Science.gov

Sample records for managing senegalese water

  1. Managing Senegalese water resources: Definition and relative importance of information needs

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Vital Issues process as implemented for the Senegal Water Resources Management Initiative, a collaborative effort between the Senegalese Ministry of Water Resources and Sandia National Laboratories. This Initiative is being developed to assist in the development of an efficient and sustainable water resources management system for Senegal. The Vital Issues process was used to provide information for the development of a proposal that will recommend actions to address the key management issues and establish a state-of-the-art decision support system (DSS) for managing Senegal`s water resources. Three Vital Issues panel meetings were convened to (1) develop a goal statement and criteria for identifying and ranking the issues vital to water resources management in Senegal; (2) define and rank the issues, and (3) identify and prioritize a preliminary list of information needed to address the vital issues. The selection of panelists from the four basic institutional perspectives (government, industry, academe, and citizens` interest groups) ensured a high level of stakeholder representation on the panels.

  2. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  3. Conservation of Senegalese Youth and Its Psycho-Social Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Beverly; Williams, John

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to investigate the appropriateness of Piagetian tasks for a comparative assessment of the cognitive development of rural and semi-urban Senegalese youth; and (2) to determine relationships among selected social and environmental factors affecting Senegalese youth. Fifty semi-urban and 50 rural area…

  4. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  5. Drainage water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces a series of papers that report results of field studies to determine the effectiveness of drainage water management (DWM) on conserving drainage water and reducing losses of nitrogen (N) to surface waters. The series is focused on the performance of the DWM (also called contr...

  6. Tribal water utility management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Contents: primacy program (what is primacy, advantages and disadvantages, treatment as a state, grant applications and funding); safe drinking water act (sampling requirements, coliform standard, public notification, surface water treatment rule impacts, uic and wellhead protection programs, lead/copper rule); water utility management (how is the utility program evaluated, who's responsible, what is the board and tribal council role).

  7. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  8. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  9. Managing our water resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Water is a plentiful, renewable resource if it is properly managed. The US allocates 82% of its water to agriculture, 10% to industries and utilities. American farmers are beginning to adopt water-conserving techniques long used in the world's arid regions because past profligate use and recent droughts lowered both water tables and farm productivity. Runoff and pollution are responsible for much of the waste of usable water. Because of local water shortages, there is interest in drip irrigation, setting aside more land for reservoirs, and other conservation techniques to ensure adequate supplies for industrial development and economic growth. American faith in technology has led to schemes for desalination, cloud seeding, iceberg towing, and aquifer recharging, as well as the existing system of dams. Proper management of river basins is an important step in the process. 1 figure. (DCK)

  10. Energy and Water Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valek, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency isn't just a good idea; it's a necessity, both for cost reasons and to meet federal regulatory requirements. First, rising energy unit costs continue to erode NASA's mission budget. NASA spent roughly $156M on facility energy in FY 2007. Although that represents less than one per cent of NASA's overall annual budget, the upward trend in energy costs concerns the agency. While NASA reduced consumption 13%, energy unit costs have risen 63%. Energy cost increases counteract the effects of energy conservation, which results in NASA buying less yet spending more. The second factor is federal energy legislation. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Executive Order (EO) 13423 (January, 2007), and the Energy Independence and Security Act (December, 2007), mandates energy/water conservation goals for all federal agencies, including NASA. There are also reporting requirements associated with this legislation. The Energy/Water Management Task was created to support NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division (HO EMD) in meeting these requirements. With assistance from TEERM, HQ EMD compiled and submitted the NASA Annual Report to the Department of Energy FY 2007. The report contains information on how NASA is meeting federally mandated energy and water management goals. TEERM monitored input for timeliness, errors, and conformity to the new energy/water reporting guidelines and helped compile the information into the final report. TEERM also assists NASA Energy/Water Management with proposal and award calls, updates to the energy/water management database, and facilitating communication within the energy/water management community. TEERM is also supporting NASA and the Interagency Working Group (IWG) on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. Established shortly after the President announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in 2003, this IWG serves as the mechanism for collaboration among the Federal agencies

  11. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Kamarel; Thiaw, Modou; Lazar, Najih; Sarr, Alassane; Brochier, Timothée; Ndiaye, Ismaïla; Faye, Alioune; Sadio, Oumar; Panfili, Jacques; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans. PMID:27280629

  12. Resilience of Key Biological Parameters of the Senegalese Flat Sardinella to Overfishing and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Ba, Kamarel; Thiaw, Modou; Lazar, Najih; Sarr, Alassane; Brochier, Timothée; Ndiaye, Ismaïla; Faye, Alioune; Sadio, Oumar; Panfili, Jacques; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Brehmer, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The stock of the Senegalese flat sardinella, Sardinella maderensis, is highly exploited in Senegal, West Africa. Its growth and reproduction parameters are key biological indicators for improving fisheries management. This study reviewed these parameters using landing data from small-scale fisheries in Senegal and literature information dated back more than 25 years. Age was estimated using length-frequency data to calculate growth parameters and assess the growth performance index. With global climate change there has been an increase in the average sea surface temperature along the Senegalese coast but the length-weight parameters, sex ratio, size at first sexual maturity, period of reproduction and condition factor of S. maderensis have not changed significantly. The above parameters of S. maderensis have hardly changed, despite high exploitation and fluctuations in environmental conditions that affect the early development phases of small pelagic fish in West Africa. This lack of plasticity of the species regarding of the biological parameters studied should be considered when planning relevant fishery management plans.

  13. Water management tools for Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to equip crop producers in the Southeast with tools to improve crop production and management including: • Knowledge of crop and soil water relations • Irrigation scheduling tools for better water management, and • Economic benefits of water conservation technologies Crop performance can...

  14. Water Science, Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    A new AGU book, Water:Science, Management and Policy, edited by Richard Lawford, Denise Fort, Holly Hartmann, and Susanna Eden, explores the scientific and political issues behind water use and sustainability worldwide. The book investigates critical issues facing water managers, policy makers, and scientists in the 21st century, examining specific examples of water planning and decision-making. Among the topics discussed by the authors are the current state of water engineering, sharing resources across state and international borders, and the best methods for managing the resource with the future impact of climate change and additional pollution.

  15. Sustainability and migration: experiments from the Senegalese peanut basin.

    PubMed

    Golan, E H

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic and environmental impact of migration and diversification out of agriculture in developing countries is analyzed using 1987 data concerning two Senegalese villages. The results suggest that although out-migration can result in a substantial increase in income for the village of origin, the social costs of the concomitant increase in single-parent households can also be high. Furthermore, the environmental impact of such changes is not always positive.

  16. [Bibliography: Senegalese emigration and immigration to Senegal (publications 1990-1995)].

    PubMed

    Bredeloup, S

    1995-01-01

    This is an unannotated bibliography on migration affecting Senegal. It is organized alphabetically by author under the following subjects: West African migration systems; History of Senegalese migrations; Senegalese migration in France, Italy, Spain, and the United States; Return migration and remittances; and Migration from elsewhere in Africa to Senegal.

  17. Intestinal response to salinity challenge in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I; Barany, A; Jerez-Cepa, I; Mancera, J M; Fuentes, J

    2017-02-01

    Fish are continuously forced to actively absorb or expel water and ions through epithelia. Most studies have focused on the gill due to its role in Na(+) and Cl(-) trafficking. However, comparatively few studies have focused on the changing function of the intestine in response to external salinity. Therefore, the present study investigated the main intestinal changes of long-term acclimation of the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) to 5, 15, 38 and 55ppt. Through the measurement of short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chambers and biochemical approaches, we described a clear anterior/posterior functional regionalization of the intestine in response to salinity. The use of specific inhibitors in Ussing chamber experiments, revealed that the bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) co-transporters are the main effectors of Cl(-) uptake in both anterior intestine and rectum. Additionally, the use of the anion exchanger specific inhibitor, DIDS, showed a salinity/region dependency of anion exchanger function. Moreover, we also described ouabain-sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and Bafilomycin A1-sensitive H(+)-ATPase activities (HA), which displayed changes related to salinity and intestinal region. However, the most striking result of the present study is the description of an omeprazole-sensitive H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (HKA) in the rectum of Senegalese sole. Its activity was consistently measurable and increased at lower salinities, reaching rates even higher than those of the NKA. Together our results provide new insights into the changing role of the intestine in response to external salinity in teleost fish. The rectal activity of HKA offers an alternative/cooperative mechanism with the HA in the final processing of intestinal water absorption by apical titration of secreted bicarbonate.

  18. Outsource water/wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, J.A.; Cichon, E.J.

    1997-08-01

    For some operating facilities, outsourcing water/wastewater management offers an economical way to receive and use high-quality water and maintain effluent treatment services. As high-volume water users, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) companies daily use, consume and discard large quantities of water and wastewater. To remain competitive and to reduce daily operating costs, HPI companies have farmed out services. Water management is a possible plant function that can be administrated by a third party. Outsourcing the utilities area allows operators to focus and allocate resources on their core profit-generating products. It is an opportunity to try new technologies without risking capital. Before signing the contract, facilities should carefully scrutinize the benefits--financial, environmental, etc.--and actual costs from outsourcing their water management.

  19. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used throughout the world for planning, analysis and design related to stormwater runoff, combined and sanitary sewers, and other drainage systems in urban areas.

  20. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  1. How conformist Senegalese adolescents consider themselves to be.

    PubMed

    Vandewiele, M; D'Hondt, W

    1983-03-01

    Conformism seems to be of negative value in most European cultures as it is understood to rule out originality and creativity. In "transitional" societies such as the Senegalese one, at the crossroads of diverse influences, Western, Eastern and traditional African, the conception of conformism is slightly different, as we found when we investigated a group of schoolgoing adolescents. Results show that group pressure, though very strong, does not exclude individual initiative and a fair amount of free-will, and that this is in keeping with the traditional systems of values, understood in their appropriate context and meaning.

  2. Illinois water quality management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the purpose of the plan to consolidate and streamline portions of approved state and areawide water quality management (WQM) plans in order to facilitate their usage in the operations of all designated WQM agencies. The report identifies both point and nonpoint pollution sources, reviews policies and regulations already in place and makes recommendations for pollution prevention and control. Information on the plan's management structure is also included.

  3. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility (energy) ...

  4. Seafood and Water Management.

    PubMed

    van Ruth, Saskia M; Brouwer, Erwin; Koot, Alex; Wijtten, Michiel

    2014-12-05

    Seafood is an important food source for many. Consumers should be entitled to an informed choice, and there is growing concern about correct composition labeling of seafood. Due to its high price, it has been shown to be vulnerable to adulteration. In the present study, we focus on moisture levels in seafood. Moisture and crude protein contents of chilled and frozen cod, pangasius, salmon, shrimp and tilapia purchased from various retail outlets in the Netherlands were examined by reference methods and the values of which were compared with the reported data from other studies in literature. Significant differences in proximate composition were determined for different species and between chilled and frozen products of the same species. Pangasius products showed the highest moisture contents in general (86.3 g/100 g), and shrimp products revealed the largest differences between chilled and frozen products. Comparison with literature values and good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards exposed that, generally, chilled pangasius, frozen pangasius and frozen shrimp products presented considerably higher moisture and lower crude protein/nitrogen contents than those found in other studies. From the GMP standards, extraneous water was estimated on average at 26 g/100 g chilled pangasius product, and 25 and 34 g/100 g product for frozen shrimp and pangasius products, respectively.

  5. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  6. Climate Teleconnections and Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtew, Wossenu; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2014-02-01

    Advancements have been made in identifying teleconnection between various climate phenomena and regional hydrometeorology. This knowledge can be systematically applied to predict regional hydrometeorology to gain lead time for resource and risk management decision making. Adaptations for droughts, floods, and cold and warm weather conditions are necessary for optimal food production and, in many cases, for survival. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic phenomenon has been linked to seasonal weather of many regions mainly through rainfall and temperature. The development of El Niño or La Niña has usually opposing regional effects. Its effects are manifested in regional droughts and crop yield reduction, loss of livestock feed, water supply shortage or floods and flood damages, insect population and pathogens, wildfires, etc. A new method has been used to track ENSO development using cumulative sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly and cumulative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) from freely available data. The relationships of ENSO indices and the Blue Nile hydrology have been shown using an index that tracks cumulative SST anomaly. It has been shown that the Upper Blue Nile basin rainfall and flows have teleconnection to ENSO. Dry years are likely to occur during El Niño years at a confidence level of 90 % and La Niña years favor wetter condition. The results of this study can be applied to resource management decision making to mitigate drought or flood impacts with a lead time of at least few months. ENSO tracking and forecasting helps prediction of approaching hydrologic conditions to make early water management decisions. A case study with organizational structure and decision making process is presented where ENSO conditions are tracked weekly and results are applied for water management decision making.

  7. Ghrelin in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) post-larvae: Paracrine effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Guillén, Carmen; Yúfera, Manuel; Engrola, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Successful food consumption and digestion depend on specifics anatomical and behavioral characteristics and corresponding physiological functions that should be ready to work at the appropriate time. The physiological regulation of appetite and ingestion involves a complex integration of peripheral and central signals by the brain. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone involved in the control of energy homeostasis and increases food intake in mammals, however ghrelin has species-specific actions on food intake in fish. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this peptide has an orexigenic or anorexigenic role in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in order to improve the knowledge of the physiological basis underlying feeding activity. Feed intake was measured at several sampling points to determine the overall action time of the peptide and its effect in Senegalese sole food intake. Artemia protein digestibility and retention were determined in order to analyze the ghrelin effect in fed and fasted Senegalese sole post-larvae. Results suggested that ghrelin acts as orexigenic hormone in Senegalese sole, with a response time around 25min. Results indicated that Senegalese sole post-larvae are able to maintain absorption and retention capacities independently of feeding rate and nutritional status. Furthermore, the present study gives insight for the first time of the fate of the retained amino acids, being mainly used for protein accretion (86.79% of retained amino acids recovered in protein and FAA fractions).

  8. Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rheenen, Hans; van den Berg, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool based on weather forecasting, sensor data and hydrological modelling. Climate change will cause periods of more extreme rainfall relieved by periods of drought. Water systems have to become more robust and self supporting in order to prevent damage by flooding and drought. For climate proof water management, it is important to anticipate on extreme events by using excellent weather forecast data, sensor data on soil and water, and hydrologic model data. The Rich Water World project has created an Adaptive Water Management Tool that integrates all these data.

  9. Water resource management: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Khadse, G K; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2012-10-01

    Water is precious natural resource for sustaining life and environment. Effective and sustainable management of water resources is vital for ensuring sustainable development. In view of the vital importance of water for human and animal life, for maintaining ecological balance and for economic and developmental activities of all kinds, and considering its increasing scarcity, the planning and management of water resource and its optimal, economical and equitable use has become a matter of the utmost urgency. Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. For maintaining the quality of freshwater, water quality management strategies are required to be evolved and implemented. Decision support systems are required to be developed for planning and management of the water resources project. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management. Clearly, drinking water is too fundamental and serious an issue to be left to one institution alone. It needs the combined initiative and action of all, if at all we are serious in socioeconomic development. Safe drinking water can be assured, provided we set our mind to address it. The present article deals with the review of various options for sustainable water resource management in India.

  10. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  11. Water footprint as a tool for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2010-05-01

    In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade

  12. Water Quality Assessment and Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  13. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  14. Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Cunliffe, D; Sinclair, M; Vulcano, R; Howard, J; Hrudey, S; Callan, P

    2003-01-01

    A growing list of water contaminants has led to some water suppliers relying primarily on compliance monitoring as a mechanism for managing drinking water quality. While such monitoring is a necessary part of drinking water quality management, experiences with waterborne disease threats and outbreaks have shown that compliance monitoring for numerical limits is not, in itself, sufficient to guarantee the safety and quality of drinking water supplies. To address these issues, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has developed a Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) for incorporation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, the primary reference on drinking water quality in Australia. The Framework was developed specifically for drinking water supplies and provides a comprehensive and preventive risk management approach from catchment to consumer. It includes holistic guidance on a range of issues considered good practice for system management. The Framework addresses four key areas: Commitment to Drinking Water Quality Management, System Analysis and System Management, Supporting Requirements, and Review. The Framework represents a significantly enhanced approach to the management and regulation of drinking water quality and offers a flexible and proactive means of optimising drinking water quality and protecting public health. Rather than the primary reliance on compliance monitoring, the Framework emphasises prevention, the importance of risk assessment, maintaining the integrity of water supply systems and application of multiple barriers to assure protection of public health. Development of the Framework was undertaken in collaboration with the water industry, regulators and other stakeholder, and will promote a common and unified approach to drinking water quality management throughout Australia. The Framework has attracted international interest.

  15. Economic resilience through "One-Water" management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

  16. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  17. Drainage water management effects on tile dicharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (DWM) has received considerable attention as a potential best management practice for improving water quality in tile drained landscapes. However, only a limited number of studies have documented the effectiveness of DWM in mitigating nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. ...

  18. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Wilson, Laura Labuda; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2011, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  19. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2015-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2015 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past two years.

  20. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Tobias, Barry; Orozco, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2012, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  1. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  2. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Layne; Pruitt, Jennifer; Brown, Christopher A.; Bazley, Jesse; Gazda, Daniel; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2016-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of May 2016 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  3. The Influence of Islam on AIDS Prevention among Senegalese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sarah S.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify Islam's contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention. Senegal has involved Muslim leaders in its prevention campaign for over a decade. Senegal also has the lowest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines how Islam influences AIDS prevention by testing whether Senegalese participants'…

  4. A Report on the Reading Habits of College-Aged Senegalese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, JoAnne E.; And Others

    A total of 59 Senegalese adult and college students filled out a questionnaire in a study designed to gather data about their reading habits. The 15-item instrument, written in English and French, required yes or no responses to questions that described students' satisfaction with reading ability, types of materials read, perceptions of reading…

  5. N'Deup and Mental Health: Implications for Treating Senegalese Immigrants in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conwill, William

    2010-01-01

    Africans, especially the Senegalese, have been the largest visible immigrant group in the United States (US) over the last 30 years. The cultural understanding necessary for effectively providing for their mental and other health needs is limited. This article involves a first-person phenomenographic (Marton 1986) account of an investigation of…

  6. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  7. Cloning, tissue and ontogenetic expression of the taurine transporter in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Jordal, Ann-Elise Olderbakk; Gomes, Ana S; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2012-04-01

    Flatfish species seem to require dietary taurine for normal growth and development. Although dietary taurine supplementation has been recommended for flatfish, little is known about the mechanisms of taurine absorption in the digestive tract of flatfish throughout ontogeny. This study described the cloning and ontogenetic expression of the taurine transporter (TauT) in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). Results showed a high similarity between TauT in Senegalese sole and other vertebrates, but a change in TauT amino acid sequences indicates that taurine transport may differ between mammals and fish, reptiles or birds. Moreover, results showed that Senegalese sole metamorphosis is an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in larvae, especially in muscle tissues, which may be important for larval growth. Results also indicated that the capacity to uptake dietary taurine in the digestive tract is already established in larvae at the onset of metamorphosis. In Senegalese sole juveniles, TauT expression was highest in brain, heart and eye. These are organs where taurine is usually found in high concentrations and is believed to play important biological roles. In the digestive tract of juveniles, TauT was more expressed in stomach and hindgut, indicating that dietary taurine is quickly absorbed when digestion begins and taurine endogenously used for bile salt conjugation may be recycled at the posterior end of the digestive tract. Therefore, these results suggest an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine in Senegalese sole, a process that may be important for maintenance of the taurine body levels in flatfish species.

  8. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  9. Guide to Managing Pasture Water: Streamside Buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Properly managed pasture water not only provides high-quality water which promotes healthy and productive livestock, but also contributes to maintaining water quality downstream. Riparian (streamside) areas serve as a transition between upland pastures and waterways. In other words, they link pastur...

  10. Seeking sustainability: Israel's evolving water management strategy.

    PubMed

    Tal, Alon

    2006-08-25

    The water management policies adopted to address Israel's chronic scarcity have not been without environmental consequences. Yet, through a trial-and-error process, a combined strategy of water transport, rainwater harvesting, and wastewater reuse and desalination, along with a variety of water conservation measures, have put the country on a more sustainable path for the future.

  11. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SWMM) MODERNIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Water Supply and Water Resources Division in partnership with the consulting firm of CDM to redevelop and modernize the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). In the initial phase of this project EPA rewrote SWMM's computational engine usi...

  12. Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Dijk, M.; van Verseveld, W.; Berger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Most of the Dutch large rivers, canals and lakes are controlled by the Dutch water authorities. The main reasons concern safety, navigation and fresh water supply. Historically the separate water bodies have been controlled locally. For optimizating management of these water systems an integrated approach was required. Presented is a platform which integrates data from all control objects for monitoring and control purposes. The Operational Management System for Regulated Water Systems (IWP) is an implementation of Delft-FEWS which supports operational control of water systems and actively gives advice. One of the main characteristics of IWP is that is real-time collects, transforms and presents different types of data, which all add to the operational water management. Next to that, hydrodynamic models and intelligent decision support tools are added to support the water managers during their daily control activities. An important advantage of IWP is that it uses the Delft-FEWS framework, therefore processes like central data collection, transformations, data processing and presentation are simply configured. At all control locations the same information is readily available. The operational water management itself gains from this information, but it can also contribute to cost efficiency (no unnecessary pumping), better use of available storage and advise during (water polution) calamities.

  13. NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. With growin...

  14. NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Globally, the need for water reuse is increasing due to rising water demands and finite water resources. In addition, certain regulations and policies, such as zero discharge initiatives or limited new dam construction, may indirectly contribute to the need for reuse. Also, with ...

  15. Integrated water resources management: Concepts and issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, H. H. G.; Van der Zaag, P.

    After the describing the historical developments that led the development of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), the paper defines this important concept. It subsequently deals with the thorny issue of water security as well as water conflict, after which the major issues over which thus far no consensus has been achieved are briefly reviewed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the role of the IAHS International Commission on Water Resources Systems (ICWRS) in promoting IWRM.

  16. Handbook for state ground water managers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    ;Table of Contents: Nonpoint Source Implementation; State Public Water System Supervision; State Underground Water Source Protection (Underground Injection Control); Water Pollution Control -- State and Interstate Program Support (106 Grants); Water Quality Management Planning; Agriculture in Concert with the Environment; Consolidated Pesticide Compliance Monitoring and Program Cooperative Agreements; Pollution Prevention Incentives for States; Hazardous Substance Response Trust Fund; Hazardous Waste Financial Assistance; Underground Storage Tank Program; Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund; State/EPA Data Management Financial Assistance Program; Environmental Education; and Multi-Media Assistance Agreements for Indian Tribes.

  17. Management of water quality for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cody L

    2007-03-01

    Drinking water is the primary source of water for most cattle. Unfortunately, water frequently contains various solutes and suspended particulate matter that can influence its appearance, odor, taste, and physical and chemical properties. Animals often react to such water impurities by decreasing water intake, and therefore feed intake, which diminishes animal performance. Thus, water quality can have a profound impact on animal health and performance. Routine monitoring of water sources and appropriate intervention can provide beef producers with a desirable return on investment. Careful thought should be incorporated into any capital improvements. This article discusses some of the most common factors that impact water quality for beef cattle and the methods of monitoring water quality, and proposes management solutions to address water quality concerns.

  18. Water supply and management concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1965-01-01

    If I had to cite one fact about water in the United States which would be not only the most important but also the most informative, the one I would choose would k this: Over 50 percent of all the water presently being used in the United States is used by industry, and nearly all of that is used for cooling.The large amount of attention recently being given to water shortage and the expected rapid increase in demand for water is probably to some extent clouded because there are certain simple facts about water availability and water use which, though readily available, are not generally either known or understood.Probably most people react to information in the public press about present and possible future water shortages with the thought that it is going to be more difficult in the future to supply the ordinary household with water for drinking, washing, and tbe culinary arts. As a matter of fact that may be true to some extent, but it is not the salient aspect.

  19. Spirit Lake Water Resource Management NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit ND-0031101, Spirit Lake Water Resource Management is authorized to discharge to an unnamed intermittent tributary to Devils Lake which is tributary to Sheyenne River in North Dakota.

  20. Asset Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewing and replacing the nation's public water infrastructure is an ongoing task. Asset management can help a utility maximize the value of its capital as well as its operations and maintenance dollars.

  1. Moving towards Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will discuss the following topics: Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Placement (SUSTAIN); Sanitary Sewer Overflow Toolbox (SSOAP); BMP and Low Impact Development (LID) Performance; Green/Grey Infrastructure for Stormwater; Combined Sewers and Reuse; Infra...

  2. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  3. The challenge of water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1960-01-01

    In a sandy, riverside location in Wisconsin my family has a farm, once abandoned by a previous owner because it would not produce much corn. By the time we bought it for a pittance, only a few remnants of white pine remained from the magnificent stands made famous by Paul Bunyan. The variability of the glacial topography had resulted in an interesting mixture of prairie marsh, swamp woodlot, and sandhill.We did not acquire this farm because it had a great potential for growing crops. Rather we were interested in the variety of ecologic and topographic types which, even within the confines of our property, represented a condensed version of many different types of land in the Wisconsin countryside. It has also a very peculiar esthetic and historical interest. Marquette's canoes slipped quietly past our favorite fishing hole on the river. Passenger pigeons had once roosted in our great oaks. The few remaining white pines silhouetted against the sky-glow of evening made one think of the Round River and the Blue Ox.All right, we had acquired this place. What were we to do with it. Its resources were narrowly limited and peculiar. They had little economic value. All the more reason that they should be appraised in order that they be fully utilized and appreciated. So, while we were hammering and sawing the old stable into a useable homestead, we walked, sat, dug, and pruned in every coulee and covert, in every thicket and thatch. By compass and pace we mapped the boundaries, the vegetation, and sketched in the topography with notes on the distribution of soil and the occurrence of water. We counted the various kinds of birds and found there was a reasonable population of woods species, mostly transients. There were no pheasant, no quail, practically no grouse, and in spring only an occasional woodcock.In conjunction with the analysis of what we had to work with we started immediately on the task of development. The techniques were chosen with an eye to specific goals

  4. Integrated management of water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainerici, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Water resources occupy an important place among other natural resources, water being the most widely large resource in the world. In different quantities, it can be found everywhere and play an important role in human life and environmental balance. Importance have a great freshwater resources, because all human activities and life itself are dependent on water, it not be substituted by other resources. Water resources of Romania are made up of surface waters - rivers, lakes, the Danube - and groundwater. The main water resource of Romania is an inside rivers. A basic feature of this type of resource is a very large variability in space: - mountain area, which makes half of the total elapsed; - variability specific environmental flow (1 l/s*km2 - in low areas up to 40 l/s*km2 - in high areas). Another feature is a very pronounced variability in time, so spring is important flood production, followed by prolonged drought. The river Danube, the second largest river in Europe, with a length of 2,850 km, of which 1,075 km within the territory of our country, with an average stock entering the country of 174 mild m3/year could be the most abundant source water. The international or impose certain limitations in the use of its waters and therefore the resource is considered only half the average volume multi elapsed on the Danube. Underground water resources consist of existing water storage in aquifer layers and layers of groundwater deep sea, assessing them difficult. Potential natural water resources in Romania is 137.8 bn m3/year of the Danube 87.8 billion m3/ year , inside rivers 40 billion m3/year and groundwater 10 billion m3/year Divided by the current population of the country, give a specific resource, in natural, cca.1840 m3/citizen.year, taking into consideration only the river intake inside situated our country, from this point of view, in the category of the country with reduced resources water as the average Europe 4700 which is m3/citizen.year

  5. Water Security - science and management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the contemporary issues of Water Security, noting that current and prospective pressures represent major challenges for society. It is argued that, given the complex interdependencies and multi-faceted nature of these challenges, new trans-disciplinary science is needed to support the development of science-based policy and management. The effects of human society on land and water are now large and extensive. Hence we conclude that: (a) the management of water involves the management of a complex human-natural system, and (b) potential impacts of the human footprint on land and water systems can influence not only water quantity and quality, but also local and regional climate. We note, however, that research to quantify impacts of human activities is, in many respects, in its infancy. The development of the science base requires a trans-disciplinary place-based focus that must include the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering, and address management challenges at scales that range from local to large river basin scale, and may include trans-boundary issues. Large basin scale studies can provide the focus to address these science and management challenges, including the feedbacks associated with man's impact from land and water management on regional climate systems.

  6. Crop water productivity and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern irrigation systems offer large increases in crop water productivity compared with rainfed or gravity irrigation, but require different management approaches to achieve this. Flood, sprinkler, low-energy precision application, LEPA, and subsurface drip irrigation methods vary widely in water a...

  7. Water Management in England: A Regional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okun, Daniel A.

    1975-01-01

    Reorganization of authorities resulting in sound direction, greater flexibility, and more attention to cost effectiveness has helped the British achieve a high quality of water service. The history and development of British water management are reviewed and more cooperation between federal and state agencies is encouraged. (BT)

  8. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State water management... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State... major elements of the State water management program, which should address but not be limited to:...

  9. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true State water management... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State... major elements of the State water management program, which should address but not be limited to:...

  10. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State water management... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State... major elements of the State water management program, which should address but not be limited to:...

  11. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State water management... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State... major elements of the State water management program, which should address but not be limited to:...

  12. 18 CFR 740.4 - State water management planning program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State water management... STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.4 State water management planning program. (a) A State... major elements of the State water management program, which should address but not be limited to:...

  13. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  14. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  15. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  16. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  17. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the

  18. Assessment of trace element contamination and bioaccumulation in algae (Ulva lactuca), mussels (Perna perna), shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus), and fish (Mugil cephalus, Saratherondon melanotheron) along the Senegalese coast.

    PubMed

    Diop, Mamadou; Howsam, Michael; Diop, Cheikh; Goossens, Jean F; Diouf, Amadou; Amara, Rachid

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of 11 elements were quantified in five marine species from different trophic levels of a food web (algae, mussel, shrimp and fish), representative for shallow Senegalese coastal waters, and including species of commercial importance. Significant differences in element concentrations and bioaccumulation were demonstrated, revealing the utility of employing a suite of organisms as bioindicators to monitor metal contamination in coastal areas. There was no clear seasonal pattern in concentration of elements, however inter-site differences were observed. Calculations of transfer factors for all the studied elements showed that transfer factors from water were greater than those from sediments. For shrimp and mussel, the concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the EU's maximum level for human consumption, however high concentrations of arsenic in shrimp were recorded at all sites.

  19. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water management... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2025 Ballast water management requirements. (a) The master,...

  20. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water management... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2025 Ballast water management requirements. (a) The master,...

  1. 33 CFR 151.2025 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water management... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2025 Ballast water management requirements. (a) The master,...

  2. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Fatsini, E.; Rey, S.; Chereguini, O.; Martin, I.; Rasines, I.; Duncan, N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: ‘fearfulness-reactivity’ and ‘activity-exploration’, (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production. PMID:28018634

  3. Experimental susceptibility of European sea bass and Senegalese sole to different betanodavirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Souto, S; Lopez-Jimena, B; Alonso, M C; García-Rosado, E; Bandín, I

    2015-05-15

    The susceptibility of juvenile European sea bass and Senegalese sole to three VNNV isolates (a reassortant RGNNV/SJNNV, as well as the parental RGNNV and SJNNV genotypes) has been evaluated by challenges using two inoculation ways (bath and intramuscular injection). The results demonstrate that these two fish species are susceptible to all the VNNV isolates tested. In European sea bass, RGNNV caused the highest cumulative mortality, reaching maximum values of viral RNA and titres. Although the SJNNV isolate did not provoke mortality or clinical signs of disease in this fish species, viral production in survivor fish was determined; on the other hand the reassortant isolate did cause mortality and clinical signs of disease, although less evident than those recorded after RGNNV infection. These results suggest that the changes suffered by the SJNNV RNA2 segment of the reassortant isolate, compared to the parental SJNNV, may have involved host-specificity and/or virulence determinants for European sea bass. Regarding Senegalese sole, although the three isolates caused 100% mortality, the reassortant strain provoked the most acute symptoms, and more quickly, especially in the bath challenge. This was also the isolate showing less difference between the number of RNA copies and viral titre, reaching the highest titres of infective viral particles in nervous tissue of infected animals. The RGNNV isolate produced the lowest values of infective viral particles. All these results suggest that the RGNNV and the reassortant isolates are the most suited for infecting European sea bass and Senegalese sole, respectively.

  4. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.

  5. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merritt, E. S.; Shotwell, R. L.; Place, M. C.; Belknap, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    A geocoded data management system applicable for hydrological applications was designed to demonstrate the utility of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) for hydrological applications. Within that context, the geocoded hydrology data management system was designed to take advantage of the interactive capability of the AOIPS hardware. Portions of the Water Resource Data Management System which best demonstrate the interactive nature of the hydrology data management system were implemented on the AOIPS. A hydrological case study was prepared using all data supplied for the Bear River watershed located in northwest Utah, southeast Idaho, and western Wyoming.

  6. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  7. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary

  8. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  9. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide

  10. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Southeastern States. Ground water is not completely 'self-renewing' because, where it is being mined, the reserve is being diminished and the reserve would be renewed only if pumping were stopped. Water is being mined at the rate of 5 million acre-feet per year in Arizona and 6 million in the High Plains of Texas. In contrast, water has been going into storage in the Snake River Plain of Idaho, where deep percolation from surface-water irrigation has added about 10 million acre-feet of storage since irrigation began. Situations in California illustrate problems of land subsidence resulting from pumping and use of water, and deterioration of ground-water reservoirs due to sea-water invasion. Much water development in the United States has been haphazard and rarely has there been integrated development of ground water and surface water. Competition is sharpening and new codes of water law are in the making. New laws, however, will not prevent the consequences of bad management. An important task for water management is to recognize the contingencies that may arise in the future and to prepare for them. The three most important tasks at hand are to make more efficient use of water, to develop improved quantitative evaluations of water supplies arid their quality, and to develop management practices which are based on scientific hydrology.

  11. Modeling Limited Foresight in Water Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, R.

    2005-12-01

    The inability to forecast future water supplies means that their management inevitably occurs under situations of limited foresight. Three modeling problems arise, first what type of objective function is a manager with limited foresight optimizing? Second how can we measure these objectives? Third can objective functions that incorporate uncertainty be integrated within the structure of optimizing water management models? The paper reviews the concepts of relative risk aversion and intertemporal substitution that underlie stochastic dynamic preference functions. Some initial results from the estimation of such functions for four different dam operations in northern California are presented and discussed. It appears that the path of previous water decisions and states influences the decision-makers willingness to trade off water supplies between periods. A compromise modeling approach that incorporates carry-over value functions under limited foresight within a broader net work optimal water management model is developed. The approach uses annual carry-over value functions derived from small dimension stochastic dynamic programs embedded within a larger dimension water allocation network. The disaggregation of the carry-over value functions to the broader network is extended using the space rule concept. Initial results suggest that the solution of such annual nonlinear network optimizations is comparable to, or faster than, the solution of linear network problems over long time series.

  12. Managing the urban water-energy nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lund, Jay R.

    2016-04-01

    Water use directly causes a significant amount of energy use in cities. In this paper we assess energy and greenhouse emissions related with each part of the urban water cycle and the consequences of several changes in residential water use for customers, water and energy utilities, and the environment. First, we develop an hourly model of urban water uses by customer category including water-related energy consumption. Next, using real data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, we calibrate a model of the energy used in water supply, treatment, pumping and wastewater treatment by the utility. Then, using data from the California Independent System Operator, we obtain hourly costs of energy for the energy utility. Finally, and using emission factors reported by the energy utilities we estimate greenhouse gas emissions for the entire urban water cycle. Results of the business-as-usual scenario show that water end uses account for almost 95% of all water-related energy use, but the 5% managed by the utility is still worth over 12 million annually. Several simulations analyze the potential benefits for water demand management actions showing that moving some water end-uses from peak to off-peak hours such as outdoor use, dishwasher or clothes washer use have large benefits for water and energy utilities, especially for locations with a high proportion of electric water heaters. Other interesting result is that under the current energy rate structures with low or no fixed charges, energy utilities burden most of the cost of the conservation actions.

  13. ``Virtual water'': An unfolding concept in integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Zehnder, Alexander

    2007-12-01

    In its broadest sense, virtual water refers to the water required for the production of food commodities. Issues relating to virtual water have drawn much attention in scientific communities and the political sphere since the mid 1990s. This paper provides a critical review of major research issues and results in the virtual water literature and pinpoints the remaining questions and the direction of research in future virtual water studies. We conclude that virtual water studies have helped to raise the awareness of water scarcity and its impact on food security and to improve the understanding of the role of food trade in compensating for water deficit. However, the studies so far have been overwhelmingly concerned with the international food trade, and many solely quantified virtual water flows associated with food trade. There is a general lack of direct policy relevance to the solutions to water scarcity and food insecurity, which are often local, regional, and river basin issues. The obscurity in the conceptual basis of virtual water also entails some confusion. The methodologies and databases of the studies are often crude, affecting the robustness and reliability of the results. Looking ahead, future virtual water studies need to enhance the policy relevance by strengthening their linkages with national and regional water resources management. Meanwhile, integrated approaches taking into consideration the spatial and temporal variations of blue and green water resources availability and the complexity of natural, socioeconomic, and political conditions are necessary in assessing the trade-offs of the virtual water strategy in dealing with water scarcity. To this end, interdisciplinary efforts and quantitative methods supported by improved data availability are greatly important.

  14. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.; Rossetti, A.; Brambilla, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina) retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  15. Meteorological support for anticipatory water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, C. J.; Wichers Schreur, B. G. J.; Vogelezang, D. H. P.

    2011-05-01

    Living with water is second nature to the inhabitants of the Netherlands. Managing water both as a resource and as a threat is a vital concern to the country. The responsibility for regional water management lies with the Dutch Regional Water Authorities. Their basic philosophy of a balance of safety and economic interests requires a sophisticated control and decision support system, with high quality meteorological inputs. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI in conjunction with the Dutch Association of Regional Water Authorities has developed a warning system for extreme precipitation in support of anticipatory water management. Radar observations, short range deterministic forecasts and medium range ensemble predictions of precipitation are combined with risk profiles of individual water control boards in an automatic system, that warns of possible conditions outside normal control. This article describes the current operational system and presents examples of its application. A first evaluation of the possible value of this system, that essentially decouples meteorology and hydrology, is discussed, based on a first evaluation of the reliability of the precipitation forecasts. Finally, the article presents the current development of an extended system that uses combined probabilities of precipitation with wind, surge and river level forecasts to more accurately define risk conditions.

  16. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be...

  17. Crisis management during anaesthesia: water intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, M; Szekely, S; Singleton, R; Helps, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Irrigation of closed body spaces may lead to substantial perioperative fluid and electrolyte shifts. A syndrome occurring during transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), and a similar syndrome described in women undergoing transcervical endometrial ablation (TCEA) are both characterised by a spectrum of symptoms which may range from asymptomatic hyponatraemia to convulsions, coma, and death. Such potentially serious consequences require prompt recognition and appropriate management of this "water intoxication" syndrome. Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCD–A SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a specific sub-algorithm for water intoxication, in the management of this syndrome occurring in association with anaesthesia. Methods: The potential performance of this structured approach for each of the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. Results: From the first 4000 incidents reported to AIMS, 10 reports of water intoxication were identified, two from endometrial ablations under general anaesthesia and eight from male urological procedures under spinal anaesthesia. The "core" crisis management algorithm detected a problem in seven cases; however, it was deficient in dealing with neurological presentations. Diagnosis of the cause of the incident would have required a specific water intoxication sub-algorithm in eight cases and a hypotension algorithm in a further two cases. Corrective strategies also required a specific sub-algorithm in eight cases, while the hypotension and cardiac arrest sub-algorithms were required in conjunction with the water intoxication sub-algorithm in the remaining two. Conclusion: This relatively uncommon problem is managed poorly using the "core" crisis management sub-algorithm and requires a simple specific sub-algorithm for water

  18. Water resources. [mapping and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in applying ERTS-1 data to water resources problems, nevertheless, more time and effort still appear necessary for further quantification of results, including the specification of thematic measurement accuracies. More modeling can be done very profitably. In particular, more strategy models describing the processes wherein ERTS-1 data would be acquired, analyzed, processed, and utilized in operational situations could be profitably accomplished. It is generally observed that the ERTS-1 data applicability is evident in several areas and that the next most general and substantive steps in the implementation of the data in operational situations would be greatly encouraged by the establishment of an operational earth resources satellite organization and capability. Further encouragement of this operational capability would be facilitated by all investigators striving to document their procedures as fully as possible and by providing time and cost comparisons between ERTS-1 and conventional acquisition approaches.

  19. Training needs for water demand management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; van der Zaag, Pieter; Robinson, Peter; Jonker, Lewis; Buckle, Hannes

    There is no doubt that delivery of education and training is essential in increasing awareness and equipping various stakeholders with the necessary skills and tools to implement Water Demand Management (WDM) in the Southern African region. At present there is limited capacity in the region to drive WDM programmes. One of the identified major constraints to the adoption of Water Demand Management (WDM) measures is the absence of well structured educational and training programmes or courses suitably targeted to all stakeholders in the water management chain. As one unpacks the Pandora’s Box of education and training certain key questions arise. What form of education and training in required? How does it fit in broader programmes like Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)? Who should be educated or trained and what are the target figures? And, importantly, who funds the exercise? As much as WDM awareness has been given due attention, education and training to move beyond the barriers to implementation have been lacking. This paper describes the development of the IUCN-WaterNet WDM Tertiary Training Module for middle and senior managers in institutions within the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). The paper outlines the structure of the module and the philosophy which guided its development and selection of content. The results of relevant training needs surveys are also highlighted. Human development indicators for the SADC member states are provided as background information to contextualise the challenges facing the region. There are a number of constraints and threats to building WDM human resource capital. Recommendations are made for possible co-operation among the educators and trainers, public and private sectors, and possibly within the framework and mandate of the SADC Water Sector Co-ordinating Unit. Cooperation would ensure that WDM knowledge and skills are imparted to a significant number of water professionals in the region within

  20. Isotope tracers help manage water resources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.; Hudson, B.; Davisson, L.

    1997-11-01

    Livermore isotope scientists are using stable and radioactive isotopes to learn about groundwater sources, ages, travel times, and flow paths and to determine the path and extent of contaminant movement in the water. These studies started at the Nevada Test Site because of concern about the transport in groundwater of contaminants from underground nuclear testing. When water managers can accurately predict where contaminated groundwater will be, they can avoid using it. Groundwater studies have also been performed for the Orange County Water District, Contra Costa County, and other public agencies, as well as at the Livermore site. Livermore scientists are some of the first to marry isotope tracing techniques and numerical groundwater models, using data from the former to verify and validate the predictions of the latter and thus provide a powerful forecasting tool for water managers.

  1. Scientific basis of water-resource management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This volume contains 11 reports regarding water-resource management. Topics include: long-term and large-scale problems of water management, such as groundwater contamination due to toxic and nuclear-waste disposal; nonpoint sources of pollution on our stream systems; impacts of changes in both flow and water quality on the aquatic ecosystem; the frequency, duration, and impacts of droughts including long-term trends toward desertification; long-term hydrologic budgets for assessing the adequacy of regional or national water resources; global geochemical cycles such as the fate of nitrogen and sulfur; and protection of engineered systems against hydrologic extrema. These macroscale and long-term problems, involving large investments and the health and well-being of much of the world's population, demand increasingly precise and accurate predictive statements. Individual reports are indexed separately on the energy data base.

  2. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water management... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management requirements. (a) The master of...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water management... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management requirements. (a) The master of...

  4. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water management... COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management requirements. (a) The master of...

  5. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  6. 33 CFR 151.1510 - Ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management. 151..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1510 Ballast water management. (a) The master of each vessel subject to this...

  7. Managing water resources for crop production

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, J. S.; Batchelor, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing crop production to meet the food requirements of the world's growing population will put great pressure on global water resources. Given that the vast freshwater resources that are available in the world are far from fully exploited, globally there should be sufficient water for future agricultural requirements. However, there are large areas where low water supply and high human demand may lead to regional shortages of water for future food production. In these arid and semi-arid areas, where water is a major constraint on production, improving water resource management is crucial if Malthusian disasters are to be avoided. There is considerable scope for improvement, since in both dryland and irrigated agriculture only about one-third of the available water (as rainfall, surface, or groundwater) is used to grow useful plants. This paper illustrates a range of techniques that could lead to increased crop production by improving agricultural water use efficiency. This may be achieved by increasing the total amount of water available to plants or by increasing the efficiency with which that water is used to produce biomass. Although the crash from the Malthusian precipice may ultimately be inevitable if population growth is not addressed, the time taken to reach the edge of the precipice could be lengthened by more efficient use of existing water resources.

  8. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  9. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  10. Total Water Management: A Watershed Based Approach - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT In this urbanizing world, municipal water managers need to develop planning and management frameworks to meet challenges such as limiting fresh water supplies, degrading receiving waters, increasing regulatory requirements, flooding, aging infrastructure, rising utility...

  11. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  12. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  13. Watershed management: Clean water`s next act

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.W.

    1996-09-23

    14 articles related to watershed management comprise this special advertising section of the Association of Metropolitan Sewerage Agencies. Subtopics include water quality, regulations, US Environmental Protection Agency activities, analysis tools, economics, flooding and erosions, and non-point source pollutions. Articles on arid and coastal are included. Several articles describe municipal watershed programs being planned or in place.

  14. Integrated waste and water management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  15. Water resources management. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, K.W.; Feder, G.; Le Moigne, G.; Duda, A.M.; Forsyth, E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contributed to the development of many countries and helped provide essential services to many communities. Moreover, the Bank and governments have not taken sufficient account of environmental concerns in the management of water resources. (Copyright (c) 1993 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  16. Game Theory in water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  17. Storm Water Management Model Applications Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model that computes runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. This manual is a practical application guide for new SWMM users who have already had some previous training in hydrolog...

  18. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  19. Integrated urban water management in commercial buildings.

    PubMed

    Trowsdale, S; Gabe, J; Vale, R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring results are presented as an annual water balance from the pioneering Landcare Research green building containing commercial laboratory and office space. The building makes use of harvested roof runoff to flush toilets and urinals and irrigate glasshouse experiments, reducing the demand for city-supplied water and stormwater runoff. Stormwater treatment devices also manage the runoff from the carpark, helping curb stream degradation. Composting toilets and low-flow tap fittings further reduce the water demand. Despite research activities requiring the use of large volumes of water, the demand for city-supplied water is less than has been measured in many other green buildings. In line with the principles of sustainability, the composting toilets produce a useable product from wastes and internalise the wastewater treatment process.

  20. Water demand management research: A psychological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Sally; Fielding, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    The availability of fresh water for human consumption is a critical global issue and one that will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. Water demand management has an important role to play in reducing the vulnerability of freshwater supplies to climate change impacts. In this paper, we argue that the field of psychology and environmental psychology in particular can make a vital contribution in understanding further the drivers of residential water demand. A growing body of literature in environmental psychology has examined the determinants of water conservation behavior, and this research has many potential applications for water demand policy. In this paper we offer a review of current psychological research that examines the five broad causes of residential water conservation behaviors: attitudes, beliefs, habits or routines, personal capabilities, and contextual factors. We assess how psychologists have studied water conservation behavior to date, identify shortcomings, and indicate how this research can be used to further promote residential water conservation and to inform evidence-based policy and practice.

  1. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SWMM is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of subcatchment areas that receive precipitation and generate runoff and pollutant loads. The routing portion of SWMM transports this runoff through a system of pipes, channels, storage/treatment devices, pumps, and regulators. SWMM tracks the quantity and quality of runoff generated within each subcatchment, and the flow rate, flow depth, and quality of water in each pipe and channel during a simulation period comprised of multiple time steps. The reference manual for this edition of SWMM is comprised of three volumes. Volume I describes SWMM’s hydrologic models, Volume II its hydraulic models, and Volume III its water quality and low impact development models. Reference manual presenting underlying mathematics of the Storm Water Management Model - Volume III Water Quality Modules

  2. Toward developing recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies for increasing fertility in the flatfish Senegalese sole

    PubMed Central

    Chauvigné, François; Ollé, Judith; González, Wendy; Duncan, Neil; Giménez, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1) of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males. In an initial autumn/winter experiment, weekly intramuscular injections with increasing doses of rFsh over 9 weeks resulted in the stimulation of gonad weight, androgen release, germ cell proliferation and entry into meiosis, and the expression of different spermatogenesis-related genes, whereas a subsequent single rLh injection potentiated spermatozoa differentiation. In a second late winter/spring trial corresponding to the sole’s natural prespawning and spawning periods, we tested the effect of repeated rLh injections on the amount and quality of sperm produced by males previously treated with rFsh for 4, 6, 8 or 10 weeks. These latter results showed that the combination of rFsh and rLh treatments could increase sperm production up to 7 times, and slightly improve the motility of the spermatozoa, although a high variability in the response was found. However, sustained administration of rFsh during spawning markedly diminished Leydig cell survival and the steroidogenic potential of the testis. These data suggest that in vivo application of rFsh and rLh is effective at stimulating spermatogenesis and sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males, setting the basis for the future establishment of recombinant gonadotropin-based hormone therapies to ameliorate reproductive dysfunctions of this species. PMID:28329024

  3. Dietary indispensable amino acids profile affects protein utilization and growth of Senegalese sole larvae.

    PubMed

    Canada, Paula; Engrola, Sofia; Richard, Nadège; Lopes, Ana Filipa; Pinto, Wilson; Valente, Luísa M P; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-12-01

    In diet formulation for fish, it is critical to assure that all the indispensable amino acids (IAA) are available in the right quantities and ratios. This will allow minimizing dietary AA imbalances that will result in unavoidable AA losses for energy dissipation rather than for protein synthesis and growth. The supplementation with crystalline amino acids (CAA) is a possible solution to correct the dietary amino acid (AA) profile that has shown positive results for larvae of some fish species. This study tested the effect of supplementing a practical microdiet with encapsulated CAA as to balance the dietary IAA profile and to improve the capacity of Senegalese sole larvae to utilize AA and maximize growth potential. Larvae were reared at 19 °C under a co-feeding regime from mouth opening. Two microdiets were formulated and processed as to have as much as possible the same ingredients and proximate composition. The control diet (CTRL) formulation was based on commonly used protein sources. A balanced diet (BAL) was formulated as to meet the ideal IAA profile defined for Senegalese sole: the dietary AA profile was corrected by replacing 4 % of encapsulated protein hydrolysate by CAA. The in vivo method of controlled tube-feeding was used to assess the effect on the larvae capacity to utilize protein, during key developmental stages. Growth was monitored until 51 DAH. The supplementation of microdiets with CAA in order to balance the dietary AA had a positive short-term effect on the Senegalese sole larvae capacity to retain protein. However, that did not translate into increased growth. On the contrary, larvae fed a more imbalanced (CTRL group) diet attained a better performance. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether this was due to an effect on the voluntary feed intake as a compensatory response to the dietary IAA imbalance in the CTRL diet or due to the higher content of tryptophan in the BAL diet.

  4. Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Regulations that require the retention and/or treatment of frequent, small storms that dominate runoff volumes and pollutant loads are becoming more common. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to help support local, state, and national stormwater management objectives to reduce runoff through infiltration and retention. SWMM was first developed in 1971 and has undergone several major upgrades since then. To inform the public on EPA's green infrastructure models.

  5. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Global Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Cohen, M.; Akudago, J.; Keith, D.; Palaniappan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The diversity of water resources endowments and the societal arrangements to use, manage, and govern water makes defining a single paradigm or lens through which to define, prioritize and evaluate interventions in the water sector particularly challenging. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) emerged as the dominant intervention paradigm for water sector interventions in the early 1990s. Since then, while many successful implementations of IWRM have been demonstrated at the local, basin, national and trans-national scales, IWRM has also been severely criticized by the global water community as "having a dubious record that has never been comprehensively analyzed", "curiously ambiguous", and "ineffective at best and counterproductive at worst". Does IWRM hold together as a coherent paradigm or is it a convenient buzzword to describe a diverse collection of water sector interventions? We analyzed 184 case study summaries of IWRM interventions on the Global Water Partnership (GWP) website. The case studies were assessed to find the nature, scale, objectives and outcomes of IWRM. The analysis does not suggest any coherence in IWRM as a paradigm - but does indicate distinct regional trends in IWRM. First, IWRM was done at very different scales in different regions. In Africa two-thirds of the IWRM interventions involved creating national or transnational organizations. In contrast, in Asia and South America, almost two-thirds were watershed, basin, or local body initiatives. Second, IWRM interventions involved very different types of activities in different regions. In Africa and Europe, IWRM entailed creation of policy documents, basin plans and institution building. In contrast, in Asia and Latin America the interventions were much more likely to entail new technology, infrastructure or watershed measures. In Australia, economic measures, new laws and enforcement mechanisms were more commonly used than anywhere else.

  6. Russia in the World Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    resources, including surface and ground waters, for the territory and the population; precipitation; indicators of anthropogenic impact, such as population, water withdrawals, sewage waters, irrevocable consumption of water, data on flow regulation by reservoirs; the state of natural waters was estimated by comparison of the average long-term values of water resources with characteristics of anthropogenic impact, and economic efficiency of water use - by water and gross domestic product comparison. The objective of this paper was to give a general idea of the position of Russia in the world water management in the period of time. Further work on this subject is aimed at clarifying the indicators of water resources, human impact on them and the effectiveness of their use. Particular attention will be paid to the assessment of the impact of economic activity in the catchment on rivers and reservoirs. Such kind of assessment is necessary for achieving sustainable water supply in the near and distant future, raising living standards and preserving the environment. References: Koronkevich N.I., Zaytseva I.S., 2003. Anthropogenic Influences on Water Resources of Russia and Neighboring Countries at the end of XXth Century. Moscow, Nauka. Bibikova T., 2011 Comparative Analysis of Anthropogenic Impact on Water Resources in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine in the Post-Soviet Period. Water Res. Vol. 38 No. 5, 549-556.

  7. The influence of Islam on AIDS prevention among Senegalese university students.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sarah S

    2008-10-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify Islam's contributions to HIV/AIDS prevention. Senegal has involved Muslim leaders in its prevention campaign for over a decade. Senegal also has the lowest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines how Islam influences AIDS prevention by testing whether Senegalese participants' religiosity scores explain their risky decisions associated with sex, condom use, and drug use. Participants with higher religiosity scores were more likely to abstain from sex. However, participants high in religiosity were not more likely to report that they did not use condoms when sexually active.

  8. Water management, purification, and conservation in arid climates. Volume 1: Water management

    SciTech Connect

    Goosen, M.F.A.; Shayya, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    Arid regions are already feeling the severe restraining effects of potable water shortages. In coming years, humid and sub-humid regions of the world will also have to face many of these same problems. In the future, serious conflicts may arise not because of a lack of oil, but due to water shortages. Are there solutions to these problems? Aside from increasing public awareness about the importance of water, society needs to take a three pronged approach: water needs to be effectively managed, it needs to be economically purified, and it needs to be conserved. Only by doing these three things in unison can they hope to alleviate the water problems faced by arid regions of the world. This book presents information valuable to seeking, finding and using current technologies to help solve these problems now. Volume 1 examines water management problems in detail, along with water problems and water resources in arid climates, and includes chapters that cover aspects of water management. Water purification technology is another key issue. The economics of this technology is becoming more critical in arid areas due to increasing urbanization and industrialization.

  9. Water resource management planning guide for Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, J.E.; Stephenson, D.E.; Steele, J.L. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Lab.); Gordon, D.E. and Co., Aiken, SC . Savannah River Plant)

    1988-10-01

    The Water Resource Management Planning Guide provides an outline for the development of a Savannah River Plant Water Resource Management Plan (WRMP) to protect, manage, and monitor the site's water resources. The management plan is based on three principle elements: (1) protection of the water quality, (2) management of the water quantity, and (3) monitoring of the water quality and quantity. The plan will assure that changes in water quality and quantity are identified and that corrective action is implemented as needed. In addition, water management activities within and between Savannah River Plant (SRP) organizations and departments will be coordinated to ensure the proper management of water resources. This document is intended as a guide to suggest goals and objectives that will provide a basis for the development of a water resource plan for SRP. Planning should be flexible rather than rigid, and the plan outlines in this document was prepared to be modified or updated as conditions necessitate. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  10. Tapping Alternatives: The Benefits of Managing Urban Water Demands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziegielewski, Benedykt; Baumann, Duane D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the California plan for water demand management. Water conservation techniques are used to balance demand with supply. Discusses the implementation process: (1) water-use and service area analysis; (2) water-use forecasts; (3) benefit-cost analysis; (4) and development of a long-term water management plan. (17 references) (MCO)

  11. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  12. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  13. Water Management of Noninsulating and Insulating Sheathings

    SciTech Connect

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing market in liquid (or fluid) applied water management barriers for residential applications that could be used in place of tapes and other self-adhering membranes if applied correctly, especially around penetrations in the enclosure. This report discusses current best practices, recommends ways in which the best practices can be improved, and looks at some current laboratory testing and testing standards.

  14. CALCULATION: PRECIPITATION CHARACTERISITICS FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    D. Ambos

    2000-08-14

    This Calculation is intended to satisfy engineering requirements for maximum 60-minute precipitation amounts for 50 and 100-year return periods at and near Yucca Mountain. This data requirement is documented in the ''Interface Control Document for Support Operations to Surface Facilities Operations Functional and Organizational Interfaces'' (CRWMS M&O 1998a). These developed data will supplement the information on 0.1 hour to 6-hour (in 0.1-hour increments) probable maximum precipitation (PMP) presented in the report, ''Precipitation Design Criteria for Storm Water Management'' (CRWMS M&O 1998b). The Reference Information Base (RIB) item, Precipitation ''Characteristics for Storm Water Management'' (M09902RIB00045 .OOO), was developed based on CRWMS M&O (1998b) and will be supplemented (via revision) with the information developed in this Calculation. The ''Development Plan for the Calculation: Precipitation Characteristics for Storm Water Management'' (CRWMS M&O 2000) was prepared in accordance with AP-2.l3Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''. This calculation was developed in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Rev. O/ICN 2.

  15. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  16. Building America Top Innovations 2012: EEBA Water Management Guide

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Water Management Guide, which identifies durability issues and solutions for high-performance homes. The Water Management Guide has sold 15,000 copies since its first printing.

  17. Water resource management in Japan: Forest management or dam reservoirs?

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hikaru; Kume, Tomonori; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2010-01-01

    Researchers and journalists in Japan recently proposed forest management as an alternative to dam reservoir development for water resource management. To examine the validity of the proposal, we compared the potential low-flow increase due to forest clearcutting with the increase due to dam reservoir development. Here, we focused on forest clearcutting as an end member among various types of forest management. We first analyzed runoff data for five catchments and found a positive correlation between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation. We then examined the increase in low-flow rates due to dam reservoir development (dQ(d)) using inflow and outflow data for 45 dam reservoirs across Japan. Using the relationship between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation, we estimated the potential increase in the low-flow rate for each dam reservoir watershed if forests in the watershed were clearcut (dQ(f)). Only 6 of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)>dQ(d), indicating that the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than the increase due to dam reservoir development in most cases. Twenty-five of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)<0.2 dQ(d), indicating the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than 20% of the increase due to dam reservoir development in more than half the cases. Therefore, forest management is far less effective for water resource management than dam reservoir development is in Japan.

  18. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J D; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R; Clark, Joanna M

    2016-11-18

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to 'end-of-pipe' solutions through management of ecosystem service provision.

  19. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ritson, Jonathan P.; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E.; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J. D.; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R.; Clark, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions through management of ecosystem service provision. PMID:27857210

  20. Managing peatland vegetation for drinking water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritson, Jonathan P.; Bell, Michael; Brazier, Richard E.; Grand-Clement, Emilie; Graham, Nigel J. D.; Freeman, Chris; Smith, David; Templeton, Michael R.; Clark, Joanna M.

    2016-11-01

    Peatland ecosystem services include drinking water provision, flood mitigation, habitat provision and carbon sequestration. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal is a key treatment process for the supply of potable water downstream from peat-dominated catchments. A transition from peat-forming Sphagnum moss to vascular plants has been observed in peatlands degraded by (a) land management, (b) atmospheric deposition and (c) climate change. Here within we show that the presence of vascular plants with higher annual above-ground biomass production leads to a seasonal addition of labile plant material into the peatland ecosystem as litter recalcitrance is lower. The net effect will be a smaller litter carbon pool due to higher rates of decomposition, and a greater seasonal pattern of DOC flux. Conventional water treatment involving coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation may be impeded by vascular plant-derived DOC. It has been shown that vascular plant-derived DOC is more difficult to remove via these methods than DOC derived from Sphagnum, whilst also being less susceptible to microbial mineralisation before reaching the treatment works. These results provide evidence that practices aimed at re-establishing Sphagnum moss on degraded peatlands could reduce costs and improve efficacy at water treatment works, offering an alternative to ‘end-of-pipe’ solutions through management of ecosystem service provision.

  1. An open source simulator for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Selby, Philip; Mohammed, Khaled; Khadem, Majed; Padula, Silvia; Harou, Julien; Rosenberg, David; Rheinheimer, David

    2015-04-01

    Descriptive modelling of water resource systems requires the representation of different aspects in one model: the physical system including hydrological inputs and engineered infrastructure, and human management, including social, economic and institutional behaviours and constraints. Although most water resource systems share some characteristics such as the ability to represent them as a network of nodes and links, geographical, institutional and other differences mean that invariably each water system functions in a unique way. A diverse group is developing an open source simulation framework which will allow model developers to build generalised water management models that are customised to the institutional, physical and economical components they are seeking to model. The framework will allow the simulation of complex individual and institutional behaviour required for the assessment of real-world resource systems. It supports the spatial and hierarchical structures commonly found in water resource systems. The individual infrastructures can be operated by different actors while policies are defined at a regional level by one or more institutional actors. The framework enables building multi-agent system simulators in which developers can define their own agent types and add their own decision making code. Developers using the framework have two main tasks: (i) Extend the core classes to represent the aspects of their particular system, and (ii) write model structure files. Both are done in Python. For task one, users must either write new decision making code for each class or link to an existing code base to provide functionality to each of these extension classes. The model structure file links these extension classes in a standardised way to the network topology. The framework will be open-source and written in Python and is to be available directly for download through standard installer packages. Many water management model developers are unfamiliar

  2. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented for the area under section 208 of the Act or will be included in any water quality management...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented for the area under section 208 of the Act or will be included in any water quality management...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented for the area under section 208 of the Act or will be included in any water quality management...

  5. Mixed dentition analysis in a Senegalese population: elaboration of prediction tables.

    PubMed

    Diagne, Falou; Diop-Ba, Khady; Ngom, Pape Ibrahima; Mbow, Khadim

    2003-08-01

    Estimating the size of unerupted teeth is an essential aspect of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning in the mixed dentition. Three main methods have been used to estimate the mesiodistal crown widths of unerupted canines and premolars: direct measurements on radiographs; calculations from prediction equations and tables; and a combination of radiographic measurements and prediction tables. Because there are clear racial differences in tooth sizes, the objectives of this study were to produce odontometric data, correlation coefficients between the combined mesiodistal widths of the permanent mandibular incisors and the canine and premolars for each quadrant, and prediction tables with the regression equations, specifically for Senegalese children. Fifty black Senegalese students (25 women, 25 men, mean age 23.50 years) were selected from the University Cheikh Anta Diop in Dakar, Senegal. The mesiodistal crown diameters of the permanent teeth were measured with calipers. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in tooth sizes. The correlation coefficients between the total mesiodistal width of the mandibular permanent incisors and that of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were found to be 0.53 and 0.70, respectively. The standard error of the estimate was better (0.66) for women in the maxilla, and the r(2) values ranged from 0.46 to 0.57 for both sexes. Prediction tables were prepared. The accuracy of the prediction tables should be tested in a larger sample including more ethnic groups.

  6. Daily feeding and protein metabolism rhythms in Senegalese sole post-larvae

    PubMed Central

    Yúfera, Manuel; Engrola, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish hatcheries must adapt larval feeding protocols to feeding behavior and metabolism patterns to obtain more efficient feed utilization. Fish larvae exhibit daily ingesting rhythms rather than ingesting food continuously throughout the day. The aim of this study was to determine the daily patterns of feed intake, protein digestibility, protein retention and catabolism in Senegalese sole post-larvae (Solea senegalensis; 33 days post-hatching) using 14C-labeled Artemia protein and incubation in metabolic chambers. Sole post-larvae were fed at 09:00, 15:00, 21:00, 03:00 and 09:00+1 day; and those fed at 09:00, 21:00, 03:00 and 09:00+1 day showed significantly higher feed intake than post-larvae fed at 15:00 h (P=0.000). Digestibility and evacuation rate of ingested protein did not change during the whole cycle (P=0.114); however, post-larvae fed at 21:00 and 03:00 h showed the significantly highest protein retention efficiency and lowest catabolism (P=0.002). Therefore, results confirm the existence of daily rhythmicity in feeding activity and in the utilization of the ingested nutrients in Senegalese sole post-larvae. PMID:27895049

  7. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of tenacibaculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues of Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858.

    PubMed

    Faílde, L D; Bermúdez, R; Losada, A P; Riaza, A; Santos, Y; Quiroga, M I

    2014-11-01

    A sensitive and specific immunohistochemical technique was developed to improve the diagnosis of tenacibaculosis and to better understand its pathogenesis. Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858 were inoculated subcutaneously with a bacterial suspension of Tenacibaculum maritimum, and samples were taken at different hours post-inoculation. Sections from different organs were used as positive controls. In addition, a total of 128 field samples from different organs collected from tenacibaculosis outbreaks were used. Tenacibaculum maritimum antigens were detected in several organs of experimentally infected Senegalese sole and in at least one of the tissues from fish suffering from natural tenacibaculosis previously confirmed by culture and PCR-based methods. In fish collected during outbreaks, a strong positive reaction was detected in ulcerative skin areas. Moreover, bacterial antigen was identified inside scale pockets and in sites of the skin with mild lesion. In kidney and spleen, evident immunostaining of bacterial antigen was detected in both naturally and experimentally infected fish. Besides, the presence of T. maritimum in the intestinal tract without associated histological changes suggests that this organ may act as a reservoir for T. maritimum. The results of this study confirm the usefulness of IHC for the diagnosis of tenacibaculosis in paraffin-embedded tissues.

  8. A perspective on nonstationarity and water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay offers some perspectives on climate-related nonstationarity and water resources. Hydrologists must not lose sight of the many sources of nonstationarity, recognizing that many of them may be of much greater magnitude than those that may arise from climate change. It is paradoxical that statistical and deterministic approaches give us better insights about changes in mean conditions than about the tails of probability distributions, and yet the tails are very important to water management. Another paradox is that it is difficult to distinguish between long-term hydrologic persistence and trend. Using very long hydrologic records is helpful in mitigating this problem, but does not guarantee success. Empirical approaches, using long-term hydrologic records, should be an important part of the portfolio of research being applied to understand the hydrologic response to climate change. An example presented here shows very mixed results for trends in the size of the annual floods, with some strong clusters of positive trends and a strong cluster of negative trends. The potential for nonstationarity highlights the importance of the continuity of hydrologic records, the need for repeated analysis of the data as the time series grow, and the need for a well-trained cadre of scientists and engineers, ready to interpret the data and use those analyses to help adjust the management of our water resources.

  9. Total Water Management: The New Paradigm for Urban Water Resources Planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  10. Water engineering. Reducing sewer corrosion through integrated urban water management.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab R; Hu, Shihu; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-08-15

    Sewer systems are among the most critical infrastructure assets for modern urban societies and provide essential human health protection. Sulfide-induced concrete sewer corrosion costs billions of dollars annually and has been identified as a main cause of global sewer deterioration. We performed a 2-year sampling campaign in South East Queensland (Australia), an extensive industry survey across Australia, and a comprehensive model-based scenario analysis of the various sources of sulfide. Aluminum sulfate addition during drinking water production contributes substantially to the sulfate load in sewage and indirectly serves as the primary source of sulfide. This unintended consequence of urban water management structures could be avoided by switching to sulfate-free coagulants, with no or only marginal additional expenses compared with the large potential savings in sewer corrosion costs.

  11. AOIPS water resources data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwie, P.

    1977-01-01

    The text and computer-generated displays used to demonstrate the AOIPS (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System) water resources data management system are investigated. The system was developed to assist hydrologists in analyzing the physical processes occurring in watersheds. It was designed to alleviate some of the problems encountered while investigating the complex interrelationships of variables such as land-cover type, topography, precipitation, snow melt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and streamflow rates. The system has an interactive image processing capability and a color video display to display results as they are obtained.

  12. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  13. [Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself.

  14. A Monte Carlo approach to water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2012-04-01

    Common methods for making optimal decisions in water management problems are insufficient. Linear programming methods are inappropriate because hydrosystems are nonlinear with respect to their dynamics, operation constraints and objectives. Dynamic programming methods are inappropriate because water management problems cannot be divided into sequential stages. Also, these deterministic methods cannot properly deal with the uncertainty of future conditions (inflows, demands, etc.). Even stochastic extensions of these methods (e.g. linear-quadratic-Gaussian control) necessitate such drastic oversimplifications of hydrosystems that may make the obtained results irrelevant to the real world problems. However, a Monte Carlo approach is feasible and can form a general methodology applicable to any type of hydrosystem. This methodology uses stochastic simulation to generate system inputs, either unconditional or conditioned on a prediction, if available, and represents the operation of the entire system through a simulation model as faithful as possible, without demanding a specific mathematical form that would imply oversimplifications. Such representation fully respects the physical constraints, while at the same time it evaluates the system operation constraints and objectives in probabilistic terms, and derives their distribution functions and statistics through Monte Carlo simulation. As the performance criteria of a hydrosystem operation will generally be highly nonlinear and highly nonconvex functions of the control variables, a second Monte Carlo procedure, implementing stochastic optimization, is necessary to optimize system performance and evaluate the control variables of the system. The latter is facilitated if the entire representation is parsimonious, i.e. if the number of control variables is kept at a minimum by involving a suitable system parameterization. The approach is illustrated through three examples for (a) a hypothetical system of two reservoirs

  15. Innovation & Collaboration Are Keys to Campus Water Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Water, water everywhere--managing and conserving water resources is a major factor at campuses worldwide. Doing so is a challenge, since water is one of the most-used and ubiquitous resources in any environment. Water is often taken for granted and not measured by the people who use it the most, yet it might have the greatest potential for helping…

  16. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans...

  17. Identifying Cost-Effective Water Resources Management Strategies: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a public-domain software application designed to aid decision makers with integrated water resources management. The tool allows water resource managers and planners to screen a wide-range of management practices for c...

  18. [Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water.

  19. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water...

  2. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  3. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  5. 78 FR 33774 - Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    .... USCG-2012-0924] RIN 1625-AB68 Ballast Water Management Reporting and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Coast Guard... ballast water management (BWM) reporting and recordkeeping requirements. The Coast Guard will require... proposes to update the current ballast water report to include only data that is essential to...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  7. First year of of an ocean-atmosphere mooring in the Senegalese coastal upwelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Alban; Dausse, Denis; del Rey, Marta Martin; Diakhaté, Moussa; Machu, Éric; Faye, Saliou; Dagorne, Dominique; Gaye, Amadou

    2016-04-01

    The Joint International Laboratory ECLAIRS set up an oceanographic and meteorological buoy, dedicated to monitoring and analysis of the short and long-term changes in climate, atmosphere and marine environment within the Senegal upwelling. The buoy "MELAX" was deployed early 2015 in the heart of the Senegalese upwelling by 30m-depth at (14°20'N, 17°14'W). Data collected are, for the atmosphere, surface wind, solar radiation, humidity and rain, and for the ocean, temperatures, salinity, and currents (from the surface to the bottom) and oxygen. We present the first year of observations, in particular the relationship between wind, sea surface temperatures, hydrology and current, but also briochemistry. Satellite and model data are used to provide a larger-scale context to the punctual observations.

  8. [Prevalence and etiologic factors of non-carious cervical lesions. A study in a Senegalese population].

    PubMed

    Faye, B; Sarr, M; Kane, A W; Toure, B; Leye, F; Gaye, F; Dieng, M B

    2005-12-01

    The non carious cervical lesion (NCCL) is a loss of tooth tissue at the neck of affected teeth that is unrelated to tooth decay. They are commonly encountered in clinical practice and present in a variety of forms. The purpose of this paper is to determine the prevalence of the NCCL in a Senegalese population. From 655 patients, 112 with cervical lesions were identified i.e. a global prevalence of 17.10%. The prevalence rate for abrasion was reported to be 77.70%, 12.50% for abfraction and 9.80% for erosion. Etiological factors were studied for abrasion and erosion. 54% of the patients with abrasion used their toothbrush horizontally. For erosion, only external factors were identified: consumption of acidic drinks (9 patients) or alcohol (1 patient) and professional environment (1 patient). Dentists should consider these lesions in their daily practice.

  9. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P < 0.05). An elevated risk of Campylobacter infection was associated with other animals (mainly laying hens, cattle and sheep) being bred in the farm, the farm staff not wearing their work clothing exclusively in the poultry houses, uncemented poultry-house floors and the use of cartons that transport chicks from the hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  10. A Study of Rural Senegalese Attitudes and Perceptions of Their Behavior to Changes in the Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieye, Amadou M.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Semi-structured focus group discussions were employed to capture rural Senegalese attitudes and perceptions of their behavior to changes in the climate and their land use and livelihood strategies. Seven focus groups stratified by gender, ethnicity (Wolof and Peulh) and dominant production system (cultivators and pastoralists) in five villages in semi-arid northern Senegal revealed seven main themes. Rural livelihoods remain predominantly based on rainfall dependant practices, and although cultivators and pastoralists had a clear appreciation of changes in natural resources compared to a perceived more favorable past, few adaptive coping strategies beyond established ones were advocated. The seven themes are discussed in detail and their implications for rural livelihoods under future long term climate predictions discussed with the implications of this study for the development of scenarios of future land cover land use.

  11. Role of the IFN I system against the VHSV infection in juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Torres, Daniel; Podadera, Ana M; Bejar, Julia; Bandin, Isabel; Alonso, M Carmen; Garcia-Rosado, Esther

    2016-01-08

    Senegalese sole is susceptible to marine VHSV isolates but is not affected by freshwater isolates, which may indicate differences regarding virus-host immune system interaction. IFN I induces an antiviral state in fish, stimulating the expression of genes encoding antiviral proteins (ISG). In this study, the stimulation of the Senegalese sole IFN I by VHSV infections has been evaluated by the relative quantification of the transcription of several ISG (Mx, Isg15 and Pkr) after inoculation with marine (pathogenic) and freshwater (non-pathogenic) VHSV isolates. Compared to marine VHSV, lower levels of RNA of the freshwater VHSV induced transcription of ISG to similar levels, with the Isg15 showing the highest fold induction. The protective role of the IFN I system was evaluated in poly I:C-inoculated animals subsequently challenged with VHSV isolates. The cumulative mortality caused by the marine isolate in the control group was 68%, whereas in the poly I:C-stimulated group was 5%. The freshwater VHSV isolate did not cause any mortality. Furthermore, viral RNA fold change and viral titers were lower in animals from the poly I:C + VHSV groups than in the controls. The implication of the IFN I system in the protection observed was confirmed by the transcription of the ISG in animals from the poly I:C + VHSV groups. However, the marine VHSV isolate exerts a negative effect on the ISG transcription at 3 and 6 h post-inoculation (hpi), which is not observed for the freshwater isolate. This difference might be partly responsible for the virulence shown by the marine isolate.

  12. Management of the water balance and quality in mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, Antti; Krogerus, Kirsti; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija; Turunen, Kaisa; Backnäs, Soile; Vento, Tiia; Veijalainen, Noora; Hentinen, Kimmo; Korkealaakso, Juhani

    2015-04-01

    Although mining companies have long been conscious of water related risks they still face environmental management problems. These problems mainly emerge because mine sites' water balances have not been adequately assessed in the stage of the planning of mines. More consistent approach is required to help mining companies identify risks and opportunities related to the management of water resources in all stages of mining. This approach requires that the water cycle of a mine site is interconnected with the general hydrologic water cycle. In addition to knowledge on hydrological conditions, the control of the water balance in the mining processes require knowledge of mining processes, the ability to adjust process parameters to variable hydrological conditions, adaptation of suitable water management tools and systems, systematic monitoring of amounts and quality of water, adequate capacity in water management infrastructure to handle the variable water flows, best practices to assess the dispersion, mixing and dilution of mine water and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies, and dewatering and separation of water from tailing and precipitates. WaterSmart project aims to improve the awareness of actual quantities of water, and water balances in mine areas to improve the forecasting and the management of the water volumes. The study is executed through hydrogeological and hydrological surveys and online monitoring procedures. One of the aims is to exploit on-line water quantity and quality monitoring for the better management of the water balances. The target is to develop a practical and end-user-specific on-line input and output procedures. The second objective is to develop mathematical models to calculate combined water balances including the surface, ground and process waters. WSFS, the Hydrological Modeling and Forecasting System of SYKE is being modified for mining areas. New modelling tools are developed on spreadsheet and system dynamics platforms to

  13. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Faisal; Arnold, Jeffrey; Beighley, Ed; Brown, Casey; Burian, Steve; Chen, Ji; Mitra, Anindita; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger; Tidwell, Vincent; Wegner, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee “Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change” under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the ‘infrastructure impacts” are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC’s survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the ‘perception’ of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these ‘perception’ averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community. PMID:26544045

  14. What Do Experienced Water Managers Think of Water Resources of Our Nation and Its Management Infrastructure?

    PubMed

    Hossain, Faisal; Arnold, Jeffrey; Beighley, Ed; Brown, Casey; Burian, Steve; Chen, Ji; Mitra, Anindita; Niyogi, Dev; Pielke, Roger; Tidwell, Vincent; Wegner, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This article represents the second report by an ASCE Task Committee "Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change" under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. Herein, the 'infrastructure impacts" are referred to as infrastructure-sensitive changes in weather and climate patterns (extremes and non-extremes) that are modulated, among other factors, by changes in landscape, land use and land cover change. In this first report, the article argued for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. In this report by the ASCE Task Committee (TC), we present the results of this ASCE TC's survey of a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. We describe here the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the 'perception' of these managers. Finally, we discuss what these 'perception' averages may indicate to the ASCE TC and community as a whole for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step to developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, we must now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community.

  15. Recent California Water Transfers: Emerging Options in Water Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    SWP water supply contractors or to meet other SWP and State obligations. In other words , transferred water received lowest conveyance and storage...and operation. For agricultural water districts, the existence of water banks and spot markets during drought has implications for the wording of water ...AD-A273 276 / j US Army Corps II l IIIIIIIIII of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center Recent California Water Transfers: Emerging Options in Water

  16. Targeting of Watershed Management Practices for Water Quality Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ensuring a clean and adequate water supply implies conservative use of water and protecting water resources from pollution. Sediment, nutrient, and pesticide losses in runoff are major pollutants of surface waters in the Midwest. This publication addresses the targeting of best management practices ...

  17. Measure Guideline. Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home’s structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas.

  18. Paradigm shift: Holistic approach for water management in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younos, Tamim

    2011-12-01

    Conventional water infrastructure in urban environments is based on the centralized approach. This approach consists of building pipe network that provides potable water to consumers and drainage network that transport wastewater and stormwater runoff away from population centers. However, as illustrated in this article, centralized water infrastructures are not sustainable over a long period of time for a variety of reasons. This article presents the concept of a holistic approach for sustainable water management that incorporates decentralized water infrastructures into water management system design in urban environments. Decentralized water infrastructures are small to medium-scale systems that use and/or reuse local sources of water such as captured rainwater, stormwater runoff and wastewater. The holistic approach considers these waters as a valuable resource not to be wasted but utilized. This article briefly introduces various types of decentralized water infrastructures appropriate for urban settings. This article focuses on the effectiveness of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems as a decentralized water infrastructure and as a critical component of developing a holistic and sustainable water infrastructure in urban environments. Despite widespread use of rainwater harvesting systems, limited information has been published on its effectiveness for sustainable management of water resources and urban water infrastructures. This article, discusses multi-dimensional benefits of rainwater harvesting systems for sustainable management of water resources and its role as a critical component of decentralized water infrastructures in urban environments.

  19. Banking for the future: Prospects for integrated cyclical water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Integrated management of surface water and groundwater can provide efficient and flexible use of water by making the best use of the properties of different types of water resources. Integrated cyclical water management can help adaptation to climate variation and uncertainty by varying the proportion of surface water and groundwater allocations over time in response to changing water availability. Water use entitlements and rules specify conditions for the use, storage and exchange of surface water and groundwater. These entitlements and rules provide certainty for water users, investors and managers. Entitlements and rules also need to be flexible to enable users and managers to respond to changing water availability and knowledge. Arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility can conflict. For example guarantees of specific long-term allocations of water, or shares of allocations can conflict with arrangements to bank water underground during wet periods and then to use an increased amount of groundwater in dry periods. Systems of water entitlements and rules need to achieve a balance between certainty and flexibility. This article explores the effect of water entitlements and rules, and arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility for the integration of surface water and groundwater management over time. The analysis draws on case studies from the Namoi River basin in New South Wales and the South Platte River basin in Colorado. Integrated cyclical water management requires a comprehensive, flexible and balanced system of water entitlements and rules that allow extended water carryover, water banking, aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle. Opportunities for extended carryover and aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle merit further consideration in New South Wales, Colorado and other jurisdictions.

  20. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  1. Managing the Financial Risks of Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Characklis, Greg; Foster, Ben; Kern, Jordan; Meyer, Eliot; Zeff, Harrison

    2015-04-01

    of financial losses experienced by such entities as water utilities, hydropower producers and inland shipping firms as a result of water scarcity, all of which suggest a growing role for financial instruments in managing environmental risk.

  2. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health.

  3. Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke

    2005-03-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

  4. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of this announcement, Water Management Plans (Plans)...

  5. Technologies for water resources management: an integrated approach to manage global and regional water resources

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, W. C., LLNL

    1998-03-23

    Recent droughts in California have highlighted and refocused attention on the problem of providing reliable sources of water to sustain the State`s future economic development. Specific elements of concern include not only the stability and availability of future water supplies in the State, but also how current surface and groundwater storage and distribution systems may be more effectively managed and upgraded, how treated wastewater may be more widely recycled, and how legislative and regulatory processes may be used or modified to address conflicts between advocates of urban growth, industrial, agricultural, and environmental concerns. California is not alone with respect to these issues. They are clearly relevant throughout the West, and are becoming more so in other parts of the US. They have become increasingly important in developing and highly populated nations such as China, India, and Mexico. They are critically important in the Middle East and Southeast Asia, especially as they relate to regional stability and security issues. Indeed, in almost all cases, there are underlying themes of `reliability` and `sustainability` that pertain to the assurance of current and future water supplies, as well as a broader set of `stability` and `security` issues that relate to these assurances--or lack thereof--to the political and economic future of various countries and regions. In this latter sense, and with respect to regions such as China, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, water resource issues may take on a very serious strategic nature, one that is most illustrative and central to the emerging notion of `environmental security.` In this report, we have identified a suite of technical tools that, when developed and integrated together, may prove effective in providing regional governments the ability to manage their water resources. Our goal is to formulate a framework for an Integrated Systems Analysis (ISA): As a strategic planning tool for managing

  6. Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and…

  7. Water facts and figures for planners and managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feth, John Henry Frederick

    1973-01-01

    The units commonly used by hydrologists with respect to quantities and quality of water are denned; their significance in water management is outlined, and metric-english equivalents are given for many. A glossary of terms concludes the report which is intended as a reference work for use by planners and managers.

  8. Saving Water. Managing School Facilities, Guide 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This guide examines typical water costs for schools and points out financial and environmental benefits of using water economically. The guide explains the make-up of a typical water bill, including standing charges and sewerage rates. Ways of saving water are described, including use of self-closing and spray taps and urinal flush controllers. A…

  9. Natural water purification and water management by artificial groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Balke, Klaus-Dieter; Zhu, Yan

    2008-03-01

    Worldwide, several regions suffer from water scarcity and contamination. The infiltration and subsurface storage of rain and river water can reduce water stress. Artificial groundwater recharge, possibly combined with bank filtration, plant purification and/or the use of subsurface dams and artificial aquifers, is especially advantageous in areas where layers of gravel and sand exist below the earth's surface. Artificial infiltration of surface water into the uppermost aquifer has qualitative and quantitative advantages. The contamination of infiltrated river water will be reduced by natural attenuation. Clay minerals, iron hydroxide and humic matter as well as microorganisms located in the subsurface have high decontamination capacities. By this, a final water treatment, if necessary, becomes much easier and cheaper. The quantitative effect concerns the seasonally changing river discharge that influences the possibility of water extraction for drinking water purposes. Such changes can be equalised by seasonally adapted infiltration/extraction of water in/out of the aquifer according to the river discharge and the water need. This method enables a continuous water supply over the whole year. Generally, artificially recharged groundwater is better protected against pollution than surface water, and the delimitation of water protection zones makes it even more save.

  10. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainable Water Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key points of this presentation are: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint as two sustainability attributes in adaptations to climate and socioeconomic changes, (2) Necessary to evaluate carbon and water footprints relative to constraints in resource capacity, (3) Critical...

  11. Predicting local Soil- and Land-units with Random Forest in the Senegalese Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, Tobias; Brandt, Martin; Samimi, Cyrus

    2013-04-01

    MODIS (MCD12Q1) or Globcover are often the only available global land-cover products, however ground-truthing in the Sahel of Senegal has shown that most classes do have any agreement with actual land-cover making those products unusable in any local application. We suggest a methodology, which models local Wolof land- and soil-types in an area in the Senegalese Ferlo around Linguère at different scales. In a first step, interviews with the local population were conducted to ascertain the local denotation of soil units, as well as their agricultural use and woody vegetation mainly growing on them. "Ndjor" are soft sand soils with mainly Combretum glutinosum trees. They are suitable for groundnuts and beans while millet is grown on hard sand soils ("Bardjen") dominated by Balanites aegyptiaca and Acacia tortilis. "Xur" are clayey depressions with a high diversity of tree species. Lateritic pasture sites with dense woody vegetation (mostly Pterocarpus lucens and Guiera senegalensis) have never been used for cropping and are called "All". In a second step, vegetation and soil parameters of 85 plots (~1 ha) were surveyed in the field. 28 different soil parameters are clustered into 4 classes using the WARD algorithm. Here, 81% agree with the local classification. Then, an ordination (NMDS) with 2 dimensions and a stress-value of 9.13% was calculated using the 28 soil parameters. It shows several significant relationships between the soil classes and the fitted environmental parameters which are derived from field data, a digital elevation model, Landsat and RapidEye imagery as well as TRMM rainfall data. Landsat's band 5 reflectance values (1.55 - 1.75 µm) of mean dry season image (2000-2010) has a R² of 0.42 and is the most important of 9 significant variables (5%-level). A random forest classifier is then used to extrapolate the 4 classes to the whole study area based on the 9 significant environmental parameters. At a resolution of 30 m the OBB (out-of-bag) error

  12. Watering the forest for the trees: an emerging priority for managing water in forest landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, Gordon E.; Tague, Christina L.; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread threats to forests resulting from drought stress are prompting a re-evaluation of priorities for water management on forest lands. In contrast to the widely held view that forest management should emphasize providing water for downstream uses, we argue that maintaining forest health in the context of a changing climate may require focusing on the forests themselves and on strategies to reduce their vulnerability to increasing water stress. Management strategies would need to be tailored to specific landscapes but could include thinning, planting and selecting for drought-tolerant species, irrigating, and making more water available to plants for transpiration. Hydrologic modeling reveals that specific management actions could reduce tree mortality due to drought stress. Adopting water conservation for vegetation as a priority for managing water on forested lands would represent a fundamental change in perspective and potentially involve trade-offs with other downstream uses of water.

  13. Water resources management. (Arabic version). World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    A new approach, recognizing that water is a scarce natural resource-subject to many interdependencies in conveyance and use-should be adopted by the World Bank and its member countries. Chapter 2 discusses the management problems that have beset the sector in many countries and how these are being aggravated by increasing demands for water and rising costs of new supplies. Chapter 3 outlines the strategy for improving the management of water resources. Chapter 4 spells out the role of the World Bank in helping countries implement better approaches to water resources management. Five appendixes discuss in detail market failures and public policy; lessons learned about the relation among water, people, and the environment; privatization and user participation; Bank guidelines related to water resources; and Bank experience with investments in water resources.

  14. Assessing Water and Carbon Footprints for Green Water Resource Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This slide presentation will focus on the following points: (1) Water footprint and carbon footprint are two criteria evaluating the greenness in urban development, (2) Two cases are examined and presented: water footprints in energy productions and carbon footprints in water ...

  15. Managing Water Scarcity: Why Water Conservation Matters to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiwak, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity has often hit the headlines in the past several years. Some states have gone to court over water rights and access even as others have agonized over scarce supplies. University presidents and their staff of directors understand that the days of unlimited, inexpensive water are almost over. While it remains inexpensive…

  16. Local water rights and local water user entities: the unsung heroines of water resource management in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokile, Charles S.; Koppen, Barbara van

    When considering water management, formal institutions tend to overshadow the local informal ones although the latter guide day-to-day interactions on water use. Conversely, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has demonstrated a bias toward the formal state-based institutions for water management. A study was carried out to examine how local water rights and local informal institutional arrangements influence water management in the Great Ruaha River catchment in the Rufiji basin in Tanzania. Participatory appraisals were carried out, supplemented by focus group discussions, interviews, and a stakeholders’ workshop. It was found that local water rights, local water rotations and local water user groups are widely in use and are more influential than the formal water rights, water fees and water user associations (WUAs). Water allocation at the driest period depends on local informal relations among irrigators. More than 70% of water users surveyed choose to settle disputes over water via informal channels and the latter are more effective in resolving water conflicts and reconciling the antagonists compared to the formal routes. It was also found that although much emphasis and many resources have been expended in transforming local water rights and water related organisations to formal registered ones, the former have remained popular and water users feel more affiliated to local arrangements. The paper concludes that local informal water management can offer the best lessons for the formal management arrangements and should not be simply overlooked. Finally, the paper recommends that the formal and informal institutions should be amalgamated to bring forth a real Integrated Water Resource Management framework.

  17. A synthesis and comparative evaluation of drainage water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viable large-scale crop production in the United States requires artificial drainage in humid and poorly drained agricultural regions. Excess water removal is generally achieved by installing tile drains that export water to open ditches that eventually flow into streams. Drainage water management...

  18. Water resources. [monitoring and management from ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 applications in snow and ice monitoring, surface water monitoring, including monitoring of wetland areas and flood inundated area mapping, and also watershed monitoring for runoff prediction are discussed. Results also indicate that geological features can be noted which relate to ground water. ERTS-1 data can be used successfully in operational situations by water resources management agencies.

  19. Water quality and management of private drinking water wells in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Swistock, Bryan R; Clemens, Stephanie; Sharpe, William E; Rummel, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania has over three million rural residents using private water wells for drinking water supplies but is one of the few states that lack statewide water well construction or management standards. The study described in this article aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of common health-based pollutants in water wells and evaluate the need for regulatory management along with voluntary educational programs. Water samples were collected throughout Pennsylvania by Master Well Owner Network volunteers trained by Penn State Extension. Approximately 40% of the 701 water wells sampled failed at least one health-based drinking water standard. The prevalence of most water quality problems was similar to past studies although both lead and nitrate-N were reduced over the last 20 years. The authors' study suggests that statewide water well construction standards along with routine water testing and educational programs to assist water well owners would result in improved drinking water quality for private well owners in Pennsylvania.

  20. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  1. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  2. Climate Change and Water Resources Management: A Federal Perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brekke, Levi D.; Kiang, Julie E.; Olsen, J. Rolf; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Raff, David A.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Webb, Robert S.; White, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Many challenges, including climate change, face the Nation's water managers. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has provided estimates of how climate may change, but more understanding of the processes driving the changes, the sequences of the changes, and the manifestation of these global changes at different scales could be beneficial. Since the changes will likely affect fundamental drivers of the hydrological cycle, climate change may have a large impact on water resources and water resources managers. The purpose of this interagency report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to explore strategies to improve water management by tracking, anticipating, and responding to climate change. This report describes the existing and still needed underpinning science crucial to addressing the many impacts of climate change on water resources management.

  3. Promoting the management and protection of private water wells.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Hugh

    Rural families in Ontario depend almost entirely on groundwater from private wells for their potable water supply. In many cases, groundwater may be the only feasible water supply source and it requires management and protection. A significant potential source of ground water contamination is the movement of contaminated surface water through water wells that are improperly constructed, maintained, or should be decommissioned. Therefore, proper water well construction and maintenance, and eventual decommissioning, are critical for managing and protecting the quantity and quality of groundwater, as well as ensuring the integrity of rural drinking-water supplies. These actions are important for protecting private water supplies from both potential human and natural contamination. Individual well owners each have a personal interest and valuable role in ensuring the integrity of their water supplies. The following information is required to help well owners ensure the integrity of their water supply: different types of wells, why some wells are at greater risk of contamination than others, and sources of groundwater contaminants; groundwater contaminants, how they can move through soil and water, and potential risks to human health; benefits of ensuring that wells are properly maintained and operate efficiently; and importance of a regular well water quality testing program. This paper summarizes the technical information that should be provided to rural well owners concerning proper water well and groundwater management and protection, and provides an example of how this information can be promoted in an effective manner.

  4. Conservative water management in the widespread conifer genus Callitris

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Grierson, Pauline F.; Murphy, Brett P.; Nichols, Scott; Prior, Lynda D.

    2013-01-01

    Water management by woody species encompasses characters involved in seeking, transporting and evaporating water. Examples of adaptation of individual characters to water availability are common, but little is known about the adaptability of whole-plant water management. Here we use plant hydration and growth to examine variation in whole-plant water management characteristics within the conifer genus Callitris. Using four species that cover the environmental extremes in the Australian continent, we compare seasonal patterns of growth and hydration over 2 years to determine the extent to which species exhibit adaptive variation to the local environment. Detailed measurements of gas exchange in one species are used to produce a hydraulic model to predict changes in leaf water potential throughout the year. This same model, when applied to the remaining three species, provided a close representation of the measured patterns of water potential gradient at all sites, suggesting strong conservation in water management, a conclusion supported by carbon and oxygen isotope measurements in Callitris from across the continent. We conclude that despite its large range in terms of rainfall, Callitris has a conservative water management strategy, characterized by a high sensitivity of growth to rainfall and a delayed (anisohydric) closure of stomata during soil drying.

  5. Hydroeconomic optimization of integrated water management and transfers under stochastic surface water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tingju; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-05-01

    Efficient reallocation and conjunctive operation of existing water supplies is gaining importance as demands grow, competitions among users intensify, and new supplies become more costly. This paper analyzes the roles and benefits of conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and market-based water transfers in an integrated regional water system where agricultural and urban water users coordinate supply and demand management based on supply reliability and economic values of water. Agricultural users optimize land and water use for annual and perennial crops to maximize farm income, while urban users choose short-term and long-term water conservation actions to maintain reliability and minimize costs. The temporal order of these decisions is represented in a two-stage optimization that maximizes the net expected benefits of crop production, urban conservation and water management including conjunctive use and water transfers. Long-term decisions are in the first stage and short-term decisions are in a second stage based on probabilities of water availability events. Analytical and numerical analyses are made. Results show that conjunctive use and water transfers can substantially stabilize farmer's income and reduce system costs by reducing expensive urban water conservation or construction. Water transfers can equalize marginal values of water across users, while conjunctive use minimizes water marginal value differences in time. Model results are useful for exploring the integration of different water demands and supplies through water transfers, conjunctive use, and conservation, providing valuable insights for improving system management.

  6. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  7. Transcriptomic profiles of the upper olfactory rosette in cultured and wild Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) males.

    PubMed

    Fatsini, E; Bautista, R; Manchado, M; Duncan, N J

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were the characterization of the upper olfactory epithelium of cultured and wild Senegalese sole mature males at histological and transcriptomic (using RNA-Seq) level. No significant differences in tissue structure, cell types and cellular distribution pattern (olfactory sensory neurons) were identified between cultured and wild specimens. Deep transcriptomic analysis showed 2387 transcripts were differentially expressed between cultured and wild groups. A detailed analysis identified the differentially expressed transcripts included some olfactory receptors (OR, TAAR and V2R-like) and transcripts related with the control of reproduction such as the brain aromatase cytochrome P450 and tachykinin-3. Also a wide set of genes related with lipid sensing, metabolism and transport were differentially expressed and these transcripts were often down-regulated in cultured fish. Furthermore, cultured males presented a higher expression of genes related with goblet cells and mucin production that modulates innate and adaptive immune responses. All these changes in gene expression could be explained by different nutritional status and diet preference. The different expression of transcripts related to olfaction, reproduction, nutrient sensing and immune system demonstrate distinct differences in functionalities between cultured and wild soles providing new clues about the sexual dysfunction in this species.

  8. Interviews with senegalese commercial sex trade workers and implications for social programming.

    PubMed

    Homaifar, Nazaneen; Wasik, Suzan Zuljani

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of the Senegalese pubic policy toward registered sex workers through an interview process examining their backgrounds and evaluating their knowledge of sexual health. Sixty registered sex workers in Dakar, Senegal, were interviews at the Institute d'Hygiene Social (IHS) to investigate patient knowledge of contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ninety-eight percent of the women reported that, as a result of their visits to the clinic, they had increased precaution in their trade by demanding their clients use condoms and refusing clients who did not comply. Nearly 96% of the women were able to define the three main ways by which HIV is contracted, while 100% of the women reported that they used male condoms with their clients and would refuse clients who rejected the use of condoms. Senegal's proactive policy toward the safeguarding of women's health and the containment of HIV/AIDS through the legalization and monitoring of sex workers can serve as an example for successful strategies in the fight against the global spread of HIV/AIDS.

  9. Evaluating participation in water resource management: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, G.; BlöSchl, G.; Loucks, D. P.

    2012-11-01

    Key documents such as the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Clean Water Act state that public and stakeholder participation in water resource management is required. Participation aims to enhance resource management and involve individuals and groups in a democratic way. Evaluation of participatory programs and projects is necessary to assess whether these objectives are being achieved and to identify how participatory programs and projects can be improved. The different methods of evaluation can be classified into three groups: (i) process evaluation assesses the quality of participation process, for example, whether it is legitimate and promotes equal power between participants, (ii) intermediary outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of mainly nontangible outcomes, such as trust and communication, as well as short- to medium-term tangible outcomes, such as agreements and institutional change, and (iii) resource management outcome evaluation assesses the achievement of changes in resource management, such as water quality improvements. Process evaluation forms a major component of the literature but can rarely indicate whether a participation program improves water resource management. Resource management outcome evaluation is challenging because resource changes often emerge beyond the typical period covered by the evaluation and because changes cannot always be clearly related to participation activities. Intermediary outcome evaluation has been given less attention than process evaluation but can identify some real achievements and side benefits that emerge through participation. This review suggests that intermediary outcome evaluation should play a more important role in evaluating participation in water resource management.

  10. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  11. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  12. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  13. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund National Information Management System Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for the program at both the State and National level.

  14. Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    There are more than 1.2 billion people around the world that do not have access to drinking water. While there are plans under the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to halve this number by 2015, there are a number of regions that will be exposed to water scarcity in the coming future. Providing sufficient water for future development is a great challenge for planners and designers of water supply systems. In order to design sustainable water supplies for the future, it is important to learn how people consume water and how water consumption can be reduced. The education of future civil engineers should take into account not only technical aspects of the water supply but also the accompanying social and economical issues, and appreciated the strengths and weaknesses of traditional solutions. The Faculty of Civil Engineering, at the University of Rijeka, has begun incorporating a series of activities that engage undergraduate students and the local community to develop a mutual understanding of the future needs for sustainable management. We present one of the activities, collaboration with the Lancaster Environment Centre at Lancaster University in the UK through the field course Water and environmental management in Mediterranean context. The course, which is designed for the Lancaster University geography students, features a combination of field trips and visits to provide an understanding of the socio-economic and environmental context of water management in two counties (Istra and Primorsko-Goranska). Students from Lancaster visit the Croatian water authority and a regional water company, where they learn about current management practices and problems in managing water supplies and demand through the year. They make their own observations of current management practices in the field and learn about water consumption from the end users. One day field visit to a village in the area that is still not connected to the main water supply system is

  15. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management methods. (a) To discharge ballast water into waters of the United States, the...

  16. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management methods. (a) To discharge ballast water into waters of the United States, the...

  17. 33 CFR 151.2035 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management methods. (a) To discharge ballast water into waters of the United States, the...

  18. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... ballast water management methods. (a) In order to discharge ballast water into the waters of the...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... ballast water management methods. (a) In order to discharge ballast water into the waters of the...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1512 - Implementation schedule for approved ballast water management methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved ballast water management methods. 151.1512 Section 151.1512 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... ballast water management methods. (a) In order to discharge ballast water into the waters of the...

  1. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Bureau of Reclamation developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management...

  2. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of...

  3. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Bureau of Reclamation developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management...

  4. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  5. Water quality management in the coastal city in the period of considerable water consumption decrease.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowicz, R; Drwal, J; Maksymiuk, Z; Osinski, A

    2001-01-01

    Gdansk water supply system belongs among the oldest in Continental Europe. In 1992 one of the first joint-venture water companies was established in the city. Under a contract concluded between the firm and the municipality, the company was obliged to secure quick and considerable improvement of drinking water quality. At the same time a considerable water consumption decrease was observed. The drop entails new environmental, technical and economic problems. The biggest threat to the supplies of safe and good quality water is the phenomenon of secondary pollution of water resulting from the overdimensioning of the water supply network. Positive aspects of water consumption decrease are related to the opportunity of more rational and sustainable water resources management. The solutions adopted in Gdansk can serve as a starting point for working out the best model for water quality management in the coastal cities.

  6. Correlation study among water quality parameters an approach to water quality management.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D K; Rastogi, G K; Kumar, R; Kumar, N

    2009-04-01

    To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management.

  7. Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, W.

    1995-06-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development.

  8. Water management by early people in the Yucatan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and receives abundant rainfall. Such hydrogeologic conditions should provide major supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that limits the amount of fresh water available. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed on extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management, primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supply by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution. A historical perspective of a paper such as this provides insight into the attitudes concerning water of early people and perhaps provides insight into current attitudes concerning water. Hydrogeologists possess the expertise to generate relevant information required by water managers to arrive at management programs to achieve sustainable development. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  9. MoGIRE: A Model for Integrated Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, A.; Leenhardt, D.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change and growing water needs have resulted in many parts of the world in water scarcity problems that must by managed by public authorities. Hence, policy-makers are more and more often asked to define and to implement water allocation rules between competitive users. This requires to develop new tools aiming at designing those rules for various scenarios of context (climatic, agronomic, economic). If models have been developed for each type of water use however, very few integrated frameworks link these different uses, while such an integrated approach is a relevant stake for designing regional water and land policies. The lack of such integrated models can be explained by the difficulty of integrating models developed by very different disciplines and by the problem of scale change (collecting data on large area, arbitrate between the computational tractability of models and their level of aggregation). However, modelers are more and more asked to deal with large basin scales while analyzing some policy impacts at very high detailed levels. These contradicting objectives require to develop new modeling tools. The CALVIN economically-driven optimization model developed for managing water in California is a good example of this type of framework, Draper et al. (2003). Recent reviews of the literature on integrated water management at the basin level include Letcher et al. (2007) or Cai (2008). We present here an original framework for integrated water management at the river basin scale called MoGIRE ("Modèle pour la Gestion Intégrée de la Ressource en Eau"). It is intended to optimize water use at the river basin level and to evaluate scenarios (agronomic, climatic or economic) for a better planning of agricultural and non-agricultural water use. MoGIRE includes a nodal representation of the water network. Agricultural, urban and environmental water uses are also represented using mathematical programming and econometric approaches. The model then

  10. Modeling and Managing Water Resource Systems for Water Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    results are very encouraging. Applications are in progress on the Umpqua River in Oregon for analysis of a proposed reservoir system and the Columbia...industrial, irrigation, water supply, fish habitat) and water quality requirements. The HEC-5Q program was first applied to the Sacramento River system...in California and a report was published in July 1985 [8]. Two other applications are in progress, the Kanawha and Monongahela River systems have

  11. Molecular cloning of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone subunits and expression pattern during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cerdà, Joan; Chauvigne, François; Agulleiro, Maria J; Marin, Elena; Halm, Silke; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Prat, Francisco

    2008-05-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins (GTHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), are key regulators of vertebrate reproduction. However, in teleosts with testis of semi-cystic type and asynchronous spermatogenesis, as the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), the physiological roles of FSH and LH are still not well understood. To gain insight into this mechanism, full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding Senegalese sole FSH beta and LH beta subunits, and the common glycoprotein alpha subunit (CG alpha), were cloned and sequenced. The three cDNAs consisted of 550, 582 and 744 nucleotides encoding peptides of 120, 148 and 132 amino acids, respectively. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of sole FSH beta, LH beta and CG alpha with those from other teleosts indicated that cysteine residues and potential N-linked glycosylation sites were fully conserved with respect to other percomorphs and salmonids. However, the primary structure of FSH beta and LH beta in pleuronectiforms appeared to be highly divergent. In situ hybridization of mature male pituitaries showed that fshb, lhb and cga mRNAs were localized in the proximal pars distalis and in the periphery of pars intermedia. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that the levels of all three transcripts in the pituitary of males increased during winter and spring, at the time when plasma levels of androgens raised and testicular germ cell development and spermatozoa production were stimulated. These results suggest that FSH and LH may regulate spermatogenesis in Senegalese sole similarly to that described for other teleosts with testis of cystic type and synchronous germ cell development.

  12. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  13. Integrating water resources management in eco-hydrological modelling.

    PubMed

    Koch, H; Liersch, S; Hattermann, F F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the integration of water resources management with regard to reservoir management in an eco-hydrological model is described. The model was designed to simulate different reservoir management options, such as optimized hydropower production, irrigation intake from the reservoir or optimized provisioning downstream. The integrated model can be used to investigate the impacts of climate variability/change on discharge or to study possible adaptation strategies in terms of reservoir management. The study area, the Upper Niger Basin located in the West African Sahel, is characterized by a monsoon-type climate. Rainfall and discharge regime are subject to strong seasonality. Measured data from a reservoir are used to show that the reservoir model and the integrated management options can be used to simulate the regulation of this reservoir. The inflow into the reservoir and the discharge downstream of the reservoir are quite distinctive, which points out the importance of the inclusion of water resources management.

  14. Bringing ecosystem services into integrated water resources management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Crossman, Neville D; Nolan, Martin; Ghirmay, Hiyoba

    2013-11-15

    In this paper we propose an ecosystem service framework to support integrated water resource management and apply it to the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. Water resources in the Murray-Darling Basin have been over-allocated for irrigation use with the consequent degradation of freshwater ecosystems. In line with integrated water resource management principles, Australian Government reforms are reducing the amount of water diverted for irrigation to improve ecosystem health. However, limited understanding of the broader benefits and trade-offs associated with reducing irrigation diversions has hampered the planning process supporting this reform. Ecosystem services offer an integrative framework to identify the broader benefits associated with integrated water resource management in the Murray-Darling Basin, thereby providing support for the Government to reform decision-making. We conducted a multi-criteria decision analysis for ranking regional potentials to provide ecosystem services at river basin scale. We surveyed the wider public about their understanding of, and priorities for, managing ecosystem services and then integrated the results with spatially explicit indicators of ecosystem service provision. The preliminary results of this work identified the sub-catchments with the greatest potential synergies and trade-offs of ecosystem service provision under the integrated water resources management reform process. With future development, our framework could be used as a decision support tool by those grappling with the challenge of the sustainable allocation of water between irrigation and the environment.

  15. [Doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sport Medicine and doping in sports: survey on knowledge and attitudes].

    PubMed

    Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Diallo, Boubacar; Fall, Assane; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Cissè, Fallou; Faye, Babacar

    2005-01-01

    Doping in sports is as old as sports, but it grew considerably during the 20th century with the arrival in stadiums during the 1990s of amphetamines and anabolic steroids as well as such peptide hormones as erythropoietin. The international fight against doping took a giant step forward in 1999 with the creation of the world antidoping agency (WADA). This study is part of that fight. It follows an earlier survey of retail pharmacists in Senegal and aims to evaluate the knowledge about doping of doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sports Medicine and to assess their attitude towards this phenomenon. Its goal is to determine how best to involve them in preventive actions. We conducted a survey in 2001 and randomly selected and interviewed 60 of the 92 doctors in the association. The questionnaire focused on three areas: their knowledge of doping, their attitudes to it, and the means of prevention that they proposed. The results showed that only 11 of the 60 doctors knew the definition of doping and 15% of doctors could not cite any family of doping products. They were aware mainly of testosterone and other anabolic steroids (84.3%), then amphetamines and other stimulants (64.7%), and finally peptide hormones (58.8%). The subjects mentioned blood doping and pharmacological manipulations as forbidden methods. They considered that the four groups of drugs most often used by athletes for doping were, in descending order, anabolic steroids, stimulants, peptide hormones and corticoids. Eighty per cent of doctors think that Senegalese athletes use doping products and that the sports most involved are football, wrestling, track and field and basketball. They also think that doping is a form of drug addiction and a public health problem. Eleven doctors (18%) said they had been contacted for information on use of doping products. The interviewees consider that the three best methods of prevention include information about side effects, unannounced urine and

  16. Potable Water Quality Management Guidance Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Legionnaires ’ disease , which can be found in drinking water. LRAA – Locational Running Annual Average – The approach set forth in the Stage 2 Disinfectants...water system. Cryptosporidium – A protozoan microbe associated with the disease cryptosporidiosis in man. The disease can be transmitted through...Treatment Rule LCR – Lead and Copper Rule Legionella – A genus of bacteria, some species of which have caused a type of pneumonia called

  17. QSARs in Netherlands water quality management policies.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M A

    1991-12-01

    QSARs are a useful tool for predicting the potential toxic effects of compounds for which no data are available. Within strictly defined limits, QSARs can be applied to assess the potential impact of a spill, to evaluate ecotoxicological effects and environmental fate of organics in waste water and to set priorities for water quality criteria. For a wider application, there is a need for 'worst case' SARs providing a 'safer' estimate of toxicity than QSARs with an optimum fit, which might underestimate toxicity.

  18. Managing the Nation's water in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lins, H.F.; Stakhiv, E.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Among the many concerns associated with global climate change, the potential effects on water resources are frequently cited as the most worrisome. In contrast, those who manage water resources do not rate climatic change among their top planning and operational concerns. The difference in these views can be associated with how water managers operate their systems and the types of stresses, and the operative time horizons, that affect the Nation's water resources infrastructure. Climate, or more precisely weather, is an important variable in the management of water resources at daily to monthly time scales because water resources systems generally are operated on a daily basis. At decadal to centennial time scales, though, climate is much less important because (1) forecasts, particularly of regional precipitation, are extremely uncertain over such time periods, and (2) the magnitude of effects due to changes in climate on water resources is small relative to changes in other variables such as population, technology, economics, and environmental regulation. Thus, water management agencies find it difficult to justify changing design features or operating rules on the basis of simulated climatic change at the present time, especially given that reservoir-design criteria incorporate considerable buffering capacity for extreme meteorological and hydrological events.

  19. Managing runoff water quality from recently manured, furrow irrigated fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient losses in furrow irrigation runoff potentially increase when soils are amended with manure. We evaluated the effect of tillage, water soluble polyacrylamide (WSPAM) and irrigation management on runoff water quality during the first furrow irrigation on a calcareous silt loam soil, which had...

  20. On the matter of sustainable water resources management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter attempts to develop the concept of sustainability and make it operational in the realm of water resources management. Water is unique in its primacy among natural resources as an essential component of life itself. Due to its equally unique chemical and physical prop...

  1. Pathways to sustainable intensification through crop water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Graham K.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Seekell, David A.

    2016-09-01

    How much could farm water management interventions increase global crop production? This is the central question posed in a global modelling study by Jägermeyr et al (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 025002). They define the biophysical realm of possibility for future gains in crop production related to agricultural water practices—enhancing water availability to crops and expanding irrigation by reducing non-productive water consumption. The findings of Jägermeyr et al offer crucial insight on the potential for crop water management to sustainably intensify agriculture, but they also provide a benchmark to consider the broader role of sustainable intensification targets in the global food system. Here, we reflect on how the global crop water management simulations of Jägermeyr et al could interact with: (1) farm size at more local scales, (2) downstream water users at the river basin scale, as well as (3) food trade and (4) demand-side food system strategies at the global scale. Incorporating such cross-scale linkages in future research could highlight the diverse pathways needed to harness the potential of farm-level crop water management for a more productive and sustainable global food system.

  2. STORM WATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: CAPACITIES, CAPABILITIES, AND SOME LIMITATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the basics of what a storm water best management practices and focus on infiltration-type practices using the example of rain gardens. I will demonstrate how water moves through rain gardens with a simple hydrologic model and discuss ancillary benefit...

  3. Managing water resources for biomass production in a biofuel economy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of our national security policy is to become more energy independent using biofuels. The expanded production of agricultural crops for bioenergy production has introduced new challenges for management of water. Water availability has been widely presumed in the discussion of bioenergy crop ...

  4. Sustainable water management practices and remote sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s charge to protect human health and the environment requires a long-term commitment to creating sustainable solutions to environmental problems. The most direct way to ensure that management practices are achieving sustainability...

  5. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  6. Urban-Water Harmony model to evaluate the urban water management.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yifan; Tang, Deshan; Wei, Yuhang; Yin, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Water resources in many urban areas are under enormous stress due to large-scale urban expansion and population explosion. The decision-makers are often faced with the dilemma of either maintaining high economic growth or protecting water resources and the environment. Simple criteria of water supply and drainage do not reflect the requirement of integrated urban water management. The Urban-Water Harmony (UWH) model is based on the concept of harmony and offers a more integrated approach to urban water management. This model calculates four dimensions, namely urban development, urban water services, water-society coordination, and water environment coordination. And the Analytic Hierarchy Process has been used to determine the indices weights. We applied the UWH model to Beijing, China for an 11-year assessment. Our findings show that, despite the severe stress inherent in rapid development and water shortage, the urban water relationship of Beijing is generally evolving in a positive way. The social-economic factors such as the water recycling technologies contribute a lot to this change. The UWH evaluation can provide a reasonable analysis approach to combine various urban and water indices to produce an integrated and comparable evaluation index. This, in turn, enables more effective water management in decision-making processes.

  7. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  8. Water Resources Management In The Eastern Himalayan Urban Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomjan, S.

    The Himalayan ecosystem is one of the most important and threatened ecosystems on the earth. In this region, the scarcity of water in general, and drinking water in par- ticular is affecting common people and drawing the attention of researchers. Given the present situation and governance, in the near future it is most likely to deteriorate further. With expanding population and urbanization, accelerating human activities, and increasing per capita water consumption, problem of water supply in the moun- tain households will be certainly acute in the coming years. This crisis of decreasing availability of water is not only going to hamper the economic development of the region, but is also likely to threaten the very survival of the already marginalised and deprived people who are also on the brink of poverty and are incapable of coping with such crisis. Sustainable water harvesting and management of water resources offers the best hope for meeting the challenges of the growing water crisis. For this appropriate policy intervention, use of latest technology, application of tools like GIS and information from the satellite imageries, community participation and use of tra- ditional knowledge and traditional water management practices will be essential to overcome the challenge of looming water crisis. Darjiling Himalaya, located in the eastern Himalayas has a fragile environment and it is witnessing serious problems both in quality and quantity of water supply. Weak institutional arrangements, lack of awareness among citizens and a gap in the effective arrangements are huge stumbling blocks. This region is endowed with abundance of water resources and rich ecosystem. Therefore, this calls for an effective and participatory water management system with due attention given to the upgradation and expansion of the existing infrastructure. This paper takes a stock of the existing water resources in the Darjiling Himalaya, especially around the town of Darjiling, discusses

  9. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  10. Valuing flexibilities in the design of urban water management systems.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinghan; Cardin, Michel-Alexandre; Babovic, Vladan; Santhanakrishnan, Deepak; Schmitter, Petra; Meshgi, Ali

    2013-12-15

    Climate change and rapid urbanization requires decision-makers to develop a long-term forward assessment on sustainable urban water management projects. This is further complicated by the difficulties of assessing sustainable designs and various design scenarios from an economic standpoint. A conventional valuation approach for urban water management projects, like Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, fails to incorporate uncertainties, such as amount of rainfall, unit cost of water, and other uncertainties associated with future changes in technological domains. Such approach also fails to include the value of flexibility, which enables managers to adapt and reconfigure systems over time as uncertainty unfolds. This work describes an integrated framework to value investments in urban water management systems under uncertainty. It also extends the conventional DCF analysis through explicit considerations of flexibility in systems design and management. The approach incorporates flexibility as intelligent decision-making mechanisms that enable systems to avoid future downside risks and increase opportunities for upside gains over a range of possible futures. A water catchment area in Singapore was chosen to assess the value of a flexible extension of standard drainage canals and a flexible deployment of a novel water catchment technology based on green roofs and porous pavements. Results show that integrating uncertainty and flexibility explicitly into the decision-making process can reduce initial capital expenditure, improve value for investment, and enable decision-makers to learn more about system requirements during the lifetime of the project.

  11. Drinking-water safety: challenges for community-managed systems.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Hrudey, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    A targeted review of documented waterborne disease outbreaks over the past decades reveals some recurring themes that should be understood by drinking-water suppliers. Evidence indicates the outbreaks are often linked to some significant change in conditions that provides a sudden challenge to a water system. Severe weather events, such as heavy rainfall or runoff from snow melt, as well as treatment process and system changes, are common risk factors for drinking-water outbreaks. Failure to recognise warning signs and complacency are important contributors to drinking water becoming unsafe. Drinking-water suppliers must focus on competence and vigilance in maintaining effective multiple barriers appropriate to the challenges facing the drinking-water system. Understanding the risk factors and failure modes of waterborne disease outbreaks is an essential component for effective management of community drinking-water supplies and ensuring the delivery of safe drinking-water to consumers.

  12. Working towards sustainable urban water management: the vulnerability blind spot.

    PubMed

    Werbeloff, L; Brown, R

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented water scarcity in Australia coincides with the adoption of a new urban water rhetoric. The 'Security through Diversity' strategy has been adopted in a number of Australian cities as a new and innovative approach to urban water management. Although this strategy offers a more holistic approach to urban water management, in practice, the Security through Diversity strategy is largely being interpreted and implemented in a way that maintains the historical dependence on large scale, centralised water infrastructure and therefore perpetuates existing urban water vulnerabilities. This research explores the implementation of Security through Diversity as the new water scarcity response strategy in the cities of Perth and Melbourne. Through a qualitative study with over sixty-five urban water practitioners, the results reveal that the practitioners have absorbed the new Security through Diversity language whilst maintaining the existing problem and solution framework for urban water management. This can be explained in terms of an entrenched technological path dependency and cognitive lock-in that is preventing practitioners from more comprehensively engaging with the complexities of the Security through Diversity strategy, which is ultimately perpetuating the existing vulnerability of our cities. This paper suggests that greater engagement with the underlying purpose of the security though diversity strategy is a necessary first step to overcome the constraints of the traditional technological paradigm and more effectively reduce the continued vulnerability of Australian cities.

  13. Efficient Assessment of the Environment for Integral Urban Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Grit; Londong, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: Sustainable water supply and sanitation is fundamental, especially in countries that are also particularly vulnerable to water-related problems. The Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach makes sure that water management is organised in a transdisciplinary way taking into account the river basin, the hydrologic system and the appendant organisation like culture, law and economics. The main objective of IWRM is the sustainable organisation of water resources quality and quantity (GWP and INBO 2009). However there are more important targets in sustainable use of water resources. New sanitation systems are focussing on adding value and maintaining essential resources in circular flow. Focussing on material fluxes can contribute on water quality, food security, sustainable use of renewable energy, adaption on water scarcity and also on rising water and sanitation demand because of rapid urban and suburban growth (Price and Vojinović 2011; Rost et al 2013; Stäudel et al 2014). Problem: There are several planning tools for IWRM as well as for urban water management. But to complete the IWRM approach for the resource oriented concept a systematic assessment tool is missing. The assessment of crucial indicators obviously requires a lot of data from different subjects/disciplines, in different scales of detail and in different accuracy and in data acquisition (Karthe et al 2014). On the one hand there will be data abundance and on the other hand the data can be unavailable or unfeasible for example because of scale and specification(Rost et al 2013). Such a complex integrated concept requires a clearly worked out structure for the way of managing and priority setting. Purpose: To get systematic in the complex planning process the toolbox model is going to develop. The assessment of the environmental screening (one part of the toolbox) is going to be presented in this paper. The first step of assessment leans on the assertion that each of the

  14. High Prevalence of Antibodies against the Bacterium Treponema pallidum in Senegalese Guinea Baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Knauf, Sascha; Barnett, Ulrike; Maciej, Peter; Klapproth, Matthias; Ndao, Ibrahima; Frischmann, Sieghard; Fischer, Julia; Zinner, Dietmar; Liu, Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Treponema pallidum is known to cause syphilis (ssp. pallidum), yaws (ssp. pertenue), and endemic syphilis (ssp. endemicum) in humans. Nonhuman primates have also been reported to be infected with the bacterium with equally versatile clinical manifestations, from severe skin ulcerations to asymptomatic. At present all simian strains are closely related to human yaws-causing strains, an important consideration for yaws eradication. We tested clinically healthy Guinea baboons (Papio papio) at Parc National Niokolo Koba in south eastern Senegal for the presence of anti-T. pallidum antibodies. Since T. pallidum infection in this species was identified 50 years ago, and there has been no attempt to treat non-human primates for infection, it was hypothesized that a large number of West African baboons are still infected with simian strains of the yaws-bacterium. All animals were without clinical signs of treponematoses, but 18 of 20 (90%) baboons tested positive for antibodies against T. pallidum based on treponemal tests. Yet, Guinea baboons seem to develop no clinical symptoms, though it must be assumed that infection is chronic or comparable to the latent stage in human yaws infection. The non-active character is supported by the low anti-T. pallidum serum titers in Guinea baboons (median = 1:2,560) versus serum titers that are found in genital-ulcerated olive baboons with active infection in Tanzania (range of medians among the groups of initial, moderate, and severe infected animals = 1:15,360 to 1:2.097e+7). Our findings provide evidence for simian infection with T. pallidum in wild Senegalese baboons. Potentially, Guinea baboons in West Africa serve as a natural reservoir for human infection, as the West African simian strain has been shown to cause sustainable yaws infection when inoculated into humans. The present study pinpoints an area where further research is needed to support the currently on-going second WHO led yaws eradication campaign with

  15. HIV-1 outcompetes HIV-2 in dually infected Senegalese individuals with low CD4+ cell counts

    PubMed Central

    Raugi, Dana N.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Sow, Papa S.; Toure, Macoumba; Sall, Fatima; Gaye, Awa; N’doye, Ibra; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dual infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2, which is not uncommon in West Africa, has implications for transmission, progression, and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Few studies have examined viral dynamics in this setting. Our objective was to directly compare HIV-1 and HIV-2 viral loads and to examine whether this relationship is associated with CD4+ cell count. Study design This is a retrospective analysis of data from observational cohort studies. Methods We compared HIV-1 and HIV-2 viral loads from 65 dually infected, ART-naive Senegalese individuals. Participants provided blood, oral fluid, and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) or semen samples for virologic and immunologic testing. We assessed relationships between HIV-1 and HIV-2 levels using linear regression with generalized estimating equations to account for multiple study visits. Results After adjusting for CD4+ cell count, age, sex, and commercial sex work, HIV-1 RNA levels were significantly higher than HIV-2 levels in semen, CVL, and oral fluids. Despite similar peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA levels among individuals with CD4+ cell counts above 500 cells/µl, individuals with CD4+ cell counts below 500 cells/µl had higher HIV-1 and lower HIV-2 DNA levels. Individuals with high CD4+ cell counts had higher mean HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads than HIV-2, with HIV-1 levels significantly higher and HIV-2 levels trending toward lower mean viral loads among individuals with low CD4+ cell counts. Conclusion Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that with disease progression, HIV-1 outcompetes HIV-2 in dually infected individuals. This finding helps explain differences in prevalence and outcomes between HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-dual infection. PMID:23665777

  16. Hidden diversity in Senegalese bats and associated findings in the systematics of the family Vespertilionidae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Vespertilionidae is the largest family of bats, characterized by high occurrence of morphologically convergent groups, which impedes the study of their evolutionary history. The situation is even more complicated in the tropics, where certain regions remain under-sampled. Results Two hundred and thirteen vespertilionid bats from Senegal (West Africa) were studied with the use of non-differentially stained karyotypes and multi-locus sequence data analysed with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. These bats were identified as 10 different taxa, five of which were distinctive from their nominate species (Pipistrellus hesperidus, Nycticeinops schlieffenii, Scotoecus hirundo, Neoromicia nana and N. somalica), based on both karyotypes and molecular data. These five cryptic taxa are unrelated, suggesting that these West African populations have long been isolated from other African regions. Additionally, we phylogenetically analysed 166 vespertilionid taxa from localities worldwide using GenBank data (some 80% of the genera of the family) and 14 representatives of closely related groups, together with our Senegalese specimens. The systematic position of several taxa differed from previous studies and the tribes Pipistrellini and Vespertilionini were redefined. The African Pipistrellus rueppellii was basal to the Pipistrellus/Nyctalus clade and the Oriental species Glischropus tylopus was basal to the East Asian pipistrelles within the tribe Pipistrellini. The African genus Neoromicia was confirmed to be diphyletic. Based on GenBank data, Eptesicus was polyphyletic, with the Asian E. nasutus and E. dimissus both supported as phylogenetically distinct from the Eptesicus clade. The subfamily Scotophilinae was confirmed as one of the basal branches of Vespertilionidae. Conclusions New taxa and new systematic arrangements show that there is still much to resolve in the vespertilionids and that West Africa is a biogeographic hotspot with more diversity to

  17. Advances in nitrogen management for water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The creation of this book was inspired by collaborative discussions with some of the individuals who presented at the 7th annual symposium that was jointly held by the Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS) and Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) in 2006. These individuals were asked to work ...

  18. Change Ahead: Transient Scenarios for Long-term Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Beersma, Jules; Schellekens, Jaap

    2013-04-01

    While the use of an ensemble of transient scenarios is common in climate change studies, they are rarely used in water management studies. Present planning studies on long-term water management often use a few plausible futures for one or two projection years, ignoring the dynamic aspect of adaptation through the interaction between the water system and society. Over the course of time society experiences, learns and adapts to changes and events, making policy responses part of a plausible future, and thus the success of a water management strategy. Exploring transient scenarios and policy options over time can support decision making on water management strategies in an uncertain and changing environment. We have developed and applied such a method, called exploring adaptation pathways (Haasnoot et al., 2012; Haasnoot et al., 2011). This method uses multiple realisations of transient scenarios to assess the efficacy of policy actions over time. In case specified objectives are not achieved anymore, an adaptation tipping point (Kwadijk et al., 2010) is reached. After reaching a tipping point, additional actions are needed to reach the objectives. As a result, a pathway emerges. In this presentation we describe the development of transient scenarios for long term water management, and how these scenarios can be used for long term water management under uncertainty. We illustrate this with thought experiments, and results from computational modeling experiment for exploring adaptation pathways in the lower Rhine delta. The results and the thought experiments show, among others, that climate variability is at least just as important as climate change for taking decisions in water management. References Haasnoot, M., Middelkoop, H., Offermans, A., Beek, E., Deursen, W.A.v. (2012) Exploring pathways for sustainable water management in river deltas in a changing environment. Climatic Change 115, 795-819. Haasnoot, M., Middelkoop, H., van Beek, E., van Deursen, W

  19. Book Review: Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    All nations have built their economies around water that is naturally available. Almost all sectors of the economy depend on water. Yet there is conflict among various users for the finite amount of water that is available. Managers and practitioners have long held the notion that competition rather than collaboration is the solution when there is conflict. Water Diplomacy: A Negotiated Approach to Managing Complex Water Networks, by Shafiqul Islam and Lawrence Susskind, provides a refreshingly compelling alternative to overcoming water conflicts. The book argues that the dynamic sociopolitical and socioeconomic constraints of water resources are best addressed in a "diplomacy" framework. The book rebuts, using several case studies, the technically rigid competition approach of today's water sharing practice.

  20. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water

  1. Managing Water Resources for Drought: Insights from California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Droughts bring great opportunities to better understand and improve water systems. California's economic powerhouse relies on highly engineered water systems to fulfill large and growing urban and agricultural water demands. Current and past droughts show these systems are highly robust and resilient to droughts, as they recover promptly. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper provides an overview of the economic and ecosystem impacts of the recent multi-year drought in California in the context of a global economy. We explore the potential of water markets, groundwater management and use of remote sensing technology to improve understanding of adaptation to drought. Insights for future management of water resources and scientific work are discussed.

  2. Star Clocks and Water Management in Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Harriet

    For centuries, if not millennia, the farmers of Oman have used the stars and sun for timing their share of water from gravity-fed irrigation systems (aflāj). When wristwatches became widely available in the late 1960s, many communities abandoned the traditional methods. Today, the use of stars for this purpose survives in eight communities. This contribution focuses on the near extinct system of time reckoning with stars.

  3. Water governance in Chile: Availability, management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Roberto; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Olivares, Claudio; Vera, Mauricio; Balocchi, Francisco; Pérez, Felipe; Vallejos, Carlos; Fuentes, Roberto; Abarza, Alejandro; Helwig, Bridget

    2014-11-01

    Chile has a unique geography that provides an extraordinary variety of climatic conditions and availability of water resources. The objective of this manuscript was to describe and analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, as well as the management of water resources, along a country with a narrow distance from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This presents challenges to water governance from data collection and analysis perspectives, and for administration of the resource. The Water Resources Directorate (Dirección General de Aguas, DGA), is the federal government organization in charge of the water resources of the country. The DGA and other relevant public and private institutions are examined in terms of competition and conflict resolution across different scales and levels of interaction associated with water resources governance. Both monitoring stations (rainfall, streamflow, water quality, groundwater, sediment and snowfall), and the Chilean management and legislation of water resources are also analyzed. Finally, the success (or lack) of the national administration to upgrade its monitoring stations and equalize water resources distribution throughout the country is discussed including the influence of climate change on data collection, and decision making across different scales of water governance.

  4. Water year 2004: Western water managers feel the heat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pagano, Thomas; Pasteris, Phil; Dettinger, Michael; Cayan, Daniel; Redmond, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    With much of the western U.S. already in its fifth year of drought, an above-average western snowpack on 1 March 2004 provided hope for much-needed abundant runoff. Unfortunately snowmelt began far earlier than anticipated, resulting in dramatic declines in seasonal spring-summer streamflow forecasts as the month proceeded, declines more rapid by some measures than ever before in the past 75 years. With reservoirs near historic lows, many water users have been hard pressed to deal with the continuing drought.

  5. 1998 federal energy and water management award winners

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-28

    Energy is a luxury that no one can afford to waste, and many Federal Government agencies are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using energy wisely. Thoughtful use of energy resources is important, not only to meet agency goals, but because energy efficiency helps improve air quality. Sound facility management offers huge savings that affect the agency`s bottom line, the environment, and workplace quality. In these fiscally-modest times, pursuing sound energy management programs can present additional challenges for energy and facility managers. The correct path to take is not always the easiest. Hard work, innovation, and vision are characteristic of those who pursue energy efficiency. That is why the Department of energy, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is proud to salute the winners of the 1998 Federal Energy and Water Management Award. The 1998 winners represent the kind of 21st century thinking that will help achieve widespread Federal energy efficiency. In one year, the winners, through a combination of public and private partnerships, saved more than $222 million and 10.5 trillion Btu by actively identifying and implementing energy efficiency, water conservation, and renewable energy projects. Through their dedication, hard work, ingenuity, and success, the award winners have also inspired others to increase their own efforts to save energy and water and to more aggressively pursue the use of renewable energy sources. The Federal Energy and Water Management Awards recognize the winners` contributions and ability to inspire others to take action.

  6. Application of the urban water use model for urban water use management purposes.

    PubMed

    Costa Dos Santos, D; Benetti, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present an application of the urban water use (UWU) model, which is a support decision tool to define the best group of efficient water use measures for UWU management purposes. Therefore, the UWU was developed under integrated urban water management (IUWM) and strategic planning principles to promote a systemic approach for decision taking. The IUWM considers the interfaces between water service systems, while by strategic planning it is possible to elaborate a vision to be achieved in future scenarios. Specifically to define the best measure group of efficient water use, the UWU has many alternatives for these measures, which are based on water demand management, decentralized sanitation, ecological sanitation and sustainable urban drainage system philosophies. In this context, the UWU application presented was developed for Seara city, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In this application a vision and five scenarios were built. The measure groups were composed by greywater systems, filterstrips, water saving devices in buildings, and water loss reduction in water supply systems and wastewater treatment system. In this context the UWU model was applied. The measure group that presented the highest effectiveness was based on the water demand management and decentralized sanitation strategies.

  7. Method for Water Management Considering Long-term Probabilistic Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Kang, J.; Suh, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    This research is aimed at predicting the monthly inflow of the Andong-dam basin in South Korea using long-term probabilistic forecasts to apply long-term forecasts to water management. Forecasted Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of monthly precipitation are plotted by combining the range of monthly precipitation based on proper Probability Density Function (PDF) in past data with probabilistic forecasts in each category. Ensembles of inflow are estimated by entering generated ensembles of precipitation based on the CDFs into the 'abcd' water budget model. The bias and RMSE between averages in past data and observed inflow are compared to them in forecasted ensembles. In our results, the bias and RMSE of average precipitation in the forecasted ensemble are bigger than in past data, whereas the average inflow in the forecasted ensemble is smaller than in past data. This result could be used for reference data to apply long-term forecasts to water management, because of the limit in the number of forecasted data for verification and differences between the Andong-dam basin and the forecasted regions. This research has significance by suggesting a method of applying probabilistic information in climate variables from long-term forecasts to water management in Korea. Original data of a climate model, which produces long-term probabilistic forecasts should be verified directly as input data of a water budget model in the future, so that a more scientific response in water management against uncertainty of climate change could be reached.

  8. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  9. Robust Decision Making Approach to Managing Water Resource Risks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, R.

    2010-12-01

    The IPCC and US National Academies of Science have recommended iterative risk management as the best approach for water management and many other types of climate-related decisions. Such an approach does not rely on a single set of judgments at any one time but rather actively updates and refines strategies as new information emerges. In addition, the approach emphasizes that a portfolio of different types of responses, rather than any single action, often provides the best means to manage uncertainty. Implementing an iterative risk management approach can however prove difficult in actual decision support applications. This talk will suggest that robust decision making (RDM) provides a particularly useful set of quantitative methods for implementing iterative risk management. This RDM approach is currently being used in a wide variety of water management applications. RDM employs three key concepts that differentiate it from most types of probabilistic risk analysis: 1) characterizing uncertainty with multiple views of the future (which can include sets of probability distributions) rather than a single probabilistic best-estimate, 2) employing a robustness rather than an optimality criterion to assess alternative policies, and 3) organizing the analysis with a vulnerability and response option framework, rather than a predict-then-act framework. This talk will summarize the RDM approach, describe its use in several different types of water management applications, and compare the results to those obtained with other methods.

  10. Management of the Israeli National Water System under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, U.; Housh, M.; Ostfeld, A.; Zaide, M.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in our region is due to the natural variability of hydrological patterns, with recurring extended droughts, reduced average and broadening variability of recharge that seem to indicate the effect of climate change, as well as to deterioration of water quality in the natural sources, to population growth and distribution, to shifting demand patterns among consumer sectors, and to expected future regional water agreements. These factors combine to create a challenging environment in which highly stressed water resources and water systems have to be developed, operated and managed. The natural sources have been used to their sustainable capacity and often beyond. The main policy responses are a shift of fresh water from agriculture to the cities, replacing it with treated wastewater for irrigation, and a major program for construction of sea-water desalination plants and the associated infrastructure needed for its integration into the supply systems. Organizational reforms, regulation, and demand management options are also being developed, including full-cost pricing. Management of the water resources and systems under these conditions requires a long-term perspective. The methodologies for supporting management decisions that have been used to date by the Israeli Water Authority include evaluation by scenarios, simulation, and optimization with sensitivity analysis. We review existing approaches and models for management of the Israeli water system (Zaide 2006) and then present some new methodologies for addressing operational decisions under hydrological uncertainty, which include generation of tradeoffs between the expected value and variability of the outcomes, and an Info-Gap (Ben-Haim 2006) based approach. These methodologies are demonstrated on examples that emulate portions of a regional water system and are then applied to the Israeli National Water System. Ben-Haim, Y. (2006) Info-Gap Theory: Decisions under Severe Uncertainty, 2nd Ed

  11. Evaluation of Water Rights to Reveal Hidden Patterns and Trends in Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, T.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    California's current water management challenges are strongly influenced by the legacy of 19th century legal doctrines, which aim to maximize the appropriation of available water for human uses and benefits. As a consequence and over time, most of the water flowing through the state's rivers and streams has been dedicated through water rights to human uses, limiting potential for sustainable water management and climate change adaptation. This history is recorded in a database of water rights, which contains approximately 50,000 records of diversion and storage projects dating from the early 19th century to the present day. Although water rights records are rarely considered in regional water budgeting, information on the location, age, purpose, and face values of water rights offer insight into the spatial and temporal dimensions of water-use pressures and can be used to identify opportunities for management interventions. Using the state water rights database, we calculated cumulative face-value rights at the HUC12-watershed scale and compared water appropriation volumes with modeled predictions of surface water availability. Total annual allocations of current water rights exceed 340 million-acre feet (4 x 1011 m3), approximately five times the state's mean annual runoff. The total volume of face-value water rights is 25 to 1,000% of annual water availability in major river basins (greater than 400 km2), with the greatest degree of appropriation observed in tributaries to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and coastal streams in southern California. Trends in water rights appropriation since 1900 indicate periods of rapid demand growth between 1925-1940, 1950-1960, and 1975-1985, which mirror major dam building eras. We illustrate how information on the spatial distribution of water rights, appropriation volumes, and priority of use, can guide strategic planning for re-allocating water for environmental benefits and other management objectives. We also

  12. High Dietary Lipid Level Is Associated with Persistent Hyperglycaemia and Downregulation of Muscle Akt-mTOR Pathway in Senegalese Sole (Solea senegalensis)

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Pedro; Valente, Luísa M. P.; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    High levels of dietary lipids are incorporated in feeds for most teleost fish to promote growth and reduce nitrogen waste. However, in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) previous studies revealed that increasing the level of dietary lipids above 8% negatively affect growth and nutrient utilization regardless of dietary protein content. It has been shown that glucose regulation and metabolism can be impaired by high dietary fat intake in mammals, but information in teleost fish is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of dietary lipids on glucose metabolism in Senegalese sole with special emphasis on the regulation of proteins involved in the muscle insulin-signalling pathway. Senegalese sole juveniles (29 g) were fed two isonitrogenous diets (53% dry matter) for 88 days. These two diets were one with a high lipid level (∼17%, HL) and a moderate starch content (∼14%, LC), and the other being devoid of fish oil (4% lipid, LL) and with high starch content (∼23%, HC). Surprisingly, feeding Senegalese sole the HL/LC diet resulted in prolonged hyperglycaemia, while fish fed on LL/HC diet restored basal glycaemia 2 h after feeding. The hyperglycaemic phenotype was associated with greater glucose-6-phosphatase activity (a key enzyme of hepatic glucose production) and lower citrate synthase activity in the liver, with significantly higher liver glycogen content. Sole fed on HL/LC diet also had significantly lower hexokinase activity in muscle, although hexokinase activity was low with both dietary treatments. The HL/LC diet was associated with significant reductions in muscle AKT, p70 ribosomal S6-K1 Kinase (S6K-1) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6) 2 h after feeding, suggesting down regulation of the AKT-mTOR nutrient signalling pathway in these fish. The results of this study show for the first time that high level of dietary lipids strongly affects glucose metabolism in Senegalese sole. PMID:25036091

  13. Genomic resources for a commercial flatfish, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): EST sequencing, oligo microarray design, and development of the Soleamold bioinformatic platform

    PubMed Central

    Cerdà, Joan; Mercadé, Jaume; Lozano, Juan José; Manchado, Manuel; Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Astola, Antonio; Infante, Carlos; Halm, Silke; Viñas, Jordi; Castellana, Barbara; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, Pedro; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Piferrer, Francesc; Planas, Josep V; Prat, Francesc; Yúfera, Manuel; Durany, Olga; Subirada, Francesc; Rosell, Elisabet; Maes, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Background The Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, is a highly prized flatfish of growing commercial interest for aquaculture in Southern Europe. However, despite the industrial production of Senegalese sole being hampered primarily by lack of information on the physiological mechanisms involved in reproduction, growth and immunity, very limited genomic information is available on this species. Results Sequencing of a S. senegalensis multi-tissue normalized cDNA library, from adult tissues (brain, stomach, intestine, liver, ovary, and testis), larval stages (pre-metamorphosis, metamorphosis), juvenile stages (post-metamorphosis, abnormal fish), and undifferentiated gonads, generated 10,185 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Clones were sequenced from the 3'-end to identify isoform specific sequences. Assembly of the entire EST collection into contigs gave 5,208 unique sequences of which 1,769 (34%) had matches in GenBank, thus showing a low level of redundancy. The sequence of the 5,208 unigenes was used to design and validate an oligonucleotide microarray representing 5,087 unique Senegalese sole transcripts. Finally, a novel interactive bioinformatic platform, Soleamold, was developed for the Senegalese sole EST collection as well as microarray and ISH data. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for S. senegalensis, an economically important fish in aquaculture, which include a collection of expressed genes, an oligonucleotide microarray, and a publicly available bioinformatic platform that can be used to study gene expression in this species. These resources will help elucidate transcriptional regulation in wild and captive Senegalese sole for optimization of its production under intensive culture conditions. PMID:18973667

  14. The Watershed and River Systems Management Program: Decision Support for Water- and Environmental-Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leavesley, G.; Markstrom, S.; Frevert, D.; Fulp, T.; Zagona, E.; Viger, R.

    2004-12-01

    Increasing demands for limited fresh-water supplies, and increasing complexity of water-management issues, present the water-resource manager with the difficult task of achieving an equitable balance of water allocation among a diverse group of water users. The Watershed and River System Management Program (WARSMP) is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) to develop and deploy a database-centered, decision-support system (DSS) to address these multi-objective, resource-management problems. The decision-support system couples the USGS Modular Modeling System (MMS) with the BOR RiverWare tools using a shared relational database. MMS is an integrated system of computer software that provides a research and operational framework to support the development and integration of a wide variety of hydrologic and ecosystem models, and their application to water- and ecosystem-resource management. RiverWare is an object-oriented reservoir and river-system modeling framework developed to provide tools for evaluating and applying water-allocation and management strategies. The modeling capabilities of MMS and Riverware include simulating watershed runoff, reservoir inflows, and the impacts of resource-management decisions on municipal, agricultural, and industrial water users, environmental concerns, power generation, and recreational interests. Forecasts of future climatic conditions are a key component in the application of MMS models to resource-management decisions. Forecast methods applied in MMS include a modified version of the National Weather Service's Extended Streamflow Prediction Program (ESP) and statistical downscaling from atmospheric models. The WARSMP DSS is currently operational in the Gunnison River Basin, Colorado; Yakima River Basin, Washington; Rio Grande Basin in Colorado and New Mexico; and Truckee River Basin in California and Nevada.

  15. Immunoassay based water quality analysis: A new tool for drinking water supply management

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyshyn, C.R.; Brown, W.; Hervey, E.; Hull, C.

    1996-11-01

    The recent availability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for the analysis of organic environmental contaminants provides drinking water utility managers and operators with a new tool for managing treatment operations and monitoring source watersheds. Immunoassay technology permits rapid, inexpensive and accurate in-plant testing of many SDWA regulated organic contaminants at concentrations well below established MCL`s. Analytical testing which would not be practicable due to the high cost or long turnaround time limitations of conventional testing methods is now being performed using immunoassay based analysis. Water quality data generated using immunoassay based methods are being utilized by drinking water utilities as an integral part of source watershed management programs, process operations optimization efforts, pro-active raw and finished water testing programs, and flood and incident response management.

  16. Providing Data and Modeling to Help Manage Water Supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    The Sonoma County Water Agency (SCWA) and other local water purveyors have partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to assess hydrologic conditions and to quan-tify the county-wide interconnections between surface water and ground water. Through this partnership, USGS scientists have completed assessments of the geohydrology and geochemistry of the Sonoma and Alexander Valley ground-water basins. Now, the USGS is constructing a detailed ground-water flow model of the Santa Rosa Plain. It will be used to help identify strategies for surface-water/ground-water management and help to ensure long-term viability of the water supply. The USGS is also working with the SCWA to help meet future demand in the face of possible new restrictions on its main source of water, the Russian River. SCWA draws water from the alluvial aquifer underlying and adjacent to the Russian River and may want to extend riverbank filtration facilities to new areas. USGS scientists are conducting research to charac-terize riverbank filtration processes and changes in water quality during reduced river flows.

  17. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  18. Integrated water resources management in the Ruhr River Basin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bode, H; Evers, P; Albrecht, D R

    2003-01-01

    The Ruhr, with an average flow of 80.5 m3/s at its mouth, is a comparatively small tributary to the Rhine River that has to perform an important task: to secure the water supply of more than 5 million people and of the industry in the densely populated region north of the river. The complex water management system and network applied by the Ruhrverband in the natural Ruhr River Basin has been developed step by step, over decades since 1913. And from the beginning, its major goal has been to achieve optimal conditions for the people living in the region. For this purpose, a functional water supply and wastewater disposal infrastructure has been built up. The development of these structures required and still requires multi-dimensional planning and performance. Since the river serves as receiving water and at the same time as a source of drinking water, the above-standard efforts of Ruhrverband for cleaner water also help to conserve nature and wildlife. Ruhrverband has summed up its environmental awareness in the slogan: "For the people and for the environment". This basic water philosophy, successfully applied to the Ruhr for more than 80 years, will be continued in accordance with the new European Water Framework Directive, enacted in 2000, which demands integrated water resources management in natural river basins, by including the good ecological status of surface waterbodies as an additional goal.

  19. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  20. Drought management and its impact on public water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume represents the report on a colloquium sponsored by the National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board, 5 September 1985. It includes five background papers on drought, drought management, risks for public systems, and legal and institutional aspects, plus appendices on conservation and rationing plans for Los Angeles and Salt Lake County. The conclusions of the volume include: (1) there is substantial need for continued research on drought and its impact on the management of public water systems; (2) sizing of the physical facilities of a system should not be based solely on full-service requirements during the drought of record, nor should such facilities be sized by the arbitrary specification of hydrologic risk; and (3) the key to adequate drought management of public water systems lies in predrought preparation.

  1. Molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of the renin-angiotensin system genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858): differential gene regulation by salinity.

    PubMed

    Armesto, Paula; Cousin, Xavier; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Asensio, Esther; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the complete cDNA sequence encoding angiotensinogen (agt) in the euryhaline flatfish Senegalese sole was obtained. Additionally, putative coding sequences belonging to other renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes including renin (ren), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace), angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2), as well as angiotensin II receptor type I (agtr1) and type II (agtr2), were also identified. In juvenile tissues, agt transcripts were mainly detected in liver, ren in kidney, ace and ace2 in intestine, agtr1 in kidney and brain, and agtr2 in liver and kidney. Expression analysis of the six RAS genes after a salinity shift revealed a clear increase of agt mRNA abundance in liver just after transferring soles to high salinity water (60 ppt) with a peak at 48 h. Moreover, gene expression analysis in gills showed transcriptional regulation of ace and agtr1 at 48 h and agtr2 at 96 h after transferring soles to 60 ppt. Incubation of larvae before mouth opening (until 3 days post hatch; dph) at low salinity (10 ppt) resulted in a coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of RAS genes. Nevertheless, no differences in mRNA abundance between salinities were observed when larvae were cultivated to low salinity after mouth opening. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) signal for agt and ace in 3 dph larvae incubated at 10 ppt and 35 ppt confirmed that the former gene was mainly expressed in liver whereas the later gene was mainly located in pharynx and posterior gut, without pronounced differences in intensity between salinities. Possible physiological significance of all these results is discussed.

  2. Fragmented local governance and water resource management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hong; Keane, Timothy D; Bernard, Eric A

    2015-03-01

    Fragmented jurisdictions and decision making structures can result in destructive competition and/or a lack of systematic cooperation that can hamper effective resource management and environmental planning, although the value of local autonomy and stakeholder participations should not be underestimated. This study empirically examines if political fragmentation in local governance is a significant barrier to successful resource management. To test this hypothesis, the authors quantify the degree of political fragmentation at two different geographical scales - 1) site-level: 12-digit watersheds and 2) regional: metropolitan statistical areas or equivalent regions - and analyze how water resource management outcomes vary with the level of political fragmentation using nationwide land cover and stream gauge information in the U.S. Regression analysis shows water quality declines (or slower quality improvements), measured in terms of total suspended solids, are associated with both site-level and regional political fragmentation indicators, suggesting that political fragmentation can make resource management more challenging.

  3. Assessment of light water reactor accident management programs and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hammersley, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an assessment of the current light water reactor experience regarding accident management programs and associated technology developments. This assessment for light water reactor (LWR) designs is provided as a resource and reference for the development of accident management capabilities for the production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The specific objectives of this assessment are as follows: 1. Perform a review of the NRC, utility, and industry (NUMARC, EPRI) accident management programs and implementation experience. 2. Provide an assessment of the problems and opportunities in developing an accident management program in conjunction or following the Individual Plant Examination process. 3. Review current NRC, utility, and industry technological developments in the areas of computational tools, severe accident predictive tools, diagnostic aids, and severe accident training and simulation.

  4. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  5. Water Budget Managers Report to Northwest Power Planning Council, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, Malcolm; DeHart, Michele

    1986-12-01

    In addition to management of the Water Budget, the Water Budget Managers and FPC staff developed and directed the Smolt Monitoring and Water Budget Evaluation Programs of Section 304(d) of the Fish and Wildlife Program. The fishery agencies and tribes also authorized the Water Budget Managers to coordinate agency and tribal system operational requests throughout the year, including spill management for fish passage. This report summarizes Water Budget Manager activities in implementing program measures, including 1986 flow conditions, water budget usage and spill management, and the in-season management portion of the 1986 Smolt Monitoring Program including data management.

  6. Acquisition and management of continuous data streams for crop water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wireless sensor network systems for decision support in crop water management offer many advantages including larger spatial coverage and multiple types of data input. However, collection and management of multiple and continuous data streams for near real-time post analysis can be problematic. Thi...

  7. Workshop 3 (synthesis): climate variability, water systems and management options.

    PubMed

    Connor, R; Kuylenstierna, J

    2004-01-01

    Addressing climate variability now will better prepare us for future impacts of climate change. Sustained, multi-stakeholder dialogue at local through national levels is an approach that will reach the widest audience, helped by tools that illustrate vulnerability such as the Climate Vulnerability Index. Integrated water resources management deals with managing for variability and change and is therefore highly appropriate for dealing with climate impacts.

  8. Reliability and Efficacy of Water Use Estimation Techniques and their Impact on Water Management and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Deeds, N.; Kelley, V.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating how much water is being used by various water users is key to effective management and optimal utilization of groundwater resources. This is especially true for aquifers like the Ogallala that are severely stressed and display depleting trends over the last many years. The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Water users within the 16 counties that comprise the HPWD draw from the Ogallala extensively. The HPWD has recently proposed flow-meters as well as various 'alternative methods' for water users to report water usage. Alternative methods include using a) site specific energy conversion factors to convert total amount of energy used (for pumping stations) to water pumped, b) reporting nozzle package (on center pivot irrigation systems) specifications and hours of usage, and c) reporting concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The focus of this project was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness for each of these water use estimation techniques for regulatory purposes. Reliability and effectiveness of direct flow-metering devices was also addressed. Findings indicate that due to site-specific variability and hydrogeologic heterogeneity, alternative methods for estimating water use can have significant uncertainties associated with water use estimates. The impact of these uncertainties on overall water usage, conservation, and management was also evaluated. The findings were communicated to the Stakeholder Advisory Group and the Water Conservation District with guidelines and recommendations on how best to implement the various techniques.

  9. Historical legacies, information and contemporary water science and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bain, Daniel J.; Arrigo, Jennifer A.S.; Green, Mark B.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  10. Hydrologic response of northern wetlands to silvicultural water management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Trettin, C.C.

    1994-09-01

    Two types of water management systems are used to ameliorate saturated soil conditions which limit silvicultural operations and site productivity in northern wetlands. The pattern ditch system is an intensive drainage network designed to regulate water table depth in peat soils. The prescription drainage system is a low-intensity drainage system that is used to develop apparent drainage patterns in mineral and histic-mineral soils. These water management systems may either increase or decrease peak flow, base flow, and the duration of peak flow events, depending on drainage system design, climate, season, site characteristics, and land use. The most common hydrologic response to drainage is an increase in peak flow and base flow, and an increase in annual runoff. The effect of wetland drainage on watershed hydrology depends on the proportion of the watershed drained. Drainage may also affect water quality, nutrient cycling, vegetation composition and structure.

  11. Realising sustainable urban water management: can social theory help?

    PubMed

    Bos, J J; Brown, R R

    2013-01-01

    It has been acknowledged, in Australia and beyond, that existing urban water systems and management lead to unsustainable outcomes. Therefore, our current socio-technical systems, consisting of institutions, structures and rules, which guide traditional urban water practices, need to change. If a change towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM) practices is to occur, a transformation of our established social-technical configuration that shapes the behaviour and decision making of actors is needed. While some constructive innovations that support this transformation have occurred, most innovations remain of a technical nature. These innovative projects do not manage to achieve the widespread social and institutional change needed for further diffusion and uptake of SUWM practices. Social theory, and its research, is increasingly being recognised as important in responding to the challenges associated with evolving to a more sustainable form of urban water management. This paper integrates three areas of social theories around change in order to provide a conceptual framework that can assist with socio-technical system change. This framework can be utilised by urban water practitioners in the design of interventions to stimulate transitions towards SUWM.

  12. Water-use data by category, county, and water management district in Florida, 1950-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The population for Florida in 1990 was estimated at 12.94 million, an increase of nearly 10.17 million (370 percent) from the population of 2.77 million in 1950. Consequently, water use (fresh and saline) in Florida increased nearly 510 percent (15,175 million gallons per day) between 1950 and 1990. The resident population of the State is projected to surpass 20 million by the year 2020. Through the cooperation of the Florida Department of Environ- mental Protection and the U.S. Geologial Survey, water-use data for the period between 1950 and 1990 has been consolidated into one publication. This report aggregates and summarizes the quantities of water withdrawn annually for all water-use categories (public supply, self-supplied domestic, self-supplied commercial-industrial, agriculture, and thermoelectric power generation), by counties, and water management districts in Florida from 1950 through 1990. Total water withdrawn in Florida increased from 2,923 million gallons per day in 1950 to 17,898 million gallons per day in 1990. Surface- water withdrawals during 1950 totaled 2,333 million gallons per day but were not differentiated between fresh and saline, therefore, comparisons between fresh and saline water were made beginning with 1955 data. Freshwater withdrawals increased 245 percent between 1955 and 1990. Saline water withdrawals increased more than 1,500 percent between 1955 and 1990. In 1955, more than 47 percent of the fresh- water used was withdrawn from ground-water sources and 53 percent was withdrawn from surface-water sources. In 1990, nearly 62 percent of the fresh- water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, while 38 percent was withdrawn from surface-water sources. The steady increase in ground-water withdrawals since the 1950's primarily is a result of the ability to drill and pump water more economically from large, deep wells and the reliability of both the quality and quantity of water from these wells. Water withdrawn for public supply in

  13. Management of source and drinking-water quality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Aziz, J A

    2005-01-01

    Drinking-water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking-water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants or to anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking-water has frequently resulted in high incidence of waterborne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking-water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking-water supplies to consumers.

  14. Collaborative Research for Water Resource Management under Climate Change Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brundiers, K.; Garfin, G. M.; Gober, P.; Basile, G.; Bark, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    We present an ongoing project to co-produce science and policy called Collaborative Planning for Climate Change: An Integrated Approach to Water-Planning, Climate Downscaling, and Robust Decision-Making. The project responds to motivations related to dealing with sustainability challenges in research and practice: (a) state and municipal water managers seek research that addresses their planning needs; (b) the scientific literature and funding agencies call for more meaningful engagement between science and policy communities, in ways that address user needs, while advancing basic research; and (c) empirical research contributes to methods for the design and implementation of collaborative projects. To understand how climate change might impact water resources and management in the Southwest US, our project convenes local, state, and federal water management practitioners with climate-, hydrology-, policy-, and decision scientists. Three areas of research inform this collaboration: (a) the role of paleo-hydrology in water resources scenario construction; (b) the types of uncertainties that impact decision-making beyond climate and modeling uncertainty; and (c) basin-scale statistical and dynamical downscaling of climate models to generate hydrologic projections for regional water resources planning. The project engages all participants in the research process, from research design to workshops that build capacity for understanding data generation and sources of uncertainty to the discussion of water management decision contexts. A team of “science-practice translators” facilitates the collaboration between academic and professional communities. In this presentation we contextualize the challenges and opportunities of use-inspired science-policy research collaborations by contrasting the initial project design with the process of implementation. We draw from two sources to derive lessons learned: literature on collaborative research, and evaluations provided by

  15. NASA Remote Sensing Technologies for Improved Integrated Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lee, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and international community to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. Key objectives of this talk will highlight NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs with their objective to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management in national and international applications. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. The presentation will also demonstrate how NASA is a major contributor to water tasks and activities in GEOSS (Global Earth Observing System of Systems) and GEO (Group on Earth Observations).

  16. Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of

  17. Estimated water use in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, A.D.; Trommer, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Water-use data for 1980 are summarized in this report for 16 counties in the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Data include total use of ground water and surface water for each of five water-use categories. The 1980 withdrawals for each category were as follows: 290 million gallons per day for public supply, 63 million gallons per day for rural, 325 million gallons per day for industry, 416 million gallons per day for irrigation, and 6,605 million gallons per day for thermoelectric power generation. Withdrawals totaled 7,699 million gallons per day and included 983 million gallons per day of ground water and 6,716 million gallons per day of surface water. Excluding thermoelectric power generation, all water withdrawn was freshwater except 38 million gallons per day of saline ground water withdrawn for industrial use in Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  18. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1515 Ballast water management alternatives...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  20. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  1. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1515 Ballast water management alternatives...

  2. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1514 Ballast water management alternatives...

  3. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  4. 33 CFR 151.1515 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1515 Ballast water management alternatives...

  5. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  6. 33 CFR 151.1518 - Penalties for failure to conduct ballast water management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management. 151.1518 Section 151.1518 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of... water management. (a) A person who violates this subpart is liable for a civil penalty in an amount...

  7. 33 CFR 151.1514 - Ballast water management alternatives under extraordinary conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water management... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in the Great Lakes and Hudson River § 151.1514 Ballast water management alternatives...

  8. Adapting California Water Management to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, E.; Lund, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    California faces the prospect of significant water management challenges from climate change. The most certain changes are accelerated sea level rise and increased temperatures, which will reduce the Sierra Nevada snowpack and shift more runoff to winter months. These changes will likely cause major problems for flood control, for water supply reservoir operations, and for the maintenance of the present system of water exports through the fragile levee system of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Rising water temperatures also are likely to compromise habitat for some native aquatic species and pose challenges for reservoir operations, which must release cool water to support fish downstream. Although there is as yet little scientific consensus on the effects of climate change on overall precipitation levels, many expect precipitation variability to increase, with more extreme drought and flood events posing additional challenges to water managers. Fortunately, California also possesses numerous assets - including adaptation tools and institutional capabilities - which can limit vulnerability of the state’s residents to changing conditions. Water supply managers have already begun using underground storage, water transfers, conservation, recycling, and desalination to expand their capacity to meet changing demands, and these same tools present cost-effective options for responding to a wide range of climate change scenarios. Many staples of flood management - including reservoir operations, levees, bypasses, insurance, and land-use regulation - are appropriate for the challenges posed by increasing flood flows. Yet actions are also needed to improve response capacity in some areas. For water supply, a central issue is the management of the Delta, where new conveyance and habitat investments and regulations are needed to sustain water supply reliability and ecosystem conditions. For flood management, studies to anticipate required changes have only begun, and

  9. Urban water management in cities: historical, current and future regimes.

    PubMed

    Brown, R R; Keath, N; Wong, T H F

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from three phases of a social research programme between 2002 and 2008, this paper proposes a framework for underpinning the development of urban water transitions policy and city-scale benchmarking at the macro scale. Through detailed historical, contemporary and futures research involving Australian cities, a transitions framework is proposed, presenting a typology of six city states, namely the 'Water Supply City', the 'Sewered City', the 'Drained City', the 'Waterways City', the 'Water Cycle City', and the 'Water Sensitive City'. This framework recognises the temporal, ideological and technological contexts that cities transition through when moving towards sustainable urban water conditions. The aim of this research is to assist urban water managers with understanding the scope of the hydro-social contracts currently operating across cities in order to determine the capacity development and cultural reform initiatives needed to effectively expedite the transition to more sustainable water management and ultimately to Water Sensitive Cities. One of the values of this framework is that it can be used by strategists and policy makers as a heuristic device and/or the basis for a future city state benchmarking tool. From a research perspective it can be an underpinning framework for future work on transitions policy research.

  10. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... 1982, the Bureau of Reclamation developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water...

  11. Development of the Integrated Urban Water Management Tool (WERF Report INFR4SG09c)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The challenges of addressing the needs of aging water and wastewater infrastructure require new management approaches. Benefits including water savings, cost savings, and reduced wastewater production may be realized through the adoption of new integrated water management concep...

  12. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... land use, water quality, geology, biological and cultural resources, human health and safety... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National...

  13. Water Diplomacy: A Synthesis of Science, Policy and Politics for Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, S.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    While efforts to theorize about water systems have been vast, the traditional tools and techniques available to water managers have led to science that is "smart but not wise". Integration of "scientific learning" with "the complex political reality" of real-world water problem-solving remains desirable but an elusive goal. Yet, solutions to most real-world water problems demand such integration. The professionals who attempt to solve water problems cannot easily translate solutions born out of scientific findings into the messy context of the real world, where societal and political aspects are important. The solutions to water problems lie somewhere within these realms of knowledge, and effective solutions require bridging the divide between theory and practice. To bridge this divide and address complex water problems - where natural, societal, and political elements cross multiple boundaries and interact in unbounded, uncertain and nonlinear way - a new approach is needed. This new approach - called Water Diplomacy - is rooted in emerging ideas of complexity theory and multi-party negotiation. The Water Diplomacy Framework (WDF) posits that water resources might be more effectively managed if we focus in a different way on dominant societal and natural elements. In addition, WDF challenges traditional water management paradigm by invoking three key propositions: (a) water is not a fixed but a flexible resource; (b) water networks are open and continuously changing, not bounded and predictable; and (c) disagreements over water rights and the allocation of water need not be framed as zero-sum confrontations that most game theorists presume; instead they can be viewed as problem-solving opportunities in which additional value can be created to meaningfully address interests for all stakeholders.

  14. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  15. Transforming Water Management: an Emerging Promise of Integrated Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Throughout its history, civilization has relied on technology to facilitate many of its advances. New innovations and technologies have often provided strategic advantages that have led to transformations in institutions, economies and ultimately societies. Observational and information technologies are leading to significant developments in the water sector. After a brief introduction tracing the role of observational technologies in the areas of hydrology and water cycle science, this talk explores the existing and potential contributions of remote sensing data in water resource management around the world. In particular, it outlines the steps being undertaken by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and its Water Task to facilitate capacity building efforts in water management using Earth Observations in Asia, Africa and Latin and Caribbean America. Success stories on the benefits of using Earth Observations and applying GEO principles are provided. While GEO and its capacity building efforts are contributing to the transformation of water management through interoperability, data sharing, and capacity building, the full potential of these contributions has not been fully realized because impediments and challenges still remain.

  16. Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction

  17. Value of information for water quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Shortle, James; Horan, Richard D.; Abler, David

    2005-06-01

    There is now much interest in comprehensive watershed-based approaches to water quality protection. While there is much to be said in favor of such an approach, it is also clear that implementation requires information that is often lacking. Given that information acquisition is costly, decisions are required about the types and amounts of information that should be sought. We examine the expected value of different types of information for price and quantity instruments for agricultural nitrogen pollution control in the Susquehanna River Basin. We also compare the ex ante economic efficiency of price and quantity instruments. The analysis explicitly accounts for public sector uncertainty about the benefits and costs of pollution reductions, with economic efficiency measured as the expected benefits less the expected costs of pollution reductions. We find optimized price controls to outperform optimized quantity controls under a range of possible information structures. For both instruments, information collection improves policy performance, with information about the benefits of pollution reductions having the greatest impact. The performance of the quantity instrument is more sensitive to information than is the price instrument. In consequence, the value of information to reduce benefit and cost uncertainty is greater for the quantity control.

  18. Using NASA Products of the Water Cycle for Improved Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Engman, E. T.; Lawford, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Water Resources works within the Earth sciences and GEO community to leverage investments of space-based observation and modeling results including components of the hydrologic cycle into water resources management decision support tools for the goal towards the sustainable use of water. These Earth science hydrologic related observations and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years. Observations of this type enable assessment of numerous water resources management issues including water scarcity, extreme events of drought and floods, and water quality. Examples of water cycle estimates make towards the contributions to the water management community include snow cover and snowpack, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, precipitation, streamflow and ground water. The availability of water is also contingent on the quality of water and hence water quality is an important part of NASA Water Resources. Water quality activities include both nonpoint source (agriculture land use, ecosystem disturbances, impervious surfaces, etc.) and direct remote sensing ( i.e., turbidity, algae, aquatic vegetation, temperature, etc.). . The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes: 1) stream-flow and flood forecasting; 2) water consumptive use and irrigation (includes evapotranspiration); 3) drought; 4) water quality; and 5) climate impacts on water resources. Currently NASA Water Resources is supporting 21 funded projects with 11 additional projects being concluded. To maximize the use of NASA water cycle measurements end to projects are supported with strong links with decision support systems. The NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies NOAA, USDA-FAS, USGS, AFWA, USAID, universities, and non-profit, international, and private sector organizations. International water cycle applications include: 1) Famine Early Warning System Network

  19. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT

  20. [Infections in Senegalese children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia: epidemiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Diagne, I; Soares, G M; Gueye, A; Diagne-Gueye, N R; Fall, L; N'Diaye, O; Camara, B; Diouf, S; Fall, M

    2000-01-01

    Infection is the main factor of morbidity and mortality in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The objective of this study is to determine it's epidemiologic outline in senegalese children and adolescents with SCD. We retrospectively studied infection data in all the charts of a cohort of 323 patients with SCD (307 SS, 13 SC and 3 s beta + thalassemia) followed at Albert Royer children hospital from january 1991 to december 1997. Serum sampling was systematically made for HIV and antigen HBs serology in all patients we received in the last 3 months (october to december 1997). Patients were aged from 5 months to 22 years (medium age = 8 years). 813 infection episodes were diagnosed, concerning 184 patients (56 per cent). SS patients were more affected (59 per cent) than the others (23 per cent, p = 0.04). ENT and broncho-pulmonary onsets were more frequent but had a generally benign course. Menigitidis, septicemia and osteomyelitis were exclusively diagnosed in SS patients. Their prevalences in this group were respectively: 1.0 per cent, 4.9 per cent and 9.8 per cent. HIV serology was determined in 155 patients, including 41 per cent with blood transfusion antecedents. All tests were negative. HBs antigen was determined in 104 patients and seroprevalence was 7.7 per cent in the whole group and 6.0 per cent in patients with transfusion antecedents and 7.7 per cent for the others. Plasmodium falciparum malaria onset was observed in 9.6 per cent of our patients and there was no case of cerebral malaria. Infection was involved in 9 of the 11 cases of death. Then infection constitute the major problem in children and adolescents with SCD in Dakar. However prevalences of severe onsets are comparable to data in Europe despite our poor follow up conditions. Senegal haplotype may lead to a good tolerance of SCD. Negative HIV serology and low HBs antigen seroprevalence in transfused patients are attributed to a relatively low level of HIV prevalence in the general

  1. Senegalese land surface change analysis and biophysical parameter estimation using NOAA AVHRR spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, Fred M.; Toll, David L.; Kennard, Ruth L.

    1989-01-01

    Surface biophysical estimates were derived from analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Spectral Resolution (AVHRR) spectral data of the Senegalese area of west Africa. The parameters derived were of solar albedo, spectral visible and near-infrared band reflectance, spectral vegetative index, and ground temperature. Wet and dry linked AVHRR scenes from 1981 through 1985 in Senegal were analyzed for a semi-wet southerly site near Tambacounda and a predominantly dry northerly site near Podor. Related problems were studied to convert satellite derived radiance to biophysical estimates of the land surface. Problems studied were associated with sensor miscalibration, atmospheric and aerosol spatial variability, surface anisotropy of reflected radiation, narrow satellite band reflectance to broad solar band conversion, and ground emissivity correction. The middle-infrared reflectance was approximated with a visible AVHRR reflectance for improving solar albedo estimates. In addition, the spectral composition of solar irradiance (direct and diffuse radiation) between major spectral regions (i.e., ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and middle-infrared) was found to be insensitive to changes in the clear sky atmospheric optical depth in the narrow band to solar band conversion procedure. Solar albedo derived estimates for both sites were not found to change markedly with significant antecedent precipitation events or correspondingly from increases in green leaf vegetation density. The bright soil/substrate contributed to a high albedo for the dry related scenes, whereas the high internal leaf reflectance in green vegetation canopies in the near-infrared contributed to high solar albedo for the wet related scenes. The relationship between solar albedo and ground temperature was poor, indicating the solar albedo has little control of the ground temperature. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the derived visible reflectance were more sensitive to antecedent

  2. Recycling ground water in Waushara County, Wisconsin : resource management for cold-water fish hatcheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    Other recharge-recycling schemes can also be evaluated. Estimating the recycling efficiency (of recharge ponds, trenches, spreading areas, or irrigated fields) provides a basis for predicting water-level declines, the concentration of conservative ions (conservative in the sense that no reaction other than mixing occurs to change the character of the ion being considered) in the water supply and in the regional ground-water system, and the temperature of the water supply. Hatchery development and management schemes can be chosen to optimize hatchery productivity or minimize operation costs while protecting the ground-water system.

  3. Water demand management in times of drought: What matters for water conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Southern California is subject to long droughts and short wet spells. Its water agencies have put in place voluntary, mandatory, and market-based conservation strategies since the 1980s. By analyzing water agencies' data between 2006 and 2010, this research studies whether rebates for water efficient fixtures, water rates, or water ordinances have been effective, and tests whether structural characteristics of water agencies have affected the policy outcome. It finds that mandates to curb outdoor water uses are correlated with reductions in residential per capita water usage, while water rates and subsidies for water saving devices are not. It also confirms that size is a significant policy implementation factor. In a policy perspective, the transition from a water supply to a water demand management-oriented strategy appears guided by mandates and by contextual factors such as the economic cycle and the weather that occur outside the water governance system. Three factors could improve the conservation effort: using prices as a conservation tool, not only as a cost recovering instrument; investing in water efficient tools only when they provide significant water savings; supporting smaller agencies in order to give them opportunities to implement conservation strategies more effectively or to help them consolidate.

  4. "Upstream Thinking": the catchment management approach of a water provider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand-Clement, E.; Ross, M.; Smith, D.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Le Feuvre, N.; Brazier, R. E.

    2012-04-01

    Human activities have large impacts on water quality and provision. Water companies throughout the UK are faced with the consequences of poor land management and need to find appropriate solutions to decreasing water quality. This is particularly true in the South West of England, where 93% of the drinking water is sourced from rivers and reservoirs: large areas of drained peatlands (i.e. Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks) are responsible for a significant input of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) discolouring the water, whilst poorly managed farming activities can lead to diffuse pollution. Alongside the direct environmental implications, poor water quality is partly increasing water treatment costs and will drive significant future investment in additional water treatment, with further repercussions on customers. This highlights the need for water companies throughout the UK, and further afield, to be more involved in catchment management. "Upstream Thinking" is South West Water's (SWW) approach to catchment management, where working with stakeholders to improve water quality upstream aims to avoid increasingly costly solutions downstream. This approach has led the company to invest in two major areas of work: (1) The Farmland programme where problematic farm management practices and potential solutions are identified, typically 40% of the required investment is then offered in exchange for a legal undertaking to maintain the new farm assets in good condition for 25 years; (2) The Mires programme which involves heavy investment in peatland restoration through the blocking of open ditches in order to improve water storage and quality in the long term. From these two projects, it has been clear that stakeholder involvement of groups such as local farmers, the Westcountry Rivers Trust, the Exmoor National Park Authority, the Environment Agency, Natural England and the Exmoor Society is essential, first because it draws in catchment improvement expertise which is not

  5. Ground-water models as a management tool in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Highly sophisticated computer models provide powerful tools for analyzing historic data and for simulating future water levels, water movement, and water chemistry under stressed conditions throughout the ground-water system in Florida. Models that simulate the movement of heat and subsidence of land in response to aquifer pumping also have potential for application to hydrologic problems in the State. Florida, with 20 ground-water modeling studies reported since 1972, has applied computer modeling techniques to a variety of water-resources problems. Models in Florida generally have been used to provide insight to problems of water supply, contamination, and impact on the environment. The model applications range from site-specific studies, such as estimating contamination by wastewater injection at St. Petersburg, to a regional model of the entire State that may be used to assess broad-scale environmental impact of water-resources development. Recently, groundwater models have been used as management tools by the State regulatory authority to permit or deny development of water resources. As modeling precision, knowledge, and confidence increase, the use of ground-water models will shift more and more toward regulation of development and enforcement of environmental laws. (USGS)

  6. Water Operations Technical Support Program. Water Quality Management for Reservoirs and Tailwaters. Report 1. In-Reservoir Water Quality Management Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Biological Control of Water Hyacinth with the Weevils Neochetina eichhorniae and N. bruchi," Proc., 18th Ann. Mtg., Aquatic Plant Control Research Program...Plant Manage., 22:57-61. Haag, K. H. 1985. "Does Herbicide Application Affect Water Hyacinth Weevils ?" Aquatics, 7:13-15. Haag, K. H. 1986. "Effective... WATER OPERATIONS TECHNICAL SUPPORT PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT E-89-1 IF ILE Wei 0 W 11 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR A-A208’ 942 RESERVOIRS AND

  7. Water resources management in soft drink industry-water use and wastewater generation.

    PubMed

    Ait Hsine, E; Benhammou, A; Pons, M N

    2005-12-01

    Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Processes and systems using water today are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations on effluents and there is growing demand for fresh water. These changes have increased the need for better water management and wastewater minimisation. In Morocco, water use in the food and drink industry is extensive at approximately 24 million m3 per year including 14% of drinking water in 1994. This study was conducted in a carbonate soft drink industry plant, during two years, 2001 and 2002. We have investigated the state of consumption and use of fresh water and the generation of the effluent in the factory. The aim of the study is to identify potential opportunities for reducing fresh water intake and minimising wastewater production by studying the posibility of reuse, recycling and treatment.

  8. Facilitating Collaborative Efforts to Redesign Community Managed Water Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Ben; Edgar, Nick; Robertson, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Taieri River catchment is an arid area in the Otago region of the South Island of New Zealand faced with intensifying agriculture production. This article describes an assessment of the education/communication processes of a water resource management project and the effects on farmer beliefs/attitudes and targeted outcomes. Lessons…

  9. ISSUES OF BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICE DESIGN TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today, many municipalities are implementing low-cost best management practices (BMPs). Structural control BMPs involve building a structure of some kind to store stormwater until it can be discharged into a nearby receiving water. Commonly used structural treatment BMPs include...

  10. Water, weed, and nutrient management practices in organic blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of organic management on plant and soil water and nutrient relations, plant growth, yield, and fruit quality in an organic trailing blackberry production system. Treatments include: cultivar ('Marion' and 'Black Diamond'); irrigation (post-harve...

  11. Water Management and Sediment Control for Urbanizing Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Columbus, OH.

    This handbook, developed for use by the Soil Conservation Service and property owners, land developers, local government agencies, and consulting firms, is designed to provide information on water management and minimizing erosion on land undergoing development in urban areas. The standards and specifications listed in this handbook are to provide…

  12. STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL USER'S MANUAL VERSION 5.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. SWMM was first developed in 1971 and has undergone several major upgrade...

  13. A web-based system for the integrated water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, R.; Passarella, G.; Uricchio, V. F.; Lopez, N.

    2003-04-01

    The success of complexity theory has posed new challenges also in the environmental resources management. From the complexity point of view, in fact, the environment has to be considered as a system with numerous parts interrelated each other by strongly and no-linear feedback relationships. In this perspective, when an action is performed its results become difficult to control. Therefore, to construct and to select the most suitable alternatives for environmental resources management, an holistic approach has to be adopted. In water resources management domain, increasing interest is posed to the integrated management, in which the total system of biotic and a-biotic elements of certain water environment is taken into account. Our contribution moves from the idea that the term integrated has to be referred also to human agents which take decisions influencing the water environment. In other words, Integrated Water Management (IWM) considers how different action affect, and can reinforce, each other and it promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources. The IWM stresses the interrelationships among the actions at different types, working at different levels of influence, coordinating stakeholders' actions. The coordination requires an appropriate information level about the strategies used by each stakeholder. To improve the information flow inside a watershed and therefore the coordination among agents, a web-based system is proposed. It could be defined as an electronic agora where a set of stakeholders can be involved both in information exchange and in conflicts resolution. More in detail, to improve the coordination process, the proposed system allows the stakeholders to find someone with similar or conflicting interests to collaborate with; to make contact with selected people; to build a common understanding (that is the identification of a common goal, the negotiation about the way this goal should be reached); to

  14. Modelling raw water quality: development of a drinking water management tool.

    PubMed

    Kübeck, Ch; van Berk, W; Bergmann, A

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring future drinking water supply requires a tough management of groundwater resources. However, recent practices of economic resource control often does not involve aspects of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical groundwater system. In respect of analysing the available quantity and quality of future raw water, an effective resource management requires a full understanding of the hydrogeochemical and geohydraulical processes within the aquifer. For example, the knowledge of raw water quality development within the time helps to work out strategies of water treatment as well as planning finance resources. On the other hand, the effectiveness of planed measurements reducing the infiltration of harmful substances such as nitrate can be checked and optimized by using hydrogeochemical modelling. Thus, within the framework of the InnoNet program funded by Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, a network of research institutes and water suppliers work in close cooperation developing a planning and management tool particularly oriented on water management problems. The tool involves an innovative material flux model that calculates the hydrogeochemical processes under consideration of the dynamics in agricultural land use. The program integrated graphical data evaluation is aligned on the needs of water suppliers.

  15. 33 CFR 151.2035 - What are the required ballast water management practices for my vessel?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... water management practices for my vessel? 151.2035 Section 151.2035 Navigation and Navigable Waters... SUBSTANCES, GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2035 What are the required ballast water...

  16. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  17. Water-poverty relationships in the coastal town of Mbour (Senegal): Relevance of GIS for decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toure, Néné Makoya; Kane, Alioune; Noel, Jean François; Turmine, Vincent; Nedeff, Valentin; Lazar, Gabriel

    2012-02-01

    Coastal area is always a zone with complex problems. Due to the attraction they exert, are facing many social problems. Therefore, a coastal city is usually a city with problems. Its extension, caused by the influx of people from different backgrounds, creates an increased demand for services. One of the problems frequently encountered, especially in Senegal, is access to water. The problem of access to water is poorly treated, without being correlated with the urban evolution, i.e. with increasing population and demand growth. The water resource is facing numerous complications such as the lack of integrated management, integration issues at the governance level, where the local factor is often forgotten. The town of Mbour, object of our study, does not come out of that lot, being an attractive coastal city, from an African country. This indicates the need for an integrated management oriented from local to a global basis and not vice versa. The study presented in this paper indicates that a large proportion of the population has not access to a verified drinking water system and uses water from wells or standpipes. Half of the surveyed population (50%) has no access to a water supply system. The water poverty map of the town overlaps with that of the general poverty excepting few neighborhoods. This means that even areas that are not affected by poverty have a very low or poor access to water, which so far remains the perverse effect of the reform of the Senegalese water sector in 1995.

  18. Environmental equity as a criterion for water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, M.; Galvão, C.; Miranda, L.; Rufino, I.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental equity is a concept derived from the (un)equal exposure to environmental degradation by different social groups, usually minorities and low-income people exposed to major environmental risks, also known as environmental justice. It is assumed that no group of people, independent of race, ethnicity or socio-economic class, should support, either in concentrated or unevenly distributed form, the negative environmental impacts resulting from industrial, agricultural, commercial and infrastructure activities or government programs and policies. In this paper the concept of environmental equity is explored as a criterion for water management through the analysis of a typical coupled human-natural system: the Epitácio Pessoa Reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of Brazil. Inefficient water resource management has caused unequal access to water by the population, particularly during drought periods. However, census data indicate that population have practically the same access to water, which actually is not able to reflect the actual picture. This study argues that environmental equity can be an additional criterion to improve water management.

  19. High-performance cyberinfrastructure for water resource planning and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N.; Ogden, F. L.; Nelson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water resource managers face increasingly difficult challenges as population growth leads to unprecedented demands on our finite supply of fresh water. Resolving water disputes and planning for growth demand increasingly sophisticated simulation tools involving complex spatial data and high-performance models and hardware. In additional to technological complexity, the range of input from social, environmental, and political decision makers required to make appropriate decisions has widened. Unfortunately, running such models is often beyond the capability of water managers and other stakeholders and/or is cost prohibitive to be used on a routine basis. In this presentation, we present a new NSF EPSCoR-funded project featuring four universities from Utah and Wyoming. One of the objectives of this project is the development of cyberinfrastructure for community-based modeling tools hosted on the Cloud and accessed via web-based interfaces. A primary hurdle in developing such tools is that each model is unique and involves a different set of inputs, outputs, and criteria for analysis. Therefore, coding a custom web-application from scratch for each Cloud-based modeling application is not feasible. To address this issue, we are developing a library of low-level GIS-based geoprocessing tools which can be configured via a simple scripting language to build custom workflows involving complex spatial data and high-resolution numerical models. We are also developing a suite of tools for hosting such workflows via a simple, yet powerful web-interface. This library will provide a template for delivering powerful modeling tools and access to spatial information to the hands of the managers and decision makers involved in water resources. We demonstrate this strategy using a web-based simulation environment built for the State of Utah Department of Water Rights. This tool is used to simulate the impact of proposed wells on existing water rights, including water table drawdown

  20. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  1. Water quality management of rooftop rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2009-10-01

    The ancient technique of harvesting rainwater falling on rooftops, which had been forgotten after the advent of large-scale centralized water resource systems like dam-based reservoirs, has staged a global comeback in the post-modern era. It is expected that in the near future all dwellings everywhere will be equipped to harvest and use rainwater. Such widespread use of rooftop rainwater harvesting makes it very important that the water quality aspects associated with it are clearly understood and managed. The present paper addresses the related issues. The pathways by which pollutants can enter in a rainwater harvest have been traced and the strategies to manage the water quality, at pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stages, have been discussed.

  2. Planning and management of water resource programs. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning planning and management of water resource programs and projects at the local, regional, state, and national levels. The studies of water quality, drinking water, industrial water, and irrigation are presented. Topics include groundwater and surface water management, flood control, waste water treatment, hydroelectric power generation, sanitation and toxic hazards, models and risk assessment, and remote sensing technology. Worldwide water management is covered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Setting the Course for Clean Water: A Citizen's Guide to the Section 208 Water Quality Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Diane L.; Albright, Catherine

    This is a citizen's guide to the section 208 water quality management program. Section 208 refers to that section of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (the Clean Water Act) which calls for public participation in water quality management planning. Included in this guide are chapters on controlling pollution through the Clean Water…

  4. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges.

    PubMed

    Omar, Mohie El Din M; Moussa, Ahmed M A

    2016-05-01

    The current water shortage in Egypt is 13.5 Billion cubic meter per year (BCM/yr) and is expected to continuously increase. Currently, this water shortage is compensated by drainage reuse which consequently deteriorates the water quality. Therefore, this research was commenced with the objective of assessing different scenarios for 2025 using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model and by implementing different water sufficiency measures. Field data were assembled and analyzed, and different planning alternatives were proposed and tested in order to design three future scenarios. The findings indicated that water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM/yr in case of continuation of current policies. Planning alternatives were proposed to the irrigation canals, land irrigation timing, aquatic weeds in waterways and sugarcane areas in old agricultural lands. Other measures were suggested to pumping rates of deep groundwater, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in new agricultural lands. Further measures were also suggested to automatic daily surveying for distribution leak and managing the pressure effectively in the domestic and industrial water distribution systems. Finally, extra measures for water supply were proposed including raising the permitted withdrawal limit from deep groundwater and the Nubian aquifer and developing the desalination resource. The proposed planning alternatives would completely eliminate the water shortage in 2025.

  5. Water management in Egypt for facing the future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohie El Din M.; Moussa, Ahmed M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The current water shortage in Egypt is 13.5 Billion cubic meter per year (BCM/yr) and is expected to continuously increase. Currently, this water shortage is compensated by drainage reuse which consequently deteriorates the water quality. Therefore, this research was commenced with the objective of assessing different scenarios for 2025 using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model and by implementing different water sufficiency measures. Field data were assembled and analyzed, and different planning alternatives were proposed and tested in order to design three future scenarios. The findings indicated that water shortage in 2025 would be 26 BCM/yr in case of continuation of current policies. Planning alternatives were proposed to the irrigation canals, land irrigation timing, aquatic weeds in waterways and sugarcane areas in old agricultural lands. Other measures were suggested to pumping rates of deep groundwater, sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in new agricultural lands. Further measures were also suggested to automatic daily surveying for distribution leak and managing the pressure effectively in the domestic and industrial water distribution systems. Finally, extra measures for water supply were proposed including raising the permitted withdrawal limit from deep groundwater and the Nubian aquifer and developing the desalination resource. The proposed planning alternatives would completely eliminate the water shortage in 2025. PMID:27222745

  6. Impact of poor solid waste management on ground water.

    PubMed

    Vasanthi, P; Kaliappan, S; Srinivasaraghavan, R

    2008-08-01

    The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. The impact of such sites upon ground water can be judged by monitoring the concentration of potential contaminants at a number of specific monitoring points. In this study, the quality of ground water around a municipal solid waste disposal site in Chennai was investigated. Chemical analyses were carried out on water samples collected at various radial distances from the boundary of the dumping yard, at intervals of 3 months and for a period of 3 years. The study has revealed that the ground water quality does not conform to the drinking water quality standards as per Bureau of Indian Standards. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, chemical oxygen demand, nitrates and sulphates. Leachate collected from the site showed presence of heavy metals. The contaminant concentrations tend to decrease, during the post monsoon season and increase, during the pre monsoon season in most of the samples. The study clearly indicates that landfills in densely populated cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the landfill sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped.

  7. Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and Environmental Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Winter, Thomas C.; LaBaugh, James W.; Franke, O. Lehn

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Water budgets provide a means for evaluating availability and sustainability of a water supply. A water budget simply states that the rate of change in water stored in an area, such as a watershed, is balanced by the rate at which water flows into and out of the area. An understanding of water budgets and underlying hydrologic processes provides a foundation for effective water-resource and environmental planning and management. Observed changes in water budgets of an area over time can be used to assess the effects of climate variability and human activities on water resources. Comparison of water budgets from different areas allows the effects of factors such as geology, soils, vegetation, and land use on the hydrologic cycle to be quantified. Human activities affect the natural hydrologic cycle in many ways. Modifications of the land to accommodate agriculture, such as installation of drainage and irrigation systems, alter infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and plant transpiration rates. Buildings, roads, and parking lots in urban areas tend to increase runoff and decrease infiltration. Dams reduce flooding in many areas. Water budgets provide a basis for assessing how a natural or human-induced change in one part of the hydrologic cycle may affect other aspects of the cycle. This report provides an overview and qualitative description of water budgets as foundations for effective water-resources and environmental management of freshwater hydrologic systems. Perhaps of most interest to the hydrologic community, the concepts presented are also relevant to the fields of agriculture, atmospheric studies, meteorology, climatology, ecology, limnology, mining, water supply, flood control, reservoir management, wetland studies, pollution control, and other areas of science, society, and industry. The first part of the report describes water storage and movement in the atmosphere, on land surface, and in the subsurface, as well as water exchange among these

  8. Risk-based principles for defining and managing water security

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jim; Borgomeo, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    The concept of water security implies concern about potentially harmful states of coupled human and natural water systems. Those harmful states may be associated with water scarcity (for humans and/or the environment), floods or harmful water quality. The theories and practices of risk analysis and risk management have been developed and elaborated to deal with the uncertain occurrence of harmful events. Yet despite their widespread application in public policy, theories and practices of risk management have well-known limitations, particularly in the context of severe uncertainties and contested values. Here, we seek to explore the boundaries of applicability of risk-based principles as a means of formalizing discussion of water security. Not only do risk concepts have normative appeal, but they also provide an explicit means of addressing the variability that is intrinsic to hydrological, ecological and socio-economic systems. We illustrate the nature of these interconnections with a simulation study, which demonstrates how water resources planning could take more explicit account of epistemic uncertainties, tolerability of risk and the trade-offs in risk among different actors. PMID:24080616

  9. In vivo study of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus coexistence in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, C; Alonso, M C; Dopazo, C P; Bandín, I

    2016-12-29

    The effect of IPNV-VHSV coinfection and superinfection on the mortality caused by both viruses in Senegalese sole has been analysed. No effect was observed after coinfection. However, a clear viral interference was recorded between a primary IPNV and a subsequent VHSV infection, which led to a survival increase in the infected sole of 50% points when compared with fish infected only with VHSV. The significantly higher Mx transcriptional values in the fish pre-exposed to IPNV (at least at first days after superinfection) and the increased daily mortality when low Mx transcriptional levels were recorded suggest that Mx may be involved in the protective effect against VHSV infection. However, in fish subjected to VHSV primary/IPNV secondary infection, no interference was observed.

  10. Knowledge Assessment on Sustainable Water Resources Management for Irrigation - KASWARMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardowicks, K.; Billib, M.; Holzapfel, E.; Lorite, I.; Farkas, I.; Fernández Cirelli, A.; Del Callejo, I.; Paz, V.; Montaña, E.; Gheyi, H.

    2009-04-01

    The EU funded KASWARMI project was performed from March 2007 until August 2008 by focusing on society key issues to contribute to a better use and management of the water resources in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. In that way, the project has aimed to deliver fundamentals for future research activities to improve the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Latin America. The world's food production depends on the availability of water, a precious but limited resource. Irrigated agriculture is responsible for approximately 70 percent of all the freshwater withdrawn in the world and more water will be used for irrigation in the future, as world food production continuously increases in order to meet rising demand. The challenge for irrigated agriculture today is to contribute to the world's food production and improvement of food security through a more efficient, cleaner and integrated use of water (FAO). The main objective of KASWARMI was to build up a comprehensive knowledge base, including the evaluation of current state of the art, assembling international experience in an interdisciplinary scientific network on sustainable water resources management for irrigation. In six selected irrigated areas in Latin America a basic analysis of the major socio-economical, environmental, institutional and agrotechnical aspects was carried out. The approach of KASWARMI was to learn from the past and ongoing research activities to identify gaps and the scope for the collaboration of potential stakeholders (farmers, researchers, other water users, policy makers). The direct communication between the researchers and the stakeholders in the field study areas was used to identify their main needs, finding strategies for future activities to solve open questions of sustainable water resources management for irrigation in Latin America. More information is available at site www.kaswarmi.eu.

  11. 40 CFR 35.925-2 - Water quality management plans and agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans and... Water Act § 35.925-2 Water quality management plans and agencies. That the project is consistent with any applicable water quality management (WQM) plan approved under section 208 or section 303(e) of...

  12. 40 CFR 35.925-2 - Water quality management plans and agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management plans and... Water Act § 35.925-2 Water quality management plans and agencies. That the project is consistent with any applicable water quality management (WQM) plan approved under section 208 or section 303(e) of...

  13. 40 CFR 35.925-2 - Water quality management plans and agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans and... Water Act § 35.925-2 Water quality management plans and agencies. That the project is consistent with any applicable water quality management (WQM) plan approved under section 208 or section 303(e) of...

  14. 40 CFR 35.925-2 - Water quality management plans and agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans and... Water Act § 35.925-2 Water quality management plans and agencies. That the project is consistent with any applicable water quality management (WQM) plan approved under section 208 or section 303(e) of...

  15. 40 CFR 35.925-2 - Water quality management plans and agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans and... Water Act § 35.925-2 Water quality management plans and agencies. That the project is consistent with any applicable water quality management (WQM) plan approved under section 208 or section 303(e) of...

  16. Three years of crop yields using drainage water management at eight sites in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drainage water management (NRCS-Practice Code 554) is an important water management practice for dealing with nitrate-loading across the Midwest US. A multi-year study is being conducted in Ohio to evaluate the effects of drainage water management on crop yield and water quality. We have installed w...

  17. The Role of Women in Water Management and Conflict Resolution in Marsabit, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerian, Sarah; Hennink, Monique; Greene, Leslie E.; Kiptugen, Daniel; Buri, Jared; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-12-01

    We employed qualitative methods to explore how conflict over water collection and use impacts women, and the role that women play in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya. Conflicts between domestic and livestock water led to insufficient water for domestic use and intra-household conflict. Women's contributions to water management were valued, especially through informal initiatives, though involvement in statutory water management committees was not culturally appropriate. Promoting culturally appropriate ways to involve women in water management, rather than merely increasing the percentage of women on water committee, may reduce conflicts and increase women's access to domestic water supplies.

  18. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  19. Eye development and retinal differentiation in an altricial fish species, the senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858).

    PubMed

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; DeGrip, Willem J; Oyola-Velasco, José Antonio; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2010-11-15

    We describe the major events in the retinogenesis in an altricial fish species, the Senegalese sole. The major developmental events in the sole retina occurred early after hatching (posthatching day 0, P0). Thus, (1) plexiform layers became recognizable at P1. (2) Proliferative activity disappeared from the central retina at P1, and, as development progressed, became restricted to cells located in the circumferential germinal zone, and to sparse cells dispersed throughout the inner nuclear layer and the outer nuclear layer. (3) Apoptotic cells were sparsely observed, randomly localized in all three nuclear layers of the early posthatching retina from P0 to P4. (4) The first synaptic vesicles were detected at P0 in early postmitotic ganglion cells. However, their appearance in the plexiform layers was delayed until P2. (5) The neurochemical development of most major retinal cell classes occurred between P0 and P5. Thus, although Isl1 immunoreactive ganglion cells were the first to become postmitotic in the vitreal surface of the central retina at P0, the first glutamine synthetase-expressing Müller cells appeared in the central retina by P5. The onset of expression for other retinal markers, such as rod opsin, calretinin, parvalbumin, a-tyrosine hydroxylase, and a-protein kinase C, occurred between P2 and P4. Our results suggest that the most relevant processes involved in Senegalese sole retinogenesis occur during the prolarval and early larval stages (P0–P5). Furthermore, we conclude that altricial fish species may constitute a convenient model organism to address the relationship between the structural and functional development of sensory organs with the acquisition of behavioral repertoires.

  20. Treatment of GnRHa-implanted Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) with 11-ketoandrostenedione stimulates spermatogenesis and increases sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Agulleiro, Maria J; Scott, Alexander P; Duncan, Neil; Mylonas, Constantinos C; Cerdà, Joan

    2007-08-01

    The effect of 11-ketoandrostenedione (OA) on plasma concentrations of sexual steroids and spermatogenesis of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) implanted with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) was investigated. Males were treated with saline (control) or with GnRHa implants (50 mug kg(-1)) in the presence or absence of OA (2 or 7 mg kg(-1)) during twenty eight days. Treatment with GnRHa alone slightly stimulated spermatogenesis and milt production with respect to controls, and this was associated with a transient elevation of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) at day seven and an increase of 5beta-reduced metabolite(s) of 17,20beta-dihydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one (17,20betaP) at day twenty eight. However, treatment with GnRHa+OA increased plasma concentrations of 11-KT and free+sulphated 5beta-reduced metabolites of 17,20betaP at days seven, fourteen and twenty one. After twenty eight days, the testis of GnRHa+OA-treated fish showed a lower number of spermatogonia B and spermatocytes I, and a higher number of spermatids, than fish treated with GnRHa alone. In addition, the motility of spermatozoa produced by GnRHa+OA males was enhanced by 2-fold with respect to controls or GnRHa males. These results suggest that treatment of Senegalese sole with GnRHa+OA stimulates spermatogenesis resulting in more motile sperm. Such effects could be mediated by an increased synthesis of 11-KT and/or 17,20betaP in the testis but further studies will be required to elucidate the specific mechanism involved.

  1. Evaluating stakeholder participation in water management: intermediary outcomes as potential indicators for future resource management outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Gemma; Bloeschl, Guenter; Loucks, Daniel Pete

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of participation programmes, projects and activities is essential to identify whether stakeholder involvement has been successful in achieving its aims. Aims may include an improvement in water resource management such as enhanced ecological functioning, an improvement in human wellbeing and economic conditions, or overcoming a conflict between interest groups. Evaluating against "interest-based" resource management criteria requires that a desirable outcome can be identified, agreed upon and be measured at the time of evaluation. In many water management situations where collaborative approaches are applied, multiple interests and objectives are present, or stakeholders have not yet identified their own positions and priorities. Even if a resource management objective has been identified and strategy agreed upon, resource management changes tend to emerge over longer timescales and evaluation frequently takes place before they can be recognised. Evaluating against resource management criteria may lead evaluators to conclude that a programme has failed because it has not achieved a resource management objective at the time of evaluation. This presents a critical challenge to researchers assessing the effectiveness of stakeholder participation programmes. One strategy to overcome this is to conduct "goal-free" evaluation to identify what the programme is actually achieving. An evaluation framework that includes intermediary outcomes that are both tangible achievements such as innovation, creation of new organisations, and shared information and knowledge, as well as intangible achievements such as trust and network development can be applied to more broadly assess a programme's success. Analysis of case-studies in the published literature for which a resource management outcome has been achieved shows that intermediary outcomes frequently precede resource management outcomes. They seem to emerge over shorter timescales than resource management outcomes

  2. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  3. Coupling Radar Rainfall to Hydrological Models for Water Abstraction Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Shucksmith, James; Smith, Andrea; MacDonald, Ken

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change and growing water use are likely to put considerable pressure on water resources and the environment. In the UK, a reform to surface water abstraction policy has recently been proposed which aims to increase the efficiency of using available water resources whilst minimising impacts on the aquatic environment. Key aspects to this reform include the consideration of dynamic rather than static abstraction licensing as well as introducing water trading concepts. Dynamic licensing will permit varying levels of abstraction dependent on environmental conditions (i.e. river flow and quality). The practical implementation of an effective dynamic abstraction strategy requires suitable flow forecasting techniques to inform abstraction asset management. Potentially the predicted availability of water resources within a catchment can be coupled to predicted demand and current storage to inform a cost effective water resource management strategy which minimises environmental impacts. The aim of this work is to use a historical analysis of UK case study catchment to compare potential water resource availability using modelled dynamic abstraction scenario informed by a flow forecasting model, against observed abstraction under a conventional abstraction regime. The work also demonstrates the impacts of modelling uncertainties on the accuracy of predicted water availability over range of forecast lead times. The study utilised a conceptual rainfall-runoff model PDM - Probability-Distributed Model developed by Centre for Ecology & Hydrology - set up in the Dove River catchment (UK) using 1km2 resolution radar rainfall as inputs and 15 min resolution gauged flow data for calibration and validation. Data assimilation procedures are implemented to improve flow predictions using observed flow data. Uncertainties in the radar rainfall data used in the model are quantified using artificial statistical error model described by Gaussian distribution and

  4. Adapting to a changing world: Implications for water management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loucks, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Everyone is aware that the world is changing, and that many of these changes will impact our water resource supplies and how they are used and managed. It's always a challenge to try to predict the future, especially the very uncertain distant future. But one thing is certain, the future environment our descendants will experience will differ from the economic, social, technological and natural conditions we experience today. Some aspects of the changes that are happening may not be under human control, but many are. And to the extent they are, we can influence that future. In this paper I attempt to speculate about a future some 40 to 50 years from now, and how water will need to be managed then. My goal is to motivate some thinking and discussion about how we as water managers can influence and prepare ourselves (or our successors) for that future. It will require collaboration among multiple disciplines to determine how best we as a profession can help society adapt to these changes, and this in turn will require all of us to learn how to work together more effectively than we do now. This theme fits in with the current interest in sustainability, for no matter how it is defined, sustainability makes us think about the long-term future. How do we develop and manage our natural and cultural resources in ways that benefit both us and future generations of people living on this earth? What will their needs and goals be? We don't know and that is the major challenge in deciding what decisions we might make today on their behalf. Here I attempt to identify the challenges and issues water managers could be addressing some 40 to 50 years from now, and what we in each of our disciplines, and together, can begin to do now to address them.

  5. Modeling as a tool for management of saline soils and irrigation waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal management of saline soils and irrigation waters requires consideration of many interrelated factors including, climate, water applications and timing, water flow, plant water uptake, soil chemical reactions, plant response to salinity and solution composition, soil hydraulic properties and ...

  6. Utilising integrated urban water management to assess the viability of decentralised water solutions.

    PubMed

    Burn, Stewart; Maheepala, Shiroma; Sharma, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Cities worldwide are challenged by a number of urban water issues associated with climate change, population growth and the associated water scarcity, wastewater flows and stormwater run-off. To address these problems decentralised solutions are increasingly being considered by water authorities, and integrated urban water management (IUWM) has emerged as a potential solution to most of these urban water challenges, and as the key to providing solutions incorporating decentralised concepts at a city wide scale. To incorporate decentralised options, there is a need to understand their performance and their impact on a city's total water cycle under alternative water and land management options. This includes changes to flow, nutrient and sediment regimes, energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and the impacts on rivers, aquifers and estuaries. Application of the IUWM approach to large cities demands revisiting the fundamental role of water system design in sustainable city development. This paper uses the extended urban metabolism model (EUMM) to expand a logical definition for the aims of IUWM, and discusses the role of decentralised systems in IUWM and how IUWM principles can be incorporated into urban water planning.

  7. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  8. Energy and water quality management systems for water utility's operations: a review.

    PubMed

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Bros, Christopher M; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-04-15

    Holistic management of water and energy resources is critical for water utilities facing increasing energy prices, water supply shortage and stringent regulatory requirements. In the early 1990s, the concept of an integrated Energy and Water Quality Management System (EWQMS) was developed as an operational optimization framework for solving water quality, water supply and energy management problems simultaneously. Approximately twenty water utilities have implemented an EWQMS by interfacing commercial or in-house software optimization programs with existing control systems. For utilities with an installed EWQMS, operating cost savings of 8-15% have been reported due to higher use of cheaper tariff periods and better operating efficiencies, resulting in the reduction in energy consumption of ∼6-9%. This review provides the current state-of-knowledge on EWQMS typical structural features and operational strategies and benefits and drawbacks are analyzed. The review also highlights the challenges encountered during installation and implementation of EWQMS and identifies the knowledge gaps that should motivate new research efforts.

  9. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  10. Research to Develop Science to Support Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D.

    2002-05-01

    Fresh water is essential to public health, economic prosperity, and the natural environment. People become afraid when they see threats to water supplies, salinized fields, and stressed habitats. While total water use in the United States is expected to stabilize into the new century, urbanization and industrialization concentrate demands in local areas, reduce our ability to rotate water supplies among users, discharge new wastes, add more stringent water quality requirements, cause a shift from consumptive use to large return flows, and make reliability more important. Water managers received many suggestions and are challenged by the need to respond to political mandates while continuing to provide adequate water on a sustained basis. The development of new tools is hindered because different disciplines address common problems with different approaches. Innovative scientists must work with daring administrators during an inter-generational shift in planning and research personnel. Consensus will be built by problem-solving teams rather than by promoting dams, zoning laws, or stricter environmental standards. One proposal is the "tops down" approach of creating a Water Research Board to coordinate government research. Another is to establish a Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI) as a "bottoms up" movement to build water research infrastructure. By joining the two approaches, the total community can be realistic in presenting a strategy that accounts for water needs, scientific understanding, and available manpower. In order to build research infrastructure, CUAHSI has held workshops that identified needs for new measurement technology to capture new information to use to make new discoveries, natural laboratories in which that technology would be deployed to "measure watersheds" holistically over time, and information technology that can distribute observations to dispersed users in near real time. Such infrastructure

  11. Holistic irrigation water management approach based on stochastic soil water dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Appreciating the essential gap between fundamental unsaturated zone transport processes and soil and water management due to low effectiveness of some of monitoring and modeling approaches, this study presents a mathematical programming model for irrigation management optimization based on stochastic soil water dynamics. The model is a nonlinear non-convex program with an economic objective function to address water productivity and profitability aspects in irrigation management through optimizing irrigation policy. Utilizing an optimization-simulation method, the model includes an eco-hydrological integrated simulation model consisting of an explicit stochastic module of soil moisture dynamics in the crop-root zone with shallow water table effects, a conceptual root-zone salt balance module, and the FAO crop yield module. Interdependent hydrology of soil unsaturated and saturated zones is treated in a semi-analytical approach in two steps. At first step analytical expressions are derived for the expected values of crop yield, total water requirement and soil water balance components assuming fixed level for shallow water table, while numerical Newton-Raphson procedure is employed at the second step to modify value of shallow water table level. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, combined with the eco-hydrological simulation model, has been used to solve the non-convex program. Benefiting from semi-analytical framework of the simulation model, the optimization-simulation method with significantly better computational performance compared to a numerical Mote-Carlo simulation-based technique has led to an effective irrigation management tool that can contribute to bridging the gap between vadose zone theory and water management practice. In addition to precisely assessing the most influential processes at a growing season time scale, one can use the developed model in large scale systems such as irrigation districts and agricultural catchments. Accordingly

  12. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  13. The uncertainty effects of design flow on water quality management.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Feng; Ma, Hwong-Wen

    2008-09-01

    In water quality management, pollution control strategies have been sought to accord with the assimilative capacity of water bodies so as to preserve water quality. The waste load allocation (WLA) is a useful approach to determine the allowable loading of pollution sources in water quality management. For any WLA, a particular water body condition is needed as a basic scenario under which the relevant parameters are fixed. The particular flow rate is known as design flow and usually set at low flow in order to be protective. The design flow is traditionally a particular deterministic value, such as Q (75), implying that it is expected that the probability of water quality violation is 25% in the long run. However, this long-term expectation might not be realized in individual years due to variability of natural flow. The flow variability will make a WLA plan overoptimistic or over-conservative in different years, suggesting that the deterministic design flow without uncertainty consideration might lead to an ineffective or inefficient decision-making. To address the problem, we explicate the relationship between flow variability, design flow and water quality with different flow distributions to facilitate the understanding of the process of a WLA. In order to manifest the uncertainty effects of design flow, the results from the annual flow duration curve (AFDC) is compared with the conventional flow duration curve (FDC). The AFDC approach is capable of obtaining the uncertainty level of the design flow by generating the confidence interval rather than a fixed value. The effect of different record lengths on design flow determination is estimated as well. Finally, a refined WLA process is proposed with a re-examination of water quality violation to improve the allocation decision under uncertainty. TaHan River Basin in northern Taiwan is used as a case study.

  14. The nexus between integrated natural resources management and integrated water resources management in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomlow, Stephen; Love, David; Walker, Sue

    The low productivity of smallholder farming systems and enterprises in the drier areas of the developing world can be attributed mainly to the limited resources of farming households and the application of inappropriate skills and practices that can lead to the degradation of the natural resource base. This lack of development, particularly in southern Africa, is of growing concern from both an agricultural and environmental perspective. To address this lack of progress, two development paradigms that improve land and water productivity have evolved, somewhat independently, from different scientific constituencies. One championed by the International Agricultural Research constituency is Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM), whilst the second championed predominantly by Environmental and Civil Engineering constituencies is Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). As a result of similar objectives of working towards the millennium development goals of improved food security and environmental sustainability, there exists a nexus between the constituencies of the two paradigms, particularly in terms of appreciating the lessons learned. In this paper lessons are drawn from past INRM research that may have particular relevance to IWRM scientists as they re-direct their focus from blue water issues to green water issues, and vice-versa. Case studies are drawn from the management of water quality for irrigation, green water productivity and a convergence of INRM and IWRM in the management of gold panning in southern Zimbabwe. One point that is abundantly clear from both constituencies is that ‘one-size-fits-all’ or silver bullet solutions that are generally applicable for the enhancement of blue water management/formal irrigation simply do not exist for the smallholder rainfed systems.

  15. Managing water resources for sustainable development: the case of integrated river basin management in China.

    PubMed

    Song, X; Ravesteijn, W; Frostell, B; Wennersten, R

    2010-01-01

    The emerging water crisis in China shows that the current institutional frameworks and policies with regard to water resources management are incapable of achieving an effective and satisfactory situation that includes Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM). This paper analyses this framework and related policies, examines their deficiencies in relation to all water stress problems and explores alternatives focusing on river basins. Water resources management reforms in modern China are reviewed and the main problems involved in transforming the current river management system into an IRBM-based system are analysed. The Huai River basin is used as an example of current river basin management, with quantitative data serving to show the scale and scope of the problems in the country as a whole. The institutional reforms required are discussed and a conceptual institutional framework is proposed to facilitate the implementation of IRBM in China. In particular, the roles, power and responsibilities of River Basin Commissions (RBCs) should be legally strengthened; the functions of supervising, decision-making and execution should be separated; and cross-sectoral legislation, institutional coordination and public participation at all levels should be promoted.

  16. Boundary work for implementing adaptive management: A water sector application.

    PubMed

    Adem Esmail, Blal; Geneletti, Davide; Albert, Christian

    2017-03-24

    Boundary work, defined as effort to mediate between knowledge and action, is a promising approach for facilitating knowledge co-production for sustainable development. Here, we investigate a case study of knowledge co-production, to assess the applicability of boundary work as a conceptual framework to support implementing adaptive management in the water sector. We refer to a boundary work classification recently proposed by Clark et al., (2016), based on three types of knowledge uses, i.e. enlightenment, decision-, and negotiation-support, and three types of sources, i.e. personal expertise, single, and multiple communities of expertise. Our empirical results confirm boundary work has been crucial for the three types of knowledge use. For enlightenment and decision-support, effective interaction among knowledge producers and users was achieved through diverse boundary work practices, including joint agenda setting, and sharing of data and expertise. This initial boundary work eased subsequent knowledge co-production for decision-support and negotiations, in combination with stepping up of cooperation between relevant actors, suitable legislation and pressure for problem solving. Our analysis highlighted the temporal dimension matters - building trust around enlightenment first, and then using this as a basis for managing knowledge co-production for decision-, and negotiation support. We reconfirmed that boundary work is not a single time achievement, rather is a dynamic process, and we emphasized the importance of key actors driving the process, such as water utilities. Our results provide a rich case study of how strategic boundary work can facilitate knowledge co-production for adaptive management in the water sector. The boundary work practices employed here could also be transferred to other cases. Water utilities, as intermediaries between providers and beneficiaries of the important water-related ecosystem service of clean water provision, can indeed serve

  17. Application of a risk management system to improve drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Asoka

    2008-12-01

    The use of a comprehensive risk management framework is considered a very effective means of managing water quality risks. There are many risk-based systems available to water utilities such as ISO 9001 and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). In 2004, the World Health Organization's (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality recommended the use of preventive risk management approaches to manage water quality risks. This paper describes the framework adopted by Yarra Valley Water for the development of its Drinking Water Quality Risk Management Plan incorporating HACCP and ISO 9001 systems and demonstrates benefits of Water Safety Plans such as HACCP.

  18. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

    Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

  19. Challenges of communicating integrated water resource management in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimbe, Simbiso; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    With the promulgation of the 1998 Water Act the Government of Zimbabwe took a decisive step to reform the country’s water sector, to bring it in line with contemporary socio-political realities obtaining in the country, and in tune with the philosophy of integrated water resources management. Researchers have reported a lack of awareness of the reforms, particularly among the black communities, who were considered not just as one of the target of the reforms, but the beneficiaries. This paper analyses why this has been the case. The paper makes a case for differentiating communication from information dissemination. Information refers to a set of data packaged for delivery to a receiver while communication involves a dialogue. This paper critiques communication strategies used to communicate water reforms in Zimbabwe, applying recent developments in communication theories. The argument in the paper is that there was a failure to communicate although there was some success in dissemination information about the reforms. If the situation is to be reversed then methods that involve audience analysis may have to be used. Such methods tend to be expensive and time consuming--however, there is no substitute to this if integrated water resources management is to be institutionalised among the various stakeholders.

  20. Real-Time Water Quality Management in the Grassland Water District

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanna, W. Mark; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josphine R.; Taylor, Christophe M.; Marciochi, Don; Lower, Scott; Woodruff, Veronica; Wright, Diane; Poole, Tim

    2004-12-10

    The purpose of the research project was to advance the concept of real-time water quality management in the San Joaquin Basin by developing an application to drainage of seasonal wetlands in the Grassland Water District. Real-time water quality management is defined as the coordination of reservoir releases, return flows and river diversions to improve water quality conditions in the San Joaquin River and ensure compliance with State water quality objectives. Real-time water quality management is achieved through information exchange and cooperation between shakeholders who contribute or withdraw flow and salt load to or from the San Joaquin River. This project complements a larger scale project that was undertaken by members of the Water Quality Subcommittee of the San Joaquin River Management Program (SJRMP) and which produced forecasts of flow, salt load and San Joaquin River assimilative capacity between 1999 and 2003. These forecasts can help those entities exporting salt load to the River to develop salt load targets as a mechanism for improving compliance with salinity objectives. The mass balance model developed by this project is the decision support tool that helps to establish these salt load targets. A second important outcome of this project was the development and application of a methodology for assessing potential impacts of real-time wetland salinity management. Drawdown schedules are typically tied to weather conditions and are optimized in traditional practices to maximize food sources for over-wintering wildfowl as well as providing a biological control (through germination temperature) of undesirable weeds that compete with the more proteinaceous moist soil plants such as swamp timothy, watergrass and smartweed. This methodology combines high resolution remote sensing, ground-truthing vegetation surveys using established survey protocols and soil salinity mapping using rapid, automated electromagnetic sensor technology. This survey methodology

  1. Water footprint concept for a sustainable water resources management in Urmia Lake basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein; Aligholiniya, Tohid; Rasouli, Negar

    2015-04-01

    The fast shrinkage of Urmia Lake in West Azerbaijan, Iran is one of the most important environmental change hotspots. The dramatic water level reduction (up to 6 meters) has influential environmental, socio-economic and health impacts on Urmia plain and its habitants. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. The Urmia Lake sub basins are the agricultural cores of the region and the agricultural activities are the major water consuming sections of the basin. Land use changes and mismanagement in the land use decisions and policies is one of the most important factors in lake shrinkage in recent decades. Fresh water is the main source of water for agricultural usages in the basin. So defining a more low water consuming land use pattern will put less pressure on limited water resources. The above mentioned fact in this study has been assessed through water footprint concept. The water footprint concept (as a quantitative measure showing the appropriation of natural resources) is a comprehensive indicator that can have a crucial role in efficient land use management. In order to evaluate the water use patterns, the water footprint of wheat (as a traditional crop) and apple (recently most popular) have been compared and the results have been discussed in the aspect of the impacts on Lake Urmia demands and its dramatic drying process. Results showed that, higher blue water consumption in such a regions that have severe blue water scarcity, is a major issue and the water consuming pattern must be modified to meet the lake demands. Lower blue water consumption through regionalizing crops for each area is an efficient solution to meet lake demands and consume lower amounts of blue water. So the proper land use practices can be an appropriate method to rescue the lake in a long time period.

  2. NASA's Impacts Towards Improving International Water Management Using Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, D. L.; Doorn, B.; Searby, N. D.; Entin, J. K.; Lawford, R. G.; Mohr, K. I.; Lee, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Key objectives of the NASA's Water Resources and Capacity Building Programs are to discover and demonstrate innovative uses and practical benefits of NASA's advanced system technologies for improved water management. This presentation will emphasize NASA's water research, applications, and capacity building activities using satellites and models to contribute to water issues including water availability, transboundary water, flooding and droughts to international partners, particularly developing countries. NASA's free and open exchange of Earth data observations and products helps engage and improve integrated observation networks and enables national and multi-national regional water cycle research and applications that are especially useful in data sparse regions of most developing countries. NASA satellite and modeling products provide a huge volume of valuable data extending back over 50 years across a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (hourly to decadal) scales and include many products that are available in near real time (see earthdata.nasa.gov). To further accomplish these objectives NASA works to actively partner with public and private groups (e.g. federal agencies, universities, NGO's, and industry) in the U.S. and internationally to ensure the broadest use of its satellites and related information and products and to collaborate with regional end users who know the regions and their needs best. The event will help demonstrate the strong partnering and the use of satellite data to provide synoptic and repetitive spatial coverage helping water managers' deal with complex issues. This presentation will outline and describe NASA's international water related research, applications and capacity building programs' efforts to address developing countries critical water challenges in Asia, African and Latin America. This will specifically highlight impacts and case studies from NASA's programs in Water Resources (e.g., drought, snow

  3. Development of integrated water information system as a support tool in water management in slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, A.; Globevnik, L.; Brilly, M.

    2003-04-01

    The integral digital information on the waters of Slovenia is developed. This is a system of aggregated, verified and logically integrated information on the state of waters in Slovenia, the pressures on the water environments and its protection. Data sources are national information evidence and monitoring systems managed by public service organisations and other expert institutions. The information system is a source for planning in water management, environmental state reporting, and performance indicators evaluation. It is based on country based catchment register. The system incorporates 31 information thematic layers that are organised in the DPSIR (driving forces, pressure, state, impact, and response) system. Data for the information themes are organised with the AutoCad MAP 4.5 GIS tool and prepared for browsing with Internet.

  4. Water management, purification, and conservation in arid climates. Volume 2: Water purification

    SciTech Connect

    Goosen, M.F.A.; Shayya, W.H.

    1999-10-01

    Arid regions are already feeling the severe restraining effects of potable water shortages. In coming years, humid and sub-humid regions of the world will also have to face many of these same problems. In the future, serious conflicts may arise not because of a lack of oil, but due to water shortages. Are there solutions to these problems? Aside from increasing public awareness about the importance of water, society needs to take a three pronged approach: water needs to be effectively managed, it needs to be economically purified, and it needs to be conserved. Only by doing these three things in unison can they hope to alleviate the water problems faced by arid regions of the world. This book presents information valuable to seeking, finding and using current technologies to help solve these problems now. Volume 2 presents various methods of purifying water, and includes membrane processes and alternative techniques such as solar desalination.

  5. Water management, purification, and conservation in arid climates. Volume 3: Water conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Goosen, M.F.A.; Shayya, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    Arid regions are already feeling the severe restraining effects of potable water shortages. In coming years, humid and sub-humid regions of the world will also have to face many of these same problems. In the future, serious conflicts may arise not because of a lack of oil, but due to water shortages. Are there solutions to these problems? Aside from increasing public awareness about the importance of water, society needs to take a three pronged approach: water needs to be effectively managed, it needs to be economically purified, and it needs to be conserved. Only by doing these three things in unison can they hope to alleviate the water problems faced by arid regions of the world. This book presents information valuable to seeking, finding and using current technologies to help solve these problems now. Volume 3 addresses aspects of water conservation and includes rainwater harvesting and wastewater reuse and reclamation.

  6. Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y

    2011-01-01

    The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging.

  7. Reservoir in Global Water Cycle: Macro Scale Hydrologic Modeling for Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Nijssen, B.; Haddeland, I.; Gao, H.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    Man-made reservoirs play a key role in the terrestrial water system. They support purposes, such as irrigation, hydropower generation, and flood control, which can substantially change water fluxes at the land surface and redistribute the storage of surface water in space and time. Although most developed countries have sophisticated observing systems for many variables in the natural surface water cycle, long-term and consistent records that focus on water management and human impacts on the global water cycle are much more limited, and most land surface models ignore water management activities. We describe a continental-scale model of reservoir storage, which is combined with a soil moisture deficit-based irrigation scheme within the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macro-scale hydrological model to simulate the effects of water management in the major river basins of the world. The model is forced with merged NCEP/NCAR and satellite meteorological data at a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees latitude-longitude, for the period 1948 to 2010. A total of 167 of the largest reservoirs in the world with a total storage capacity around 3900 km3 (nearly 60% of the global total reservoir storage) are simulated. We successfully predict the monthly reservoir storage time series for most of a set of 23 global reservoirs for which observed storage is available either via in situ or satellite remote sensing measurements. We evaluate, on a continental and global basis, the magnitude of inter-seasonal and inter-annual reservoir storage variations in comparison with other terms in the land surface water cycle, including Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) and soil moisture.

  8. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  9. Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Mumtaz, Saniea

    2014-01-01

    scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality.

  10. Effects of integrated watershed management on livestock water productivity in water scarce areas in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mapedza, Everisto; Amede, Tilahun; Ayalneh, Wagnew

    In the water scarce Lenche Dima watershed in the northern Ethiopian highlands community based integrated watershed management was implemented to fight land degradation, raise agricultural productivity and improve farmers’ livelihoods. The effects of two interventions, namely exclosures and water harvesting structures, were assessed based on data from farmers’ interviews, measurements of feed biomass production, and estimates of energy production and requirements. Water used for livestock feed production was obtained through simple soil water balance modelling. By protecting 40% of the rangelands, the water productivity of the feed increased by about 20%. This indicated that exclosure establishment could lead to similar improvements in livestock water productivity (LWP, defined as the ratio of livestock benefits over the water used in producing these). Water harvesting structures ensured year-round water availability in the homestead, which resulted in less energy used for walking to drinking points. A considerable amount of energy was thus saved, which could be used for livestock production and improved animal health without additional water use. Besides restoring regulating and supporting ecosystem services, both interventions led to a more efficient use of the scarce water resources for biomass and livestock production.

  11. Water Management of Noninsulating and Insulating Sheathings: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing market in liquid (or fluid) applied water management barriers for residential applications that could be used in place of tapes and other self-adhering membranes if applied correctly, especially around penetrations in the enclosure. This report discusses current best practices, recommends ways in which the best practices can be improved, and looks at some current laboratory testing and testing standards.

  12. Water water everywhere, but not enough for salmon? Organizing integrated water and fisheries management in Puget Sound.

    PubMed

    Safford, Thomas G; Norman, Karma C

    2011-03-01

    Natural resource management has traditionally been organized within discrete land, water, and fishery resource sectors. However, emerging environmental problems often cross these boundaries, and managers have struggled to find effective planning approaches for multi-resource concerns. No case better exemplifies these challenges than efforts to ensure sufficient flows of water for salmon in the Pacific Northwest. In this study, we investigate the organizational experiences of collaborative water and salmon recovery planning groups in the Puget Sound region of Washington. Using conceptual frameworks from organizational sociology, we examine how different regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive institutional forces shape the structure and behavior of both water and salmon recovery planning groups. Data obtained through content analysis of planning documents and interviews with natural resource planners illustrate that legal structures, shared intra-group norms, and the distinct organizational cultures of water and salmon recovery groups constrain these organizations' ability to address linked water-for-salmon concerns. These findings illustrate that assessing institutional and organizational arrangements may be equally as important as understanding hydrology and biology when attempting to forward an integrated approach to water and fisheries management.

  13. Water accounting for stressed river basins based on water resources management models.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Monzonís, María; Solera, Abel; Ferrer, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín; Estrela, Teodoro

    2016-09-15

    Water planning and the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) represent the best way to help decision makers to identify and choose the most adequate alternatives among other possible ones. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA-W) is displayed as a tool for the building of water balances in a river basin, providing a standard approach to achieve comparability of the results between different territories. The target of this paper is to present the building up of a tool that enables the combined use of hydrological models and water resources models to fill in the SEEA-W tables. At every step of the modelling chain, we are capable to build the asset accounts and the physical water supply and use tables according to SEEA-W approach along with an estimation of the water services costs. The case study is the Jucar River Basin District (RBD), located in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula in Spain which as in other many Mediterranean basins is currently water-stressed. To guide this work we have used PATRICAL model in combination with AQUATOOL Decision Support System (DSS). The results indicate that for the average year the total use of water in the district amounts to 15,143hm(3)/year, being the Total Water Renewable Water Resources 3909hm(3)/year. On the other hand, the water service costs in Jucar RBD amounts to 1634 million € per year at constant 2012 prices. It is noteworthy that 9% of these costs correspond to non-conventional resources, such as desalinated water, reused water and water transferred from other regions.

  14. Anticipatory Water Management in Phoenix using Advanced Scenario Planning and Analyses: WaterSim 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Gober, P.; Kirkwood, C.

    2013-12-01

    Complexity, uncertainty, and variability are inherent properties of linked social and natural processes; sustainable resource management must somehow consider all three. Typically, a decision support tool (using scenario analyses) is used to examine management alternatives under suspected trajectories in driver variables (i.e., climate forcing's, growth or economic projections, etc.). This traditional planning focuses on a small set of envisioned scenarios whose outputs are compared against one-another in order to evaluate their differing impacts on desired metrics. Human cognition typically limits this to three to five scenarios. However, complex and highly uncertain issues may require more, often much more, than five scenarios. In this case advanced scenario analysis provides quantitative or qualitative methods that can reveal patterns and associations among scenario metrics for a large ensemble of scenarios. From this analysis, then, a smaller set of heuristics that describe the complexity and uncertainty revealed provides a basis to guide planning in an anticipatory fashion. Our water policy and management model, termed WaterSim, permits advanced scenario planning and analysis for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. In this contribution we examine the concepts of advanced scenario analysis on a large scale ensemble of scenarios using our work with WaterSim as a case study. For this case study we created a range of possible water futures by creating scenarios that encompasses differences in water supplies (our surrogates for climate change, drought, and inherent variability in riverine flows), population growth, and per capital water consumption. We used IPCC estimates of plausible, future, alterations in riverine runoff, locally produced and vetted estimates of population growth projections, and empirical trends in per capita water consumption for metropolitan cities. This ensemble consisted of ~ 30, 700 scenarios (~575 k observations). We compared and contrasted

  15. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  16. Using WAS/MYWAS For Water Management And Conflict Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, F. M.; Huber, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Water is a special economic commodity that cannot be efficiently allocated in a free private market because of social values that are not private ones. The WAS (Water Allocation System) model and its multiyear extension (MYWAS) use demand curves as well as supply conditions to allocate water so as to optimize the total net benefits it brings. However, they permit the user to prescribe policies and constraints on the allocation process so as to take social values into account. These models can be used to perform cost- benefit analyses of projected infrastructure projects taking into account the system-wide effects such projects will bring about. MYWAS, in particular will choose from a menu of possible projects and provide guidance on which ones should be built, when, in what order, and to what capacity. It is a very powerful tool that can be used under varying assumed conditions of climatic conditions. WAS models have been built for Israel, Jordan, and Palestine, and MYWAS models are underway for all three. Aside from their value as domestic management tools, WAS and MYWAS also offer assistance in resolving water disputes, turning what appear to be zero-sum games into win-win situations. They do so by concentrating on water value rather than water quantity and monetizing the disputes in question. In so doing, they provide a method of guiding cooperation in water and separating the analysis of optimal water usage from the often unresolvable question of water ownership and water rights. We have shown in the case of the Middle East, that the gains from such cooperation are typically worth more than the value of fairly large changes in water ownership the size of which is greatly reduced by cooperation. Moreover, disputing parties need not wait for the resolution of the water ownership issue to begin a cooperation that benefits all and permits flexible readjustment of water usage as situations (climatic conditions, populations, etc.) change. They can agree to pay for

  17. Water management simulation games and the construction of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusca, M.; Heun, J.; Schwartz, K.

    2012-03-01

    In recent years simulations have become an important part of teaching activities. The reasons behind the popularity of simulation games are twofold. On the one hand, emerging theories on how people learn have called for an experienced-based learning approach. On the other hand, the demand for water management professionals has changed. Three important developments are having considerable consequences for water management programmes, which educate and train these professionals. These developments are the increasing emphasis on integration in water management, the characteristics and speed of reforms in the public sector and the shifting state-society relations in many countries. In response to these developments, demand from the labour market is oriented toward water professionals who need to have both a specialist in-depth knowledge in their own field, as well as the ability to understand and interact with other disciplines and interests. In this context, skills in negotiating, consensus building and working in teams are considered essential for all professionals. In this paper we argue that simulation games have an important role to play in (actively) educating students and training the new generation of water professionals to respond to the above-mentioned challenges. At the same time, simulations are not a panacea for learners and teachers. Challenges of using simulations games include the demands it places on the teacher. Setting up the simulation game, facilitating the delivery and ensuring that learning objectives are achieved requires considerable knowledge and experience as well as considerable time-inputs of the teacher. Moreover, simulation games usually incorporate a case-based learning model, which may neglect or underemphasize theories and conceptualization. For simulations to be effective they have to be embedded in this larger theoretical and conceptual framework. Simulations, therefore, complement rather than substitute traditional teaching methods.

  18. Water management simulation games and the construction of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusca, M.; Heun, J.; Schwartz, K.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, simulations have become an important part of teaching activities. The reasons behind the popularity of simulation games are twofold. On the one hand, emerging theories on how people learn have called for an experienced-based learning approach. On the other hand, the demand for water management professionals has changed. Three important developments are having considerable consequences for water management programmes, which educate and train these professionals. These developments are the increasing emphasis on integration in water management, the characteristics and speed of reforms in the public sector and the shifting state-society relations in many countries. In response to these developments, demand from the labour market is oriented toward water professionals who need to have both a specialist in-depth knowledge in their own field, as well as the ability to understand and interact with other disciplines and interests. In this context, skills in negotiating, consensus building and working in teams are considered essential for all professionals. In this paper, we argue that simulation games have an important role to play in (actively) educating students and training the new generation of water professionals to respond to the above-mentioned challenges. At the same time, simulations are not a panacea for learners and teachers. Challenges of using simulation games include the demands it places on the teacher. Setting up the simulation game, facilitating the delivery and ensuring that learning objectives are achieved require considerable knowledge and experience as well as considerable time-inputs of the teacher. Moreover, simulation games usually incorporate a case-based learning model, which may neglect or underemphasize theories and conceptualizations. For simulations to be effective, they have to be embedded in this larger theoretical and conceptual framework. Simulations, therefore, complement rather than substitute traditional teaching

  19. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool: An approach for incorporating LID into integrated water management plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist communities in the evaluation of green infrastructure, low impact development, and land conservation practices as part of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has supported the development of the Wat...

  20. The Energy-Water Nexus: Managing the Links between Energy and Water for a Sustainable Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussey, Karen; Petit, Carine

    2010-05-01

    Water and energy are both indispensable inputs to modern economies but currently both resources are under threat owing to the impacts of an ever-increasing population and associated demand, unsustainable practices in agriculture and manufacturing, and the implications of a changing climate. However, it is where water and energy rely on each other that pose the most complex challenges for policy-makers. Water is needed for mining coal, drilling oil, refining gasoline, and generating and distributing electricity; and, conversely, vast amounts of energy are needed to pump, transport, treat and distribute water, particularly in the production of potable water through the use of desalination plants and waste water treatment plants. Despite the links, and the urgency in both sectors for security of supply, in existing policy frameworks energy and water policies are developed largely in isolation from one another. Worse still, some policies designed to encourage alternative energy supplies give little thought to the resultant consequences on water resources, and, similarly, policies designed to secure water supplies pay little attention to the resultant consequences on energy use. The development of new technologies presents both opportunities and challenges for managing the energy-water nexus but a better understanding of the links between energy and water is essential in any attempt to formulate policies for more resilient and adaptable societies. The energy-water nexus must be adequately integrated into policy and decision-making or governments run the risk of contradicting their efforts, and therefore failing in their objectives, in both sectors. A series of COST Exploratory Workshops, drawing on on-going research in the energy-water nexus from a number of international teams, identified the implications of the energy-water nexus on the development of (i) energy policies (ii) water resource management policies and (iii) climate adaptation and mitigation policies. A

  1. Remote sensing water observation for supporting Lake Victoria weed management.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico

    2009-05-01

    This paper aims to assess the suitability of remote sensing for enhancing the management of water body resources and for providing an inexpensive way to gather, on a wide area, weed infestation extent and optical parameter linked to the water body status. Remotely sensed satellite images and ancillary ground true data were used to produce land cover maps, trough classification techniques, and water compounds maps, applying radiative transfer models. The study proposed within the framework of the cooperation between Italian Foreign Affair Ministry (through the University of Rome) and Kenyan Authorities has been carried out on the Kenyan part of the Lake Victoria. This lake is one of the largest freshwater bodies of the world where, over the last few years environmental challenges and human impact have perturbed the ecological balance affecting the biodiversity. The objective of this research study is to define the thematic products, retrievable from satellite images, like weed abundance maps and water compound concentrations. These products, if provided with an appropriate time frequency, are useful to identify the preconditions for the occurrence of hazard events like abnormal macrophyte proliferation and to develop an up-to-date decision support system devoted to an apprised territory, environment and resource management.

  2. Towards sustainable urban water management: a critical reassessment.

    PubMed

    Marlow, David R; Moglia, Magnus; Cook, Stephen; Beale, David J

    2013-12-15

    Within the literature, concerns have been raised that centralised urban water systems are maladapted to challenges associated with climate change, population growth and other socio-economic and environmental strains. This paper provides a critical assessment of the discourse that surrounds emerging approaches to urban water management and infrastructure provision. As such, 'sustainable urban water management' (SUWM) concepts are scrutinized to highlight the limitations and strengths in the current lines of argument and point towards unaddressed complexities in the transformational agendas advocated by SUWM proponents. Taking an explicit infrastructure view, it is shown that the specific context of the urban water sector means that changes to infrastructure systems occur as an incremental hybridisation process. This process is driven by a range of factors including lock-in effects of legacy solutions, normative values and vested interests of agents, cost and performance certainty and perceptions of risk. Different views of these factors help explain why transformational agendas have not achieved the change SUWM proponents call for and point to the need for a critical reassessment of the system effects and economics of alternative service provision models.

  3. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  4. Passive water management for µfuel-cells using capillary microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, T.; Viertel, J.; Müller, C.; Kerzenmacher, S.; Paust, N.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.

    2008-10-01

    In this work we present a novel system for the passive water management in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC) based on capillary effects in microstructures. The system removes abundant water that occurs at low temperatures at a fuel cell cathode and secures the humidity of the electrolyte membrane on higher temperatures. Liquid water is removed by hydrophilic gas supply channels with a tapered cross section as presented previously, and further transported by a system of capillary channels and a layer of nonwoven material. To prevent the membrane from running dry, a storage area in the nonwoven layer is introduced, controlled by a novel passive capillary overflow valve. The valve controls whether water is stored or finally disposed by gravity and evaporation. Experiments in a model system show that the nonwoven material is capable of removing all liquid water that can be produced by the fuel cell. A miniaturized fuel cell utilizing the novel water removal system was fabricated and experiments show that the system can stabilize the performance during changes of electrical load. Clearing the drowned miniaturized fuel cell flow field was proven and required 2 min. To make the capillary effects available for the originally hydrophobic graphite composite materials that were used to fabricate the flow fields, hydrophilic grafting based on photochemistry was applied to the material and contact angles of about 40° could be achieved and preserved for at least three months.

  5. Urban water infrastructure asset management - a structured approach in four water utilities.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, M A; Silva, M Santos; Coelho, S T; Almeida, M C; Covas, D I C

    2012-01-01

    Water services are a strategic sector of large social and economic relevance. It is therefore essential that they are managed rationally and efficiently. Advanced water supply and wastewater infrastructure asset management (IAM) is key in achieving adequate levels of service in the future, particularly with regard to reliable and high quality drinking water supply, prevention of urban flooding, efficient use of natural resources and prevention of pollution. This paper presents a methodology for supporting the development of urban water IAM, developed during the AWARE-P project as well as an appraisal of its implementation in four water utilities. Both water supply and wastewater systems were considered. Due to the different contexts and features of the utilities, the main concerns vary from case to case; some problems essentially are related to performance, others to risk. Cost is a common deciding factor. The paper describes the procedure applied, focusing on the diversity of drivers, constraints, benefits and outcomes. It also points out the main challenges and the results obtained through the implementation of a structured procedure for supporting urban water IAM.

  6. A National Modeling Framework for Water Management Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, J. D.; Cline, D. W.; Pietrowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), all Federal agencies with complementary water-resources activities, entered into an Interagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) "Collaborative Science Services and Tools to Support Integrated and Adaptive Water Resources Management" to collaborate in activities that are supportive to their respective missions. One of the interagency activities is the development of a highly integrated national water modeling framework and information services framework. Together these frameworks establish a common operating picture, improve modeling and synthesis, support the sharing of data and products among agencies, and provide a platform for incorporation of new scientific understanding. Each of the agencies has existing operational systems to assist in carrying out their respective missions. The systems generally are designed, developed, tested, fielded, and supported by specialized teams. A broader, shared approach is envisioned and would include community modeling, wherein multiple independent investigators or teams develop and contribute new modeling capabilities based on science advances; modern technology in coupling model components and visualizing results; and a coupled atmospheric - hydrologic model construct such that the framework could be used in real-time water-resources decision making or for long-term management decisions. The framework also is being developed to account for organizational structures of the three partners such that, for example, national data sets can move down to the regional scale, and vice versa. We envision the national water modeling framework to be an important element of North American Water Program, to contribute to goals of the Program, and to be informed by the science and approaches developed as a part of the Program.

  7. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  8. Analysis of River Water Quality and its influencing factors for the Effective Management of Water Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, G.; Sadohara, S.; Yoshida, S.; Yuichi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Japan, remarkable improvements in water quality have been observed over recent years because of regulations imposed on industrial wastewater and development of sewerage system. However, pollution loads from agricultural lands are still high and coverage ratio of sewerage system is still low in small and medium cities. In present context, nonpoint source pollution such as runoff from unsewered developments, urban and agricultural runoffs could be main water quality impacting factors. Further, atmospheric nitrogen (N) is the complex nonpoint source than can seriously affect river water environment. This study was undertaken to spatially investigate the present status of river water quality of Hadano Basin located in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Water quality of six rivers was investigated and its relationship with nonpoint pollution sources was analyzed. This study, with inclusion of ground water circulation and atmospheric N, can be effectively employed for water quality management of other watersheds also, both with and without influence of ground water circulation. Hence, as a research area of this study, it is significant in terms of water quality management. Total nitrogen (TN) was found consistently higher in urbanized basins indicating that atmospheric N might be influencing TN of river water. Ground water circulation influenced both water quality and quantity. In downstream basins of Muro and Kuzuha rivers, Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phosphorus (TP) were diluted by ground water inflow. In Mizunashi River and the upstream of Kuzuha River, surface water infiltrated to the subsurface due to higher river bed permeability. Influencing factors considered in the analysis were unsewered population, agricultural land, urban area, forest and atmospheric N. COD and TP showed good correlation with unsewered population and agricultural land. While TN had good correlation with atmospheric N deposition. Multiple regression analysis between water quality

  9. Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project

    SciTech Connect

    Field, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

  10. Towards environmental management of water turbidity within open coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Rachael K; Ridd, Peter V; Whinney, James C; Larcombe, Piers; Neil, David T

    2013-09-15

    Water turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are commonly used as part of marine monitoring and water quality plans. Current management plans utilise threshold SSC values derived from mean-annual turbidity concentrations. Little published work documents typical ranges of turbidity for reefs within open coastal waters. Here, time-series turbidity measurements from 61 sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Moreton Bay, Australia, are presented as turbidity exceedance curves and derivatives. This contributes to the understanding of turbidity and SSC in the context of environmental management in open-coastal reef environments. Exceedance results indicate strong spatial and temporal variability in water turbidity across inter/intraregional scales. The highest turbidity across 61 sites, at 50% exceedance (T50) is 15.3 NTU and at 90% exceedance (T90) 4.1 NTU. Mean/median turbidity comparisons show strong differences between the two, consistent with a strongly skewed turbidity regime. Results may contribute towards promoting refinement of water quality management protocols.

  11. Better Insight Into Water Resources Management With Integrated Hydrodynamic And Water Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debele, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Parlange, J.

    2004-12-01

    Models have long been used in water resources management to guide decision making and improve understanding of the system. Numerous models of different scales -spatial and temporal - are available. Yet, very few models manage to bridge simulations of hydrological and water quality parameters from both upland watershed and riverine system. Most water quality models, such as QUAL2E and EPD-RIV1 concentrate on the riverine system while CE-QUAL-W2 and WASP models focus on larger waterbodies, such as lakes and reservoirs. On the other hand, the original SWAT model, HSPF and other upland watershed hydrological models simulate agricultural (diffuse) pollution sources with limited number of processes incorporated to handle point source pollutions that emanate from industrial sectors. Such limitations, which are common in most hydrodynamic and water quality models undermine better understanding that otherwise could be uncovered by employing integrated hydrological and water quality models for both upland watershed and riverine system. The SWAT model is a well documented and verified hydrological and water quality model that has been developed to simulate the effects of various management scenarios on the health of the environment in terms of water quantity and quality. Recently, the SWAT model has been extended to include the simulation of hydrodynamic and water quality parameters in the river system. The extended SWAT model (ESWAT) has been further extended to run using diurnally varying (hourly) weather data and produce outputs at hourly timescales. This and other improvements in the ESWAT model have been documented in the current work. Besides, the results from two case studies in Texas will be reported.

  12. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 162.060-16 - Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes to an approved ballast water management system...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Ballast Water Management Systems § 162.060-16 Changes to an approved ballast water management system (BWMS). (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., responsibilities and authority of the Mississippi River Water Control Management Board. (b) Applicability. This...) Composition. The Mississippi River Water Control Management Board is a continuing board consisting of the... improving inter-divisional coordination of water control management activities within the Mississippi...

  16. 77 FR 48514 - Water Asset Management, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Water Asset Management, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit... June 6, 2012, Water Asset Management, Inc., New York, filed an application for a preliminary permit... Winnemucca Farms West site project.\\1\\ \\1\\ Water Asset Management, Inc. Winnemucca Farms West Pump...

  17. 77 FR 48513 - Water Asset Management, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Water Asset Management, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Water Asset Management, Inc., New York, filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant... Farms East site project.\\1\\ \\1\\ Water Asset Management, Inc., Winnemucca Farms East Pump Storage...

  18. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans..., or standard, for efficient use of water by Federal Wildlife Refuges, State Wildlife Management...

  19. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose...

  20. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of...

  1. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  2. Installations and Watersheds: An Examination of Changes in Water Management on Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    private partnerships , and improvement of information sources, endorsing the citizen s right to know regarding management planning issues....resource management. The CWAP also emphasizes social aspects of water management, encouraging public participation, development of multi-agency and public

  3. Integrating science, policy and stakeholder perspectives for water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Emily; Allan, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Lazzar, Attila; Lim, Michelle; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    Successful management of water resources requires an integrated approach considering the complex relationships between different biophysical processes, governance frameworks and socio-economic factors. The Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project has developed a range of socio-economic scenarios using a participatory approach, and applied these across different biophysical models as well as an integrated environmental, socio-economic model of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta. This work demonstrates a novel approach through the consideration of multiple ecosystem services and related socio-economic factors in the development of scenarios; the application of these to multiple models at multiple scales; and the participatory approach to improve project outcomes and engage national level stakeholders and policy makers. Scenarios can assist in planning for an uncertain future through exploring plausible alternatives. To adequately assess the potential impacts of future changes and management strategies on water resources, the wider biophysical, socio-economic and governance context needs to be considered. A series of stakeholder workshops have been held in Bangladesh to identify issues of main concern relating to the GBM Delta; to iteratively develop scenario narratives for business as usual, less sustainable, and more sustainable development pathways; and to translate these qualitative scenarios into a quantitative form suitable for analysis. The combined impact of these scenarios and climate change on water quantity and quality within the GBM Basin are demonstrated. Results suggest that climate change is likely to impact on both peak and low flows to a greater extent than most socio-economic changes. However, the diversion of water from the Ganges and Brahmaputra has the potential to significantly impact on water availability in Bangladesh depending on the timing and quantity of diversions. Both climate change and socio

  4. Water management in the Senegal River Delta: a continuing uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mietton, M.; Dumas, D.; Hamerlynck, O.; Kane, A.; Coly, A.; Duvail, S.; Pesneaud, F.; Baba, M. L. O.

    2007-11-01

    Water management is the driving force behind the productivity of the ecosystems of the Senegal River Estuary and floodplains. It is dependent on human decision-making, but has been separated from the River's flooding since the building of the Diama Dam. The current objectives of the Office de Mise en Valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS: Senegal River Development Agency) are mainly turned towards the development of irrigated agriculture on the former floodplains and since 2002 the production of hydroelectric power at Manantali. In October 2003, a four-metre-wide runoff canal, which quickly widened into a breach several hundred metres across, was dug in the Barbary Spit area to protect the city of Saint-Louis from heavy flooding. The hydraulic quality of the area downstream from the dam has improved to the extent that there is no longer any flooding there, but as the management of the dams concerns only the section of the river between Manantali and Diama, a certain amount of flood risk probably still persists. The intrusion of seawater into the estuary is also threatening ecosystems and fresh water supplies, and abruptly altering agricultural practices such as fruit and vegetable growing in the Gandiolais district. When added to the tentative efforts to coordinate the management of the two dams, with no management objective downstream from Diama, such permanent modifications impose serious constraints on the managers and residents of the lower delta. This paper presents an overview of the constraints and uncertainties at different levels and scales. This wholly human-wrought environment can be considered as a learning experience, where a large number of variables need to be monitored closely and an ongoing process of participatory analysis should be backed up by multidisciplinary research.

  5. Anticipating on amplifying water stress: Optimal crop production supported by anticipatory water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud; van den Eertwegh, Gé; Simons, Gijs

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural crop yields depend largely on the soil moisture conditions in the root zone. Drought but especially an excess of water in the root zone and herewith limited availability of soil oxygen reduces crop yield. With ongoing climate change, more prolonged dry periods alternate with more intensive rainfall events, which changes soil moisture dynamics. With unaltered water management practices, reduced crop yield due to both drought stress and waterlogging will increase. Therefore, both farmers and water management authorities need to be provided with opportunities to reduce risks of decreasing crop yields. In The Netherlands, agricultural production of crops represents a market exceeding 2 billion euros annually. Given the increased variability in meteorological conditions and the resulting larger variations in soil moisture contents, it is of large economic importance to provide farmers and water management authorities with tools to mitigate risks of reduced crop yield by anticipatory water management, both at field and at regional scale. We provide the development and the field application of a decision support system (DSS), which allows to optimize crop yield by timely anticipation on drought and waterlogging situations. By using this DSS, we will minimize plant water stress through automated drainage and irrigation management. In order to optimize soil moisture conditions for crop growth, the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system need to be considered explicitly. Our study comprises both the set-up and application of the DSS on a pilot plot in The Netherlands, in order to evaluate its implementation into daily agricultural practice. The DSS focusses on anticipatory water management at the field scale, i.e. the unit scale of interest to a farmer. We combine parallel field measurements ('observe'), process-based model simulations ('predict'), and the novel Climate Adaptive Drainage (CAD) system ('adjust') to optimize soil moisture

  6. Managing water quality of River Yamuna in NCR Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Rahul; Dasgupta, Niladri; Hasan, Aziz; Upadhyay, S. K.

    River Yamuna is a typical example of degraded lotic ecosystem which has been turns into a sewage drain in Delhi National capital region due to anthropogenic pressure and aggravating pollution load. Delhi is alone responsible for 79% of the entire pollution load in the said river. The drain discharges exerting a massive BOD load of hundreds of tons per day into the river. The pollutants could not get diluted as the river has very little or no flow in non-monsoon months due to lack of indigenous water. Water quality index reveal that before entering Delhi, river water has the medium water quality, gets severely polluted in Delhi, shows very bad water quality which continues till Agra Canal. Improper location of STPs and mismatch between the available treatment capacities of STPs with the actual sewage generation results muddle up of “approx” 60% untreated wastewater into the River Yamuna. Implementation of sustainable management plan with already available facilities, proper sewerage planning and maintaining the minimum ecological flow will control the pollution in River Yamuna.

  7. Using FRAMES to Manage Environmental and Water Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Millard, W. David; Gelston, Gariann M.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Pelton, Mitch A.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Lee, Cheegwan; Sivaraman, Chitra; Stephan, Alex J.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Castleton, Karl J.

    2007-05-16

    The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems FRAMES) is decision-support middleware that provides users the ability to design software solutions for complex problems. It is a software platform that provides seamless and transparent communication between modeling components by using a multi-thematic approach to provide a flexible and holistic understanding of how environmental factors potentially affect humans and the environment. It incorporates disparate components (e.g., models, databases, and other frameworks) that integrate across scientific disciplines, allowing for tailored solutions to specific activities. This paper discusses one example application of FRAMES, where several commercialoff-the-shelf (COTS) software products are seamlessly linked into a planning and decision-support tool that helps manage water-based emergency situations and sustainable response. Multiple COTS models, including three surface water models, and a number of databases are linked through FRAMES to assess the impact of three asymmetric and simultaneous events, two of which impact water resources. The asymmetric events include 1) an unconventional radioactive release into a large potable water body, 2) a conventional contaminant (oil) release into navigable waters, and 3) an instantaneous atmospheric radioactive release.

  8. The Niagara River: A water quality management overview.

    PubMed

    Philbert, F J

    1991-01-01

    The Niagara River constitutes part of the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River system which represents approximately 80% of North America's supply of surface fresh water. The river is a major source of water for industry, municipalities, recreation and power generation and is the link between Lakes Erie and Ontario. The river forms part of the Canada-U.S. border and falls under the jurisdiction of both countries.The massive industrialization of the region surrounding the river has led to a typical resource use conflict situation in which pollution of the river continues to be a major public concern.A number of constitutional, institutional and jurisdictional factors make the management of the Niagara River an involved and complicated matter. The interests, intent, philosophies, laws and regulations are not necessarily the same among the numerous jurisdiction involved. Despite these differences, however, Canada and the United States have succeeded in developing and implementing a model cooperative international management plan for the river. An overview of the main international aspects relating to the development and implementation of this plan, the Niagara River Toxics Management Plan, is presented.

  9. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  10. Water management problems in the Ethiopian rift: Challenges for development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayenew, Tenalem

    2007-06-01

    The Ethiopian rift is characterized by many perennial rivers and lakes occupying volcano-tectonic depressions with highly variable hydrogeological setting. The rift lakes and rivers were the focal points for relatively large-scale water resources development. They are used for irrigation, soda abstraction, commercial fish farming, recreation and support a wide variety of endemic birds and wild animals. Ethiopia's major mechanized irrigation farms and commercial fishery are confined within the rift. A few of the lakes have shrunk as a result of excessive abstraction of water; others expanded due to increased surface runoff and groundwater flux from percolated over-irrigated fields and active tectonism. Excessive land degradation and deforestation have also played a role. Human factors, in combination with the natural conditions of climate and geology have influenced the water quality. The chemistry of some of the lakes has been changed dramatically. This paper tries to present the challenges of surface water resources development with particular reference to environmental problems caused in the last few decades. The methods employed include field hydrological mapping supported by aerial photograph and satellite imagery interpretations, hydrometeorological and hydrochemical data analysis and catchment hydrological modeling. A converging evidence approach was adapted to reconstruct the temporal and spatial variations of lake levels and the hydrochemistry. The result revealed that the major changes in the rift valley are related mainly to recent improper utilization of water and land resources in the rivers draining the rift floor and the lakes' catchment, and to direct lake water abstraction, aggravated intermittently by natural factors (climate and tectonism). These changes appear to have grave environmental consequences, which demand urgent integrated basin-wide water management practice.

  11. Modeling Stochastic Energy and Water Consumption to Manage Residential Water Uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, A. M.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Water; Energy Conservation

    2011-12-01

    and energy use, potential savings, and payback periods to install efficient water end-use appliances and fixtures. Stochastic model results show the distributions among households for (i) water end-use, (ii) energy consumed to use water, and (iii) financial payback periods. Compared to deterministic analysis, stochastic modeling results show that hot water fractions for appliances follow normal distributions with high standard deviation and reveal pronounced variations among households that significantly affect energy savings and payback period estimates. These distributions provide an important tool to select and size water conservation programs to simultaneously meet both water and energy conservation goals. They also provide a way to identify and target a small fraction of customers with potential to save large water volumes and energy from appliance retrofits. Future work will embed this household scale stochastic model in city-scale models to identify win-win water management opportunities where households save money by conserving water and energy while cities avoid costs, downsize, or delay infrastructure development.

  12. The challenges of rescaling South African water resources management: Catchment Management Agencies and interbasin transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourblanc, Magalie; Blanchon, David

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Catchment Management Agencies (CMAs) was supposed to be the cornerstone of the rescaling process of the South African water reform policy. Yet, less than 10 years after the adoption of the National Water Act, the process was suspended for 4 years and by 2012 only two CMAs had been established. Combining approaches in geography and political science, this paper investigates the reasons for the delays in CMAs' implementation in South Africa. It shows that the construction of interbasin transfers (IBTs) since the 1950s by the apartheid regime and nowadays the power struggles between CMAs and the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) are two of the main obstacles to the creation of CMAs planned by the 1998 National Water Act (NWA). Finally, the paper advocates taking the "hydrosocial cycle" as an analytical framework for designing new institutional arrangements that will include both rectifying the legacy of the past (the specific role of DWA) and acknowledging legitimate local interests.

  13. New directions in water resources management: The role of water pricing policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Eva; Blanco, MaríA.

    2008-06-01

    Water resources will face increasing competition and higher environmental concerns during this century. To meet these challenges, the new Water Framework Directive has drawn up an integrated framework and established the basic principles for a sustainable water policy in the European Union. The introduction of water prices reflecting the true cost of irrigation is one of its most innovative components. In this paper, a positive mathematical programming model is developed to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of water pricing policies in Spanish irrigated lands. The model interface allows friendly use and easy replication in a large number of irrigation districts, selected throughout the Spanish territory. The model results show the impact on environmental indicators, water consumption, cropping patterns, technology adoption, labor, farmers' income, and the water agency revenues when different scenarios of cost recovery are considered. It is argued that this modeling approach may be used as a management tool to assist in the implementation of the cost recovery approach of the new Water Framework Directive.

  14. Integrated water resource management under water supply and irrigation development uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, E.; Elshorbagy, A. A.; Nazemi, A.; Wheater, H. S.; Gober, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada, supports various water demands including municipal, industrial, irrigated agriculture, hydropower and environmental sectors. Proposals for future development include significantly increased irrigation. However, proposing an appropriate level of irrigation development requires incorporation of water supply uncertainties in the water resources management analysis, including effects of climate variability and change. To evaluate potential climate change effects, a feasible range of shifts in annual volume and peak timing of headwater flows are considered to stochastically generate flows at the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. This envelope of flows, 30,800 realizations, is further combined with various irrigation expansion areas to form various future scenarios. Using an integrated water resources model developed for Saskatchewan, the impact of irrigation development on the system is assessed under the changing water supply conditions. The results of this study show that level of irrigation development as well as variation in volume and peak timing of flows can all contribute to change the water availability, vulnerability and economic productivity of the water resources system in Saskatchewan. In particular, the combined effect of large irrigation expansion, reduction in the volume of flows and earlier timing of the annual peak can exacerbate water resources system vulnerability, produce unstable net revenues, and decrease flood frequency in the Saskatchewan River Delta.

  15. Using ensembles in water management: forecasting dry and wet episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van het Schip-Haverkamp, Tessa; van den Berg, Wim; van de Beek, Remco

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather situations as droughts and extensive precipitation are becoming more frequent, which makes it more important to obtain accurate weather forecasts for the short and long term. Ensembles can provide a solution in terms of scenario forecasts. MeteoGroup uses ensembles in a new forecasting technique which presents a number of weather scenarios for a dynamical water management project, called Water-Rijk, in which water storage and water retention plays a large role. The Water-Rijk is part of Park Lingezegen, which is located between Arnhem and Nijmegen in the Netherlands. In collaboration with the University of Wageningen, Alterra and Eijkelkamp a forecasting system is developed for this area which can provide water boards with a number of weather and hydrology scenarios in order to assist in the decision whether or not water retention or water storage is necessary in the near future. In order to make a forecast for drought and extensive precipitation, the difference 'precipitation- evaporation' is used as a measurement of drought in the weather forecasts. In case of an upcoming drought this difference will take larger negative values. In case of a wet episode, this difference will be positive. The Makkink potential evaporation is used which gives the most accurate potential evaporation values during the summer, when evaporation plays an important role in the availability of surface water. Scenarios are determined by reducing the large number of forecasts in the ensemble to a number of averaged members with each its own likelihood of occurrence. For the Water-Rijk project 5 scenario forecasts are calculated: extreme dry, dry, normal, wet and extreme wet. These scenarios are constructed for two forecasting periods, each using its own ensemble technique: up to 48 hours ahead and up to 15 days ahead. The 48-hour forecast uses an ensemble constructed from forecasts of multiple high-resolution regional models: UKMO's Euro4 model,the ECMWF model, WRF and

  16. Systemic solutions for multi-benefit water and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Everard, Mark; McInnes, Robert

    2013-09-01

    The environmental and financial costs of inputs to, and unintended consequences arising from narrow consideration of outputs from, water and environmental management technologies highlight the need for low-input solutions that optimise outcomes across multiple ecosystem services. Case studies examining the inputs and outputs associated with several ecosystem-based water and environmental management technologies reveal a range from those that differ little from conventional electro-mechanical engineering techniques through methods, such as integrated constructed wetlands (ICWs), designed explicitly as low-input systems optimising ecosystem service outcomes. All techniques present opportunities for further optimisation of outputs, and hence for greater cumulative public value. We define 'systemic solutions' as "…low-input technologies using natural processes to optimise benefits across the spectrum of ecosystem services and their beneficiaries". They contribute to sustainable development by averting unintended negative impacts and optimising benefits to all ecosystem service beneficiaries, increasing net economic value. Legacy legislation addressing issues in a fragmented way, associated 'ring-fenced' budgets and established management assumptions represent obstacles to implementing 'systemic solutions'. However, flexible implementation of legacy regulations recognising their primary purpose, rather than slavish adherence to detailed sub-clauses, may achieve greater overall public benefit through optimisation of outcomes across ecosystem services. Systemic solutions are not a panacea if applied merely as 'downstream' fixes, but are part of, and a means to accelerate, broader culture change towards more sustainable practice. This necessarily entails connecting a wider network of interests in the formulation and design of mutually-beneficial systemic solutions, including for example spatial planners, engineers, regulators, managers, farming and other businesses, and

  17. Water resources management plan, Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Moberg, Roger M.; Allen, Kristen G.; Vana-Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    Richmond National Battlefield Park (Richmond NBP) consists of 1,366 acres in 11 geographically separate units that are located primarily east, northeast, and southeast of the city of Richmond, Virginia. This Water Resources Management Plan addresses nine of the units: Beaver Dam Creek, Chickahominy Bluff, Cold Harbor (including the Garthright House), Drewry’s Bluff, Fort Harrison, Gaines’ Mill, and Glendale and Malvern Hill. The units are in the Atlantic Coastal Plain Physiographic Province between the James and York rivers. The small streams that drain each of the units are tributaries of either the Chickahominy River or James River and ultimately contribute to the Chesapeake Bay.

  18. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, A.; Dufour, Ph; Golfier, H.; Grouiller, J. P.; Guillet, J. L.; Poinot, Ch; Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.

    2003-06-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h) -1. More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate.

  19. Water Management in the Klodnica Catchment in 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drąg, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The article takes up an attempt to present the changes that has occurred in the water management at the beginning of the 21st century in the area of Silesian Voivoideship. Communes situated within the boundaries of Klodnica catchment, closed by the section of Gliwice, were analysed as an example of water management in the area which undergoes a strong anthropopression. Klodnica catchment is an area where all the elements of the geographical environment were transformed, but it was the water environment that was changed most visibly. At the beginning of the 21st century, there were a lot of changes conducted in Poland, not only political, but also in the economic and legal sectors. Owing to these factors, the following changes appeared: water consumption, the structure of distribution of water among different branches of economy and the water and sewage system infrastructure. The effect of these changes is the decrease in water consumption and sewage discharge as well as upgrading the technologies of its treatment (Absalon 2007). W artykule podjęto próbę przedstawienia zmian jakie zaszły w gospodarowaniu wodą na początku XXI wieku na obszarze województwa śląskiego. Szczegółowej analizie poddano gminy znajdujące się w granicach zlewni Kłodnicy zamkniętej przekrojem Gliwice, jako przykład gospodarowania wodą na obszarze podlegającym silnej antropopresji. Zlewnia Kłodnicy jest to teren, gdzie wszystkie elementy środowiska geograficznego zostały przekształcone, lecz najbardziej widocznym zmianom uległo środowisko wodne. Wraz z początkiem XXI wieku w Polsce wprowadzono wiele zmian i to nie tylko politycznych, ale także w sektorze ekonomicznym i prawnym. Dzięki tym czynnikom pojawiły się zmiany: zużycia wody, struktury jej rozdziału na poszczególne gałęzie gospodarki oraz infrastruktury wodociągowej i kanalizacyjnej. Efektem tych zmian jest zmniejszenie zużycia wody oraz zrzutu ścieków, a także unowocześnianie technologii ich

  20. Climate change adaptation and Integrated Water Resource Management in the water sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Fulco; van Slobbe, Erik; Cofino, Wim

    2014-10-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was introduced in 1980s to better optimise water uses between different water demanding sectors. However, since it was introduced water systems have become more complicated due to changes in the global water cycle as a result of climate change. The realization that climate change will have a significant impact on water availability and flood risks has driven research and policy making on adaptation. This paper discusses the main similarities and differences between climate change adaptation and IWRM. The main difference between the two is the focus on current and historic issues of IWRM compared to the (long-term) future focus of adaptation. One of the main problems of implementing climate change adaptation is the large uncertainties in future projections. Two completely different approaches to adaptation have been developed in response to these large uncertainties. A top-down approach based on large scale biophysical impacts analyses focussing on quantifying and minimizing uncertainty by using a large range of scenarios and different climate and impact models. The main problem with this approach is the propagation of uncertainties within the modelling chain. The opposite is the bottom up approach which basically ignores uncertainty. It focusses on reducing vulnerabilities, often at local scale, by developing resilient water systems. Both these approaches however are unsuitable for integrating into water management. The bottom up approach focuses too much on socio-economic vulnerability and too little on developing (technical) solutions. The top-down approach often results in an “explosion” of uncertainty and therefore complicates decision making. A more promising direction of adaptation would be a risk based approach. Future research should further develop and test an approach which starts with developing adaptation strategies based on current and future risks. These strategies should then be evaluated using a range

  1. Mineralizing urban net-zero water treatment: Field experience for energy-positive water management.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2016-12-01

    An urban net-zero water treatment system, designed for energy-positive water management, 100% recycle of comingled black/grey water to drinking water standards, and mineralization of hormones and other organics, without production of concentrate, was constructed and operated for two years, serving an occupied four-bedroom, four-bath university residence hall apartment. The system comprised septic tank, denitrifying membrane bioreactor (MBR), iron-mediated aeration (IMA) reactor, vacuum ultrafilter, and peroxone or UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation, with 14% rainwater make-up and concomitant discharge of 14% of treated water (ultimately for reuse in irrigation). Chemical oxygen demand was reduced to 12.9 ± 3.7 mg/L by MBR and further decreased to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L) by IMA and advanced oxidation treatment. The process produced a mineral water meeting 115 of 115 Florida drinking water standards that, after 10 months of recycle operation with ∼14% rainwater make-up, had a total dissolved solids of ∼500 mg/L, pH 7.8 ± 0.4, turbidity 0.12 ± 0.06 NTU, and NO3-N concentration 3.0 ± 1.0 mg/L. None of 97 hormones, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals analyzed were detected in the product water. For a typical single-home system with full occupancy, sludge pumping is projected on a 12-24 month cycle. Operational aspects, including disinfection requirements, pH evolution through the process, mineral control, advanced oxidation by-products, and applicability of point-of-use filters, are discussed. A distributed, peroxone-based NZW management system is projected to save more energy than is consumed in treatment, due largely to retention of wastewater thermal energy. Recommendations regarding design and operation are offered.

  2. Floodplain forest ecosystem before water management measures. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Penka, M.; Vyskot, M.; Klimo, E.; Vasicek, F.

    1985-01-01

    The ultimate motivation for the study which is the subject of the book was the need to draw conclusions on the impact of man's activity on natural ecosystems. The study forms part of the Czechoslovak project MAB 2, No. 86: Ecological Effects of Stream Water Regulation and Changing Methods of Land Management in the Region of the Floodplain Forest of Southern Moravia. The results characterize the situation of the south-Moravian floodplain forest in the period of fading uncontrolled floods before the extensive technical measures successively changed the moisture regime by eliminating inundation and lowering the level of underground water. This publication is unique in Czechoslovakia as it records the ecological situation in the floodplain forest prior to the major and irreversible changes. The study also documents the exceptional role played by the Central-European floodplain forest in maintaining the gene pool and structure of one thousand or so species in flora and fauna of an agricultural region.

  3. Assessing water reservoir management and development in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, F.; Quach, X.; Castelletti, A.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-04-01

    In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this work we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam), focusing on the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River. We first provide a general and mathematical description of the socio economic and physical system of the Red River Basin, including the three main objectives of hydropower production, flood control, and water supply, and using conceptual and data-driven modeling tools. Then, we analyze the historical operation of the HoaBinh reservoir and explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives, using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Results show that there exist several operating policies that prove Pareto-dominant over the historical one, that is, they can improve all three management objectives simultaneously. However, while the improvement is rather significant with respect to hydropower production and water supply, it is much more limited in terms of flood control. To understand whether this is due to structural constraints (insufficient storing capacity) or to the imperfect information system (uncertainty in forecasting future flows and thus anticipate floods), we assessed the infrastructural system potential by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization

  4. Incorporating groundwater-surface water interaction into river management models.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Allison; Rajaram, Harihar; Zagona, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Accurate representation of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to modeling low river flows in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Although a number of groundwater-surface water models exist, they are seldom integrated with river operation/management models. A link between the object-oriented river and reservoir operations model, RiverWare, and the groundwater model, MODFLOW, was developed to incorporate groundwater-surface water interaction processes, such as river seepage/gains, riparian evapotranspiration, and irrigation return flows, into a rule-based water allocations model. An explicit approach is used in which the two models run in tandem, exchanging data once in each computational time step. Because the MODFLOW grid is typically at a finer resolution than RiverWare objects, the linked model employs spatial interpolation and summation for compatible communication of exchanged variables. The performance of the linked model is illustrated through two applications in the Middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico where overappropriation impacts endangered species habitats. In one application, the linked model results are compared with historical data; the other illustrates use of the linked model for determining management strategies needed to attain an in-stream flow target. The flows predicted by the linked model at gauge locations are reasonably accurate except during a few very low flow periods when discrepancies may be attributable to stream gaging uncertainties or inaccurate documentation of diversions. The linked model accounted for complex diversions, releases, groundwater pumpage, irrigation return flows, and seepage between the groundwater system and canals/drains to achieve a schedule of releases that satisfied the in-stream target flow.

  5. Water quality management in the Kaoping River watershed, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Chen, K F; Liao, Y L; Chen, C W

    2003-01-01

    The Kaoping River basin is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. It is 171 km long and drains a catchment of more than 3,250 km2. Based on the current water quality analysis, the Kaoping River is heavily polluted. Concern about the deteriorating condition of the river led the Government of Taiwan to amend the relevant legislation and strengthen the enforcement of the discharge regulations to effectively manage the river and control the pollution. Investigation results demonstrate that both point and non-point source pollutants are now the causes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nutrients, and pathogens in the river. The main water pollution sources are livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, non-point source (NPS) pollutants from agricultural areas, and leachate from riverbank landfills. The current daily BOD, NH3-N, and TP loadings to Kaoping River are 74,700, 39,400, and 5,100 kg, respectively. However, the calculated BOD, NH3-N, and TP carrying capacities are 27,700, 4,200, and 600 kg per day. To protect public health and improve the river water quality, a comprehensive management and construction strategy is proposed. The proposed strategy includes the following measures to meet the calculated river carrying capacity: (1) a hog ban in the entire Kaoping River basin, (2) sewer system construction to achieve 30% of connection in the basin within 10 years, (3) removal of 10 riverbank landfills, and (4) enforcement of the industrial wastewater discharge standards. After the implementation of the proposed measures, the water quality should be significantly improved and the BOD and nutrient loadings can be reduced to below the calculated carrying capacities.

  6. Water Plan 2030: A Dynamic Education Model for Teaching Water Management Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupprecht, C.; Washburne, J.; Lansey, K.; Williams, A.

    2006-12-01

    Dynamic educational tools to assist teachers and students in recognizing the impacts of water management decisions in a realistic context are not readily available. Water policy issues are often complex and difficult for students trying to make meaningful connections between system components. To fill this need, we have developed a systems modeling-based educational decision support system (DSS) with supplementary materials. This model, called Water Plan 2030, represents a general semi-arid watershed; it allows users to examine water management alternatives by changing input values for various water uses and basin conditions and immediately receive graphical outputs to compare decisions. The main goal of our DSS model is to foster students' abilities to make knowledgeable decisions with regard to water resources issues. There are two reasons we have developed this model for traditional classroom settings. First, the DSS model provides teachers with a mechanism for educating students about inter-related hydrologic concepts, complex systems and facilitates discussion of water resources issues. Second, Water Plan 2030 encourages student discovery of cause/effect relationships in a dynamic, hands-on environment and develops the ability to realize the implications of water management alternatives. The DSS model has been utilized in an undergraduate, non-major science class for 5 course hours, each of the past 4 semesters. Accompanying the PC-based model are supplementary materials to improve the effectiveness of implementation by emphasizing important concepts and guiding learners through the model components. These materials include in-class tutorials, introductory questions, role-playing activities and homework extensions that have been revised after each user session, based on student and instructor feedback. Most recently, we have developed individual lessons that teach specific model functions and concepts. These modules provide teachers the flexibility to adapt

  7. Catchment Systems Engineering: A New Paradigm in Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, P. F.; Wilkinson, M. E.; Burke, S.; O'Donnell, G. M.; Jonczyk, J.; Barber, N.; Nicholson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Recent catchment initiatives have highlighted the need for new holistic approaches to sustainable water management. Catchment Systems Engineering seeks to describe catchment the function (or role) as the principal driver for evaluating how it should be managed in the future. Catchment Systems Engineering does not seek to re-establish a natural system but rather works with natural processes in order to engineer landscapes to accrue multiple benefits. The approach involves quantifying and assessing catchment change, impacts and most importantly, suggests an urgent and proactive agenda for future planning. In particular, an interventionist approach to managing hydrological flow pathways across scale is proposed. It is already accepted that future management will require a range of scientific expertise and full engagement with stakeholders. This inclusive concept under a Catchment Systems Engineering agenda forces any consortia to commit to actively changing and perturbing the catchment system and thus learn, in situ, how to manage the environment for collective benefits. The shared cost, the design, the implementation, the evaluation and any subsequent modifications should involve all relevant parties in the consortia. This joint ownership of a 'hands on' interventionist agenda to catchment change is at the core of Catchment Systems Engineering. In this paper we show a range of catchment engineering projects from the UK that have addressed multi-disciplinary approaches to flooding, pollution and ecosystem management, whilst maintaining economic food production. Examples using soft engineered features such as wetlands, ponds, woody debris dams and infiltration zones will be shown. Local scale demonstration activities, led by local champions, have proven to be an effective means of encouraging wider uptake. Evidence that impacts can be achieved at local catchment scale will be introduced. Catchment Systems Engineering is a concept that relies on all relevant parties

  8. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    doubling crop yields cannot be achieved without reallocation of available water resources. The findings have wider implications for climate change assessment and water resource management, because the region, with high population growth and limited capacity to adapt, are the primary targets of land and water grabs.

  9. Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley; Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.; Balliet, Ryan; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Newman, John

    2007-09-07

    on the cathode) and the resulting effects of the kinetic reactions. Next, at low currents, the behavior of a PEFC is dominated by kinetic losses. These losses mainly stem from the high overpotential of the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR). As the current is increased, ohmic losses become a factor in lowering the overall cell potential. These ohmic losses are mainly from ionic losses in the electrodes and separator. At high currents, mass-transport limitations become increasingly important. These losses are due to reactants not being able to reach the electrocatalytic sites. Key among the issues facing PEFCs today is water management. Due to their low operating temperature (< 100 C), water exists in both liquid and vapor phases. Furthermore, state-of-the-art membranes require the use of water to provide high conductivity and fast proton transport. Thus, there is a tradeoff between having enough water for proton conduction (ohmic losses), but not too much or else the buildup of liquid water will cause a situation in which the reactant-gas-transport pathways are flooded (mass-transfer limitations). Figure 3 displays experimental evidence of the effects of water management on performance. In Figure 3(a), a neutron image of water content displays flooding near the outlet of the cell due to accumulation of liquid water and a decrease in the gas flowrates. The serpentine flow field is clearly visible with the water mainly underneath the ribs. Figure 3(b) shows polarization performance at 0.4 and 0.8 V and high-frequency resistance at 0.8 V as a function of cathode humidification temperature. At low current densities, as the inlet air becomes more humid, the membrane resistance decreases, and the performance increases. At higher current densities, the same effect occurs; however, the higher temperatures and more humid air also results in a lower inlet oxygen partial pressure.

  10. Water and nitrogen management effects on water and nitrogen fluxes in Florida Flatwoods.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Gregory S; Shukla, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    The effects of water and fertilizer best management practices (BMPs) have not been quantified for groundwater nitrogen (N) beneath seepage irrigated vegetable fields with shallow water table environments. This effect was evaluated by a 3-yr study conducted in the Flatwoods of south Florida for watermelon ( cv. Mardi Gras and Tri-X 313) and tomato ( cv. BHN 586) using three treatments of water and inorganic fertilizer N (N) rates: (i) high fertilizer and water rates with seepage irrigation (HR), (ii) recommended fertilizer and water rates (BMP) with seepage irrigation (RR); and (iii) RR with subsurface drip irrigation (RR-SD). These treatments were implemented on six hydraulically isolated plots. The N rate treatments for high (HR) and recommended (RR and RR-SD) were based on a grower survey and BMP recommendations, respectively. Water applied, water table depth, and soil moisture content were regularly monitored for each treatment. Plant, soil, and groundwater N sampling and analyses were conducted for each season of the 3-yr study. The average water applied in HR (187 cm) was greater than RR (172 cm) and RR-SD (94 cm). Soil N maintained in crop beds for HR was significantly higher than RR and RR-SD. Soil solution analyses showed that N leached beneath HR (112 mg L) was greater ( = 0.053) than RR (76 mg L) and RR-SD (88 mg L). Shallow groundwater concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (NH-N + NO-N) were higher ( = 0.02) in HR (37 mg L) compared with RR (15 mg L) and RR-SD (19 mg L). Decreased N and water table levels can improve groundwater quality by reducing N leachate in shallow water table environments with seepage irrigated vegetable production systems.

  11. Planning and management of water resource programs. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning planning and management of water resource programs and projects at the local, regional, state, and national levels. The studies of water quality, drinking water, industrial water, and irrigation are presented. Topics include groundwater and surface water management, flood control, waste water treatment, hydroelectric power generation, sanitation and toxic hazards, models and risk assessment, and remote sensing technology. Worldwide water management is covered.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Planning and management of water resource programs. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning planning and management of water resource programs and projects at the local, regional, state, and national levels. The studies of water quality, drinking water, industrial water, and irrigation are presented. Topics include groundwater and surface water management, flood control, waste water treatment, hydroelectric power generation, sanitation and toxic hazards, models and risk assessment, and remote sensing technology. Worldwide water management is covered.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Sustainability Assessment of indicators for integrated water resources management.

    PubMed

    Pires, A; Morato, J; Peixoto, H; Botero, V; Zuluaga, L; Figueroa, A

    2017-02-01

    The scientific community strongly recommends the adoption of indicators for the evaluation and monitoring of progress towards sustainable development. Furthermore, international organizations consider that indicators are powerful decision-making tools. Nevertheless, the quality and reliability of the indicators depends on the application of adequate and appropriate criteria to assess them. The general objective of this study was to evaluate how indicators related to water use and management perform against a set of sustainability criteria. Our research identified 170 indicators related to water use and management. These indicators were assessed by an international panel of experts that evaluated whether they fulfil the four sustainability criteria: social, economic, environmental, and institutional. We employed an evaluation matrix that classified all indicators according to the DPSIR (Driving Forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses) framework. A pilot study served to test and approve the research methodology before carrying out the full implementation. The findings of the study show that 24 indicators comply with the majority of the sustainability criteria; 59 indicators are bi-dimensional (meaning that they comply with two sustainability criteria); 86 are one-dimensional indicators (fulfilling just one of the four sustainability criteria) and one indicator do not fulfil any of the sustainability criteria.

  14. Vegetated buffer management practice to improve surface water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Zhang, X.; Liu, X.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetated buffer best management practices (BMPs) installed in agricultural landscapes have been suggested as promising candidate tactics to reduce erosion and offsite transportation of agrochemicals. A wide range of vegetated buffer management practices have been installed in many areas to reduce agrochemical loss from applied fields, to filter sediments from tailwaters, and to deter their transportation to water bodies. This presentation will focus on reviewing vegetated buffers and their efficacies in reducing agrochemical offsite movements, with a discussion on the major factors influencing BMP efficacy. Percent removal by various BMPs ranged from 16.7 to 100% for sediments, 29 to 98% for nitrogen, 1 to 100% for phosphorus, and 27 to 100% for pesticides, depending on the setting. Preliminary meta-analyses on the data obtained from the literature review showed that vegetated buffers were mostly effective in removing sediment, followed by pesticides and nutrients. BMP efficacy is mainly influenced by buffer width, buffer slope, rainfall and vegetation. As for sediment reduction, the results based on the limited data showed that buffer width and buffer slope are two major factors influencing mitigation efficacy of vegetated buffers. The results also showed that a design with 10-m width and a 9% slope optimizes the sediment trapping capability of vegetated buffers. The meta-analysis results of this study could provide specific recommendations such as buffer width and slope for future vegetated buffer BMP construction to increase soil and water conservation.

  15. Managing the water quality of the Kafue River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambole, Michael Sankwe

    about the alleged loss of taste and the decrease in both the fish catch and size in these areas of the Kafue River. The communities along the same stretch have also complained about the objectionable taste of the river water [Report of the Proceedings of the First Multi-sectoral Workshop on the Effects of Environmental Pollution and Degradation on the Kafue River Basin (KRB) on the Community in the Kafue Town Area, AREZ, 2001]. This paper reviews the water quality of the Kafue River resulting from anthropogenic activities and proposes the framework for the sustainable management of river water quality.

  16. Public or private water management: Experience from different European Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackerbauer, Johann

    2008-11-01

    Faced with liberalisation proposals and an increasing internationalisation of water resource management, the question arises as to how a change of the regulatory framework would affect the market structure and the supply conditions in this area. While the term "privatisation" relates to the ownership structure of the providers, the term "liberalisation" implies extensive free market ideas. Privatisation involves the outsourcing of public services from the public authorities to a privately organised organisation. Through this, however, nothing needs to change in terms of the market or the intensity of competition for the commodity in question. Within the framework of privatisation it can also occur that the public monopoly is only transferred to a private monopoly. The term "liberalisation" in addition refers to the basic regulatory constraints: liberalisation signifies the cessation of limitations to competition and supply monopolies, and open competition between several suppliers for the consumers. In the EU-15, the only country where the provision of operational services in the water supply has been totally passed to the private sector is the UK, but this is only true for UK and Wales. Another singular case is France, where there is a mix of mainly private operating companies and municipalities which have divided the regional supply areas among themselves. In six other EU-15 countries where some privatisation took place, either the municipalities or (majority) publicly owned companies are controlling water supply. In the remaining seven countries, the water supply is organised by municipality companies only. In an international comparison, there are three basic models for the regulation of natural monopolies in the public water supply: the Anglo-Saxon, the French and the German model. The delimitation between supervisory bodies and operations in the water supply is strongest in the first model and weakest in the last. This has led to three basic types of

  17. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hagy, J.; Spiering, B.; Barnes, B.; Hu, C.; Le, C.; McEachron, L.; Underwood, L. W.; Ellis, C.; Fisher, B.

    2013-12-01

    Optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are increasingly available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data for local and regional coastal water quality management. Our presentation will highlight two recent applications of optical data and remote sensing to water quality decision-making in coastal regions of the state of Florida; (1) informing the development of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria for the state of Florida and (2) informing the rezoning of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. These efforts involved building up the underlying science to demonstrate the applicability of satellite data as well as an outreach component to educate decision-makers about the use, utility, and uncertainties of remote sensing data products. Scientific developments included testing existing algorithms and generating new algorithms for water clarity and chlorophylla in case II (CDOM or turbidity dominated) estuarine and coastal waters and demonstrating the accuracy of remote sensing data products in comparison to traditional field based measurements. Including members from decision-making organizations on the research team and interacting with decision-makers early and often in the process were key factors for the success of the outreach efforts and the eventual adoption of satellite data into the data records and analyses used in decision-making. Florida coastal water bodies (black boxes) for which remote sensing imagery were applied to derive numeric nutrient criteria and in situ observations (black dots) used to validate imagery. Florida ocean color applied to development of numeric nutrient criteria

  18. Analysis of the histone cluster in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): evidence for a divergent evolution of two canonical histone clusters.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Manuel Alejandro; Iziga, Roger; Portela, Silvia; Cross, Ismael; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Manchado, Manuel; Rebordinos, Laureana

    2016-12-10

    The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is commercially very important, and is a priority species for aquaculture product diversification. The main histone cluster was found in two BAC clones. However, two replacement histones (H1.0 and H3.3) were found in another BAC clone. Different types of canonical H2A and H2B have been found in one species for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the different H1, H2A and H2B types were all more similar to each other than to canonical histones from other species. The canonical H3 of S. senegalensis differs from subtypes H3.1 and H3.2 in humans in the residue 96, in which a serine residue is found instead of an alanine. This same polymorphism has been found only in Danio rerio. The S. senegalensis karyotype comprises 21 pairs of chromosomes, distributed in 3 metacentric pairs, 2 submetacentric pairs, 4 subtelocentric pairs and 12 acrocentric pairs. The two BAC clones that contain the clusters of canonical histones have both been mapped in the largest metacentric pair, and mFISH confirmed the co-location with the dmrt1 gene in that pair. Three chromosome markers have been identified, which in addition to those previously described, account for 18 chromosome pairs with markers in S. senegalensis.

  19. Erythrocyte invasion profiles are associated with a common invasion ligand polymorphism in Senegalese isolates of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Lantos, P M; Ahouidi, A D; Bei, A K; Jennings, C V; Sarr, O; Ndir, O; Wirth, D F; Mboup, S; Duraisingh, M T

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites use multiple ligand-receptor interactions to invade human erythrocytes. Variant expression levels of members of the PfRh and PfEBA ligand families are associated with the use of different erythrocyte receptors, defining invasion pathways. Here we analyse a major polymorphism, a large sequence deletion in the PfRh2b ligand, and erythrocyte invasion profiles in uncultured Senegalese isolates. Parasites vary considerably in their use of sialic acid-containing and protease-sensitive erythrocyte receptors for invasion. The erythrocyte selectivity index was not related to invasion pathway usage, while parasite multiplication rate was associated with enhanced use of a trypsin-resistant invasion pathway. PfRh2b protein was expressed in all parasite isolates, although the PfRh2b deletion was present in a subset (approximately 68%). Parasites with the PfRh2b deletion were found to preferentially utilize protease-resistant pathways for erythrocyte invasion. Sialic acid-independent invasion is reduced in parasites with the PfRh2b deletion, but only in isolates derived from blood group O patients. Our results suggest a significant role for PfRh2b sequence polymorphism in discriminating between alternative erythrocyte receptors for invasion and as a possible determinant of virulence.

  20. QMRA and water safety management: review of application in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Petterson, S R; Ashbolt, N J

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), the assessment of microbial risks when model inputs and estimated health impacts are explicitly quantified, is a valuable tool to support water safety plans (WSP). In this paper, research studies undertaken on the application of QMRA in drinking water systems were reviewed, highlighting their relevance for WSP. The important elements for practical implementation include: the data requirements to achieve sufficient certainty to support decision-making; level of expertise necessary to undertake the required analysis; and the accessibility of tools to support wider implementation, hence these aspects were the focus of the review. Recommendations to support the continued and growing application of QMRA to support risk management in the water sector are provided.

  1. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  2. Water Management: Sacrificing Normative Practice Subverting the Traditions of Water Apportionment-'Whose Justice? Which Rationality?'.

    PubMed

    Harandi, Mehdi F; Nia, Mahdi G; de Vries, Marc J

    2015-10-01

    Since current water governance patterns mandate cooperation and partnership within and between the actors in the hydrosystems, supplementary models are necessary to distinguish the roles and the rules of indoor actions which is why we extend a theory in the frameworks of philosophy of technology. This analysis is empirically grounded on the problematic hydrosystems of a river in central Iran, Zayandehrud. Following a modernist-holistic-based analysis, it illustrates how values in the water apportionment mechanisms are being reshaped. The article by using the theory of normative practice has scrutinised the tasks and the rules of the old and new water-management systems, Mirab. Subsequently according to such philosophical theory, it has argued that the conflicts over the cases are due to interference of structural and directional norms within them.

  3. The research and development of water resources management information system based on ArcGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weiqun; Gao, Xiaoli; Li, Yuzhi; Cui, Zhencai

    According to that there are large amount of data, complexity of data type and format in the water resources management, we built the water resources calculation model and established the water resources management information system based on the advanced ArcGIS and Visual Studio.NET development platform. The system can integrate the spatial data and attribute data organically, and manage them uniformly. It can analyze spatial data, inquire by map and data bidirectionally, provide various charts and report forms automatically, link multimedia information, manage database etc. . So it can provide spatial and static synthetical information services for study, management and decision of water resources, regional geology and eco-environment etc..

  4. Assessing water reservoirs management and development in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Pianosi, F.; Quach, X.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries water is a key renewable resource to complement carbon-emitting energy production and support food security in the face of demand pressure from fast-growing industrial production and urbanization. To cope with undergoing changes, water resources development and management have to be reconsidered by enlarging their scope across sectors and adopting effective tools to analyze current and projected infrastructure potential and operation strategies. In this paper we use multi-objective deterministic and stochastic optimization to assess the current reservoir operation and planned capacity expansion in the Red River Basin (Northern Vietnam), and to evaluate the potential improvement by the adoption of a more sophisticated information system. To reach this goal we analyze the historical operation of the major controllable infrastructure in the basin, the HoaBinh reservoir on the Da River, explore re-operation options corresponding to different tradeoffs among the three main objectives (hydropower production, flood control and water supply), using multi-objective optimization techniques, namely Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm. Finally, we assess the structural system potential and the need for capacity expansion by application of Deterministic Dynamic Programming. Results show that the current operation can only be relatively improved by advanced optimization techniques, while investment should be put into enlarging the system storage capacity and exploiting additional information to inform the operation.

  5. Status Report on Ex-Vessel Coolability and Water Management

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Robb, K. R.

    2016-09-15

    Specific to BWR plants, current accident management guidance calls for flooding the drywell to a level of approximately 1.2 m (4 feet) above the drywell floor once vessel breach has been determined. While this action can help to submerge ex-vessel core debris, it can also result in flooding the wetwell and thereby rendering the wetwell vent path unavailable. An alternate strategy is being developed in the industry guidance for responding to the severe accident capable vent Order, EA-13-109. The alternate strategy being proposed would throttle the flooding rate to achieve a stable wetwell water level while preserving the wetwell vent path. The overall objective of this work is to upgrade existing analytical tools (i.e. MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH - which have been used as part of the DOE-sponsored Fukushima accident analyses) in order to provide flexible, analytically capable, and validated models to support the development of water throttling strategies for BWRs that are aimed at keeping ex-vessel core debris covered with water while preserving the wetwell vent path.

  6. Battling Arrow's Paradox to Discover Robust Water Management Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Hadka, D.

    2013-12-01

    -objective) to show whether or not aggregating performance measures biases decision making. In this study, we explore this hypothesis using an urban water portfolio management case study in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. The diagnostic analysis shows that modern self-adaptive MOEA search is efficient, effective, and reliable for the more complex many-objective LRGV planning formulations. Results indicate that although many classical water systems planning frameworks seek to account for multiple objectives, the common practice of reducing the problem into one or more highly aggregated performance measures can severely and negatively bias planning decisions.

  7. Modeling of water management and hydrological properties of orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A.; Tamás, J.; Soltész, M.

    2012-04-01

    Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Eastern part of Hungary and an 80 hectare Bosc and Williams pear orchard in the South Western part of Hungary. in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer and soil physical parameters on soil water regime, supporting the water management of the orchard on hillsides and to reduce the effect of high precipitation intensity on orchards. The total drainable water regime is 920 m3 ha-1 from the upper 40cm soil layer and 1460 m3 ha-1 from the upper 70 cm soil layer. This amount of water should have been drained several times in 2010 to prevent the orchard from the negative effect of surplus water. Since the conventional horizontal drainage system can damage the present apple orchard significantly, the harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by the loosening of the compacted soil layer in the 50-70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage. Therefore one, solo knife coulter is suggested to use at 80-90cm depth. In the case of the hillside a possible replantation of the orchard, pear trees should be planted along the contour lines, so as to avoid erosion and tree damage caused by water erosion. The irrigation of the orchard would be much easier in this case due to better establishment of the irrigation system and lower pipe-line pressure lost. To decrease the effect of erosion, the levels of the existing farm tracks have to be developed with reverse gradient. With the present situation, distributing small dosse of fertilizer should be utilized at the ridge spots, while in the case of convex parts of the valley, smaller doses of nutrients should be used. These digital data can be the basis for a precision spatial decision support system. This research was funded by TECH_08-A3/2-2008-0373 and TECH_08-A4/2-2008-0138 projects.

  8. Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

    2012-10-11

    In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management.

  9. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) To provide oversight and guidance during the development of basin-wide management plans for... recommendations for improvements in basin-wide water control management. (g) Board authority. The Mississippi... Management Board. 223.1 Section 223.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) To provide oversight and guidance during the development of basin-wide management plans for... recommendations for improvements in basin-wide water control management. (g) Board authority. The Mississippi... Management Board. 223.1 Section 223.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) To provide oversight and guidance during the development of basin-wide management plans for... recommendations for improvements in basin-wide water control management. (g) Board authority. The Mississippi... Management Board. 223.1 Section 223.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 33 CFR 223.1 - Mississippi River Water Control Management Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) To provide oversight and guidance during the development of basin-wide management plans for... recommendations for improvements in basin-wide water control management. (g) Board authority. The Mississippi... Management Board. 223.1 Section 223.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. Water Budget Managers Report to Northwest Power Planning Council, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, Malcolm H., Maher, Mark

    1985-11-01

    1985 was the third year of operation of the Water Budget Center under the guidance and supervision of the fishery agencies and tribal Water Budget Managers, and the second year of formal water budget implementation. The Water Budget Managers also directed the Smolt Monitoring and Water Budget Evaluation Programs of Section 304(d) of the Fish and wildlife Program. The Water Budget Managers work to implement policies and priorities of the state and federal fishery agencies and Indian tribes in carrying out applicable measures of the Fish and Wildlife Program. This report summarizes Water Budget Manager activities in implementing program measures, including 1985 flow conditions, water budget usage and spill management and problems encountered, and the 1985 Smolt Monitoring Program and preliminary results. Recommendations are included.

  14. Some aspects of integrated water resources management in central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydarova, V.; Penkova, N.; Pak, E.; Poberejsky, L.; Beltrao, J.

    2003-04-01

    Two main tasks are to be implemented for elaboration of the governmental water distribution criteria in Central Asia: 1 -development of the common methodological basis for the intergovernmental water distribution; and 2 - to reopen and continue both theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the wastewater reuse. The prospects of socio economic development of all Central Asian countries are substantially defined by the water resources availability. The water resources of Central Asia belong, mainly, watersheds of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya rivers. The basic flow of Amu Darya is formed in territory of Tajikistan. Then the Amu Darya river proceeds along border of Afghanistan with Uzbekistan, crosses Turkmenistan and again comes back to Uzbekistan and then runs into the Aral Sea. The Syr-Darya is second river on the water discharge and is first river on length in Central Asia. The basic flow of Syr Darya is formed in territory of Kyrgyzstan. Then the Syr-Darya river crosses of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and runs into the Aral Sea in territory of Kazakhstan. During the Soviet Union the water resources of two river watersheds were divided among the Central Asian republics on the basis of the general plans developed by the center in Moscow. In the beginning of 90s years, after taking of sovereignty by the former Soviet republics, the unified control system of water resources management was abolished and the various approaches to its transformation caused by features of the national economy developing, elected models of transition from command to market mechanisms of economic activity, and also specificity of political and social processes in each of the states of region were planned. The distinctions of modern priorities of economic development of the states of region have generated the contradiction of interests in the intergovernmental water distribution that can in the long term become complicated even more in connection with the increasing of water

  15. Irrigation in water restricted regions: Managing water use efficiency with limited available water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Political and social pressures to increase water-use efficiency in agriculture from plant to regional scales are reaching critical levels. A region where these pressures have been extremely acute is most semi-arid parts of Texas where reliable crop production is possible only through irrigation. Re...

  16. Complex water management in modern agriculture: Trends in the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Samuel J; Haacker, Erin M K; Kendall, Anthony D; Deines, Jillian M; Pei, Lisi; Cotterman, Kayla A; Li, Haoyang; Liu, Xiao; Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W

    2016-10-01

    In modern agriculture, the interplay between complex physical, agricultural, and socioeconomic water use drivers must be fully understood to successfully manage water supplies on extended timescales. This is particularly evident across large portions of the High Plains Aquifer where groundwater levels have declined at unsustainable rates despite improvements in both the efficiency of water use and water productivity in agricultural practices. Improved technology and land use practices have not mitigated groundwater level declines, thus water management strategies must adapt accordingly or risk further resource loss. In this study, we analyze the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer as a framework to isolate the major drivers that have shaped the history, and will direct the future, of water use in modern agriculture. Based on this analysis, we conclude that future water management strategies can benefit from: (1) prioritizing farmer profit to encourage decision-making that aligns with strategic objectives, (2) management of water as both an input into the water-energy-food nexus and a key incentive for farmers, (3) adaptive frameworks that allow for short-term objectives within long-term goals, (4) innovative strategies that fit within restrictive political frameworks, (5) reduced production risks to aid farmer decision-making, and (6) increasing the political desire to conserve valuable water resources. This research sets the foundation to address water management as a function of complex decision-making trends linked to the water-energy-food nexus. Water management strategy recommendations are made based on the objective of balancing farmer profit and conserving water resources to ensure future agricultural production.

  17. Efficient management of municipal water: water scarcity in Taiz City, Yemen - issues and options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noaman, A.; Al-Sharjabe, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    The city of Taiz is the third largest city in Yemen, located about 250 km south of Sana'a and about 90 km inland from the Red Sea. Taiz is situated on the foothills and slopes of the Jabal Saber Mountain at elevations between 1100 and 1600 m a.s.l. Its population is rapidly increasing and is expected to grow from about 580 000 in 2012 to over 1 000 000 in 2020. Water supply is the most pressing problem in the city of Taiz today due to the significant shortages of supply (the average consumption is 23 L/d) caused by the depletion of existing water resources and the lack of a clear direction in dealing with the problem. This forces frequent service interruptions (30-40 days) and the service is rarely extended to new users (only 57% of the population are covered). Sanitation is another daunting problem. The (poorly maintained) sewerage network covers only 44% of the population. In several unsewered areas to the north, east and west of the city, raw sewage is disposed of directly into wadis, which causes a health hazard and threatens to contaminate groundwater resources. The proper computation of demand and supply is based on the various fields. It was performed under this study with a particular model: the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). WEAP is supported by a geographical information system (GIS). The available and relevant data on poverty and social indicators, water use and sources, surface runoff, surface and groundwater availability, groundwater depletion and management, crop production areas, soil cover, maps, and meteorological information were gathered from a number of sources. There are only two ways to decrease the water deficit: by increasing water supply or decreasing the water demand. Any adaptation project aims at one of the two. Six projects are proposed, with three in each category (1, 2 and 3 to decrease demand, and 4, 5 and 6 to increase supply): - Project 1: Improvement of

  18. The agronomic science of spatial and temporal water management:How much, when and where

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agronomic sciences are those that are applied to soil and water management and crop production, including soil, water and plant sciences and related disciplines. The science of spatial and temporal water management includes many agronomic science factors, including soil physics, biophysics, plan...

  19. 77 FR 27815 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY..., ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water.'' This LR-ISG... stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. The NRC published Revision 2...

  20. 76 FR 68499 - Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Office of the Secretary Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Water and Science, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Cooperative Watershed Management Program whose goals are to improve water quality and ecological...

  1. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY... Refuge Water Management Plans (Refuge Criteria). Several entities have each developed a Refuge Water... requirements of these Refuge Criteria (see list in Supplementary Information below). Willow Creek Mutual...

  2. Transforming Agricultural Water Management in Support of Ecosystem Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Edward; Capece, John

    2009-11-20

    Threats to ecosystems are not local; they have to be handled with the global view in mind. Eliminating Florida farms, in order to meet its environmental goals, would simply move the needed agricultural production overseas, where environmentally less sensitive approaches are often used, thus yielding no net ecological benefit. South Florida is uniquely positioned to lead in the creation of sustainable agricultural systems, given its population, technology, and environmental restoration imperative. Florida should therefore aggressively focus on developing sustainable systems that deliver both agricultural production and environmental services. This presentation introduces a new farming concept of dealing with Florida’s agricultural land issues. The state purchases large land areas in order to manage the land easily and with ecosystem services in mind. The proposed new farming concept is an alternative to the current “two sides of the ditch” model, in which on one side are yield-maximizing, input-intensive, commodity price-dependent farms, while on the other side are publicly-financed, nutrient-removing treatment areas and water reservoirs trying to mitigate the externalized costs of food production systems and other human-induced problems. The proposed approach is rental of the land back to agriculture during the restoration transition period in order to increase water storage (allowing for greater water flow-through and/or water storage on farms), preventing issues such as nutrients removal, using flood-tolerant crops and reducing soil subsidence. Since the proposed approach is still being developed, there exist various unknown variables and considerations. However, working towards a long-term sustainable scenario needs to be the way ahead, as the threats are global and balancing the environment and agriculture is a serious global challenge.

  3. Selected techniques for monitoring water movement through unsaturated alluvium during managed aquifer recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nawikas, Joseph M.; O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Burgess, Matthew K.

    2016-10-21

    Managed aquifer recharge is used to augment natural recharge to aquifers. It can be used to replenish aquifers depleted by pumping or to store water during wetter years for withdrawal during drier years. Infiltration from ponds is a commonly used, inexpensive approach for managed aquifer recharge.At some managed aquifer-recharge sites, the time when infiltrated water arrives at the water table is not always clearly shown by water-level data. As part of site characterization and operation, it can be desirable to track downward movement of infiltrated water through the unsaturated zone to identify when it arrives at the water table.

  4. Differential effects of transient constant light-dark conditions on daily rhythms of Period and Clock transcripts during Senegalese sole metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Robles, Águeda J; Whitmore, David; Pendón, Carlos; Muñoz-Cueto, José A

    2013-06-01

    Studies on the developmental onset of the teleost circadian clock have been carried out in zebrafish and, recently, in rainbow trout and Senegalese sole, where rhythms of clock gene expression entrained by light-dark (LD) cycles have been reported from the first days post fertilization. However, investigations of molecular clock rhythms during crucial developmental phases such as metamorphosis are absent in vertebrates. In this study, we documented the daily expression profile of Per1, Per2, Per3, and Clock during Senegalese sole pre-, early-, middle-, and post-metamorphic stages under LD 14:10 cycles (LD group), as well as under transient exposure to constant light (LL-LD group) or constant dark (DD-LD group) conditions. Our results revealed that robust rhythms of clock genes were maintained along the metamorphic process, although with declining amplitudes and expression levels. All daily profiles were affected by transient constant conditions, in particular Per1, Per3, and Clock amplitudes and Per2 acrophase. Rhythm parameters were progressively restored upon reversion to LD cycles but even after 9 d under cycling conditions, a prolonged effect on clock function was observed, especially in the LL-LD group. These results reflect the differential sensitivity of clock machinery of sole to transitory light cues, being Per1 and Per3 predominantly clock regulated and supporting the role of Per2 as part of the light input pathway. Interestingly, there is no reversal in the phase of clock gene rhythms between pre- and post-metamorphic animals that would be coincident with the switch from diurnal to nocturnal locomotor activity, which occurs in this species just before the beginning of this process. Whether specialized central pacemakers dictate the phase of locomotor activity or this control is exerted outside of the core clock mechanism remains to be elucidated. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining cycling light-dark conditions in aquaculture practices

  5. Risk management program for the 283-W water treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN, W.E.

    1999-05-11

    This Risk Management (RM) Program covers the 283-W Water Treatment Facility (283W Facility), located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. A RM Program is necessary for this facility because it stores chlorine, a listed substance, in excess of or has the potential to exceed the threshold quantities defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 68 (EPA, 1998). The RM Program contains data that will be used to prepare a RM Plan, which is required by 40 CFR 68. The RM Plan is a summary of the RM Program information, contained within this document, and will be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ultimately for distribution to the public. The RM Plan will be prepared and submitted separately from this document.

  6. Land Cover Monitoring for Water Resources Management in Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguel, Irina; Navarro, Ana; Rolim, Joao; Catalao, Joao; Silva, Joel; Painho, Marco; Vekerdy, Zoltan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of improved temporal resolution and multi-source satellite data (SAR and optical) on land cover mapping and monitoring for efficient water resources management. For that purpose, we developed an integrated approach based on image classification and on NDVI and SAR backscattering (VV and VH) time series for land cover mapping and crop's irrigation requirements computation. We analysed 28 SPOT-5 Take-5 images with high temporal revisiting time (5 days), 9 Sentinel-1 dual polarization GRD images and in-situ data acquired during the crop growing season. Results show that the combination of images from different sources provides the best information to map agricultural areas. The increase of the images temporal resolution allows the improvement of the estimation of the crop parameters, and then, to calculate of the crop's irrigation requirements. However, this aspect was not fully exploited due to the lack of EO data for the complete growing season.

  7. When private water rights become a public asset: Stakeholder perspectives on the fairness of environmental water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukasiewicz, Anna; Dare, Melanie (Lain)

    2016-05-01

    This paper explores environmental water management as a social process of navigating conflicting interests through a distributive justice lens. Environmental water management can achieve substantial ecological outcomes and address ongoing river degradation caused by past management and climate change; however it also causes specific and substantial burdens and benefits to different groups of stakeholders. Given that in most developed countries the majority of land is under private tenure, environmental watering must have active cooperation of private landholders to achieve its ecological outcomes and thus it must effectively deal with an array of vested interests. Australia's reforms aimed at reallocating water from production to the environment have resulted in significant considerable volumes of environmental water. In the state of New South Wales, this water is managed by the state and national governments with the help of five Environmental Water Advisory Groups made up of a wide representation of interests. In this paper, we explore the perceptions of environmental, government, irrigator and grazing representatives, which demonstrate conflicting principles over how environmental water should be distributed. We detail how government water managers reconcile competing distributive principles of equity (ensuring that no one is disproportionally affected or benefits unduly), need (achieving environmental outcomes) and efficiency (prioritizing operational feasibility) in order to maintain the social acceptability of environmental water.

  8. Managing water quality under drought conditions in the Llobregat River Basin.

    PubMed

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Munné, Antoni; Manzano, Andreu; Arnau, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín

    2015-01-15

    The primary effects of droughts on river basins include both depleted quantity and quality of the available water resources, which can render water resources useless for human needs and simultaneously damage the environment. Isolated water quality analyses limit the action measures that can be proposed. Thus, an integrated evaluation of water management and quality is warranted. In this study, a methodology consisting of two coordinated models is used to combine aspects of water resource allocation and water quality assessment. Water management addresses water allocation issues by considering the storage, transport and consumption elements. Moreover, the water quality model generates time series of concentrations for several pollutants according to the water quality of the runoff and the demand discharges. These two modules are part of the AQUATOOL decision support system shell for water resource management. This tool facilitates the analysis of the effects of water management and quality alternatives and scenarios on the relevant variables in a river basin. This paper illustrates the development of an integrated model for the Llobregat River Basin. The analysis examines the drought from 2004 to 2008, which is an example of a period when the water system was quantitative and qualitatively stressed. The performed simulations encompass a wide variety of water management and water quality measures; the results provide data for making informed decisions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the importance of combining these measures depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system.

  9. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management.

  10. Scenarios of Future Water use on Mediterranean Islands based on an Integrated Assessment of Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The availability of water in sufficient quantities and adequate quality presents considerable problems on Mediterranean islands. Because of their isolation and thus the impossibility to draw on more distant or more divers aquifers, they rely entirely on precipitation as natural replenishing mechanism. Recent observations indicate decreasing precipitation, increasing evaporation and steadily growing demand for water on the islands. Future climate change will exacerbate this problem, thus increasing the already pertinent vulnerability to droughts. Responsible planning of water management strategies requires scenarios of future supply and demand through an integrated assessment including climate scenarios based on regional climate modeling as well as scenarios on changes in societal and economical determinants of water demand. Constructing such strategies necessitates a thorough understanding about the interdependencies and feedbacks between physical/hydrological and socio-economic determinants of water balances on an island. This has to be based on a solid understanding of past and present developments of these drivers. In the framework of the EU-funded MEDIS project (Towards sustainable water use on Mediterranean Islands: addressing conflicting demands and varying hydrological, social and economic conditions, EVK1-CT-2001-00092), detailed investigations on present vulnerabilities and adaptation strategies to droughts have been carried out on Mallorca, Corsica, Sicily, Crete and Cyprus. This was based on an interdisciplinary study design including hydrological, geophysical, agricultural-, social and political sciences investigations. A central element of the study has been the close interaction with stakeholders on the islands and their contribution to strategy formulation. An important result has been a specification of vulnerability components including: a physical/environmental-, an economical/regulatory- and a social/institutional/political component. Their

  11. An evaluation of rural communities’ water use patterns and preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machingambi, Memory; Manzungu, Emmanuel

    This paper makes an evaluation of rural communities’ preparedness to manage domestic water sources in Zimbabwe, as a way of assessing rural people’s willingness to contribute in cash and kind to safe and clean domestic water. A questionnaire was administered to respondents in two areas that have different rainfall regimes, as water availability was hypothesised to affect its management. This was complemented by interviews with personnel from government and semi-government institutions involved in provision of domestic water in rural areas. Information gathered included respondents’ awareness of the water resource ownership and supply structure at the community and national level, roles played by various institutions in domestic water provision, water sources ownership, number and distribution of water points, water use patterns, water based socio-economic activities and respondents’ willingness to contribute towards establishment, operation and maintenance of water points. Respondents attributed water ownership to God, the government, the community, ancestors, chiefs, ZINWA, RDCS and no one. Boreholes, shallow and deep wells, rivers, dams, canals and taps were mainly used for primary water uses like drinking, cooking, bathing, livestock watering, gardening and laundry. Brick making, gardening and irrigating plots were classified as commercial water uses because they were used to generate income. Views on water ownership affected perceptions towards establishment, maintenance and management of water points. There was a higher preference for community than individual participation except for canals and taps. The responsibility for water point establishment and repairs were regarded as the responsibility of the government, community and donors. Respondents without piped water had higher WTP amounts for the repair and desiltation of water points than those with piped water. This showed a willingness to ensure that the working order of water points was assured

  12. Transfer-of-learning effect with the tactual performance test using familiar and unfamiliar shapes with American, Lao, and Senegalese children.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Michael J; Ryan, Kelly A; Aldridge, Kelly A; Giordani, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The Tactual Performance Test (TPT) and a version of the TPT with unfamiliar geometric designs were presented to American, Lao, and Senegalese children. The nonstandard TPT was designed to evaluate the importance of familiarity of forms in improved performance between successive TPT learning trials. The nonstandard board was more difficult for all the groups, with poorer time-per-block performance across learning trials and poorer TPT memory measures. Irrespective, the transfer-of-learning (ToL) effect for the standard and nonstandard boards was consistent for all the cultural groups. ToL effect is not dependent on familiarity of the TPT forms and is consistent across cultures.

  13. Measuring what we manage - the importance of hydrological data to water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, B.

    2015-04-01

    Water resources cannot be managed, unless we know where they are, in what quantity and quality, and how variable they are likely to be in the foreseeable future. Data from hydrological networks are used by public and private sectors for a variety of different applications. This paper discusses the value proposition behind the collection, analysis and use of hydrological data in support of these applications. The need for hydrological data and the requirements for the data are outlined, and information is provided on topics such as status of networks and data access and sharing. This paper outlines elements of the contribution by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to hydrological data collection and covers aspects related to quality management in the collection of hydrological data, especially regarding streamflow gauging, network design and capacity building for services delivery. It should be noted that the applications which make use of hydrological data may also be significantly impacted by climate change.

  14. Climate Change Information Dashboards for Water Resource Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buja, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    It is in the context of its application that one needs to determine if climate information is of high quality and ultimately useful. Therefore, it is important that the intersection between data providers and data consumers is structured in form of an iterative and collaborative exchange where science and application viewpoints can be brought together. A traditional "loading dock"-style hand-off of data fails to optimally inform decisions. It is now broadly recognized that a collaborative, open exchange is better suited to generate credible and salient products and knowledge that can be more confidently used in decisions. But in order for this exchange to be successful in practice, it needs to be sufficiently efficient to actually facilitate an exploratory process that is inherently iterative to determine the most informative products. It also requires a transparent approach that is easily understood and communicated. We will present prototypes of Climate Information Dashboards that collect on a single page to integrate a suite of key climate information for resource managers. The content of dashboards is based on standardized products that can be assembled to meet specific needs. They were co-designed with the water resource managers and are tailored to selected management and decision topics. The visualizations are tuned to quickly provide the basic information, yet below individual diagnostics are more detailed analyses that can be consulted. These dashboards offer a flexible way to connect decision-makers to climate model output. Conversely, such dashboards can also be applied to inform model development by providing insight into a suite of key characteristics of model performance that have been identified as critical by a sector.

  15. Integration of uncertainties in water and flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höllermann, B.; Evers, M.

    2015-06-01

    Water management is challenged by hydrological and socio-economic change and hence often forced to make costly and enduring decisions under uncertainty. Thus, thinking beyond current acknowledged and known limits is important to consider these changes and the dynamic of socio-hydrological interactions. For example, reservoir management aiming at flood reduction and mitigation has to cope with many different aspects of uncertainty. The question is to what extent can, do and should these uncertainties have implications on planning and decision-making? If practice recognises uncertainties they frequently use risk based decision approaches to acknowledge and handle them by e.g. relating them to other decision relevant factors, while science is mostly preoccupied in reducing these uncertainties. Both views are of relevance and a risk focused approach is needed to bridge the different perspectives covering all significant aspects of uncertainty. Based on a review of various characteristics and perceptions of uncertainty, this paper proposes a new analytical framework where the various aspects of uncertainty are condensed and a risk perspective is added. It thus goes beyond a pure typology and provides an overview of neuralgic points and their location and appearance during the decision-making process. Moreover this paper supports a structured and evaluated knowledge assessment and knowledge transfer for informed decision-making and points out potential fields of action and uncertainty reduction. Reservoir management targeting at flood prevention is used as an illustration to present the analytical framework, which is also amended by the needs and demands of practitioners, using first results of expert interviews.

  16. MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT; II. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: HALOACETIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk management of drinking water relies on quality analytical data. Analytical methodology can often be adapted from environmental monitoring sources. However, risk management sometimes presents special analytical challenges because data may be needed from a source for which n...

  17. Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Water and Wastewater Utility Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guidebook is designed to introduce rural and small water and wastewater systems to the key areas of effectively managed systems. It provides background information on ten key management areas, instruction, and assistance.

  18. Receptivity to transformative change in the Dutch urban water management sector.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, R E; Dahm, R J; Icke, J; Goetgeluk, R W; Jansen, S J T; van de Ven, F H M

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, the need for transformative change in urban water management is acknowledged by scientists and policy makers. The effects of climate change and developments such as urbanization, the European Water Framework Directive, and societal concerns about the sustainability of urban water system force the sector to adapt. In The Netherlands, a shift towards integration of spatial planning and water management can be observed. Despite major changes in water management policy and approach, changes in the physical urban water management infrastructure remain limited to incremental solutions and demonstration projects. Policy studies show that institutional factors and professional perceptions are important factors for application of innovations in urban water management. An online survey among Dutch urban water management professionals demonstrates that according to most respondents, optimization of the current system is sufficient to achieve both European and national objectives for sustainable urban water management. The respondents are most concerned with the effects of climate change on urban water systems. In contrast to current policy of the national government, priority factors that should be addressed to achieve a more sustainable urban water system are improving knowledge of local urban water systems, capacity building, developing trust between stakeholders, and improving involvement of elected officials and citizens.

  19. The National Study of Water Management during Drought: Report on the First Year of Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Experiences in the United States in 19R6 and 1988- Water Resources Research Institute Report No. 250; University of North Carolina; 119pp. 4. Grigg, Neil and...Predicting and Managing for Drought; pp. 41-46; in Drought Water Management, Neil Grigg and Evan Vlachos, eds.; Proceedings of a National Workshop, Washington...86 Grigg, Neil and Vlachos, Evan, 1989, Drought Water Management, Preparing and Responding to Drought, A Report for the Natural and Man-Made Hazards

  20. Modeling the Interactions between Hydrological Extremes, Water Management and Society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Fabian; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Kalantari, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, several studies have focused on exploring human impacts on the hydrological regime. Even though the dominant hydrological processes are mostly well understood, there are still several challenges related to modeling the coevolution of human impacts on (and responses to) hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts. Some initial modeling attempts have proved to capture the essential dynamics emerging from two-way feedbacks between hydrological and social processes. However, they have predominantly focused on flooding. This research aims to develop a new conceptual model unraveling the interplay between hydrological extremes (floods and droughts) and human societies in a changing climate. In particular, this socio-hydrological model aims at understanding, and predicting the dynamics of coupled human-water systems to explain and capture how the occurrence of hydrological extremes changes water management approach, and how such a change (in turn) mitigates the impacts of hydrological extremes. The conceptual model is then applied to a case study to test its ability in simulating the dynamics emerging from the interplay between hydrological and social processes.