infectious diseases are among the most pressing global threats to biodiversity, food safety and human health. The complex interplay between host, pathogen and environment creates a challenge for conserving species, communities and ecosystem functions, while mediating the many known ecological and socio-economic negative effects of disease. Despite the clear ecological and evolutionary contexts of host-pathogen dynamics, approaches to managing wildlife disease remain predominantly reactionary, focusing on surveillance and some attempts at eradication. A few exceptional studies have heeded recent calls for better integration of ecological concepts in the study and management of wildlife disease; however, evolutionary concepts remain underused. Applied evolution consists of four principles: evolutionary history, genetic and phenotypic variation, selection and eco-evolutionary dynamics. In this article, we first update a classical framework for understanding wildlife disease to integrate better these principles. Within this framework, we explore the evolutionary implications of environment-disease interactions. Subsequently, we synthesize areas where applied evolution can be employed in wildlife disease management. Finally, we discuss some future directions and challenges. Here, we underscore that despite some evolutionary principles currently playing an important role in our understanding of disease in wild animals, considerable opportunities remain for fostering the practice of evolutionarily enlightened wildlife disease management.

  8. Localization Strategies in WSNs as applied to Landslide Monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, A.; Robol, F.; Polo, A.; Giarola, E.; Viani, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last years, heterogeneous integrated smart systems based on wireless sensor network (WSN) technology have been developed at the ELEDIA Research Center of the University of Trento [1]. One of the key features of WSNs as applied to distributed monitoring is that, while the capabilities of each single sensor node is limited, the implementation of cooperative schemes throughout the whole network enables the solution of even complex tasks, as the landslide monitoring. The capability of localizing targets respect to the position of the sensor nodes turns out to be fundamental in those application fields where relative movements arise. The main properties like the target typology, the movement characteristics, and the required localization resolution are different changing the reference scenario. However, the common key issue is still the localization of moving targets within the area covered by the sensor network. Many experiences were preparatory for the challenging activities in the field of landslide monitoring where the basic idea is mostly that of detecting slight soil movements. Among them, some examples of WSN-based systems experimentally applied to the localization of people [2] and wildlife [3] have been proposed. More recently, the WSN backbone as well as the investigated sensing technologies have been customized for monitoring superficial movements of the soil. The relative positions of wireless sensor nodes deployed where high probability of landslide exists is carefully monitored to forecast dangerous events. Multiple sensors like ultrasound, laser, high precision GPS, for the precise measurement of relative distances between the nodes of the network and the absolute positions respect to reference targets have been integrated in a prototype system. The millimeter accuracy in the position estimation enables the detection of small soil modifications and to infer the superficial evolution profile of the landslide. This information locally acquired also

  9. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  10. Predicting climate fluctuations for water management by applying neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, E.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The ability to forecast climate fluctuations would be a valuable asset to regional water management authorities such as the South Florida Water Management District. These forecasts may provide advanced warnings of possible extended periods of deficits or surpluses of water availability allowing better regional water management for flood protection, water supply, and environmental enhancement. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to have a global perspective of the oceanic and atmospheric phenomena which may affect regional water resources. However, the complexity involved may hinder traditional analytical approaches in forecasting because such approaches are based on many simplified assumptions about the natural phenomena. This paper investigates the applicability of neural networks in climate forecasting for regional water resources management. This paper applies the most widely used Back Propagation model to the climate forecasting. In this study, issues such as selecting a best fit neural network configuration, deploying a proper training algorithm, and preprocessing input data are addressed. The effects of various global oceanic and atmospheric variables to the regional water resources are also discussed. The study is focused on the prediction of water storage for Lake Okeechobee, the liquid heart for south Florida. Several global weather parameters over the past several decades are used as input data for training and testing. Different combinations of the variables are explored. Preliminary results show that the neural networks are promising tools in this type of forecasting.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF NETWORK OUTCOMES: THE IMPACT OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    YSA, TAMYKO; SIERRA, VICENTA; ESTEVE, MARC

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more influence on network dynamics than previously theorized. PMID:25520529

  12. Intervention strategies for the management of human error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1993-01-01

    This report examines the management of human error in the cockpit. The principles probably apply as well to other applications in the aviation realm (e.g. air traffic control, dispatch, weather, etc.) as well as other high-risk systems outside of aviation (e.g. shipping, high-technology medical procedures, military operations, nuclear power production). Management of human error is distinguished from error prevention. It is a more encompassing term, which includes not only the prevention of error, but also a means of disallowing an error, once made, from adversely affecting system output. Such techniques include: traditional human factors engineering, improvement of feedback and feedforward of information from system to crew, 'error-evident' displays which make erroneous input more obvious to the crew, trapping of errors within a system, goal-sharing between humans and machines (also called 'intent-driven' systems), paperwork management, and behaviorally based approaches, including procedures, standardization, checklist design, training, cockpit resource management, etc. Fifteen guidelines for the design and implementation of intervention strategies are included.

  13. Strategic Management for School Development: Leading Your School's Improvement Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Brian

    This practical book introduces strategic management for leaders and senior managers in schools and shows how it can contribute to school development. Following the introductory chapter, chapter 2 discusses the concept of strategy and the conceptual stages of developing strategy--analysis, choice, and implementation. Chapter 3 examines the…

  14. Strategy Maps in University Management: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Shuangmiao; Zhong, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the conceptual use of the strategy map approach and the strategy map which it produces have been adapted from the business sector and introduced as tools for achieving more effective strategic planning and management in higher education institutions (HEIs). This study discusses the development of strategy maps as transformational…

  15. An Integrated Approach Is Needed for Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management: Insights from Ecosystem-Level Management Strategy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Smith, David C.; Johnson, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals. PMID:24454722

  16. An integrated approach is needed for ecosystem based fisheries management: insights from ecosystem-level management strategy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Elizabeth A; Smith, Anthony D M; Smith, David C; Johnson, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    An ecosystem approach is widely seen as a desirable goal for fisheries management but there is little consensus on what strategies or measures are needed to achieve it. Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a tool that has been widely used to develop and test single species fisheries management strategies and is now being extended to support ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM). We describe the application of MSE to investigate alternative strategies for achieving EBFM goals for a complex multispecies fishery in southeastern Australia. The study was undertaken as part of a stakeholder driven process to review and improve the ecological, economic and social performance of the fishery. An integrated management strategy, involving combinations of measures including quotas, gear controls and spatial management, performed best against a wide range of objectives and this strategy was subsequently adopted in the fishery, leading to marked improvements in performance. Although particular to one fishery, the conclusion that an integrated package of measures outperforms single focus measures we argue is likely to apply widely in fisheries that aim to achieve EBFM goals.

  17. Strategies for Managing a Multigenerational Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iden, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The multigenerational workforce presents a critical challenge for business managers, and each generation has different expectations. A human resource management study of organizations with more than 500 employees reported 58% of the managers experiencing conflict between younger and older workers. The purpose of this single case study was to…

  18. Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies beyond Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In the last years, knowledge and learning management have made a significant impact on the IT research community. "Open Source for Knowledge and Learning Management: Strategies Beyond Tools" presents learning and knowledge management from a point of view where the basic tools and applications are provided by open source technologies. This book…

  19. Applied engineering fundamentals: The transition from novice to engineering manager

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, M.N.; Tomchin, E.M. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of Applied Engineering Fundamentals, a course designed for newly graduated engineers and scientists serving as technical interns within the US Department of Energy (DOE). As specialists with varying undergraduate and graduate degrees, interns need further training to prepare them for the multidisciplinary environments they will encounter as they become engineering managers. This course is designed to build on individuals strengths in diverse engineering and scientific disciplines, provide instruction in less familiar disciplines, and develop skills in integrating multiple disciplines to solve real-world problems related to nuclear facilities. The course balances systems thinking with state-of-the-art approaches to curriculum development to provide training in technical content and to foster development of professional skills.

  20. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  1. A value analysis model applied to the management of amblyopia.

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, G R; Bane, M C; Stager, D R; Berry, P M; Wright, W W

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the value of amblyopia-related services by utilizing a health value model (HVM). Cost and quality criteria are evaluated in accordance with the interests of patients, physicians, and purchasers. METHODS: We applied an HVM to a hypothetical statistical ("median") child with amblyopia whose visual acuity is 20/80 and to a group of children with amblyopia who are managed by our practice. We applied the model to calculate the value of these services by evaluating the responses of patients and physicians and relating these responses to clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The consensus value of care for the hypothetical median child was calculated to be 0.406 (of 1.000). For those children managed in our practice, the calculated value is 0.682. Clinically, 79% achieved 20/40 or better visual acuity, and the mean final visual acuity was 0.2 logMAR (20/32). Value appraisals revealed significant concerns about the financial aspects of amblyopia-related services, particularly among physicians. Patients rated services more positively than did physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Amblyopia care is difficult, sustained, and important work that requires substantial sensitivity to and support of children and families. Compliance and early detection are essential to success. The value of amblyopia services is rated significantly higher by patients than by physicians. Relative to the measured value, amblyopia care is undercompensated. The HVM is useful to appraise clinical service delivery and its variation. The costs of failure and the benefits of success are high; high-value amblyopia care yields substantial dividends and should be commensurately compensated in the marketplace. PMID:10703133

  2. Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

    1992-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project. PMID:1594734

  3. Developing a positive organisational culture using a management development strategy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates a management development program, which was piloted at Albury Base Hospital during 2001 for nurse managers. The program uses quantitative assessments of participants using a lifestyle inventory tool and enables managers to identify opportunities and strategies to assist them to become more effective managers. The program also helps identify management "blind spots" and increased awareness of the effect of management's behaviour on team efficiency. The program was evaluated as being relevant to managers from any health discipline and was a means by which workplace culture and behaviour could be improved.

  4. Health technopole: innovation applied to clinical engineering & health technology management education.

    PubMed

    Vilcahuaman, L; Rivas, R

    2010-01-01

    In the Peruvian Health System, Clinical Engineering does not exist as a topic of intervention. 59% of biomedical equipment is officially classified as operational, however next to apply the correct classification methodology and include security issues, only 10% of the equipment are suitable for use in patients. The serious consequences for patients, is opposite to the increased public investment in the health sector. Reversing this context leads to structural changes at all levels of the organization and they will be achievable only through an appropriate educational program. A strategy focused on joint of capacities called Health Technopole has managed to implement an innovative Model of Education in Healthcare Technology Management HTM and Clinical Engineering CE aimed at solving this problem. The proposal focused on strategies to strengthen the educational goals such as creating HTM & CE Units in hospitals, the implementation of the methodology: Problem Based Learning and Project Management in HTM & CE in classroom and on line courses. The process includes an effective interaction with global organizations through teleconferences, Internships, Workshops and Seminars. A key component was the sustained multidisciplinary approach. Health Technopole CENGETS is an expert adviser for the Ministry of Health and is called for trainings, design training programs for regional governments and also supports global organizations such as PAHO / WHO and ORAS / CONHU. The proposal of innovation applied to HTM & CE Education is effective and is a benchmark for similar countries. PMID:21096296

  5. Applying behavioral theories to invasive animal management: Towards an integrated framework.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Please, Patricia M; Driver, Aaron B

    2015-09-15

    Invasive species wreak an estimated $1.4 trillion in damages globally, each year. To have any hope of reducing this damage, best-practice control strategies must incorporate behavior change interventions. Traditional interventions, based on the knowledge-transfer model, assume that if land managers are properly educated about risks and strategies, they will develop supportive attitudes and implement appropriate control strategies. However, the social sciences have produced a large number of behavioral models and frameworks that demonstrate that knowledge transfer, by itself, fails to change behavior. The challenge then lies in knowing which behavioral model to choose, and when, from a potentially overwhelming 'universe'. In this paper, we review nine behavior theories relevant to invasive species management. We then introduce the Behavior Change Wheel as a tool for integrating these theories into a single practical framework. This framework links drivers of and barriers to behavior change with intervention strategies and policies, in what we consider, from an applied perspective, to be an important advance.

  6. Federal facility compliance: Strategies, policies and management

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Federal Facility Compliance reviews developments in environmental legislative/regulatory analysis, climate change, and environmental management practices at the US Postal Service. It also covers the management of ozone-depleting chemicals at US Army Reserve facilities, Title 5, and wastewater system assessments at military installations.

  7. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  8. Strategies and algorithms for management of the difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Thomas; Gerig, Hans J; Henderson, John J

    2005-12-01

    Management of the difficult airway is the most important patient safety issue in the practice of anaesthesia. Many national societies have developed algorithms and guidelines for management of the difficult airway. The key issues of this chapter are definition of terms, the advantages and disadvantages of the use of guidelines, and a comparison of different algorithms and guidelines for management of the most important clinical airway scenarios. Although there is no strong evidence of benefit for any specific strategy or algorithm for management of the difficult airway, there is strong agreement that a pre-planned strategy may lead to improved outcome.

  9. The open abdomen: aetiology, classification and current management strategies.

    PubMed

    Swan, M C; Banwell, P E

    2005-01-01

    A new classification system has been devised for open abdominal wounds. This will help identify an appropriate management strategy, and indicate the associated morbidity and outcome. In all cases, early intervention is vital.

  10. AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

    2003-02-27

    WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment

  11. Students as Employees: Applying Performance Management Principles in the Management Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Treena L.; Parry, Richard O.

    2009-01-01

    The student-as-employee metaphor emphasizes student accountability and participation in learning and provides instructors with work-oriented methods for creating a productive class environment. The authors propose that the tenets of performance management in work organizations can be applied to the classroom. In particular, they focus on three…

  12. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Effective Classroom Management Strategies: Underachieving Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacina-Gifford, Lorna J.; Kher, Neelam; Besant, Kyesha

    The present study is part of a systematic program evaluation effort. Student teachers at a southern rural public university were asked to generate classroom management strategies in response to hypothetical vignettes depicting underachieving/alienated behavior. The extended responses were coded to identify strategies that student teachers would…

  13. Knowledge Management and the Competitive Strategy of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halawi, Leila A.; McCarthy, Richard V.; Aronson, Jay E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge management (KM) has emerged as a strategy to improve organizational competitiveness. Our purpose is to identify the relationship between KM and the firm's competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: We review the existing literature on KM and strategy formulation. We utilize the resource-based view approach as a lens for…

  14. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  15. Use of single large or several small policies as strategies to manage people-park interactions.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Catrina A; Baird, Timothy D; Hartter, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity conservation has been criticized for undermining or ignoring social well-being. Currently efforts to mutually promote social justice, rural development, and biodiversity conservation, which have been contentious and yielded mixed results, continue to spread despite a general dearth of effective management strategies. We contend that social and economic concerns should be integral to conservation planning and propose that the scale of these phenomena is also critical. To evaluate the merit of this proposal, we adopted and expanded a conservation management strategy framework developed by Joel Heinen and examined how population density, economic disparity, and ethnic heterogeneity vary spatially surrounding 2 contrasting protected areas in East Africa: Kibale National Park in Uganda and Tarangire National Park in Tanzania. Analyses of demographic, wealth, and ethnicity data from regional censuses and household surveys conducted in 2009 and 2010 indicated that choice of scale (landscape or community) changed the management strategies recommended by the model. Therefore, "several small" people-park management strategies varying around a given protected area may be more appropriate than a "single large" people-park strategy applied across an entire protected area. Correspondingly, scale adjusted Heinen recommendations offered new strategies for effective conservation management within these human landscapes not incorporated in current in situ management plans.

  16. Strategies for Crisis Management in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rosemary A.

    1990-01-01

    As violence and suicide increase in our society, educators are helping students, staff members, and families cope with the sudden loss of a peer or child. Pragmatic intervention strategies can help survivors deal with their reactions to sudden death and posttraumatic stress disorders. Counseling techniques are also outlined. (MLH)

  17. Competitive strategy for successful hospital management.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O; Harvey, R K

    1992-01-01

    This study examined financial and operating data for approximately 1,000 U.S. hospitals categorized by Medicare as "large urban" to determine critical relationships between business strategy and financial performance. Cost control was found to be the most important factor influencing financial performance. Other factors of importance included market share, diversification, and financing policy.

  18. Competitive strategy for successful hospital management.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O; Harvey, R K

    1992-01-01

    This study examined financial and operating data for approximately 1,000 U.S. hospitals categorized by Medicare as "large urban" to determine critical relationships between business strategy and financial performance. Cost control was found to be the most important factor influencing financial performance. Other factors of importance included market share, diversification, and financing policy. PMID:10116113

  19. Strategies for initial management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Guptha, Soneil

    2010-11-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a major public health problem in India and its prevalence is rapidly increasing among urban and rural populations. Reducing systolic and diastolic BP can decrease cardiovascular risk and this can be achieved by non-pharmacological (lifestyle measures) as well as pharmacological means. Lifestyle changes should be the initial approach to hypertension management and include dietary interventions (reducing salt, increasing potassium, alcohol avoidance, and multifactorial diet control), weight reduction, tobacco cessation, physical exercise, and stress management. A number of pharmaceutical agents, well evidenced by large randomized clinical trials, are available for initial treatment of high BP. These include older molecules such as thiazide diuretics and beta-blocking agents and newer molecules, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCB), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). In view of the recent clinical trials data, some international guidelines suggest that CCB, ACE inhibitors or ARB and not beta-blockers or diuretics should be the initial therapy in hypertension management. Comprehensive hypertension management focuses on reducing overall cardiovascular risk by lifestyle measures, BP lowering and lipid management and should be the preferred initial treatment approach.

  20. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity.

  1. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. PMID:25090148

  2. A Strategy for Optimizing Item-Pool Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Adelaide; van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item production to test assembly. A simulation study with…

  3. Classroom Management Strategies and Behavioral Interventions to Support Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth

    2010-01-01

    This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…

  4. A Policy Change Strategy for Head Lice Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Kathleen; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to formulate an effective change strategy for head lice management in a group of five separate school districts within one county. Despite a desire to use evidence to support their practice, school nurses often encounter educational system barriers that prevent independent management of health conditions. The use of…

  5. Ecological principles underpinning invasive plant management tools and strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The broad focus of ecologically-based invasive plant management is to identify and repair the ecological processes facilitating plant invasion. To be useful, however, EBIPM requires that our application of management tools and strategies be based on ecological principles that determine the rate and ...

  6. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps.

  7. Applying a Cohesive Set of Comprehension Strategies to Content-Area Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Edmonds, Meaghan S.; Hairrell, Angela; Vaughn, Sharon; Simmons, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    Upper elementary content-area teachers often face the challenge of how to make content-area text more accessible and learnable for their students. Whereas there exists a range of comprehension strategies that can be applied to informational text, the premium on instructional time leaves teachers in search of a cohesive, efficient, and effective…

  8. Towards Strategic Actorhood? The Execution of Institutional Positioning Strategies at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Given the emerging interest in institutional positioning and to augment the small number of empirical studies in this field, this paper presents discussion about how Finnish universities of applied sciences implement their profiling strategies. The analysis is based on an examination of documents recently submitted by these institutions when…

  9. Assessment of Instructional and Administrative Strategies Applied by Principals to Improve Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

    2014-01-01

    The study is based on the assessment of instructional and administrative strategies applied by principals to improve academic performance of students in schools. This simply means that the individual talents of everyone in school needs to be maximized for the effective benefit of the school, students, parents, and the society at large. It is…

  10. Enhancing Social Presence in Online Learning: Mediation Strategies Applied to Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Kristopher M.; Brown, Abbie

    2009-01-01

    An exploration of the mediation strategies applied to social networking tools for purposes of enhancing social presence for students participating in online course work. The article includes a review of the literature, specific examples from the authors' professional practice and recommendations for creating a positive social experience for online…

  11. Effective managed care marketing strategies for evolving markets.

    PubMed

    Conlon, M K

    1997-11-01

    In a world of increased competition and changing consumer expectations, one of the keys to a fiscally sound health plan is having a dynamic marketing strategy that takes into account the shifting attitudes of consumers as managed care markets mature. The primary goal of any health plan marketing strategy should be the acquisition and retention of members. Providing cost-efficient and convenient service for enrollees, offering low or no deductibles, having convenient office locations, and minimizing paper-work are important elements of such a marketing strategy. Factors such as brand awareness and the perceived image of a health plan also are important considerations in acquiring and retaining market share. The relative importance of these consumer satisfaction criteria change as a managed care market evolves and matures. Financial and marketing managers, thus, should ascertain their market's stage of development and respond with appropriate marketing strategies. PMID:10174770

  12. Strategies for managing an environmental disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The threat of an environmental disaster is a very real concern for chemical/petrochemical plants, or any corporation that moves or markets chemicals. This presentation is concerned with the top ten tips for managing an environmental disaster, including liability, debriefing employees, and cooperation with environmental agencies.

  13. Evaluation and experimentation with duck management strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Johnson, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    Our knowledge of the effects of hunting regulations on duck populations has been based largely on retrospective studies of historical data. We have reached the limits of what can be learned in this way. Future knowledge gains will likely come about only through experimentation and adaptive management.

  14. Classroom Strategies: Classroom Management Systems. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speiss, Madeleine F.; And Others

    Classroom management is defined as procedures for arranging the classroom environment so that children learn what the teacher wants to teach them in the healthiest and most effective way possible. The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory presents a discussion of these procedures as they relate to social controls and components of…

  15. Applying Diversity Management Concepts to Improve the Minority Educational Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntebi, Joy; Shcherbakova, Maria; Wooten, Lynn P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this conceptual article is to investigate existing diversity management paradigms and extend their implications toward the goal of increasing minority representation in management education. We suggest that the existing learning-and-effectiveness diversity management paradigm (Thomas & Ely, 1996, "Harvard Business…

  16. Applying a Knowledge Management Taxonomy to Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…

  17. 20 strategies for marketing your managed care plan.

    PubMed

    Firshein, J

    1996-01-01

    In today's fiercely competitive managed care marketplace, healthcare executives must find a way to set their plans apart from the competition and build a sufficient customer base. At the same time, they must confront a growing anti-managed care backlash among a wary and confused public. Healthcare executive magazine talked with managed care experts to gather their views on key strategies to help executives meet both of these challenges. Here's what they suggest. PMID:10153671

  18. Epilepsy during pregnancy: focus on management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Borgelt, Laura M; Hart, Felecia M; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L

    2016-01-01

    In the US, more than one million women with epilepsy are of childbearing age and have over 20,000 babies each year. Patients with epilepsy who become pregnant are at risk of complications, including changes in seizure frequency, maternal morbidity and mortality, and congenital anomalies due to antiepileptic drug exposure. Appropriate management of epilepsy during pregnancy may involve frequent monitoring of antiepileptic drug serum concentrations, potential preconception switching of antiepileptic medications, making dose adjustments, minimizing peak drug concentration with more frequent dosing, and avoiding potentially teratogenic medications. Ideally, preconception planning will be done to minimize risks to both the mother and fetus during pregnancy. It is important to recognize benefits and risks of current and emerging therapies, especially with revised pregnancy labeling in prescription drug product information. This review will outline risks for epilepsy during pregnancy, review various recommendations from leading organizations, and provide an evidence-based approach for managing patients with epilepsy before, during, and after pregnancy. PMID:27703396

  19. Applying crowd psychology to develop recommendations for the management of mass decontamination.

    PubMed

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mass decontamination is a public health intervention employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological release. It involves a crowd of people whose interactions with each other and with the emergency responders managing the incident are likely to affect the success of the decontamination process. The way in which members of the public collectively experience decontamination is likely to affect their behavior and hence is crucial to the success of the decontamination process. Consequently, responders and the responsible authorities need to understand crowd psychology during mass emergencies and disasters. Recently, the social identity approach to crowd psychology has been applied to explain public perceptions and behavior during mass emergencies. This approach emphasizes that crowd events are characteristically intergroup encounters, in which the behavior of one group can affect the perceptions and behavior of another. We summarize the results from a program of research in which the social identity approach was applied to develop and test recommendations for the management of mass decontamination. The findings from this program of research show that (1) responders' perceptions of crowd behavior matter; (2) participants value greater communication and this affects their compliance; and (3) social identity processes explain the relationship between effective responder communication and relevant outcome variables, such as public compliance, public cooperation, and public anxiety. Based on this program of research, we recommend 4 responder management strategies that focus on increasing public compliance, increasing orderly and cooperative behavior among members of the public, reducing public anxiety, and respecting public needs for privacy.

  20. Applying Crowd Psychology to Develop Recommendations for the Management of Mass Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Drury, John; Rubin, G. James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mass decontamination is a public health intervention employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological release. It involves a crowd of people whose interactions with each other and with the emergency responders managing the incident are likely to affect the success of the decontamination process. The way in which members of the public collectively experience decontamination is likely to affect their behavior and hence is crucial to the success of the decontamination process. Consequently, responders and the responsible authorities need to understand crowd psychology during mass emergencies and disasters. Recently, the social identity approach to crowd psychology has been applied to explain public perceptions and behavior during mass emergencies. This approach emphasizes that crowd events are characteristically intergroup encounters, in which the behavior of one group can affect the perceptions and behavior of another. We summarize the results from a program of research in which the social identity approach was applied to develop and test recommendations for the management of mass decontamination. The findings from this program of research show that (1) responders' perceptions of crowd behavior matter; (2) participants value greater communication and this affects their compliance; and (3) social identity processes explain the relationship between effective responder communication and relevant outcome variables, such as public compliance, public cooperation, and public anxiety. Based on this program of research, we recommend 4 responder management strategies that focus on increasing public compliance, increasing orderly and cooperative behavior among members of the public, reducing public anxiety, and respecting public needs for privacy. PMID:25812428

  1. Building a new waste management strategy in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Boltz, C.

    1995-06-01

    Puerto Rico traditionally has not had a centrally organized waste management system. Most municipalities have provided service for their own residents, and the island used 62 unlined landfills before 32 of those closed in April 1994. But waste management on this Caribbean island is changing as the government-a self-governing commonwealth associated voluntarily with the US government-begins implementing its strategy for developing efficient, state-of-the-art waste management. This strategy includes plans to build an integrated system of collection, transfer stations, and disposal sites whose centerpieces are market-drives recycling, partnerships between the public and private sectors, and public education. The details of this plan coincide with the mission statement of the Puerto Rico Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA, San Juan), to ``develop and implement the necessary infrastructure for the efficient management of solid waste in Puerto Rico.

  2. Nurses' strategies for managing pain in the postoperative setting.

    PubMed

    Manias, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Botti, Mari

    2005-03-01

    Acute pain is a significant problem in the postoperative setting. Patients report a lack of information about pain-control measures and ineffective pain control. Nurses continue to rely on pharmacologic measures and tend to under-administer analgesics. The purpose of this study was to determine the strategies nurses used to manage patients' pain in the postoperative setting. It also sought to examine the effect of context, including organization of care, nurses' prioritization of work activities, and pressures during a working shift, on their pain-management strategies. An observational design was used in two surgical units of a metropolitan teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Six fixed observation times were identified as key periods for pain activities, each comprising a 2-hour duration. An observation period was examined at least 12 times, resulting in the completion of 74 observations and the identification of 316 pain cases. Fifty-two nurses were observed during their normal day's work with postoperative patients. Six themes were identified: managing pain effectively; prioritizing pain experiences for pain management; missing pain cues for pain management; regulators and enforcers of pain management; preventing pain; and reactive management of pain. The findings highlighted the critical nature of communication between clinicians and patients and among clinicians. It also demonstrated the influence of time on management strategies and the relative importance that nurses place on nonpharmacologic measures in actual practice. This research, which portrays what happens in actual clinical practice, has facilitated the identification of new data that were not evident from other research studies.

  3. What health care managers do: applying Mintzberg's structured observation method.

    PubMed

    Arman, Rebecka; Dellve, Lotta; Wikström, Ewa; Törnström, Linda

    2009-09-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to explore and describe what characterizes first- and second-line health care managers' use of time. Background Many Swedish health care managers experience difficulties managing their time. Methods Structured and unstructured observations were used. Ten first- and second-line managers in different health care settings were studied in detail from 3.5 and 4 days each. Duration and frequency of different types of work activities were analysed. Results The individual variation was considerable. The managers' days consisted to a large degree of short activities (<9 minutes). On average, nearly half of the managers' time was spent in meetings. Most of the managers' time was spent with subordinates and <1% was spent alone with their superiors. Sixteen per cent of their time was spent on administration and only a small fraction on explicit strategic work. Conclusions The individual variations in time use patterns suggest the possibility of interventions to support changes in time use patterns. Implications for nursing management A reliable description of what managers do paves the way for analyses of what they should do to be effective.

  4. Management strategies in hospitals: scenario planning.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Schnoor, Jörg; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard; Kuwatsch, Sandra; Bohn, Marco; Josten, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund: Das Krankenhausmanagement ist stets Herausforderungen ausgesetzt. Anstatt auf die Herausforderungen zu warten, sollten Ärzte und Manager im Voraus handeln, um ein optimiertes und nachhaltig wertorientiertes Gesundheitswesen zu sichern. Diese Arbeit unterstreicht die Bedeutung der Szenarienplanung in Krankenhäusern, schlägt eine ausgearbeitete Definition der Stakeholder eines Krankenhauses vor und definiert die Einflussfaktoren, denen Krankenhäuser ausgesetzt sind.Methodik: Basierend auf einer Literaturanalyse sowie auf persönlichen Interviews mit Stakeholdern eines Krankenhauses schlagen wir eine ausgearbeitete Definition von Stakeholdern vor und erarbeiteten einen Fragebogen. Dieser Fragebogen berücksichtigt folgende Einflussfaktoren, die entsprechende Auswirkungen auf das Krankenhaus-Management haben: politische/rechtliche, wirtschaftliche, soziale, technologische und Umweltkräfte.Diese Einflussfaktoren werden untersucht, um die so genannten kritischen Unsicherheiten zu entwickeln. Die gründliche Identifizierung von Unsicherheiten basierte auf „Stakeholder Feedback“.Ergebnisse: Zwei Haupt-Unsicherheiten wurden identifiziert und in dieser Studie berücksichtigt:die Entwicklung der Arbeitsbelastung für das medizinische Personaldie gewinnorientierte Leistung des medizinischen Personals.Entsprechend der entwickelten Szenarien konnten wir folgende Kernstrategie empfehlen: komplementäre Ausbildung sowohl des medizinischen Personals als auch der nicht-medizinischen Top-Führungskräfte und Manager von Krankenhäusern. Ergänzende szenariospezifische strategische Optionen sollen, falls erforderlich, in Betracht gezogen werden, um eine bestimmte zukünftige Entwicklung des medizinischen Umfeldes zu optimieren.Schlussfolgerung: Strategische Planung in Krankenhäusern ist wichtig, um nachhaltigen Erfolg zu gewährleisten. Diese Planung soll mehrere Situationen berücksichtigen und integriert interne und externe Ein- und Ausblicke. Darüber hinaus

  5. Xcel Energy implements an alarm management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, J.; Abreu, G.

    2007-11-15

    Not so long ago, Xcel Energy's Pawnee Station, a 505 MW coal-fired generating station in Brush, Colorado, USA was commonly generating 300 to 400 alarms per 8-hour shift. The article describes how the alarm system was revised and improved by tackling alarm dead-bands, and rationalising alarms for routine events. Operators are trained to understand the functions of alarm management components, their use and response, and obtain feedback. Today the power station reports about one alarm per hour. 3 photos.

  6. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  7. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Robert D; Scyphers, Steven B; Grabowski, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders' perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state's management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders' support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that may

  8. Assessing Fishers' Support of Striped Bass Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Robert D.; Scyphers, Steven B.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the perspectives and insights of stakeholders is an essential component of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such that policy strategies should account for the diverse interests of various groups of anglers to enhance their efficacy. Here we assessed fishing stakeholders’ perceptions on the management of Atlantic striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and receptiveness to potential future regulations using an online survey of recreational and commercial fishers in Massachusetts and Connecticut (USA). Our results indicate that most fishers harbored adequate to positive perceptions of current striped bass management policies when asked to grade their state’s management regime. Yet, subtle differences in perceptions existed between recreational and commercial fishers, as well as across individuals with differing levels of fishing experience, resource dependency, and tournament participation. Recreational fishers in both states were generally supportive or neutral towards potential management actions including slot limits (71%) and mandated circle hooks to reduce mortality of released fish (74%), but less supportive of reduced recreational bag limits (51%). Although commercial anglers were typically less supportive of management changes than their recreational counterparts, the majority were still supportive of slot limits (54%) and mandated use of circle hooks (56%). Our study suggests that both recreational and commercial fishers are generally supportive of additional management strategies aimed at sustaining healthy striped bass populations and agree on a variety of strategies. However, both stakeholder groups were less supportive of harvest reductions, which is the most direct measure of reducing mortality available to fisheries managers. By revealing factors that influence stakeholders’ support or willingness to comply with management strategies, studies such as ours can help managers identify potential stakeholder support for or conflicts that

  9. Complexity Science Applications to Dynamic Trajectory Management: Research Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawhill, Bruce; Herriot, James; Holmes, Bruce J.; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    The promise of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is strongly tied to the concept of trajectory-based operations in the national airspace system. Existing efforts to develop trajectory management concepts are largely focused on individual trajectories, optimized independently, then de-conflicted among each other, and individually re-optimized, as possible. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time are valuable, though perhaps could be greater through alternative strategies. The concept of agent-based trajectories offers a strategy for automation of simultaneous multiple trajectory management. The anticipated result of the strategy would be dynamic management of multiple trajectories with interacting and interdependent outcomes that satisfy multiple, conflicting constraints. These constraints would include the business case for operators, the capacity case for the Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP), and the environmental case for noise and emissions. The benefits in capacity, fuel, and time might be improved over those possible under individual trajectory management approaches. The proposed approach relies on computational agent-based modeling (ABM), combinatorial mathematics, as well as application of "traffic physics" concepts to the challenge, and modeling and simulation capabilities. The proposed strategy could support transforming air traffic control from managing individual aircraft behaviors to managing systemic behavior of air traffic in the NAS. A system built on the approach could provide the ability to know when regions of airspace approach being "full," that is, having non-viable local solution space for optimizing trajectories in advance.

  10. Managing Marginal School Employees: Applying Standards-Based Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lynette; Reck, Brianne; Egley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a collection of case studies that provide a variety of situations in managing or working with marginal employees in a school system. Managing Marginal School Employees will serve as a primary or companion text for administrator candidates or current administrators that include dilemmas for the student to think about, discuss,…

  11. Managing the Manpower Aspects of Applying Micro-Electronics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, P.; Routledge, C.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines major effects that the application of micro-electronics devices in products/processes and in office systems will have on future manpower and skill requirements in manufacturing organizations. Identifies the type of problems these changes will pose for manpower managers. Provides general guidelines for the successful management of these…

  12. Management strategy for bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Saito, Norihiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu; Takizawa, Katsumi; Takebayashi, Seiji; Asano, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Rina; Kubota, Shunsuke; Ito, Yasuhiro; Karagiozov, Kostadin L

    2016-04-01

    Bilateral complex vertebral artery aneurysms (BCoVAAns) have no established strategy of management. We retrospectively reviewed five consecutive patients with unruptured BCoVAAns between January 2006 and December 2012. Considering surgical risks of lower cranial nerve (LCN) injuries and eventual growth of an opposite side lesion after unilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion, we proposed a strategy of combined open and interventional treatment using revascularization. We applied the following several specific techniques: (1) proximal clipping and occipital artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (OA-PICA) and/or superficial temporary artery (STA)-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) bypasses; (2) Distal blood pressure, motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) monitoring after parent artery temporary occlusion for safe permanent occlusion of the proximal portions of VA and PICA; (3) V3 to V4 bypass using radial artery (RA) graft with proximal clipping or trapping, two of them combined with OA-PICA bypass; (4) VA fenestration as an opportunity to preserve the flow of the parent artery. Two patients were treated bilaterally and 3 unilaterally, with modified Rankin scale assessed at 39 months postoperatively in average 0 in 2, 1 in 2, and 2 in 1, respectively, and the untreated opposite side lesions without regrowth or bleeding. Two patients with patent V3-RA-V4 bypass complained of dysphagia due to LCN palsies. One of them however suffered a cerebellar infarction due to occlusion of the OA-PICA bypass. When BCoVAAns require surgical treatment, revascularization or preservation of the VA should be considered at the first operation. By doing so, the opposite aneurysm can be effectively occluded by coil embolization, even with VA sacrifice if required. PMID:26564148

  13. Working to reduce the effects of discrimination: Identity management strategies in organizations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J; Bucher, Amy

    2013-04-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity redefinition (i.e., stereotype reassociation and regeneration). Organizations adopting a color-blind approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity switching because the policies deemphasize differences in social identities. In contrast, organizations adopting a multicultural approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity redefinition. Multicultural approaches, applied superficially, may celebrate group differences that might actually reinforce culturally dominant stereotypes. We explore the likelihood that individuals will adopt each strategy given these organizational approaches to diversity. We outline steps organizations can take to reduce the need for identity management strategies and to facilitate identity management when necessary. PMID:23586490

  14. Working to reduce the effects of discrimination: Identity management strategies in organizations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J; Bucher, Amy

    2013-04-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity redefinition (i.e., stereotype reassociation and regeneration). Organizations adopting a color-blind approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity switching because the policies deemphasize differences in social identities. In contrast, organizations adopting a multicultural approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity redefinition. Multicultural approaches, applied superficially, may celebrate group differences that might actually reinforce culturally dominant stereotypes. We explore the likelihood that individuals will adopt each strategy given these organizational approaches to diversity. We outline steps organizations can take to reduce the need for identity management strategies and to facilitate identity management when necessary.

  15. New Management Strategies in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Owens, Anjali Tiku; Brozena, Susan C; Jessup, Mariell

    2016-02-01

    Despite >100 clinical trials, only 2 new drugs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic heart failure in more than a decade: the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone in 2003 and a fixed dose combination of hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in 2005. In contrast, 2015 has witnessed the Food and Drug Administration approval of 2 new drugs, both for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: ivabradine and another combination drug, sacubitril/valsartan or LCZ696. Seemingly overnight, a range of therapeutic possibilities, evoking new physiological mechanisms, promise great hope for a disease that often carries a prognosis worse than many forms of cancer. Importantly, the newly available therapies represent a culmination of basic and translational research that actually spans many decades. This review will summarize newer drugs currently being used in the treatment of heart failure, as well as newer strategies increasingly explored for their utility during the stages of the heart failure syndrome.

  16. New Management Strategies in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Owens, Anjali Tiku; Brozena, Susan C; Jessup, Mariell

    2016-02-01

    Despite >100 clinical trials, only 2 new drugs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic heart failure in more than a decade: the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone in 2003 and a fixed dose combination of hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in 2005. In contrast, 2015 has witnessed the Food and Drug Administration approval of 2 new drugs, both for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: ivabradine and another combination drug, sacubitril/valsartan or LCZ696. Seemingly overnight, a range of therapeutic possibilities, evoking new physiological mechanisms, promise great hope for a disease that often carries a prognosis worse than many forms of cancer. Importantly, the newly available therapies represent a culmination of basic and translational research that actually spans many decades. This review will summarize newer drugs currently being used in the treatment of heart failure, as well as newer strategies increasingly explored for their utility during the stages of the heart failure syndrome. PMID:26846642

  17. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  18. Roles of managers in academic health centers: strategies for the managed care environment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kristina L

    2002-03-01

    This article addresses survival strategies of academic health centers (AHCs) in responding to market pressures and government reforms. Using six case studies of AHCs, the study links strategic changes in structure and management to managerial role performance. Utilizing Mintzberg's classification of work roles, the roles of liaison, monitor, entrepreneur, and resource allocator were found to be used by top-level managers as they implement strategies to enhance the viability of their AHCs. Based on these new roles, the study recommends improving management practices through education and training as well as changing organizational culture to support management decision making and foster the continued growth of managers and their AHCs.

  19. Managing Liability. Employment Discrimination: A Risk Management Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, Sandra H.

    This booklet discusses the risks that educational institutions face in regard to employment discrimination litigation and outlines a program to effectively manage such risks. Institutions need to address three main types of employment discrimination issues: sexual harassment, disability-based discrimination, and age discrimination. To deal with…

  20. Exploring strategies used following a group-based fatigue management programme for people with multiple sclerosis (FACETS) via the Fatigue Management Strategies Questionnaire (FMSQ)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S; Kersten, P; Thomas, P W; Slingsby, V; Nock, A; Jones, R; Davies Smith, A; Galvin, K T; Baker, R; Hillier, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore cross-sectional patterns of use of fatigue management strategies in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) who had attended a group-based fatigue management programme, Fatigue: Applying Cognitive behavioural and Energy effectiveness Techniques to lifeStyle (‘FACETS’). In a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) the FACETS programme was shown to reduce fatigue severity and improve self-efficacy and quality of life. Design A questionnaire substudy within a RCT involving the self-completed Fatigue Management Strategies Questionnaire (FMSQ). The FMSQ includes: (1) closed questions about the use and helpfulness of fatigue management strategies taught in FACETS and (2) open items about changes to lifestyle, attitudes or expectations, barriers or difficulties encountered and helpful strategies not covered in FACETS. Participants All had a clinical diagnosis of MS, significant fatigue, were ambulatory and had attended at least 4 of 6 scheduled FACETS sessions. Methods Participants (n=72) were posted the FMSQ with a prepaid return envelope 4 months after the end of the FACETS programme. Results 82% (59/72) of participants returned the FMSQ. The fatigue management strategies most frequently used since attending FACETS were prioritisation (80%), pacing (78%), saying no to others (78%), grading tasks (75%) and challenging unhelpful thoughts (71%). Adding in those participants who were already using the respective strategies prior to FACETS, the three most used strategies at 4 months were prioritisation (55/59), grading (54/59) and pacing (53/58). Free-text comments illustrated the complex interplay between attitudes/expectations, behaviours, emotions and the environment. Issues related to expectations featured strongly in participants’ comments. Expectations (from self and others) were both facilitators and barriers to effective fatigue management. Conclusions Individuals’ comments highlighted the complex, multifaceted nature of fatigue

  1. Caries Management Strategies for Primary Molars

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, R.M.; Innes, N.P.T.; Machiulskiene, V.; Evans, D.J.P.; Splieth, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. There is also increasing interest in techniques where no caries is removed. We present the 1-yr results of clinical efficacy for 3 caries management options for occlusoproximal cavitated lesions in primary molars: conventional restorations (CR; complete caries removal and compomer restoration), Hall technique (HT; no caries removal, sealing in with stainless steel crowns), and nonrestorative caries treatment (NRCT; no caries removal, opening up the cavity, teaching brushing and fluoride application). In sum, 169 children (3-8 yr old; mean, 5.56 ± 1.45 yr) were enrolled in this secondary care–based, 3-arm, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Treatments were carried out by specialist pediatric dentists or postgraduate trainees. One lesion per child received CR, HT, or NRCT. Outcome measures were clinical failure rates, grouped as minor failure (restoration loss/need for replacement, reversible pulpitis, caries progression, etc.) and major failure (irreversible pulpitis, abscess, etc.). There were 148 children (87.6%) with a minimum follow-up of 11 mo (mean, 12.23 ± 0.98 mo). Twenty teeth were recorded as having at least 1 minor failure: NRCT, n = 8 (5%); CR, n = 11 (7%); HT, n = 1 (1%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Only the comparison between NRCT and CR showed no significant difference (p = .79, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.80). Nine (6%) experienced at least 1 major failure: NRCT, n = 4 (2%); CR, n = 5 (3%); HT, n = 0 (0%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Individual comparison of NRCT and CR showed no statistically significant difference in major failures (p = .75, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.76). Success and failure rates were not significantly affected by pediatric dentists’ level of experience (p = .13, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.14). The HT was significantly more successful

  2. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  3. Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcot, Bruce G.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Runge, Michael C.; Thompson, Frank R.; McNulty, Steven; Cleaves, David; Tomosy, Monica; Fisher, Larry A.; Andrew, Bliss

    2012-01-01

    Management of federal public forests to meet sustainability goals and multiple use regulations is an immense challenge. To succeed, we suggest use of formal decision science procedures and tools in the context of structured decision making (SDM). SDM entails four stages: problem structuring (framing the problem and defining objectives and evaluation criteria), problem analysis (defining alternatives, evaluating likely consequences, identifying key uncertainties, and analyzing tradeoffs), decision point (identifying the preferred alternative), and implementation and monitoring the preferred alternative with adaptive management feedbacks. We list a wide array of models, techniques, and tools available for each stage, and provide three case studies of their selected use in National Forest land management and project plans. Successful use of SDM involves participation by decision-makers, analysts, scientists, and stakeholders. We suggest specific areas for training and instituting SDM to foster transparency, rigor, clarity, and inclusiveness in formal decision processes regarding management of national forests.

  4. Applying CIPP Model for Learning-Object Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Erla M. Morales; Peñalvo, Francisco J. García; Martín, Carlos Muñoz; Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel Conde

    Although knowledge management process needs to receive some evaluation in order to determine their suitable functionality. There is not a clear definition about the stages where LOs need to be evaluated and the specific metrics to continuously promote their quality. This paper presents a proposal for LOs evaluation during their management for e-learning systems. To achieve this, we suggest specific steps for LOs design, implementation and evaluation into the four stages proposed by CIPP model (Context, Input, Process, Product).

  5. Management philosophies as applied to major NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, K. K.

    1974-01-01

    A definition of 'management philosophies' is discussed explaining the position of NASA in the planning and control of space programs and technology. The impact of these philosophies on the Apollo and Saturn 1 programs are described along with the need for the Saturn 5 spacecraft and launch site development. Case studies are included and describe unscheduled events where management decisions were necessary to keep programs on track.

  6. Strategies for searching and managing evidence-based practice resources.

    PubMed

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2014-10-01

    Evidence-based nursing practice requires the use of effective search strategies to locate relevant resources to guide practice change. Continuing education and staff development professionals can assist nurses to conduct effective literature searches. This article provides suggestions for strategies to aid in identifying search terms. Strategies also are recommended for refining searches by using controlled vocabulary, truncation, Boolean operators, PICOT (Population/Patient Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) searching, and search limits. Suggestions for methods of managing resources also are identified. Using these approaches will assist in more effective literature searches and may help evidence-based practice decisions.

  7. 41 CFR 102-3.95 - What principles apply to the management of advisory committees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What principles apply to...-FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT How Are Advisory Committees Managed? § 102-3.95 What principles... principles to the management of their advisory committees: (a) Provide adequate support. Before...

  8. Enacting the Common Script: Management Ideas at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuori, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the work of mid-level management at Finnish universities of applied sciences. Based on in-depth interviews with 15 line managers, this study investigates how the standardized management ideas of rational management and employee empowerment are used in the leadership of lecturers at these institutions. The findings indicate…

  9. Effects of Applied Land Use Strategies on Farmland Soils in the Southwestern Siberian Kulunda-Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, Lars-Christian; Illiger, Patrick; Stephan, Eckart; Frühauf, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    the understanding of the impact of agricultural land use practice on field scale, but also largely contribute to the research on sustainable land management, rural development and climate change and connect applied science with capacity building for local stakeholders.

  10. How Managers' everyday decisions create or destroy your company's strategy.

    PubMed

    Bower, Joseph L; Gilbert, Clark G

    2007-02-01

    Senior executives have long been frustrated by the disconnection between the plans and strategies they devise and the actual behavior of the managers throughout the company. This article approaches the problem from the ground up, recognizing that every time a manager allocates resources, that decision moves the company either into or out of alignment with its announced strategy. A well-known story--Intel's exit from the memory business--illustrates this point. When discussing what businesses Intel should be in, Andy Grove asked Gordon Moore what they would do if Intel were a company that they had just acquired. When Moore answered, "Get out of memory," they decided to do just that. It turned out, though, that Intel's revenues from memory were by this time only 4% of total sales. Intel's lower-level managers had already exited the business. What Intel hadn't done was to shut down the flow of research funding into memory (which was still eating up one-third of all research expenditures); nor had the company announced its exit to the outside world. Because divisional and operating managers-as well as customers and capital markets-have such a powerful impact on the realized strategy of the firm, senior management might consider focusing less on the company's formal strategy and more on the processes by which the company allocates resources. Top managers must know the track record of the people who are making resource allocation proposals; recognize the strategic issues at stake; reach down to operational managers to work across division lines; frame resource questions to reflect the corporate perspective, especially when large sums of money are involved and conditions are highly uncertain; and create a new context that allows top executives to circumvent the regular resource allocation process when necessary.

  11. How Managers' everyday decisions create or destroy your company's strategy.

    PubMed

    Bower, Joseph L; Gilbert, Clark G

    2007-02-01

    Senior executives have long been frustrated by the disconnection between the plans and strategies they devise and the actual behavior of the managers throughout the company. This article approaches the problem from the ground up, recognizing that every time a manager allocates resources, that decision moves the company either into or out of alignment with its announced strategy. A well-known story--Intel's exit from the memory business--illustrates this point. When discussing what businesses Intel should be in, Andy Grove asked Gordon Moore what they would do if Intel were a company that they had just acquired. When Moore answered, "Get out of memory," they decided to do just that. It turned out, though, that Intel's revenues from memory were by this time only 4% of total sales. Intel's lower-level managers had already exited the business. What Intel hadn't done was to shut down the flow of research funding into memory (which was still eating up one-third of all research expenditures); nor had the company announced its exit to the outside world. Because divisional and operating managers-as well as customers and capital markets-have such a powerful impact on the realized strategy of the firm, senior management might consider focusing less on the company's formal strategy and more on the processes by which the company allocates resources. Top managers must know the track record of the people who are making resource allocation proposals; recognize the strategic issues at stake; reach down to operational managers to work across division lines; frame resource questions to reflect the corporate perspective, especially when large sums of money are involved and conditions are highly uncertain; and create a new context that allows top executives to circumvent the regular resource allocation process when necessary. PMID:17345681

  12. Productivity of Management Information Systems Researchers: Does Lotka's Law Apply?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Ravinder; Jackson, Wade M.

    1991-01-01

    Considers the problem of bibliometric prediction and the applicability of Lotka's law regarding the number of papers written by each author. Results of a study of 899 Management Information Systems (MIS) research articles published in 10 journals between 1975 and 1987 are described. (24 references) (LRW)

  13. Total Quality Management Handbook: Applying the Baldrige Criteria to Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuroth, Joann; And Others

    Most administrators agree that school improvement and change are needed. Disagreement among administrators arises over how the improvements should be made. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a powerful tool in bringing about change and should be considered as an effective alternative in improvement efforts. The TQM approach is designed to address…

  14. TQ What?: Applying Total Quality Management to Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM), developed by W. Edward Deming and Joseph Juran in 1940s, and its applications for child care centers. Discusses how TQM focuses on customer satisfaction, measuring performance, benchmarking, employee empowerment, and continuous training. Includes a list of suggested readings on TQM. (MDM)

  15. Applying total quality management (TQM) to health care administration.

    PubMed

    Fleming, N S

    1994-01-01

    Author Neil S. Fleming, Ph.D., ASQC, C.Q.E., approaches quality management from a more theoretical perspective, relating it to dimensions of predictability and responsiveness. He couples these with achieving the optimal balance between prevention, appraisal and failure with the goal of producing the lowest possible total quality costs.

  16. Coping Strategies for Managing Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported…

  17. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

  18. Role Management Strategies of Beginning Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2005-01-01

    Beginning teachers encounter new challenges as the role system in contemporary society has become more and more demanding. By means of the life history method, role management strategies of four Hong Kong beginning teachers employed to cope with role demands and intra-role conflicts were located in their biographical, workplace and wider…

  19. Managing Work and Family: Do Control Strategies Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2015-01-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping…

  20. Evolution in clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Nathan C; Galland, Joel; Borsato, Emerson P

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present an overview of the clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare in support of our electronic medical record systems. Intermountain first initiated efforts in developing a centralized enterprise knowledge repository in 2001. Applications developed, areas of emphasis served, and key areas of focus are presented. We also detail historical and current areas of emphasis, in response to business needs.

  1. Sources of Faculty Stress and Strategies for Its Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Paul; Clagett, Craig

    Views on sources of stress on college faculty and strategies for its management were obtained at small-group sessions in the 1980 faculty orientation at Prince George's Community College, Maryland. Sixteen faculty groups generated 218 responses expressing sources of job stress, a complete listing of which is appended. The responses were aggregated…

  2. Illness management strategies among Chinese immigrants living with arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjin; Verhoef, Marja J

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore arthritis management strategies among Chinese immigrants in Calgary, Canada, and to assess factors, that impact on these strategies. Purposive sampling was used to select 19 Chinese immigrants living with arthritis. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews. The interview data were analyzed according to the following steps: (1). transcribing interview materials, (2). developing codes, categories and themes, (3). theoretical coding, and (4). laying out the theoretical framework. The results of this study describe factors, that impacted on illness management strategies. These include arthritic symptoms, beliefs about arthritis, beliefs about Western medicine based on treatment experience, beliefs about Chinese medicine, perceived barriers to using Chinese or Western medicine and social support. The emerging process of illness management shows that immigrants usually started using self-care remedies, followed by consulting Western physicians, consulting Chinese healers, and then returning to Western medicine. The results illustrate that disease management strategies among Chinese immigrants are impacted by disease, personal and cultural factors. These factors suggest helpful directions to providing culturally sensitive care, which can lead to greater satisfaction and well being for Chinese immigrants with arthritis.

  3. Managing E-Learning Strategies: Design, Delivery, Implementation and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Badrul

    2005-01-01

    "Managing E-Learning Strategies: Design, Delivery, Implementation and Evaluation" provides readers with a broad understanding of the emerging field of e-learning and also advises readers on the issues that are critical to the success of a meaningful e-learning environment. It walks you through the various factors critical to developing, evaluating…

  4. Partnership as an Intervention Strategy in Self-Managing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperley, Helen S.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes strategy used by New Zealand Ministry of Education to intervene in 26 self-managing schools by developing a partnership with the schools and their communities. Documents difficulties encountered in the first phase (year one) of the intervention and the successes of the second phase (year two). (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 27…

  5. University Students' Views of Obesity and Weight Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okonkwo, Ononuju; While, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the knowledge and views of university students regarding obesity and weight management strategies. Design: Online questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate and postgraduate university students in a large London university with a diverse student population. Method: The survey was administered online and circulated…

  6. Managing Student Participation: Teacher Strategies in a Virtual EFL Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Airong

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore teacher strategies for managing student participation in a complex Multi-user Virtual Environment. Data include transcribed recordings from a task-based EFL course in Second Life. Conversational Analysis is adopted to analyze the teacher's verbal language output in the transcript, and a student questionnaire is used to…

  7. Pain assessment and management strategies for elderly patients.

    PubMed

    MacSorley, Robyn; White, Jill; Conerly, Vicki H; Walker, Jean T; Lofton, Susan; Ragland, Gaye; Davey, DeBrynda; Robertson, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Home healthcare nurses play a critical role in pain assessment and management in elderly patients. People 65 years of age and older are the largest consumers of prescription and nonprescription pain medications in the United States and are at increased risk for adverse reactions and inadequate pain management. This article seeks to explore strategies to assist hospice and home healthcare nurses in assessing and managing elderly patients' pain. The goal is to provide tools to assist nurses in streamlining elderly patient care and improving quality of life while decreasing mortality and morbidity for this patient population. PMID:24802598

  8. Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fang; Lavine, Laura; O’Neal, Sally; Lavine, Mark; Foss, Carrie; Walsh, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for urban pest control. This emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. Concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. Development of insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategies in urban ecosystems involves understanding the status and mechanisms of insecticide resistance and reducing insecticide selection pressure by combining multiple chemical and non-chemical approaches. In this review, we will focus on the commonly used insecticides and molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in six major urban insect pests: house fly, German cockroach, mosquitoes, red flour beetle, bed bugs and head louse. We will also discuss several strategies that may prove promising for future urban IPM programs. PMID:26751480

  9. Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fang; Lavine, Laura; O'Neal, Sally; Lavine, Mark; Foss, Carrie; Walsh, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for urban pest control. This emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. Concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. Development of insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategies in urban ecosystems involves understanding the status and mechanisms of insecticide resistance and reducing insecticide selection pressure by combining multiple chemical and non-chemical approaches. In this review, we will focus on the commonly used insecticides and molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in six major urban insect pests: house fly, German cockroach, mosquitoes, red flour beetle, bed bugs and head louse. We will also discuss several strategies that may prove promising for future urban IPM programs. PMID:26751480

  10. Communication strategies and volunteer management for the IAU-OAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay

    2015-08-01

    The IAU Office of Astronomy for Development will be developing a new communication strategy to promote its projects in a way that is relevant to stakeholders and the general public. Ideas include a magazine featuring best practices within the field of astronomy for development and setting up a workflow of communication that integrates the different outputs of the office and effectively uses the information collection tools developed by OAD team members.To accomplish these tasks the OAD will also develop a community management strategy with existing tools to effectively harness the skills of OAD volunteers for communication purposes. This talk will discuss the new communication strategy of the OAD as well the expanded community management plans.

  11. Rule Driven Multi-Objective Management (RDMOM) - An Alternative Form for Describing and Developing Effective Water Resources Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheer, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    Economics provides a model for describing human behavior applied to the management of water resources, but that model assumes, among other things, that managers have a way of directly relating immediate actions to long-term economic outcomes. This is rarely the case in water resources problems where uncertainty has significant impacts on the effectiveness of management strategies and where the management objectives are very difficult to commensurate. The difficulty in using economics is even greater in multiparty disputes, where each party has a different relative value for each of the management objectives, and many of the management objectives are shared. A three step approach to collaborative decision making can overcome these difficulties. The first step involves creating science based performance measures and evaluation tools to estimate the effect of alternative management strategies on each of the non-commensurate objectives. The second step involves developing short-term surrogate operating objectives that implicitly deal with all of the aspects of the long term uncertainty. Management that continually "optimizes" the short-term objectives subject to physical and other constraints that change through time can be characterized as Rule Driven Multi-Objective Management (RDMOM). RDMOM strategies are then tested in simulation models to provide the basis for evaluating performance measures. Participants in the collaborative process then engage in multiparty discussions that create new alternatives, and "barter" a deal. RDMOM does not assume that managers fully understand the link between current actions and long term goals. Rather, it assumes that managers operate to achieve short-term surrogate objectives which they believe will achieve an appropriate balance of both short and long-term incommensurable benefits. A reservoir rule curve is a simple, but often not particularly effective, example of the real-world implementation of RDMOM. Water managers find they

  12. A Role Play for Revising Style and Applying Management Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Role-playing is a well regarded learning activity. By participating in this activity, students can apply their knowledge through their assigned roles in a realistic but risk-free situation. The role play stimulates class discussion, dramatizes rhetorical principles about purpose, shows how to adapt a text to an audience of employees in a…

  13. Patient Experience Shows Little Relationship with Hospital Quality Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Oliver; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Wagner, Cordula; Bartels, Paul D.; Kristensen, Solvejg; Saillour, Florence; Thompson, Andrew; Thompson, Caroline A.; Pfaff, Holger; DerSarkissian, Maral; Sunol, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Patient-reported experience measures are increasingly being used to routinely monitor the quality of care. With the increasing attention on such measures, hospital managers seek ways to systematically improve patient experience across hospital departments, in particular where outcomes are used for public reporting or reimbursement. However, it is currently unclear whether hospitals with more mature quality management systems or stronger focus on patient involvement and patient-centered care strategies perform better on patient-reported experience. We assessed the effect of such strategies on a range of patient-reported experience measures. Materials and Methods We employed a cross-sectional, multi-level study design randomly recruiting hospitals from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey between May 2011 and January 2012. Each hospital contributed patient level data for four conditions/pathways: acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries. The outcome variables in this study were a set of patient-reported experience measures including a generic 6-item measure of patient experience (NORPEQ), a 3-item measure of patient-perceived discharge preparation (Health Care Transition Measure) and two single item measures of perceived involvement in care and hospital recommendation. Predictor variables included three hospital management strategies: maturity of the hospital quality management system, patient involvement in quality management functions and patient-centered care strategies. We used directed acyclic graphs to detail and guide the modeling of the complex relationships between predictor variables and outcome variables, and fitted multivariable linear mixed models with random intercept by hospital, and adjusted for fixed effects at the country level, hospital level and patient level. Results Overall, 74 hospitals and 276 hospital departments contributed data on 6,536 patients to this study (acute

  14. Applying Fuzzy Data Mining to Telecom Churn Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kuo-Hsiung; Chueh, Hao-En

    Customers tend to change telecommunications service providers in pursuit of more favorable telecommunication rates. Therefore, how to avoid customer churn is an extremely critical topic for the intensely competitive telecommunications industry. To assist telecommunications service providers in effectively reducing the rate of customer churn, this study used fuzzy data mining to determine effective marketing strategies by analyzing the responses of customers to various marketing activities. These techniques can help telecommunications service providers determine the most appropriate marketing opportunities and methods for different customer groups, to reduce effectively the rate of customer turnover.

  15. Natural hazard management high education: laboratory of hydrologic and hydraulic risk management and applied geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giosa, L.; Margiotta, M. R.; Sdao, F.; Sole, A.; Albano, R.; Cappa, G.; Giammatteo, C.; Pagliuca, R.; Piccolo, G.; Statuto, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Environmental Engineering Faculty of University of Basilicata have higher-level course for students in the field of natural hazard. The curriculum provides expertise in the field of prediction, prevention and management of earthquake risk, hydrologic-hydraulic risk, and geomorphological risk. These skills will contribute to the training of specialists, as well as having a thorough knowledge of the genesis and the phenomenology of natural risks, know how to interpret, evaluate and monitor the dynamic of environment and of territory. In addition to basic training in the fields of mathematics and physics, the course of study provides specific lessons relating to seismic and structural dynamics of land, environmental and computational hydraulics, hydrology and applied hydrogeology. In particular in this course there are organized two connected examination arguments: Laboratory of hydrologic and hydraulic risk management and Applied geomorphology. These course foresee the development and resolution of natural hazard problems through the study of a real natural disaster. In the last year, the work project has regarded the collapse of two decantation basins of fluorspar, extracted from some mines in Stava Valley, 19 July 1985, northern Italy. During the development of the course, data and event information has been collected, a guided tour to the places of the disaster has been organized, and finally the application of mathematical models to simulate the disaster and analysis of the results has been carried out. The student work has been presented in a public workshop.

  16. A Water Demand Management Strategy For The Namibian Tourism Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachtschneider, K.; Winter, K.

    The arid conditions of Namibia are forcing its decision-makers to resort to new wa- ter resource management approaches, including Water Demand Management (WDM). When Namibia achieved its independence from South Africa 1990, a new opportunity arose to rewrite certain restrictive laws and policies in order to bring about redress, development and transformation. The new Water Policy is one example in which the mindset is changed from a supply to a demand oriented water management ap- proach. Legal support for WDM within the new Water Act is a critical component that will support the implementation of WDM in all economic sectors, such as agri- culture, mining and tourism. It is argued that an appropriate WDM strategy should be designed specifically for each sector, once the typical water use patterns in a sec- tor are understood and key water resource managers at all levels are identified. The Namibian tourism sector is geographically dispersed and control over its operations is compounded by the fact that it is frequently located in extremely remote areas that are arid and ecologically sensitive. In general, WDM is rarely practised, because it is not yet supported by law and there are currently no institutional arrangements to con- trol water use in this geographically dispersed industrial sector through which WDM could be enforced either through metering and/or payments. Managers of tourist en- terprises undertake most of the water management themselves, and have been identi- fied as being crucial to the implementation of WDM strategies. A study of six tourist facilities determined the willingness and motivation of these managers to undertake various WDM initiatives. The study identified three factors which appear to influence the actions of managers, namely external controls, economics and company ethics. It is recommended that a tourism sector WDM strategy should focus on these three factors in order to transform the WDM aims and objectives on the policy level into

  17. Applying total quality management to the medical practice.

    PubMed

    Bender, A D; Krasnick, C J; Bender, J G

    1993-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) has the potential to help medical practices in the transition to a healthcare system that is more demanding in terms of both higher quality and lower cost. Incorporation of TQM principles, however, must be based on creating skills in the areas of teamwork, communication, and problem solving. The potential gain will be seen in improved patient satisfaction, increased revenue as a result of more accurate billing, clearer understanding of costs and outcomes, better clinical documentation, and enhanced staff productivity.

  18. Applying the metro map to software development management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirregoitia, Amaia; Dolado, J. Javier; Presedo, Concepción

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents MetroMap, a new graphical representation model for controlling and managing the software development process. Metromap uses metaphors and visual representation techniques to explore several key indicators in order to support problem detection and resolution. The resulting visualization addresses diverse management tasks, such as tracking of deviations from the plan, analysis of patterns of failure detection and correction, overall assessment of change management policies, and estimation of product quality. The proposed visualization uses a metaphor with a metro map along with various interactive techniques to represent information concerning the software development process and to deal efficiently with multivariate visual queries. Finally, the paper shows the implementation of the tool in JavaFX with data of a real project and the results of testing the tool with the aforementioned data and users attempting several information retrieval tasks. The conclusion shows the results of analyzing user response time and efficiency using the MetroMap visualization system. The utility of the tool was positively evaluated.

  19. Modeling boolean decision rules applied to multiple-observer decision strategies.

    PubMed

    Maguire, W

    1996-01-01

    A model that derives multiple-observer decision strategy ROC curves for boolean decision rules applied to binary decisions of two or three observers is presented. It is assumed that covert decision variables consistent with ROC models of observer performance underlie decisions and that readers' decision criteria are in a fixed relationship. The specific parameters of individual ROC curves and the correlational structure that describes interobserver agreement have dramatic effects upon the relative benefits to be derived from different boolean strategies. A common strategy employed in clinical practice, in which the overall decision is positive if any observer makes a positive decision, is most effective when the readers are of similar ability, when they adopt similar decision criteria, when interreader agreement is greater for negative than for positive cases, and when the individual ROC slope is <1.0. Different multiple-observer decision strategies can be evaluated using the model equations. A bootstrap method for testing model-associated hypotheses is described. PMID:8717599

  20. The placement strategies of structural best management practices for different moving rainstorms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Liou, Te-Yueh

    2010-07-01

    Hydrological responses and pollutant exports are always highly related to rainfall characteristics. Many studies have demonstrated that the influence of moving rainstorm on flows and mass transport process in hydrologic systems cannot be ignored. Best management practices (BMPs) are popularly applied for controlling water quantity and water quality in a watershed. Since the movements of rainstorm can influence watershed responses, BMP placement strategies should be suitably adjusted in different moving rainstorms. This study designed an intermediate rainfall pattern with varied movement behavior and tried to find the optimal BMP placement strategies, which cannot only satisfy environmental standards but also improve economic benefits, for the rainfall events. The result shows that the control efficiency of pollutant and runoff can highly improve when the BMPs are set near the outlet of a watershed. Since the economic efficiency is always regarded as an important factor, the BMP placement strategy is significant for watershed conservation and management.

  1. Management of Agricultural Weather Risks: traditional procedures and new management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgaz, F.

    2009-04-01

    Throughout history, agriculture has progressed as an outcome of farmers' efforts to design and apply adaptation strategies aiming to mitigate the impact of adverse meteorological phenomena on their farms' economy. The survival and sustainability of farmholdings, regardless of size or type of production, is directly related to their capacity to withstand the consequences of such phenomena and continue to yield a harvest year after year. While substantial differences can be identified in the intensity and frequency of the damage borne, depending on the country, region and type of production, no farm is exempt from the effects of uncontrollable risks. In this endeavour to mitigate such consequences and successfully manage natural risks, the first protective step must be taken by the farm itself, which must adopt measures that pursue more favourable crop development or a heightened ability to handle risks and their adverse effects. But when the damage inflicted is of an intensity that cannot be accommodated by the farmer, instruments must be deployed that spread or transfer risk to third parties, a process known as risk insurance. Experience shows that of the various such instruments in place, insurance constitutes the most appropriate risk management model and the one that has reached the highest levels of development and acceptance among farmers.

  2. A new strategy to prevent chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced alopecia using topically applied vasoconstrictor.

    PubMed

    Soref, Cheryl M; Fahl, William E

    2015-01-01

    In a new strategy, we sought to determine whether topically applied vasoconstrictor, with its accompanying transient skin hypoxia and exclusion of systemic drug, would prevent or suppress radiotherapy or chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Topical vasoconstrictor was applied to 1-cm(2) skin patches on the backs of 10-day-old rats and minutes later they received either 7.1 gray (Gy) whole-body radiation or systemic N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) or Cytoxan. The degree of alopecia was scored 10 days later by visual assessment (% coat retention) and hair follicle histologic analysis. Topical application of epinephrine or norepinephrine in an alcohol:water delivery vehicle induced clear skin blanch, and in a dose-dependent manner, topical epinephrine or norepinephrine (20-1,000 mM) applied before 7.1 Gy irradiation conferred 95% of coat retention in the treated skin patches versus 0% coat retention in vehicle controls, or in skin outside the treated patches. By histology, small numbers of dystrophic hair follicles were observed in hairless skin versus the normal density of anagen follicles in the immediately adjacent, drug-protected skin patches at day 20; protected coats were retained into adulthood. Topical epinephrine or norepinephrine before systemic MNU (30 ug/gm body weight) conferred up to 95% of coat retention in treated skin patches versus 0% coat retention elsewhere. Epinephrine-conferred % coat retention dropped to 16% in rats that received systemic Cytoxan, a drug whose plasma half-life is at least 8- to 10-fold longer than MNU. A general strategy is discussed for the use of topical epinephrine or norepinephrine in the clinic to provide an inexpensive and convenient strategy to prevent cancer therapy-induced alopecia.

  3. Flexible augmented reality architecture applied to environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Nuno M. R.; Romao, Teresa; Santos, Carlos; Trabuco, Adelaide; Santos, Rossana; Romero, Luis; Danado, Jose; Dias, Eduardo; Camara, Antonio; Nobre, Edmundo

    2003-05-01

    Environmental management often requires in loco observation of the area under analysis. Augmented Reality (AR) technologies allow real time superimposition of synthetic objects on real images, providing augmented knowledge about the surrounding world. Users of an AR system can visualize the real surrounding world together with additional data generated in real time in a contextual way. The work reported in this paper was done in the scope of ANTS (Augmented Environments) project. ANTS is an AR project that explores the development of an augmented reality technological infrastructure for environmental management. This paper presents the architecture and the most relevant modules of ANTS. The system"s architecture follows the client-server model and is based on several independent, but functionally interdependent modules. It has a flexible design, which allows the transfer of some modules to and from the client side, according to the available processing capacities of the client device and the application"s requirements. It combines several techniques to identify the user"s position and orientation allowing the system to adapt to the particular characteristics of each environment. The determination of the data associated to a certain location involves the use of both a 3D Model of the location and the multimedia geo-referenced database.

  4. Applied Space Systems Engineering. Chapter 17; Manage Technical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kent, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Effective space systems engineering (SSE) is conducted in a fully electronic manner. Competitive hardware, software, and system designs are created in a totally digital environment that enables rapid product design and manufacturing cycles, as well as a multitude of techniques such as modeling, simulation, and lean manufacturing that significantly reduce the lifecycle cost of systems. Because the SSE lifecycle depends on the digital environment, managing the enormous volumes of technical data needed to describe, build, deploy, and operate systems is a critical factor in the success of a project. This chapter presents the key aspects of Technical Data Management (TDM) within the SSE process. It is written from the perspective of the System Engineer tasked with establishing the TDM process and infrastructure for a major project. Additional perspectives are reflected from the point of view of the engineers on the project who work within the digital engineering environment established by the TDM toolset and infrastructure, and from the point of view of the contactors who interface via the TDM infrastructure. Table 17.1 lists the TDM process as it relates to SSE.

  5. [Social marketing: applying commercial strategies to the prevention of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Sax, Hugo; Longtin, Yves; Alvarez-Ceyssat, Raymonde; Bonfillon, Chantal; Cavallero, Sabrina; Dayer, Pierre; Ginet, Claude; Herrault, Pascale

    2009-04-01

    Although a large proportion of healthcare-associated infections are avoidable, healthcare workers do not always practice evidence-based preventive strategies. Marketing technologies might help to improve patient safety. This article presents the basic principles of marketing and its potential use to promote good infection control practices. The marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) should be taken into account to induce behaviour change. By placing the emphasis on the perceived "profits" for healthcare workers the approach might lose its moral aspect and gain in effectiveness. VigiGerme, a non-commercial registered trademark, applies social marketing techniques to infection control and prevention.

  6. [Social marketing: applying commercial strategies to the prevention of nosocomial infections].

    PubMed

    Sax, Hugo; Longtin, Yves; Alvarez-Ceyssat, Raymonde; Bonfillon, Chantal; Cavallero, Sabrina; Dayer, Pierre; Ginet, Claude; Herrault, Pascale

    2009-04-01

    Although a large proportion of healthcare-associated infections are avoidable, healthcare workers do not always practice evidence-based preventive strategies. Marketing technologies might help to improve patient safety. This article presents the basic principles of marketing and its potential use to promote good infection control practices. The marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) should be taken into account to induce behaviour change. By placing the emphasis on the perceived "profits" for healthcare workers the approach might lose its moral aspect and gain in effectiveness. VigiGerme, a non-commercial registered trademark, applies social marketing techniques to infection control and prevention. PMID:19492518

  7. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  8. Strategies for self-management of HIV-related anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, J K; Eller, L S; Bunch, E; Hamilton, M J; Dole, P; Holzemer, W; Kirksey, K; Nicholas, P K; Corless, I B; Coleman, C; Nokes, K M; Reynolds, N; Sefcik, L; Wantland, D; Tsai, Y-F

    2006-08-01

    This study examines the frequency and effectiveness of commonly used strategies for self management of anxiety in an international sample of 502 participants from Norway (n=42, 8%), Taiwan (n=35, 7%), and the US (n=426, 85%). An activities checklist summarized into five categories of self-care behaviours including activities/thoughts, exercise, medications, complementary therapies, and substance use determined self-care behaviours. Ratings of frequency and effectiveness for each self-care activity were also included. Praying received the highest overall rating of effectiveness of any self-management strategies included in this study at 8.10 (scale 1 to 10), followed by meditation (7.37), exercising (7.32), using relaxation techniques (7.22), cooking (6.98), and walking (6.90). An analysis of effectiveness scores for each self-care strategy by country reflected a wide variation. The three most effective anxiety self-care strategies reported by participants from Norway included exercise (7.31), walking (6.96), and reading (6.44). Highest ratings of effectiveness by participants from Taiwan included talking with others with HIV (6.0), attending support groups (6.0), and exercising (6.0). US participants allocated highest ratings of effectiveness to complementary/alternative therapies, including praying (8.10), meditating (7.43), and using relaxation techniques (7.35). Regardless of the country, watching television and talking with family and friends were the two most frequently reported strategies. These strategies for self-management of HIV-related anxiety are important for clinicians to be aware of in the care of persons with HIV/AIDS.

  9. Coevolution of Semiarid Hillslopes in Response to Alternative Management Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saco, Patricia M.; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano

    2014-05-01

    We study the coevolution of landforms, vegetation and soils in semiarid areas with sparse vegetation cover composed by mixed herbaceous and woody plant species. The vegetation is subject to competition and facilitation interactions. Shifts in vegetation structure resulting from human pressures and management strategies that alter the hydrologic response of the hillslopes, can have very diverse impacts on ecosystem functioning. We analyse results from a spatial ecogeormorphologic model that simulates the dynamics of runoff redistribution and erosion for hillslopes with patterned vegetation in Australia. We investigate the effects of shrub clearing strategies for plant species with varying competition and facilitation mechanisms, and the implications for the productivity of Australian rangelands.

  10. The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies Instruction on Students' Academic Time Management and Academic Self Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Fathi Abdul Hamid Abdul; Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using time management strategies instruction on improving first year learning disabled students' academic time management and academic self efficacy. A total of 60 students identified with LD participated. The sample was divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30 boys) and control (n = 30 boys). ANCOVA and…

  11. A Model Driven Engineering Approach Applied to Master Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menet, Ludovic; Lamolle, Myriam

    The federation of data sources and the definition of pivot models are strongly interrelated topics. This paper explores a mediation solution based on XML architecture and the concept of Master Data Management. In this solution, pivot models use the standard XML Schema allowing the definition of complex data structures. The introduction of a MDE approach is a means to make modeling easier. We use UML as an abstract modeling layer. UML is a modeling object language, which is more and more used and recognized as a standard in the software engineering field, which makes it an ideal candidate for the modeling of XML Schema models. In this purpose we introduce features of the UML formalism, through profiles, to facilitate the definition and the exchange of models.

  12. Experiences of Uav Surveys Applied to Environmental Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprioli, M.; Trizzino, R.; Mazzone, F.; Scarano, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper the results of some surveys carried out in an area of Apulian territory affected by serious environmental hazard are presented. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are emerging as a key engineering tool for future environmental survey tasks. UAVs are increasingly seen as an attractive low-cost alternative or supplement to aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry due to their low cost, flexibility, availability and readiness for duty. In addition, UAVs can be operated in hazardous or temporarily inaccessible locations, that makes them very suitable for the assessment and management of environmental risk conditions. In order to verify the reliability of these technologies an UAV survey and A LIDAR survey have been carried outalong about 1 km of coast in the Salento peninsula, near the towns of San Foca, Torre dellOrso and SantAndrea( Lecce, Southern Italy). This area is affected by serious environmental risks due to the presence of dangerous rocky cliffs named falesie. The UAV platform was equipped with a photogrammetric measurement system that allowed us to obtain a mobile mapping of the fractured fronts of dangerous rocky cliffs. UAV-images data have been processed using dedicated software (AgisoftPhotoscan). The point clouds obtained from both the UAV and LIDAR surveys have been processed using Cloud Compare software, with the aim of testing the UAV results with respect to the LIDAR ones. The total error obtained was of centimeter-order that is a very satisfactory result. The environmental information has been arranged in an ArcGIS platform in order to assess the risk levels. The possibility to repeat the survey at time intervals more or less close together depending on the measured levels of risk and to compare the output allows following the trend of the dangerous phenomena. In conclusion, for inaccessible locations of dangerous rocky bodies the UAV survey coupled with GIS methodology proved to be a key engineering tool for the management of environmental

  13. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

    2013-11-19

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations.

  14. Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Land Applied Reclaimed Water Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinkam, G.

    2015-12-01

    Florida leads the nation in wastewater effluent/reclaimed water use, at over 700 million gallons per day, of which 75% is land applied. While these effluent waters are treated to reduce pathogen loads, phosphorus (P) concentrations can still be substantial in long term application scenarios. Currently an estimated 1.5 million kg of P are reintroduced to the landscape yearly (at effluent = 2 mg P/L), compared to only 23,000 kg that would be applied if landscapes were irrigated with ground water (at ground water = 0.03 mg P/L). Research suggests that under long term applications of P systems can reach a state at which they are no longer able to assimilate further loading, potentially resulting in landscapes that are actively leaching and eroding P rich particulate matter to receiving hydrologic systems. This can be especially relevant in Florida given the large proportion of sandy soils that contain, relatively, low physical and chemical ion exchange capacity and high hydraulic conductivity, thus increasing the potential for water quality impairment. Due to increasingly stringent surface water P concentrations allowances, and the many uncertainties regarding the long term fate and transport of P, this research seeks to determine how different soil conditions and reclaimed water loading amounts can alter P leaching profiles in Florida. Field sampling at reclaimed water sprayfield sites are used to determine the relative change in P sequestration potential using soil-phosphorus saturation capacity (SPSC) analyses and potential leaching risk is determined by soil core experimentation. The resulting information improves fundamental understanding of soil-phosphorus transport dynamics and provides insights into alternative techniques for long term environmental sustainability of reclaimed wastewater usage.

  15. Shikimic Acid Production in Escherichia coli: From Classical Metabolic Engineering Strategies to Omics Applied to Improve Its Production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan Andrés; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is an intermediate of the SA pathway that is present in bacteria and plants. SA has gained great interest because it is a precursor in the synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate (OSF), an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of diverse seasonal influenza viruses, the avian influenza virus H5N1, and the human influenza virus H1N1. For the purposes of OSF production, SA is extracted from the pods of Chinese star anise plants (Illicium spp.), yielding up to 17% of SA (dry basis content). The high demand for OSF necessary to manage a major influenza outbreak is not adequately met by industrial production using SA from plants sources. As the SA pathway is present in the model bacteria Escherichia coli, several "intuitive" metabolically engineered strains have been applied for its successful overproduction by biotechnological processes, resulting in strains producing up to 71 g/L of SA, with high conversion yields of up to 0.42 (mol SA/mol Glc), in both batch and fed-batch cultures using complex fermentation broths, including glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract. Global transcriptomic analyses have been performed in SA-producing strains, resulting in the identification of possible key target genes for the design of a rational strain improvement strategy. Because possible target genes are involved in the transport, catabolism, and interconversion of different carbon sources and metabolic intermediates outside the central carbon metabolism and SA pathways, as genes involved in diverse cellular stress responses, the development of rational cellular strain improvement strategies based on omics data constitutes a challenging task to improve SA production in currently overproducing engineered strains. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic engineering strategies that have been applied for the development of efficient SA-producing strains, as the perspective of omics analysis has focused on further strain improvement for the

  16. Shikimic Acid Production in Escherichia coli: From Classical Metabolic Engineering Strategies to Omics Applied to Improve Its Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Juan Andrés; Bolívar, Francisco; Escalante, Adelfo

    2015-01-01

    Shikimic acid (SA) is an intermediate of the SA pathway that is present in bacteria and plants. SA has gained great interest because it is a precursor in the synthesis of the drug oseltamivir phosphate (OSF), an efficient inhibitor of the neuraminidase enzyme of diverse seasonal influenza viruses, the avian influenza virus H5N1, and the human influenza virus H1N1. For the purposes of OSF production, SA is extracted from the pods of Chinese star anise plants (Illicium spp.), yielding up to 17% of SA (dry basis content). The high demand for OSF necessary to manage a major influenza outbreak is not adequately met by industrial production using SA from plants sources. As the SA pathway is present in the model bacteria Escherichia coli, several “intuitive” metabolically engineered strains have been applied for its successful overproduction by biotechnological processes, resulting in strains producing up to 71 g/L of SA, with high conversion yields of up to 0.42 (mol SA/mol Glc), in both batch and fed-batch cultures using complex fermentation broths, including glucose as a carbon source and yeast extract. Global transcriptomic analyses have been performed in SA-producing strains, resulting in the identification of possible key target genes for the design of a rational strain improvement strategy. Because possible target genes are involved in the transport, catabolism, and interconversion of different carbon sources and metabolic intermediates outside the central carbon metabolism and SA pathways, as genes involved in diverse cellular stress responses, the development of rational cellular strain improvement strategies based on omics data constitutes a challenging task to improve SA production in currently overproducing engineered strains. In this review, we discuss the main metabolic engineering strategies that have been applied for the development of efficient SA-producing strains, as the perspective of omics analysis has focused on further strain improvement for

  17. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  18. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Scruggs, Caroline E.; Van Buren, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood. PMID:27471326

  19. Financial coping strategies of mental health consumers: managing social benefits.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Mary Ager

    2014-05-01

    Mental health consumers depend on social benefits in the forms of supplemental security income and social security disability insurance for their livelihood. Although these programs pay meager benefits, little research has been undertaken into how this population makes ends meet. Using a qualitative approach, this study asks what are the financial coping strategies of mental health consumers? Seven approaches were identified: subsidies, cost-effective shopping, budgeting, prioritizing, technology, debt management, and saving money. Results illustrate the resourcefulness of mental health consumers in managing meager social benefits and highlight the need to strengthen community mental health efforts with financial capabilities education.

  20. Self-managing teams: a strategy for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Feifer, Chris; Nocella, Kiki; DeArtola, Ignacio; Rowden, Suzanne; Morrison, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Organizations are impacted by their environments, and health care settings are no different. Individuals charged with improving a practice are often impeded by environmental barriers, including incomplete information for decision making. One strategy to empower an organization for change is to form a self-managing team. This paper discusses the self-managing team concept and uses a case study to illustrate its application in primary care. Factors contributing to team success are presented as a guide, and a reminder--there is more to an effective team than gathering people in a room.

  1. What Strategies Do the Nurses Apply to Cope With Job Stress?: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Rasool Eslami; Elahi, Nasrin; Mohammadi, Eesa; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nursing staff encounter a lot of physical, psychological and social stressors at work. Because the adverse effects of job stress on the health of this group of staff and subsequently on the quality of care services provided by nurses; study and identify how nurses cope with the job stress is very important and can help prevent the occurrence of unfavorable outcomes. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of nurses to identify the strategies they used to cope with the job stress. Methods: In this qualitative study content analysis approach was used. Purposive sampling approach was applied. The sample population included 18 nurses working in three hospitals. Data collection was conducted through face to face unstructured interview and was analyzed using conventional content analysis approach. Findings: The analysis of the data emerged six main themes about the strategies used by nurses to cope with job stress, which, include: situational control of conditions, seeking help, preventive monitoring of situation, self-controlling, avoidance and escape and spiritual coping. Conclusions: Exploring experiences of nurses on how to cope with job stress emerged context-dependent and original strategies and this knowledge can pave the ground for nurses to increase self-awareness of how to cope with job stress. And could also be the basis for planning and the adoption of necessary measures by the authorities to adapt nurses with their profession better and improves their health which are essential elements to fulfill high-quality nursing care. PMID:26755462

  2. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management.

    PubMed

    Gibson, F; Bodenham, A

    2013-03-01

    Large numbers of central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year and misplacement occurs frequently. This review outlines the normal and abnormal anatomy of the central veins in relation to the placement of CVCs. An understanding of normal and variant anatomy enables identification of congenital and acquired abnormalities. Embryological variations such as a persistent left-sided superior vena cava are often diagnosed incidentally only after placement of a CVC, which is seen to take an abnormal course on X-ray. Acquired abnormalities such as stenosis or thrombosis of the central veins can be problematic and can present as a failure to pass a guidewire or catheter or complications after such attempts. Catheters can also be misplaced outside veins in a patient with otherwise normal anatomy with potentially disastrous consequences. We discuss the possible management options for these patients including the various imaging techniques used to verify correct or incorrect catheter placement and the limitations of each. If the course of a misplaced catheter can be correctly identified as not lying within a vulnerable structure then it can be safely removed. If the misplaced catheter is lying within or traversing large and incompressible arteries or veins, it should not be removed before consideration of what is likely to happen when it is removed. Advice and further imaging should be sought, typically in conjunction with interventional radiology or vascular surgery. With regard to misplaced CVCs, in the short term, a useful aide memoir is: 'if in doubt, don't take it out'.

  3. Development of Strategies for Sustainable Irrigation Water Management in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    During 1960 - 1990 years irrigated areas in Russia have increased rapidly, helping to boost agricultural output. Although the impressive achievements of irrigation in this period its large experience indicates problems and failures of irrigation water management. In addition to large water use and low irrigation water efficiency, environmental concerns (excessive water depletion, water quality reduction, water logging, soil degradation) are usually considered like the most significant problem of the irrigation sector. Despite of considerable shrinking of irrigated areas in Russia and decreasing of water withdrawal for irrigation purposes during two last decades a degradation of environment as well as degradation of soil and water resources in irrigated areas was prolonged and will probably continue if current irrigation practices are maintained. Nowadays, in different regions of Russia there are societal demand to restore agricultural irrigation in Russia as answer to challenges from climate pattern changes and degradation of land & water resources. In the respect of these demands there is a need to develop strategies for sustainability of agricultural irrigation in Russia that should be based on three main societal objectives: costeffective use of water in irrigated agriculture at farm level, and satisfactory preserving the natural environment. Therefore sustainable irrigation water management is not only an objective at farm level but also an overall goal at the local and regional as well. A way to achieve sustainability in irrigation water management is to solve the local conflicts arising from the interactions between water use at irrigation areas and surrounding environment. Thus should be based on the development of irrigation framework program including on the irrigation water management issues, policies & decisions making at federal and regional levels should be based on the indicators of environment & irrigation water efficiency monitoring promoting the

  4. Managing benefits for diabetes: changing payer strategies for changing times.

    PubMed

    Tzeel, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Just as there are many ways to treat a condition such as diabetes, there are also many ways for payers to manage the diabetes benefit. Although none of these methods is specifically right or wrong, they are grounded in a payer's philosophy and created in response to the needs of the time. Yet, just as in any other business, new ideas and, for diabetes, new scientific discoveries will surely mandate new strategies to achieve goals. As payers find themselves adapting to new political realities and new partnerships, one cannot be sure if their new strategies will succeed or not. But, in actuality, this becomes moot as the 1 point we can be sure of is that benefit management will continue to evolve.

  5. Managing benefits for diabetes: changing payer strategies for changing times.

    PubMed

    Tzeel, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Just as there are many ways to treat a condition such as diabetes, there are also many ways for payers to manage the diabetes benefit. Although none of these methods is specifically right or wrong, they are grounded in a payer's philosophy and created in response to the needs of the time. Yet, just as in any other business, new ideas and, for diabetes, new scientific discoveries will surely mandate new strategies to achieve goals. As payers find themselves adapting to new political realities and new partnerships, one cannot be sure if their new strategies will succeed or not. But, in actuality, this becomes moot as the 1 point we can be sure of is that benefit management will continue to evolve. PMID:23725238

  6. Aircrew Discourse: Exploring Strategies of Information and Action Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Cheryl M.; Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores methodology issues encountered in the analysis of flightcrew communications in aviation simulation research. Examples are provided by two recent studies which are compared on three issues: level of analysis, data definition, and interpretation of the results. The data discussed were collected in a study comparing two levels of aircraft automation. The first example is an investigation of how pilots' information transfer strategies differed as a function of automation during low and high-workload flight phases. The second study focuses on how crews managed actions in the two aircraft during a ten minute, high-workload flight segment. Results indicated that crews in the two aircraft differed in their strategies of information and action management. The differences are discussed in terms of their operational and research significance.

  7. Applying Evidence-Based Medicine Principles to Hip Fracture Management

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Joseph; Morshed, Saam; Helfet, David L.; Bhandari, Mohit; Ahn, Jaimo

    2014-01-01

    Bone has the capacity to regenerate and not scar after injury – sometimes leaving behind no evidence at all of a prior fracture. As surgeons capable of facilitating such healing, it becomes our responsibility to help choose a treatment that minimizes functional deficits and residual symptoms. And in the case of the geriatric hip fracture, we have seen the accumulation of a vast amount of evidence to help guide us. The best method we currently have for selecting treatment plans is by the practice of evidence-based medicine. According to the now accepted hierarchy, the best is called Level I evidence (e.g., well performed randomized controlled trials) – but this evidence is best only if it is available and appropriate. Lower forms of accepted evidence include cohort studies, case control studies, case series, and case reports, and last, expert opinion – all of which can be potentially instructive. The hallmark of evidence-based treatment is not so much the reliance on evidence in general, but to use the best available evidence relative to the particular patient, the clinical setting and surgeon experience. Correctly applied, varying forms of evidence each have a role in aiding surgeons offer appropriate care for their patients – to help them best fix the fracture. PMID:25593964

  8. Applying evidence-based medicine principles to hip fracture management.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joseph; Morshed, Saam; Helfet, David L; Bhandari, Mohit; Ahn, Jaimo

    2014-01-01

    Bone has the capacity to regenerate and not scar after injury - sometimes leaving behind no evidence at all of a prior fracture. As surgeons capable of facilitating such healing, it becomes our responsibility to help choose a treatment that minimizes functional deficits and residual symptoms. And in the case of the geriatric hip fracture, we have seen the accumulation of a vast amount of evidence to help guide us. The best method we currently have for selecting treatment plans is by the practice of evidence-based medicine. According to the now accepted hierarchy, the best is called Level I evidence (e.g., well performed randomized controlled trials) - but this evidence is best only if it is available and appropriate. Lower forms of accepted evidence include cohort studies, case control studies, case series, and case reports, and last, expert opinion - all of which can be potentially instructive. The hallmark of evidence-based treatment is not so much the reliance on evidence in general, but to use the best available evidence relative to the particular patient, the clinical setting and surgeon experience. Correctly applied, varying forms of evidence each have a role in aiding surgeons offer appropriate care for their patients - to help them best fix the fracture. PMID:25593964

  9. Evolution in Clinical Knowledge Management Strategy at Intermountain Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Nathan C.; Galland, Joel; Borsato, Emerson P.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present an overview of the clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare in support of our electronic medical record systems. Intermountain first initiated efforts in developing a centralized enterprise knowledge repository in 2001. Applications developed, areas of emphasis served, and key areas of focus are presented. We also detail historical and current areas of emphasis, in response to business needs. PMID:23304309

  10. Evolution in clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Nathan C; Galland, Joel; Borsato, Emerson P

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present an overview of the clinical knowledge management strategy at Intermountain Healthcare in support of our electronic medical record systems. Intermountain first initiated efforts in developing a centralized enterprise knowledge repository in 2001. Applications developed, areas of emphasis served, and key areas of focus are presented. We also detail historical and current areas of emphasis, in response to business needs. PMID:23304309

  11. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  12. Managing work and family: Do control strategies help?

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2015-11-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping behaviors. Data from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS II) were used to explore the relationship between negative spillover, control strategies, and well-being among full-time working men and women (N = 2,091). In this nationally representative sample, findings indicate that while positive reappraisals function as a protective buffer, lowering aspirations exacerbate the relationship between work-family spillover and well-being, with moderating effects stronger among women. This study extends prior research tying work-life conflict to health and mental health, and suggests further investigation is needed to consider types of resources that may be effective coping strategies in balancing work and family.

  13. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  14. Chronic pain management strategies used by low income overweight Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, Dana N; Cantero, Patricia J; Ruiz, Jeanette E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In group interviews, we examined strategies used to manage chronic pain from the perspective of the individual. Methods Sixteen low income overweight Latino adults participated in two group interviews facilitated by a trained moderator who inquired about the type of chronic pain suffered by participants, followed by more specific questions about pain management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (Spanish), back-translated into English, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Participants’ pain varied in type, location, and intensity. Participants discussed pain-related changes in activities and social life, and difficulties with health care providers, and as a result, we discovered five major themes: Pain-related Life Alterations, Enduring the Pain, Trying Different Strategies, Emotional Suffering, and Encounters with Health Care System/Providers. Discussion Findings indicated that there are opportunities for providers to improve care for low income overweight Latinos with chronic pain by listening respectfully to how pain alters their daily lives and assisting them in feasible self management strategies. PMID:23129787

  15. Evaluation of toluene LIF thermometry detection strategies applied in an internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Brian; Baum, Elias; Böhm, Benjamin; Sick, Volker; Dreizler, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    In the context of toluene laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) thermometry, the two common LIF detection strategies, namely one-color and two-color detection, have been simultaneously applied to compare each strategy's ability to accurately resolve thermal gradients during an engine cycle within an optically accessible internal combustion (IC) engine. Temperature images are obtained from high-speed toluene LIF measurements and are combined with high-speed particle image velocimetry. The combination with flow data and Mie scattering images facilitates the interpretation of differences between the toluene LIF detection strategies. Two-color temperature images are limited in their ability to detect thermal gradients near the end of compression due to larger precision uncertainties. Local regions of cold gases in the two-color images are better identified with the guidance of the one-color images when homogeneous toluene mixtures preside. During expansion, large differences exist between one- and two-color temperature images and likely caused by local mixture fraction heterogeneities that bias the one-color detection strategy. Toluene condensation occurs during the expansion and exhaust stroke and causes local mixture fraction heterogeneities in the combustion chamber. Liquid toluene is in contact with solid surfaces and crevices of the combustion chamber and can evaporate during compression or expansion causing both local temperature and mixture stratification. This work demonstrates the advantage of high-speed imaging and use of multiple image diagnostics to reveal the development of natural temperature and mixture stratification in a motored IC engine. This work also suggests that natural temperature stratification typically regarded from gas-wall heat transfer may also be caused by liquid droplet evaporation on solid surfaces. Such phenomenon, however, is expected to be pertinent for all modern-day engine operating systems.

  16. Application of a watershed ecological risk assessment in developing a nitrogen management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, P.; Geist, M.; Dow, D.; Clark, H.; Gerritsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Waquoit Bay is a small estuary on the south shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Population in the watershed has increased approximately 1 5 fold in the past 50 years, and residential land use has increased tenfold from 2 percent of the watershed in 1950 to 20 percent in 1990. Of particular concern is nitrogen loading primarily via groundwater from on-site septic systems, fertilizers and atmospheric deposition. Adverse ecological impacts have included: growth of nuisance macroalgae, decreases in water quality, loss of bay scallops and loss of eel grass (Zostera marina) in Waquoit Bay and adjoining coastal ponds. A watershed-based ecological risk assessment was applied to assist in the development of management strategies for the bay. Management goals for the watershed were identified by stakeholders. Endpoints of the risk assessment were derived from the management goals and included: areal extent and patch size of eel grass beds and macroalgal mats, and habitat quality as evidenced by physical, chemical and biological water quality. Ecological response of the endpoints to the nitrogen loading was examined with a regional analysis of eel grass cover, land use, and predicted nitrogen loading in similar embayments of Cape Cod. The uncertainty analysis of the risk assessment allows prediction of the probability of success for a given management strategy; for example, what would be the probability that eel grass would return by reducing the nitrogen load through the implementation of various management strategies. This example shows the utility of the ecological risk assessment approach for developing optimal management strategies to increase the probability of achieving management goals.

  17. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP. PMID:21330730

  18. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP.

  19. Multidisciplinary strategies in the management of early chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Hernández-Herrera, Aurora; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide epidemic especially in developing countries, with clear deficiencies in identification and treatment. Better care of CKD requires more than only economic resources, utilization of health research in policy-making and health systems changes that produce better outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach may facilitate and improve management of patients from early CKD in the primary health-care setting. This approach is a strategy for improving comprehensive care, initiating and maintaining healthy behaviors, promoting teamwork, eliminating barriers to achieve goals and improving the processes of care. A multidisciplinary intervention may include educational processes guided by health professional, use of self-help groups and the development of a CKD management plan. The complex and fragmented care management of patients with CKD, associated with poor outcome, enhances the importance of implementing a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this disease from the early stages. Multidisciplinary strategies should focus on the needs of patients (to increase their empowerment) and should be adapted to the resources and health systems prevailing in each country; its systematic implementation can help to improve patient care and slow the progression of CKD. PMID:24215785

  20. Present and New Treatment Strategies in the Management of Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kolko, M

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and axonal loss. It remains a major cause of blindness worldwide. All current modalities of treatment are focused on lowering intraocular pressure (IOP), and it is evident that increased IOP is an important risk factor for progression of the disease. However, it is clear that a significant number of glaucoma patients show disease progression despite of pressure lowering treatments. Much attention has been given to the development of neuroprotective treatment strategies, but the identification of such has been hampered by lack of understanding of the etiology of glaucoma. Hence, in spite of many attempts no neuroprotective drug has yet been clinically approved. Even though neuroprotection is without doubt an important treatment strategy, many glaucoma subjects are diagnosed after substantial loss of RGCs. In this matter, recent approaches aim to rescue RGCs and regenerate axons in order to restore visual function in glaucoma. The present review seeks to provide an overview of the present and new treatment strategies in the management of glaucoma. The treatment strategies are divided into current available glaucoma medications, new pressure lowering targets, prospective neuroprotective interventions, and finally possible neuroregenrative strategies. PMID:26069521

  1. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Kracalik, Ian T; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated and

  2. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Kracalik, Ian T; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated and

  3. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Kracalik, Ian T.; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock–human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated

  4. Marketing strategies in a competitive managed care environment.

    PubMed

    Cascardo-Weissman, D C

    1999-01-01

    In the new health care marketplace dominated by managed care, patients expect more from their physicians and other providers. Because cost is not an issue for the managed care patient, physicians must find a way to distinguish their practices from others in the managed care plan directory. This article provides low-cost strategies that physicians may use to do so. These include: focusing on the customer; ensuring friendly, attentive, and trained staff using patient-friendly office policies; making the patient priority number one; listening to and communicating with patients; being a patient advocate; giving patients choices to increase their control over their care; respecting the time demands on the patient and his or her family, and others. PMID:15318434

  5. Savannah River Site Mixed Waste Management Facility Southwest Plume Tritium Phytoremediation Evaluating Irrigation Management Strategies Over 25 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Riah, Susan; Rebel, Karin

    2004-02-27

    To minimize movement of tritium into surface waters at the Mixed Waste Management Facility at the Savannah River Site, tritium contaminated seepage water is being retained in a constructed pond and used to irrigate forest acreage that lies above the pond and over the contaminated groundwater. Twenty five-year potential evapotranspiration and average precipitation are 1443 mm/year and 1127 mm/year, respectively, for the region in which the site is located. Management of the application of tritium contaminated irrigation water needs to be evaluated in the context of the large amount of rainfall relative to evapotranspiration, the strong seasonality in evapotranspiration, and intraannual and inter-annual variability in precipitation. A dynamic simulation model of water and tritium fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum was developed to assess the efficiency (tritium transpired/tritium applied) of several irrigation management strategies.

  6. Applying lean management principles to the creation of a postpartum hemorrhage care bundle.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Beth

    2013-10-01

    A lean management process is a set of interventions, each of which creates value for the customer. Lean management is not a new concept, but is relatively new to health care. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause of maternal death worldwide in both developing and developed countries. We applied lean management principles as an innovative approach to improving outcomes in patients with PPH. Initial results using principles of lean management indicated significant improvements in response time and family-centered care. When applied rigorously and throughout the organization, lean principles can have a dramatic effect on productivity, cost and quality.

  7. Applying lean management principles to the creation of a postpartum hemorrhage care bundle.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Beth

    2013-10-01

    A lean management process is a set of interventions, each of which creates value for the customer. Lean management is not a new concept, but is relatively new to health care. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common cause of maternal death worldwide in both developing and developed countries. We applied lean management principles as an innovative approach to improving outcomes in patients with PPH. Initial results using principles of lean management indicated significant improvements in response time and family-centered care. When applied rigorously and throughout the organization, lean principles can have a dramatic effect on productivity, cost and quality. PMID:24138659

  8. A strategy for monitoring and managing declines in an amphibian community.

    PubMed

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Zipkin, Elise F; Nichols, James D; Campbell, J Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Although many taxa have declined globally, conservation actions are inherently local. Ecosystems degrade even in protected areas, and maintaining natural systems in a desired condition may require active management. Implementing management decisions under uncertainty requires a logical and transparent process to identify objectives, develop management actions, formulate system models to link actions with objectives, monitor to reduce uncertainty and identify system state (i.e., resource condition), and determine an optimal management strategy. We applied one such structured decision-making approach that incorporates these critical elements to inform management of amphibian populations in a protected area managed by the U.S. National Park Service. Climate change is expected to affect amphibian occupancy of wetlands and to increase uncertainty in management decision making. We used the tools of structured decision making to identify short-term management solutions that incorporate our current understanding of the effect of climate change on amphibians, emphasizing how management can be undertaken even with incomplete information. Estrategia para Monitorear y Manejar Disminuciones en una Comunidad de Anfibios. PMID:24001175

  9. A strategy for monitoring and managing declines in an amphibian community.

    PubMed

    Grant, Evan H Campbell; Zipkin, Elise F; Nichols, James D; Campbell, J Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Although many taxa have declined globally, conservation actions are inherently local. Ecosystems degrade even in protected areas, and maintaining natural systems in a desired condition may require active management. Implementing management decisions under uncertainty requires a logical and transparent process to identify objectives, develop management actions, formulate system models to link actions with objectives, monitor to reduce uncertainty and identify system state (i.e., resource condition), and determine an optimal management strategy. We applied one such structured decision-making approach that incorporates these critical elements to inform management of amphibian populations in a protected area managed by the U.S. National Park Service. Climate change is expected to affect amphibian occupancy of wetlands and to increase uncertainty in management decision making. We used the tools of structured decision making to identify short-term management solutions that incorporate our current understanding of the effect of climate change on amphibians, emphasizing how management can be undertaken even with incomplete information. Estrategia para Monitorear y Manejar Disminuciones en una Comunidad de Anfibios.

  10. Offline Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management Strategy Based on the Dynamic Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shichun; Li, Ming; Cui, Haigang; Cao, Yaoguang; Wang, Gang; Lei, Qiang

    By using dynamic programming (DP) which is a kind of global optimization algorithm, an energy management control strategy for a parallel PHEV on different charging depleting range (CDR) had been studied. The results show that motor-dominant control strategy should be applied to the PHEV when CDR is less than 55km, and engine-dominant control strategy should be used when CDR is more than 55km. With optimal control strategies from DP, the best economic performance can be obtained as CDR is 55km; PHEV average equivalence fuel consumption can be reduced to 2.9L/100km which is 63% lower than that of prototype vehicle.

  11. Environmental management cognitive strategies: Acid rain in the Yamaska watershed, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasseville, Jean-Louis; Lachance, Marius

    1983-05-01

    Systematic budgetary restrictions foreseen for the next few years will require greater organizational effectiveness in public management systems, particularly in environmental management, in which costs are seen as a burden to the national economy Environmental management efficiency could be increased, among other means, by the adoption of knowledge acquisition strategies that take into account the multiple facets of environmental management, these cognitive strategies involve the development and use of methods to establish facts and to analyze complex environmental situations It is the purpose of this paper to show that an efficient approach is possible in establishing facts from existing data. The method involves a heuristic use of advanced statistical tools to integrate multiple data into the description of environmental phenomena An example is given in which the method has been applied to a data base obtained from the inventory of Yamaska watershed; it revealed 16 facts of potential interest to environmental managers The case study suggests that management system efficiency could be improved by a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental situation that takes into account the structure of biophysical processes and the elements involved in information processing

  12. A Qualitative Study of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Applied by Iranian Undergraduate EFL Learners in Real Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazdi, Mahdi; Kafipour, Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study tries to investigate real use of vocabulary learning strategies by Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this goal, the researcher applied a pure qualitative research method in which frequency of all strategies counted and then classified. To select participants for the current study, the researcher used cluster sampling and fish ball…

  13. The Impact of Employing Brainstorming Strategy on Improving Writing Performance of English Major Students at Balqa Applied University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoush, Kholoud Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the impact of employing brainstorming strategy on improving writing performance of English Major Students at Balqa Applied University in Jordan. The sample of the study which consisted of 80 male and female university students was distributed into two groups; experimental (taught by brainstorming strategy) and…

  14. Assertive Classroom Management Strategies and Students' Performance: The Case of EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliakbari, Mohammad; Bozorgmanesh, Bafrin

    2015-01-01

    Ample research findings support the effective role that classroom management strategies play in enhancing students' learning. Drawing upon Iranian high school teachers' classroom management strategies, this article is intended to examine the extent to which these teachers follow assertive classroom management strategies and if these strategies…

  15. Optimal management strategies in variable environments: Stochastic optimal control methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic optimization was used to investigate the optimal defoliation of salt desert shrubs in north-western Utah. Management was formulated in the context of optimal stochastic control theory, with objective functions composed of discounted or time-averaged biomass yields. Climatic variability and community patterns of salt desert shrublands make the application of stochastic optimal control both feasible and necessary. A primary production model was used to simulate shrub responses and harvest yields under a variety of climatic regimes and defoliation patterns. The simulation results then were used in an optimization model to determine optimal defoliation strategies. The latter model encodes an algorithm for finite state, finite action, infinite discrete time horizon Markov decision processes. Three questions were addressed: (i) What effect do changes in weather patterns have on optimal management strategies? (ii) What effect does the discounting of future returns have? (iii) How do the optimal strategies perform relative to certain fixed defoliation strategies? An analysis was performed for the three shrub species, winterfat (Ceratoides lanata), shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). In general, the results indicate substantial differences among species in optimal control strategies, which are associated with differences in physiological and morphological characteristics. Optimal policies for big sagebrush varied less with variation in climate, reserve levels and discount rates than did either shadscale or winterfat. This was attributed primarily to the overwintering of photosynthetically active tissue and to metabolic activity early in the growing season. Optimal defoliation of shadscale and winterfat generally was more responsive to differences in plant vigor and climate, reflecting the sensitivity of these species to utilization and replenishment of carbohydrate reserves. Similarities could be seen in the influence of both

  16. Building Research Relationships With Managed Care Organizations: Issues and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    LEIN, CATHERINE; COLLINS, CLARE; LYLES, JUDITH S.; HILLMAN, DONALD; SMITH, ROBERT C.

    2006-01-01

    Managed care is now the dominant form of healthcare in the United States. The need for clinical research about the organization, delivery, and outcomes of primary care services in managed care models is high, yet access to managed care organizations as sites for clinical research may be problematic. The purpose of this article is to describe issues involved in obtaining access to managed care settings for clinical research and practical strategies for successful collaboration using literature review and case description. Three steps for developing collaborative relationships with managed care organizations (MCOs) are presented: 1) assessment of organizational structure, history, and culture; 2) finding common ground; and 3) project implementation. These steps are discussed within the context of MCO systems issues and a relationship-centered approach to communication between researchers and individuals from the MCO. Successful relationships with MCOs for clinical research are possible when careful attention is paid to inclusion of MCOs as collaborators in the development of the research questions and design, and as partners in the research implementation process. PMID:17203136

  17. Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

    2013-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls.

  18. Risk evaluation mitigation strategies: the evolution of risk management policy.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Kristen; Toscani, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the primary regulatory responsibility to ensure that medications are safe and effective both prior to drug approval and while the medication is being actively marketed by manufacturers. The responsibility for safe medications prior to marketing was signed into law in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; however, a significant risk management evolution has taken place since 1938. Additional federal rules, entitled the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act, were established in 2007 and extended the government's oversight through the addition of a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for certain drugs. REMS is a mandated strategy to manage a known or potentially serious risk associated with a medication or biological product. Reasons for this extension of oversight were driven primarily by the FDA's movement to ensure that patients and providers are better informed of drug therapies and their specific benefits and risks prior to initiation. This article provides an historical perspective of the evolution of medication risk management policy and includes a review of REMS programs, an assessment of the positive and negative aspects of REMS, and provides suggestions for planning and measuring outcomes. In particular, this publication presents an overview of the evolution of the REMS program and its implications.

  19. A bed management strategy for overcrowding in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Lynn; Ford, Suzanne; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the Institute of Medicine cited growing visit volumes, hospital closures, financial pressures, and operational inefficiencies as the principal reasons for emergency department (ED) overcrowding and called for regulatory measures to resolve the problem. A Midwest medical center with 59,000 annual ED visits instituted a bed management strategy to decrease the need to board, or hold, admitted hospital patients in the ED awaiting transfer to an inpatient care unit. This strategy was successful in improving the hold time from an average of 216 minutes to 103 minutes, or by 52%. This allowed the staff at the hospital to care for an additional 2,936 patients. During this same time, the overall hospital mortality decreased by 0.07% and patient satisfaction scores improved 1%. The greatest outcome from this intervention was realized in the potential revenue increase of over $2 million. PMID:22558725

  20. The Art World's Concept of Negative Space Applied to System Safety Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Tools from several different disciplines can improve system safety management. This paper relates the Art World with our system safety world, showing useful art schools of thought applied to system safety management, developing an art theory-system safety bridge. This bridge is then used to demonstrate relations with risk management, the legal system, personnel management and basic management (establishing priorities). One goal of this presentation/paper is simply to be a fun diversion from the many technical topics presented during the conference.

  1. Optimizing selection of decentralized stormwater management strategies in urbanized regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Montalto, F.

    2011-12-01

    A variety of decentralized stormwater options are available for implementation in urbanized regions. These strategies, which include bio-retention, porous pavement, green roof etc., vary in terms of cost, ability to reduce runoff, and site applicability. This paper explores the tradeoffs between different types of stormwater control meastures that could be applied in a typical urban study area. A nested optimization strategy first identifies the most cost-effective (e.g. runoff reduction / life cycle cost invested ) options for individual land parcel typologies, and then scales up the results with detailed attention paid to uncertainty in adoption rates, life cycle costs, and hydrologic performance. The study is performed with a custom built stochastic rainfall-runoff model (Monte Carlo techniques are used to quantify uncertainties associated with phased implementation of different strategies and different land parcel typologies under synthetic precipitation ensembles). The results are presented as a comparison of cost-effectiveness over the time span of 30 years, and state an optimized strategy on the cumulative cost-effectiveness over the period.

  2. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat. PMID:25678353

  3. Determining management strategies for the Sarikum Nature Protection Area.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Sevgi

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, many environmental problems have become important factors in promoting the economic need to develop tourist activity: climate change such as energy wars, increasing hunger and aridity, population increases in urban areas, excessive and unthinking use of natural resources, difficult international relations, economic competition, and increasing environmental stress. Trends in global tourism have changed with changes in culture and our attitude to nature. Changes in both the profile and consumption patterns of tourists have called for the need to balance the use of natural and cultural assets with the need to adequately protect them. In this study, the Sarikum Nature Protection Area (SNPA) was selected as a case study because of its significance as a Turkish wetland area and the variety of different ecosystems coexisting within it. The study focussed on management strategies, but also provides a broader strategy for an area that currently has no management plan. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analyses of the area were gathered and analyzed using R'WOT analysis (ranking + SWOT), a multi-criteria assessment method, in order to determine strategies, obtain the participation of interest groups, and assess their opinions and attitudes. The analysis showed the following: the rich biological diversity and the existence of endemic species were the reserve's most significant strength; the presence of natural areas in surrounding regions was the most significant opportunity; the shortage of infrastructure and lack of legal regulation of ecotourism was the most significant weakness; and the lack of a management plan was the most immediate threat.

  4. Sensor Management for Applied Research Technologies (SMART)-On Demand Modeling (ODM) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.; Hood, R.; Jedlovec, G.; Botts, M.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    NASA requires timely on-demand data and analysis capabilities to enable practical benefits of Earth science observations. However, a significant challenge exists in accessing and integrating data from multiple sensors or platforms to address Earth science problems because of the large data volumes, varying sensor scan characteristics, unique orbital coverage, and the steep learning curve associated with each sensor and data type. The development of sensor web capabilities to autonomously process these data streams (whether real-time or archived) provides an opportunity to overcome these obstacles and facilitate the integration and synthesis of Earth science data and weather model output. A three year project, entitled Sensor Management for Applied Research Technologies (SMART) - On Demand Modeling (ODM), will develop and demonstrate the readiness of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) capabilities that integrate both Earth observations and forecast model output into new data acquisition and assimilation strategies. The advancement of SWE-enabled systems (i.e., use of SensorML, sensor planning services - SPS, sensor observation services - SOS, sensor alert services - SAS and common observation model protocols) will have practical and efficient uses in the Earth science community for enhanced data set generation, real-time data assimilation with operational applications, and for autonomous sensor tasking for unique data collection.

  5. Management strategies for problem behaviors in the patient with dementia.

    PubMed

    Lehninger, F W; Ravindran, V L; Stewart, J T

    1998-04-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral problems are present in most patients with dementia and are usually the clinician's main focus of management. Differential diagnosis of these problems can be challenging, but the effort is essential for planning appropriate therapy. Pharmacologic interventions are available for treatment of depression, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms, wandering, and sleep disorders. Given the less than favorable risk-benefit ratio of most psychotropic drugs in the population of older patients with dementia, the importance of nonpharmacologic strategies and limiting treatment goals should not be overlooked.

  6. Lessons Learnt from Applying Action Research to Support Strategy Formation Processes in Long-Term Care Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Hendrik; Dewulf, Geert; Voordijk, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates how action research (AR) that is aimed at scaling-up experiments can be applied to support a strategy formation process (SFP) in a subsidized long-term care network. Previous research has developed numerous AR frameworks to support experiments in various domains, but has failed to explain how to apply AR and action learning…

  7. Strategies for Managing Mobile Devices for Use by Hospitalized Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Patricia C; Stade, Diana; Dalal, Anuj; Clements, Marsha; Collins, Sarah; Chang, Frank; Fladger, Anne; Getty, George; Hanna, John; Kandala, Ravali; Lehmann, Lisa S; Leone, Kathleen; Massaro, Anthony F; Mlaver, Eli; McNally, Kelly; Ravindran, Sucheta; Schnock, Kumiko; Bates, David W

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages, implementation of mobile devices and ongoing management pose challenges in the hospital environment. Our team implemented the PROSPECT (Promoting Respect and Ongoing Safety through Patient-centeredness, Engagement, Communication and Technology) project at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The goal of PROSPECT is to transform the hospital environment by providing a suite of e-tools to facilitate teamwork among nurses, physicians, patients and to engage patients and care partners in their plan of care. In this paper, we describe the device-related decisions and challenges faced including device and accessory selection, integration, information and device security, infection control, user access, and ongoing operation and maintenance. We relate the strategies that we used for managing mobile devices and lessons learned based on our experiences.

  8. Clinical Decision Support Knowledge Management: Strategies for Success.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Alswailem, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems have been shown to increase quality of care, patient safety, improve adherence to guidelines for prevention and treatment, and avoid medication errors. Such systems depend mainly on two types of content; the clinical information related to patients and the medical knowledge related to the specialty that informs the system rules and alerts. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, the Health Information Technology Affairs worked on identifying best strategies and recommendations for successful CDSS knowledge management. A review of literature was conducted to identify main areas of challenges and factors of success. A qualitative survey was used over six months' duration to collect opinions, experiences and suggestions from both IT and healthcare professionals. Recommendations were categorized into ten main topics that should be addressed during the development and implementation of CDSS knowledge management tools in the hospital.

  9. Common sleep disorders: management strategies and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nodine, Priscilla M; Matthews, Ellyn E

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders, prevalent in industrialized countries, are associated with adverse health outcomes such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Disturbed sleep during pregnancy is frequently overlooked by health care providers, yet recent studies suggest there is an association between sleep disorders and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia, elevated serum glucose, depression, prolonged labor, and cesarean birth. Growing evidence indicates that the recognition and management of prenatal sleep disorders may minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes and improve maternal and fetal well-being. This focused review of prenatal sleep disturbance literature suggests there are 3 main sleep disorders of interest: breathing-related sleep disorders (ie, habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea), restless legs syndrome, and insomnia. These sleep disorders are common in pregnancy and have maternal and fetal consequences if left untreated. This article describes sleep disorders of pregnancy, elucidates their relationship with maternal and neonatal outcomes, and presents current evidence regarding diagnostic and management strategies.

  10. Clinical Decision Support Knowledge Management: Strategies for Success.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Alswailem, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems have been shown to increase quality of care, patient safety, improve adherence to guidelines for prevention and treatment, and avoid medication errors. Such systems depend mainly on two types of content; the clinical information related to patients and the medical knowledge related to the specialty that informs the system rules and alerts. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Saudi Arabia, the Health Information Technology Affairs worked on identifying best strategies and recommendations for successful CDSS knowledge management. A review of literature was conducted to identify main areas of challenges and factors of success. A qualitative survey was used over six months' duration to collect opinions, experiences and suggestions from both IT and healthcare professionals. Recommendations were categorized into ten main topics that should be addressed during the development and implementation of CDSS knowledge management tools in the hospital. PMID:26152955

  11. Strategies for Managing Mobile Devices for Use by Hospitalized Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Dykes, Patricia C.; Stade, Diana; Dalal, Anuj; Clements, Marsha; Collins, Sarah; Chang, Frank; Fladger, Anne; Getty, George; Hanna, John; Kandala, Ravali; Lehmann, Lisa S.; Leone, Kathleen; Massaro, Anthony F.; Mlaver, Eli; McNally, Kelly; Ravindran, Sucheta; Schnock, Kumiko; Bates, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages, implementation of mobile devices and ongoing management pose challenges in the hospital environment. Our team implemented the PROSPECT (Promoting Respect and Ongoing Safety through Patient-centeredness, Engagement, Communication and Technology) project at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. The goal of PROSPECT is to transform the hospital environment by providing a suite of e-tools to facilitate teamwork among nurses, physicians, patients and to engage patients and care partners in their plan of care. In this paper, we describe the device-related decisions and challenges faced including device and accessory selection, integration, information and device security, infection control, user access, and ongoing operation and maintenance. We relate the strategies that we used for managing mobile devices and lessons learned based on our experiences. PMID:26958185

  12. Strategies for Managing Mobile Devices for Use by Hospitalized Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Dykes, Patricia C; Stade, Diana; Dalal, Anuj; Clements, Marsha; Collins, Sarah; Chang, Frank; Fladger, Anne; Getty, George; Hanna, John; Kandala, Ravali; Lehmann, Lisa S; Leone, Kathleen; Massaro, Anthony F; Mlaver, Eli; McNally, Kelly; Ravindran, Sucheta; Schnock, Kumiko; Bates, David W

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential advantages, implementation of mobile devices and ongoing management pose challenges in the hospital environment. Our team implemented the PROSPECT (Promoting Respect and Ongoing Safety through Patient-centeredness, Engagement, Communication and Technology) project at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The goal of PROSPECT is to transform the hospital environment by providing a suite of e-tools to facilitate teamwork among nurses, physicians, patients and to engage patients and care partners in their plan of care. In this paper, we describe the device-related decisions and challenges faced including device and accessory selection, integration, information and device security, infection control, user access, and ongoing operation and maintenance. We relate the strategies that we used for managing mobile devices and lessons learned based on our experiences. PMID:26958185

  13. Strategies in Comparison of Methods for Scoring Patient Management Problems: Use of External Criteria to Validate Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, G. D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Whether alternative scoring strategies result in improved measurement properties of patient management problems (PMPs) was studied. Nine scoring systems (proficiency, efficiency, select, omit, data gathering, therapy, absolute, goal-oriented, and empiric expert score) were applied to 16 PMPs used in a certifying examination taken by 4,590…

  14. Water Management Strategies against Water Shortage in the Alps (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.

    2009-12-01

    In the European Alps water has been perceived as ubiquitous and not the subject of management. Climate change and anthropogenic pressures have changed demand and supply relations rapidly and over the last 10 years, water problems have increasingly become apparent over temporal and spatial hotspots. Stakeholders in the Alpine Space have been confronted with water management problems in agriculture, tourism and hydropower to such an extent that they approached scientists to create solution strategies based on adaptation and mitigation. In this context, Alp-Water-Scarce, a European project on Water Management Strategies against Water Scarcity in the Alps was funded by the Alpine Space programme as part of the "European Territorial Cooperation" scheme. It has 17 project partners from Austria Switzerland, France, Italy and Slovenia from local governments, provinces, federal institutes and offices, universities, regional agencies, alpine societies, geological surveys, and chambers of agriculture and forestry. The Lead Partner is the Mountain Institute in Savoy, Rhone-Alpes, France. The main challenges of this project are to create local Early Warning Systems against Water Scarcity in the Alps. This system is based on strengthening existing long-term monitoring and modeling and creating new measuring networks in those countries where they do not yet exist. It is anchored strongly and actively within a Stakeholder Interaction Forum linked across comparative and contrasting regions across the Alps. The Early Warning System is based on the linkage and improvement of field monitoring and assemblage of qualitative and quantitative data derived both from natural water reservoirs as well as from anthropogenic water use in 28 selected pilot regions selected in France, Italy, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The objectives are to improve water management at the short term (annual scale) and long term (using future scenarios) based on modelling and application of climate change

  15. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  16. Managing differences: the central challenge of global strategy.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2007-03-01

    The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of globalization. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes global, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is globalizing. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage. PMID:17348170

  17. Managing differences: the central challenge of global strategy.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2007-03-01

    The main goal of any international strategy should be to manage the large differences that arise at the borders of markets. Yet executives often fail to exploit market and production discrepancies, focusing instead on the tensions between standardization and localization. In this article, Pankaj Ghemawat presents a new framework that encompasses all three effective responses to the challenges of globalization. He calls it the AAA Triangle. The A's stand for the three distinct types of international strategy. Through adaptation, companies seek to boost revenues and market share by maximizing their local relevance. Through aggregation, they attempt to deliver economies of scale by creating regional, or sometimes global, operations. And through arbitrage, they exploit disparities between national or regional markets, often by locating different parts of the supply chain in different places--for instance, call centers in India, factories in China, and retail shops in Western Europe. Ghemawat draws on several examples that illustrate how organizations use and balance these strategies and describes the trade-offs they make as they do so. Because most enterprises should draw from all three A's to some extent, the framework can be used to develop a summary scorecard indicating how well the company is globalizing. However, given the tensions among the strategies, it's not enough simply to tick off the corresponding boxes. Strategic choice requires some degree of prioritization--and the framework can help with that as well. While it is possible to make progress on all three strategies, companies usually must focus on one or two when trying to build competitive advantage.

  18. A Review of Enrollment Management: Issues and Strategies. Management/Marketing Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Ed; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations from a project undertaken by the Maricopa County Community College District (MCCCD) to determine reasons for a decline in business course enrollments and develop strategies to increase enrollments in management and marketing programs throughout the district. Following background information on the…

  19. HPV-Based Screening, Triage, Treatment, and Followup Strategies in the Management of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Deas, Jessica; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; García-Suastegui, Wendy Argelia; Fierros-Zárate, Geny del Socorro; Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia Judith

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, and the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop immunotherapy and gene therapy strategies to treat cervical cancer. HPV genotyping has potentially valuable applications in triage of low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, assessment of prognosis and followup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in treatment strategies for invasive cervical cancer. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, the identification and subsequent functional evaluation of host proteins associated with HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins may provide useful information in understanding cervical carcinogenesis, identifying cervical cancer molecular markers, and developing specific targeting strategies against tumor cells. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the main diagnostic methods, management strategies, and followup of HPV-associated cervical lesions and review clinical trials applying gene therapy strategies against the development of cervical cancer. PMID:23690785

  20. A novel electronic assessment strategy to support applied Drosophila genetics training in university courses.

    PubMed

    Fostier, Maggy; Patel, Sanjai; Clarke, Samantha; Prokop, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    The advent of "omic" technologies has revolutionized genetics and created a demand to focus classical genetics on its present-day applications (Redfield, 2012, PLoS Biol 10: e1001356). This demand can be met by training students in Drosophila mating scheme design, which is an important problem-solving skill routinely applied in many modern research laboratories. It promotes a thorough understanding and application of classical genetics rules and introduces to transgenic technologies and the use of model organisms. As we show here, such training can be implemented as a flexible and concise module (~1-day home study, ~8-hour course time) on university courses by using our previously published training package designed for fly researchers (Roote and Prokop, 2013, G3 (Bethesda) 3: 353-358). However, assessing this training to make it an accredited course element is difficult, especially in large courses. Here, we present a powerful assessment strategy based on a novel hybrid concept in which students solve crossing tasks initially on paper and then answer automatically marked questions on the computer (1.5 hours total). This procedure can be used to examine student performance on more complex tasks than conventional e-assessments and is more versatile, time-saving, and fairer than standard paper-based assignments. Our evaluation shows that the hybrid assessment is effective and reliably detects varying degrees of understanding among students. It also may be applicable in other disciplines requiring complex problem solving, such as mathematics, chemistry, physics, or informatics. Here, we describe our strategies in detail and provide all resources needed for their implementation. PMID:25717150

  1. A novel electronic assessment strategy to support applied Drosophila genetics training in university courses.

    PubMed

    Fostier, Maggy; Patel, Sanjai; Clarke, Samantha; Prokop, Andreas

    2015-02-25

    The advent of "omic" technologies has revolutionized genetics and created a demand to focus classical genetics on its present-day applications (Redfield, 2012, PLoS Biol 10: e1001356). This demand can be met by training students in Drosophila mating scheme design, which is an important problem-solving skill routinely applied in many modern research laboratories. It promotes a thorough understanding and application of classical genetics rules and introduces to transgenic technologies and the use of model organisms. As we show here, such training can be implemented as a flexible and concise module (~1-day home study, ~8-hour course time) on university courses by using our previously published training package designed for fly researchers (Roote and Prokop, 2013, G3 (Bethesda) 3: 353-358). However, assessing this training to make it an accredited course element is difficult, especially in large courses. Here, we present a powerful assessment strategy based on a novel hybrid concept in which students solve crossing tasks initially on paper and then answer automatically marked questions on the computer (1.5 hours total). This procedure can be used to examine student performance on more complex tasks than conventional e-assessments and is more versatile, time-saving, and fairer than standard paper-based assignments. Our evaluation shows that the hybrid assessment is effective and reliably detects varying degrees of understanding among students. It also may be applicable in other disciplines requiring complex problem solving, such as mathematics, chemistry, physics, or informatics. Here, we describe our strategies in detail and provide all resources needed for their implementation.

  2. A Novel Electronic Assessment Strategy to Support Applied Drosophila Genetics Training in University Courses

    PubMed Central

    Fostier, Maggy; Patel, Sanjai; Clarke, Samantha; Prokop, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The advent of “omic” technologies has revolutionized genetics and created a demand to focus classical genetics on its present-day applications (Redfield, 2012, PLoS Biol 10: e1001356). This demand can be met by training students in Drosophila mating scheme design, which is an important problem-solving skill routinely applied in many modern research laboratories. It promotes a thorough understanding and application of classical genetics rules and introduces to transgenic technologies and the use of model organisms. As we show here, such training can be implemented as a flexible and concise module (~1-day home study, ~8-hour course time) on university courses by using our previously published training package designed for fly researchers (Roote and Prokop, 2013, G3 (Bethesda) 3: 353−358). However, assessing this training to make it an accredited course element is difficult, especially in large courses. Here, we present a powerful assessment strategy based on a novel hybrid concept in which students solve crossing tasks initially on paper and then answer automatically marked questions on the computer (1.5 hours total). This procedure can be used to examine student performance on more complex tasks than conventional e-assessments and is more versatile, time-saving, and fairer than standard paper-based assignments. Our evaluation shows that the hybrid assessment is effective and reliably detects varying degrees of understanding among students. It also may be applicable in other disciplines requiring complex problem solving, such as mathematics, chemistry, physics, or informatics. Here, we describe our strategies in detail and provide all resources needed for their implementation. PMID:25717150

  3. Watershed management strategies to prevent and control cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Piehler, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    The tenets of watershed management--a focus on the land area linked to the water body, the incorporation of sound scientific information into the decision-making process and stakeholder involvement throughout the process--are well-suited for the management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (C-HABs). The management of C-HABs can be viewed as having two main areas of focus. First, there is mitigation--control and/or removal of the bloom. This type of crisis response is an important component to managing active C-HABs and there are several techniques that have been successfully utilized, including the application of algicides, physical removal of surface scums and the mechanical mixing of the water column. While these methods are valuable because they address the immediate problem, they do not address the conditions that exist in the system that promote and maintain C-HABs. Thus, the second component of a successful C-HAB management strategy would include a focus on prevention. C-HABs require nutrients to fuel their growth and are often favored in longer-residence time systems with vertical stratification of the water column. Consequently, nutrients and hydrology are the two factors most commonly identified as the targets for prevention of C-HABs. Management strategies to control the sources, transformation and delivery of the primary growth-limiting nutrients have been applied with success in many areas. The most effective of these include controlling land use, maintaining the integrity of the landscape and applying best management practices. In the past, notable successes in managing C-HABs have relied on the reduction of nutrients from point-sources. Because many point sources are now well-managed, current efforts are focused on non-point source nutrient reduction, such as runoff from agricultural and urban areas. Non-point sources present significant challenges due to their diffuse nature. Regardless of which techniques are utilized, effective watershed

  4. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Finnveden, Goeran Bjoerklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Soerbom, Adrienne

    2007-07-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  5. Information Management Strategies for Program Tracking and Formative Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, D.; Detrick, L.; Valaitis, S.; Johnson, A.; Thomas, S. H.; Fauver, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) has developed information management systems to facilitate programmatic formative evaluation, tracking and outreach activities. Nearly a decade of design solutions and technical implementations in support of IBP's professional development and mentoring programs for students (including the "Pathways to Ocean Science," "Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success" in Earth System Science, and "Pathways to Engineering") has provided IBP with a toolbox of proven strategies for addressing program engagement and participant tracking, outreach, and a variety of other information management needs. In this session, IBP will use case-specific examples to share general design strategies for program participant and activities data collection in REUs and other program types. The cases will illustrate an approach that begins with a review of program logic, objectives, expected outcomes, constraints and requirements, which then informs a comprehensive system design. When implemented, such information systems improve administrative efficiency through streamlined data collection processes and easy-to-use data capture forms, and a corresponding set of reporting tools provides access to data that is crucial for ongoing program improvement. IBP presents this information in response to collaborations with administrators of Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs as well as longer duration programs, who have expressed the need for more comprehensive and easy to use information systems. Recently IBP has also worked with the directors of NSF and NASA funded programs seeking assistance in addressing their formative evaluation needs including system design, information collection, and reporting efforts.

  6. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Finnveden, Göran; Björklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Sörbom, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials. PMID:17412580

  7. Regulations, Policies and Strategies for LLRW Management in Bangladesh - 12368

    SciTech Connect

    Mollah, A.S.

    2012-07-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated from various nuclear applications in Bangladesh. The major sources of radioactive waste in the country are at present: (a) the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor; (b) the radioisotope production facility; (c) the medical, industrial and research facilities that use radionuclides; and (d) the industrial facility for processing monazite sands. Radioactive waste needs to be safely managed because it is potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. According to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act-93, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the governmental body responsible for the receipt and final disposal of radioactive wastes in the whole country. Waste management policy has become an important environmental, social, and economical issue for LLW in Bangladesh. Policy and strategies will serve as a basic guide for radioactive waste management in Bangladesh. The waste generator is responsible for on-site collection, conditioning and temporary storage of the waste arising from his practice. The Central Waste Processing and Storage Unit (CWPSU) of BAEC is the designated national facility with the requisite facility for the treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste until a final disposal facility is established and becomes operational. The Regulatory Authority is responsible for the enforcement of compliance with provisions of the waste management regulation and other relevant requirements by the waste generator and the CWPSU. The objective of this paper is to present, in a concise form, basic information about the radioactive waste management infrastructure, regulations, policies and strategies including the total inventory of low level radioactive waste in the country. For improvement and strengthening in terms of operational capability, safety and security of RW including spent radioactive sources and overall security of the facility (CWPSF), the facility is expected to serve

  8. Management Development Programs: The Effects of Management Level and Corporate Strategy. [and] Invited Reaction: Level and Strategy Should and Do Make a Difference!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakely, Gerald L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Consensus of survey responses from 155 of 600 human resource managers was as follows: management development programs emphasized technical skills at lower levels, entrepreneurial skills at senior levels; organizations with corporate growth strategies focused on more areas than those with stability or retrenchment strategies. (Muschewske's reaction…

  9. Managing work and family: Do control strategies help?

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2015-11-01

    How can we effectively manage competing obligations from work and family without becoming overwhelmed? This question inspires the current study by examining control strategies that may facilitate better work-life balance, with a specific focus on the role of lowered aspirations and positive reappraisals, attitudes that underlie adaptive coping behaviors. Data from the Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS II) were used to explore the relationship between negative spillover, control strategies, and well-being among full-time working men and women (N = 2,091). In this nationally representative sample, findings indicate that while positive reappraisals function as a protective buffer, lowering aspirations exacerbate the relationship between work-family spillover and well-being, with moderating effects stronger among women. This study extends prior research tying work-life conflict to health and mental health, and suggests further investigation is needed to consider types of resources that may be effective coping strategies in balancing work and family. PMID:26322486

  10. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project Leadership and Management Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project management team that put in place the key multi-center leadership skills and

  11. The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. Application for adults.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Pakdaman, A; Dennison, P J; Howe, E L C

    2008-03-01

    In the absence of effective caries preventive methods, operative care became established as the means for caries control in general practice. Water fluoridation resulted in a declining caries incidence which decreased further following the advent of fluoridated toothpaste. The challenge today is to develop a non-invasive model of practice that will sustain a low level of primary caries experience in the younger generation and reduce risk of caries experience in the older generations. The Caries Management System is a ten step non-invasive strategy to arrest and remineralize early lesions. The governing principle of this system is that caries management must include consideration of the patient at risk, the status of each lesion, patient management, clinical management and monitoring. Both dental caries risk and treatment are managed according to a set of protocols that are applied at various steps throughout patient consultation and treatment. The anticipated outcome of implementing the Caries Management System in general dental practice is reduction in caries incidence and increased patient satisfaction. Since the attainment and maintenance of oral health is determined mainly by controlling both caries and periodontal disease, the implementation of the Caries Management System in general practice will promote both outcomes.

  12. The development of an in vitro screening strategy for topically applied products.

    PubMed

    Horan, Ian; Clotworthy, Margaret; Fokunang, Charles N; Tomkins, Paul T

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was the pharmaco-toxicological understanding of the constituents of an authenticated herbal mixture. The mixture was prepared by maceration in ethanol and subsequent dilution to produce a topically applied lotion, for which the intended target conditions are psoriasis and eczema. A three-tiered in vitro screening strategy was adopted for evaluating this product, comprising cytotoxicity assays; mutagenicity screening and therapeutic evaluation. Viability assays performed with dilutions of both the herbal concentrate and final product on organotypic cell lines indicated that neither preparation acted as an irritant. Genotoxicity screening using six strains of Salmonella typhimurium showed no mutagenic potential, and furthermore significant anti-microbial activity was evident. Therapeutic evaluation involved assessing the antioxidant potential of the extract, which can be correlated to an anti-inflammatory effect. Nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) assay results indicate that the extract can reduce superoxide anion generation by 45%. The extract also increased cell viability on exposure to hydrogen peroxide by 28%, illustrating its dismutation potential. A 3-D skin culture system, EpiDerm, released 3000 microg/ml upon exposure to the extract, implying that the components enhance arachidonic acid metabolism. Overall, it may be concluded that the herbal extract is sufficiently non-toxic for dermal application and possesses anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Optimization strategies in the modelling of SG-SMB applied to separation of phenylalanine and tryptophan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diógenes Tavares Câmara, Leôncio

    2014-03-01

    The solvent-gradient simulated moving bed process (SG-SMB) is the new tendency in the performance improvement if compared to the traditional isocratic solvent conditions. In such SG-SMB process the modulation of the solvent strength leads to significant increase in the purities and productivity followed by reduction in the solvent consumption. A stepwise modelling approach was utilized in the representation of the interconnected chromatographic columns of the system combined with a lumped mass transfer model between the solid and liquid phase. The influence of the solvent modifier was considered applying the Abel model which takes into account the effect of modifier volume fraction over the partition coefficient. Correlation models of the mass transfer parameters were obtained through the retention times of the solutes according to the volume fraction of modifier. The modelling and simulations were carried out and compared to the experimental SG-SMB separation unit of the amino acids Phenylalanine and Tryptophan. The simulation results showed the great potential of the proposed modelling approach in the representation of such complex systems. The simulations showed great agreement fitting the experimental data of the amino acids concentrations both at the extract as well as at the raffinate. A new optimization strategy was proposed in the determination of the best operating conditions which uses the phi-plot concept.

  14. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ladino, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  15. Evaluating water management strategies in watersheds by new hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.

  16. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    PubMed

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards. PMID:25577700

  17. Management strategies in apple orchards influence earwig community.

    PubMed

    Malagnoux, Laure; Marliac, Gaëlle; Simon, Sylvaine; Rault, Magali; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to assess whether different apple orchard management strategies (low-input, organic, Integrated Pest Management (IPM)) would have an effect on earwigs, which are important natural enemies of apple pests. These commercial orchards were as well compared to abandoned orchards. The density of Forficula auricularia and Forficula pubescens was studied for three years in 74 orchards around Avignon. The pesticide usage, some orchard characteristics and two small-scale landscape parameters were characterized. Pesticide use was significantly different between low-input, organic and IPM orchards with particularly significant differences in the number of insecticide applications (2.2, 4.9 and 9.2 respectively). Pesticide use had a much stronger impact on earwig community than other characteristics. F. auricularia density was significantly lower in IPM orchards (0.47 individuals per tree) compared to organic, low-input and abandoned orchards (3.1, 4.5 and 1.6 individuals per tree, respectively). F. pubescens was almost absent from IPM orchards and its abundance was higher in abandoned or low-input orchards compared to organic orchards (1.5 and 2.8 vs 0.8 individuals per tree). The percentage of F. pubescens in the earwig community decreased from abandoned (52%) to low-input (40%), organic (15%) and IPM orchards (0.5%). These results were confirmed by LD50 assays showing that for the two pesticides causing mortality close to normal application rates (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and acetamiprid), F. pubescens was significantly more sensitive than F. auricularia. Since earwigs are also easy to capture and identify, they may be useful to estimate the effects of management strategies and their modification in pome fruit orchards.

  18. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  19. Interpersonal Influence Strategies Applied to Sexual Decision-Making of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falbo, Toni; Eisen, Marvin

    Little is known about the power strategies adolescents view as effective in influencing an intimate partner to have or avoid having sexual intercourse. These strategies were examined in a pretest survey of 203 adolescents who reported their agreement or disagreement with strategies used to have protected sex or to avoid having sex with a…

  20. Improving Students' Science Text Comprehension through Metacognitive Self-Regulation When Applying Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Claudia; Leutner, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    In three experiments, students were trained to use strategies for learning from scientific texts: text highlighting (Experiment 1), knowledge mapping (Experiment 2), and visualizing (Experiment 3). Each experiment compared a control condition, cognitive strategy training, and a combined cognitive strategy plus metacognitive self-regulation…

  1. Biosolids management strategies: an evaluation of energy production as an alternative to land application.

    PubMed

    Egan, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    Currently, more than half of the biosolids produced within the USA are land applied. Land application of biosolids introduces organic contaminants into the environment. There are potential ecological and human health risks associated with land application of biosolids. Biosolids may be used as a renewable energy source. Nutrients may be recovered from biosolids used for energy generation for use as fertilizer. The by-products of biosolids energy generation may be used beneficially in construction materials. It is recommended that energy generation replace land application as the leading biosolids management strategy.

  2. A long-term evaluation of applied nucleation as a strategy to facilitate forest restoration.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Jeffrey D; Robinson, George R; Hafkemeyer, Lauren M; Handel, Steven N

    2016-01-01

    Applied nucleation is a restoration technique that seeks to facilitate woody-plant establishment by attracting birds or other animals that may introduce seeds of dispersal-limited species. In 1991, an experimental test of applied nucleation was initiated in an abandoned landfill in New Jersey, USA. Trees and shrubs were planted into 16 10 x 10 m plots, covering < 3% of the 6-ha site. In 2010-2011, we sampled the plant community to test the impact of the treatments on forest cover and plant biodiversity. Site-wide forest cover increased substantially in the 19 years since planting from none to 59%. The original planted plots had significantly higher stem density, particularly of bird-dispersed species, than unplanted areas. Species composition outside the planted plots was dominated by the wind-dispersed Fraxinus americana and several small-seeded bird-dispersed species, but there were few species indicative of later successional stages. The expected model of successional development via the nucleation model that rates of colonization would be highest near plantings and that forest cover would spread outward from established clusters was not supported after this time span. Given the site's isolation from potential sources of woody propagules, the experimental treatments may not have been enough to overcome many species' dispersal limitation. Regardless of the mechanism, however, the treatments transformed the once essentially treeless site into a densely wooded habitat, and did so at a rate faster than other descriptions of reforestation following disturbances or land-use changes in the region. Despite the relatively low species richness of the community, this experiment demonstrated that reforestation of even severely degraded habitat can be achieved with minimal management after site preparation and cluster plantings. PMID:27039513

  3. A long-term evaluation of applied nucleation as a strategy to facilitate forest restoration.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Jeffrey D; Robinson, George R; Hafkemeyer, Lauren M; Handel, Steven N

    2016-01-01

    Applied nucleation is a restoration technique that seeks to facilitate woody-plant establishment by attracting birds or other animals that may introduce seeds of dispersal-limited species. In 1991, an experimental test of applied nucleation was initiated in an abandoned landfill in New Jersey, USA. Trees and shrubs were planted into 16 10 x 10 m plots, covering < 3% of the 6-ha site. In 2010-2011, we sampled the plant community to test the impact of the treatments on forest cover and plant biodiversity. Site-wide forest cover increased substantially in the 19 years since planting from none to 59%. The original planted plots had significantly higher stem density, particularly of bird-dispersed species, than unplanted areas. Species composition outside the planted plots was dominated by the wind-dispersed Fraxinus americana and several small-seeded bird-dispersed species, but there were few species indicative of later successional stages. The expected model of successional development via the nucleation model that rates of colonization would be highest near plantings and that forest cover would spread outward from established clusters was not supported after this time span. Given the site's isolation from potential sources of woody propagules, the experimental treatments may not have been enough to overcome many species' dispersal limitation. Regardless of the mechanism, however, the treatments transformed the once essentially treeless site into a densely wooded habitat, and did so at a rate faster than other descriptions of reforestation following disturbances or land-use changes in the region. Despite the relatively low species richness of the community, this experiment demonstrated that reforestation of even severely degraded habitat can be achieved with minimal management after site preparation and cluster plantings.

  4. Unique strategies for technical information management at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the current NASA manned programs, the maturation of Space Station and the introduction of the Space Exploration programs are anticipated to add substantially to the number and variety of data and documentation at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). This growth in the next decade has been estimated at five to ten fold compared to the current numbers. There will be an increased requirement for the tracking and currency of space program data and documents with National pressures to realize economic benefits from the research and technological developments of space programs. From a global perspective the demand for NASA's technical data and documentation is anticipated to increase at local, national, and international levels. The primary users will be government, industry, and academia. In our present national strategy, NASA's research and technology will assume a great role in the revitalization of the economy and gaining international competitiveness. Thus, greater demand will be placed on NASA's data and documentation resources. In this paper the strategies and procedures developed by DDMS, Inc., to accommodate the present and future information utilization needs are presented. The DDMS, Inc., strategies and procedures rely on understanding user requirements, library management issues, and technological applications for acquiring, searching, storing, and retrieving specific information accurately and quickly. The proposed approach responds to changing customer requirements and product deliveries. The unique features of the proposed strategy include: (1) To establish customer driven data and documentation management through an innovative and unique methods to identify needs and requirements. (2) To implement a structured process which responds to user needs, aimed at minimizing costs and maximizing services, resulting in increased productivity. (3) To provide a process of standardization of services and procedures. This standardization is the central

  5. Turnaround Management Strategies: The Adaptive Model and the Constructive Model. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen E.

    The use of two management strategies by 14 liberal arts and comprehensive colleges attempting to recover from serious financial decline during 1973-1976 were studied. The adaptive model of strategy, based on resource dependence, involves managing demands in order to satisfy critical-resource providers. The constructive model of strategy, based on…

  6. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies. PMID:18419661

  7. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  8. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    PubMed

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10105044

  9. Managing organizational change: strategies for the female health care supervisor.

    PubMed

    Davies, G

    1990-07-01

    In responding to resistance to change in the current health care organization, the new female supervisor can learn to support her staff in encountering and accepting these changes. The strategies and skills discussed above are characteristic of a supervisory style that may naturally occur for women, but also can be incorporated into the leadership style of men in health care management today. Health care leaders of tomorrow must work from an androgynous framework in which the behavior patterns and responses of each gender are learned and used appropriately by both men and women. Sargent suggests that the best managers are androgynous and that this is the inevitable wave of the future. Whether man or woman, a supervisor should learn, accept, and use methods that are characteristic of both sexes to be successful in managing people. Women and men must learn from each other's strengths and share these diverse skills. Given that women now outnumber men in health care management positions and organizations are changing to a more nurturing environment, the androgynous supervisor will be the successful leader of the future. Finally, women in health care supervisory positions have the potential to bring change where it is badly needed. Women in these roles often have a system wide view of health care policy issues that recognizes less federal commitment to social programs. Many women in health care positions believe that the issues of children, women, the elderly, the poor, and the homeless need focused attention. The growing number of women in health care supervisory and leadership roles is an important factor in changing national health policy for the benefit of these groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Supportive management strategies for disseminated intravascular coagulation. An international consensus.

    PubMed

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Hunt, Beverley J; Kinasewitz, Gary T; Wada, Hideo; Ten Cate, Hugo; Thachil, Jecko; Levi, Marcel; Vicente, Vicente; D'Angelo, Armando; Di Nisio, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    The cornerstone of the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the treatment of the underlying condition triggering the coagulopathy. However, a number of uncertainties remain over the optimal supportive treatment. The aim of this study was to provide evidence and expert-based recommendations on the optimal supportive haemostatic and antithrombotic treatment strategies for patients with DIC. A working group defined five relevant clinical scenarios. Published studies were systematically searched in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (up to May 2014). Seven internationally recognised experts were asked to independently provide clinical advice. A two-phase blinded data collection technique was used to reach consensus. Only three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the supportive management of DIC were identified. The RCTs (overall less than 100 patients) investigated the use of fresh frozen plasma and platelet transfusion and found no differences in survival between the intervention and control groups. The experts' approach was heterogeneous, although there was consensus that supportive management should vary according to the underlying cause, clinical manifestations and severity of blood test abnormalities. Platelet transfusion should be given to maintain platelet count > 50×10⁹/l in case of bleeding while a lower threshold of 20 to 30×10⁹/l may be used in DIC without bleeding. Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin is advised until bleeding ensues or platelet count drops below 30×10⁹/l. In conclusion, in the absence of solid evidence from RCTs, an individualised supportive management of DIC is advisable based on the type of underlying disease, presence of bleeding or thrombotic complications and laboratory tests results.

  11. Implications for local and global climate of alternative forest management strategies in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Antón-Fernández, Clara; Astrup, Rasmus; Cherubini, Francesco; Kvalevåg, Maria; Hammer Strømman, Anders

    2014-05-01

    We applied a mix of observation and empirical models to evaluate both local and global climate effects of three realistic alternative forest management scenarios in the boreal forests of Norway's largest logging region. The alternative management scenarios embraced strategies aimed at increasing harvest intensities and allowing harvested conifer sites to regenerate naturally with broadleaved species. Stand-level analysis was firstly executed to attribute differences in daily, seasonal, and annual mean surface temperatures to differences in surface intrinsic biophysical properties across coniferous, deciduous, and clear-cut sites. Relative to a coniferous site, we observed a slight local cooling of 0.13 °C at a deciduous site and 0.25 °C at a clear-cut site over a 6-year period which was mostly attributed to a higher albedo throughout the year. When monthly mean albedo trajectories over the entire managed forest landscape were taken into consideration, we found that strategies promoting natural regeneration of coniferous sites with native deciduous species led to substantial global direct climate cooling benefits relative to those maintaining current silviculture regimes - despite predicted long-term regional warming feedbacks and a reduced albedo in spring and autumn months. The magnitude and duration of the cooling benefit depended largely on whether management strategies simultaneously promoted an enhanced material supply over business-as-usual levels. While additional climate impact linked to changes in life-cycle emissions and to changes in the global supply and demand of timber products ought to be factored into any mitigation-oriented climate policy involving the forestry sector, our analysis demonstrates that - within the boundaries of the managed forest ecosystem - excluding important biogeophysical considerations like surface albedo change may lead to sub-optimal climate policy.

  12. Coupling Agent-Based and Groundwater Modeling to Explore Demand Management Strategies for Shared Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Municipal water demands in growing population centers in the arid southwest US are typically met through increased groundwater withdrawals. Hydro-climatic uncertainties attributed to climate change and land use conversions may also alter demands and impact the replenishment of groundwater supply. Groundwater aquifers are not necessarily confined within municipal and management boundaries, and multiple diverse agencies may manage a shared resource in a decentralized approach, based on individual concerns and resources. The interactions among water managers, consumers, and the environment influence the performance of local management strategies and regional groundwater resources. This research couples an agent-based modeling (ABM) framework and a groundwater model to analyze the effects of different management approaches on shared groundwater resources. The ABM captures the dynamic interactions between household-level consumers and policy makers to simulate water demands under climate change and population growth uncertainties. The groundwater model is used to analyze the relative effects of management approaches on reducing demands and replenishing groundwater resources. The framework is applied for municipalities located in the Verde River Basin, Arizona that withdraw groundwater from the Verde Formation-Basin Fill-Carbonate aquifer system. Insights gained through this simulation study can be used to guide groundwater policy-making under changing hydro-climatic scenarios for a long-term planning horizon.

  13. Conservation values and management strategies of coastal windbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.; Song, G. Z. M.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is surrounded by oceans, so that the citizens' daily lives and the industrial activities in coast areas are exposed to and affected by strong winds and dust storms caused by the winter monsoon. Tree windbreaks present the functions of windproof, dust inhibition, damp-proof, and climate moderation. However, in recent years, the construction of roads, establishment industrial districts, development of recreation areas, building of wind turbines, and the cultivation of local citizens have greatly changed the width and integrity of tree windbreak belts, and in turn affected their functionality. Our study focus on tree windbreaks right next to the estuary of the Zhoushui River in Taiwan. Through environmental investigations, questionnaire surveys for local citizens, and vegetation sureys, the current functions of windbreaks and impacts of human disturbances on windbreaks will be evaluated. The conservation values and management strategies of tree windbreaks will be proposed after all.

  14. Antioxidant Strategies in the Management of Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Oyenihi, Ayodeji Babatunde; Ayeleso, Ademola Olabode; Masola, Bubuya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycaemia (an abnormally high glucose concentration in the blood) resulting from defects in insulin secretion/action, or both, is the major hallmark of diabetes in which it is known to be involved in the progression of the condition to different complications that include diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy (diabetes-induced nerve damage) is the most common diabetic complication and can be devastating because it can lead to disability. There is an increasing body of evidence associating diabetic neuropathy with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress results from the production of oxygen free radicals in the body in excess of its ability to eliminate them by antioxidant activity. Antioxidants have different mechanisms and sites of actions by which they exert their biochemical effects and ameliorate nerve dysfunction in diabetes by acting directly against oxidative damage. This review will examine different strategies for managing diabetic neuropathy which rely on exogenous antioxidants. PMID:25821809

  15. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen

    2002-09-10

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. During this fourth project period we completed the characterization of ozone-treated carbon surfaces and wrote a comprehensive report on the mechanism through which ozone suppresses the adsorption of concrete surfactants.

  16. Managing performance and performance management: information strategy and service user involvement.

    PubMed

    Rea, Carol A; Rea, David M

    2002-01-01

    The involvement of service users is extolled in National Service Frameworks and, in Wales, is one of seven standards set out in the National Service Framework for mental health services. National Service Frameworks have an important role in the UK government's performance management strategies. The strategies are retrospective in effect and offer insufficient help for service managers and others seeking to change and improve service performance. Draws on research conducted at intervals over the past four years in Swansea. In today's devolved UK, the details will be different in Wales from elsewhere but the focus is on how a number of organisations with differing responsibilities can work together to manage performance improvement. Demonstrates that change requires leadership to be dispersed across organisational boundaries. Accountability and responsibility must be horizontal and even downwards, not just upwards to government Service users can b e involved in their own care. Surveys that involve service users in their planning stages can gather information about the service issues that matter to them. Managing performance is different from performance management. It can ultimately enable services users to initiate and direct some of the improvements they want to see and to take part in the processes of change. The information systems must be locally useful for all involved, and must offer information about performance in time to affect improvement and change.

  17. Benefits of collaborative learning for environmental management: applying the integrated systems for knowledge management approach to support animal pest control.

    PubMed

    Allen, W; Bosch, O; Kilvington, M; Oliver, J; Gilbert, M

    2001-02-01

    Resource management issues continually change over time in response to coevolving social, economic, and ecological systems. Under these conditions adaptive management, or "learning by doing," offers an opportunity for more proactive and collaborative approaches to resolving environmental problems. In turn, this will require the implementation of learning-based extension approaches alongside more traditional linear technology transfer approaches within the area of environmental extension. In this paper the Integrated Systems for Knowledge Management (ISKM) approach is presented to illustrate how such learning-based approaches can be used to help communities develop, apply, and refine technical information within a larger context of shared understanding. To outline how this works in practice, we use a case study involving pest management. Particular attention is paid to the issues that emerge as a result of multiple stakeholder involvement within environmental problem situations. Finally, the potential role of the Internet in supporting and disseminating the experience gained through ongoing adaptive management processes is examined.

  18. Sensor Management for Applied Research Technologies (SMART) On Demand Modeling (ODM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Berthiau, G.; Blakeslee, R.; Botts, M.; Goodman, M.; Hood, R.; Jedlovec, G.; Li, X.; Lu, J.; Maskey, M.

    2007-12-01

    On-demand data processing and analysis of Earth science observations will facilitate timely decision making that can lead to the realization of the practical benefits of satellite instruments, airborne and surface remote sensing systems. However, a significant challenge exists in accessing and integrating data from multiple sensors or platforms to address Earth science problems because of the large data volumes, varying sensor scan characteristics, unique orbital coverage, and the steep learning curve associated with each sensor, data type and associated products. The development of sensor web capabilities to autonomously process these data streams (whether real-time or archived) provides an opportunity to overcome these obstacles and facilitate the integration and synthesis of Earth science data and weather model output. The authors will present initial results from Sensor Management for Applied Research Technologies (SMART) On Demand Modeling (ODM). This NASA- funded project is developing and demonstrating the readiness of Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) capabilities that integrate both Earth observations and forecast model output into new data acquisition and assimilation strategies. First year accomplishments include development of numerous Sensor Observation Services (SOS) and an SOS registry for sensor data discovery and access, as well as a prototype user application, built on these services, for validating cloud types as observed by multiple instruments. The three-year goal of this project is to demonstration how SWE-enabled systems can have practical and efficient uses in the Earth science community for enhanced data set generation, real-time data assimilation with operational applications, and for autonomous sensor tasking for unique data collection.

  19. Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Effective Behavior Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nields, Allison N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined student teachers' perceptions and knowledge of behavior management strategies. A questionnaire that included questions about broad behavior management techniques, behavioral learning theory, and behavior management strategies related to behavioral learning theory was given to sixty-one student teacher candidates at a large…

  20. Blending Effective Behavior Management and Literacy Strategies for Preschoolers Exhibiting Negative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…

  1. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management

  2. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  3. Current nutritional recommendations and novel dietary strategies to manage sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Miccheli, Alfredo; Landi, Francesco; Bossola, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Sieber, Cornel C.; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that occurs with aging, is associated with increased risk for several adverse health outcomes, including frailty, disability, falls, loss of independent living, and mortality. At present, no pharmacological treatment exists that is able to definitely halt the progression of sarcopenia. Likewise, no pharmacological remedies are yet available to prevent the onset of age-related muscle wasting. In this scenario, the combination of nutritional interventions and physical exercise appears to be the most effective strategy presently available for the management of sarcopenia. The purposes of this review are to summarize the current knowledge on the role of nutrition as a countermeasure for sarcopenia, illustrate the mechanisms of action of relevant dietary agents on the aging muscle, and introduce novel nutritional strategies that may help preserve muscle mass and function into old age. Issues related to the identification of the optimal timing of nutritional interventions in the context of primary and secondary prevention are also discussed. Finally, the prospect of elaborating personalized dietary and physical exercise recommendations through the implementation of integrated, high-throughput analytic approaches is illustrated. PMID:26082911

  4. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  5. Contemporary strategies in the diagnosis and management of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dunlay, Shannon M; Pereira, Naveen L; Kushwaha, Sudhir S

    2014-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) is an important public health problem, and strategies are needed to improve outcomes and decrease health care resource utilization and costs. Its prevalence has increased as the population ages, and HF continues to be associated with a high mortality rate and frequent need for hospitalization. The total cost of care for patients with HF was $30.7 billion in 2012, and it is estimated to more than double to $69.8 billion by 2030. Given this reality, there has been recent investigation into ways of identifying and preventing HF in patients at risk (stage A HF) and those with cardiac structural and functional abnormalities but no clinical HF symptoms (stage B). For patients who have symptoms of HF (stage C), there has been important research into the most effective ways to decongest patients hospitalized with acute decompensated HF and prevent future hospital readmissions. Successful strategies to treat patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction, which has increased in prevalence, continue to be sought. We are in the midst of a rapid evolution in our ability to care for patients with end-stage HF (stage D) because of the introduction of and improvements in mechanical circulatory support. Left ventricular assist devices used as destination therapy offer an important therapeutic option to patients who do not qualify for heart transplant because of advanced age or excessive comorbidity. This review provides a thorough update on contemporary strategies in the diagnosis and management of HF by stage (A to D) that have emerged during the past several years.

  6. Collaborative Classroom Management. Video to Accompany "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This 43-minute VHS videotape is designed to be used in course and workshop settings with "A Biological Brain in a Cultural Classroom: Applying Biological Research to Classroom Management." The videotape's principal values are as an introduction to the issues explored in the book and as a catalyst for group discussions and activities related to…

  7. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  8. African American and White Adolescents' Strategies for Managing Cultural Diversity in Predominantly White High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined 3 strategies used by 77 African American and 138 White high school students to manage cultural diversity: multicultural, separation, and assimilation strategies. Discusses results in relation to forces supporting adolescents' strategy development and the implications of strategy use for adjustment in predominantly white schools. (SLD)

  9. Novel strategies in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, P M; Motta, A B; Sir-Petermann, T; Diamanti-Kandarakis, E

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. PCOS has been recognized as a syndrome combining reproductive and metabolic abnormalities with lifelong health implications. Cardiometabolic alterations require regular screening and effective and targeted lifestyle advice to lose weight as well as to prevent weight gain. Pharmacological therapy includes insulin-sensitizer drugs and agents that act directly on metabolic comorbidities, such as statins and antiobesity drugs. Bariatric surgery may be an option for severely obese women with PCOS Regarding reproductive aspects, ovulation induction with antiestrogens such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole is the first-line medical treatment. Exogenous gonadotropins and in vitro fertilization (IVF) are recommended as second-line treatment for anovulatory infertility. Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy may be used in special cases and metformin is no longer recommended for ovulation induction. Combined oral contraceptives (OCs) are the first-line treatment for the management of menstrual irregularities in women not seeking pregnancy, also providing endometrial protection and contraception. Progestin-only pills or cyclical progestins are recommended for those with contraindications to OCs. Metformin is also considered a second-line choice for improving menstrual cycles in women presenting insulin-resistance and dysglicemia. Hirsutism requires cosmetic procedures and medical treatment with OCs. More severe cases may need anti-androgen drugs added to the OCs. In conclusion, strategies regarding the management of reproductive issues in PCOS encompass a tailored approach to individual needs of each patient.

  10. A strategy for management of the irritable bowel.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W G

    1986-02-01

    The irritable bowel is one of the most common complaints facing clinicians. Its management is difficult but a strategy is proposed that is useful in most instances. It is well to remember that most people with these symptoms do not complain to a doctor. The reason for the visit to the physician may, therefore, hold a clue as to the best course of management. The physician must first establish his credibility through a careful history, physical examination, and sigmoidoscopy. He needs to identify the precipitating factors such as dysentery, drugs, diet, emotion, or an important life event. In accordance with the patient's needs, the physician should comfort and reassure. Bran appears to be a safe method of treatment and many are satisfied with it. A follow-up visit is important to ensure compliance and comprehension. The biggest risk of the IBS lies in uncertainty, which generates needless anxiety, costly investigation, fruitless drug side effects, and even the hazards of surgery. If the patient is unimproved at the second visit, one must consider diagnostic alternatives while resisting the temptation to order irrevelant investigative procedures. Continued empathy with the patient is important and certain drugs might be considered either for their placebo effect or because of their effect on a specific complaint such as diarrhea. In the patient who continues to be dissatisfied, the physician must offer continued support and reassurance. Certain referral options may be considered but if possible, the physician should retain the initiative. PMID:3004197

  11. Cataplexy--clinical aspects, pathophysiology and management strategy.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Siegel, Jerry M; Lopez, Regis; Torontali, Zoltan A; Peever, John H

    2014-07-01

    Cataplexy is the pathognomonic symptom of narcolepsy, and is the sudden uncontrollable onset of skeletal muscle paralysis or weakness during wakefulness. Cataplexy is incapacitating because it leaves the individual awake but temporarily either fully or partially paralyzed. Occurring spontaneously, cataplexy is typically triggered by strong positive emotions such as laughter and is often underdiagnosed owing to a variable disease course in terms of age of onset, presenting symptoms, triggers, frequency and intensity of attacks. This disorder occurs almost exclusively in patients with depletion of hypothalamic orexin neurons. One pathogenetic mechanism that has been hypothesized for cataplexy is the activation, during wakefulness, of brainstem circuitry that normally induces muscle tone suppression in rapid eye movement sleep. Muscle weakness during cataplexy is caused by decreased excitation of noradrenergic neurons and increased inhibition of skeletal motor neurons by γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing or glycinergic neurons. The amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex contain neural pathways through which positive emotions probably trigger cataplectic attacks. Despite major advances in understanding disease mechanisms in cataplexy, therapeutic management is largely symptomatic, with antidepressants and γ-hydroxybutyrate being the most effective treatments. This Review describes the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of cataplexy, and outlines optimal therapeutic management strategies. PMID:24890646

  12. A review of post-modern management techniques as currently applied to Turkish forestry.

    PubMed

    Dölarslan, Emre Sahin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of six post-modern management concepts as applied to Turkish forestry. Up to now, Turkish forestry has been constrained, both in terms of its operations and internal organization, by a highly bureaucratic system. The application of new thinking in forestry management, however, has recently resulted in new organizational and production concepts that promise to address problems specific to this Turkish industry and bring about positive changes. This paper will elucidate these specific issues and demonstrate how post-modern management thinking is influencing the administration and operational capacity of Turkish forestry within its current structure.

  13. Retaining Staff Employees: The Relationship between Human Resources Management Strategies and Organizational Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Jeffrey M.; Watson, John L.

    2002-01-01

    Explored whether an institution's human resources management (HRM) strategies can influence individuals' organizational commitment levels, which ultimately can affect staff turnover rates. Found significant relationship between certain HRM strategies and commitment constructs. (EV)

  14. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639

  15. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas.

  16. Applying Foreign Entry Market Strategies to UK Higher Education Transnational Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Victoria; Antoniou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    We take a multidisciplinary approach mapping the models used by UK higher education (HE) institutions against established international business foreign market entry strategies. We review the conditions in host markets that facilitate market entry and consider how these will determine foreign market entry strategy. We specifically consider four…

  17. Management strategies in the treatment of neonatal and pediatric gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Simona; Stolfi, Ilaria; Caramia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis, characterized by the onset of diarrhea with or without vomiting, continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in mostly resource-constrained nations. Although generally a mild and self-limiting disease, gastroenteritis is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and is associated with a substantial disease burden. Worldwide, up to 40% of children aged less than 5 years with diarrhea are hospitalized with rotavirus. Also, some microorganisms have been found predominantly in resource-constrained nations, including Shigella spp, Vibrio cholerae, and the protozoan infections. Prevention remains essential, and the rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated good safety and efficacy profiles in large clinical trials. Because dehydration is the major complication associated with gastroenteritis, appropriate fluid management (oral or intravenous) is an effective and safe strategy for rehydration. Continuation of breastfeeding is strongly recommended. New treatments such as antiemetics (ondansetron), some antidiarrheal agents (racecadotril), and chemotherapeutic agents are often proposed, but not yet universally recommended. Probiotics, also known as “food supplement,” seem to improve intestinal microbial balance, reducing the duration and the severity of acute infectious diarrhea. The European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases guidelines make a stronger recommendation for the use of probiotics for the management of acute gastroenteritis, particularly those with documented efficacy such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Saccharomyces boulardii. To date, the management of acute gastroenteritis has been based on the option of “doing the least”: oral rehydration-solution administration, early refeeding, no testing, no unnecessary drugs. PMID:24194646

  18. Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

    2009-04-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).

  19. Applying Fourth Generation Management to Access Services: Reinventing Customer Service and Process Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Douglas F.

    2004-01-01

    Are librarians doing all they can to ensure that customer services are delivered with the customer in mind? Librarians are great at helping, but we sometimes need help with identifying customers, defining their needs, developing services, and reviewing the processes behind the services. Fourth Generation Management provides new insight for…

  20. An Objective Comparison of Applied Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…

  1. Applying the Management-by-Objectives Technique in an Industrial Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Robert O.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental "management-by-objectives" performance system was operated by the Libraries and Information Systems Center of Bell Laboratories during 1973. It was found that, though the system was very effective for work planning and the development of people, difficulties were encountered in applying it to certain classes of employees. (Author)

  2. Two Student Self-Management Techniques Applied to Data-Based Program Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caren

    Two student self-management techniques, student charting and student selection of instructional activities, were applied to ongoing data-based program modification. Forty-two elementary school resource room students were assigned randomly (within teacher) to one of three treatment conditions: Teacher Chart-Teacher Select Instructional Activities…

  3. Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety: A Comprehensive Process To Improve Care in Rural and Frontier Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westfall, John M.; Fernald, Douglas H.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; VanVorst, Rebecca; West, David; Pace, Wilson D.

    2004-01-01

    Medical errors and patient safety have gained increasing attention throughout all areas of medical care. Understanding patient safety in rural settings is crucial for improving care in rural communities. To describe a system to decrease medical errors and improve care in rural and frontier primary care offices. Applied Strategies for Improving…

  4. Use of physical activity self-management strategies by high school students.

    PubMed

    Trost, Stewart G; Hutley, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Teaching adolescents to use self-management strategies may be an effective approach to promoting lifelong physical activity (PA). However, the extent to which adolescents use self-management strategies and their impact on current PA have not been studied previously. The aims of this study were 1) to describe the prevalence of self-management strategy use in adolescents; and 2) to determine relationships between self-management strategy use, PA self-efficacy, and PA participation. 197 students completed questionnaires measuring use of self-management strategies, self-efficacy, and PA behavior. The most prevalent self-management strategies (>30%) were thinking about the benefits of PA, making PA more enjoyable, choosing activities that are convenient, setting aside time to do PA, and setting goals to do PA. Fewer than 10% reported rewarding oneself for PA, writing planned activities in a book or calendar, and keeping charts of PA. Use of self-management strategies was associated with increased self-efficacy (r = .47, p < .001) and higher levels of PA (r = .34 p < .001). A 1-unit difference in self-management strategy scores was associated with a ~fourfold increase in the probability of being active (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.8-7.4). Although strongly associated with PA, a relatively small percentage of adolescents routinely use self-management strategies.

  5. Strategies for the Management of Congenital Iris Cysts.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Shabana; Shoaib, Khawaja Khalid; Hing, Stephen; Smith, James

    2016-06-01

    Iris cysts can arise from iris pigment epithelium or stroma. We present 3 cases of iris cysts which have been managed in different ways. In a one-month neonate, cyst was punctured with keratome and gentle diode laser endophotocoagulation was applied to the base. A2.5-month infant presented with watering and blepharospasm since birth. Clear fluid was aspirated from the cyst with a 27-gauge needle and Ethanol 96% (ETOH) was injected into the cyst and then aspirated. It was followed by injection/aspiration of 0.3 ml of balanced salt solution thrice. Cyst wall was excised. A13-month toddler presented with 4-month history of intermittent irritation and photophobia. The cyst was aspirated with a 25-gauge needle and the cyst walls were nibbled with 20-gauge vitrectomy cutter. Excision is better than injection of sclerosing solutions. The aim is to remove the whole cyst to avoid recurrence and to prevent amblyopia. PMID:27376231

  6. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Oil Sands Environmental Compliance Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Izak Johannes, III

    Oil companies in Alberta, Canada, invested $32 billion on new oil sands projects in 2013. Despite the size of this investment, there is a demonstrable deficiency in the uniformity and understanding of environmental legislation requirements that manifest into increased project compliance risks. This descriptive study developed 2 prioritized lists of environmental regulatory compliance risks and mitigation strategies and used multi-criteria decision theory for its theoretical framework. Information from compiled lists of environmental compliance risks and mitigation strategies was used to generate a specialized pairwise survey, which was piloted by 5 subject matter experts (SMEs). The survey was validated by a sample of 16 SMEs, after which the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank a total of 33 compliance risks and 12 mitigation strategy criteria. A key finding was that the AHP is a suitable tool for ranking of compliance risks and mitigation strategies. Several working hypotheses were also tested regarding how SMEs prioritized 1 compliance risk or mitigation strategy compared to another. The AHP showed that regulatory compliance, company reputation, environmental compliance, and economics ranked the highest and that a multi criteria mitigation strategy for environmental compliance ranked the highest. The study results will inform Alberta oil sands industry leaders about the ranking and utility of specific compliance risks and mitigations strategies, enabling them to focus on actions that will generate legislative and public trust. Oil sands leaders implementing a risk management program using the risks and mitigation strategies identified in this study will contribute to environmental conservation, economic growth, and positive social change.

  7. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  8. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-04

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  9. Navigating a Managed Care Peer Review: Guidance for Clinicians Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Children on the Autism Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Papatola, Kathleen J; Lustig, Stuart L

    2016-06-01

    As autism rates increase, providers of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) services are more frequently engaging with managed care companies to discuss the medical necessity of treatment. In an effort to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of these reviews, we draw upon our experience as peer reviewers for a managed care company to guide ABA providers in discussions with managed care on behalf of their patients. In this article, we first provide an overview of the managed care peer review process. We then discuss the elements of medical necessity that managed care companies ask about during the review process. Finally, we review specific strategies that ABA providers can use during the process to optimize authorizations for payment for services. Throughout the paper, we provide sample dialogues between providers and peer reviewers based on our experience working for a managed care company along with specific recommendations that we hope will ensure a more collegial and effective peer review process for all involved. PMID:27606250

  10. Assessment of regional management strategies for controlling seawater intrusion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-optimization methods, applied with adequate sensitivity tests, can provide useful quantitative guidance for controlling seawater intrusion. This is demonstrated in an application to the West Coast Basin of coastal Los Angeles that considers two management options for improving hydraulic control of seawater intrusion: increased injection into barrier wells and in lieu delivery of surface water to replace current pumpage. For the base-case optimization analysis, assuming constant groundwater demand, in lieu delivery was determined to be most cost effective. Reduced-cost information from the optimization provided guidance for prioritizing locations for in lieu delivery. Model sensitivity to a suite of hydrologic, economic, and policy factors was tested. Raising the imposed average water-level constraint at the hydraulic-control locations resulted in nonlinear increases in cost. Systematic varying of the relative costs of injection and in lieu water yielded a trade-off curve between relative costs and injection/in lieu amounts. Changing the assumed future scenario to one of increasing pumpage in the adjacent Central Basin caused a small increase in the computed costs of seawater intrusion control. Changing the assumed boundary condition representing interaction with an adjacent basin did not affect the optimization results. Reducing the assumed hydraulic conductivity of the main productive aquifer resulted in a large increase in the model-computed cost. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management ?? ASCE.

  11. Land use and management in PR China: problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y

    1990-10-01

    The conflict between population and land in China results from high population density, declining availability of arable land, decrease in cropland, overgrazing, inability to afford imported grain, and expansion of land use for urbanization. Unwise decisions have been made. These decisions have resulted in land degradation, soil erosion, deforestation, degradation of grasslands, waste of land for freight storage or waste disposal due to low grain prices, and nonagricultural constructions on croplands. Ineffective land management problems are identified as: 1) the lack of an economic means of guiding land use and land is not valued; the lack of any mechanism to ensure economic land use including public lands which are not accounted for with rent; 2) the lack of integration of departments into the decision making structure and too many departments making decisions about the same land; 3) the lack of choice in land use which results in higher government departments being unaware of local conditions, and the lack of appropriate investment which results in short-term exploitation; and 4) surveys are inadequate for decision making. The strategies suggested for improvement in land use management include low resources expenditure in production and appropriate goods consumption. The goal is to sustain subsistence with gradual improvement through development. Land resources must be conserved and the environment protected. The solutions to depend on food imports or reduce the nutritional level deny the equally plausible solution to generate a higher level of input. The profit motive and scientific agricultural practices could accomplish this end. Reclamation for cropland is possible for 8 million hectares of wasteland in wide areas in Sanjiang Plain and 3.4 million hectares in small pockets in Eastern Monsoon China. Traditional agriculture must be transformed and an optimum scale of land operation established. Land tenure reform is necessary. Regional conditions must prevail

  12. Allergic rhinitis in children : diagnosis and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Berger, William E

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of allergic rhinitis has been increasing for the last few decades, in keeping with the rising incidence of atopy worldwide. Allergic rhinitis has a prevalence of up to 40% in children, although it frequently goes unrecognized and untreated. This can have enormous negative consequences, particularly in children, since it is associated with numerous complications and comorbidities that have a significant health impact on quality of life. In fact, allergic rhinitis is considered to be a risk factor for asthma. There are numerous signs of allergic rhinitis, particularly in children, that can alert an observant clinician to its presence. Children with severe allergic rhinitis often have facial manifestations of itching and obstructed breathing, including a gaping mouth, chapped lips, evidence of sleep deprivation, a long face, dental malloclusions, and the allergic shiner, allergic salute, or allergic crease. The medical history is extremely important as it can reveal information regarding a family history of atopy and the progression of atopy in the child. It is also important to identify the specific triggers of allergic rhinitis, because one of the keys to successful management is the avoidance of triggers. A tripartite treatment strategy that embraces environmental control, immunotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment is the most comprehensive approach. Immunotherapy has come to be viewed as potentially prophylactic, capable of altering the course of allergic rhinitis. The most recent guidelines for the management of allergic rhinitis issued by the WHO recommend a tiered approach that integrates diagnosis and treatment, in which allergic rhinitis is subclassified both by frequency, as either intermittent or persistent, and by severity, as either mild or moderate to severe. Oral or topical antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids are the mainstay of pharmacologic therapy for allergic rhinitis, depending upon its severity, and several agents have been

  13. Exploring critical pathways for urban water management to identify robust strategies under deep uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Urich, Christian; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Long-term projections for key drivers needed in urban water infrastructure planning such as climate change, population growth, and socio-economic changes are deeply uncertain. Traditional planning approaches heavily rely on these projections, which, if a projection stays unfulfilled, can lead to problematic infrastructure decisions causing high operational costs and/or lock-in effects. New approaches based on exploratory modelling take a fundamentally different view. Aim of these is, to identify an adaptation strategy that performs well under many future scenarios, instead of optimising a strategy for a handful. However, a modelling tool to support strategic planning to test the implication of adaptation strategies under deeply uncertain conditions for urban water management does not exist yet. This paper presents a first step towards a new generation of such strategic planning tools, by combing innovative modelling tools, which coevolve the urban environment and urban water infrastructure under many different future scenarios, with robust decision making. The developed approach is applied to the city of Innsbruck, Austria, which is spatially explicitly evolved 20 years into the future under 1000 scenarios to test the robustness of different adaptation strategies. Key findings of this paper show that: (1) Such an approach can be used to successfully identify parameter ranges of key drivers in which a desired performance criterion is not fulfilled, which is an important indicator for the robustness of an adaptation strategy; and (2) Analysis of the rich dataset gives new insights into the adaptive responses of agents to key drivers in the urban system by modifying a strategy.

  14. Selection of a management strategy for pediatric brainstem tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, E.C.; Wehn, S.M.; Scott, J.W.; Djang, W.; Oakes, W.J.; Friedman, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Brainstem tumors arise in portions of the rhombencephalon and mesencephalon. Some authorities include diencephalic tumors in this group. We have reviewed our clinical experience of 69 children (less than 21 years of age) with brainstem tumors evaluated and treated at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) from 1960 to 1986. There were 19 patients with group 1 tumors (thalamus, third ventricle region, or midbrain) and 50 with group II tumors (pons, medulla oblongata). The common presenting signs and symptoms were ataxia, headache, motor loss, and cranial nerve palsies. The most commonly employed diagnostic imaging studies were air examinations and CT. Preradiotherapy confirmation of malignancy was obtained in five group I patients (astrocytoma, 4; germinoma, 1) and 8 group II patients (astrocytoma, 3; anaplastic astrocytoma, 2; glioblastoma multiforme, 3). All patients received radiotherapy. The 5-year survival rate for the entire population was 40%. The survival rate for group I patients was significantly better than that observed for group II patients. In the 50 group II patients neither patient sex nor age nor presence of cranial nerve palsies nor pretreatment CT scan findings nor field size influenced survival. A long duration of symptoms positively influenced survival. The vast majority of tumor recurrences were within the radiation field. Half of the patients had either stable or improved Karnofsky status 6 months following completion of irradiation. The management strategy for childhood brainstem tumors is discussed.

  15. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

    2001-12-26

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

  16. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth

    2001-06-22

    The overall objective of the present project is to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific research issues to be addressed include: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This data will provide scientific and engineering support of the ongoing process development activities. This first project period, experiments were carried out to better understand the fundamental nature of the ozonation effect on ash. Carbon surfaces were characterized by surfactant adsorption, and by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy before and after oxidation, both by air at 440 C and by ozone at room temperature. The results strongly suggest that the beneficial effect of ozonation is in large part due to chemical modification of the carbon surfaces.

  17. Sports-related concussions: diagnosis, complications, and current management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jonathan G; Young, Jacob S; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-04-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are traumatic events that affect up to 3.8 million athletes per year. The initial diagnosis and management is often instituted on the field of play by coaches, athletic trainers, and team physicians. SRCs are usually transient episodes of neurological dysfunction following a traumatic impact, with most symptoms resolving in 7-10 days; however, a small percentage of patients will suffer protracted symptoms for years after the event and may develop chronic neurodegenerative disease. Rarely, SRCs are associated with complications, such as skull fractures, epidural or subdural hematomas, and edema requiring neurosurgical evaluation. Current standards of care are based on a paradigm of rest and gradual return to play, with decisions driven by subjective and objective information gleaned from a detailed history and physical examination. Advanced imaging techniques such as functional MRI, and detailed understanding of the complex pathophysiological process underlying SRCs and how they affect the athletes acutely and long-term, may change the way physicians treat athletes who suffer a concussion. It is hoped that these advances will allow a more accurate assessment of when an athlete is truly safe to return to play, decreasing the risk of secondary impact injuries, and provide avenues for therapeutic strategies targeting the complex biochemical cascade that results from a traumatic injury to the brain.

  18. Sports-related concussions: diagnosis, complications, and current management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jonathan G; Young, Jacob S; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-04-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are traumatic events that affect up to 3.8 million athletes per year. The initial diagnosis and management is often instituted on the field of play by coaches, athletic trainers, and team physicians. SRCs are usually transient episodes of neurological dysfunction following a traumatic impact, with most symptoms resolving in 7-10 days; however, a small percentage of patients will suffer protracted symptoms for years after the event and may develop chronic neurodegenerative disease. Rarely, SRCs are associated with complications, such as skull fractures, epidural or subdural hematomas, and edema requiring neurosurgical evaluation. Current standards of care are based on a paradigm of rest and gradual return to play, with decisions driven by subjective and objective information gleaned from a detailed history and physical examination. Advanced imaging techniques such as functional MRI, and detailed understanding of the complex pathophysiological process underlying SRCs and how they affect the athletes acutely and long-term, may change the way physicians treat athletes who suffer a concussion. It is hoped that these advances will allow a more accurate assessment of when an athlete is truly safe to return to play, decreasing the risk of secondary impact injuries, and provide avenues for therapeutic strategies targeting the complex biochemical cascade that results from a traumatic injury to the brain. PMID:27032922

  19. Update on prolactinomas. Part 2: Treatment and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Anni; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2015-10-01

    The authors present an update on the various treatment modalities and discuss management strategies for prolactinomas. Prolactinomas are the most common type of functional pituitary tumor. Effective hyperprolactinemia treatment is of great importance, due to its potential deleterious effects including infertility, gonadal dysfunction and osteoporosis. Dopamine agonist therapy is the first line of treatment for prolactinomas because of its effectiveness in normalizing serum prolactin levels and shrinking tumor size. Though withdrawal of dopamine agonist treatment is safe and may be implemented following certain recommendations, recurrence of disease after cessation of the drug occurs in a substantial proportion of patients. Concerns regarding the safety of dopamine agonists have been raised, but its safety profile remains high, allowing its use during pregnancy. Surgery is typically indicated for patients who are resistant to medical therapy or intolerant of its adverse side effects, or are experiencing progressive tumor growth. Surgical resection can also be considered as a primary treatment for those with smaller focal tumors where a biochemical cure can be expected as an alternative to lifelong dopamine agonist treatment. Stereotactic radiosurgery also serves as an option for those refractory to medical and surgical therapy. PMID:26243714

  20. Wastewater reclamation and recharge: A water management strategy for Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    Gorder, P.J.; Brunswick, R.J.; Bockemeier, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 61,000 acre-feet of the pumped water is annually discharged to the Rio Grande as treated wastewater. Albuquerque`s Southside Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) is the primary wastewater treatment facility for most of the Albuquerque area. Its current design capacity is 76 million gallons per day (mgd), which is expected to be adequate until about 2004. A master plan currently is being prepared (discussed here in Wastewater Master Planning and the Zero Discharge Concept section) to provide guidelines for future expansions of the plant and wastewater infrastructure. Construction documents presently are being prepared to add ammonia and nitrogen removal capability to the plant, as required by its new discharge permit. The paper discusses water management strategies, indirect potable reuse for Albuquerque, water quality considerations for indirect potable reuse, treatment for potable reuse, geohydrological aspects of a recharge program, layout and estimated costs for a conceptual reclamation and recharge system, and work to be accomplished under phase 2 of the reclamation and recharge program.

  1. STRATEGIES AND TECHNOLOGY FOR MANAGING HIGH-CARBON ASH

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Eric Suuberg; John Veranth; Xu Chen; Indrek Kulaots

    2004-02-13

    The overall objective of the present project was to identify and assess strategies and solutions for the management of industry problems related to carbon in ash. Specific issues addressed included: (1) the effect of parent fuel selection on ash properties and adsorptivity, including a first ever examination of the air entrainment behavior of ashes from alternative (non-coal) fuels; (2) the effect of various low-NOx firing modes on ash properties and adsorptivity based on pilot-plant studies; and (3) the kinetics and mechanism of ash ozonation. This laboratory data has provided scientific and engineering support and underpinning for parallel process development activities. The development work on the ash ozonation process has now transitioned into a scale-up and commercialization project involving a multi-industry team and scheduled to begin in 2004. This report describes and documents the laboratory and pilot-scale work in the above three areas done at Brown University and the University of Utah during this three-year project.

  2. Adolescent prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc: Management strategies and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Pragyan; Thirupathi, Rajan Thanga; Srinivas, Dwarakanath; Somanna, Sampath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LIVDH) is rare in children and adolescents when compared to adults. In literature, children generally constitute around 0.5–3% of surgically treated LIVDH. Though much rarer, they are less likely to respond to conservative treatment than adults. In this study, we analyze our experience in the management of adolescent LIVDH (ALIVDH) (age group 12–18 years) including the demographic, clinico-radiological features; surgical management strategies and outcome. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis constituted all patients between 12 and 18 years, who underwent surgery for LIVDH at our institute over a period of 15 years from January 1999 to June 2014. The records of these patients were retrieved, and demographic features, clinical picture, radiological features, operative findings, and postoperative events were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained either through direct clinical evaluation or mailed self-report questionnaire and telephone conversations. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using standardized and condition specific outcome scales in addition to routine clinical follow-up evaluation. The long-term outcome was analyzed by using the short form-36 (SF-36). Results: There were a total of 32 patients (26 males, eight females) with an average age of 15.64 years. Trauma was a significant etiological factor 57.14% (n = 16/28). Vertebral anomalies were present in 35.7% (n = 10/28) cases. Majority had a neurological deficit at presentation (n = 20/28). The most commonly involved level was the L4–L5 level (n = 18/128) in this series. Multiple level disc degeneration was present in eight patients (28.6%). Immediate postoperative relief was achieved in all but one patient. At long-term follow-up twenty patients were pain-free (71.4%). At follow-up, the physical functioning scale of SF-36 was significantly lower in patients with gross motor deficit prior to surgery. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and

  3. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    PubMed

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  4. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    PubMed

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  5. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+

    PubMed Central

    Asare, Rebecca A.; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users’ decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  6. The cubature smooth variable structure filter estimation strategy applied to a quadrotor controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shabi, M.; Gadsden, S. A.; Wilkerson, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are becoming increasingly popular in industry, military, and social environments. An UAS that provides good operating performance and robustness to disturbances is often quite expensive and prohibitive to the general public. To improve UAS performance without affecting the overall cost, an estimation strategy can be implemented on the internal controller. The use of an estimation strategy or filter reduces the number of required sensors and power requirement, and improves the controller performance. UAS devices are highly nonlinear, and implementation of filters can be quite challenging. This paper presents the implementation of the relatively new cubature smooth variable structure filter (CSVSF) on a quadrotor controller. The results are compared with other state and parameter estimation strategies.

  7. Ecologically based management of rodents in the real world: applied to a mixed agroecosystem in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter R; Tuan, Nguyen Phu; Singleton, Grant R; Ha, Phi Thi Thu; Hoa, Phung Thi; Hue, Dao Thi; Tan, Tran Quang; Van Tuat, Nguyen; Jacob, Jens; Müller, Warren J

    2006-10-01

    Rodents cause significant damage to lowland irrigated rice crops in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. A four-year study was conducted in 1999-2002 to examine the effectiveness of applying rodent control practices using the principles of ecologically based pest management. Four 100-150 ha study sites adjacent to villages were selected and farmers on two treated sites were asked to follow a set of rodent management practices, while farmers on the untreated sites were asked not to change their typical practices. Farmers on the treated sites were encouraged to use trap-barrier systems (TBS's; 0.065-ha early planted crop surrounded by a plastic fence with multiple capture traps; one TBS for every 10-15 ha), to work together over large areas by destroying burrows in refuge habitats soon after planting (before the rats reestablish in the fields and before the onset of breeding), synchronizing planting and harvesting of the their rice crops, cleaning up weeds and piles of straw, and keeping bund (embankment) size small (<30 cm) to prevent burrowing. A 75% reduction in the use of rodenticides and plastic barrier fences (without traps or an early crop) was achieved on treated sites. The abundance of rodents was low after implementation of the management practices across all sites. There was no evidence for an effect of treatment on the abundance of rodents captured each month using live-capture traps, and no difference in damage between treatments or in yields obtained from the rice crops. Therefore, ecologically based rodent management was equally effective as typical practices for rodent management. Farmers on the treated sites spent considerably less money applying rodent control practices, which was reflected in the comparative increase in the partial benefit:cost of applying ecologically based rodent management from 3:1 on treated sites and untreated sites prior to the implementation of treatments to 17:1 on treated sites in the final year of the project. PMID:17069390

  8. Ecologically based management of rodents in the real world: applied to a mixed agroecosystem in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter R; Tuan, Nguyen Phu; Singleton, Grant R; Ha, Phi Thi Thu; Hoa, Phung Thi; Hue, Dao Thi; Tan, Tran Quang; Van Tuat, Nguyen; Jacob, Jens; Müller, Warren J

    2006-10-01

    Rodents cause significant damage to lowland irrigated rice crops in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. A four-year study was conducted in 1999-2002 to examine the effectiveness of applying rodent control practices using the principles of ecologically based pest management. Four 100-150 ha study sites adjacent to villages were selected and farmers on two treated sites were asked to follow a set of rodent management practices, while farmers on the untreated sites were asked not to change their typical practices. Farmers on the treated sites were encouraged to use trap-barrier systems (TBS's; 0.065-ha early planted crop surrounded by a plastic fence with multiple capture traps; one TBS for every 10-15 ha), to work together over large areas by destroying burrows in refuge habitats soon after planting (before the rats reestablish in the fields and before the onset of breeding), synchronizing planting and harvesting of the their rice crops, cleaning up weeds and piles of straw, and keeping bund (embankment) size small (<30 cm) to prevent burrowing. A 75% reduction in the use of rodenticides and plastic barrier fences (without traps or an early crop) was achieved on treated sites. The abundance of rodents was low after implementation of the management practices across all sites. There was no evidence for an effect of treatment on the abundance of rodents captured each month using live-capture traps, and no difference in damage between treatments or in yields obtained from the rice crops. Therefore, ecologically based rodent management was equally effective as typical practices for rodent management. Farmers on the treated sites spent considerably less money applying rodent control practices, which was reflected in the comparative increase in the partial benefit:cost of applying ecologically based rodent management from 3:1 on treated sites and untreated sites prior to the implementation of treatments to 17:1 on treated sites in the final year of the project.

  9. Effects of land management strategies on the dispersal pattern of a beneficial arthropod.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Chiara; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Several arthropods are known to be highly beneficial to agricultural production. Consequently it is of great relevance to study the importance of land management and land composition for the conservation of beneficial aphid-predator arthropod species in agricultural areas. Therefore our study focusing on the beneficial arthropod Bembidion lampros had two main purposes: I) identifying the physical barriers to the species' dispersal in the agricultural landscape, and II) assessing the effect of different land management strategies (i.e. use of pesticides and intensiveness) on the dispersal patterns. The study was conducted using genetic analysis (microsatellite markers) applied to samples from two agricultural areas (in Denmark) with different agricultural intensity. Land management effects on dispersal patterns were investigated with particular focus on: physical barriers, use of pesticide and intensity of cultivation. The results showed that Bembidion lampros disperse preferably through hedges rather than fields, which act as physical barriers to gene flow. Moreover the results support the hypothesis that organic fields act as reservoirs for the re-colonization of conventional fields, but only when cultivation intensity is low. These results show the importance of non-cultivated areas and of low intensity organic managed areas within the agricultural landscape as corridors for dispersal (also for a species typically found within fields). Hence, the hypothesis that pesticide use cannot be used as the sole predictor of agriculture's effect on wild species is supported as land structure and agricultural intensity can be just as important.

  10. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

    2014-07-01

    An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

  11. Learning in the Panic Zone: Strategies for Managing Learner Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palethorpe, Rob; Wilson, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to highlight the value of stressful and challenging environments as a strategy to enhance learning and to provide an inventory of strategies for use in cases where participants experience anxiety-related blockages to learning. Design/methodology/approach: This article adopted a qualitative research strategy which consisted…

  12. Urban Teachers' Professed Classroom Management Strategies: Reflections of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Dave F.

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen urban educators teaching from 1st through 12th grade selected from 7 cities across the United States were interviewed in this qualitative research study to determine if the classroom management strategies they use reflect the research on culturally responsive teaching. Participants revealed using several management strategies that reflect…

  13. Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners: Advice to Teachers. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, Ursula; Hull, Oksana

    2007-01-01

    "Classroom Management Strategies to Address the Needs of Sudanese Refugee Learners" (ED499673) examined the extent to which English language, literacy and numeracy teachers used classroom management strategies to meet the needs of adult Sudanese refugee learners. The researchers found that while teachers met the needs of these learners insofar as…

  14. Improving the integration of recreation management with management of other natural resources by applying concepts of scale from ecology.

    PubMed

    Morse, Wayde C; Hall, Troy E; Kruger, Linda E

    2009-03-01

    In this article, we examine how issues of scale affect the integration of recreation management with the management of other natural resources on public lands. We present two theories used to address scale issues in ecology and explore how they can improve the two most widely applied recreation-planning frameworks. The theory of patch dynamics and hierarchy theory are applied to the recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) and the limits of acceptable change (LAC) recreation-planning frameworks. These frameworks have been widely adopted internationally, and improving their ability to integrate with other aspects of natural resource management has significant social and conservation implications. We propose that incorporating ecologic criteria and scale concepts into these recreation-planning frameworks will improve the foundation for integrated land management by resolving issues of incongruent boundaries, mismatched scales, and multiple-scale analysis. Specifically, we argue that whereas the spatially explicit process of the ROS facilitates integrated decision making, its lack of ecologic criteria, broad extent, and large patch size decrease its usefulness for integration at finer scales. The LAC provides explicit considerations for weighing competing values, but measurement of recreation disturbances within an LAC analysis is often done at too fine a grain and at too narrow an extent for integration with other recreation and resource concerns. We suggest that planners should perform analysis at multiple scales when making management decisions that involve trade-offs among competing values. The United States Forest Service is used as an example to discuss how resource-management agencies can improve this integration.

  15. Improving the Integration of Recreation Management with Management of Other Natural Resources by Applying Concepts of Scale from Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Wayde C.; Hall, Troy E.; Kruger, Linda E.

    2009-03-01

    In this article, we examine how issues of scale affect the integration of recreation management with the management of other natural resources on public lands. We present two theories used to address scale issues in ecology and explore how they can improve the two most widely applied recreation-planning frameworks. The theory of patch dynamics and hierarchy theory are applied to the recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) and the limits of acceptable change (LAC) recreation-planning frameworks. These frameworks have been widely adopted internationally, and improving their ability to integrate with other aspects of natural resource management has significant social and conservation implications. We propose that incorporating ecologic criteria and scale concepts into these recreation-planning frameworks will improve the foundation for integrated land management by resolving issues of incongruent boundaries, mismatched scales, and multiple-scale analysis. Specifically, we argue that whereas the spatially explicit process of the ROS facilitates integrated decision making, its lack of ecologic criteria, broad extent, and large patch size decrease its usefulness for integration at finer scales. The LAC provides explicit considerations for weighing competing values, but measurement of recreation disturbances within an LAC analysis is often done at too fine a grain and at too narrow an extent for integration with other recreation and resource concerns. We suggest that planners should perform analysis at multiple scales when making management decisions that involve trade-offs among competing values. The United States Forest Service is used as an example to discuss how resource-management agencies can improve this integration.

  16. Applying the Think-Aloud Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension of Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effectiveness of using the think-aloud strategy to improve the reading comprehension in the content area of science. Based on state standards assessments, many early elementary grade students who were considered fluent readers struggled with evaluative science comprehension. In this quasi-experimental…

  17. Diversity-oriented synthetic strategies applied to cancer chemical biology and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ian; Jones, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    How can diversity-oriented strategies for chemical synthesis provide chemical tools to help shape our understanding of complex cancer pathways and progress anti-cancer drug discovery efforts? This review (surveying the literature from 2003 to the present) considers the applications of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS), biology-oriented synthesis (BIOS) and associated strategies to cancer biology and drug discovery, summarising the syntheses of novel and often highly complex scaffolds from pluripotent or synthetically versatile building blocks. We highlight the role of diversity-oriented synthetic strategies in producing new chemical tools to interrogate cancer biology pathways through the assembly of relevant libraries and their application to phenotypic and biochemical screens. The use of diversity-oriented strategies to explore structure-activity relationships in more advanced drug discovery projects is discussed. We show how considering appropriate and variable focus in library design has provided a spectrum of DOS approaches relevant at all stages in anti-cancer drug discovery. PMID:25350364

  18. The Effects of Applying Authentic Learning Strategies to Develop Computational Thinking Skills in Computer Literacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingo, Wendye Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if authentic learning strategies can be used to acquire knowledge of and increase motivation for computational thinking. Over 600 students enrolled in a computer literacy course participated in this study which involved completing a pretest, posttest and motivation survey. The students were divided into an…

  19. Applying an Experiential Learning Model to the Teaching of Gateway Strategy Board Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Aiko; de Haan, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The board game hobby has rapidly grown and evolved in recent years, but most of the non-digital games lack tips and tutorials and remain difficult to learn and teach effectively. In this project, we integrated a popular hobbyist approach to teaching modern strategy games with classical experiential learning elements (i.e., demonstration,…

  20. Improv(ing) the Academy: Applied Improvisation as a Strategy for Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossing, Jonathan P.; Hoffmann-Longtin, Krista

    2016-01-01

    Improvisational theater training (or "improv") is a strategy employed by many business leaders and educators to cultivate creativity and collaboration amid change. Drawing on improv principles such as "Yes, And…" and "Make your scene partners look good," we explore the ways in which educational developers might apply…

  1. 25 CFR 900.43 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a tribal organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.43 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a...

  2. 25 CFR 900.42 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.42 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian...

  3. 25 CFR 900.42 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.42 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian...

  4. 25 CFR 900.42 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.42 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian...

  5. 25 CFR 900.42 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.42 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian...

  6. 25 CFR 900.43 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a tribal organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.43 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a...

  7. 25 CFR 900.43 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a tribal organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.43 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a...

  8. 25 CFR 900.43 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a tribal organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.43 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a...

  9. 25 CFR 900.43 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a tribal organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.43 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to a...

  10. 25 CFR 900.42 - What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian tribe carrying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the general financial management system... Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Standards for Financial Management Systems § 900.42 What are the general financial management system standards that apply to an Indian...

  11. The CEOS Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management: An Enterprise Architect's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Frye, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS), on behalf of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), is defining an enterprise architecture (known as GA.4.D) for the use of satellite observations in international disaster management. This architecture defines the scope and structure of the disaster management enterprise (based on disaster types and phases); its processes (expressed via use cases / system functions); and its core values (in particular, free and open data sharing via standard interfaces). The architecture also details how a disaster management enterprise describes, obtains, and handles earth observations and data products for decision-support; and how it draws on distributed computational services for streamlined operational capability. We have begun to apply this architecture to a new CEOS initiative, the Global Observation Strategy for Disaster Risk Management (DRM). CEOS is defining this Strategy based on the outcomes of three pilot projects focused on seismic hazards, volcanoes, and floods. These pilots offer a unique opportunity to characterize and assess the impacts (benefits / costs) of the GA.4.D architecture in practice. In particular, the DRM Floods Pilot is applying satellite-based optical and radar data to flood mitigation, warning, and response, including monitoring and modeling at regional to global scales. It is focused on serving user needs and building local institutional / technical capacity in the Caribbean, Southern Africa, and Southeast Asia. In the context of these CEOS DRM Pilots, we are characterizing where and how the GA.4D architecture helps participants to: - Understand the scope and nature of hazard events quickly and accurately - Assure timely delivery of observations into analysis, modeling, and decision-making - Streamline user access to products - Lower barriers to entry for users or suppliers - Streamline or focus field operations in

  12. The Role of Applied Epidemiology Methods in the Disaster Management Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Michael; Perrotta, Dennis; Wolkin, Amy F.; Schnall, Amy H.; Podgornik, Michelle N.; Cruz, Miguel A.; Horney, Jennifer A.; Zane, David; Roisman, Rachel; Greenspan, Joel R.; Thoroughman, Doug; Anderson, Henry A.; Wells, Eden V.; Simms, Erin F.

    2014-01-01

    Disaster epidemiology (i.e., applied epidemiology in disaster settings) presents a source of reliable and actionable information for decision-makers and stakeholders in the disaster management cycle. However, epidemiological methods have yet to be routinely integrated into disaster response and fully communicated to response leaders. We present a framework consisting of rapid needs assessments, health surveillance, tracking and registries, and epidemiological investigations, including risk factor and health outcome studies and evaluation of interventions, which can be practiced throughout the cycle. Applying each method can result in actionable information for planners and decision-makers responsible for preparedness, response, and recovery. Disaster epidemiology, once integrated into the disaster management cycle, can provide the evidence base to inform and enhance response capability within the public health infrastructure. PMID:25211748

  13. The Role of Applied Epidemiology Methods in the Disaster Management Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Malilay, Josephine; Heumann, Michael; Perrotta, Dennis; Wolkin, Amy F.; Schnall, Amy H.; Podgornik, Michelle N.; Cruz, Miguel A.; Horney, Jennifer A.; Zane, David; Roisman, Rachel; Greenspan, Joel R.; Thoroughman, Doug; Anderson, Henry A.; Wells, Eden V.; Simms, Erin F.

    2015-01-01

    Disaster epidemiology (i.e., applied epidemiology in disaster settings) presents a source of reliable and actionable information for decision-makers and stakeholders in the disaster management cycle. However, epidemiological methods have yet to be routinely integrated into disaster response and fully communicated to response leaders. We present a framework consisting of rapid needs assessments, health surveillance, tracking and registries, and epidemiological investigations, including risk factor and health outcome studies and evaluation of interventions, which can be practiced throughout the cycle. Applying each method can result in actionable information for planners and decision-makers responsible for preparedness, response, and recovery. Disaster epidemiology, once integrated into the disaster management cycle, can provide the evidence base to inform and enhance response capability within the public health infrastructure. PMID:25211748

  14. Specific Classroom Management Strategies for the Middle/Secondary Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Katherine P.

    This paper presents detailed classroom management strategies for teachers working in middle- and secondary-level classrooms. The strategies include: (1) plan lessons that are well organized and fully developed, showing all the components of the teaching-learning cycle using a variety of strategies and activities that reflect multiple learning…

  15. Cost containment: strategies and responsibilities of the laboratory manager.

    PubMed

    Martin, B G

    1985-12-01

    In these difficult times we must not lose the sense of purpose and the personal drive that makes it possible to achieve excellence. We can be exasperated with reduced funding, burdened with excuses, debilitated with confusion about budgetary cuts, and even be stubborn about alternatives, but we must be serious about excellence and quality. It is natural that during these times we will face those with conflicting views, negative ideas, and erratic long-term goals, but that in itself should rouse us, as professionals, toward the pursuit of quality health care services. With better scheduling of tests and procedure, improved discharge planning, more careful review of the need for patient hospitalization, and a more careful examination of the number, mix, and quality of services furnished during a patient's hospital stay, we, as a health care team, can and will reduce unnecessary utilization of all services. Well-managed laboratories must operate around a return on investment threshold, from which all products, services, and expenditures are ranked. On this basis, management decisions will be made to add to service, reduce service, improve or sustain quality, change technology, or discontinue the business altogether. Given the mandate embodied in the DRG regulations, laboratories have become cost centers. New ideas, new technology, and creative efforts must now be used to improve laboratory productivity while sustaining quality health care services. It is argued philosophically that the DRGs or other major measures to reduce funding adversely affect quality of service. This may be true under the traditional definition of services, but there must be "a new order of things." Today's complex problems indicate that orthodox solutions no longer apply, and in our quest to answer who should pay versus who should receive, and how much is enough, we must ensure quality of all services offered. This new order of doing things could result in far greater savings than has

  16. Cost containment: strategies and responsibilities of the laboratory manager.

    PubMed

    Martin, B G

    1985-12-01

    In these difficult times we must not lose the sense of purpose and the personal drive that makes it possible to achieve excellence. We can be exasperated with reduced funding, burdened with excuses, debilitated with confusion about budgetary cuts, and even be stubborn about alternatives, but we must be serious about excellence and quality. It is natural that during these times we will face those with conflicting views, negative ideas, and erratic long-term goals, but that in itself should rouse us, as professionals, toward the pursuit of quality health care services. With better scheduling of tests and procedure, improved discharge planning, more careful review of the need for patient hospitalization, and a more careful examination of the number, mix, and quality of services furnished during a patient's hospital stay, we, as a health care team, can and will reduce unnecessary utilization of all services. Well-managed laboratories must operate around a return on investment threshold, from which all products, services, and expenditures are ranked. On this basis, management decisions will be made to add to service, reduce service, improve or sustain quality, change technology, or discontinue the business altogether. Given the mandate embodied in the DRG regulations, laboratories have become cost centers. New ideas, new technology, and creative efforts must now be used to improve laboratory productivity while sustaining quality health care services. It is argued philosophically that the DRGs or other major measures to reduce funding adversely affect quality of service. This may be true under the traditional definition of services, but there must be "a new order of things." Today's complex problems indicate that orthodox solutions no longer apply, and in our quest to answer who should pay versus who should receive, and how much is enough, we must ensure quality of all services offered. This new order of doing things could result in far greater savings than has

  17. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: risk assessment and proposed management strategy.

    PubMed

    Hannak, Judith S; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats <1.5 m) in the northern Red Sea are impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors' socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers--the target group for further education and skill training--were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive 'ecotourism zone' while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. PMID:21708420

  18. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: risk assessment and proposed management strategy.

    PubMed

    Hannak, Judith S; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats <1.5 m) in the northern Red Sea are impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors' socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers--the target group for further education and skill training--were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive 'ecotourism zone' while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere.

  19. Snorkelling and trampling in shallow-water fringing reefs: Risk assessment and proposed management strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hannak, Judith S.; Kompatscher, Sarah; Stachowitsch, Michael; Herler, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Shallow reefs (reef flats <1.5 m) in the northern Red Sea are impacted by growing tourism that includes swimmers, snorkellers and reef walkers but have largely been neglected in past studies. We selected a fringing reef along the lagoon of Dahab (Sinai, Egypt) as a model for a management strategy. Point-intercept line transects were used to determine substrate composition, coral community and condition, and the coral damage index (CDI) was applied. Approximately 84% of the coral colonies showed signs of damage such as breakage, partial mortality or algal overgrowth, especially affecting the most frequent coral genus Acropora. Questionnaires were used to determine the visitors’ socio-economic background and personal attitudes regarding snorkelling, SCUBA-diving and interest in visiting a prospective snorkelling trail. Experiencing nature (97%) was by far the strongest motivation, and interest in further education about reef ecology and skill training was high. Less experienced snorkellers and divers – the target group for further education and skill training – were those most prepared to financially support such a trail. We therefore recommend a guided underwater snorkelling trail and restricting recreational use to a less sensitive ‘ecotourism zone’ while protecting the shallow reef flat. Artificial structures can complete the trail and offer the opportunity to snorkel over deeper areas at unfavourable tide or wind conditions. This approach provides a strategy for the management and conservation of shallow-water reefs, which are facing increasing human impact here and elsewhere. PMID:21708420

  20. Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies - STARBUKS In the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paryz, Roman W.

    2014-01-01

    Several upgrade projects have been completed at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility over the last 1.5 years in an effort defined as STARBUKS - Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies. This multi-year effort was undertaken to improve NTF's overall capabilities by addressing Accuracy and Validation, Productivity, and Reliability areas at the NTF. This presentation will give a brief synopsis of each of these efforts.

  1. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  2. Computer Sciences Applied to Management at Open University of Catalonia: Development of Competences of Teamworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisa, Carlos Cabañero; López, Enric Serradell

    Teamwork is considered one of the most important professional skills in today's business environment. More specifically, the collaborative work between professionals and information technology managers from various functional areas is a strategic key in competitive business. Several university-level programs are focusing on developing these skills. This article presents the case of the course Computer Science Applied to Management (hereafter CSAM) that has been designed with the objective to develop the ability to work cooperatively in interdisciplinary teams. For their design and development have been addressed to the key elements of efficiency that appear in the literature, most notably the establishment of shared objectives and a feedback system, the management of the harmony of the team, their level of autonomy, independence, diversity and level of supervision. The final result is a subject in which, through a working virtual platform, interdisciplinary teams solve a problem raised by a case study.

  3. Applying fluvial geomorphology to river channel management: Background for progress towards a palaeohydrology protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, K. J.; Benito, G.; Downs, P. W.

    2008-06-01

    Significant developments have been achieved in applicable and applied fluvial geomorphology as shown in publications of the last three decades, analyzed as the basis for using results of studies of environmental change as a basis for management. The range of types of publications and of activities are more pertinent to river channel management as a result of concern with sustainability, global climate change, environmental ethics, ecosystem health concepts and public participation. Possible applications, with particular reference to river channel changes, include those concerned with form and process, assessment of channel change, urbanization, channelization, extractive industries, impact of engineering works, historical changes in land use, and restoration with specific examples illustrated in Table 1. In order to achieve general significance for fluvial geomorphology, more theory and extension by modelling methods is needed, and examples related to morphology and process characteristics, integrated approaches, and changes of the fluvial system are collected in Table 2. The ways in which potential applications are communicated to decision-makers range from applicable outputs including publications ranging from review papers, book chapters, and books, to applied outputs which include interdisciplinary problem solving, educational outreach, and direct involvement, with examples summarized in Table 3. On the basis of results gained from investigations covering periods longer than continuous records, a protocol embracing palaeohydrological inputs for application to river channel management is illustrated and developed as a synopsis version (Table 4), demonstrating how conclusions from geomorphological research can be expressed in a format which can be considered by managers.

  4. Nonadherence with antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: challenges and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Peter M; Brain, Cecilia; Scott, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence with medication occurs in all chronic medical disorders. It is a particular challenge in schizophrenia due to the illness's association with social isolation, stigma, and comorbid substance misuse, plus the effect of symptom domains on adherence, including positive and negative symptoms, lack of insight, depression, and cognitive impairment. Nonadherence lies on a spectrum, is often covert, and is underestimated by clinicians, but affects more than one third of patients with schizophrenia per annum. It increases the risk of relapse, rehospitalization, and self-harm, increases inpatient costs, and lowers quality of life. It results from multiple patient, clinician, illness, medication, and service factors, but a useful distinction is between intentional and unintentional nonadherence. There is no gold standard approach to the measurement of adherence as all methods have pros and cons. Interventions to improve adherence include psychoeducation and other psychosocial interventions, antipsychotic long-acting injections, electronic reminders, service-based interventions, and financial incentives. These overlap, all have some evidence of effectiveness, and the intervention adopted should be tailored to the individual. Psychosocial interventions that utilize combined approaches seem more effective than unidimensional approaches. There is increasing interest in electronic reminders and monitoring systems to enhance adherence, eg, Short Message Service text messaging and real-time medication monitoring linked to smart pill containers or an electronic ingestible event marker. Financial incentives to enhance antipsychotic adherence raise ethical issues, and their place in practice remains unclear. Simple pragmatic strategies to improve medication adherence include shared decision-making, regular assessment of adherence, simplification of the medication regimen, ensuring that treatment is effective and that side effects are managed, and promoting a positive

  5. Vaccination strategies for managing brucellosis in Yellowstone bison.

    PubMed

    Treanor, John J; Johnson, Joseph S; Wallen, Rick L; Cilles, Sara; Crowley, Philip H; Cox, John J; Maehr, David S; White, P J; Plumb, Glenn E

    2010-10-01

    Concerns over migratory bison (Bison bison) at Yellowstone National Park transmitting brucellosis (Brucella abortus) to cattle herds on adjacent lands led to proposals for bison vaccination. We developed an individual-based model to evaluate how brucellosis infection might respond under alternate vaccination strategies, including: (1) vaccination of female calves and yearlings captured at the park boundary when bison move outside the primary conservation area; (2) combining boundary vaccination with the remote delivery of vaccine to female calves and yearlings distributed throughout the park; and (3) vaccinating all female bison (including adults) during boundary capture and throughout the park using remote delivery of vaccine. Simulations suggested Alternative 3 would be most effective, with brucellosis seroprevalence decreasing by 66% (from 0.47 to 0.16) over a 30-year period resulting from 29% of the population receiving protection through vaccination. Under this alternative, bison would receive multiple vaccinations that extend the duration of vaccine protection and defend against recurring infection in latently infected animals. The initial decrease in population seroprevalence will likely be slow due to high initial seroprevalence (40-60%), long-lived antibodies, and the culling of some vaccinated bison that were subsequently exposed to field strain Brucella and reacted positively on serologic tests. Vaccination is unlikely to eradicate B. abortus from Yellowstone bison, but could be an effective tool for reducing the level of infection. Our approach and findings have applicability world-wide for managers dealing with intractable wildlife diseases that cross wildlife-livestock and wildlife-human interfaces and affect public health or economic well-being.

  6. [Global analysis strategies. Toward the genetic management of neoplasias].

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A; Salcedo, M

    2001-01-01

    Biomedical research in oncological diseases, particularly focused on the study and understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in cellular transformation, is opening new possibilities for the development of new and more efficient strategies for diagnosis and treatment. The generation and practical application of the results derived from molecular genetic studies in cancer, has evolved in parallel with the development of technological tools that allow us to get a global vision of diverse cellular processes, both in the normal and pathological states. This combination of basic research and technological application, has created methodologies that allow us to analyze the three principal levels of Molecular Genetics, the Genome (DNA, archive of the genetic information), the Transcriptome (RNA, expression of the genetic information), and finally, the Proteome (proteins, functional aspect of the genetic information). The vast amount of information obtained due to these advancements has begun to modify our fundamental vision about oncological diseases, and together with the traditional analytic tools, they hold the promise of changing the ways we classify, detect, diagnose and treat cancer. In this review, we present some of this methods for global genetic analysis, involving the three levels of genetic organization: the genome, with the Human Genome Project, comparative genomic hybridization and chromosome painting; the Transcriptome, with Serial analysis of Gene Expression and DNA microarrays; and the proteome, with bidimensional protein electrophoresis and antibody-microarrays. In each case, together with a brief description of the method, we also present the impact of every one of them on the study and management of neoplastic diseases.

  7. Management strategies to optimise sustainable clam ( Tapes philippinarum) harvests in Barbamarco Lagoon, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillman, C. M.; Hamilton, D. P.; Imberger, J.

    2009-01-01

    Barbamarco Lagoon is a small lagoon adjoining the Northern Adriatic Sea and is the site of a commercially valuable clam ( Tapes philippinarum) fishery. A three-dimensional (3D) coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model was applied to the lagoon with the objective of assessing impacts on clam food supply, commercial harvests and water quality of different clam rearing strategies, lagoon morphologies and flow regimes. Harvest and net growth to seeding ratios, total harvest value, clearance efficiencies and clam satiety were used to quantify the commercial success of different management strategies, while bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations were used as an indicator of ecosystem health. Increasing exchange with the Northern Adriatic Sea or increasing freshwater inputs into the lagoon improved clam food supply and increased both harvest production and ecosystem health in model simulations of the system. Results indicated that the high spatial and temporal variability of clam production and water quality responses must be considered for a holistic assessment of the outcomes of strategies in the context of ecological and production carrying capacity.

  8. The work covenant: a management strategy for department chairs and program directors.

    PubMed

    Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Learning contracts have been used in adult education to ensure a positive and successful learning process. By means of a learning contract, the instructor can support the learner in a manner that best suits the learner's individual requirements. Like the learning environment, the workplace finds individuals with varying skill sets, areas of interest, and degrees of motivation. Understanding and applying the skills of the worker to appropriate tasks and interests have important ramifications for how workers perceive their jobs and the ultimate effectiveness of the organization. Studies show that the quality of the work environment is critical for the job satisfaction and retention of employees in the public and private sector as well as for the dental academician. Recent literature on faculty development has focused on adapting business-based motivation, mentoring, and performance counseling strategies to the academic setting. By leading and managing faculty development through the use of such strategies, the quality of the work environment can be improved. This article briefly summarizes the commonality between retention strategies and learning contracts within a human resource context and provides a model document that can be used by chairs and program directors to organize and focus their faculty development efforts. PMID:14761174

  9. Factors that influence producer decisions to implement management strategies.

    PubMed

    Field, Thomas G

    2014-12-01

    Cow-calf enterprises in the USA are widely divergent in size, locale, resource availability, management skill, and market focus. Furthermore, variation exists in dependence on the cow-calf enterprise as a primary source of income, perception about the utility of a particular management practice or technology, and assessment of cost: benefit resulting from implementation impact decisions. Enterprises with larger cow inventories, greater dependence on income from the cattle enterprise, and that retain ownership further into the supply chain beyond the cow-calf operation are more likely to institute management protocols such as vaccination programs, defined calving seasons, and reproductive technologies. Successful cow-calf managers place the highest priority on herd nutrition, pasture and range management, herd health, financial management marketing, production management, and genetics. Management practices are more likely to be adopted when they align with a manager's perception of the utility, labor availability, favorable cost: benefit outcomes and profit motivation.

  10. Factors that influence producer decisions to implement management strategies.

    PubMed

    Field, Thomas G

    2014-12-01

    Cow-calf enterprises in the USA are widely divergent in size, locale, resource availability, management skill, and market focus. Furthermore, variation exists in dependence on the cow-calf enterprise as a primary source of income, perception about the utility of a particular management practice or technology, and assessment of cost: benefit resulting from implementation impact decisions. Enterprises with larger cow inventories, greater dependence on income from the cattle enterprise, and that retain ownership further into the supply chain beyond the cow-calf operation are more likely to institute management protocols such as vaccination programs, defined calving seasons, and reproductive technologies. Successful cow-calf managers place the highest priority on herd nutrition, pasture and range management, herd health, financial management marketing, production management, and genetics. Management practices are more likely to be adopted when they align with a manager's perception of the utility, labor availability, favorable cost: benefit outcomes and profit motivation. PMID:25497503

  11. Applying Deming's Quality Improvement Strategies to Assessment in Higher Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Trudy W.; And Others

    A study was done of the possible uses of Total Quality Management (TQM) for enhancing the quality and use of college outcomes assessment in postsecondary institutions in Tennessee. The study involved six meetings of a consortium of assessment coordinators in Tennessee over 3 years, and graduate and employer questionnaire development. Researchers…

  12. Strategies for the Eighties: The Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, Fred, Ed.

    Representing the concensus of the presidents of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology in Ontario, this paper presents a series of assumptions about the anticipated environment of the college system and provides a strategic action plan for the future. First, assumptions about environmental factors likely to affect the colleges are presented,…

  13. Revisiting Monitoring and Evaluation Strategies for Applied Drama and Theatre Practice in African Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinyowa, Kennedy C.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the applied drama and theatre projects being carried out in African contexts tend to be one-off events with limited follow-up in terms of building the capacity of target communities and organising them for action. Besides bringing people together for workshops, performances and post-performance discussions, such projects simply pass by…

  14. Applying Questioning or Reading Strategy to Review Technology Enhanced Coedited Notes of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Cheng, Hsiao-Wei; Wu, Chiu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined whether applying questioning review better enhances elementary level students' learning from technology-enhanced coediting-based note taking than does traditional reading review. A nonequivalent comparison group quasi-experimental design was implemented and replicated on four independent units. Two sixth grade elementary…

  15. Applying Coaching Strategies to Support Youth- and Family-Focused Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jonathan R.; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Smith, Burgess; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we describe how a peer-coaching model has been applied to support community-based Extension programming through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. We describe the general approaches to coaching that have been used to help with CYFAR program implementation, evaluation, and sustainability efforts; we…

  16. Reservoir fisheries management: Strategies for the 80's

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.E.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Reservoirs constitute one of our most valuable fishery resources - a resource that is exceedingly complex, poorly understood, and crudely managed. As such, reservoirs continue to provide major fishery management problems, and consequently, offer tremendous opportunities for improvement. A symposium was held in Lexington, Kentucky, on June 13-16, 1983 to explore management of reservoir fisheries. Specific objectives of the symposium were (1) to provide a critical assessment of current practices for managing reservoir fisheries; (2) to provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas among users and managers of reservoir fishery resources; (3) to stimulate new ideas and approaches for managing reservoir fishery resources; (4) to identify critical research and management needs; and (5) to clarify the role of fishery management relative to reservoir planning, operation, and other recreational uses. This compilation from the symposium includes technical papers on development of management programs and measurement of economic values, assessment of fish populations and measurement of angler harvest, management of the physical and chemical environment, management of reservoir fish communities by influencing species interactions and by harvest regulation, management implications of energy development and management of reservoir releases. Abstracts of poster presentation focus on harvest regulation and reservoir stocking.

  17. Women in Management: Strategies for Removing the Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirides, Ellyn; Cote, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Looks at the status of women in management and identifies barriers to the upward mobility of women workers, including sex-role stereotyping, hiring biases, organizational procedures, managers' attitudes, and women's own self-concepts. (Author/JM)

  18. A Strategy for Implementing the School Management Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio School Boards Association, Columbus.

    To aid school administrators, this guidebook presents information on planning, implementing, and evaluating a school management team approach. The first section reviews the definition and philosophy of the management team, discusses propositions about and characteristics of management teams, and describes the application of team decision-making to…

  19. Sport & Fitness Management: Career Strategies and Professional Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Janet B., Ed.; Zanger, Beverly R. K., Ed.

    This textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of sport management. An introductory chapter gives the definition and direction of sport and fitness management. Part 1 describes sport and fitness management careers. The 12 chapters deal with the professional options: intercollegiate athletics, professional sport, facility…

  20. A model ternary heparin conjugate by direct covalent bond strategy applied to drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Xin, Dingcheng; Hu, Jiawen; Liu, Kaijian; Pan, Jiangao; Xiang, Jiannan

    2009-01-01

    A model ternary heparin conjugate by direct covalent bond strategy has been developed, in which modified heparin using active mix anhydride as intermediate conjugates with model drug molecule and model specific ligand, respectively. Designed ester bonds between model drug and heparin facilitate hydrolysis kinetics research. The strategy can be extended to design and synthesize a targeted drug delivery system. The key point is to use mixed anhydride groups as activating intermediates to mediate the synthesis of the ternary heparin conjugate. Formation of mixed anhydride is detected by the conductimetry experiment. The ternary heparin conjugate is characterized by (13)C NMR, FT-IR and GPC, respectively. The decreased trend on degree of substitution (DS) is consistent with that of introduced anticancer drug and specific ligand in drug delivery system. Moreover, their anticoagulant activity is evaluated by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and anti-factor Xa activity. The results show that model ternary heparin conjugate with reduced anticoagulant activity may avoid the risk of severe hemorrhagic complication during the administration and is potential to develop a safe and effective drug delivery system on anticancer research.

  1. Green design "bioinspired disassembly-reassembly strategy" applied for improved tumor-targeted anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruoning; Gu, Xiaochen; Zhou, Jianping; Shen, Lingjia; Yin, Lifang; Hua, Peiying; Ding, Yang

    2016-08-10

    In this study, a simple and green approach 'bioinspired disassembly-reassembly strategy' was employed to reconstitute lipoprotein nanoparticles (RLNs) using whole-components of endogenous ones (contained dehydrated human lipids and native apolipoproteins). These RLNs were engineered to mimic the configuration and properties of natural lipoproteins for efficient drug delivery. In testing therapeutic targeting to microtubules, paclitaxel (PTX) was reassembled into RLNs to achieve improved targeted anti-carcinoma treatment and minimize adverse effects, demonstrating ultimately more applicable than HDL-like particles which are based on exogenous lipid sources. We have characterized that apolipoprotein-decoration of PTX-loaded RLNs (RLNs-PTX) led to favoring uniformly dispersed distribution, increasing PTX-encapsulation with a sustained-release pattern, while enhancing biostability during blood circulation. The innate biological RLNs induced efficient intracellular trafficking of cargos in situ via multi-targeting mechanisms, including scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated direct transmembrane delivery, as well as other lipoprotein-receptors associated endocytic pathways. The resulting anticancer treatment from RLNs-PTX was demonstrated a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.20μg/mL, cell apoptosis of 18.04% 24h post-incubation mainly arresting G2/M cell cycle in vitro, and tumor weight inhibition of 70.51% in vivo. Collectively, green-step assembly-based RLNs provided an efficient strategy for mediating tumor-targeted accumulation of PTX and enhanced anticancer efficacy. PMID:27238442

  2. Organizational strategy and diversity management: diversity-sensitive orientation as a moderating influence.

    PubMed

    Dansky, Kathryn H; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; De Souza, Gita; Dreachslin, Janice L

    2003-01-01

    Empirical studies on diversity suggest that health care organizations have been slow to embrace diversity management. We propose that sensitivity to diversity, at the corporate level, moderates strategic decision making, which influences human resource management practices such as diversity initiatives. This study of 203 hospitals explored the relationships among organizational strategy, organizational sensitivity to diversity, and diversity management practices. PMID:12940346

  3. College and University Middle Management and Institutional Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugazzotto, Sam J.

    2009-01-01

    Colleges and universities generally do not allow for the top-down style of leadership that many definitions of strategy assume. Rather, postsecondary institutions are loosely coupled professional bureaucracies composed of individual employees and academic units that can pursue individual strategies with little or no input from management…

  4. Dynamic phosphorus mass balance modeling of large watersheds: long-term implications of management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cassell, E A; Kort, R L; Meals, D W; Aschmann, S G; Dorioz, J M; Anderson, D P

    2001-01-01

    The principles of mass balance, compartment-flux diagramming, and dynamic simulation modeling are integrated to create computer models that estimate phosphorus (P) export from large-scale watersheds over long-term futures. These Watershed Ecosystem Nutrient Dynamics (WEND) models are applied to a 275,000 ha dairy-documented watershed and a 77,000 ha poultry-dominated watershed in northeastern USA. Model predictions of present-day P export loads are consistent with monitoring data and estimates made using P export coefficients. For both watersheds P import exceeds P export and P is accumulating in the agricultural soils. Agricultural and urban activities are major contributors to P export from both watersheds. Continued urban growth will increase P export over time unless wastewater management is substantially enhanced and/or rates of urban growth are controlled. Agriculture cannot rely solely on the implementation of increasingly stringent conservation practices to reduce long-term P export but must consider options that promote P input/output balance. The WEND modeling process is a powerful tool to integrate the diversity of activities in watersheds into a holistic framework. Model outputs are suited to assist managers to explore long-term effects of overall watershed management strategies on P export in comparison to environmental and economic goals.

  5. Strategic threat management: an exploration of nursing strategies in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Durso, Francis T; Ferguson, Ashley N; Kazi, Sadaf; Cunningham, Charlene; Ryan, Christina

    2015-03-01

    Part of the work of a critical care nurse is to manage the threats that arise that could impede efficient and effective job performance. Nurses manage threats by employing various strategies to keep performance high and workload manageable. We investigated strategic threat management by using the Threat-Strategy Interview. Threats frequently involved technology, staff, or organizational components. The threats were managed by a toolbox of multifaceted strategies, the most frequent of which involved staff-, treatment- (patient + technology), examination- (patient + clinician), and patient-oriented strategies. The profile of strategies for a particular threat often leveraged work facets similar to the work facet that characterized the threat. In such cases, the nurse's strategy was directed at eliminating the threat (not working around it). A description at both a domain invariant level - useful for understanding strategic threat management generally - and a description at an operational, specific level - useful for guiding interventions-- are presented. A structural description of the relationship among threats, strategies, and the cues that trigger them is presented in the form of an evidence accumulation framework of strategic threat management.

  6. An integrated crop- and soil-based strategy for variable-rate nitrogen management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Darrin F.

    developed by Solari (2006), identification of soil variables for MZ delineation, and the possible integration of MZ and active sensors for N application. Crop response (sensor measured sufficiency index and yield) had the highest correlation with soil optical reflectance readings in sandy fields and with apparent soil electrical conductivity in silt loam fields with eroded slopes. Therefore, using these soil variables to delineate MZ allowed characterization of spatial patterns in both in-season crop response (sufficiency index) and yield. Compared to uniform N application, integrating MZ and sensor-based N application resulted in substantial N savings (˜40--120 kg ha-1) and increases in partial factor productivity (˜13--75 kg grain (kg N applied)-1) for fine-textured soils with eroded slopes. However, for coarser texture soils the current sensor-based N application algorithm may require further calibration, and for fields with no spatial variability there appears to be no benefit to using the algorithm. Collectively, results from these studies show promise for integrating active sensor-based N application and static soil-based MZ to increase NUE and economic return for producers over current N management strategies, but further research is needed to explore how best to integrate these two N management strategies.

  7. E-waste: impacts, issues and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    of matter is that vested business interests have surpassed ethical values. Existing scenarios of unbridled e-waste generation has attained alarming levels for humanity. This warrants immediate attention by public and private sectors, civil society, NGOs, industrialists and the business community for the protection of nature and natural resources from future destruction. Multipronged strategies need to be adopted for the management of e-waste encompassing administrative, technical, environmental, regulatory, legislative, educative, stakeholders' participation and global cooperation.

  8. E-waste: impacts, issues and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    of matter is that vested business interests have surpassed ethical values. Existing scenarios of unbridled e-waste generation has attained alarming levels for humanity. This warrants immediate attention by public and private sectors, civil society, NGOs, industrialists and the business community for the protection of nature and natural resources from future destruction. Multipronged strategies need to be adopted for the management of e-waste encompassing administrative, technical, environmental, regulatory, legislative, educative, stakeholders' participation and global cooperation. PMID:24695030

  9. A majorize-minimize strategy for subspace optimization applied to image restoration.

    PubMed

    Chouzenoux, Emilie; Idier, Jérôme; Moussaoui, Saïd

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes accelerated subspace optimization methods in the context of image restoration. Subspace optimization methods belong to the class of iterative descent algorithms for unconstrained optimization. At each iteration of such methods, a stepsize vector allowing the best combination of several search directions is computed through a multidimensional search. It is usually obtained by an inner iterative second-order method ruled by a stopping criterion that guarantees the convergence of the outer algorithm. As an alternative, we propose an original multidimensional search strategy based on the majorize-minimize principle. It leads to a closed-form stepsize formula that ensures the convergence of the subspace algorithm whatever the number of inner iterations. The practical efficiency of the proposed scheme is illustrated in the context of edge-preserving image restoration.

  10. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Jeferson J. de E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Tusset, Angelo M. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Janzen, Frederic C. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Piccirillo, Vinicius E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Nascimento, Claudinor B. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br; Balthazar, José M.; Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca

    2014-12-10

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  11. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Jeferson J.; Tusset, Angelo M.; Janzen, Frederic C.; Piccirillo, Vinicius; Nascimento, Claudinor B.; Balthazar, José M.; Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  12. Trend-Centric Motion Visualization: Designing and Applying a New Strategy for Analyzing Scientific Motion Collections.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Knipe, Carissa Mai-Ping; Thorson, Lauren; Ellingson, Arin M; Nuckley, David; Carlis, John; Keefe, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    In biomechanics studies, researchers collect, via experiments or simulations, datasets with hundreds or thousands of trials, each describing the same type of motion (e.g., a neck flexion-extension exercise) but under different conditions (e.g., different patients, different disease states, pre- and post-treatment). Analyzing similarities and differences across all of the trials in these collections is a major challenge. Visualizing a single trial at a time does not work, and the typical alternative of juxtaposing multiple trials in a single visual display leads to complex, difficult-to-interpret visualizations. We address this problem via a new strategy that organizes the analysis around motion trends rather than trials. This new strategy matches the cognitive approach that scientists would like to take when analyzing motion collections. We introduce several technical innovations making trend-centric motion visualization possible. First, an algorithm detects a motion collection's trends via time-dependent clustering. Second, a 2D graphical technique visualizes how trials leave and join trends. Third, a 3D graphical technique, using a median 3D motion plus a visual variance indicator, visualizes the biomechanics of the set of trials within each trend. These innovations are combined to create an interactive exploratory visualization tool, which we designed through an iterative process in collaboration with both domain scientists and a traditionally-trained graphic designer. We report on insights generated during this design process and demonstrate the tool's effectiveness via a validation study with synthetic data and feedback from expert musculoskeletal biomechanics researchers who used the tool to analyze the effects of disc degeneration on human spinal kinematics. PMID:26356978

  13. Multicomponent venom of the spider Cupiennius salei: a bioanalytical investigation applying different strategies.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Christian; Siegemund, Doreen; Kämpfer, Urs; Kopp, Lukas S; Bühr, Claudia; Grossmann, Jonas; Lüthi, Christoph; Cunningham, Monica; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Schürch, Stefan; Schaller, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The multicomponent venom of the spider Cupiennius salei was separated by three different chromatographic strategies to facilitate subsequent analysis of peptidic venom components by tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS), Edman degradation and amino acid analysis: (a) desalting of the crude venom by RP-HPLC only, (b) chromatographic separation of the crude venom into 42 fractions by RP-HPLC, and (c) multidimensional purification of the crude venom by size exclusion and cation exchange chromatography and RP-HPLC. A total of 286 components were identified in the venom of C. salei by mass spectrometry and the sequence of 49 new peptides was determined de novo by Edman degradation and tandem mass spectrometry; 30 were C-terminally amidated. The novel peptides were assigned to two main groups: (a) short cationic peptides and (b) Cys-containing peptides with the inhibitor cystine knot motif. Bioinformatics revealed a limited number of substantial similarities, namely with the peptides CpTx1 from the spider Cheiracantium punctorium and U3-ctenitoxin-Asp1a from the South American fishing spider (Ancylometes sp.) and with sequences from a Lycosa singoriensis venom gland transcriptome analysis. The results clearly indicate that the quality of the data is strongly dependent on the chosen separation strategy. The combination of orthogonal analytical methods efficiently excludes alkali ion and matrix adducts, provides indispensable information for an unambiguous identification of isomasses, and results in the most comprehensive repertoire of peptides identified in the venom of C. salei so far.

  14. Trend-Centric Motion Visualization: Designing and Applying a New Strategy for Analyzing Scientific Motion Collections.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, David; Korsakov, Fedor; Knipe, Carissa Mai-Ping; Thorson, Lauren; Ellingson, Arin M; Nuckley, David; Carlis, John; Keefe, Daniel F

    2014-12-01

    In biomechanics studies, researchers collect, via experiments or simulations, datasets with hundreds or thousands of trials, each describing the same type of motion (e.g., a neck flexion-extension exercise) but under different conditions (e.g., different patients, different disease states, pre- and post-treatment). Analyzing similarities and differences across all of the trials in these collections is a major challenge. Visualizing a single trial at a time does not work, and the typical alternative of juxtaposing multiple trials in a single visual display leads to complex, difficult-to-interpret visualizations. We address this problem via a new strategy that organizes the analysis around motion trends rather than trials. This new strategy matches the cognitive approach that scientists would like to take when analyzing motion collections. We introduce several technical innovations making trend-centric motion visualization possible. First, an algorithm detects a motion collection's trends via time-dependent clustering. Second, a 2D graphical technique visualizes how trials leave and join trends. Third, a 3D graphical technique, using a median 3D motion plus a visual variance indicator, visualizes the biomechanics of the set of trials within each trend. These innovations are combined to create an interactive exploratory visualization tool, which we designed through an iterative process in collaboration with both domain scientists and a traditionally-trained graphic designer. We report on insights generated during this design process and demonstrate the tool's effectiveness via a validation study with synthetic data and feedback from expert musculoskeletal biomechanics researchers who used the tool to analyze the effects of disc degeneration on human spinal kinematics.

  15. The Influence of Group Training in the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program on Preschool Teachers' Classroom Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Tiret, Holly B.; Bender, Stacy L.; Benson, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in preschool teachers' perceptions of classroom management strategies following group training in the recently revised Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (C. Webster-Stratton, 2006). The authors used a pre/post follow-up design across 2 groups that each met for 8 sessions over an 8-10-week period for…

  16. Evolutionary Agent-based Models to design distributed water management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing awareness in the scientific community that the traditional centralized approach to water resources management, as described in much of the water resources literature, provides an ideal optimal solution, which is certainly useful to quantify the best physically achievable performance, but is generally inapplicable. Most real world water resources management problems are indeed characterized by the presence of multiple, distributed and institutionally-independent decision-makers. Multi-Agent Systems provide a potentially more realistic alternative framework to model multiple and self-interested decision-makers in a credible context. Each decision-maker can be represented by an agent who, being self-interested, acts according to local objective functions and produces negative externalities on system level objectives. Different levels of coordination can potentially be included in the framework by designing coordination mechanisms to drive the current decision-making structure toward the global system efficiency. Yet, the identification of effective coordination strategies can be particularly complex in modern institutional contexts and current practice is dependent on largely ad-hoc coordination strategies. In this work we propose a novel Evolutionary Agent-based Modeling (EAM) framework that enables a mapping of fully uncoordinated and centrally coordinated solutions into their relative "many-objective" tradeoffs using multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. Then, by analysing the conflicts between local individual agent and global system level objectives it is possible to more fully understand the causes, consequences, and potential solution strategies for coordination failures. Game-theoretic criteria have value for identifying the most interesting alternatives from a policy making point of view as well as the coordination mechanisms that can be applied to obtain these interesting solutions. The proposed approach is numerically tested on a

  17. A practical guide to applying lean tools and management principles to health care improvement projects.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ross W; Canacari, Elena G

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing organizations have used Lean management principles for years to help eliminate waste, streamline processes, and cut costs. This pragmatic approach to structured problem solving can be applied to health care process improvement projects. Health care leaders can use a step-by-step approach to document processes and then identify problems and opportunities for improvement using a value stream process map. Leaders can help a team identify problems and root causes and consider additional problems associated with methods, materials, manpower, machinery, and the environment by using a cause-and-effect diagram. The team then can organize the problems identified into logical groups and prioritize the groups by impact and difficulty. Leaders must manage action items carefully to instill a sense of accountability in those tasked to complete the work. Finally, the team leaders must ensure that a plan is in place to hold the gains. PMID:22201573

  18. A practical guide to applying lean tools and management principles to health care improvement projects.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ross W; Canacari, Elena G

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing organizations have used Lean management principles for years to help eliminate waste, streamline processes, and cut costs. This pragmatic approach to structured problem solving can be applied to health care process improvement projects. Health care leaders can use a step-by-step approach to document processes and then identify problems and opportunities for improvement using a value stream process map. Leaders can help a team identify problems and root causes and consider additional problems associated with methods, materials, manpower, machinery, and the environment by using a cause-and-effect diagram. The team then can organize the problems identified into logical groups and prioritize the groups by impact and difficulty. Leaders must manage action items carefully to instill a sense of accountability in those tasked to complete the work. Finally, the team leaders must ensure that a plan is in place to hold the gains.

  19. 25 CFR 900.118 - Do these “construction contract” regulations apply to construction management services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... construction management services? 900.118 Section 900.118 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN...” regulations apply to construction management services? No. Construction management services may be...

  20. 50 CFR 80.81 - What must an agency submit when applying for a comprehensive-management-system grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the agency's comprehensive management system including inventory, strategic plan, operational plan... for a comprehensive-management-system grant? 80.81 Section 80.81 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... when applying for a comprehensive-management-system grant? A State fish and wildlife agency must...

  1. 50 CFR 80.81 - What must an agency submit when applying for a comprehensive-management-system grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the agency's comprehensive management system including inventory, strategic plan, operational plan... for a comprehensive-management-system grant? 80.81 Section 80.81 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... when applying for a comprehensive-management-system grant? A State fish and wildlife agency must...

  2. 50 CFR 80.81 - What must an agency submit when applying for a comprehensive-management-system grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the agency's comprehensive management system including inventory, strategic plan, operational plan... for a comprehensive-management-system grant? 80.81 Section 80.81 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... when applying for a comprehensive-management-system grant? A State fish and wildlife agency must...

  3. Applying Erikson's wisdom to self-management practices of older adults: findings from two field studies.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tam E; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia; Hassevoort, Luke

    2015-04-01

    According to Erik Erikson's theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson's theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This article presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving and (2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed.

  4. Applying the Taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-04-01

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km.

  5. Implementation Strategies for a Universal Acquisition and Tracking Channel Applied to Real GNSS Signals.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Marc-Antoine; Landry, René

    2016-05-02

    This paper presents a universal GNSS receiver channel capable of tracking any civil GNSS signal. This fundamentally differs from dedicated channels, each customized for a given signal. A mobile device could integrate fewer universal channels to harvest all available signals. This would allow securing signal availability, while minimizing power consumption and chip size, thus maximizing battery lifetime. In fact, the universal channel allows sequential acquisition and tracking of any chipping rate, carrier frequency, FDMA channel, modulation, or constellation, and is totally configurable (any integration time, any discriminator, etc.). It can switch from one signal to another in 1.07 ms, making it possible for the receiver to rapidly adapt to its sensed environment. All this would consume 3.5 mW/channel in an ASIC implementation, i.e., with a slight overhead compared to the original GPS L1 C/A dedicated channel from which it was derived. After extensive surveys on GNSS signals and tracking channels, this paper details the implementation strategies that led to the proposed universal channel architecture. Validation is achieved using GNSS signals issued from different constellations, frequency bands, modulations and spreading code schemes. A discussion on acquisition approaches and conclusive remarks follow, which open up a new signal selection challenge, rather than satellite selection.

  6. New strategy to apply perfluorodecalin as an oxygen carrier in lipase production: minimisation and reuse.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Erika Souza; de Oliveira Fontes, Tâmara Karoline; Pereira, Matheus Mendonça; Alexandre, Hofsky Vieira; da Silva, Daniel Pereira; Soares, Cleide Mara Faria; Lima, Álvaro Silva

    2015-04-01

    A novel strategy for the production of lipase by Bacillus sp. ITP-001 in a stirred tank fermenter using perfluorodecalin (PFD) was studied. Firstly, a response surface methodology 2(2) with three central points was employed to optimise the effect of agitation speed and aeration rate in lipase production. According to the response from the experimental designs, 300 rpm (revolutions per minute) and 0.5 vvm (air volume/liquid volume per minute) were found to provide the best condition (lipolytic activity: LA = 3,140.76 U mL(-1)). Then, the influence of PFD concentration on the fermentation process was evaluated. Incorporation of PFD at all concentrations above 1% had no statistically significant influence on lipase production, that is, the previous optimisation allowed the reduction of the amount of PFD added besides increasing lipase production. Furthermore, PFD could be used in three sequential fermentations without altering the statistical production of lipase, reducing by 67% the cost of PFD addition.

  7. Implementation Strategies for a Universal Acquisition and Tracking Channel Applied to Real GNSS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Marc-Antoine; Landry, René

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a universal GNSS receiver channel capable of tracking any civil GNSS signal. This fundamentally differs from dedicated channels, each customized for a given signal. A mobile device could integrate fewer universal channels to harvest all available signals. This would allow securing signal availability, while minimizing power consumption and chip size, thus maximizing battery lifetime. In fact, the universal channel allows sequential acquisition and tracking of any chipping rate, carrier frequency, FDMA channel, modulation, or constellation, and is totally configurable (any integration time, any discriminator, etc.). It can switch from one signal to another in 1.07 ms, making it possible for the receiver to rapidly adapt to its sensed environment. All this would consume 3.5 mW/channel in an ASIC implementation, i.e., with a slight overhead compared to the original GPS L1 C/A dedicated channel from which it was derived. After extensive surveys on GNSS signals and tracking channels, this paper details the implementation strategies that led to the proposed universal channel architecture. Validation is achieved using GNSS signals issued from different constellations, frequency bands, modulations and spreading code schemes. A discussion on acquisition approaches and conclusive remarks follow, which open up a new signal selection challenge, rather than satellite selection. PMID:27144569

  8. Applying the Taguchi method to river water pollution remediation strategy optimization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-04-01

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km. PMID:24739765

  9. NOMAD: a versatile strategy for in vitro DNA manipulation applied to promoter analysis and vector design.

    PubMed Central

    Rebatchouk, D; Daraselia, N; Narita, J O

    1996-01-01

    Molecular analysis of complex modular structures, such as promoter regions or multi-domain proteins, often requires the creation of families of experimental DNA constructs having altered composition, order, or spacing of individual modules. Generally, creation of every individual construct of such a family uses a specific combination of restriction sites. However, convenient sites are not always available and the alternatives, such as chemical resynthesis of the experimental constructs or engineering of different restriction sites onto the ends of DNA fragments, are costly and time consuming. A general cloning strategy (nucleic acid ordered assembly with directionality, NOMAD; WWW resource locator http:@Lmb1.bios.uic.edu/NOMAD/NOMAD.htm l) is proposed that overcomes these limitations. Use of NOMAD ensures that the production of experimental constructs is no longer the rate-limiting step in applications that require combinatorial rearrangement of DNA fragments. NOMAD manipulates DNA fragments in the form of "modules" having a standardized cohesive end structure. Specially designed "assembly vectors" allow for sequential and directional insertion of any number of modules in an arbitrary predetermined order, using the ability of type IIS restriction enzymes to cut DNA outside of their recognition sequences. Studies of regulatory regions in DNA, such as promoters, replication origins, and RNA processing signals, construction of chimeric proteins, and creation of new cloning vehicles, are among the applications that will benefit from using NOMAD. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855278

  10. Applying the Taguchi Method to River Water Pollution Remediation Strategy Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tsung-Ming; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Hsin-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Optimization methods usually obtain the travel direction of the solution by substituting the solutions into the objective function. However, if the solution space is too large, this search method may be time consuming. In order to address this problem, this study incorporated the Taguchi method into the solution space search process of the optimization method, and used the characteristics of the Taguchi method to sequence the effects of the variation of decision variables on the system. Based on the level of effect, this study determined the impact factor of decision variables and the optimal solution for the model. The integration of the Taguchi method and the solution optimization method successfully obtained the optimal solution of the optimization problem, while significantly reducing the solution computing time and enhancing the river water quality. The results suggested that the basin with the greatest water quality improvement effectiveness is the Dahan River. Under the optimal strategy of this study, the severe pollution length was reduced from 18 km to 5 km. PMID:24739765

  11. Implementation Strategies for a Universal Acquisition and Tracking Channel Applied to Real GNSS Signals.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Marc-Antoine; Landry, René

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a universal GNSS receiver channel capable of tracking any civil GNSS signal. This fundamentally differs from dedicated channels, each customized for a given signal. A mobile device could integrate fewer universal channels to harvest all available signals. This would allow securing signal availability, while minimizing power consumption and chip size, thus maximizing battery lifetime. In fact, the universal channel allows sequential acquisition and tracking of any chipping rate, carrier frequency, FDMA channel, modulation, or constellation, and is totally configurable (any integration time, any discriminator, etc.). It can switch from one signal to another in 1.07 ms, making it possible for the receiver to rapidly adapt to its sensed environment. All this would consume 3.5 mW/channel in an ASIC implementation, i.e., with a slight overhead compared to the original GPS L1 C/A dedicated channel from which it was derived. After extensive surveys on GNSS signals and tracking channels, this paper details the implementation strategies that led to the proposed universal channel architecture. Validation is achieved using GNSS signals issued from different constellations, frequency bands, modulations and spreading code schemes. A discussion on acquisition approaches and conclusive remarks follow, which open up a new signal selection challenge, rather than satellite selection. PMID:27144569

  12. Going beyond efficacy: strategies for cancer pain management

    PubMed Central

    Myers, J.; Shetty, N.

    2008-01-01

    Despite great advances in the fields of pain management and palliative care, pain directly or indirectly associated with a cancer diagnosis remains significantly undertreated. The present paper reviews the current standard for cancer pain management and highlights new treatments and targeted interventional techniques. PMID:18231648

  13. Rethinking Student Loan Debt: Tools and Strategies for Debt Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Susan G.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes student loan debt at the University of Missouri-St. Louis School of Optometry, showing the need for a comprehensive debt management program. Presents a model for determining manageable amounts of student loan debt developed from conventional lending criteria and data on earnings for optometrists. (EV)

  14. Automation Power Energy Management Strategy for Mobile Telecom Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jong-Ching; Chen, Jung-Chin; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Huang, Yi-Chao

    The aim of this research is to study the power energy cost reduction of the mobile telecom industry through the supervisor control and data acquisition (SCADA) system application during globalization and liberalization competition. Yet this management system can be proposed functions: operating monitors, the analysis on load characteristics and dropping the cost of management.

  15. A Study of Personal Information Management Strategies for Online Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Lorna R.; Frey, Barbara A.; Tomer, Christinger; Alman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The literature suggests that personal information management is a serious challenge for many computer users. Online faculty are especially challenged because of the large number of electronic files necessitated by teaching online. Those who have experience in this environment may offer valuable insights regarding information management challenges…

  16. Managing Organizational Legitimacy: Communication Strategies for Organizations in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Joseph Eric

    2001-01-01

    Considers how crisis situations can cause internal and external stakeholders to question the legitimacy of organizations. Notes that when faced with a crisis, organizations are compelled to communicate strategically with stakeholders to manage legitimacy. Synthesizes literature on organizational legitimacy, crisis management, and niche-width…

  17. Clinical Practice Strategies outside the Realm of Managed Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walfish, Steven

    While more and more psychologists criticize managed care companies, most must depend upon them in order to maintain their practices. In this study, psychologists were surveyed and asked to identify activities in their own independent practice that fall outside of the purview of managed care. A total of 180 specific activities were identified that…

  18. An Effective Time and Management Strategy in Quality Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Don E.

    Contending that participation in quality circles enhances effective time management by school administrators and teachers, this guide provides both a theoretical briefing and practical recommendations for better time management. A pre- posttest prefaces a review of basic concepts of quality circles with reference to the work of Abraham Maslow,…

  19. Rethinking Classroom Management: Strategies for Prevention, Intervention, and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belvel, Patricia Sequeira; Jordan, Maya Marcia

    This book illustrates an approach to achieving a positive, harmonious classroom environment which enables educators to evolve effectively from managers to leaders by rethinking their roles as teachers, discussing how to create classrooms where students are more self-managing and demonstrate mutual respect, self-esteem, and responsibility. Key…

  20. Informing sustainable irrigation management strategies in response to implementation of Washington State's Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Yoder, J.; Brady, M.; Stockle, C. O.

    2014-12-01

    As an important agricultural snowmelt-dominant watershed in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, the Yakima River basin (YRB) is projected to experience increasing water scarcity problems during the summer irrigation season. The system is already experiencing over-allocation with unmet irrigation entitlements occurring more frequently, resulting in negative consequences to YRB agriculture and therefore the economy of the region. Water storage management is one climate change adaptation strategy particularly applicable to snowmelt-dominant watersheds experiencing a shift of its water availability away from the summer irrigation season. These changes in conjunction with climate change will significantly change the availability of water for agriculture, thus impacting farmers' irrigation decisions. These decisions occur at multiple time scales, including capital investment to change irrigation technology (decadal), to distributing the seasonal allocation of water in a projected drought year (seasonal), to deficit irrigating crops (daily to weekly). The Yakima Basin Integrated Water Resource Management Plan (YBIP) aims to improve the availability of water for agriculture, fish, and communities through a number of projects, including additional or modification of physical infrastructure. Our objective is to reduce the vulnerability of irrigated agriculture in the YRB to climate change through exploring changes in irrigation management strategies in response to implementation of each phase of YBIP. We apply VIC-CropSyst (a newly coupled hydrological/cropping model) and Yakima RiverWare (a water management model) to explore the relationships between climate, hydrology, crop growth and phenology, irrigation management, and YBIP implementation. Results suggest the importance of irrigation management strategies in YRB and indicate that if irrigation strategies are modified in response to changes in physical infrastructure, significant enhancements to instream