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Sample records for manduca sexta lepidoptera

  1. Embryonic integument and "molts" in Manduca sexta (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Ziese, Stefanie; Dorn, August

    2003-02-01

    In Manduca sexta the germ band is formed 12 h post-oviposition (p.o.) (=10% development completed) and is located above the yolk at the egg surface. The cells show a polar organization. They are engaged in the uptake and degradation of yolk globules, pinched off from the yolk cells. This process can be observed in the integumental cells during the first growth phase of the embryo that lasts until "katatrepsis," an embryonic movement that takes place at 40% development completed. At 37% development completed, the ectoderm deposits a thin membrane at its apical surface, the first embryonic membrane, which detaches immediately before katatrepsis. The second period of embryonic growth--from katatrepsis to 84 h p.o. (70% development completed)--starts with the deposition of a second embryonic membrane that is somewhat thicker than the first one and shows a trilaminar, cuticulin-like structure. Whereas the apical cell surface is largely smooth during the deposition of the first embryonic membrane, it forms microvilli during deposition of the second one. At the same time, uptake of formed yolk material ceases and the epidermal cells now contain clusters of mitochondria below the apical surface. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) increases in the perinuclear region. The second embryonic membrane detaches about 63 h p.o. At 69 h p.o., a new generation of microvilli forms and islands of a typical cuticulin layer indicate the onset of the deposition of the larval cuticle. The third growth phase is characterized by a steady increase in the embryo length, the deposition of the larval procuticle, and by cuticular tanning at about 100 h p.o. Beginning at that stage, electron-lucent vesicles aggregate below the epidermal surface and are apparently released below the larval cuticle. Manduca sexta is the first holometabolous insect in which the deposition of embryonic membranes and cuticles has been examined by electron microscopy. In correspondence with hemimetabolous insects, the

  2. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  3. Neuroanatomy of the sucking pump of the moth, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Davis, Norman T; Hildebrand, John G

    2006-03-01

    Knowledge of the neuroanatomy of the sucking pump of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) is valuable for studies of olfactory learning, pattern generators, and postembryonic modification of motor circuitry. The pump comprises a cibarial valve, a buccal pump, and an esophageal sphincter valve. Cibarial opener and closer muscles control the cibarial valve. Six pairs of dilator muscles and a compressor muscle operate the buccal pump. The cibarial opener and one pair of buccal dilator muscles are innervated by paired neurons in the tritocerebrum, and the cibarial opener has double, bilateral innervation. Their tritocerebral innervation indicates that these muscles evolved from labro-clypeal muscles. The remaining paired buccal dilator muscles each are innervated by an unpaired motor neuron in the frontal ganglion. These motor neurons project bilaterally through the frontal connectives to dendritic arborizations in the tritocerebrum. These projections also have a series of dendritic-like arborizations in the connectives. The cibarial closer and buccal compressor muscles are also innervated by motor neurons in the frontal ganglion, but only the closer muscle neuron projects bilaterally to the tritocerebrum. The innervation of the pump muscles indicates that they are associated with the stomodaeum, and, therefore, the buccal pump evolved from the anterior stomodaeum rather than from the cibarium.

  4. The serosa of Manduca sexta (Insecta, Lepidoptera): ontogeny, secretory activity, structural changes, and functional considerations.

    PubMed

    Lamer, A; Dorn, A

    2001-12-01

    In Manduca sexta, the blastoderm forms successively and becomes immediately cellularized as the cleavage energids reach the surface of the oocyte. Presumptive serosal cells are large and contain 2 or 4 large polyploid nuclei; presumptive embryonic cells are small and mononuclear. All parts of the blastoderm participate in the uptake and digestion of yolk material. About 10 h post-oviposition, the blastoderm breaks at the amnioserosal fold and the extraembryonic part closes above the germ band and constitutes the serosa (12 h post-oviposition, i.e. 10% development completed). At once, the serosa starts to secrete a cuticle consisting of an epi- and a lamellated endocuticle. Detachment of the serosal cuticle, 22h post-oviposition, is reminiscent of apolysis of larval cuticle. Thereafter, the serosa deposits a membranous structure, the serosal membrane. The sercretory process lasts from 23h to 44h post-oviposition. At first a fine granular layer, then an amorphous, spongy-like, fibrillar layer is secreted via microvilli. This persisting membrane is tough, rubbery and very elastic. It may serve to bolster the serosa during katatrepsis (48h post-oviposition) and later embryonic movements. After detachment of the serosal membrane, 44h post-oviposition, a distinct subcellular reorganization of the serosa takes place. The nuclei become still larger and more irregular. Uptake of yolk granules, but not of lipid droplets, ceases, although interaction of serosa and yolk cells are intense. Serosal cells include many mitochondria, large areas of rER, besides some sER, increasing amounts of lysosomal bodies and prominent Golgi complexes. Most conspicuous is the assembly of spindle-shaped, electron-lucent vesicles below the apical surface. These vesicles may contain metabolic products which are released into the peripheral space. The studies show that the serosa assumes changing functions during embryogenesis: digestion of yolk substances, synthesis of a serosal cuticle and a

  5. The immune signaling pathways of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yun-Ru; Bryant, Bart; Clem, Rollie J.; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Blissard, Gary; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways and their coordination are critically important for proper functioning of animal immune systems. Our knowledge of the constituents of the intracellular signaling network in insects mainly comes from genetic analyses in Drosophila melanogaster. To facilitate future studies of similar systems in the tobacco hornworm and other lepidopteran insects, we have identified and examined the homologous genes in the genome of Manduca sexta. Based on 1:1 orthologous relationships in most cases, we hypothesize that the Toll, Imd, MAPK-JNK-p38 and JAK-STAT pathways are intact and operative in this species, as are most of the regulatory mechanisms. Similarly, cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis and RNA interference probably function in similar ways, because their mediators and modulators are mostly conserved in this lepidopteran species. We have annotated a total of 186 genes encoding 199 proteins, studied their domain structures and evolution, and examined their mRNA levels in tissues at different life stages. Such information provides a genomic perspective of the intricate signaling system in a non-drosophiline insect. PMID:25858029

  6. Purification and characterization of the carrier protein for juvenile hormone from the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta Johannson (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Kramer, K J; Dunn, P E; Peterson, R C; Seballos, H L; Sanburg, L L; Law, J H

    1976-08-25

    The larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, contains a carrier protein that binds specifically and with high affinity the juvenile hormone, an important regulator of insect development. This protein serves to transport the hormone and to protect it from the action of degradative enzymes during early larval stages. Using hemolymph from the last larval stage, we have isolated a pure carrier protein using acetone precipitation, gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography, and preparative isoelectric focusing. Gel filtration, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate, and equilibrium ultracentrifugation established that the carrier protein is a single chain polypeptide of approximately 28,000 daltons. The amino acid composition is unexceptional, and no evidence for hexosamine has been obtained. An ion exchange filter disc assay method was used to determine the formation of the complex between the carrier protein and isotopically labeled juvenile hormone. With this technique it was shown that each carrier protein binds one hormone molecule with a dissociation constant of 4.4 +/- 0.2 X 10(-7) M at 0 degrees.

  7. Field tests of syntheticManduca sexta sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J H; Mitchell, E R; Doolittle, R E; Jackson, D M

    1994-03-01

    In field experiments traps were baited with live females or with a two-, four-, or eight-component blend of the 16-carbon aldehydes previously identified as components of the sex pheromone emitted by femaleManduca sexta moths. The blends were formulated on rubber septa. Traps baited with a blend of all eight aldehydes captured moreM. sexta males than any other treatment. Septa loaded with 600 μg of the eight-component blend were attractive to males for about seven days in the field. Septa loaded with the eight-component blend and stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for a year released the conjugated diene and triene aldehydes at the same rate as freshly prepared septa and were equally attractive in the field.

  8. Cyclic nucleotide-stimulable protein kinases in the central nervous sytem of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Albin, E E; Newburgh, R W

    1975-02-19

    Cyclic nucleotide-stimulable protein kinase (EC 1.7.1.37) has been studied in crude extracts from the central nervous system of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). The insect kinase was fulfhydryl-sensitive and required Mg-2+ for optimal activity. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of supernatants demonstrated the presence of multiple kinases in the larval nerve cord. At low concentrations, cyclic AMP was a much more potent activator of soluble and particulate activities than was cyclic GMP. The specific activity of coluble kinase and the magnitude of its activations by cyclic AMP were greater in the adult than in the larval central nervous system. The exogenous protein substrate specificity of the insect enzyme was similar to that of rat brain kinase with the sole exception that protamine was more readily phosphorylated than histone by nerve cord kinase. It was observed that cyclic AMP lowered the Km of Manduca sexta kinase for ATP, a phenomenon which is apparently nervous tissue=specific in mammals. An effective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was prepared from the larval central nervous system.

  9. Overview of chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta: Identification, domain organization, phylogenetic analysis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Jiang, Haobo; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomaterials in nature. The biosynthesis and degradation of chitin in insects are complex and dynamically regulated to cope with insect growth and development. Chitin metabolism in insects is known to involve numerous enzymes, including chitin synthases (synthesis of chitin), chitin deacetylases (modification of chitin by deacetylation) and chitinases (degradation of chitin by hydrolysis). In this study, we conducted a genome-wide search and analysis of genes encoding these chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta. Our analysis confirmed that only two chitin synthases are present in M. sexta as in most other arthropods. Eleven chitin deacetylases (encoded by nine genes) were identified, with at least one representative in each of the five phylogenetic groups that have been described for chitin deacetylases to date. Eleven genes encoding for family 18 chitinases (GH18) were found in the M. sexta genome. Based on the presence of conserved sequence motifs in the catalytic sequences and phylogenetic relationships, two of the M. sexta chitinases did not cluster with any of the current eight phylogenetic groups of chitinases: two new groups were created (groups IX and X) and their characteristics are described. The result of the analysis of the Lepidoptera-specific chitinase-h (group h) is consistent with its proposed bacterial origin. By analyzing chitinases from fourteen species that belong to seven different phylogenetic groups, we reveal that the chitinase genes appear to have evolved sequentially in the arthropod lineage to achieve the current high level of diversity observed in M. sexta. Based on the sequence conservation of the catalytic domains and on their developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression, we propose putative functions for each group in each category of enzymes.

  10. Dietary phosphorus affects the growth of larval Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Marc C; Woods, H Arthur; Harrison, Jon F; Elser, James J

    2004-03-01

    Although phosphorus has long been considered an important factor in the growth of diverse biota such as bacteria, algae, and zooplankton, insect nutrition has classically focused on dietary protein and energy content. However, research in elemental stoichiometry has suggested that primary producer biomass has similar N:P ratios in aquatic and terrestrial systems, and phosphorus-rich herbivores in freshwater systems frequently face phosphorus-limited nutritional conditions. Therefore, herbivorous insects should also be prone to phosphorus limitation. We tested this prediction by rearing Manduca sexta larvae on artificial and natural (Datura wrightii leaves) diets containing varying levels of phosphorus (approximately 0.20, 0.55, or 1.2% phosphorus by dry weight). For both artificial and natural diets, increased dietary phosphorus significantly increased growth rates and body phosphorus contents, and shortened the time to the final instar molt. Caterpillars did not consistently exhibit compensatory feeding for phosphorus on either type of diet. The growth and body phosphorus responses were not explicable by changes in amounts of potassium or calcium, which co-varied with phosphorus in the diets. Concentrations of phosphorus in D. wrightii leaves collected in the field varied over a range in which leaf phosphorus is predicted to affect M. sexta's growth rates. These results suggest that natural variation in dietary phosphorus is likely to affect the growth rate and population dynamics of M. sexta, and perhaps larval insects more generally.

  11. A reference gene set for chemosensory receptor genes of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Christopher; Hirsh, Ariana; Bucks, Sascha; Klinner, Christian; Vogel, Heiko; Shukla, Aditi; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Morton, Brian; Hansson, Bill S; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The order of Lepidoptera has historically been crucial for chemosensory research, with many important advances coming from the analysis of species like Bombyx mori or the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Specifically M. sexta has long been a major model species in the field, especially regarding the importance of olfaction in an ecological context, mainly the interaction with its host plants. In recent years transcriptomic data has led to the discovery of members of all major chemosensory receptor families in the species, but the data was fragmentary and incomplete. Here we present the analysis of the newly available high-quality genome data for the species, supplemented by additional transcriptome data to generate a high quality reference gene set for the three major chemosensory receptor gene families, the gustatory (GR), olfactory (OR) and antennal ionotropic receptors (IR). Coupled with gene expression analysis our approach allows association of specific receptor types and behaviors, like pheromone and host detection. The dataset will provide valuable support for future analysis of these essential chemosensory modalities in this species and in Lepidoptera in general.

  12. Flight motor modulation with speed in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Tyson L; Martínez-Blat, Jorge; Goodman, Mariah J

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings for flight, including animal flight with flapping wings, predict a curvilinear U-shaped or J-shaped relationship between flight speed and the power required to maintain that speed. Experimental data have confirmed this relationship for a variety of bird and bat species but not insects, possibly due to differences in aerodynamics and physiology or experimental difficulties. Here we quantify modulation of the main flight motor muscles (the dorsolongitudinal and dorsoventral) via electromyography in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) flying freely over a range of speeds in a wind tunnel and show that these insects exhibit a U-shaped speed-power relationship, with a minimum power speed of 2ms(-1), indicating that at least large flying insects achieve sufficiently high flight speeds that drag and power become limiting factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elastic Proteins in the Flight Muscle of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Ma, Weikang; Schemmel, Peter; Cheng, Yu-Shu; Liu, Jiangmin; Tsaprailis, George; Feldman, Samuel; Southgate, Agnes Ayme; Irving, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    The flight muscles (DLM1) of the Hawkmoth, Manduca sexta are synchronous, requiring a neural spike for each contraction. Stress/strain curves of skinned DLM1 showed hysteresis indicating the presence of titin-like elastic proteins. Projectin and kettin are titin-like proteins previously identified in Lethocerus and Drosophila flight muscles. Analysis of Manduca muscles with 1% SDS-agarose gels and western blots showed two bands near 1 MDa that cross-reacted with antibodies to Drosophila projectin. Antibodies to Drosophila kettin cross-reacted to bands at ~500 and ~700 kDa, but also to bands at ~1.6 and ~2.1 MDa, that had not been previously observed in insect flight muscles. Mass spectrometry identified the 2.1 MDa protein as a product of the Sallimus (sls) gene. Analysis of the gene sequence showed that all 4 putative Sallimus and kettin isoforms could be explained as products of alternative splicing of the single sls gene. Both projectin and Sallimus isoforms were expressed to higher levels in ventrally located DLM1 subunits, primarily responsible for active work production, as compared to dorsally located subunits, which may act as damped springs. The different expression levels of the 2 projectin isoforms and 4 Sallimus/kettin isoforms may be adaptations to the specific requirements of individual muscle subunits. PMID:25602701

  14. A comprehensive analysis of the Manduca sexta immunotranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratna, Ramesh T.; Jiang, Haobo

    2012-01-01

    As a biochemical model, Manduca sexta has substantially contributed to our knowledge on insect innate immunity. The RNA-Seq approach was implemented in three studies to examine tissue immunotranscriptomes of this species. With the latest and largest focusing on highly regulated process- and tissue-specific genes, we further analyzed the same set of data using BLAST2GO to explore functional aspects of the larval fat body (F) and hemocyte (H) transcriptomes with (I) or without (C) immune challenge. Using immunity-related sequences from other insects, we found 383 homologous contigs and compared them with those discovered based on relative abundance changes. The major overlap of the two lists validated our previous research designed for gene discovery and transcript profiling in organisms lacking sequenced genomes. By concatenating the contigs, we established a repertoire of 232 immunity-related genes encoding proteins for pathogen recognition (16%), signal transduction (53%), microbe killing (13%), and others (18%). We examined their transcript levels along with attribute classifications and detected prominent differences in nine of the thirty level 2 gene ontology (GO) categories. The increase in extracellular proteins (155%) was consistent with the highly induced synthesis of defense molecules (e.g., antimicrobial peptides) in fat body after the immune challenge. We identified most members of the putative Toll, IMD, MAPK-JNK-p38, and JAK-STAT pathways and small changes in their mRNA levels. Together, these findings set the stage for on-going analysis of the M. sexta immunogenome. PMID:23178408

  15. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Kanost, Michael R.; Arrese, Estela L.; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G.; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L.; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C.; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B.; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M.; Clarke, David F.; Dittmer, Neal T.; Ferguson, Laura C.F.; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H.J.; Gunaratna, Ramesh T.; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R.; Kuwar, Suyog S.; Lee, Sandy L.; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; McCulloch, Kyle J.; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M.; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J.; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Hansson, Bill S.; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S.; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K.; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G.; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A. Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects. PMID:27522922

  16. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Kanost, Michael R; Arrese, Estela L; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M; Clarke, David F; Dittmer, Neal T; Ferguson, Laura C F; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H J; Gunaratna, Ramesh T; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R; Kuwar, Suyog S; Lee, Sandy L; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H; McCulloch, Kyle J; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K; Worley, Kim C; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Hansson, Bill S; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J; Scherer, Steven E; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W

    2016-09-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.

  17. Steroid control of muscle remodeling during metamorphosis in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hegstrom, C D; Truman, J W

    1996-04-01

    During metamorphosis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, the abdominal body-wall muscle DEO1 is remodeled to form the adult muscle DE5. The degeneration of muscle DEO1 involves the dismantling of its contractile apparatus followed by the degeneration of muscle nuclei. As some nuclei are degenerating, others begin to incorporate 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), indicating the onset of nuclear proliferation. This proliferation is initially most evident at the site where the motoneuron contacts the muscle remnant. The developmental events involved in muscle remodeling are under the control of the steroid hormones, the ecdysteroids. The loss of the contractile elements of the larval muscle requires the rise and fall of the prepupal peak of ecdysteroids, whereas the subsequent loss of muscle nuclei is influenced by the slight rise in ecdysteroids seen after pupal ecdysis. Incorporation of BrdU by muscle nuclei depends on both the adult peak of the ecdysteroids and contact with the motoneuron. Unilateral axotomy blocks proliferation within the rudiment, but it does not block its subsequent differentiation into a very thin muscle in the adult.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Alimentary Tract Development in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Ian J.; Goodman, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive 3D magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to investigate metamorphosis of the alimentary tract of Manduca sexta from the larval to the adult stage. The larval midgut contracts in volume immediately following cessation of feeding and then greatly enlarges during the late pharate pupal period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the foregut and hindgut of the pharate pupa undergo ecdysis considerably earlier than the external exoskeleton. Expansion of air sacs in the early pupa and development of flight muscles several days later appear to orient the midgut into its adult position in the abdomen. The crop, an adult auxiliary storage organ, begins development as a dorsal outgrowth of the foregut. This coincides with a reported increase in pupal ecdysteroid titers. An outgrowth of the hindgut, the rectal sac, appears several days later and continues to expand until it nearly fills the dorsal half of the abdominal cavity. This development correlates with a second rise in pupal ecdysteroid titers. In the pharate pupa, the presence of paramagnetic species renders the silk glands hyperintense. PMID:27280776

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Alimentary Tract Development in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Ian J; Goodman, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive 3D magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to investigate metamorphosis of the alimentary tract of Manduca sexta from the larval to the adult stage. The larval midgut contracts in volume immediately following cessation of feeding and then greatly enlarges during the late pharate pupal period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the foregut and hindgut of the pharate pupa undergo ecdysis considerably earlier than the external exoskeleton. Expansion of air sacs in the early pupa and development of flight muscles several days later appear to orient the midgut into its adult position in the abdomen. The crop, an adult auxiliary storage organ, begins development as a dorsal outgrowth of the foregut. This coincides with a reported increase in pupal ecdysteroid titers. An outgrowth of the hindgut, the rectal sac, appears several days later and continues to expand until it nearly fills the dorsal half of the abdominal cavity. This development correlates with a second rise in pupal ecdysteroid titers. In the pharate pupa, the presence of paramagnetic species renders the silk glands hyperintense.

  20. Molecular Interactions between the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Its Natural Host Nicotiana attenuata. IV. Insect-Induced Ethylene Reduces Jasmonate-Induced Nicotine Accumulation by Regulating Putrescine N-Methyltransferase Transcripts12

    PubMed Central

    Winz, Robert A.; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2001-01-01

    Attack by the specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta, on its native host Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats. produces a dramatic ethylene release, a jasmonate burst, and a suppression of the nicotine accumulation that results from careful simulations of the herbivore's damage. Methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment induces nicotine biosynthesis. However, this induction can be suppressed by ethylene as pretreatment of plants with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene receptors, restores the full MeJA-induced nicotine response in herbivore attacked plants (J. Kahl, D.H. Siemens, R.J. Aerts, R. Gäbler, F. Kühnemann, C.A. Preston, I.T. Baldwin [2000] Planta 210: 336–342). To understand whether this herbivore-induced signal cross-talk occurs at the level of transcript accumulation, we cloned the putrescine methyltransferase genes (NaPMT1 and NaPMT2) of N. attenuata, which are thought to represent the rate limiting step in nicotine biosynthesis, and measured transcript accumulations by northern analysis after various jasmonate, 1-MCP, ethephon, and herbivory treatments. Transcripts of both root putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) genes and nicotine accumulation increased dramatically within 10 h of shoot MeJA treatment and immediately after root treatments. Root ethephon treatments suppressed this response, which could be reversed by 1-MCP pretreatment. Moreover, 1-MCP pretreatment dramatically amplified the transcript accumulation resulting from both wounding and M. sexta herbivory. We conclude that attack from this nicotine-tolerant specialist insect causes N. attenuata to produce ethylene, which directly suppresses the nitrogen-intensive biosynthesis of nicotine. PMID:11299398

  1. Molecular Interactions between the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Its Natural Host Nicotiana attenuata: V. Microarray Analysis and Further Characterization of Large-Scale Changes in Herbivore-Induced mRNAs1

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Dequan; Iqbal, Javeed; Lehmann, Katja; Gase, Klaus; Saluz, Hans Peter; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2003-01-01

    We extend our analysis of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs when the native tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is attacked by Manduca sexta larvae by cloning 115 transcripts by mRNA differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subtractive hybridization using magnetic beads (SHMB) from the M. sexta-responsive transcriptome. These transcripts were spotted as cDNA with eight others, previously confirmed to be differentially regulated by northern analysis on glass slide microarrays, and hybridized with Cy3- and Cy5-labeled probes derived from plants after 2, 6, 12, and 24 h of continuous attack. Microarray analysis proved to be a powerful means of verifying differential expression; 73 of the cloned genes (63%) were differentially regulated (in equal proportions from differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and SHMB procedures), and of these, 24 (32%) had similarity to known genes or putative proteins (more from SHMB). The analysis provided insights into the signaling and transcriptional basis of direct and indirect defenses used against herbivores, suggesting simultaneous activation of salicylic acid-, ethylene-, cytokinin-, WRKY-, MYB-, and oxylipin-signaling pathways and implicating terpenoid-, pathogen-, and cell wall-related transcripts in defense responses. These defense responses require resources that could be made available by decreases in four photosynthetic-related transcripts, increases in transcripts associated with protein and nucleotide turnover, and increases in transcripts associated with carbohydrate metabolism. This putative up-regulation of defense-associated and down-regulation of growth-associated transcripts occur against a backdrop of altered transcripts for RNA-binding proteins, putative ATP/ADP translocators, chaperonins, histones, and water channel proteins, responses consistent with a major metabolic reconfiguration that underscores the complexity of response to herbivore attack

  2. Dietary plant phenolic improves survival of bacterial infection in Manduca sexta caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Marta L.; Halitschke, Rayko; Short, Sarah M.; Lazzaro, Brian P.; Kessler, André

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenolics are generally thought to play significant roles in plant defense against herbivores and pathogens. Many plant taxa, including Solanaceae, are rich in phenolic compounds and some insect herbivores have been shown to acquire phenolics from their hosts to use them as protection against their natural enemies. Here we demonstrate that larvae of an insect specialist on Solanaceae, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), acquire the plant phenolic chlorogenic acid (CA), and other caffeic acid derivatives as they feed on one of their hosts, Nicotiana attenuata L. (Solanaceae), and on artificial diet supplemented with CA. We test the hypothesis that larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet would have better resistance against bacterial infection than larvae fed on a standard CA-free diet by injecting bacteria into the hemocoel of fourth instars. Larvae fed CA-supplemented diet show significantly higher survival of infection with Enterococcus faecalis (Andrewes & Horder) Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz, but not of infection with the more virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula. Larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet possess a constitutively higher number of circulating hemocytes than larvae fed on the standard diet, but we found no other evidence of increased immune system activity, nor were larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet better able to suppress bacterial proliferation early in the infection. Thus, our data suggest an additional defensive function of CA to the direct toxic inhibition of pathogen proliferation in the gut. PMID:23420018

  3. Biosynthesis of the Juvenile Hormones of Manduca sexta: Labeling Pattern from Mevalonate, Propionate, and Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Schooley, David A.; Judy, Kenneth J.; Bergot, B. John; Hall, M. Sharon; Siddall, John B.

    1973-01-01

    Using organ culture, high-resolution liquid chromatography, and microchemical techniques, we demonstrated the efficient incorporation in vitro of several radiolabeled precursors into the two juvenile hormones of Manduca sexta. JH II, a homosesquiterpene hormone, reported from M. sexta as well as several other insects, incorporates radiolabel from acetate, mevalonate, and propionate. JH III, a sesquiterpene hormone recently reported as a natural product of M. sexta, incorporates label from acetate and mevalonate, but not from propionate. Based on the position of the labeled atoms in the precursors and upon the position of incorporation obtained from label-distribution data, a scheme for juvenile hormone biosynthesis is advanced. PMID:16592112

  4. Molecular Interactions between the Specialist Herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Its Natural Host Nicotiana attenuata. I. Large-Scale Changes in the Accumulation of Growth- and Defense-Related Plant mRNAs1

    PubMed Central

    Hermsmeier, Dieter; Schittko, Ursula; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2001-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack with a dramatic functional reorganization that involves the activation of direct and indirect defenses and tolerance, which in turn make large demands on primary metabolism. Here we provide the first characterization of the transcriptional reorganization that occurs after insect attack in a model plant-herbivore system: Nicotiana attenuata Torr. ex Wats.-Manduca sexta. We used mRNA differential display to characterize one-twentieth of the insect-responsive transcriptome of N. attenuata and verified differential expression for 27 cDNAs. Northern analyses were used to study the effects of folivory and exposure to airborne methyl jasmonate and for kinetic analyses throughout a 16-h- light/8-h-dark cycle. Sequence similarity searches allowed putative functions to be assigned to 15 transcripts. Genes were related to photosynthesis, electron transport, cytoskeleton, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, signaling, and a group responding to stress, wounding, or invasion of pathogens. Overall, transcripts involved in photosynthesis were strongly down-regulated, whereas those responding to stress, wounding, and pathogens and involved in shifting carbon and nitrogen to defense were strongly up-regulated. The majority of transcripts responded similarly to airborne methyl jasmonate and folivory, and had tissue- and diurnal-specific patterns of expression. Transcripts encoding Thr deaminase (TD) and a putative retrotransposon were absent in control plants, but were strongly induced after herbivory. Full-length sequences were obtained for TD and the pathogen-inducible α-dioxygenase, PIOX. Effects of abiotic and biotic stimuli were investigated for transcripts encoding TD, importin α, PIOX, and a GAL83-like kinase cofactor. PMID:11161026

  5. Shape matters: corolla curvature improves nectar discovery in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Campos, E. O.; Bradshaw, H. D.; Daniel, T. L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary 1. We measured the effects of variation in corolla curvature and nectary aperture radius on pollinator foraging ability using the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and 3D-printed artificial flowers whose shapes were mathematically specified. 2. In dimorphic arrays containing trumpet-shaped flowers and flat-disk flowers, hawkmoths were able to empty the nectaries of significantly more trumpet-shaped flowers regardless of nectary aperture size. Interestingly, trumpet-shaped flowers needed to deviate only slightly from the flat-disk morphotype in order to significantly increase hawkmoth foraging ability. 3. Whole-flower three-dimensional shape, particularly corolla curvature, has the potential to act as a mechanical guide for Manduca sexta, further implicating direct flower-proboscis contact as an important contributor to foraging success during flower handling in hawkmoths. PMID:25987763

  6. Shape matters: corolla curvature improves nectar discovery in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Campos, E O; Bradshaw, H D; Daniel, T L

    2015-04-01

    1. We measured the effects of variation in corolla curvature and nectary aperture radius on pollinator foraging ability using the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and 3D-printed artificial flowers whose shapes were mathematically specified. 2. In dimorphic arrays containing trumpet-shaped flowers and flat-disk flowers, hawkmoths were able to empty the nectaries of significantly more trumpet-shaped flowers regardless of nectary aperture size. Interestingly, trumpet-shaped flowers needed to deviate only slightly from the flat-disk morphotype in order to significantly increase hawkmoth foraging ability. 3. Whole-flower three-dimensional shape, particularly corolla curvature, has the potential to act as a mechanical guide for Manduca sexta, further implicating direct flower-proboscis contact as an important contributor to foraging success during flower handling in hawkmoths.

  7. Histochemical analysis of the goblet cell matrix in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Lozano, G.; Cajina-Quezada, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental analyses were made to histochemically determine the composition of the goblet cell matrix material in the larval midgut of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Techniques employed following fixation in Carnoy fluid were the periodic acid-Schiff reaction and the alcian blue stain at pH 1.0 and pH 2.5 and following methylation and subsequent saponification. The cumulative evidence suggests that the plug material is an acid mucosubstance.

  8. Use of von Frey filaments to assess nociceptive sensitization in the hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    McMackin, Marissa Zubia; Lewin, Matthew R; Tabuena, Dennis R; Arreola, F Eric; Moffatt, Christopher; Fuse, Megumi

    2016-01-15

    The hornworm Manduca sexta exhibits a defensive strike to noxious assaults, a response that is robust and is easily observed by experimenters. Von Frey filaments and methods typical for studying nociception in other animals were used to assess the strike response in M. sexta. A series of von Frey filaments was applied to the body wall in ascending order and the data generated were used to determine the strike threshold by (i) the up-and-down method, (ii) the first response method, and (iii) the simplified up-and-down order method (SUDO). The effect of a noxious pinch on strike threshold was assessed. To our knowledge none of these methods has been used on M. sexta previously, making the use of the up-and-down and SUDO methods the first in an invertebrate. The use of the first response method has been used in other invertebrates, and the method appears equally suited to M. sexta. All three methods were successful in monitoring the threshold sensitivity to touch, which was lowered (sensitized) by tissue damage induced with a pinch. Sensitization lasted 19h. All three methods of assessing nociception were successfully applied to quantify the defensive strike response in M. sexta, although the SUDO method required empirical assessment of which filament to start the test sequence with. The results revealed both short- and long-term sensitization. These methods should prove to be useful for quantifying sensitization in M. sexta. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The role of juvenile hormone and insulin/TOR signaling in the growth of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hatem, Nicole E; Wang, Zhou; Nave, Keelin B; Koyama, Takashi; Suzuki, Yuichiro

    2015-06-25

    In many insect species, fitness trade-offs exist between maximizing body size and developmental speed. Understanding how various species evolve different life history strategies requires knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of body size and developmental timing. Here the roles of juvenile hormone (JH) and insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in the regulation of the final body size were examined in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Feeding rapamycin to wild-type larvae decreased the growth rate but did not alter the peak size of the larvae. In contrast, feeding rapamycin to the JH-deficient black mutant larvae caused the larvae to significantly increase the peak size relative to the DMSO-fed control animals by lengthening the terminal growth period. Furthermore, the critical weight was unaltered by feeding rapamycin, indicating that in Manduca, the critical weight is not influenced by insulin/TOR signaling. In addition, post-critical weight starved black mutant Manduca given rapamycin underwent metamorphosis sooner than those that were fed, mimicking the "bail-out mechanism". Our study demonstrates that JH masks the effects of insulin/TOR signaling in the determination of the final body size and that the critical weights in Drosophila and Manduca rely on distinct mechanisms that reflect different life history strategies. Our study also suggests that TOR signaling lengthens the terminal growth period in Manduca as it does in Drosophila, and that JH levels determine the relative contributions of nutrient- and body size-sensing pathways to metamorphic timing.

  10. Isolation and identification of a diuretic hormone from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Troetschler, Ruth G.; Li, Jorge P.; Kramer, Steven J.; Carney, Robert L.; Schooley, David A.

    1989-01-01

    A diuretic hormone (DH) has been isolated from pharate adult heads of Manduca sexta by a nine-step purification procedure. The primary structure of the amino-terminal 40 residues was determined by sequence analysis of intact DH. The structure of an amidated carboxyl-terminal tryptic hexapeptide was characterized by sequence analysis of the peptide, and this hexapeptide was later compared by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with two synthetic hexapeptides with the free acid or amide at the carboxyl terminus. The complete structure of M. sexta DH was established as a 41-residue peptide without disulfide bonds: H-Arg-Met-Pro-Ser-Leu-Ser-Ile-Asp-Leu-Pro-Met-Ser-Val-Leu-Arg-Gln-Lys-Leu-Ser -Leu-Glu-Lys-Glu-Arg-Lys-Val-His-Ala-Leu-Arg-Ala-Ala-Ala-Asn-Arg-Asn-Phe-Leu- Asn-Asp-Ile-NH2. M. sexta DH was synthesized and shown to have chromatographic and biological properties identical with those of the native material. Synthetic DH stimulated fluid excretion in vivo upon injection into larval M. sexta and newly emerged adult Pieris rapae. M. sexta DH has considerable sequence homology with corticotropin-releasing factor, urotensin I, and sauvagine. PMID:16594029

  11. Identification, sequence and expression of a crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) gene in the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Loi, P K; Emmal, S A; Park, Y; Tublitz, N J

    2001-08-01

    The crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) gene was isolated from the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta. The gene has an open reading frame of 125 amino acid residues containing a single, complete copy of CCAP. Analysis of the gene structure revealed three introns interrupting the coding region. A comparison of the M. sexta CCAP gene with the Drosophila melanogaster genome database reveals significant similarities in sequence and gene structure. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of the CCAP gene in the M. sexta central nervous system were determined in all major post-embryonic stages using in situ hybridization techniques. The CCAP gene is expressed in a total of 116 neurons in the post-embryonic M. sexta central nervous system. Nine pairs of cells are observed in the brain, 4.5 pairs in the subesophageal ganglion, three pairs in each thoracic ganglion (T1-T3), three pairs in the first abdominal ganglion (A1), five pairs each in the second to sixth abdominal ganglia (A2-A6) and 7.5 pairs in the terminal ganglion. The CCAP gene is expressed in every ganglion in each post-embryonic stage, except in the thoracic ganglia of first- and second-instar larvae. The number of cells expressing the CCAP gene varies during post-embryonic life, starting at 52 cells in the first instar and reaching a maximum of 116 shortly after pupation. One set of thoracic neurons expressing CCAP mRNA shows unusual variability in expression levels immediately prior to larval ecdysis. Using previously published CCAP immunocytochemical data, it was determined that 91 of 95 CCAP-immunopositive neurons in the M. sexta central nervous system also express the M. sexta CCAP gene, indicating that there is likely to be only a single CCAP gene in M. sexta.

  12. Illness-induced anorexia and its possible function in the caterpillar, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Fidler, Tara L; Forestell, Catherine A

    2007-03-01

    Although many animals exhibit illness-induced anorexia when immune-challenged, the adaptive significance of this behavior remains unclear. Injecting Manduca sexta larvae (caterpillars) with live bacteria (Serratia marcescens), heat-killed bacteria or bacterial lipopolysaccharides resulted in a decline in feeding, demonstrating illness-induced anorexia in this species. We used M. sexta to test four commonly suggested adaptive functions for illness-induced anorexia. (1) Food deprivation did not reduce the iron content of the hemolymph. (2) Immune-challenged M. sexta were not more likely to move to a different part of the plant. Therefore, the decline in feeding is unlikely to be an adaptive response allowing the animal to move away from a patch of contaminated food. (3) M. sexta force-fed S. marcescens bacteria were not more susceptible to a S. marcescens systemic infection than were M. sexta force-fed nutrient broth. (4) Force-feeding infected M. sexta during illness-induced anorexia did not increase mortality and short-term food deprivation did not enhance survival. However, force-feeding M. sexta with a high lipid diet (linseed oil and water) resulted in an increase in mortality when challenged with S. marcescens. Force-feeding sucrose or water did not reduce resistance. Force-feeding a high lipid diet into healthy animals did not reduce weight gain, suggesting that it was not toxic. We hypothesize that there is a conflict between lipid metabolism and immune function, although whether this conflict has played a role in the evolution of illness-induced anorexia remains unknown. The adaptive function of illness-induced anorexia requires further study in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  13. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis spores to the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed Central

    Schesser, J H; Bulla, L A

    1978-01-01

    Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis spores to the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is described. The numbers of larvae killed were in relation to spore dry weight. At a surface application of 6.8 ng/cm2, there was an 85 percent survival, but less than 50 percent survived at 68.2 ng/cm2. Striking similarity of spores to parasporal crystals is revealed by slope of mortality curves, inhibition of stadial growth, and 50 percent lethal dose values based on protein content. PMID:623457

  14. Manduca sexta serpin-7, a putative regulator of hemolymph prophenoloxidase activation

    PubMed Central

    Suwanchaichinda, Chansak; Ochieng, Rose; Zhuang, Shufei; Kanost, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Serpins regulate various physiological reactions in humans and insects, including certain immune responses, primarily through inhibition of serine proteases. Six serpins have previously been identified and characterized in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. In this study, we obtained a full-length cDNA sequence of another Manduca serpin, named serpin-7. The open reading frame of serpin-7 encodes a polypeptide of 400 amino acid residues with a predicted signal peptide of the first 15 residues. Multiple protein sequence alignment of the reactive center loop region of the M. sexta serpins indicated that serpin-7 contains Arg–Ile at the position of the predicted scissile bond cleaved by protease in the serpin inhibition mechanism. The same residues occur in the scissile bond of the reactive center loop in M. sexta serpin-4 and serpin-5, which are protease inhibitors that can block prophenoloxidase activation in plasma. Serpin-7 transcript was detected in hemocytes and fat body, and its expression increased in fat body after injection of larvae with Micrococcus luteus. Recombinant serpin-7 added to larval plasma inhibited spontaneous melanization and decreased prophenoloxidase activation stimulated by bacteria. Serpin-7 inhibited prophenoloxidase-activating protease-3 (PAP3), forming a stable serpin-protease complex. Considering that serpin-3 and serpin-6 are also efficient inhibitors of PAP3, it appears that multiple serpins present in plasma may have redundant or overlapping functions. We conclude that serpin-7 has serine protease inhibitory activity and is likely involved in regulation of proPO activation or other protease-mediated aspects of innate immunity in M. sexta. PMID:23567587

  15. Transcript Abundance of Photorhabdus Insect-Related (Pir) Toxin in Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Anaïs; Mulley, Geraldine; Davis, Nathaniel; Waterfield, Nicholas; Stock, S. Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01) (Enterobacteriaceae) by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a) integument; (b) the digestive route (via mouth and anus); and (c) the tracheal route (via spiracles). We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Transcript abundance in G. mellonella was higher than in M. sexta at two of the observed time points: 15 and 18 h. Expression of pirAB plu4093-2 reached above endogenous control levels at 22 h in G. mellonella but not in M. sexta. Overall, pirAB plu4093-2 transcripts were not as highly expressed in M. sexta as in G. mellonella, from 15 to 22 h. This is the first study to directly compare pirAB plu4093-2 toxin transcript production considering different portals of entry. PMID:27690103

  16. Transcript Abundance of Photorhabdus Insect-Related (Pir) Toxin in Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella Infections.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Anaïs; Mulley, Geraldine; Davis, Nathaniel; Waterfield, Nicholas; Stock, S Patricia

    2016-09-29

    In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01) (Enterobacteriaceae) by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a) integument; (b) the digestive route (via mouth and anus); and (c) the tracheal route (via spiracles). We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Transcript abundance in G. mellonella was higher than in M. sexta at two of the observed time points: 15 and 18 h. Expression of pirAB plu4093-2 reached above endogenous control levels at 22 h in G. mellonella but not in M. sexta. Overall, pirAB plu4093-2 transcripts were not as highly expressed in M. sexta as in G. mellonella, from 15 to 22 h. This is the first study to directly compare pirAB plu4093-2 toxin transcript production considering different portals of entry.

  17. Responses of descending visually-sensitive neurons in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to three-dimensional flower-like stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sprayberry, Jordanna D H

    2009-01-01

    Hawkmoths rely on vision to track moving flowers during hovering-feeding bouts. Visually guided flight behaviors require a sensorimotor transformation, where motion information processed by the optic ganglia ultimately modifies motor axon activity. While a great deal is known about motion processing in the optic lobes of insects, there has been far less exploration into the visual information available to flight motor axons. Visual information recorded at this stage has likely arisen from multiple visual pathways, and has potentially been modified by outside sensory information. As a first step, understanding the sensorimotor transformation from transduction of moving flower signals to active flower tracking behavior requires that the visual information available to the thoracic flight control centers be assayed. This paper investigated the response of descending visually sensitive neurons in the cervical connectives of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), to flower-like stimuli. Because flower structure lends itself to oscillatory (vibratory) motion, the stimuli used in these experiments were discs oscillating in each axis of motion (horizontal, vertical, and looming). Object-sensitive descending-neurons (OSDNs) respond to multiple directions of object motion and do not clearly sort into classes of directional tuning. The broad spatial distribution of directional sensitivities exhibited by OSDNs indicates that the direction of object motion may be encoded on a population scale. Although OSDNs exhibit broad frequency response curves, over the range of frequencies that M. sexta are able to track (0-2 Hz) OSDNs exhibit monotonically increasing response. Additionally, OSDNs respond to discs oscillating at frequencies as high at 6 Hz, indicating that the visual information being sent to thoracic motor control centers is not likely the limiting factor in flower tracking ability.

  18. Identification, characterization and developmental expression of Halloween genes encoding P450 enzymes mediating ecdysone biosynthesis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Rewitz, Kim F; Rybczynski, Robert; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2006-03-01

    The insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a central role in regulating gene expression during development and metamorphosis. In many Lepidoptera, the pro-hormone 3-dehydroecdysone (3DE), synthesized from cholesterol in the prothoracic gland, is rapidly converted to ecdysone (E) by a hemolymph reductase, and E is subsequently converted to 20E in various peripheral target tissues. Recently, four Drosophila melanogaster P450 enzymes, encoded by specific Halloween genes, were cloned and functionally characterized as mediating the last hydroxylation steps leading to 20E. We extended this work to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, an established model for endocrinological and developmental studies. cDNA clones were obtained for three Manduca orthologs of CYP306A1 (phantom; phm, the 25-hydroxylase), CYP302A1 (disembodied; dib, the 22-hydroxylase) and CYP315A1 (shadow; sad, the 2-hydroxylase), expressed predominantly in the prothoracic gland during the fifth (final) larval instar and during pupal-adult development, with fifth instar mRNA levels closely paralleling the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer. The data indicate that transcriptional regulation of phm, dib and sad plays a role in the developmentally varying steroidogenic capacities of the prothoracic glands during the fifth instar. The consistent expression of the Halloween genes confirms the importance of the prothoracic glands in pupal-adult development. These studies establish Manduca as an excellent model for examining the regulation of the Halloween genes.

  19. Transepithelial flux of an allotostatin and analogs across the anterior midgut of Manduca sexta larvae in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The transepithelial transport of cydiastatin 4 and analogues across flat sheet preparations of the anterior midgut of larvae of the tobacco hawkmoth moth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a combination of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), enzyme linked immunosorbe...

  20. A comparison of the neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex of adult male and female Manduca sexta using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Audsley, Neil; Weaver, Robert J

    2003-11-15

    The occurrence of neuropeptides in the retrocerebral complexes of adult male and females of the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), post source decay (PSD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS. From fractions of methanol extracts of corpora cardiaca (CC)/corpora allata (CA), separated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), a total of 11 mass ions were assigned to known peptides from M. sexta. These peptides were adipokinetic hormone (AKH), FLRFamides I, II and III, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), cardioactive peptide 2b (CAP(2b)), three myoinhibitory peptides, corazonin, and M. sexta allatostatin (Manse-AS). A further six masses were in agreement with Y/FXFGLamide allatostatins identified from other Lepidoptera. The sequence identities of FLRFamide I and AKH were confirmed using post source decay analysis. Fragmentation by collision-induced dissociation MS/MS identified an extended AKH peptide. The apparent differences in the peptides present in male and female retrocerebral complexes are most likely quantitative rather than sex specific.

  1. Jasmonate-dependent depletion of soluble sugars compromises plant resistance to Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Arce, Carla C M; Ferrieri, Abigail P; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Jasmonates regulate plant secondary metabolism and herbivore resistance. How they influence primary metabolites and how this may affect herbivore growth and performance are not well understood. We profiled sugars and starch of jasmonate biosynthesis-deficient and jasmonate-insensitive Nicotiana attenuata plants and manipulated leaf carbohydrates through genetic engineering and in vitro complementation to assess how jasmonate-dependent sugar accumulation affects the growth of Manduca sexta caterpillars. We found that jasmonates reduce the constitutive and herbivore-induced concentration of glucose and fructose in the leaves across different developmental stages. Diurnal, jasmonate-dependent inhibition of invertase activity was identified as a likely mechanism for this phenomenon. Contrary to our expectation, both in planta and in vitro approaches showed that the lower sugar concentrations led to increased M. sexta growth. As a consequence, jasmonate-dependent depletion of sugars rendered N. attenuata plants more susceptible to M. sexta attack. In conclusion, jasmonates are important regulators of leaf carbohydrate accumulation and this determines herbivore growth. Jasmonate-dependent resistance is reduced rather than enhanced through the suppression of glucose and fructose concentrations, which may contribute to the evolution of divergent resistance strategies of plants in nature.

  2. Lipoteichoic Acid and Lipopolysaccharide can Activate Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Xiang-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Activation of prophenoloxidase and synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are two important innate immune mechanisms in insects. In the current study, we investigated immune responses activated by three major bacterial components, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (including rough mutants of LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PG), in the larvae of a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta. We found that two DAP (Diaminopimelic acid)-type PGs from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were much more potent than LPS and LTA from the respective bacteria as well as a Lysine-type PG in activation of prophenoloxidase in M. sexta larval plasma in vitro. Transcription levels of AMP genes, such as Attacin, Lebocin and Moricin genes, in the hemocytes and fat body of larvae were significantly induced by smooth LPS (TLR4grade) and rough mutants of LPS (TLRgrade™), synthetic lipid A, LTA, and PG. LPS from E. coli and LTA from B. subtilis activated AMP expression to significantly higher levels than PGs from the respective bacterial strains, and smooth LPS were more potent than lipid A and rough mutants of LPS in activation of AMP expression. Our results demonstrated for the first time that LTA can activate AMP expression, and different moieties of LPS may synergistically activate AMP expression in M. sexta. PMID:20600279

  3. Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt colour preferences in a hawkmoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.; Kelber, Almut

    2008-06-01

    Flower colour is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate colour preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their colour preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of naïve moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the colour blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-coloured feeders to investigate the innate preference of naïve moths and trained different groups to each colour to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch colour preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.

  4. Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt colour preferences in a hawkmoth.

    PubMed

    Goyret, Joaquín; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A; Kelber, Almut

    2008-06-01

    Flower colour is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate colour preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their colour preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of naïve moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the colour blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-coloured feeders to investigate the innate preference of naïve moths and trained different groups to each colour to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch colour preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.

  5. Identification of chemosensory receptor genes in Manduca sexta and knockdown by RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insects detect environmental chemicals via a large and rapidly evolving family of chemosensory receptor proteins. Although our understanding of the molecular genetic basis for Drosophila chemoreception has increased enormously in the last decade, similar understanding in other insects remains limited. The tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, has long been an important model for insect chemosensation, particularly from ecological, behavioral, and physiological standpoints. It is also a major agricultural pest on solanaceous crops. However, little sequence information and lack of genetic tools has prevented molecular genetic analysis in this species. The ability to connect molecular genetic mechanisms, including potential lineage-specific changes in chemosensory genes, to ecologically relevant behaviors and specializations in M. sexta would be greatly beneficial. Results Here, we sequenced transcriptomes from adult and larval chemosensory tissues and identified chemosensory genes based on sequence homology. We also used dsRNA feeding as a method to induce RNA interference in larval chemosensory tissues. Conclusions We report identification of new chemosensory receptor genes including 17 novel odorant receptors and one novel gustatory receptor. Further, we demonstrate that systemic RNA interference can be used in larval olfactory neurons to reduce expression of chemosensory receptor transcripts. Together, our results further the development of M. sexta as a model for functional analysis of insect chemosensation. PMID:22646846

  6. The lysozyme from insect (Manduca sexta) is a cold-adapted enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A.; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F.; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M.; Rojo-Dominguez, Arturo; Kanost, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic activity is dependent on temperature, although some proteins have evolved to retain activity at low temperatures at the expense of stability. Cold adapted enzymes are present in a variety of organisms and there is ample interest in their structure-function relationships. Lysozyme (E.C. 3.2.1.17) is one of the most studied enzymes due to its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria and is also a cold adapted protein. In this work the characterization of lysozyme from the insect Manduca sexta and its activity at low temperatures is presented. Both M. sexta lysozymes natural and recombinant showed a higher content of α-helix secondary structure compared to that of hen egg white lysozyme and a higher specific enzymatic activity in the range of 5−30 °C. These results together with measured thermodynamical activation parameters support the designation of M. sexta lysozyme as a cold adapted enzyme. Therefore, the insect recombinant lysozyme is feasible as a model for structure-function studies for cold-adapted proteins. PMID:17979817

  7. The Lysozyme from Insect (Manduca sexta) is a Cold-Adapted Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Sotelo-Mundo,R.; Lopez-Zavala, A.; Garcia-Orozco, K.; Arvizu-Flores, A.; Velazquez-Contreras, E.; Valenzuela-Soto, E.; Rojo-Dominguez, A.; Kanost, M.

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic activity is dependent on temperature, although some proteins have evolved to retain activity at low temperatures at the expense of stability. Cold adapted enzymes are present in a variety of organisms and there is ample interest in their structure-function relationships. Lysozyme (E.C. 3.2.1.17) is one of the most studied enzymes due to its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria and is also a cold adapted protein. In this work the characterization of lysozyme from the insect Manduca sexta and its activity at low temperatures is presented. Both M. sexta lysozymes natural and recombinant showed a higher content of {alpha}-helix secondary structure compared to that of hen egg white lysozyme and a higher specific enzymatic activity in the range of 5-30 {sup o}C. These results together with measured thermodynamic activation parameters support the designation of M. sexta lysozyme as a cold adapted enzyme. Therefore, the insect recombinant lysozyme is feasible as a model for structure-function studies for cold-adapted proteins.

  8. Characterization and regulation of expression of an antifungal peptide from hemolymph of an insect, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Souhail, Qasim Al; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad; Giraldo, Martha C.; Takahashi, Daisuke; Valent, Barbara; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kanost, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Insects secrete antimicrobial peptides as part of the innate immune response. Most antimicrobial peptides from insects have antibacterial but not antifungal activity. We have characterized an antifungal peptide, diapausin-1 from hemolymph of a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm). Diapausin-1 was isolated by size exclusion chromatography from hemolymph plasma of larvae that were previously injected with a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fractions containing activity against S. cerevisiae were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS/MS and found to contain a 45-residue peptide that was encoded by sequences identified in M. sexta transcriptome and genome databases. A cDNA for diapausin-1 was cloned from cDNA prepared from fat body RNA. Diapausin-1 is a member of the diapausin family of peptides, which includes members known to have antifungal activity. The M. sexta genome contains 14 genes with high similarity to diapausin-1, each with 6 conserved Cys residues. Diapausin-1 was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant diapausin-1 was active against S. cerevisiae, with IC50 of 12 μM, but had no detectable activity against bacteria. Spores of some plant fungal pathogens treated with diapausin-1 had curled germination tubes or reduced and branched hyphal growth. Diapausin-1 mRNA level in fat body strongly increased after larvae were injected with yeast or with Micrococcus luteus. In addition, diapausin-1 mRNA levels increased in midgut and fat body at the wandering larval stage prior to pupation, suggesting developmental regulation of the gene. Our results indicate that synthesis of diapausin-1 is part of an antifungal innate immune response to infection in M. sexta. PMID:26976231

  9. Neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes of Manduca sexta and the initiation of hemocyte attachment to foreign surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Pilas, Barbara; Bee, Charles Mark; Zhuang, Shufei; Garsha, Karl; Kanost, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    Observations of hemocyte aggregation on abiotic surfaces suggested that certain plasmatocytes from larvae of Manduca sexta act as foci for hemocyte aggregation. To establish how these particular plasmatocytes form initial attachments to foreign surfaces, they were cultured separately from other selected populations of hemocytes. While all circulating plasmatocytes immunolabel with anti-beta-integrin monoclonal antibody (MAb), only these larger plasmatocytes immunolabel with a MAb to the adhesion protein neuroglian. Neuroglian-negative plasmatocytes and granular cells that have been magnetically segregated from the majority of granular cells adhere to each other but fail to adhere to foreign substrata; by contrast, neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes that segregate with most granular cells adhere firmly to a substratum. Hemocytes form stable aggregates around the large, neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes. However, if neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes are separated from most granular cells, attachment of these plasmatocytes to foreign surfaces is suppressed.

  10. Costs and Benefits of Underground Pupal Chambers Constructed by Insects: A Test Using Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Jonathan C; Woods, H Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Many holometabolous insects metamorphose in belowground pupal chambers. Although the chambers may be elaborate and their construction costly, their functions are unknown. Using laboratory and field experiments, we examined the costs and functions of chambers made by the hawk moth Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Costs were large in some circumstances; prepupal larvae lost up to 60% of their body mass when constructing chambers in dry soils. We tested three alternative hypotheses about what, if anything, chambers do for the individuals that make them: (1) chambers provide critical open space underground, allowing room for ecdysis and preventing soil from deforming the metamorphosing individual; (2) chambers raise the local relative humidity, so that cuticular and respiratory water losses are minimized; and (3) chamber walls prevent predators and pathogens from attacking. The data support the first hypothesis (about open space) and largely exclude the other two. These results provide a simple and potentially broad explanation for the evolution of chamber building in metamorphosing insects.

  11. High temperature slows down growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae) under food restriction.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew B; Jiao, Lihong; Tsao, Tsu-hsuan; King, Ian; Jennings, Michael; Hou, Chen

    2015-03-01

    When fed ad libitum (AL), ectothermic animals usually grow faster and have higher metabolic rate at higher ambient temperature. However, if food supply is limited, there is an energy tradeoff between growth and metabolism. Here we hypothesize that for ectothermic animals under food restriction (FR), high temperature will lead to a high metabolic rate, but growth will slow down to compensate for the high metabolism. We measure the rates of growth and metabolism of 4 cohorts of 5th instar hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae) reared at 2 levels of food supply (AL and FR) and 2 temperatures (20 and 30 °C). Our results show that, compared to the cohorts reared at 20 °C, the ones reared at 30 °C have high metabolic rates under both AL and FR conditions, but a high growth rate under AL and a low growth rate under FR, supporting this hypothesis.

  12. A Characterization of the Manduca sexta Serotonin Receptors in the Context of Olfactory Neuromodulation

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Reale, Vincenzina; Pi, Yeli; Zhang, Wujie; Dacks, Joel B.; Nighorn, Alan J.; Evans, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromodulation, the alteration of individual neuron response properties, has dramatic consequences for neural network function and is a phenomenon observed across all brain regions and taxa. However, the mechanisms underlying neuromodulation are made complex by the diversity of neuromodulatory receptors expressed within a neural network. In this study we begin to examine the receptor basis for serotonergic neuromodulation in the antennal lobe of Manduca sexta. To this end we cloned all four known insect serotonin receptor types from Manduca (the Ms5HTRs). We used phylogenetic analyses to classify the Ms5HTRs and to establish their relationships to other insect serotonin receptors, other insect amine receptors and the vertebrate serotonin receptors. Pharmacological assays demonstrated that each Ms5HTR was selective for serotonin over other endogenous amines and that serotonin had a similar potency at all four Ms5HTRs. The pharmacological assays also identified several agonists and antagonists of the different Ms5HTRs. Finally, we found that the Ms5HT1A receptor was expressed in a subpopulation of GABAergic local interneurons suggesting that the Ms5HTRs are likely expressed heterogeneously within the antennal lobe based on functional neuronal subtype. PMID:23922709

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Small Cationic Protein from the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Erjun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Ao, Jing-Qun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation system is an important defense mechanism in arthropods, and activation of proPO to active phenoloxidase (PO) involves a serine proteinase cascade. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a small cationic protein CP8 from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, which can stimulate proPO activation. BLAST search showed that Manduca CP8 is similar to a fungal proteinase inhibitor-1 (AmFPI-1), an inducible serine proteinase inhibitor-1 (ISPI-1), and other small cationic proteins with unknown functions. However, we showed that Manduca CP8 did not inhibit proteinase activity, but stimulated proPO activation in plasma. When small amount (0.1μg) of purified native CP8 or BSA was added to cell-free plasma samples and incubated for 20 min, low PO activity was observed in both groups. But significantly higher PO activity was observed in the CP8-group than in the BSA-group when more proteins (0.5μg) were added and incubated for 20 min. However, when the plasma samples were incubated with proteins for 30 min, high PO activity was observed in both the CP8 and BSA groups regardless the amount of proteins added. Moreover, when PO in the plasma was pre-activated with Micrococcus luteus, addition of CP8 did not have an effect on PO activity, and CP8/bacteria mixture did not stimulate PO activity to a higher level than did BSA/bacteria. These results suggest that CP8 helps activate proPO more rapidly at the initial stage. CP8 mRNA was specifically expressed in fat body and its mRNA level decreased when larvae were injected with saline or bacteria. However, CP8 protein concentration in hemolymph did not change significantly in larvae injected with saline or microorganisms. PMID:19162182

  14. Purification and characterization of a small cationic protein from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Ling, Erjun; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Ao, Jing-Qun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2009-04-01

    The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation system is an important defense mechanism in arthropods, and activation of proPO to active phenoloxidase (PO) involves a serine proteinase cascade. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a small cationic protein CP8 from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, which can stimulate proPO activation. BLAST search showed that Manduca CP8 is similar to a fungal proteinase inhibitor-1 (AmFPI-1), an inducible serine proteinase inhibitor-1 (ISPI-1), and other small cationic proteins with unknown functions. However, we showed that Manduca CP8 did not inhibit proteinase activity, but stimulated proPO activation in plasma. When small amount (0.1 microg) of purified native CP8 or BSA was added to cell-free plasma samples and incubated for 20 min, low PO activity was observed in both groups. But significantly higher PO activity was observed in the CP8-group than in the BSA-group when more proteins (0.5 microg) were added and incubated for 20 min. However, when the plasma samples were incubated with proteins for 30 min, high PO activity was observed in both the CP8 and BSA groups regardless of the amount of proteins added. Moreover, when PO in the plasma was pre-activated with Micrococcus luteus, addition of CP8 did not have an effect on PO activity, and CP8/bacteria mixture did not stimulate PO activity to a higher level than did BSA/bacteria. These results suggest that CP8 helps activate proPO more rapidly at the initial stage. CP8 mRNA was specifically expressed in fat body and its mRNA level decreased when larvae were injected with saline or bacteria. However, CP8 protein concentration in hemolymph did not change significantly in larvae injected with saline or microorganisms.

  15. Respiratory changes throughout ontogeny in the tobacco hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Kendra J; Harrison, Jon F

    2005-04-01

    The respiratory system of growing caterpillars is challenged in two distinct ways as they develop from hatchlings to fifth instars preparing for pupation. First, across instars, body sizes and tracheal lengths increase substantially. Second, within each instar, animal mass can more than double while major tracheal respiratory system structures, such as spiracles and large tracheae, are fixed in size until molting. To test whether these growth processes result in a decrease in O2 delivery capacity relative to tissue oxygen needs, we exposed feeding Manduca sexta larvae of various ages to decreasing levels of atmospheric O2 and measured their metabolic rate and ability to feed. We found that near the beginning of all instars, M. sexta were able to maintain gas exchange and feed down to approximately 5 kPa O2, indicating that these insects are able to match tracheal O2 delivery to increased metabolic rates across instars. However, gas exchange and feeding of caterpillars nearing the molt were limited at much higher O2 levels (up to 15 kPa O2), suggesting that caterpillars have limited capacities to increase tracheal O2 delivery as O2 consumption rates increase within instars. It seems possible that the safety margin for O2 delivery may disappear completely in the last hours before ecdysis, providing an ultimate if not proximate explanation for the necessity of molting.

  16. Water loss and gas exchange by eggs of Manduca sexta: trading off costs and benefits.

    PubMed

    Woods, H Arthur

    2010-05-01

    Like all terrestrial organisms, insect eggs face a tradeoff between exchanging metabolic gases (O(2) and CO(2)) and conserving water. Here I summarize the physiology underlying this tradeoff and the ecological contexts in which it may be important. The ideas are illustrated primarily by work from my laboratory on eggs of the sphingid moth Manduca sexta. In particular, I discuss: (1) dynamic changes in metabolic demand and water loss during development; and (2) how the eggshell layers and embryonic tracheal system control the traffic of gases between the embryo and its environment. Subsequently, I identify three areas with interesting but unresolved issues: (1) what eggs actually experience in their microclimates, focusing particularly on the leaf microclimates relevant to eggs of M. sexta; (2) how egg experience influences whether or not hatchling larvae succeed in establishing feeding sites on host plants; and (3) whether Hetz and Bradley's [Hetz, S.K., Bradley, T.J., 2005. Insects breathe discontinuously to avoid oxygen toxicity. Nature 433, 516-519] oxygen toxicity hypothesis for discontinuous gas-exchange cycles applies to insect eggs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Manduca sexta gloverin binds microbial components and is active against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Xue; Yi, Hui-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    Hyalophora gloveri gloverin is a glycine-rich and heat stable antimicrobial protein with activity mainly against Escherichia coli. However, Spodoptera exigua gloverin is active against a Gram-positive bacterium but inactive against E. coli. In this study, we investigated expression profile, binding ability and antimicrobial activity of Manduca sexta gloverin (MsGlv). Msglv transcript was detected in several tissues of naïve larvae with higher levels in the midgut and testis. Expression of Msglv mRNA in larvae was up-regulated by active Spätzle-C108 and peptidoglycans (PGs) of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the activation was blocked by pre-injection of antibody to M. sexta Toll, suggesting that Msglv expression is regulated by the Toll-Spätzle pathway. Recombinant MsGlv bound to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and PG, and laminarin, but not to E. coli PG or mannan. MsGlv was active against Bacillus cereus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans, but was almost inactive against E. coli and S. aureus. Our results suggest that gloverins are active against some bacteria and fungi.

  18. Identification of Aminopeptidase-N2 as a Cry2Ab binding protein in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Onofre, Janette; Gaytán, Meztlli O; Peña-Cardeña, Arlen; García-Gomez, Blanca I; Pacheco, Sabino; Gómez, Isabel; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2017-01-17

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab toxin has been used in combination with Cry1Ac for resistance management on the Bt-cotton that is widely planted worldwide. However, little is known regarding Cry2Ab mode of action. Particularly, there is a gap of knowledge on the identification of insect midgut proteins that bind Cry2Ab and mediate toxicity. In the case of Cry1Ab toxin, a transmembrane cadherin protein and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins like aminopeptidase-N1 (APN1) or alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) from Manduca sexta, have been shown to be important for oligomer formation and insertion into the membrane. Binding competition experiments showed that Cry2Ab toxin does not share binding sites with Cry1Ab toxin in M. sexta brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Also, that Cry2Ab shows reduced binding to the Cry1Ab binding molecules cadherin, APN1 or ALP. Finally, ligand blot experiments and protein sequence by LC-MS/MS identified APN2 isoform as a Cry2Ab binding protein. Cloning and expression of APN2 confirmed that APN2 is a Cry2Ab binding protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of ambient humidity on the foraging behavior of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Heidy L; Goyret, Joaquin; von Arx, Martin; Pierce, Clayton T; Bronstein, Judith L; Raguso, Robert A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2013-11-01

    The foraging decisions of flower-visiting animals are contingent upon the need of an individual to meet both energetic and osmotic demands. Insects can alter their food preferences to prioritize one need over the other, depending on environmental conditions. In this study, preferences in nectar sugar concentrations (0, 12, 24 %) were tested in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, in response to different levels of ambient humidity (20, 40, 60, and 80 % RH). Moths altered their foraging behavior when placed in low humidity environments by increasing the volume of nectar imbibed and by consuming more dilute nectar. When placed in high humidity environments the total volume imbibed decreased, because moths consumed less from dilute nectars (water and 12 % sucrose). Survivorship was higher with higher humidity. Daily foraging patterns changed with relative humidity (RH): moths maximized their nectar consumption earlier, at lower humidities. Although ambient humidity had an impact on foraging activity, activity levels and nectar preferences, total energy intake was not affected. These results show that foraging decisions made by M. sexta kept under different ambient RH levels allow individuals to meet their osmotic demands while maintaining a constant energy input.

  20. Manduca sexta Gloverin Binds Microbial Components and is Active against Bacteria and Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Xue; Yi, Hui-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Hyalophora gloveri gloverin is a glycine-rich and heat stable antimicrobial protein with activity mainly against Escherichia coli. However, Spodoptera exigua gloverin is active against a Gram-positive bacterium but inactive against E. coli. In this study, we investigated expression profile, binding ability and antimicrobial activity of Manduca sexta gloverin (MsGlv). MsGlv transcript was detected in several tissues of naïve larvae with higher levels in the midgut and testis. Expression of MsGlv mRNA in larvae was up-regulated by active Spätzle-C108 and peptidoglycans (PGs) of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the activation was blocked by pre-injection of antibody to M. sexta Toll, suggesting that MsGlv expression is regulated by the Toll-Spätzle pathway. Recombinant MsGlv bound to the O-specific antigen and outer core carbohydrate of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and PG, and laminarin, but not to E. coli PG or mannan. MsGlv was active against Bacillus cereus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans, but was almost inactive against E. coli and S. aureus. Our results suggest that gloverins are active against some bacteria and fungi. PMID:22858411

  1. Rearing and injection of Manduca sexta larvae to assess bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Hussa, Elizabeth; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2012-12-11

    Manduca sexta, commonly known as the tobacco hornworm, is considered a significant agricultural pest, feeding on solanaceous plants including tobacco and tomato. The susceptibility of M. sexta larvae to a variety of entomopathogenic bacterial species(1-5), as well as the wealth of information available regarding the insect's immune system(6-8), and the pending genome sequence(9) make it a good model organism for use in studying host-microbe interactions during pathogenesis. In addition, M. sexta larvae are relatively large and easy to manipulate and maintain in the laboratory relative to other susceptible insect species. Their large size also facilitates efficient tissue/hemolymph extraction for analysis of the host response to infection. The method presented here describes the direct injection of bacteria into the hemocoel (blood cavity) of M. sexta larvae. This approach can be used to analyze and compare the virulence characteristics of various bacterial species, strains, or mutants by simply monitoring the time to insect death after injection. This method was developed to study the pathogenicity of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus species, which typically associate with nematode vectors as a means to gain entry into the insect. Entomopathogenic nematodes typically infect larvae via natural digestive or respiratory openings, and release their symbiotic bacterial contents into the insect hemolymph (blood) shortly thereafter(10). The injection method described here bypasses the need for a nematode vector, thus uncoupling the effects of bacteria and nematode on the insect. This method allows for accurate enumeration of infectious material (cells or protein) within the inoculum, which is not possible using other existing methods for analyzing entomopathogenesis, including nicking(11) and oral toxicity assays(12). Also, oral toxicity assays address the virulence of secreted toxins introduced into the digestive system of larvae, whereas the direct injection method

  2. A genome-wide analysis of antimicrobial effector genes and their transcription patterns in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Li, Kai; Hu, Yingxia; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R.; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial proteins/peptides (AMPs) are effectors of innate immune systems against pathogen infection in multicellular organisms. Over half of the AMPs reported so far come from insects, and these effectors act in concert to suppress or kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. In this work, we have identified 86 AMP genes in the Manduca sexta genome, most of which seem likely to be functional. They encode 15 cecropins, 6 moricins, 6 defensins, 3 gallerimycins, 4 X-tox splicing variants, 14 diapausins, 15 whey acidic protein homologs, 11 attacins, 1 gloverin, 4 lebocins, 6 lysozyme-related proteins, and 4 transferrins. Some of these genes (e.g. attacins, cecropins) constitute large clusters, likely arising after rounds of gene duplication. We compared the amino acid sequences of M. sexta AMPs with their homologs in other insects to reveal conserved structural features and phylogenetic relationships. Expression data showed that many of them are synthesized in fat body and midgut during the larval-pupal molt. Certain genes contain one or more predicted κB binding sites and other regulatory elements in their promoter regions, which may account for the dramatic mRNA level increases in fat body and hemocytes after an immune challenge. Consistent with these strong mRNA increases, many AMPs become highly abundant in the larval plasma at 24 h after the challenge, as demonstrated in our previous peptidomic study. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of a large repertoire of AMPs in M. sexta, whose expression is up-regulated via immune signaling pathways to fight off invading pathogens in a coordinated manner. PMID:25662101

  3. Shifting Nicotiana attenuata’s diurnal rhythm does not alter its resistance to the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Herden, Jasmin; Meldau, Stefan; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Kunert, Grit; Joo, Youngsung; Baldwin, Ian T.; Schuman, Meredith C.

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants are less resistant to attack by the generalist lepidopteran Trichoplusia ni when plants and herbivores are entrained to opposite, versus identical diurnal cycles and tested under constant conditions. This effect is associated with circadian fluctuations in levels of jasmonic acid, the transcription factor MYC2, and glucosinolate contents in leaves. We tested whether a similar effect could be observed in a different plant-herbivore system: the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata and its co-evolved specialist herbivore, Manduca sexta. We measured larval growth on plants under both constant and diurnal conditions following identical or opposite entrainment, profiled the metabolome of attacked leaf tissue, quantified specific metabolites known to reduce M. sexta growth, and monitored M. sexta feeding activity under all experimental conditions. Entrainment did not consistently affect M. sexta growth or plant defense induction. However, both were reduced under constant dark conditions, as was M. sexta feeding activity. Our data indicate that the response induced by M. sexta in N. attenuata is robust to diurnal cues and independent of plant or herbivore entrainment. We propose that while the patterns of constitutive or general damage-induced defense may undergo circadian fluctuation, the orchestration of specific induced responses is more complex. PMID:26699809

  4. Context- and scale-dependent effects of floral CO2 on nectar foraging by Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Goyret, Joaquín; Markwell, Poppy M.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Typically, animal pollinators are attracted to flowers by sensory stimuli in the form of pigments, volatiles, and cuticular substances (hairs, waxes) derived from plant secondary metabolism. Few studies have addressed the extent to which primary plant metabolites, such as respiratory carbon dioxide (CO2), may function as pollinator attractants. Night-blooming flowers of Datura wrightii show transient emissions of up to 200 ppm above-ambient CO2 at anthesis, when nectar rewards are richest. Their main hawkmoth pollinator, Manduca sexta, can perceive minute variation (0.5 ppm) in CO2 concentration through labial pit organs whose receptor neurons project afferents to the antennal lobe. We explored the behavioral responses of M. sexta to artificial flowers with different combinations of CO2, visual, and olfactory stimuli using a laminar flow wind tunnel. Responses in no-choice assays were scale-dependent; CO2 functioned as an olfactory distance-attractant redundant to floral scent, as each stimulus elicited upwind tracking flights. However, CO2 played no role in probing behavior at the flower. Male moths showed significant bias in first-approach and probing choice of scented flowers with above-ambient CO2 over those with ambient CO2, whereas females showed similar bias only in the presence of host plant (tomato) leaf volatiles. Nevertheless, all males and females probed both flowers regardless of their first choice. While floral CO2 unequivocally affects male appetitive responses, the context-dependence of female responses suggests that they may use floral CO2 as a distance indicator of host plant quality during mixed feeding-oviposition bouts on Datura and Nicotiana plants. PMID:18212123

  5. Prophenoloxidase activation and antimicrobial peptide expression induced by the recombinant microbe binding protein of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2017-04-01

    Manduca sexta microbe binding protein (MBP) is a member of the β-1,3-glucanase-related protein superfamily that includes Gram-negative bacteria-binding proteins (GNBPs), β-1,3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs), and β-1,3-glucanases. Our previous and current studies showed that the purified MBP from baculovirus-infected insect cells had stimulated prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation in the hemolymph of naïve and immune challenged larvae and that supplementation of the exogenous MBP and peptidoglycans (PGs) had caused synergistic increases in PO activity. To explore the underlying mechanism, we separated by SDS-PAGE naïve and induced larval plasma treated with buffer or MBP and detected on immunoblots changes in intensity and/or mobility of hemolymph (serine) proteases [HP14, HP21, HP6, HP8, proPO-activating proteases (PAPs) 1-3] and their homologs (SPH1, SPH2). In a nickel pull-down assay, we observed association of MBP with proHP14 (slightly), βGRP2, PG recognition protein-1 (PGRP1, indirectly), SPH1, SPH2, and proPO2. Further experiments indicated that diaminopimelic acid (DAP) or Lys PG, MBP, PGRP1, and proHP14 together trigger the proPO activation system in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Injection of the recombinant MBP into the 5th instar naïve larvae significantly induced the expression of several antimicrobial peptide genes, revealing a possible link between HP14 and immune signal transduction. Together, these results suggest that the recognition of Gram-negative or -positive bacteria via their PGs induces the melanization and Toll pathways in M. sexta.

  6. Species-specific effects of herbivory on the oviposition behavior of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Kristin; Pesque, Adrien; Mikles, David; Goodwin, Brenna

    2013-01-01

    In Southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal sphinx moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator-plant and herbivore-plant association. While certain plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) attract moths for oviposition, it is likely that other host-derived olfactory cues, such as herbivore-induced VOCs, repel moths for oviposition. Here, we studied the oviposition preference of female M. sexta towards intact and damaged host plants of three species: D. wrightii, D. discolor (a less preferred feeding resource but also used by females for oviposition), and Solanum lycopersicum-tomato-(used by moths as an oviposition resource only). Damage was inflicted to the plants either by larval feeding or artificial damage. Mated females were exposed to an intact plant and a damaged plant and allowed to lay eggs for 10 min. Oviposition preferences of females were highly heterogeneous in all cases, but a larger proportion of moths laid significantly fewer eggs on feeding-damaged and artificially damaged plants of S. lycopersicum. Many females also avoided feeding-damaged D. discolor and D. wrightii plants induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate. Chemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total amount of VOCs released by vegetative tissues of feeding-damaged plants, as well as species-specific increases in emission of certain VOCs. In particular, feeding-damaged S. lycopersicum plants emitted (-)-linalool, an odorant that repels moths for oviposition. Finally, the emission of D. wrightii floral VOCs, which are important in mediating feeding by adult moths (and hence pollination), did not change in plants damaged by larval feeding. We propose that the observed differential effects of herbivory on oviposition choice are due to different characteristics (i.e., mutually beneficial or parasitic) of the insect-plant interaction.

  7. Annotation and expression analysis of cuticular proteins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Neal T; Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo; Wang, Ping; Kanost, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    The insect cuticle is a unique material that covers the exterior of the animal as well as lining the foregut, hindgut, and tracheae. It offers protection from predators and desiccation, defines body shape, and serves as an attachment site for internal organs and muscle. It has demonstrated remarkable variations in hardness, flexibility and elasticity, all the while being light weight, which allows for ease of movement and flight. It is composed primarily of chitin, proteins, catecholamines, and lipids. Proteomic analyses of cuticle from different life stages and species of insects has allowed for a more detailed examination of the protein content and how it relates to cuticle mechanical properties. It is now recognized that several groups of cuticular proteins exist and that they can be classified according to conserved amino acid sequence motifs. We have annotated the genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, for genes that encode putative cuticular proteins that belong to seven different groups: proteins with a Rebers and Riddiford motif (CPR), proteins analogous to peritrophins (CPAP), proteins with a tweedle motif (CPT), proteins with a 44 amino acid motif (CPF), proteins that are CPF-like (CPFL), proteins with an 18 amino acid motif (18 aa), and proteins with two to three copies of a C-X5-C motif (CPCFC). In total we annotated 248 genes, of which 207 belong to the CPR family, the most for any insect genome annotated to date. Additionally, we discovered new members of the CPAP family and determined that orthologous genes are present in other insects. We established orthology between the M. sexta and Bombyx mori genes and identified duplication events that occurred after separation of the two species. Finally, we utilized 52 RNAseq libraries to ascertain gene expression profiles that revealed commonalities and differences between different tissues and developmental stages.

  8. Transcriptomic response of Manduca sexta immune tissues to parasitization by the bracovirus associated wasp Cotesia congregata.

    PubMed

    Chevignon, Germain; Cambier, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Drezen, Jean-Michel; Huguet, Elisabeth; Moreau, Sébastien J M

    2015-07-01

    During oviposition, Cotesia congregata parasitoid wasps inject into their host, Manduca sexta, some biological factors such as venom, ovarian fluid and a symbiotic polydnavirus (PDV) named Cotesia congregata bracovirus (CcBV). During parasitism, complex interactions occur between wasp-derived factors and host targets that lead to important modifications in host physiology. In particular, the immune response leading to wasp egg encapsulation is inhibited allowing wasp survival. To date, the regulation of host genes during the interaction had only been studied for a limited number of genes. In this study, we analysed the global impact of parasitism on host gene regulation 24 h post oviposition by high throughput 454 transcriptomic analyses of two tissues known to be involved in the host immune response (hemocytes and fat body). To identify specific effects of parasitism on host transcription at this time point, transcriptomes were obtained from non-treated and parasitized larvae, and also from larvae injected with heat-killed bacteria and double stimulated larvae that were parasitized prior to bacterial challenge. Results showed that, immune challenge by bacteria leads to induction of certain antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes in M. sexta larvae whether they were parasitized or not prior to bacterial challenge. These results show that at 24 h post oviposition pathways leading to expression of AMP genes are not all inactivated suggesting wasps are in an antiseptic environment. In contrast, at this time point genes involved in phenoloxidase activation and cellular immune responses were globally down-regulated after parasitism in accordance with the observed inhibition of wasp egg encapsulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Serpin-9 and -13 regulate hemolymph proteases during immune responses of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Picheng; Rayaprolu, Subrahmanyam; Wang, Xiuhong; Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo

    2017-10-04

    Serpins are a superfamily of proteins, most of which inhibit cognate serine proteases by forming inactive acyl-enzyme complexes. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, serpin-1, -3 through -7 negatively regulate a hemolymph serine protease system that activates precursors of the serine protease homologs (SPHs), phenoloxidases (POs), Spätzles, and other cytokines. Here we report the cloning and characterization of M. sexta serpin-9 and -13. Serpin-9, a 402-residue protein most similar to Drosophila Spn77Ba, has R(366) at the P1 position right before the cleavage site; Serpin-13, a 444-residue ortholog of Drosophila Spn28Dc, is longer than the other seven serpins and has R(410) as the P1 residue. Both serpins are mainly produced in fat body and secreted into plasma to function. While their mRNA and protein levels were not up-regulated upon immune challenge, they blocked protease activities and affected proPO activation in hemolymph. Serpin-9 inhibited human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, trypsin, and chymotrypsin to different extents; serpin-13 reduced trypsin activity to approximately 10% at a molar ratio of 4:1 (serpin: enzyme). Serpin-9 was cleaved at Arg(366) by the enzymes with different specificity, but serpin-13 had four P1 sites (Arg(410) for trypsin-like proteases, Gly(406) and Ala(409) for the elastase and Thr(404) for cathepsin G). Supplementation of induced cell-free hemolymph (IP, P for plasma) with recombinant serpin-9 did not noticeably affect proPO activation, but slightly reduced the PO activity increase after 0-50% ammonium sulfate fraction of the IP had been elicited by bacteria. In comparison, addition of recombinant serpin-13 significantly inhibited proPO activation in IP and the suppression was stronger in the fraction of IP. Serpin-9- and -13-containing protein complexes were isolated from IP using their antibodies. Hemolymph protease-1 precursor (proHP1), HP6 and HP8 were found to be associated with serpin-9, whereas proHP1, HP2 and HP6

  10. Within-wingbeat damping: dynamics of continuous free-flight yaw turns in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Tyson L; Robinson, Alice K

    2010-06-23

    Free-flight body dynamics and wing kinematics were collected from recordings of continuous, low-speed, multi-wingbeat yaw turns in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) using stereo videography. These data were used to examine the effects of rotational damping arising from interactions between the body rotation and flapping motion (flapping counter-torque, FCT) on continuous turning. The moths were found to accelerate during downstroke, then decelerate during upstroke by an amount consistent with FCT damping. Wing kinematics related to turning were then analysed in a simulation of hawkmoth flight; results were consistent with the observed acceleration-deceleration pattern. However, an alternative wing kinematic which produced more continuous and less damped accelerations was found in the simulation. These findings demonstrate that (i) FCT damping is detectable in the dynamics of continuously turning animals and (ii) FCT-reducing kinematics do exist but were not employed by turning moths, possibly because within-wingbeat damping simplifies control of turning by allowing control systems to target angular velocity rather than acceleration.

  11. Crystal structure of Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase provides insights into the mechanism of type 3 copper enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo; Deng, Junpeng

    2010-02-22

    Arthropod phenoloxidase (PO) generates quinones and other toxic compounds to sequester and kill pathogens during innate immune responses. It is also involved in wound healing and other physiological processes. Insect PO is activated from its inactive precursor, prophenoloxidase (PPO), by specific proteolysis via a serine protease cascade. Here, we report the crystal structure of PPO from a lepidopteran insect at a resolution of 1.97 {angstrom}, which is the initial structure for a PPO from the type 3 copper protein family. Manduca sexta PPO is a heterodimer consisting of 2 homologous polypeptide chains, PPO1 and PPO2. The active site of each subunit contains a canonical type 3 di-nuclear copper center, with each copper ion coordinated with 3 structurally conserved histidines. The acidic residue Glu-395 located at the active site of PPO2 may serve as a general base for deprotonation of monophenolic substrates, which is key to the ortho-hydroxylase activity of PO. The structure provides unique insights into the mechanism by which type 3 copper proteins differ in their enzymatic activities, albeit sharing a common active center. A drastic change in electrostatic surface induced on cleavage at Arg-51 allows us to propose a model for localized PPO activation in insects.

  12. Reconfiguration of the immune system network during food limitation in the caterpillar Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Davies, Gillian; Easy, Russell; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F

    2016-03-01

    Dwindling resources might be expected to induce a gradual decline in immune function. However, food limitation has complex and seemingly paradoxical effects on the immune system. Examining these changes from an immune system network perspective may help illuminate the purpose of these fluctuations. We found that food limitation lowered long-term (i.e. lipid) and short-term (i.e. sugars) energy stores in the caterpillar Manduca sexta. Food limitation also: altered immune gene expression, changed the activity of key immune enzymes, depressed the concentration of a major antioxidant (glutathione), reduced resistance to oxidative stress, reduced resistance to bacteria (Gram-positive and -negative bacteria) but appeared to have less effect on resistance to a fungus. These results provide evidence that food limitation led to a restructuring of the immune system network. In severely food-limited caterpillars, some immune functions were enhanced. As resources dwindled within the caterpillar, the immune response shifted its emphasis away from inducible immune defenses (i.e. those responses that are activated during an immune challenge) and increased emphasis on constitutive defenses (i.e. immune components that are produced consistently). We also found changes suggesting that the activation threshold for some immune responses (e.g. phenoloxidase) was lowered. Changes in the configuration of the immune system network will lead to different immunological strengths and vulnerabilities for the organism. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Behavioral and genomic characterization of molt-sleep in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    MacWilliam, Dyan; Arensburger, Peter; Higa, Jason; Cui, Xinping; Adams, Michael E

    2015-07-01

    During the transition from feeding to molting, larval insects undergo profound changes in behavior and patterns of gene expression regulated by the neuroendocrine system. For some species, a distinctive characteristic of molting larvae is presence of a quiescent state sometimes referred to as "molt-sleep". Here, observations of 4th instar Manduca sexta larvae indicate the molting period involves a predominantly quiescent state that shares behavioral properties of adult insect sleep in that it is rapidly reversible and accompanied by a reduced responsiveness to both mildly arousing and noxious stimuli. When subjected to noxious stimuli, molting larvae exhibit locomotory and avoidance behaviors similar to those of inter-molt larvae. Although less consolidated, inter-molt quiescence shares many of the same behavioral traits with molting quiescence. However, when subjected to deprivation of quiescence, inter-molt larvae display a compensatory rebound behavior that is not detected in molting larvae. This suggests that molting quiescence is a specialized form of inactivity that affords survival advantages to molting larvae. RNA-seq analysis of molting larvae shows general reduction in expression of genes encoding GPCRs and down regulation of genes connected with cyclic nucleotide signaling. On the other hand, certain ion channel genes are up-regulated, including transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, chloride channels and a voltage-dependent calcium channel. These findings suggest patterns of gene expression consistent with elevation of quiescent state characteristic of the molt in a model holometabolous insect.

  14. Characterization and identification of a lipoprotein lipase from Manduca sexta flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Van Heusden, M C

    1993-10-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) activity in Manduca sexta flight muscle tissue was measured using in vivo radiolabeled lipophorin as a substrate. LpL hydrolyses diacylglycerol in the low density lipophorin (that occurs during flight) at a higher rate than diacylglycerol in the high density lipophorin (present in the resting insect). LpL has a pH-optimum of 7.5 and is less sensitive to NaCl than mammalian LpL. LpL is inhibited by bovine albumin and chicken ovalbumin. LpL is inhibited by the serine protease inhibitors diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), which indicates the presence of an active site serine similar to mammalian LpL. Flight muscle LpL shows affinity for immobilized copper as well as for immobilized heparin. Using radiolabeled DFP, a protein of 37 kDa was identified (after SDS-PAGE) as the DFP-binding protein in a partially purified preparation of LpL. This 37 kDa protein is proposed to be the LpL or a subunit thereof.

  15. The role of mechanosensory input in flower handling efficiency and learning by Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Goyret, Joaquín; Raguso, Robert A

    2006-05-01

    Nectar-foraging animals are known to utilize nectar guides-- patterns of visual contrast in flowers-- to find hidden nectar. However, few studies have explored the potential for mechanosensory cues to function as nectar guides, particularly for nocturnal pollinators such as the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta. We used arrays of artificial flowers to investigate the flower handling behavior (the ability to locate and drink from floral nectaries) of naïve moths, looking specifically at: (1) how the shape and size of flat (two-dimensional) artificial corollas affect nectar discovery and (2) whether three-dimensional features of the corolla can be used to facilitate nectar discovery. In these experiments, we decoupled visual from tactile flower features to explore the role of mechanosensory input, putatively attained via the extended proboscides of hovering moths. In addition, we examined changes in nectar discovery times within single foraging bouts to test whether moths can learn to handle different kinds of artificial flowers. We found that corolla surface area negatively affects flower handling efficiency, and that reliable mechanosensory input is crucial for the moths' performance. We also found that three-dimensional features of the corolla, such as grooves, can significantly affect the foraging behavior, both positively (when grooves converge to the nectary) and negatively (when grooves are unnaturally oriented). Lastly, we observed that moths can decrease nectar discovery time during a single foraging bout. This apparent learning ability seems to be possible only when reliable mechanosensory input is available.

  16. Effect of body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Han, Jong-Seob; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-12-14

    This study explores the effects of the body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability of an insect at various different forward flight speeds. The insect model, whose morphological parameters are based on measurement data from the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, is treated as an open-loop six-degree-of-freedom dynamic system. The aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insect are computed by an aerodynamic model that combines the unsteady panel method and the extended unsteady vortex-lattice method. The aerodynamic model is then coupled to a multi-body dynamic code to solve the system of motion equations. First, the trimmed flight conditions of insect models with and without consideration of the body aerodynamics are obtained using a trim search algorithm. Subsequently, the effects of the body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability are analysed through modal structures, i.e., eigenvalues and eigenvectors in this case, which are based on linearized equations of motion. The solutions from the nonlinear and linearized equations of motion due to gust disturbances are obtained, and the effects of the body aerodynamics are also investigated through these solutions. The results showed the important effect of the body aerodynamics at high-speed forward flight (in this paper at 4.0 and 5.0 m s(-1)) and the movement trends of eigenvalues when the body aerodynamics is included.

  17. Flow visualization and unsteady aerodynamics in the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Willmott, A. P.; Ellington, C. P.; Thomas, A. L. R.

    1997-01-01

    The aerodynamic mechanisms employed durng the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, have been investigated through smoke visualization studies with tethered moths. Details of the flow around the wings and of the overall wake structure were recorded as stereophotographs and high-speed video sequences. The changes in flow which accompanied increases in flight speed from 0.4 to 5.7 m s-1 were analysed. The wake consists of an alternating series of horizontal and vertical vortex rings which are generated by successive down- and upstrokes, respectively. The downstroke produces significantly more lift than the upstroke due to a leading-edge vortex which is stabilized by a radia flow moving out towards the wingtip. The leading-edge vortex grew in size with increasing forward flight velocity. Such a phenomenon is proposed as a likely mechanism for lift enhancement in many insect groups. During supination, vorticity is shed from the leading edge as postulated in the 'flex' mechanism. This vorticity would enhance upstroke lift if it was recaptured diring subsequent translation, but it is not. Instead, the vorticity is left behind and the upstroke circulation builds up slowly. A small jet provides additional thrust as the trailing edges approach at the end of the upstroke. The stereophotographs also suggest that the bound circulation may not be reversed between half strokes at the fastest flight speeds.

  18. Immunocytochemical localization of a Manduca sexta gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Anita; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2002-07-08

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in insect central and peripheral nervous systems. Although much work has focused on the downstream targets of GABA, signal termination at insect GABAergic synapses has received very little attention. One of the major mechanisms of terminating synaptic transmission involves transport of the neurotransmitter molecules into presynaptic neurons or surrounding glia. Here we report the immunolocalization of a GABA transporter in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (MasGAT), using an affinity-purified antibody developed to the C-terminus. This is the first demonstration of an insect neurotransmitter transporter immunolocalization study. Results showed strong staining in the neuropil regions of embryonic, larval, and pharate adult central nervous system. Expression pattern in the pharate adult brain mostly mimicked that observed for GABA, with staining in parts of the optic and antennal lobes, mushroom body, lateral protocerebrum, and central complex. Certain longitudinal and lateral connectives of ganglia were observed to have immunostained fibers representing axons. These data support the view that GABA is involved in visual and olfactory processing in the insect brain. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Flight behaviour of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta towards unimodal and multimodal targets.

    PubMed

    Balkenius, Anna; Dacke, Marie

    2010-11-01

    Here, we analyse the flight behaviour of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta while it approaches three different artificial flower stimuli: a clearly visible blue flower, an invisible scented flower and a flower that is both visible and scented. By tracking the moths in fine temporal detail, we find that flight towards an artificial flower differs depending on whether the stimulus is unimodal (either visual or olfactory) or multimodal (both visual and olfactory). In all three cases, the moth reduces its speed as it nears the target but the speed is higher overall when the visual stimulus is not present. Visual feedback, as well as the concentration gradient of the odour, is used to guide the moths towards the stimulus. The main difference in flight behaviour between an approach towards a visual and a multimodal stimulus is that the olfactory information makes the moths turn more rapidly towards the multimodal stimulus. We also find that moths extend their proboscises in front of a clearly visible feeder independent of whether an odour is present. In contrast, a scented transparent artificial flower only occasionally triggers this response.

  20. Ontogenetic scaling of metabolism, growth, and assimilation: testing metabolic scaling theory with Manduca sexta larvae.

    PubMed

    Sears, Katie E; Kerkhoff, Andrew J; Messerman, Arianne; Itagaki, Haruhiko

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism, growth, and the assimilation of energy and materials are essential processes that are intricately related and depend heavily on animal size. However, models that relate the ontogenetic scaling of energy assimilation and metabolism to growth rely on assumptions that have yet to be rigorously tested. Based on detailed daily measurements of metabolism, growth, and assimilation in tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, we provide a first experimental test of the core assumptions of a metabolic scaling model of ontogenetic growth. Metabolic scaling parameters changed over development, in violation of the model assumptions. At the same time, the scaling of growth rate matches that of metabolic rate, with similar scaling exponents both across and within developmental instars. Rates of assimilation were much higher than expected during the first two instars and did not match the patterns of scaling of growth and metabolism, which suggests high costs of biosynthesis early in development. The rapid increase in size and discrete instars observed in larval insect development provide an ideal system for understanding how patterns of growth and metabolism emerge from fundamental cellular processes and the exchange of materials and energy between an organism and its environment.

  1. Influence of green leaf herbivory by Manduca sexta on floral volatile emission by Nicotiana suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Effmert, Uta; Dinse, Claudia; Piechulla, Birgit

    2008-04-01

    Plants have to cope with various abiotic and biotic impacts as a consequence of changing environments, which can impair their ability to sexually reproduce. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether green leaf herbivory, having one of the most hazardous biotic impacts, would have any direct effect on the production and emission of floral volatiles because volatiles are known to play a crucial role in pollination. Nicotiana suaveolens plants were challenged with Manduca sexta feeding on leaves, and alterations in the quality and quantity of the floral blend, shifts in emission patterns, and changes in expression patterns of the floral benzoic/salicylic acid carboxyl-methyltransferase were monitored in noninfested and infested plants. Leaves responded to larval feeding by herbivory-induced diurnal emission of semiochemicals, whereas the emission of floral volatiles remained unchanged in comparison to the noninfested control. Neither the volatile composition nor the quantity of components or the nocturnal emission patterns was altered. The mRNA and protein levels of the benzoic/salicylic acid carboxyl-methyltransferase, as well as its enzyme activity, also did not show any significant differences. These results indicate that metabolism in flowers at and postanthesis is an autonomous process and is independent of metabolic changes in green leaves. By this sustaining mechanism, N. suaveolens plants ensure sexual reproduction even under unfavorable conditions.

  2. Within-wingbeat damping: dynamics of continuous free-flight yaw turns in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Tyson L.; Robinson, Alice K.

    2010-01-01

    Free-flight body dynamics and wing kinematics were collected from recordings of continuous, low-speed, multi-wingbeat yaw turns in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) using stereo videography. These data were used to examine the effects of rotational damping arising from interactions between the body rotation and flapping motion (flapping counter-torque, FCT) on continuous turning. The moths were found to accelerate during downstroke, then decelerate during upstroke by an amount consistent with FCT damping. Wing kinematics related to turning were then analysed in a simulation of hawkmoth flight; results were consistent with the observed acceleration–deceleration pattern. However, an alternative wing kinematic which produced more continuous and less damped accelerations was found in the simulation. These findings demonstrate that (i) FCT damping is detectable in the dynamics of continuously turning animals and (ii) FCT-reducing kinematics do exist but were not employed by turning moths, possibly because within-wingbeat damping simplifies control of turning by allowing control systems to target angular velocity rather than acceleration. PMID:20181557

  3. The Anatomical Basis for Modulatory Convergence in the Antennal Lobe of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M.; Metheny, Jackie D.; Bradley, Samual P.; Kesari, Aditya; Dacks, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The release of neuromodulators by widely projecting neurons often allows sensory systems to alter how they process information based on the physiological state of an animal. Neuromodulators alter network function by changing the biophysical properties of individual neurons and the synaptic efficacy with which individual neurons communicate. However, most, if not all, sensory networks receive multiple neuromodulatory inputs and the mechanisms by which sensory networks integrate multiple modulatory inputs are not well understood. Here, we characterized the relative glomerular distribution of two extrinsic neuromodulators associated with distinct physiological states, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), in the antennal lobe (AL) of the moth Manduca sexta. Using immunocytochemistry and mass dye fills, we characterized the innervation patterns of both 5-HT and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive processes (TH-ir) relative to each other, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), projection neurons (PNs) and several subsets of local interneurons (LNs). 5-HT-ir had nearly complete overlap with PNs and LN, yet no overlap with ORNs, suggesting that 5-HT may modulate PNs and LNs directly but not ORNs. TH-ir overlapped with PNs, LNs and ORNs suggesting that dopamine has the potential to modulate all three cell types. Furthermore, the branching density of each neuromodulator differed with 5-HT exhibiting denser arborizations and TH-ir processes being more sparse. Our results suggest that 5-HT and DA extrinsic neurons target partially overlapping glomerular regions, yet DA extends further into the region occupied by ORNs. PMID:26560074

  4. Plant species- and status-specific odorant blends guide oviposition choice in the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Späthe, Anna; Reinecke, Andreas; Olsson, Shannon B; Kesavan, Subaharan; Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S

    2013-02-01

    The reproductive success of herbivorous insects largely depends on the mother's oviposition preference. In nocturnal insects, olfaction is arguably the most important sensory modality mediating mate finding, foraging, and host location. In most habitats, gravid females select among a number of plants of varying suitability, yet assessment of the neuroethological mechanisms underlying odor-guided choice between host plants is rare. Using a series of behavioral, electrophysiological, and chromatographic analyses in the Hawk moth, Manduca sexta, we show that gravid females perform a hierarchical choice among host plants of different species and qualities using olfactory cues. Both relevant plant species and qualities can be distinguished by volatile profiles collected from the headspace of these plants, and olfactory sensilla on female antennae detect more than half of the about 120 analytically detected volatiles in host plant headspace samples. Although olfactory sensory neurons present in antennal sensilla are mainly broadly tuned to multiple host compounds, some sensilla exhibit species and condition-specific responses. In fact, species and quality can be distinguished by the physiologically active components alone. Our findings thus suggest that distinguishing characteristics of both host species and quality are already represented at the sensory periphery.

  5. A molt timer is involved in the metamorphic molt in Manduca sexta larvae.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Koyama, Takashi; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Riddiford, Lynn M; Truman, James W

    2013-07-30

    Manduca sexta larvae are a model for growth control in insects, particularly for the demonstration of critical weight, a threshold weight that the larva must surpass before it can enter metamorphosis on a normal schedule, and the inhibitory action of juvenile hormone on this checkpoint. We examined the effects of nutrition on allatectomized (CAX) larvae that lack juvenile hormone to impose the critical weight checkpoint. Normal larvae respond to prolonged starvation at the start of the last larval stage, by extending their subsequent feeding period to ensure that they begin metamorphosis above critical weight. CAX larvae, by contrast, show no homeostatic adjustment to starvation but start metamorphosis 4 d after feeding onset, regardless of larval size or the state of development of their imaginal discs. By feeding starved CAX larvae for various durations, we found that feeding for only 12-24 h was sufficient to result in metamorphosis on day 4, regardless of further feeding or body size. Manipulation of diet composition showed that protein was the critical macronutrient to initiate this timing. This constant period between the start of feeding and the onset of metamorphosis suggests that larvae possess a molt timer that establishes a minimal time to metamorphosis. Ligation experiments indicate that a portion of the timing may occur in the prothoracic glands. This positive system that promotes molting and the negative control via the critical weight checkpoint provide antagonistic pathways that evolution can modify to adapt growth to the ecological needs of different insects.

  6. A molt timer is involved in the metamorphic molt in Manduca sexta larvae

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Koyama, Takashi; Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Riddiford, Lynn M.; Truman, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Manduca sexta larvae are a model for growth control in insects, particularly for the demonstration of critical weight, a threshold weight that the larva must surpass before it can enter metamorphosis on a normal schedule, and the inhibitory action of juvenile hormone on this checkpoint. We examined the effects of nutrition on allatectomized (CAX) larvae that lack juvenile hormone to impose the critical weight checkpoint. Normal larvae respond to prolonged starvation at the start of the last larval stage, by extending their subsequent feeding period to ensure that they begin metamorphosis above critical weight. CAX larvae, by contrast, show no homeostatic adjustment to starvation but start metamorphosis 4 d after feeding onset, regardless of larval size or the state of development of their imaginal discs. By feeding starved CAX larvae for various durations, we found that feeding for only 12–24 h was sufficient to result in metamorphosis on day 4, regardless of further feeding or body size. Manipulation of diet composition showed that protein was the critical macronutrient to initiate this timing. This constant period between the start of feeding and the onset of metamorphosis suggests that larvae possess a molt timer that establishes a minimal time to metamorphosis. Ligation experiments indicate that a portion of the timing may occur in the prothoracic glands. This positive system that promotes molting and the negative control via the critical weight checkpoint provide antagonistic pathways that evolution can modify to adapt growth to the ecological needs of different insects. PMID:23852731

  7. The parasitic wasp Cotesia congregata uses multiple mechanisms to control host (Manduca sexta) behaviour.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F; Easy, Russell H; Miles, Carol I

    2016-12-01

    Some parasites alter the behaviour of their hosts. The larvae of the parasitic wasp Cotesia congregata develop within the body of the caterpillar Manduca sexta During the initial phase of wasp development, the host's behaviour remains unchanged. However, once the wasps begin to scrape their way out of the caterpillar, the caterpillar host stops feeding and moving spontaneously. We found that the caterpillar also temporarily lost sensation around the exit hole created by each emerging wasp. However, the caterpillars regained responsiveness to nociception in those areas within 1 day. The temporary reduction in skin sensitivity is probably important for wasp survival because it prevents the caterpillar from attacking the emerging wasp larvae with a defensive strike. We also found that expression of plasmatocyte spreading peptide (PSP) and spätzle genes increased in the fat body of the host during wasp emergence. This result supports the hypothesis that the exiting wasps induce a cytokine storm in their host. Injections of PSP suppressed feeding, suggesting that an augmented immune response may play a role in the suppression of host feeding. Injection of wasp larvae culture media into non-parasitized caterpillars reduced feeding, suggesting that substances secreted by the wasp larvae may help alter host behaviour. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin interaction with Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N in a model membrane environment.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, M A; Carroll, J; Travis, E R; Williams, D H; Ellar, D J

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin was shown to bind in a biphasic manner to Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N (APN) present in a novel model membrane. Surface plasmon resonance analysis allowed the quantification of toxin binding to M. sexta APN in a supported lipid monolayer. The initial binding was rapid and reversible, with an affinity constant of 110 nM. The second phase was slower and resulted in an overall affinity constant of 3.0 nM. Reagents used to disrupt protein-protein interactions did not dissociate the toxin after high-affinity binding was attained. The initial association between Cry1Ac and APN was inhibited by the sugar GalNAc, but the higher-affinity state was resistant to GalNAc-induced dissociation. The results suggest that after binding to M. sexta APN, the Cry1Ac toxin undergoes a rate-limiting step leading to a high-affinity state. A site-directed Cry1Ac mutant, N135Q, exhibited a similar initial binding affinity for APN but did not show the second slower phase. This inability to form an irreversible association with the APN-lipid monolayer helps explain the lack of toxicity of this protein towards M. sexta larvae and its deficient membrane-permeabilizing activity on M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:9677328

  9. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    PubMed Central

    Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

  10. Regulation of the ecdysteroid titer of Manduca sexta: reappraisal of the role of the prothoracic glands.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, J T; Sakurai, S; Rountree, D B; Gilbert, L I; Lee, S S; Nakanishi, K

    1988-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the prothoracic glands of insects produce ecdysone, which is converted by a 20-monooxygenase in peripheral tissues to the major molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Incubation in vitro of the prothoracic glands of larval or pupal Manduca sexta in the presence of a hemolymph protein fraction (HPF) increased the ecdysteroid content of the medium almost 8-fold. A comparable increase was noted when HPF was added to medium preconditioned with prothoracic glands but from which the glands had been removed. We used a differential RIA to show that a major product of the prothoracic glands in vitro cross-reacts with antiserum (20-hydroxyecdysone-2-succinylthyroglobulin amide; H-2) that retains affinity to ecdysteroids having a modified A ring. However, this product did not bind to antiserum (ecdysone-22-succinylthyroglobulin amide; H-22) that has affinity mainly for ecdysteroids modified at the side chain. We employed radiolabeled precursor studies with prothoracic glands in vitro and a combination of analytical techniques (NMR, CD, MS) to demonstrate that the major ecdysteroid release from the glands is a mixture of 2-dehydroecdysone and 3-dehydroecdysone (1:2), which is rapidly reduced to ecdysone in the presence of HPF. We postulate that the active component of HPF is 3 beta 3 beta (2 beta)-formin-3(2)-ketoecdysteroid reductase. These results may explain several anomalous observations pertaining to the molting of insect fragments in the absence of prothoracic glands and suggest a complex system for the control of insect molting and metamorphosis. PMID:3422473

  11. Parasitism enhances the induction of glucogenesis by the insect, Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N

    2001-02-01

    Metabolic alterations that accompany parasitism of invertebrate animals can play an important role in parasite development. Employing 13C NMR, this study examined pyruvate cycling from (2-(13)C)pyruvate in the lepidopteran insect Manduca sexta, and the effects of parasitism by the hymenopteran Cotesia congregata on the gluconeogenic formation of trehalose, the haemolymph or blood sugar of insects. Larvae were maintained on a semi-synthetic sucrose-free diet, or on the same diet with sucrose at 8.5 g/l. Pyruvate cycling was evident from the 13C enrichment in C3 of alanine, derived following carboxylation to oxaloacetate, and was similar in parasitized and normal insects regardless of diet. Trehalose was formed following de novo synthesis of glucose, and net synthesis was estimated from the 13C distribution in trehalose and alanine. The 13C-enrichment ratio [2trehalose C6/alanine C3] is an indicator of the level of gluconeogenesis relative to glycolysis, both enrichments were derived from (2-(13)C)pyruvate in the same manner. The ratio was greater than unity in all insects, regardless of diet, but was significantly greater in parasitized larvae, demonstrating an enhanced level of gluconeogenesis. This was confirmed by analysis of the 13C distribution in trehalose and glutamine derived from (3-(13)C)alanine. Despite enhanced de novo trehalose formation in parasitized insects, the haemolymph sugar level was similar to that of normal larvae. Because haemolymph trehalose regulates dietary carbohydrate intake, but not gluconeogenesis, the results suggest that accelerated induction of gluconeogenesis is an adaptive response to parasitism that provides increased carbohydrate for parasite growth and simultaneously maintains nutrient intake.

  12. No Evidence for Ionotropic Pheromone Transduction in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Andreas; Gawalek, Petra; Koerte, Sarah; Wei, HongYing; Schumann, Robin; Werckenthin, Achim; Krieger, Jürgen; Stengl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are 7-transmembrane receptors with inverse membrane topology. They associate with the conserved ion channel Orco. As chaperon, Orco maintains ORs in cilia and, as pacemaker channel, Orco controls spontaneous activity in olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant binding to ORs opens OR-Orco receptor ion channel complexes in heterologous expression systems. It is unknown, whether this also occurs in vivo. As an alternative to this ionotropic transduction, experimental evidence is accumulating for metabotropic odor transduction, implicating that insect ORs couple to G-proteins. Resulting second messengers gate various ion channels. They generate the sensillum potential that elicits phasic-tonic action potentials (APs) followed by late, long-lasting pheromone responses. Because it is still unclear how and when Orco opens after odor-OR-binding, we used tip recordings to examine in vivo the effects of the Orco antagonist OLC15 and the amilorides MIA and HMA on bombykal transduction in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. In contrast to OLC15 both amilorides decreased the pheromone-dependent sensillum potential amplitude and the frequency of the phasic AP response. Instead, OLC15 decreased spontaneous activity, increased latencies of phasic-, and decreased frequencies of late, long-lasting pheromone responses Zeitgebertime-dependently. Our results suggest no involvement for Orco in the primary transduction events, in contrast to amiloride-sensitive channels. Instead of an odor-gated ionotropic receptor, Orco rather acts as a voltage- and apparently second messenger-gated pacemaker channel controlling the membrane potential and hence threshold and kinetics of the pheromone response. PMID:27829053

  13. Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

  14. Regulation of chitin synthesis in the larval midgut of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zimoch, L; Hogenkamp, D G; Kramer, K J; Muthukrishnan, S; Merzendorfer, H

    2005-06-01

    In insects, chitin is not only synthesized by ectodermal cells that form chitinous cuticles, but also by endodermal cells of the midgut that secrete a chitinous peritrophic matrix. Using anti-chitin synthase (CHS) antibodies, we previously demonstrated that in the midgut of Manduca sexta, CHS is expressed by two cell types, tracheal cells forming a basal tracheal network and columnar cells forming the apical brush border [Zimoch and Merzendorfer, 2002, Cell Tissue Res. 308, 287-297]. Now, we show that two different genes, MsCHS1 and MsCHS2, encode CHSs of midgut tracheae and columnar cells, respectively. To investigate MsCHS2 expression and activity in the course of the larval development, we monitored chitin synthesis, enzyme levels as well as mRNA amounts. All of the tested parameters were significantly reduced during molting and in the wandering stage when compared to the values obtained from intermolt feeding larvae. By contrast, MsCHS1 appeared to be inversely regulated because its mRNA was detectable only during the molt at the time when tracheal growth occurs at the basal site of the midgut. To further examine midgut chitin synthesis, we measured enzyme activity in crude midgut extracts and different membrane fractions. When we analysed trypsin-mediated proteolytic activation, a phenomenon previously reported for insect and fungal systems, we recognized that midgut chitin synthesis was only activated in crude extracts, but not in the 12,000 g membrane fraction. However, proteolytic activation by trypsin in the 12,000 g membrane fraction could be reconstituted by re-adding a soluble fraction, indicating that limited proteolysis affects an unknown soluble factor, a process that in turn activates chitin synthesis.

  15. Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

  16. Neural correlates of behavior in the moth Manduca sexta in response to complex odors

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Lei, H.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2009-01-01

    With Manduca sexta as a model system, we analyzed how natural odor mixtures that are most effective in eliciting flight and foraging behaviors are encoded in the primary olfactory center in the brain, the antennal lobe. We used gas chromatography coupled with multiunit neural-ensemble recording to identify key odorants from flowers of two important nectar resources, the desert plants Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, that elicited responses from individual antennal-lobe neurons. Neural-ensemble responses to the A. palmeri floral scent, comprising >60 odorants, could be reproduced by stimulation with a mixture of six of its constituents that had behavioral effectiveness equivalent to that of the complete scent. Likewise, a mixture of three floral volatiles from D. wrightii elicited normal flight and feeding behaviors. By recording responses of neural ensembles to mixtures of varying behavioral effectiveness, we analyzed the coding of behaviorally “meaningful” odors. We considered four possible ensemble-coding mechanisms—mean firing rate, mean instantaneous firing rate, pattern of synchronous ensemble firing, and total net synchrony of firing—and found that mean firing rate and the pattern of ensemble synchrony were best correlated with behavior (R = 41% and 43%, respectively). Stepwise regression analysis showed that net synchrony and mean instantaneous firing rate contributed little to the variation in the behavioral results. We conclude that a combination of mean-rate coding and synchrony of firing of antennal-lobe neurons underlies generalization among related, behaviorally effective floral mixtures while maintaining sufficient contrast for discrimination of distinct scents. PMID:19907000

  17. The role of the frontal ganglion in the feeding and eclosion behavior of the moth manduca sexta

    PubMed

    Miles; Booker

    1998-06-01

    We have examined the musculature and motor patterns of the foregut and the role of the frontal ganglion in the adult moth Manduca sexta. During adult development, the structure of the foregut changes from a simple straight tube to a pump consisting of a flexible-roofed chamber or cibarium, with dilator muscles that raise the roof to draw in fluids and a compressor to push it down and force the fluid down the thin-walled esophagus. The frontal ganglion drives the activity of this cibarial pump during feeding, which is triggered by the application of sucrose solution or water to the proboscis. The feeding motor pattern consists of coupled bursts of the pump dilators and shorter-duration, high-frequency bursts of spikes from the pump compressor. The pump is also activated at the adult molt. At this time, it is used both before the moth emerges from the pupal case for swallowing molting fluid and again after emergence for swallowing air. These behaviors are important for eclosion and are necessary for the expansion of the wings after eclosion. Their motor patterns are similar to the feeding program. Up to 24 h before adult ecdysis, this motor pattern can be triggered by the peptide eclosion hormone. The other eclosion-related peptide, Manduca sexta eclosion-triggering hormone, does not appear to trigger activity of the cibarial pump.

  18. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5 kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration of Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, ...

  19. Nutrition interacts with parasitism to influence growth and physiology of the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Redak, R A; Wang, L-W

    2005-02-01

    The influence and interaction of dietary protein:carbohydrate balance and parasitism by Cotesia congregata on nutrient intake and growth were examined over the last two larval stadia of Manduca sexta. Effects of nutritional status on host blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Six fat-free chemically defined diets were tested, each having the same total level of casein and sucrose, but with casein to sucrose ratios varying from low protein/high carbohydrate to equal levels of both nutrients through to high protein/no carbohydrate. Nutrient ratio and parasitism each affected nutrient consumption and growth. Feeding responses differed between normal and parasitized larvae, as illustrated by nutrient arrays, two-dimensional plots of protein and carbohydrate consumption on diets having different nutrient ratios. Normal larvae consumed more nutrients and took longer to develop as dietary nutrient ratio was displaced from equal levels of both nutrients. Except on the diet having the same amount of protein and carbohydrate, parasitized larvae consumed less nutrients than normal larvae, although on all diets parasitized larvae took longer to develop. When the contribution of parasite biomass was excluded, parasitized larvae showed lower mass gain than normal larvae on all diets. Total mass gain by normal and parasitized larvae with parasite biomass included, however, was similar on diets having intermediate nutrient ratios. Differences in mass gain between diets relative to nutrient consumption were evident from multi-dimensional representations of mass gain with protein and carbohydrate consumption. Three-dimensional plots and contour maps of normal and parasitized larvae were different. When differences in nutrient consumption between diets were taken into account, protein consumption had a greater effect on growth than carbohydrate consumption and normal larvae generally displayed greater mass gain than parasitized larvae on the same diets. Utilization

  20. A multibody approach for 6-DOF flight dynamics and stability analysis of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jae-Hung

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) flight dynamics and stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta using a multibody dynamics approach that encompasses the effects of the time varying inertia tensor of all the body segments including two wings. The quasi-steady translational and unsteady rotational aerodynamics of the flapping wings are modeled with the blade element theory with aerodynamic coefficients derived from relevant experimental studies. The aerodynamics is given instantaneously at each integration time step without wingbeat-cycle-averaging. With the multibody dynamic model and the aerodynamic model for the hawkmoth, a direct time integration of the fully coupled 6-DOF nonlinear multibody dynamics equations of motion is performed. First, the passive damping magnitude of each single DOF is quantitatively examined with the measure of the time taken to half the initial velocity (thalf). The results show that the sideslip translation is less damped approximately three times than the other two translational DOFs, and the pitch rotation is less damped approximately five times than the other two rotational DOFs; each DOF has the value of (unit in wingbeat strokes): thalf,forward/backward = 7.10, thalf,sideslip = 17.95, thalf,ascending = 7.13, thalf,descending = 5.77, thalf,roll = 0.68, thalf,pitch = 2.39, and thalf,yaw = 0.25. Second, the natural modes of motion, with the hovering flight as a reference equilibrium condition, are examined by analyzing fully coupled 6-DOF dynamic responses induced by multiple sets of force and moment disturbance combinations. The given disturbance combinations are set to excite the dynamic modes identified in relevant eigenmode analysis studies. The 6-DOF dynamic responses obtained from this study are compared with eigenmode analysis results in the relevant studies. The longitudinal modes of motion showed dynamic modal characteristics similar to the eigenmode analysis results from the relevant literature

  1. Effect of Altered Gravity Environment on Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca Sexta) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1996-01-01

    Metamorphosis provides a unique condition for studying the role of gravity in development. Formation of new organs in a previously existing organism requires a highly active period of turnover of amino acids and proteins, and of changes in the endocrine profile. Furthermore, metamorphosis offers the advantage of studying a self-contained biological system. The tobacco hornworm provides a suitable species to study the effect of altered gravitational environment on invertebrate development. This species has been one of the most thoroughly investigated organisms in a variety of aspects of insect biology. M. sexta pharate adults can provide significant amounts of material with which to work, thus facilitating the study of metabolic aspects of adult development. During wandering, the period immediately following cessation of larval feeding, the larva burrows into the soil to form a pupation chamber. Despite burrowing down 25 to 30 cm, the insects reorient themselves to a slightly head-up (10 +/- 1 degree) position. Since light and temperature are not factors in this process, the larvae must sense the gravity vector. In our ground-based studies we had assessed whether developing adults might be sensitive to their gravitational environment by orienting pupae in a vertical head-up position within 24 to 48 h after pupal ecdysis. Our ground-based findings formed the foundation for determining which parameters would be evaluated in developing Manduca following spaceflight. Measurements were to include: (1) extent of development by all of the insects, (2) analysis of hemolymph obtained from half of the insects postflight for ecdysteroid, amino acid, urea, ammonia and trehalose concentrations, (3) further development of the other half of the insects to adult (moths), (4) analysis of the flight muscle protein content of the adults. Based on the first flight attempt in July, 1995, we modified the BRIC hardware to accommodate the insects. Our studies after BRIC-04 showed that

  2. The aerodynamics of Manduca sexta: digital particle image velocimetry analysis of the leading-edge vortex.

    PubMed

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Lawson, Nicholas J; Harding, Nicholas J; Taylor, Graham K; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2005-03-01

    Here we present the first digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) analysis of the flow field around the wings of an insect (the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, tethered to a 6-component force-moment balance in a wind tunnel). A leading-edge vortex (LEV) is present above the wings towards the end of the downstroke, as the net upward force peaks. Our DPIV analyses and smoke visualisations match the results of previous flow visualisation experiments at midwing, and we extend the experiments to provide the first analysis of the flow field above the thorax. Detailed DPIV measurements show that towards the end of the downstroke, the LEV structure is consistent with that recently reported in free-flying butterflies and dragonflies: the LEV is continuous across the thorax and runs along each wing to the wingtip, where it inflects to form the wingtip trailing vortices. The LEV core is 2-3 mm in diameter (approximately 10% of local wing chord) both at the midwing position and over the centreline at 1.2 m s(-1) and at 3.5 m s(-1) flight speeds. At 1.2 m s(-1) the measured LEV circulation is 0.012+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) (mean +/-S.D.) at the centreline and 0.011+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) halfway along the wing. At 3.5 m s(-1) LEV circulation is 0.011+/-0.001 m(2) s(-1) at the centreline and 0.020+/-0.004 m(2) s(-1) at midwing. The DPIV measurements suggest that if there is any spanwise flow in the LEV towards the end of the downstroke its velocity is less than 1 m s(-1). Estimates of force production show that the LEV contributes significantly to supporting body weight during bouts of flight at both speeds (more than 10% of body weight at 1.2 m s(-1) and 35-65% of body weight at 3.5 m s(-1)).

  3. A novel ML protein from Manduca sexta may function as a key accessory protein for lipopolysaccharide signaling.

    PubMed

    Ao, Jing-qun; Ling, Erjun; Rao, Xiang-jun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2008-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is one of the most important pathogen-associated molecular patterns and a potent elicitor in innate immunity. In human, TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and MD-2 (myeloid differiation-2) form a receptor complex to transduce the LPS signal into cells. However, in invertebrates, receptors that recognize LPS have not been determined. Here we report the purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of an ML (MD-2-related lipid-recognition) protein from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. The full-length cDNA of this M. sexta ML protein, named MsML-1, is 532bp with an open reading frame of 456bp that encodes a polypeptide of 151 amino acids containing an ML domain. MsML-1 is a secreted glycoprotein and its mRNA is expressed in fat body and hemocytes. The expression level of MsML-1 mRNA in fat body and hemocytes as well as MsML-1 protein in hemolymph are not induced by immune challenge. Recombinant MsML-1 protein specifically binds to LPS from several Gram-negative bacteria and LPS Re mutant, as well as to lipid A, but not to KDO (2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate). Our results suggest that MsML-1 may function as a key accessory protein for LPS signaling in M. sexta against Gram-negative bacterial infection.

  4. A novel ML protein from Manduca sexta may function as a key accessory protein for lipopolysaccharide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Jing-qun; Ling, Erjun; Rao, Xiang-jun; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is one of the most important pathogen-associated molecular patterns and a potent elicitor in innate immunity. In human, TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and MD-2 (myeloid differiation-2) form a receptor complex to transduce the LPS signal into cells. However, in invertebrates, receptors that recognize LPS have not been determined. Here we report the purification, characterization and cDNA cloning of an ML (MD-2-related lipid-recognition) protein from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. The full-length cDNA of this M. sexta ML protein, named MsML-1, is 532 bp with an open reading frame of 456 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 151 amino acids containing an ML domain. MsML-1 is a secreted glycoprotein and its mRNA is expressed in fat body and hemocytes. The expression level of MsML-1 mRNA in fat body and hemocytes as well as MsML-1 protein in hemolymph are not induced by immune challenge. Recombinant MsML-1 protein specifically binds to LPS from several Gram-negative bacteria and LPS Re mutant, as well as to lipid A, but not to KDO (2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate). Our results suggest that MsML-1 may function as a key accessory protein for LPS signaling in M. sexta against Gram-negative bacterial infection. PMID:18343500

  5. Co-expression of Dorsal and Rel2 Negatively Regulates Antimicrobial Peptide Expression in the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xue; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Yi, Hui-Yu; Lin, Xin-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays an essential role in regulation of innate immunity. In mammals, NF-κB factors can form homodimers and heterodimers to activate gene expression. In insects, three NF-κB factors, Dorsal, Dif and Relish, have been identified to activate antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. However, it is not clear whether Dorsal (or Dif) and Relish can form heterodimers. Here we report the identification and functional analysis of a Dorsal homologue (MsDorsal) and two Relish short isoforms (MsRel2A and MsRel2B) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Both MsRel2A and MsRel2B contain only a Rel homology domain (RHD) and lack the ankyrin-repeat inhibitory domain. Overexpression of the RHD domains of MsDorsal and MsRel2 in Drosophila melanogaster S2 and Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells can activate AMP gene promoters from M. sexta and D. melanogaster. We for the first time confirmed the interaction between MsDorsal-RHD and MsRel2-RHD, and suggesting that Dorsal and Rel2 may form heterodimers. More importantly, co-expression of MsDorsal-RHD with MsRel2-RHD suppressed activation of several M. sexta AMP gene promoters. Our results suggest that the short MsRel2 isoforms may form heterodimers with MsDorsal as a novel mechanism to prevent over-activation of antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26847920

  6. Gustatory receptor neurons in Manduca sexta contain a TrpA1-dependent signaling pathway that integrates taste and temperature.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Anika; Howlett, Natalie; Shukla, Aditi; Ahmad, Farah; Batista, Elizabeth; Bedard, Katie; Payne, Sara; Morton, Brian; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Glendinning, John I

    2013-09-01

    Temperature modulates the peripheral taste response of many animals, in part by activating transient receptor potential (Trp) cation channels. We hypothesized that temperature would also modulate peripheral taste responses in larval Manduca sexta. We recorded excitatory responses of the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla to chemical stimuli at 14, 22, and 30 °C. The excitatory responses to 5 chemical stimuli-a salt (KCl), 3 sugars (sucrose, glucose, and inositol) and an alkaloid (caffeine)-were unaffected by temperature. In contrast, the excitatory response to the aversive compound, aristolochic acid (AA), increased robustly with temperature. Next, we asked whether TrpA1 mediates the thermally dependent taste response to AA. To this end, we 1) identified a TrpA1 gene in M. sexta; 2) demonstrated expression of TrpA1 in the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla; 3) determined that 2 TrpA1 antagonists (HC-030031 and mecamylamine) inhibit the taste response to AA, but not caffeine; and then 4) established that the thermal dependence of the taste response to AA is blocked by HC-030031. Taken together, our results indicate that TrpA1 serves as a molecular integrator of taste and temperature in M. sexta.

  7. Characterization of a Novel Manduca sexta beta-1, 3-glucan recognition protein (βGRP3) with Multiple Functions

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Xiang-Jun; Zhong, Xue; Lin, Xin-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of pathogens by insect pattern recognition receptors is critical to mount effective immune responses. In this study, we reported a new member (βGRP3) of the β-1, 3-glucan recognition protein (βGRP) family from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. Unlike other members of the M. sexta βGRP family proteins, which contain an N-terminal small glucan binding domain and a C-terminal large glucanase-like domain, βGRP3 is 40–45 residues shorter at the N-terminus and lacks the small glucan binding domain. The glucanase-like domain of β GRP3 is most similar to that of M. sexta microbe binding protein (MBP) with 78% identity. βGRP3 transcript was mainly expressed in the fat body, and both its mRNA and protein levels were not induced by microorganisms in larvae. Recombinant βGRP3 purified from Drosophila S2 cells could bind to several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, as well as to laminarin (β-1, 3-glucan), mannan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan (PG), but did not bind to Lysine-type PG. Binding of βGRP3 to laminarin could be competed well by free laminarin, mannan, LPS and LTA, but almost not competed by free PGs. Recombinant βGRP3 could agglutinate Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in a calcium-dependent manner and showed antibacterial (bacteriostatic) activity against B. cereus, novel functions that have not been reported for the βGRP family proteins before. M. sexta βGRP3 may serve as an immune surveillance receptor with multiple functions. PMID:24952171

  8. Biosynthesis of a new tobacco alkaloid, hydroxy-N-acylnornicotine in the trichomes of Nicotiana stocktonii. [Manduca sexta

    SciTech Connect

    Zador, E.; Jones, D.

    1986-04-01

    A new tobacco alkaloid from section Repandae is highly toxic to an insect (Manduca sexta) unsusceptible to previously described nicotine alkaloids (1). They have localized the alkaloid, HO-N-acylnornicotine (HO-NAN) nearly entirely to the exudate secreted by the epidermal trichomes of N. stocktonii. Only the nicotine and nornicotine were found in abundance inside the trichomes, while primarily nicotine was present inside the aerial vegetative parts and root. These results suggest that the HO-NAN is synthesized by the trichomes. When unlabelled nicotine was fed to isolated leaves there was an increase in internal nicotine, nornicotine and secretion of HO-NAN. Feeding leaves with 2'-C/sup 14/ nicotine resulted in labelling of both nornicotine and HO-NAN. These data strongly suggest synthesis of HO-NAN from nicotine via nornicotine in the trichomes, followed by rapid secretion. The possible evolutionary significance of this pathway of synthesis and secretion is discussed.

  9. Sequence and expression of the CAPA/CAP2b gene in the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Loi, Poh Kheng; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2004-10-01

    The gene coding for cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP2b; pELYAFPRV) has been isolated and sequenced from the moth Manduca sexta (GenBank accession #AY649544). Because of its significant homology to the CAPA gene in Drosophila melanogaster, this gene is called the Manduca CAPA gene. The Manduca CAPA gene is 958 nucleotides long with 29 untranslated nucleotides from the beginning of the sequence to the putative start initiation site. The CAPA gene has a single open reading frame, 441 nucleotides long, that codes for a predicted precursor protein of 147 amino acids. The predicted prepropeptide encodes a single copy of each of three deduced propeptides, a CAP2b propeptide, with a Q substituted for an E at the N-terminus (QLYAFPRVa), and two novel CAP2b-related propeptides (DGVLNLYPFPRVa and TEGPGMWFGPRLa). To reduce confusion and to adopt a more standardized nomenclature, we rename pELYAFPRVa as Mas-CAPA-1 and assign the names of Mas-CAPA-2 to DGVLNLYPFPRVa and Mas-PK-1 (Pyrokinin-1) to TEGPGMWFGPRLa. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of the CAPA gene in the Manduca central nervous system (CNS) was determined in all major post-embryonic stages using in situ hybridization techniques. The CAPA gene is expressed in a total of 27 pairs of neurons in the post-embryonic Manduca CNS. A total of 16 pairs of cells is observed in the brain, two pairs in the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG), one pair in the third thoracic ganglion (T3), one pair in each unfused abdominal ganglion (A1-A6) and two pairs in the fused terminal ganglion. The mRNA from the CAPA gene is present in nearly every ganglion in each post-embryonic stage. The number of cells expressing the CAPA gene varies during post-embryonic life, starting at 54 cells in first-instar larvae and declining to a minimum of 14 cells midway through adult development.

  10. Eph receptor expression defines midline boundaries for ephrin-positive migratory neurons in the enteric nervous system of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Coate, Thomas M.; Swanson, Tracy L.; Proctor, Thomas M.; Nighorn, Alan J.; Copenhaver, Philip F.

    2007-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands participate in the control of neuronal growth and migration in a variety of contexts, but the mechanisms by which they guide neuronal motility are still incompletely understood. Using the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta as a model system, we have explored whether Manduca ephrin (MsEphrin; a GPI-linked ligand) and its Eph receptor (MsEph) may regulate the migration and outgrowth of enteric neurons. During the formation of the Manduca ENS, an identified set of ~300 neurons (EP cells) populate the enteric plexus of the midgut by migrating along a specific set of muscle bands that form on the gut, while they strictly avoid adjacent interband regions. By determining the mRNA and protein expression patterns for MsEphrin and the MsEph receptor and by examining their endogenous binding patterns within the ENS, we have demonstrated that the ligand and its receptor are distributed in a complementary manner: MsEphrin is exclusively expressed by the migratory EP cells, while the MsEph receptor is expressed by a discrete set of midline interband cells that are normally inhibitory to migration. Notably, MsEphrin could be detected on the filopodial processes of the EP cells that extended up to but not across the midline cells expressing the MsEph receptor. These results suggest a model whereby MsEphrin-dependent signaling regulates the response of migrating neurons to a midline inhibitory boundary, defined by the expression of MsEph receptors in the developing ENS. PMID:17348007

  11. Eph receptor expression defines midline boundaries for ephrin-positive migratory neurons in the enteric nervous system of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Coate, Thomas M; Swanson, Tracy L; Proctor, Thomas M; Nighorn, Alan J; Copenhaver, Philip F

    2007-05-10

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands participate in the control of neuronal growth and migration in a variety of contexts, but the mechanisms by which they guide neuronal motility are still incompletely understood. By using the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta as a model system, we have explored whether Manduca ephrin (MsEphrin; a GPI-linked ligand) and its Eph receptor (MsEph) might regulate the migration and outgrowth of enteric neurons. During formation of the Manduca ENS, an identified set of approximately 300 neurons (EP cells) populates the enteric plexus of the midgut by migrating along a specific set of muscle bands forming on the gut, but the neurons strictly avoid adjacent interband regions. By determining the mRNA and protein expression patterns for MsEphrin and the MsEph receptor and by examining their endogenous binding patterns within the ENS, we have demonstrated that the ligand and its receptor are distributed in a complementary manner: MsEphrin is expressed exclusively by the migratory EP cells, whereas the MsEph receptor is expressed by midline interband cells that are normally inhibitory to migration. Notably, MsEphrin could be detected on the filopodial processes of the EP cells that extended up to but not across the midline cells expressing the MsEph receptor. These results suggest a model whereby MsEphrin-dependent signaling regulates the response of migrating neurons to a midline inhibitory boundary, defined by the expression of MsEph receptors in the developing ENS.

  12. Characterization and cDNA cloning of the pheromone-binding protein from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta: a tissue-specific developmentally regulated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Györgyi, T K; Roby-Shemkovitz, A J; Lerner, M R

    1988-01-01

    cDNA encoding pheromone-binding protein (PBP), the major soluble protein in olfactory sensilla of male moths, has been cloned from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. A study of the developmental time course of PBP reveals that it is first synthesized just prior to eclosion and that the percentage of antennal mRNA encoding PBP shifts from zero to about 20% at that time. PBP is also found in sensilla from female M. sexta antennae. No amino acid sequence homology is observed between PBP and the vertebrate odorant-binding protein. Images PMID:3200861

  13. Functional analysis of four processing products from multiple precursors encoded by a lebocin-related gene from Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Rayaprolu, Subrahmanyam; Wang, Yang; Kanost, Michael R.; Hartson, Steven; Jiang, Haobo

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a crucial component of the natural immune system in insects. Five types of AMPs have been identified in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, including attacin, cecropin, moricin, gloverin, and lebocin. Here we report the isolation of lebocin-related cDNA clones and antibacterial activity of their processed protein products. The seventeen cDNA sequences are composed of a constant 5′ end and a variable 3′ region containing 3∼16 copies of an 81-nucleotide repeat. The sequence of the corresponding gene isolated from a M. sexta genomic library and Southern blotting results indicated that the gene lacks introns and exists as a single copy in the genome. The genomic sequence contained 13 complete and one partial copy of the 81-nucleotide repeat. Northern blot analysis revealed multiple transcripts with major size differences. The mRNA level of M. sexta lebocin increased substantially in fat body after larvae had been injected with bacteria. The RXXR motifs in the protein sequences led us to postulate that the precursors are processed by an intracellular convertase to form four bioactive peptides. To test this hypothesis, we chemically synthesized the peptides and examined their antibacterial activity. Peptide 1 killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Peptide 2, similar in sequence to a Galleria mellonella AMP, did not affect the bacterial growth. Peptide 3 was inactive but peptide 3 with an extra Arg at the carboxyl terminus was active against E. coli at a high minimum inhibitory concentration. Peptide 4, encoded by the 81-bp repeat, was inactive in the antibacterial tests. The hypothesis that posttranslational processing of the precursor proteins produces multiple bioactive peptides for defense purposes was validated by identification of peptides 1, 2, and 3 from larval hemolymph via liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison with the orthologs from other lepidopteran insects indicates that the same

  14. The discovery of a novel antagonist - Manduca sexta allatotropin analogue - as an insect midgut active ion transport inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xi-le; Kai, Zhen-Peng; Chamberlin, Mary E; Horodyski, Frank M; Yang, Xin-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The midgut is an important site for both nutrient absorption and ionic regulation in lepidopteran larvae, major pests in agriculture. The larval lepidopteran midgut has become a potent insecticide target over the past few decades. Recent studies have shown that an insect neuropeptide, Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT), exhibits inhibition of active ion transport (AIT) across the larval midgut epithelium. The full characteristic of the AIT inhibition capacity of Manse-AT is essential to assay. In this study, AIT inhibition across the M. sexta midgut by Manse-AT and its analogues in a range of concentrations was assayed. The structure-activity relationship of Manse-AT was also studied by truncated and alanine-replacement strategies. Our results identified three residues, Thr4, Arg6 and Phe8, as the most important components for activity on the midgut. Replacement of Glu1, Met2 and Met3 reduced the potency of the analogues. The conservative substitution of Gly7 with alanine had little effect on the potency of the analogues. We demonstrated for the first time that Manse-AT (10-13) behaves as a potent antagonist in vitro on active ion transport across the epithelium of the posterior midgut in M. sexta. Structure-activity studies of Manse-AT are useful in developing lead compounds for the design and testing of synthetic antagonists, ultimately to develop potent and specific pest control strategies. Manse-AT (10-13) has been discovered as the first Manse-AT antagonist, with a significant effect and a short sequence compared with other insect neuropeptides. It may be a new potential pest control agent in the future. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Molecular characterisation of cDNAs from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda encoding Manduca sexta allatotropin and allatostatin preprohormone peptides.

    PubMed

    Abdel-latief, M; Meyering-Vos, M; Hoffmann, K H

    2003-05-01

    Allatotropin (AT) is a 13-residue amidated neuropeptide, first isolated from pharate adult heads of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Manse-AT), which strongly stimulates the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones (JH) in the corpora allata (CA) of adult moths. In Spodoptera frugiperda, a cDNA that encodes 134 amino acids, including an AT peptide, has been cloned. The S. frugiperda allatotropin mature peptide (Spofr-AT) [GFKNVEMMTARGFa] is identical to that isolated from M. sexta. The basic organization of the Spofr-AT precursor is similar to that of Agrius convolvuli, M. sexta, Pseudaletia unipuncta, and Bombyx mori with 83-93% amino acid sequence identity. The Spofr-AT gene is expressed in at least three mRNA isoforms with 134, 171 and 200 amino acids, differing from each other by alternative splicing. All allatostatins (AS) have an inhibitory action on the JH biosynthesis in the CA. A cDNA that encodes 125 amino acid residues including one copy of the Manse-AS peptide has been cloned from S. frugiperda (Spofr-AS; QVRFRQCYFNPISCF). The basic organization of the Spofr-AS precursor is similar to that of P. unipuncta with 85% amino acid sequence identity. Using one step RT-PCR for semi-quantification of the gene expression, we showed that the three mRNAs of the Spofr-AT gene and the Spofr-AS gene are expressed in brains of last instar larvae, prepupae, pupae, and adults of both sexes of S. frugiperda with variable intensity.

  16. Biological Investigation of the Stimulated Flapping Motions of the Moth, Manduca sexta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    98 Pupae ...through implants: A) The pupae implant connection to M.sexta; B) Resting posture; C) Signal supplied to DVM inducing upstroke reaction; D) Signal supplied...39 29. Pupae implant, based on Dr. Bozkurt‟s design; the fly-out shows the tip at 200x magnification ......... 39 30. Computer simulated

  17. Evaluation of the Thorax of Manduca sexta for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    and J.W.S. Pringle. "The Physiology of Insect Fibrillar Muscle II. Mechanical Properties of a Beetle Flight Muscle." Proceedings of the Royal Society ...Sanders, who opened his entomology laboratory for our hawkmoth-rearing needs these past several months. Captain Sanders is continually looking for...rat of the entomology field (Tubbs 2011). Figure 3 – Dorsal view of M.sexta coloration (scale is centimeters) 1.4.1. The Thorax The body of

  18. How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

    2003-09-29

    The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured.

  19. Identification of a Novel Metalloproteinase and Its Role in Juvenile Development of the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Vishnuvardhan, Smitha; Ahsan, Rubina; Jackson, Kathryn; Iwanicki, Rebecca; Boe, Jordan; Haring, Jodie; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are highly conserved across numerous taxa, from bacteria to humans. Recently, MMPs have been identified in several insect species and are hypothesized to function in immunity and development. In this study, we identify a putative MMP and correlate its proteolytic activity and gene and protein expression in the tracheae with developmental stage. Ms-MMP gene expression increases 10-fold during molting, which is accompanied by an increase in both protein expression and gelatinolytic activity. To directly test the hypothesis that Ms-MMP plays a critical role in juvenile development of Manduca sexta, we injected a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor and recorded its effects on growth and development. Inhibition of MMPs caused a delay in juvenile development and decreased growth rates. Understanding the function of MMPs will help us better understand molting and control of body size in insects. Furthermore, elucidating functions for MMPs in lower taxa may yield critical information about the evolution of the numerous MMPs found in vertebrates. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 320B:105–117, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23475557

  20. Supply-Side Constraints Are Insufficient to Explain the Ontogenetic Scaling of Metabolic Rate in the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Callier, Viviane; Nijhout, H. Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Explanations for the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate through ontogeny generally fall into two categories: supply-side constraints on delivery of oxygen, or decreased mass-specific intrinsic demand for oxygen. In many animals, supply and demand increase together as the body grows, thus making it impossible to tease apart the relative contributions of changing supply and demand to the observed scaling of metabolic rate. In larval insects, the large components of the tracheal system are set in size at each molt, but then remain constant in size until the next molt. Larvae of Manduca sexta increase up to ten-fold in mass between molts, leading to increased oxygen need without a concomitant increase in supply. At the molt, the tracheal system is shed and replaced with a new, larger one. Due to this discontinuous growth of the tracheal system, insect larvae present an ideal system in which to examine the relative contributions of supply and demand of oxygen to the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate. We observed that the metabolic rate at the beginning of successive instars scales hypoallometrically. This decrease in specific intrinsic demand could be due to a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues (the midgut) or to a decrease in mitochondrial activity in individual cells. We found that decreased intrinsic demand, mediated by a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues in the fifth instar, along with a decrease in the specific mitochondrial activity, contribute to the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate. PMID:23029018

  1. Supply-side constraints are insufficient to explain the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate in the tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Callier, Viviane; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Explanations for the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate through ontogeny generally fall into two categories: supply-side constraints on delivery of oxygen, or decreased mass-specific intrinsic demand for oxygen. In many animals, supply and demand increase together as the body grows, thus making it impossible to tease apart the relative contributions of changing supply and demand to the observed scaling of metabolic rate. In larval insects, the large components of the tracheal system are set in size at each molt, but then remain constant in size until the next molt. Larvae of Manduca sexta increase up to ten-fold in mass between molts, leading to increased oxygen need without a concomitant increase in supply. At the molt, the tracheal system is shed and replaced with a new, larger one. Due to this discontinuous growth of the tracheal system, insect larvae present an ideal system in which to examine the relative contributions of supply and demand of oxygen to the ontogenetic scaling of metabolic rate. We observed that the metabolic rate at the beginning of successive instars scales hypoallometrically. This decrease in specific intrinsic demand could be due to a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues (the midgut) or to a decrease in mitochondrial activity in individual cells. We found that decreased intrinsic demand, mediated by a decrease in the proportion of highly metabolically active tissues in the fifth instar, along with a decrease in the specific mitochondrial activity, contribute to the hypoallometric scaling of metabolic rate.

  2. How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed Central

    Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

    2003-01-01

    The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured. PMID:14561347

  3. Juvenile hormone diol kinase. I. Purification, characterization, and substrate specificity of juvenile hormone-selective diol kinase from Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Robert A; Welch, William H; Schooley, David A

    2002-06-14

    Manduca sexta juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) catalyzes the conversion of juvenile hormone (JH) diol to JH diol phosphate. JHDK may be the first example of a phosphotransferase directly involved in the catabolism and inactivation of a lipid-soluble hormone. JHDK is an enzyme crucial for secondary metabolism of JH and possesses high specificity and catalytic efficiency for JH diol. In this study, the purification and characterization of native JHDK are described; its enzymatic properties are examined; and its role in cellular JH metabolism is explored. Using a variety of potential substrates, we show that JHDK has a preference for ATP, but will catalyze the formation of JH diol phosphate with GTP as the phosphate donor. JHDK has a nanomolar K(m) for JH I diol and a low micromolar value for MgATP. JH II and III diols also serve as phosphate acceptors with low micromolar K(m), whereas other diol derivatives of terpenoid esters structurally similar to JH metabolites are not phosphorylated. The reaction proceeds via a sequential Bi Bi mechanism. JHDK is active as a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of 20 kDa. JHDK binds 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine and is inhibited by micromolar levels of Ca2+.

  4. Influence of Green Leaf Herbivory by Manduca sexta on Floral Volatile Emission by Nicotiana suaveolens1[W

    PubMed Central

    Effmert, Uta; Dinse, Claudia; Piechulla, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Plants have to cope with various abiotic and biotic impacts as a consequence of changing environments, which can impair their ability to sexually reproduce. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether green leaf herbivory, having one of the most hazardous biotic impacts, would have any direct effect on the production and emission of floral volatiles because volatiles are known to play a crucial role in pollination. Nicotiana suaveolens plants were challenged with Manduca sexta feeding on leaves, and alterations in the quality and quantity of the floral blend, shifts in emission patterns, and changes in expression patterns of the floral benzoic/salicylic acid carboxyl-methyltransferase were monitored in noninfested and infested plants. Leaves responded to larval feeding by herbivory-induced diurnal emission of semiochemicals, whereas the emission of floral volatiles remained unchanged in comparison to the noninfested control. Neither the volatile composition nor the quantity of components or the nocturnal emission patterns was altered. The mRNA and protein levels of the benzoic/salicylic acid carboxyl-methyltransferase, as well as its enzyme activity, also did not show any significant differences. These results indicate that metabolism in flowers at and postanthesis is an autonomous process and is independent of metabolic changes in green leaves. By this sustaining mechanism, N. suaveolens plants ensure sexual reproduction even under unfavorable conditions. PMID:18281418

  5. The molecular structure of insecticyanin from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta L. at 2.6 A resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Holden, H M; Rypniewski, W R; Law, J H; Rayment, I

    1987-01-01

    Insecticyanin, a blue biliprotein isolated from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta L., is involved in insect camouflage. Its three-dimensional structure has now been solved to 2.6 A resolution using the techniques of multiple isomorphous replacement, non-crystallographic symmetry averaging about a local 2-fold rotation axis and solvent flattening. All 189 amino acids have been fitted to the electron density map. The map clearly shows that insecticyanin is a tetramer with one of its molecular 2-fold axes coincident to a crystallographic dyad. The individual subunits have overall dimensions of 44 A X 37 A X 40 A and consist primarily of an eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrel flanked on one side by a 4.5-turn alpha-helix. Interestingly the overall three-dimensional fold of the insecticyanin subunit shows remarkable similarity to the structural motifs of bovine beta-lactoglobulin and the human serum retinol-binding protein. The electron density attributable to the chromophore is unambiguous and shows that it is indeed the gamma-isomer of biliverdin. The biliverdin lies towards the open end of the beta-barrel with its two propionate side chains pointing towards the solvent and it adopts a rather folded conformation, much like a heme. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:3608987

  6. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Mauck, Kerry E; Balogh, Christopher M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2013-04-22

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds-including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores.

  7. Developmental distribution of CaM kinase II in the antennal lobe of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Christian; Bergstein, Sandra; Hirnet, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The antennal lobe (primary olfactory center of insects) is completely reorganized during metamorphosis. This reorganization is accompanied by changing patterns of calcium signaling in neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we investigated the developmental distribution of a major calcium-dependent protein, viz., calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II), in the antennal lobe of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta by using a monoclonal antibody. During synaptogenesis (developmental stages 6-10), we found a redistribution of CaM kinase II immunoreactivity, from a homogeneous distribution in the immature neuropil to an accumulation in the neuropil of the glomeruli. CaM kinase II immunoreactivity was less intense in olfactory receptor axons of the antennal nerve and antennal lobe glial cells. Western blot analysis revealed a growing content of CaM kinase II in antennal lobe tissue throughout metamorphosis. Injection of the CaM kinase inhibitor KN-93 into pupae resulted in a reduced number of antennal lobe glial cells migrating into the neuropil to form borders around glomeruli. The results suggest that CaM kinase II is involved in glial cell migration.

  8. Three-dimensional characterization of the wind-borne pheromone tracking behavior of male hawkmoths, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Adam J; Quinn, Roger D; Willis, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    We studied the relationship between vertical and lateral movements during free flight odor plume tracking by male moths, Manduca sexta, in a wind tunnel with the "horizon" set at different altitudes. Three-dimensional recordings revealed that the plume tracking males generated roughly equivalent movements vertically and laterally regardless of horizon height. We hypothesized that the moths' tracks would be narrower in the vertical plane when they were presented with visual patterns on the tunnel's side walls. Instead, we discovered that their tracks tended to be wider in the horizontal plane. Anecdotal observations of other moth species describe plume tracking flight in three dimensions as "spiraling", suggesting a specific predictable relationship between vertical and lateral movements. However, we found that the relative phase, frequency, and amplitude of the vertical versus lateral movements vary on a maneuver-by-maneuver basis with no predictable temporal or spatial relationship. Our analyses suggest that a moth's trajectory in 3D can best be described as progressing upwind toward the source while cutting through the plume from all directions with loops of different radii. This is a more precise description than the terms "zigzagging" and "counter-turning" which were derived from 2D analyses of this behavior.

  9. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths

    PubMed Central

    Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Mauck, Kerry E.; Balogh, Christopher M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds—including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores. PMID:23446531

  10. Ligand specificity and affinity of BT-R1, the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin receptor from Manduca sexta, expressed in mammalian and insect cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, T P; Bulla, L A

    1997-01-01

    The Manduca sexta receptor for the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxins, BT-R1, has been expressed in heterologous cell culture, and its ligand binding characteristics have been determined. When transfected with the BT-R1 cDNA, insect and mammalian cell cultures produce a binding protein of approximately 195 kDa, in contrast to natural BT-R1 from M. sexia, which has an apparent molecular weight of 210 kDa. Transfection of cultured Spodoptera frugiperda cells with the BT-R1 cDNA imparts Cry1A-specific high-affinity binding activity typical of membranes prepared from larval M. sexta midguts. Competition assays with BT-R1 prepared from larval M. sexta midguts and transiently expressed in cell culture reveal virtually identical affinities for the Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxins, clearly demonstrating the absolute specificity of the receptor for toxins of the lepidopteran-specific Cry1A family. BT-R1 therefore remains the only M. sexta Cry1A binding protein to be purified, cloned, and functionally expressed in heterologous cell culture, and for the first time, we are able to correlate the Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxin sensitivities of M. sexta to the identity and ligand binding characteristics of a single midgut receptor molecule. PMID:9292994

  11. Utilization of [14C]phenylalanine derived from arylphorin or free amino acid in Manduca sexta pharate adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M.; Tischler, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    The role of arylphorin as a storage protein was studied using 14C-arylphorin. 14C-arylphorin was produced optimally by incubating one-half fat body from Manduca sexta fifth instar larvae at 22 degrees C for 24 h, in 1 ml of medium containing amino acids at 25% of their physiological concentration with [U-14C]-phenylalanine (phe) provided initially without nonlabeled phenylalanine. Nonlabeled phe was provided after 1 h at 16% of its physiological concentration. The specific activity of 14C-arylphorin produced in vitro was 30 times greater than that generated in vivo. Injection of 14C-arylphorin into pharate adults was used to study the distribution of 14C-phe derived from this protein into 14CO2 and tissues for comparison with injection of free 14C-phe during the middle (days 6 to 12 pharate adult) and late (days 12 to 17 pharate adult) stages of adult development. Appearance of 14CO2 from 14C-arylphorin as compared to 14C-phenylalanine showed a slower time course during both the middle and late stages of development, in keeping with the time needed for degradation of the protein. In accord with faster phe turnover near the end of adult development, total 14CO2 production was greater and the retention of 14C in hemolymph and fat body was less compared to the middle stage of development regardless of whether 14C-arylphorin or 14C-phe was injected. In the middle stage of development, the appearance of 14C in the cuticle and head parts was greater, whereas incorporation into abdomen and thorax was less than during the late stage of development. Since the pattern of 14C distribution from 14C-arylphorin and 14C-phe was similar, one major function of arylphorin must be as a storage protein replenishing the supply of free amino acids used for synthesis of adult tissues. These results also suggest a limited contribution of M. sexta arylphorin to formation of the cuticle subsequent to day-6 pharate adult.

  12. Interactions of dietary protein and carbohydrate determine blood sugar level and regulate nutrient selection in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Redak, R A

    2000-09-01

    The non-homeostatic regulation of blood sugar concentration in the insect Manduca sexta L. was affected by nutritional status. Larvae maintained on diets lacking sucrose displayed low concentrations of trehalose, the blood sugar of insects, which varied from 5 to 15 mM with increasing dietary casein level between 12.5 and 75 g/l. These insects were glucogenic, as demonstrated by the selective 13C enrichment of trehalose synthesized from [3-13C]alanine, and de novo synthesis was the sole source of blood sugar. The distribution of 13C in glutamine established that following transamination of the 13C substituted substrate, [3-13C]pyruvate carboxylation rather than decarboxylation was the principal pathway of Pyr metabolism. The mean blood trehalose level was higher in insects maintained on diets with sucrose. At the lowest dietary casein level blood trehalose was approximately 50 mM, and declined to 20 mM at the highest casein level. Gluconeogenesis was detected in insects maintained on sucrose-free diets at the higher protein levels examined, but [3-13C]pyruvate decarboxylation and TCA cycle metabolism was the principal fate of [3-13C]alanine following transamination, and dietary carbohydrate was the principal source of glucose for trehalose synthesis. Feeding studies established a relationship between nutritional status, blood sugar level and dietary self-selection. Insects preconditioned by feeding on diets without sucrose had low blood sugar levels regardless of dietary casein level, and when subsequently given a choice between a sucrose diet or a casein diet, selected the former. Larvae preconditioned on a diet containing sucrose and the lowest level of casein had high blood sugar levels and subsequently selected the casein diet. Larvae maintained on the sucrose diet with the highest casein level had low blood sugar and self-selected the sucrose diet. When preconditioned on diets with sucrose and intermediate levels of casein, insects selected more equally

  13. Utilization of [14C]phenylalanine derived from arylphorin or free amino acid in Manduca sexta pharate adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M.; Tischler, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    The role of arylphorin as a storage protein was studied using 14C-arylphorin. 14C-arylphorin was produced optimally by incubating one-half fat body from Manduca sexta fifth instar larvae at 22 degrees C for 24 h, in 1 ml of medium containing amino acids at 25% of their physiological concentration with [U-14C]-phenylalanine (phe) provided initially without nonlabeled phenylalanine. Nonlabeled phe was provided after 1 h at 16% of its physiological concentration. The specific activity of 14C-arylphorin produced in vitro was 30 times greater than that generated in vivo. Injection of 14C-arylphorin into pharate adults was used to study the distribution of 14C-phe derived from this protein into 14CO2 and tissues for comparison with injection of free 14C-phe during the middle (days 6 to 12 pharate adult) and late (days 12 to 17 pharate adult) stages of adult development. Appearance of 14CO2 from 14C-arylphorin as compared to 14C-phenylalanine showed a slower time course during both the middle and late stages of development, in keeping with the time needed for degradation of the protein. In accord with faster phe turnover near the end of adult development, total 14CO2 production was greater and the retention of 14C in hemolymph and fat body was less compared to the middle stage of development regardless of whether 14C-arylphorin or 14C-phe was injected. In the middle stage of development, the appearance of 14C in the cuticle and head parts was greater, whereas incorporation into abdomen and thorax was less than during the late stage of development. Since the pattern of 14C distribution from 14C-arylphorin and 14C-phe was similar, one major function of arylphorin must be as a storage protein replenishing the supply of free amino acids used for synthesis of adult tissues. These results also suggest a limited contribution of M. sexta arylphorin to formation of the cuticle subsequent to day-6 pharate adult.

  14. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin to Manduca sexta aminopeptidase-N receptor is not directly related to toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J L; Lee, M K; Sangadala, S; Adang, M J; Dean, D H

    1999-12-03

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin specifically binds a 115-kDa aminopeptidase-N purified from Manduca sexta midgut. Cry1Ac domain III mutations were constructed around a putative sugar-binding pocket and binding to purified aminopeptidase-N and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was compared to toxicity. Q509A, R511A, Y513A, and 509-511 (QNR-AAA) eliminated aminopeptidase-N binding and reduced binding to BBMV. However, toxicity decreased no more than two-fold, indicating activity is not directly correlated with aminopeptidase-N binding. Analysis of toxin binding to aminopeptidase-N in M. sexta is therefore insufficient for predicting toxicity. Mutants retained binding, however, to another BBMV site, suggesting alternative receptors may compensate in vivo.

  15. Allatostatin-like-immunoreactive neurons of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and isolation and identification of a new neuropeptide related to cockroach allatostatins.

    PubMed

    Davis, N T; Veenstra, J A; Feyereisen, R; Hildebrand, J G

    1997-08-25

    The YXFGLamide C-terminus serves to define most members of a family of structurally related neuropeptides, the YXFGLamides. These peptides have been identified from the nervous system of various insects and include the allatostatins of cockroaches and crickets, the schistostatins of locusts, and the callatostatins of blowflies. The YXFGLamides have been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in cockroaches and crickets and inhibition of contraction of certain insect visceral muscles. We wanted to know if these peptides occur in Manduca sexta and what functions they might have. A new peptide, AKSYNFGLamide, was isolated and identified from M. sexta and has been named "lepidostatin-1"; this is the first YXFGLamide to be found in a lepidopteran, and there are indications that additional YXFGLamides occur in M. sexta. An antiserum to cockroach allatostatins (YXFGLamides) was shown to recognize lepidostatin-1 of M. sexta and was used to map YXFGLamide-immunoreactive neurons in larvae. Because immunoreactive interneurons were found to form an extensive neuropil, YXFGLamides probably function as neuromodulators in M. sexta. Neuroendocrine cells in the brain, abdominal ganglia, and their respective neurohemal organs were YXFGLamide immunoreactive and appear to release YXFGLamides as neurohormones. Immunoreactivity to YXFGLamides and M. sexta diuretic hormone were found to be colocalized and appear to be coreleased in these neuroendocrine cells, indicating that YXFGLamides may be involved in regulation of fluid transport. Innervation of the corpora allata by YXFGLamide-immunoreactive processes was very sparse, suggesting that this innervation does not play an important role in allatostasis. Many thoracic motor neurons were YXFGLamide immunoreactive, suggesting that YXFGLamides may have a myomodulatory or myotrophic function in larvae. However, this immunoreactivity disappeared early in metamorphosis and did not reappear in the

  16. Persistence of double-stranded RNA in insect hemolymph as a potential determiner of RNA interference success: evidence from Manduca sexta and Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Garbutt, Jennie S; Bellés, Xavier; Richards, Elaine H; Reynolds, Stuart E

    2013-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a specific gene silencing mechanism mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which has been harnessed as a useful reverse genetics tool in insects. Unfortunately, however, this technology has been limited by the variable sensitivity of insect species to RNAi. We propose that rapid degradation of dsRNA in insect hemolymph could impede gene silencing by RNAi and experimentally investigate the dynamics of dsRNA persistence in two insects, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, a species in which experimental difficulty has been experienced with RNAi protocols and the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, which is known to be highly susceptible to experimental RNAi. An ex vivo assay revealed that dsRNA was rapidly degraded by an enzyme in M. sexta hemolymph plasma, whilst dsRNA persisted much longer in B. germanica plasma. A quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based assay revealed that dsRNA, accordingly, disappeared rapidly from M. sexta hemolymph in vivo. The M. sexta dsRNAse is inactivated by exposure to high temperature and is inhibited by EDTA. These findings lead us to propose that the rate of persistence of dsRNA in insect hemolymph (mediated by the action of one or more nucleases) could be an important factor in determining the susceptibility of insect species to RNAi.

  17. Nicotiana attenuata LECTIN RECEPTOR KINASE1 Suppresses the Insect-Mediated Inhibition of Induced Defense Responses during Manduca sexta Herbivory[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gilardoni, Paola A.; Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T.; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Nicotiana attenuata has the capacity to respond specifically to herbivory by its natural herbivore, Manduca sexta, through the perception of elicitors in larval oral secretions. We demonstrate that Lectin receptor kinase 1 (LecRK1) functions during M. sexta herbivory to suppress the insect-mediated inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA)–induced defense responses. Gene function analysis performed by reducing LecRK1 expression in N. attenuata by both virus-induced gene silencing and inverted repeated RNA interference (ir-lecRK1 plants) revealed that LecRK1 was essential to mount a full defense response against M. sexta folivory; larvae growing on ir-lecRK1 plants were 40 to 100% larger than those growing on wild-type plants. The insect-induced accumulation of nicotine, diterpene-glucosides, and trypsin protease inhibitors, as well as the expression of Thr deaminase, was severalfold reduced in ir-lecRK1 plants compared with the wild type. The accumulation of JA and JA-Ile was unaffected during herbivory in ir-lecRK1 plants; however, salicylic acid (SA) accumulation was increased by twofold. The expression of nahG in ir-lecRK1 plants prevented the increased accumulation of SA and restored the defense response against M. sexta herbivory. The results suggest that LecRK1 inhibits the accumulation of SA during herbivory, although other mechanisms may also be affected. PMID:21926334

  18. Gyroscopic sensing in the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: the role of sensor location and directional sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Brian T; Morgansen, Kristi A

    2015-10-06

    The wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta are lined with mechanoreceptors called campaniform sensilla that encode wing deformations. During flight, the wings deform in response to a variety of stimuli, including inertial-elastic loads due to the wing flapping motion, aerodynamic loads, and exogenous inertial loads transmitted by disturbances. Because the wings are actuated, flexible structures, the strain-sensitive campaniform sensilla are capable of detecting inertial rotations and accelerations, allowing the wings to serve not only as a primary actuator, but also as a gyroscopic sensor for flight control. We study the gyroscopic sensing of the hawkmoth wings from a control theoretic perspective. Through the development of a low-order model of flexible wing flapping dynamics, and the use of nonlinear observability analysis, we show that the rotational acceleration inherent in wing flapping enables the wings to serve as gyroscopic sensors. We compute a measure of sensor fitness as a function of sensor location and directional sensitivity by using the simulation-based empirical observability Gramian. Our results indicate that gyroscopic information is encoded primarily through shear strain due to wing twisting, where inertial rotations cause detectable changes in pronation and supination timing and magnitude. We solve an observability-based optimal sensor placement problem to find the optimal configuration of strain sensor locations and directional sensitivities for detecting inertial rotations. The optimal sensor configuration shows parallels to the campaniform sensilla found on hawkmoth wings, with clusters of sensors near the wing root and wing tip. The optimal spatial distribution of strain directional sensitivity provides a hypothesis for how heterogeneity of campaniform sensilla may be distributed.

  19. Binding properties of the regulatory domains in Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase-14, an initiation enzyme of the prophenoloxidase activation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2010-03-01

    Pathogen recognition and rapid initiation of defense responses are essential for the survival of host insects. In Manduca sexta, hemolymph proteinase-14 precursor (proHP14) senses non-self presence and triggers a branched serine proteinase pathway which leads to prophenoloxidase activation and melanin formation around the invading organisms. To understand functions of individual domains in HP14, we have produced a series of HP14 domains and truncation mutants and studied their interactions with microbial polysaccharides and beta-1,3-glucan recognition protein-1 (betaGRP1)-a biosensor for fungal and bacterial infection. These include: the low-density lipoprotein receptor class A repeats 1-5 (LDL(1-5)), Sushi domain, Wonton domain, and proteinase catalytic domain of HP14, as well as proHP14 missing 1-4 LDL repeats (DeltaLDL(1), DeltaLDL(12), DeltaLDL(1-3) and DeltaLDL(1-4)). LDL(1-5), Sushi, and Wonton domains specifically recognized Lys-type PG, whereas the latter two also bound betaGRP1. Wonton in addition bound to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan (PG). The four N-terminally truncated proHP14 (DeltaL(x)) further confirmed specific interactions with LPS, LTA, DAP-PG, Lys-PG, laminarin, and betaGRP1. These binding data suggest a broad specificity of proHP14 in pattern recognition. Its role in mediating immune responses is anticipated to be influenced by other plasma factors and surface structures of invading pathogens.

  20. Sequence conservation, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles of nondigestive serine proteases and serine protease homologs in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Zhang, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang; Zou, Zhen; Chen, Yunru; Blissard, Gary W.; Kanost, Michael R.; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Serine protease (SP) and serine protease homolog (SPH) genes in insects encode a large family of proteins involved in digestion, development, immunity, and other processes. While 68 digestive SPs and their close homologs are reported in a companion paper (Kuwar et al., 2015), we have identified 125 other SPs/SPHs in Manduca sexta and studied their structure, evolution, and expression. Fifty-two of them contain cystine-stabilized structures for molecular recognition, including clip, LDLa, Sushi, Wonton, TSP, CUB, Frizzle, and SR domains. There are nineteen groups of genes evolved from relatively recent gene duplication and sequence divergence. Thirty-five SPs and seven SPHs contain 1, 2 or 5 clip domains. Multiple sequence alignment and molecular modeling of the 54 clip domains have revealed structural diversity of these regulatory modules. Sequence comparison with their homologs in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and Tribolium castaneum allows us to classify them into five subfamilies: A are SPHs with 1 or 5 group-3 clip domains, B are SPs with 1 or 2 group-2 clip domains, C, D1 and D2 are SPs with a single clip domain in group-1a, 1b and 1c, respectively. We have classified into six categories the 125 expression profiles of SP-related proteins in fat body, brain, midgut, Malpighian tubule, testis, and ovary at different stages, suggesting that they participate in various physiological processes. Through RNA-Seq-based gene annotation and expression profiling, as well as intragenomic sequence comparisons, we have established a framework of information for future biochemical research of nondigestive SPs and SPHs in this model species. PMID:25530503

  1. Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase 21 activates prophenoloxidase-activating proteinase 3 in an insect innate immune response proteinase cascade.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Maureen J; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo; Kanost, Michael R

    2007-04-20

    Melanization, an insect immune response, requires a set of hemolymph proteins including pathogen recognition proteins that initiate the response, a cascade of mostly unknown serine proteinases, and phenoloxidase. Until now, only initial and final proteinases in the pathways have been conclusively identified. Four such proteinases have been purified from the larval hemolymph of Manduca sexta: hemolymph proteinase 14 (HP14), which autoactivates in the presence of microbial surface components, and three prophenoloxidase-activating proteinases (PAP1-3). In this study, we have used two complementary approaches to identify a serine proteinase that activates proPAP3. Partial purification from hemolymph of an activator of proPAP3 resulted in an active fraction with two abundant polypeptides of approximately 32 and approximately 37 kDa. Labeling of these polypeptides with a serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, indicated that they were active serine proteinases. N-terminal sequencing revealed that both were cleaved forms of the previously identified hemolymph serine proteinase, HP21. Surprisingly, cleavage of proHP21 had occurred not at the predicted activation site but more N-terminal to it. In vitro reactions carried out with purified HP14 (which activates proHP21), proHP21, proPAP3, and site-directed mutant forms of the latter two proteinases confirmed that HP21 activates proPAP3 by limited proteolysis. Like the HP21 products purified from hemolymph, HP21 that was activated by HP14 in the in vitro reactions was not cleaved at its predicted activation site.

  2. Correlation of hemocyte counts with different developmental parameters during the last larval instar of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Susann; Holthusen, Traute K; Koolman, Jan; Trenczek, Tina

    2008-02-01

    We determined the changes in hemocyte titer and in the abundance of hemocyte types of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta during the fourth and fifth larval stadium and the beginning of the pupal stadium. As we analyzed the samples of individual insects at daily intervals, we were able to correlate phenotypical features, body weight, as well as total protein content and lysozyme activity in the hemolymph with the observations on hemocytes. In the course of the fifth larval stadium, the hemocyte titer decreased slightly and declined further after pupation. Using calculated values for total hemocyte numbers, females had about five times and males three times more hemocytes in the circulating population at the beginning of the wandering stage (in the middle of the fifth larval stadium) than immediately after the last larval--larval molt (from the fourth to the fifth larval stadium). This sexual difference was mainly due to an increase in the number of plasmatocytes, which was more prominent in females than in males. Granular cells were dominant in early fifth larval stadium while plasmatocytes were the most abundant cells in pupae. Oenocytoids and spherule cells disappeared during the wandering stage. Lysozyme activity in the hemolymph rose to a maximum during the wandering stage, with females having lysozyme values twice as high as those for males. These changes in lysozyme activity, however, did not correlate with the increase of total hemolymph protein titer which occurred already at the beginning of the wandering stage. We postulate that changes in hemocyte titers are under direct hormonal control, which has to be proven in future experiments. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. A switch in the control of growth of the wing imaginal disks of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Alexandra; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2010-05-19

    Insulin and ecdysone are the key extrinsic regulators of growth for the wing imaginal disks of insects. In vitro tissue culture studies have shown that these two growth regulators act synergistically: either factor alone stimulates only limited growth, but together they stimulate disks to grow at a rate identical to that observed in situ. It is generally thought that insulin signaling links growth to nutrition, and that starvation stops growth because it inhibits insulin secretion. At the end of larval life feeding stops but the disks continue to grow, so at that time disk growth has become uncoupled from nutrition. We sought to determine at exactly what point in development this uncoupling occurs. Growth and cell proliferation in the wing imaginal disks and hemolymph carbohydrate concentrations were measured at various stages in the last larval instar under experimental conditions of starvation, ligation, rescue, and hormone treatment. Here we show that in the last larval instar of M. sexta, the uncoupling of nutrition and growth occurs as the larva passes the critical weight. Before this time, starvation causes a decline in hemolymph glucose and trehalose and a cessation of wing imaginal disks growth, which can be rescued by injections of trehalose. After the critical weight the trehalose response to starvation disappears, and the expression of insulin becomes decoupled from nutrition. After the critical weight the wing disks loose their sensitivity to repression by juvenile hormone, and factors from the abdomen, but not the brain, are required to drive continued growth. During the last larval instar imaginal disk growth becomes decoupled from somatic growth at the time that the endocrine events of metamorphosis are initiated. These regulatory changes ensure that disk growth continues uninterrupted when the nutritive and endocrine signals undergo the drastic changes associated with metamorphosis.

  4. The morphological characterization of the forewing of the Manduca sexta species for the application of biomimetic flapping wing micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, R P; Palazotto, A N

    2012-12-01

    To properly model the structural dynamics of the forewing of the Manduca sexta species, it is critical that the material and structural properties of the biological specimen be understood. This paper presents the results of a morphological study that has been conducted to identify the material and structural properties of a sample of male and female Manduca sexta specimens. The average mass, area, shape, size and camber of the wing were evaluated using novel measurement techniques. Further emphasis is placed on studying the critical substructures of the wing: venation and membrane. The venation cross section is measured using detailed pathological techniques over the entire venation of the wing. The elastic modulus of the leading edge veins is experimentally determined using advanced non-contact structural dynamic techniques. The membrane elastic modulus is randomly sampled over the entire wing to determine global material properties for the membrane using nanoindentation. The data gathered from this morphological study form the basis for the replication of future finite element structural models and engineered biomimetic wings for use with flapping wing micro air vehicles.

  5. Plant inbreeding and prior herbivory influence the attraction of caterpillars (Manduca sexta) to odors of the host plant Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Scanlon, Sarah R; Moraski, Ryan P; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2014-02-01

    The mediation of plant-insect interactions by plant odors has been studied extensively, but most previous work has focused on documenting the role of constitutive and herbivore- or pathogen-induced plant volatiles as foraging cues for insect herbivores and their natural enemies. Relatively little work has explored genotypic variation in plant-odor profiles within species, and few studies have addressed the perception and use of olfactory cues by lepidopteran larvae or other herbivores during feeding. We examined the effects of plant breeding (inbred vs. outbred individuals) and plant exposure to prior herbivory on the preferences of caterpillars (Manduca sexta) for odors of Solanum carolinense in leaf-disc and whole-plant choice assays. Second- and third-instar larvae of M. sexta clearly and consistently preferred undamaged over herbivore-damaged plants of both breeding types and also consistently preferred inbred over outbred plants that had the same damage status. Similar preferences were observed even when plants were covered with bridal-veil cloth to mask visual cues, demonstrating that olfactory cues influence larval preferences. The observed preferences are consistent with our previous findings regarding the constitutive and induced volatile profiles of inbred and outbred horsenettle plants and their effects on plant-herbivore interactions. They furthermore correspond to differences in host-plant quality predicted by previous work and, thus, suggest that naive larvae of M. sexta can accurately assess aspects of host-plant quality via olfactory cues perceived at a distance.

  6. SGT1 regulates wounding- and herbivory-induced jasmonic acid accumulation and Nicotiana attenuata's resistance to the specialist lepidopteran herbivore Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Meldau, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2011-03-01

    • SGT1 (suppressor of G-two allele of SKP1) is a conserved protein in all eukaryotes and is crucial for resisting pathogens in humans and plants. We studied whether SGT1 is involved in the induced defense response of a native tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) to its natural herbivore, Manduca sexta. • We diminished NaSGT1 transcription in N. attenuata using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and analysed the induced defense responses after wounding and M. sexta elicitation. • Silencing NaSGT1 highly attenuates wounding- and herbivory-induced amounts of jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-isoleucine but elevates the concentration of salicylic acid. Chemical profiling reveals that NaSGT1-silenced plants are also compromised in their ability to accumulate JA precursors produced in chloroplasts. We show that the reduced JA accumulation in NaSGT1-silenced plants is independent of the elevated salicylic acid levels. NaSGT1-silenced plants have decreased contents of defensive metabolites and have compromised resistance to M. sexta larvae. Transcript analyses after methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment revealed that NaSGT1 is important for the normal regulation of MeJA-induced transcriptional responses. • This work demonstrates the importance of SGT1 in the regulatory network that deploys defense responses against herbivores, and highlights the significance of SGT1 in plants' responses to JA.

  7. In situ tip-recordings found no evidence for an Orco-based ionotropic mechanism of pheromone-transduction in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Andreas; Funk, Nico W; Mukunda, Latha; Gawalek, Petra; Werckenthin, Achim; Hansson, Bill S; Wicher, Dieter; Stengl, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of insect odor transduction are still controversial. Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are 7TM receptors with inverted membrane topology. They colocalize with a conserved coreceptor (Orco) with chaperone and ion channel function. Some studies suggest that insects employ exclusively ionotropic odor transduction via OR-Orco heteromers. Other studies provide evidence for different metabotropic odor transduction cascades, which employ second messenger-gated ion channel families for odor transduction. The hawkmoth Manduca sexta is an established model organism for studies of insect olfaction, also due to the availability of the hawkmoth-specific pheromone blend with its main component bombykal. Previous patch-clamp studies on primary cell cultures of M. sexta olfactory receptor neurons provided evidence for a pheromone-dependent activation of a phospholipase Cβ. Pheromone application elicited a sequence of one rapid, apparently IP3-dependent, transient and two slower Ca(2+)-dependent inward currents. It remains unknown whether additionally an ionotropic pheromone-transduction mechanism is employed. If indeed an OR-Orco ion channel complex underlies an ionotropic mechanism, then Orco agonist-dependent opening of the OR-Orco channel pore should add up to pheromone-dependent opening of the pore. Here, in tip-recordings from intact pheromone-sensitive sensilla, perfusion with the Orco agonist VUAA1 did not increase pheromone-responses within the first 1000 ms. However, VUAA1 increased spontaneous activity of olfactory receptor neurons Zeitgebertime- and dose-dependently. We conclude that we find no evidence for an Orco-dependent ionotropic pheromone transduction cascade in M. sexta. Instead, in M. sexta Orco appears to be a slower, second messenger-dependent pacemaker channel which affects kinetics and threshold of pheromone-detection via changes of intracellular Ca(2+) baseline concentrations.

  8. Magnetic resonance microscopy of flows and compressions of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems in pupae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    Circulatory, respiratory, and digestive motions in Manduca sexta pupae were observed using proton-density weighted and fast-imaging with steady-state free procession magnetic resonance microscopy. Proton-density weighted images clearly differentiated pupal air sacs from the hemolymph and organs because, as expected, the air sacs appeared dark in these images. Steady-state free procession imaging allowed real-time monitoring of respiration and circulation, creating movies of hemolymph circulation. Some of the movies show compression and inflation of the air sacs as well as abdominal movements consistent with previously reported ceolopulses. To our knowledge, this is the first magnetic resonance microscopy study of insect circulation and respiration and these preliminary results demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance microscopy for studying in vivo dynamic processes in insects.

  9. Altered gene expression in Choristoneura fumiferana and Manduca sexta in response to sublethal intoxication by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin.

    PubMed

    van Munster, M; Préfontaine, G; Meunier, L; Elias, M; Mazza, A; Brousseau, R; Masson, L

    2007-02-01

    In order to understand how lepidopteran insects react physiologically to Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxin ingestion, transcriptional profiling of Choristoneura fumiferana larvae exposed to sublethal doses of Cry1Ab protoxin were monitored using a C. fumiferana-specific cDNA microarray derived from a protoxin-specific subtractive library. Differential gene expression occurred primarily between 2 and 5 h postingestion. Metabolic enzymes such as lipases and proteases were generally repressed, whereas genes involved in detoxification, immune system regulation or general stress response were upregulated. A similar protoxin-specific transcriptional pattern was also observed with Manduca sexta larvae, using three upregulated genes (serpin, cytochrome P450 and carboxyl/cholinesterase) and one downregulated gene (beta-glucosidase), suggesting that a susceptible larval response to Cry toxin exposure might be universal among lepidopterous insects.

  10. The effect of some Solanum steroidal alkaloids and glycoalkaloids on larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Weissenberg, M; Levy, A; Svoboda, J A; Ishaaya, I

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of a series of secondary plant compounds including steroidal alkaloids and glycoalkaloids on larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was investigated. Larval growth was inhibited on artificial diets containing 1 mumol g-1 diet of the glycoalkaloids solamargine, solasonine and tomatine, whereas the corresponding aglycones solasodine and tomatidine, and also tomatidenol, were inactive. The inhibitory effect of solamargine and tomatine, but not of solasonine, was completely abolished by addition of 1 mumol g-1 diet cholesterol and/or sitosterol. Nonetheless, synthetic cholesteryl tomatide displayed significant activity at 2 mumol g-1 diet. Parallel studies with the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, showed marked inhibitory activity of tomatine at a dietary concentration of 1 mumol g-1, whereas the other compounds did not affect sterol metabolism or larval development. An appraisal of the factors influencing the mode of action of the active steroidal glycoalkaloids is attempted.

  11. Integrated modeling of protein-coding genes in the Manduca sexta genome using RNA-Seq data from the biochemical model insect.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    The genome sequence of Manduca sexta was recently determined using 454 technology. Cufflinks and MAKER2 were used to establish gene models in the genome assembly based on the RNA-Seq data and other species' sequences. Aided by the extensive RNA-Seq data from 50 tissue samples at various life stages, annotators over the world (including the present authors) have manually confirmed and improved a small percentage of the models after spending months of effort. While such collaborative efforts are highly commendable, many of the predicted genes still have problems which may hamper future research on this insect species. As a biochemical model representing lepidopteran pests, M. sexta has been used extensively to study insect physiological processes for over five decades. In this work, we assembled Manduca datasets Cufflinks 3.0, Trinity 4.0, and Oases 4.0 to assist the manual annotation efforts and development of Official Gene Set (OGS) 2.0. To further improve annotation quality, we developed methods to evaluate gene models in the MAKER2, Cufflinks, Oases and Trinity assemblies and selected the best ones to constitute MCOT 1.0 after thorough crosschecking. MCOT 1.0 has 18,089 genes encoding 31,666 proteins: 32.8% match OGS 2.0 models perfectly or near perfectly, 11,747 differ considerably, and 29.5% are absent in OGS 2.0. Future automation of this process is anticipated to greatly reduce human efforts in generating comprehensive, reliable models of structural genes in other genome projects where extensive RNA-Seq data are available.

  12. Detailed Characterization of Local Field Potential Oscillations and Their Relationship to Spike Timing in the Antennal Lobe of the Moth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Galán, Roberto F.; Peters, Oakland J.; Staudacher, Erich M.

    2011-01-01

    The transient oscillatory model of odor identity encoding seeks to explain how odorants with spatially overlapped patterns of input into primary olfactory networks can be discriminated. This model provides several testable predictions about the distributed nature of network oscillations and how they control spike timing. To test these predictions, 16 channel electrode arrays were placed within the antennal lobe (AL) of the moth Manduca sexta. Unitary spiking and multi site local field potential (LFP) recordings were made during spontaneous activity and in response to repeated presentations of an odor panel. We quantified oscillatory frequency, cross correlations between LFP recording sites, and spike–LFP phase relationships. We show that odor-driven AL oscillations in Manduca are frequency modulating (FM) from ∼100 to 30 Hz; this was odorant and stimulus duration dependent. FM oscillatory responses were localized to one or two recording sites suggesting a localized (perhaps glomerular) not distributed source. LFP cross correlations further demonstrated that only a small (r < 0.05) distributed and oscillatory component was present. Cross spectral density analysis demonstrated the frequency of these weakly distributed oscillations was state dependent (spontaneous activity = 25–55 Hz; odor-driven = 55–85 Hz). Surprisingly, vector strength analysis indicated that unitary phase locking of spikes to the LFP was strongest during spontaneous activity and dropped significantly during responses. Application of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, significantly lowered the frequency content of odor-driven distributed oscillatory activity. Bicuculline significantly reduced spike phase locking generally, but the ubiquitous pattern of increased phase locking during spontaneous activity persisted. Collectively, these results indicate that oscillations perform poorly as a stimulus-mediated spike synchronizing mechanism for Manduca and hence are

  13. 3D-Reconstructions and Virtual 4D-Visualization to Study Metamorphic Brain Development in the Sphinx Moth Manduca Sexta.

    PubMed

    Huetteroth, Wolf; El Jundi, Basil; El Jundi, Sirri; Schachtner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    DURING METAMORPHOSIS, THE TRANSITION FROM THE LARVA TO THE ADULT, THE INSECT BRAIN UNDERGOES CONSIDERABLE REMODELING: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D) to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1.

  14. Non-glandular trichomes of Solanum carolinense deter feeding by Manduca sexta caterpillars and cause damage to the gut peritrophic matrix.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Smith, Jason D; Stephenson, Andrew G; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2017-02-22

    Plant trichomes constitute a first line of defence against insect herbivores. The pre- and post-ingestive defensive functions of glandular trichomes are well documented and include direct toxicity, adhesion, antinutrition and defence gene induction. By contrast, the defensive functions of non-glandular trichomes are less well characterized, although these structures are thought to serve as physical barriers that impede herbivore feeding and movement. We experimentally varied the density of stellate non-glandular trichomes in several ways to explore their pre- and post-ingestive effects on herbivores. Larvae of Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) initiated feeding faster and gained more weight on Solanum carolinense (Solanaceae) leaves having lower trichome densities (or experimentally removed trichomes) than on leaves having higher trichome densities. Adding trichomes to artificial diet also deterred feeding and adversely affected caterpillar growth relative to controls. Scanning electron and light microscopy revealed that the ingestion of stellate trichomes by M. sexta caterpillars caused extensive damage to the peritrophic membrane, a gut lining that is essential to digestion and pathogen isolation. These findings suggest that, in addition to acting as a physical barrier to deter feeding, trichomes can inhibit caterpillar growth and development via post-ingestive effects.

  15. Single amino acid changes in domain II of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin affect irreversible binding to Manduca sexta midgut membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohan, F; Alcantara, E; Lee, M K; Chen, X J; Curtiss, A; Dean, D H

    1995-01-01

    Deletion of amino acid residues 370 to 375 (D2) and single alanine substitutions between residues 371 and 375 (FNIGI) of lepidopteran-active Bacillus thuringiensis CryIAb delta-endotoxin were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis techniques. All mutants, except that with the I-to-A change at position 373 (I373A), produced delta-endotoxin as CryIAb and were stable upon activation either by Manduca sexta gut enzymes or by trypsin. Mutants D2, F371A, and G374A lost most of the toxicity (400 times less) for M. sexta larvae, whereas N372A and I375A were only 2 times less toxic than CryIAb. The results of homologous and heterologous competition binding assays to M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) revealed that the binding curves for all mutant toxins were similar to those for the wild-type toxin. However, a significant difference in irreversible binding was observed between the toxic (CryIAb, N372A, and I375A) and less-toxic (D2, F371A, and G374A) proteins. Only 20 to 25% of bound, radiolabeled CryIAb, N372A, and I375A toxins was dissociated from BBMV, whereas about 50 to 55% of the less-toxic mutants, D2, F371A, and G374A, was dissociated from their binding sites by the addition of excess nonlabeled ligand. Voltage clamping experiments provided further evidence that the insecticidal property (inhibition of short-circuit current across the M. sexta midgut) was directly correlated to irreversible interaction of the toxin with the BBMV. We have also shown that CryIAb and mutant toxins recognize 210- and 120-kDa peptides in ligand blotting. Our results imply that mutations in residues 370 to 375 of domain II of CrylAb do not affect overall binding but do affect the irreversible association of the toxin to the midgut columnar epithelial cells of M. sexta. PMID:7730254

  16. Alternative oxidase in resistance to biotic stresses: Nicotiana attenuata AOX contributes to resistance to a pathogen and a piercing-sucking insect but not Manduca sexta larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Oh, Youngjoo; Li, Hongyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The role of the alternative respiratory pathway in the protection of plants against biotic stress was examined in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) plants (irAOX) silenced in the expression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE (AOX) gene. Wild-type and irAOX plants were independently challenged with (1) chewing herbivores (Manduca sexta), (2) piercing-sucking insects (Empoasca spp.), and (3) bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000), showing that all these treatments can strongly elicit accumulation of AOX gene transcripts in wild-type plants. When N. attenuata chemical defenses and resistance were examined, irAOX plants showed wild-type levels of defense-related phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and resistance to M. sexta. In contrast, piercing-sucking leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) caused more leaf damage and induced significantly higher salicylic acid levels in irAOX compared with wild-type plants in the field and/or glasshouse. Subsequently, irAOX plants accumulated lower levels of defense metabolites, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, caffeoylputrescine, and nicotine compared with wild-type plants under prolonged attack of Empoasca spp. in the glasshouse. Finally, an accelerated cell death phenotype was observed in irAOX plants infected with P. syringae, which correlated with higher levels of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels in pathogen-infected irAOX compared with wild-type leaves. Overall, the AOX-associated changes in phytohormone and/or redox levels appear to support the resistance of N. attenuata plants against cell piercing-sucking insects and modulate the progression of cell death in pathogen-infected tissues but are not effective against rapidly feeding specialist herbivore M. sexta.

  17. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  18. Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in Manduca sexta and their possible roles in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Zheng, Yun; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Ren, Ren; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-04-01

    The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta has served as a model for insect biochemical and physiological research for decades. However, knowledge of the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is still rudimentary in this species. Our previous study (Zhang et al., 2012) identified 163 conserved and 13 novel microRNAs in M. sexta, most of which were present at low levels in pupae. To identify additional M. sexta microRNAs and more importantly to examine their possible roles in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes, we constructed four small RNA libraries using fat body and hemocytes from naïve or bacteria-injected larvae and obtained 32.9 million reads of 18-31 nucleotides by Illumina sequencing. Mse-miR-929 and mse-miR-1b (antisense microRNA of mse-miR-1) were predicted in the previous study and now found to be conserved microRNAs in the tissue samples. We also found four novel microRNAs, two of which result from a gene cluster. Mse-miR-281-star, mse-miR-965-star, mse-miR-31-star, and mse-miR-9b-star were present at higher levels than their respective mature strands. Abundance changes of microRNAs were observed after the immune challenge. Based on the quantitative data of mRNA levels in control and induced fat body and hemocytes as well as the results of microRNA target site prediction, we suggest that certain microRNAs and microRNA*s regulate gene expression for pattern recognition, prophenoloxidase activation, cellular responses, antimicrobial peptide synthesis, and conserved intracellular signal transduction (Toll, IMD, JAK-STAT, MAPK-JNK-p38, and small interfering RNA pathways). In summary, this study has enriched our knowledge on M. sexta microRNAs and how some of them may participate in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes.

  19. Proteolytic activation and function of the cytokine Spätzle in innate immune response of a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    An, Chunju; Jiang, Haobo; Kanost, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune response of insects includes induced expression of genes encoding a variety of antimicrobial peptides. The signaling pathways that stimulate this gene expression have been well characterized by genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster, but are not well understood in most other insect species. One such pathway involves proteolytic activation of a cytokine called Spätzle, which functions in dorsal-ventral patterning in early embryonic development and in the antimicrobial immune response in larvae and adults. We have investigated the function of Spätzle in a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta, in which hemolymph proteinases activated during immune responses have been characterized biochemically. Two cDNA isoforms for M. sexta Spätzle-1 differ due to alternative splicing, resulting in a 10 amino acid residue insertion in the pro-region of proSpätzle-1B that is not present in proSpätzle-1A. The proSpätzle-1A cDNA encodes a 32.7 kDa polypeptide that is 23% and 44% identical to D. melanogaster and Bombyx mori Spätzle-1, respectively. Recombinant proSpätzle-1A was a disulfide-linked homodimer. M. sexta hemolymph proteinase 8 (HP8) cleaved proSpätzle-1A to release Spätzle-C108, a dimer of the carboxyl-terminal 108-residue cystine-knot domain. Injection of Spätzle-C108, but not proSpätzle-1A, into larvae stimulated expression of several antimicrobial peptides and proteins, including attacin-1, cecropin-6, moricin, lysozyme, and the immunoglobulin domain protein hemolin, but did not significantly affect expression of two bacteria-inducible pattern recognition proteins, immulectin-2 and β-1,3-glucan recognition protein-2. Results from this paper and other recent studies support a model for a pathway in which the clip-domain proteinase proHP6 becomes activated in plasma upon exposure to Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria or to β-1,3-glucan. HP6 then activates proHP8, which in turn activates Spätzle-1. The resulting Spätzle-C108 dimer is

  20. Changes in the Plasma Proteome of Manduca sexta Larvae in Relation to the Transcriptome Variations after an Immune Challenge: Evidence for High Molecular Weight Immune Complex Formation*

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Shuguang; Rogers, Janet; Hartson, Steve; Jiang, Haobo

    2016-01-01

    Manduca sexta is a lepidopteran model widely used to study insect physiological processes, including innate immunity. In this study, we explored the proteomes of cell-free hemolymph from larvae injected with a sterile buffer (C for control) or a mixture of bacteria (I for induced). Of the 654 proteins identified, 70 showed 1.67 to >200-fold abundance increases after the immune challenge; 51 decreased to 0–60% of the control levels. While there was no strong parallel between plasma protein levels and their transcript levels in hemocytes or fat body, the mRNA level changes (i.e. I/C ratios of normalized read numbers) in the tissues concurred with their protein level changes (i.e. I/C ratios of normalized spectral counts) with correlation coefficients of 0.44 and 0.57, respectively. Better correlations support that fat body contributes a more significant portion of the plasma proteins involved in various aspects of innate immunity. Consistently, ratios of mRNA and protein levels were better correlated for immunity-related proteins than unrelated ones. There is a set of proteins whose apparent molecular masses differ considerably from the calculated Mr's, suggestive of posttranslational modifications. In addition, some low Mr proteins were detected in the range of 80 to >300 kDa on a reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel, indicating the existence of high Mr covalent complexes. We identified 30 serine proteases and their homologs, 11 of which are known members of an extracellular immune signaling network. Along with our quantitative transcriptome data, the protein identification, inducibility, and association provide leads toward a focused exploration of humoral immunity in M. sexta. PMID:26811355

  1. Denaturation of either Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N or Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins exposes binding epitopes hidden under nondenaturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Anu; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Dean, Donald H; Adang, Michael J

    2002-05-01

    The effect of polypeptide denaturation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins or purified Manduca sexta 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on the specificities of their interactions was investigated. Ligand and dot blotting experiments were conducted with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ac, Cry1Ac mutant (509)QNR-AAA(511) (QNR-AAA), or 120-kDa aminopeptidase N as the probe. Mutant QNR-AAA does not bind the N-acetylgalactosamine moiety on the 120-kDa aminopeptidase. Both (125)I-Cry1Ac and (125)I-QNR-AAA bound to 210- and 120-kDa proteins from M. sexta brush border membrane vesicles and purified 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on ligand blots. However, on dot blots (125)I-QNR-AAA bound brush border vesicles but did not bind purified aminopeptidase except when aminopeptidase was denatured. In the reciprocal experiment, (125)I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ac but did not bind QNR-AAA. (125)I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ab to a limited extent but not the Cry1Ab domain I mutant Y153D or Cry1Ca. However, denatured (125)I-aminopeptidase detected each Cry1A toxin and mutant but not Cry1Ca on dot blots. The same pattern of recognition occurred with native (nondenatured) (125)I-aminopeptidase probe and denatured toxins as the targets. The broader pattern of toxin-binding protein interaction is probably due to peptide sequences being exposed upon denaturation. Putative Cry toxin-binding proteins identified by the ligand blot technique need to be investigated under native conditions early in the process of identifying binding proteins that may serve as functional toxin receptors.

  2. Denaturation of Either Manduca sexta Aminopeptidase N or Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A Toxins Exposes Binding Epitopes Hidden under Nondenaturing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Anu; Sangadala, Sreedhara; Dean, Donald H.; Adang, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of polypeptide denaturation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins or purified Manduca sexta 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on the specificities of their interactions was investigated. Ligand and dot blotting experiments were conducted with 125I-labeled Cry1Ac, Cry1Ac mutant 509QNR-AAA511 (QNR-AAA), or 120-kDa aminopeptidase N as the probe. Mutant QNR-AAA does not bind the N-acetylgalactosamine moiety on the 120-kDa aminopeptidase. Both 125I-Cry1Ac and 125I-QNR-AAA bound to 210- and 120-kDa proteins from M. sexta brush border membrane vesicles and purified 120-kDa aminopeptidase N on ligand blots. However, on dot blots 125I-QNR-AAA bound brush border vesicles but did not bind purified aminopeptidase except when aminopeptidase was denatured. In the reciprocal experiment, 125I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ac but did not bind QNR-AAA. 125I-aminopeptidase bound Cry1Ab to a limited extent but not the Cry1Ab domain I mutant Y153D or Cry1Ca. However, denatured 125I-aminopeptidase detected each Cry1A toxin and mutant but not Cry1Ca on dot blots. The same pattern of recognition occurred with native (nondenatured) 125I-aminopeptidase probe and denatured toxins as the targets. The broader pattern of toxin-binding protein interaction is probably due to peptide sequences being exposed upon denaturation. Putative Cry toxin-binding proteins identified by the ligand blot technique need to be investigated under native conditions early in the process of identifying binding proteins that may serve as functional toxin receptors. PMID:11976078

  3. Chitin synthase genes in Manduca sexta: characterization of a gut-specific transcript and differential tissue expression of alternately spliced mRNAs during development.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, David G; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Zimoch, Lars; Merzendorfer, Hans; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Specht, Charles A; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2005-06-01

    Chitin, the linear homopolymer of beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine, is produced by the enzyme chitin synthase (CHS). In general, this insoluble polysaccharide is found in two major extracellular structures in insects, the cuticle that overlays the epidermis and the peritrophic membrane (PM) that lines the midgut. Based on amino acid sequence similarities, insect CHSs are divided into two classes, A and B, and to date no more than two CHS genes have been identified in any single insect species. In species where both CHSs have been identified, one class A CHS and one class B CHS are always present. This finding suggests that these two genes may encode enzymes that synthesize chitin in different epithelial tissues. In our laboratory, we previously characterized transcripts for a class A CHS gene (MsCHS1) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We observed the expression of this gene in the larval epidermis, suggesting that the encoded enzyme functions to synthesize cuticular chitin. In this paper, we characterize a second chitin synthase gene (MsCHS2) belonging to class B and its cDNA from Manduca and show that it is expressed only in the midgut. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 4575 nucleotides, which encodes a conceptual protein that is 1524 amino acids in length and is predicted to contain 16 transmembrane spans. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from anterior, medial, and posterior sections of the midgut from feeding larvae indicate that MsCHS2 is primarily expressed in the anterior midgut, with transcript levels tapering off in the medial and posterior midgut. Analysis of the MsCHS2 gene sequence indicates the absence of an alternate exon in contrast to the MsCHS1 gene, which yields two transcripts, MsCHS1a and MsCHS1b. RT-PCR analysis of the differential expression of these alternately spliced transcripts reveals that both splice variants are present in the epidermis. However, the ratio of the two alternately spliced transcripts varies

  4. Synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons encodes the behaviorally effective ratio of sex-pheromone components in male Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli that are essential to an animal's survival and reproduction are often complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in characteristic proportions. Here, we investigated how these proportions are encoded in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), of male Manduca sexta moths. Two key components of the female's sex pheromone, present in an approximately 2:1 ratio, are processed in each of two neighboring glomeruli in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of males of this species. In wind-tunnel flight experiments, males exhibited behavioral selectivity for ratios approximating the ratio released by conspecific females. The ratio between components was poorly represented, however, in the firing-rate output of uniglomerular MGC projection neurons (PNs). PN firing rate was mostly insensitive to the ratio between components, and individual PNs did not exhibit a preference for a particular ratio. Recording simultaneously from pairs of PNs in the same glomerulus, we found that the natural ratio between components elicited the most synchronous spikes, and altering the proportion of either component decreased the proportion of synchronous spikes. The degree of synchronous firing between PNs in the same glomerulus thus selectively encodes the natural ratio that most effectively evokes the natural behavioral response to pheromone. PMID:24002682

  5. Dietary nutrient levels regulate protein and carbohydrate intake, gluconeogenic/glycolytic flux and blood trehalose level in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Borchardt, D B; Wang, L-W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary casein and sucrose levels on nutrient intake, and distinguished the effects of carbohydrate and protein consumption on growth, fat content, pyruvate metabolism and blood trehalose level of 5th instar Manduca sexta larvae. Growth increased with increasing casein consumption but was unaffected by carbohydrate intake. Fat content also increased with carbohydrate consumption, but on carbohydrate-free diets fat content increased with increased protein consumption. Blood trehalose level and pyruvate metabolism were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of blood following administration of (3-(13)C)pyruvate. On diets containing sucrose, blood trehalose increased with increasing carbohydrate intake, and on most diets trehalose was synthesized entirely from dietary sucrose. Pyruvate cycling, indicated by the alanine C2/C3 (13)C enrichment ratio, increased with carbohydrate consumption reflecting increased glycolysis, and pyruvate decarboxylation exceeded carboxylation on all sucrose diets. Larvae that consumed <75 mg/day sucrose were gluconeogenic, based on the [2 (trehalose C6)(Glx C3/C2)]/alanine C2] (13)C enrichment ratio. On carbohydrate-free diets, blood trehalose levels were low and maintained entirely by gluconeogenesis. Blood trehalose level increased with increasing protein intake. Pyruvate cycling was very low, although many insects displayed higher levels of pyruvate decarboxylation than carboxylation. All gluconeogenic larvae displayed alanine (13)C enrichment ratios <0.35 and had blood trehalose levels <50 mM.

  6. Baculovirus-mediated expression of human apolipoprotein E in Manduca sexta larvae generates particles that bind to the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gretch, D G; Sturley, S L; Friesen, P D; Beckage, N E; Attie, A D

    1991-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and mediates the catabolism of several classes of lipoprotein particles. Binding of apoE to the LDL receptor requires association of apoE with lipid in a vesicle or a lipoprotein particle. Because of this requirement, purified apoE or apoE derived directly from bacterial expression systems does not bind to the LDL receptor. To overcome this problem and to facilitate analysis of apoE structure, recombinant baculoviruses containing the human apoE cDNA fused to the polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus were constructed. The recombinant viruses were used to infect larvae of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta in vivo. High levels of lipoprotein particles containing human apoE were present in the hemolymph of infected larvae. In contrast to apoE produced by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells in vitro, these particles were excellent ligands for the LDL receptor. Images PMID:1924311

  7. A mixture of Manduca sexta aminopeptidase and phosphatase enhances Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal CryIA(c) toxin binding and 86Rb(+)-K+ efflux in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Walters, F S; English, L H; Adang, M J

    1994-04-01

    CryIA(c) delta-endotoxin, a member of the CryI family of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins, specifically recognizes and binds with high affinity to target proteins in the midgut of susceptible insects. Protein blots of Manduca sexta brush-border membranes probed with 125I-CryIA(c) identify a major binding protein of 120 kDa and a minor binding protein of 65 kDa. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against the 120-kDa toxin binding protein. Using isoelectric focusing and monoclonal antibodies (2B3, 8G1, and 12B8) 120- and 65-kDa brush-border proteins were isolated. Labeled CryIA(c) and monoclonal antibodies probed to blots of the affinity-selected proteins recognized the 120- and 65-kDa proteins. When reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles, antibody-selected proteins increased toxin binding (35%) and enhanced toxin-induced 86Rb+ release up to 1000-fold. The 120-kDa protein was identified as aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2). A CryIA(c)-sensitive phosphatase was also present in the 120/65-kDa protein mixture. These findings provide the first identification of B. thuringiensis toxin binding proteins, although confirmation is needed in vivo.

  8. Purification of a cysteine protease inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Takayuki; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Yaguchi, Jun; Matsumoto, Rika; Kanost, Michael R; Kramer, Karl J; Yonekura, Masami

    2007-09-01

    A cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) with an apparent molecular mass of 11.5kDa was purified from larval hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 followed by hydrophobic and ion-exchange column chromatographies. The purified cysteine proteinase inhibitor, denoted as MsCPI, strongly inhibited the plant cysteine protease, papain, with a K(i) value of 5.5 x 10(-9)M. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a partial cDNA encoding MsCPI indicated that MsCPI consists of 105 amino acid residues in a sequence that is similar to sarcocystatin A from Sarcophaga peregrina. However, northern blotting and PCR analyses using the specific primers of MsCPI suggested that the mRNA encoding MsCPI had a size of more than 12 kilobases, which included at least six tandemly repeated MsCPI segments. MsCPI was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein effectively inhibited cysteine proteases from plants as well as from animals such as cathepsins B (K(i), 6.8 nM), H (3.0 nM), and L (0.87 nM). There was no inhibition exhibited toward trypsin, chymotrypsin, subtilisin, pepsin or themolysin.

  9. Glucogenesis in an insect, Manduca sexta L., estimated from the 13C isotopomer distribution in trehalose synthesized from [1,3-13C2]glycerol.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N

    1997-07-19

    Glucogenesis from [3-13C]alanine and [1,3-13C2]glycerol was demonstrated in the insect Manduca sexta by examining the 13C enrichment of trehalose, a non-reducing disaccharide of glucose synthesized in the insect fat body and released into the blood or hemolymph. In insects maintained on a low carbohydrate diet, trehalose synthesized from [3-13C]alanine was selectively enriched at C1 and C6, and C2 and C5. The 13C-labelling pattern indicated the carboxylation of [3-13C]pyruvate, formed by transamination of the [3-13C]alanine followed by randomization of the label at the fumarate step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose synthesis via the gluconeogenic pathway. 13C enrichment of trehalose was absent in similarly maintained insect larvae administered 3-mercaptopicolinic acid, an inhibitor of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Insects on the low carbohydrate diet also synthesized trehalose from [1,3-13C2]glycerol. 13C multiplets were observed in trehalose C3 and C4 demonstrating the synthesis of three 13C enriched glucose isotopomers from the 13C-labelled glycerol. The relative contributions of 13C-labelled glycerol and unlabelled 3 carbon substrates to the synthesis of the 13C enriched trehalose isotopomers were determined from the multiplet structure at C3, and calculation of minimal rates of glucogenesis were based on the 13C enrichment of C4. The C4/C3 13C enrichment ratio in trehalose synthesized from [1,3-13C2]glycerol was close to unity, and total glucogenesis was calculated after estimation of the expected contribution of unlabelled trehalose synthesis from 3 carbon substrates by comparison of the ratio of unlabelled and labelled contributions to the 13C enriched trehalose isotopomers with the 13C enrichment of [1,3-13C2]glycerol-3-phosphate. The estimated total rates of glucogenesis varied from 0.33 to 2.80 micromol glucose/g fresh weight/h. The blood sugar level of M. sexta was also highly variable. Although the potential importance of

  10. Nicotiana attenuata MPK4 suppresses a novel jasmonic acid (JA) signaling-independent defense pathway against the specialist insect Manduca sexta, but is not required for the resistance to the generalist Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T; Wu, Jianqiang

    2013-08-01

    How plants tailor their defense responses to attack from different insects remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MPK4, in the resistance of a wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to two herbivores, the specialist Manduca sexta and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in MPK4 (irMPK4) were generated and characterized for traits important for defense against herbivores. Only the oral secretions (OS) from M. sexta, but not the OS from S. littoralis or mechanical wounding, induced elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) in irMPK4 plants relative to the wild-type plants. Moreover, silencing of MPK4 strongly increased the resistance of N. attenuata to M. sexta in a fashion that was independent of COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1)-mediated JA signaling. Untargeted metabolomic screening identified several new MPK4-dependent putative defensive compounds against M. sexta. By contrast, silencing of MPK4 did not affect the growth of the generalist insect S. littoralis, and we propose that this was because of the very low levels of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in S. littoralis OS. Thus, MPK4 is likely to be a key signaling element that enables plants to tailor defense responses to different attackers. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Changes in the Plasma Proteome of Manduca sexta Larvae in Relation to the Transcriptome Variations after an Immune Challenge: Evidence for High Molecular Weight Immune Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Shuguang; Rogers, Janet; Hartson, Steve; Jiang, Haobo

    2016-04-01

    Manduca sextais a lepidopteran model widely used to study insect physiological processes, including innate immunity. In this study, we explored the proteomes of cell-free hemolymph from larvae injected with a sterile buffer (C for control) or a mixture of bacteria (I for induced). Of the 654 proteins identified, 70 showed 1.67 to >200-fold abundance increases after the immune challenge; 51 decreased to 0-60% of the control levels. While there was no strong parallel between plasma protein levels and their transcript levels in hemocytes or fat body, the mRNA level changes (i.e.I/C ratios of normalized read numbers) in the tissues concurred with their protein level changes (i.e.I/C ratios of normalized spectral counts) with correlation coefficients of 0.44 and 0.57, respectively. Better correlations support that fat body contributes a more significant portion of the plasma proteins involved in various aspects of innate immunity. Consistently, ratios of mRNA and protein levels were better correlated for immunity-related proteins than unrelated ones. There is a set of proteins whose apparent molecular masses differ considerably from the calculatedMr's, suggestive of posttranslational modifications. In addition, some lowMrproteins were detected in the range of 80 to >300 kDa on a reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel, indicating the existence of highMrcovalent complexes. We identified 30 serine proteases and their homologs, 11 of which are known members of an extracellular immune signaling network. Along with our quantitative transcriptome data, the protein identification, inducibility, and association provide leads toward a focused exploration of humoral immunity inM. sexta.

  12. Odor Detection in Manduca sexta Is Optimized when Odor Stimuli Are Pulsed at a Frequency Matching the Wing Beat during Flight

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Kalwar, Faizan; Hatfield, Mandy; Staudacher, Erich; Bradley, Samual P.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing is adapted to wing beating, which causes similar physical effects as sniffing. To explore this we first characterized the physical properties of our odor delivery system using hotwire anemometry and photo ionization detection, which confirmed that odor stimuli were temporally structured. Electroantennograms confirmed that pulse trains were tracked physiologically. Next, we quantified odor detection in moths in a series of psychophysical experiments to determine whether pulsing odor affected acuity. Moths were first conditioned to respond to a target odorant using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. At 24 and 48 h after conditioning, moths were tested with a dilution series of the conditioned odor. On separate days odor was presented either continuously or as 20 Hz pulse trains to simulate wing beating effects. We varied pulse train duty cycle, olfactometer outflow velocity, pulsing method, and odor. Results of these studies, established that detection was enhanced when odors were pulsed. Higher velocity and briefer pulses also enhanced detection. Post hoc analysis indicated enhanced detection was the result of a significantly lower behavioral response to blank stimuli when presented as pulse trains. Since blank responses are a measure of false positive responses, this suggests that the olfactory system makes fewer errors (i.e. is more reliable) when odors are experienced as pulse trains. We therefore postulate that the olfactory system of Manduca sexta may have evolved mechanisms to enhance odor detection during flight, where the effects of wing beating represent the norm. This system may even exploit temporal structure in

  13. TGL-mediated lipolysis in Manduca sexta fat body: possible roles for lipoamide-dehydrogenase (LipDH) and high-density lipophorin (HDLp)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zengying; Soulages, Jose L; Joshi, Bharat D.; Daniel, Stuart M.; Hager, Zachary J.; Arrese, Estela L

    2014-01-01

    Triglyceride-lipase (TGL) is a major fat body lipase in Manduca sexta. The knowledge of how TGL activity is regulated is very limited. A WWE domain, presumably involved in protein-protein interactions, has been previously identified in the N-terminal region of TGL. In this study, we searched for proteins partners that interact with the N-terminal region of TGL. Thirteen proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and the interaction with four of these proteins was confirmed by immunoblot. The oxidoreductase lipoamide-dehydrogenase (LipDH) and the apolipoprotein components of the lipid transporter, HDLp, were among these proteins. LipDH is the common component of the mitochondrial α-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes whereas HDLp occurs in the hemolymph. However, subcellular fractionation demonstrated that these two proteins are relatively abundant in the soluble fraction of fat body adipocytes. The cofactor lipoate found in typical LipDH substrates was not detected in TGL. However, TGL proved to have critical thiol groups. Additional studies with inhibitors are consistent with the notion that LipDH acting as a diaphorase could preserve the activity of TGL by controlling the redox state of thiol groups. On the other hand, when TG hydrolase activity of TGL was assayed in the presence of HDLp, the production of diacylglycerol (DG) increased. TGL-HDLp interaction could drive the intracellular transport of DG. TGL may be directly involved in the lipoprotein assembly and loading with DG, a process that occurs in the fat body and is essential for insects to mobilize fatty acids. Overall the study suggests that TGL occurs as a multi-protein complex supported by interactions through the WWE domain. PMID:24333838

  14. Herbivory of wild Manduca sexta causes fast down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency in Datura wrightii: an early signaling cascade visualized by chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Rascher, Uwe; Bronstein, Judith L; Davidowitz, Goggy; Chaszar, Brian; Huxman, Travis E

    2012-09-01

    Plants experiencing herbivory suffer indirect costs beyond direct loss of leaf area, but differentially so based on the herbivore involved. We used a combination of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and gas exchange techniques to quantify photosynthetic performance, the efficiency of photochemistry, and heat dissipation to examine immediate and longer-term physiological responses in the desert perennial Datura wrightii to herbivory by tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Herbivory by colony-reared larvae yielded no significant reduction in carbon assimilation, whereas herbivory by wild larvae induced a fast and spreading down-regulation of photosynthetic efficiency, resulting in significant losses in carbon assimilation in eaten and uneaten leaves. We found both an 89 % reduction in net photosynthetic rates in herbivore-damaged leaves and a whole-plant response (79 % decrease in undamaged leaves from adjacent branches). Consequently, herbivory costs are higher than previously estimated in this well-studied plant-insect interaction. We used chlorophyll fluorescence imaging to elucidate the mechanisms of this down-regulation. Quantum yield decreased up to 70 % in a small concentric band surrounding the feeding area within minutes of the onset of herbivory. Non-photochemical energy dissipation by the plant to avoid permanent damage was elevated near the wound, and increased systematically in distant areas of the leaf away from the wound over subsequent hours. Together, the results underscore not only potential differences between colony-reared and wild-caught herbivores in experimental studies of herbivory but also the benefits of quantifying physiological responses of plants in unattacked leaves.

  15. Odor detection in Manduca sexta is optimized when odor stimuli are pulsed at a frequency matching the wing beat during flight.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kevin C; Kalwar, Faizan; Hatfield, Mandy; Staudacher, Erich; Bradley, Samual P

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems sample the external world actively, within the context of self-motion induced disturbances. Mammals sample olfactory cues within the context of respiratory cycles and have adapted to process olfactory information within the time frame of a single sniff cycle. In plume tracking insects, it remains unknown whether olfactory processing is adapted to wing beating, which causes similar physical effects as sniffing. To explore this we first characterized the physical properties of our odor delivery system using hotwire anemometry and photo ionization detection, which confirmed that odor stimuli were temporally structured. Electroantennograms confirmed that pulse trains were tracked physiologically. Next, we quantified odor detection in moths in a series of psychophysical experiments to determine whether pulsing odor affected acuity. Moths were first conditioned to respond to a target odorant using Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. At 24 and 48 h after conditioning, moths were tested with a dilution series of the conditioned odor. On separate days odor was presented either continuously or as 20 Hz pulse trains to simulate wing beating effects. We varied pulse train duty cycle, olfactometer outflow velocity, pulsing method, and odor. Results of these studies, established that detection was enhanced when odors were pulsed. Higher velocity and briefer pulses also enhanced detection. Post hoc analysis indicated enhanced detection was the result of a significantly lower behavioral response to blank stimuli when presented as pulse trains. Since blank responses are a measure of false positive responses, this suggests that the olfactory system makes fewer errors (i.e. is more reliable) when odors are experienced as pulse trains. We therefore postulate that the olfactory system of Manduca sexta may have evolved mechanisms to enhance odor detection during flight, where the effects of wing beating represent the norm. This system may even exploit temporal structure in

  16. Octopamine Regulates Antennal Sensory Neurons via Daytime-Dependent Changes in cAMP and IP3 Levels in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Schendzielorz, Thomas; Schirmer, Katja; Stolte, Paul; Stengl, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic amine octopamine (OA) mediates reward signals in olfactory learning and memory as well as circadian rhythms of sleep and activity. In the crepuscular hawkmoth Manduca sexta, OA changed pheromone detection thresholds daytime-dependently, suggesting that OA confers circadian control of olfactory transduction. Thus, with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays we searched hawkmoth antennae for daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA and its respective second messengers. Antennal stimulation with OA raised cAMP- and IP3 levels. Furthermore, antennae expressed daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA, with maxima at Zeitgebertime (ZT) 20 when moths were active and also maximal concentrations of cAMP occurred. Maximal IP3 levels at ZT 18 and 23 correlated with maximal flight activity of male moths, while minimal IP3 levels at dusk correlated with peaks of feeding activity. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for activation of the OA-receptor decreased during the moth’s activity phase suggesting daytime-dependent changes in OA receptor sensitivity. With an antiserum against tyramine, the precursor of OA, two centrifugal neurons were detected projecting out into the sensory cell layer of the antenna, possibly mediating more rapid stimulus-dependent OA actions. Indeed, in fast kinetic assays OA receptor stimulation increased cAMP concentrations within 50 msec. Thus, we hypothesize that fast, stimulus-dependent centrifugal control of OA-release in the antenna occurs. Additional slow systemic OA actions might be based upon circadian release of OA into the hemolymph mediating circadian rhythms of antennal second messenger levels. The resulting rhythms of odor sensitivity are suggested to underlie circadian rhythms in odor-mediated behavior. PMID:25785721

  17. Carbohydrate analyses of Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N, co-purifying neutral lipids and their functional interactions with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Azadi, P; Carlson, R; Adang, M J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac insecticidal toxin binds specifically to 120kDa aminopeptidase N (APN) (EC 3.4.11.2) in the epithelial brush border membrane of Manduca sexta midguts. The isolated 120-kDa APN is a member of a functional Cry1 toxin receptor complex (FEBS Lett. 412 (1997) 270). The 120-kDa form is glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored and converted to a 115-kDa form upon membrane solubilization. The 115-kDa APN also binds Cry1A toxins and Cry1Ac binding is inhibited by N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). Here we determined the monosaccharide composition of APN. APN is 4.2mol% carbohydrate and contains GalNAc, a residue involved in Cry1Ac interaction. APN remained associated with non-covalently bound lipids through anion-exchange column purification. Most associated lipids were separated from APN by hydrophobic interaction chromatography yielding a lipid aggregate. Chemical analyses of the lipid aggregate separated from APN revealed neutral lipids consisting mostly of diacylglycerol and free fatty acids. The fatty acids were long, unsaturated chains ranging from C:14 to C:22. To test the effect of APN-associated lipids on Cry1Ac function, the lipid aggregate and 115-kDa APN were reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. The lipid aggregate increased the amount of Cry1Ac binding, but binding due to the lipid aggregate was not saturable. In contrast the lipid aggregate promoted Cry1Ac-induced release of 86Rb(+) at the lowest Cry1Ac concentration (50nM) tested. The predominant neutral lipid component extracted from the lipid aggregate promoted Cry1Ac-induced 86Rb(+) release from membrane vesicles in the presence of APN.

  18. Domain III of the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac is involved in binding to Manduca sexta brush border membranes and to its purified aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    de Maagd, R A; Bakker, P L; Masson, L; Adang, M J; Sangadala, S; Stiekema, W; Bosch, D

    1999-01-01

    Three types of binding assays were used to study the binding of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin Cry1Ac to brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) membranes and a purified putative receptor of the target insect Manduca sexta. Using hybrid proteins consisting of Cry1Ac and the related Cry1C protein, it was shown that domain III of Cry1Ac is involved in specificity of binding as observed by all three techniques. In ligand blotting experiments using SDS-PAGE-separated BBMV proteins as well as the purified putative receptor aminopeptidase N (APN), the presence of domain III of Cry1Ac in a hybrid with Cry1C was necessary and sufficient for specific binding to APN. Using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique with immobilized APN, it was shown that the presence of domain III of Cry1Ac in a hybrid is sufficient for binding to one of the two previously identified Cry1Ac binding sites, whereas the second site requires the full Cry1Ac toxin for binding. In addition, the role of domain III in the very specific inhibition of Cry1Ac binding by the amino sugar N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac) was determined. Both in ligand blotting and in surface plasmon resonance experiments, as well as in binding assays using intact BBMVs, it was shown that the presence of domain III of Cry1Ac in a toxin molecule is sufficient for the inhibition of binding by GalNAc. These and other results strongly suggest that domain III of delta-endotoxins play a role in insect specificity through their involvement in specific binding to insect gut epithelial receptors.

  19. Subunit positioning and stator filament stiffness in regulation and power transmission in the V1 motor of the Manduca sexta V-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Muench, Stephen P; Scheres, Sjors H W; Huss, Markus; Phillips, Clair; Vitavska, Olga; Wieczorek, Helmut; Trinick, John; Harrison, Michael A

    2014-01-23

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is an ATP-driven proton pump essential to the function of eukaryotic cells. Its cytoplasmic V1 domain is an ATPase, normally coupled to membrane-bound proton pump Vo via a rotary mechanism. How these asymmetric motors are coupled remains poorly understood. Low energy status can trigger release of V1 from the membrane and curtail ATP hydrolysis. To investigate the molecular basis for these processes, we have carried out cryo-electron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of deactivated V1 from Manduca sexta. In the resulting model, three peripheral stalks that are parts of the mechanical stator of the V-ATPase are clearly resolved as unsupported filaments in the same conformations as in the holoenzyme. They are likely therefore to have inherent stiffness consistent with a role as flexible rods in buffering elastic power transmission between the domains of the V-ATPase. Inactivated V1 adopted a homogeneous resting state with one open active site adjacent to the stator filament normally linked to the H subunit. Although present at 1:1 stoichiometry with V1, both recombinant subunit C reconstituted with V1 and its endogenous subunit H were poorly resolved in three-dimensional reconstructions, suggesting structural heterogeneity in the region at the base of V1 that could indicate positional variability. If the position of H can vary, existing mechanistic models of deactivation in which it binds to and locks the axle of the V-ATPase rotary motor would need to be re-evaluated.

  20. Effect of nitrogen and water treatment on leaf chemistry in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), and relationship to herbivory by flea beetles (Epitrix spp.) and tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta).

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Martin L; Paulk, Eric; Cipollini, Donald F

    2002-12-01

    We studied the interaction between plants (horsenettle; Solanum carolinense) and herbivorous insects (flea beetles; Epitrix spp., and tobacco hornworm; Manduca sexta) by focusing on three questions: (1) Does variation in nitrogen availability affect leaf chemistry as predicted by the carbon-nutrient balance (CNB) hypothesis? (2) Does variation in plant treatment and leaf chemistry affect insect feeding? (3) Is there an interaction between the insect herbivores that is mediated by variation in leaf chemistry? For three successive years (1998-2001), we grew a set of clones of 10 maternal plants under two nitrogen treatments and two water treatments. For each plant in the summer of 2000, we assayed herbivory by hornworms in both indoor (detached leaf) and outdoor (attached leaf) assays, as well as ambient flea beetle damage. Estimates of leaf material consumed were made via analysis of digitized leaf images. We also assayed leaves for total protein, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content, and for trypsin inhibitor, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase activity. Despite strong effects of nitrogen treatment on growth and reproduction, only total protein responded as predicted by CNB. Leaf phenolic levels were increased by nitrogen treatment, polyphenol oxidase activity was decreased, and other leaf parameters were unaffected. Neither hornworm nor flea beetle herbivory could be related to plant treatment or genotype or to variation in any of the six leaf chemical parameters. A negative relationship between flea beetle and hornworm herbivory was found, but was not apparently mediated by any of the measured leaf chemicals. Because leaf resistance was maintained in low nitrogen plants at the apparent expense of growth and reproduction, our results support the concept of a fitness cost of defense, as predicted by the optimal defense hypothesis.

  1. Manduca rustica (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) damage on olive (Olea europaea;Lamiales:Oleaceae)trees in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rustic sphinx, Manduca rustica has been identified as an occasional pest for olive, Olea europaea, in Florida. This pest’s distribution spans Florida’s olive growing region from the northern panhandle as far south as Polk County....

  2. Effects of Midgut-Protein-Preparative and Ligand Binding Procedures on the Toxin Binding Characteristics of BT-R1, a Common High-Affinity Receptor in Manduca sexta for Cry1A Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Keeton, Timothy P.; Francis, Brian R.; Maaty, Walid S. A.; Bulla, Lee A.

    1998-01-01

    The identity of the physiologically important Cry1A receptor protein(s) in the lepidopteran Manduca sexta has been a matter of dispute due to the multiple proteins which bind the Cry1Ac toxin. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac exhibit essentially identical toxicities toward M. sexta larvae and show a high degree of sequence and presumed structural identities. These similarities make it likely that there is a common mechanism of toxicity in these lepidopteran-specific toxins in terms of both mode of action and the receptor proteins through which these toxins exert their lepidopteran-specific toxicity. Investigators in our laboratory previously demonstrated that the cloned 210-kDa glycoprotein BT-R1 binds all three Cry1A toxins (T. P. Keeton and L. A. Bulla, Jr., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:3419–3425, 1997). This protein remains a common binding protein even after being subjected to various midgut membrane preparation and processing protocols. The method used to isolate proteins from the M. sexta larval midgut in no significant way affects the results of ligand binding and vacuum blotting experiments, and we have been unable to detect specific, high-affinity binding of any Cry1A toxin to Cry1Ac binding proteins other than BT-R1. Alterations in blot substrate and blocking, hybridization, and washing buffers support these conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate that in M. sexta the cadherin-like BT-R1 protein is a common high-affinity receptor protein for the Cry1A family of toxins. PMID:9603829

  3. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  4. Alternative Oxidase in Resistance to Biotic Stresses: Nicotiana attenuata AOX Contributes to Resistance to a Pathogen and a Piercing-Sucking Insect But Not Manduca sexta Larvae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Oh, Youngjoo; Li, Hongyu; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The role of the alternative respiratory pathway in the protection of plants against biotic stress was examined in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) plants (irAOX) silenced in the expression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE (AOX) gene. Wild-type and irAOX plants were independently challenged with (1) chewing herbivores (Manduca sexta), (2) piercing-sucking insects (Empoasca spp.), and (3) bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000), showing that all these treatments can strongly elicit accumulation of AOX gene transcripts in wild-type plants. When N. attenuata chemical defenses and resistance were examined, irAOX plants showed wild-type levels of defense-related phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and resistance to M. sexta. In contrast, piercing-sucking leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) caused more leaf damage and induced significantly higher salicylic acid levels in irAOX compared with wild-type plants in the field and/or glasshouse. Subsequently, irAOX plants accumulated lower levels of defense metabolites, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, caffeoylputrescine, and nicotine compared with wild-type plants under prolonged attack of Empoasca spp. in the glasshouse. Finally, an accelerated cell death phenotype was observed in irAOX plants infected with P. syringae, which correlated with higher levels of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels in pathogen-infected irAOX compared with wild-type leaves. Overall, the AOX-associated changes in phytohormone and/or redox levels appear to support the resistance of N. attenuata plants against cell piercing-sucking insects and modulate the progression of cell death in pathogen-infected tissues but are not effective against rapidly feeding specialist herbivore M. sexta. PMID:22961128

  5. Cry1A toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis bind specifically to a region adjacent to the membrane-proximal extracellular domain of BT-R(1) in Manduca sexta: involvement of a cadherin in the entomopathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, J A; Candas, M; Griko, N B; Maaty, W S A; Midboe, E G; Vadlamudi, R K; Bulla, L A

    2002-09-01

    Many subspecies of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce various parasporal crystal proteins, also known as Cry toxins, that exhibit insecticidal activity upon binding to specific receptors in the midgut of susceptible insects. One such receptor, BT-R(1) (210 kDa), is a cadherin located in the midgut epithelium of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. It has a high binding affinity (K(d) approximately 1nM) for the Cry1A toxins of B. thuringiensis. Truncation analysis of BT-R(1) revealed that the only fragment capable of binding the Cry1A toxins of B. thuringiensis was a contiguous 169-amino acid sequence adjacent to the membrane-proximal extracellular domain. The purified toxin-binding fragment acted as an antagonist to Cry1Ab toxin by blocking the binding of toxin to the tobacco hornworm midgut and inhibiting insecticidal action. Exogenous Cry1Ab toxin bound to intact COS-7 cells expressing BT-R(1) cDNA, subsequently killing the cells. Recruitment of BT-R(1) by B. thuringiensis indicates that the bacterium interacts with a specific cell adhesion molecule during its pathogenesis. Apparently, Cry toxins, like other bacterial toxins, attack epithelial barriers by targeting cell adhesion molecules within susceptible insect hosts.

  6. Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic tobacco plants under the control of a wound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to control Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gulbitti-Onarici, Selma; Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Taga, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-07-01

    Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated under the control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis in transgenic tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanically wounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanical wounding of transgenic plants was effective in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during 6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobacco plants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves were either fed directly to the insect larvae or they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection of mechanically wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of the bioassay.

  7. Molecular and mass spectral identification of the broadly conserved decapod crustacean neuropeptide pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF: the first PISCF-allatostatin (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatin) from a non-insect

    PubMed Central

    Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Bruns, Emily A.; Cashman, Christopher R.; Dickinson, Patsy S.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2009-01-01

    The PISCF-allatostatins (Manduca sexta- or C-type allatostatins) are a family of pentadecapeptides characterized by a pyroglutamine blocked N-terminus, an unamidated –PISCF C-terminus, and a disulfide bridge between two internal Cys residues. Several isoforms of PISCF-AST are known, all from holometabolous insects. Using a combination of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry, we have identified the first PISCF-type peptides from a non-insect species. In silico analysis of crustacean ESTs identified several Litopenaeus vannamei (infraorder Penaeidea) transcripts encoding putative PISCF-AST precursors. Translation of these ESTs, with subsequent prediction of their putative post-translational processing, revealed the existence of as many as three PISCF-type peptides, including pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridging between Cys7 and Cys14). Although none of the predicted isoforms was detected by mass spectrometry in L. vannamei, MALDI-FTMS mass profiling identified an m/z signal corresponding to pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (disulfide bridge present) in neural tissue from 28 other decapods, which included members of six infraorders (Stenopodidea, Astacidea, Thalassinidea, Achelata, Anomura and Brachyura). Further characterization of the peptide using SORI-CID and chemical derivatization/enzymatic digestion supported the theorized structure. In both the crab Cancer borealis and the lobster Homarus americanus, MALDI-based tissue surveys suggest that pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF is broadly distributed in the nervous system; it was also detected in the posterior midgut caecum. Collectively, our data show that members of the PISCF-AST family are not restricted to the holometabolous insects, but instead may be broadly conserved within the Pancrustacea. Moreover, our data suggest that one highly conserved PISCF-type peptide, pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF, is present in decapod crustaceans, functioning as a brain-gut paracrine/hormone. PMID:19467234

  8. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  9. Physiological correlates of chill susceptibility in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mads Kuhlmann; Jensen, Signe Overgaard; Overgaard, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The majority of insects enter a state of reversible coma if temperature is lowered sufficiently. If the cold treatment is not too severe these insects recover gradually when returned to benign temperatures in a time-dependent manner that often depends on the duration and intensity of the cold exposure. Previous studies have associated these phenotypes to changes in membrane potential (Vm) and ion balance, and especially hemolymph [K(+)] is known to be of importance for the recovery time. In the present study we examined this link in three species of Lepidoptera as insects from this order are known to possess resting hemolymph [K(+)] that would severely compromise Vm in other insects. Specifically, we exposed larval and adult Manduca sexta, larval Bombyx mori, and adult Heliconius cydno to stressful cold (0°C) for extended periods of time. Subsequently we measured chill coma recovery time (CCRT), ion- and water balance, and muscle Vm. As expected we find that resting hemolymph [K(+)] is high and that resting hemolymph [Na(+)] is low compared to most other insect species. Muscle Vm depolarised considerably during acute cold exposure, but did so in a manner that was not associated with changes in ion balance. However, prolonged cold exposure coincided with an increase of hemolymph [K(+)] and further depolarisation of Vm which correlated well with prolongation of CCRT. Combined this demonstrates how insects with different ionic compositions generally suffer from similar consequences of cold stress as other species, such that cold tolerance of chill-susceptible insects within Lepidoptera is also intimately linked to maintenance of ion balance and membrane polarisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hematopoietic organs of Manduca sexta and hemocyte lineages.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Pilas, Barbara; Ujhelyi, Elizabeth; Garsha, Karl; Kanost, Michael R

    2003-10-01

    Cells of the moth immune system are derived from organs that loosely envelop the four wing imaginal discs. The immune response in these insects is believed to depend on the activities of two main classes of hemocytes: plasmatocytes and granular cells. The fates of cells that arise from these hematopoietic organs have been followed by immunolabeling with plasmatocyte-specific and granular-cell-specific antibodies. Cells within each hematopoietic organ differ in their coherence and in their expression of two plasmatocyte-specific surface proteins, integrin and neuroglian. Within an organ there is no overlap in the expression of these two surface proteins; neuroglian is found on the surfaces of the coherent cells while integrin is expressed on cells that are losing coherence, rounding up, and dispersing. A granular-cell-specific marker for the protein lacunin labels the basal lamina that delimits each organ but only a small number of granular cells that lie on or near the periphery of the hematopoietic organ. When organs are cultured in the absence of hemolymph, all cells derived from hematopoietic organs turn out to immunolabel with the plasmatocyte-specific antibody MS13. The circulating plasmatocytes derived from hematopoietic organs have higher ploidy levels than the granular cells and represent a separate lineage of hemocytes.

  11. A Structural Dynamic Analysis of a Manduca Sexta Forewing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    of spanwise distance. ...................................................................11 7. (a) Freshly liberated dragonfly wing; (b) painted wing...gh, w ith no a pparent e nd i n s ight. World a ir fo rces o f a ll s izes, p rivate corporations, a nd e ven terrorist gr oups c urrently operate U...in vacuo photonic frequency analysis of a dragonfly wing [9]. Fortunately, a pplying c lassic s tructural d ynamics t heory s erves t o s ettle s

  12. The Lepidoptera Odorant Binding Protein gene family: Gene gain and loss within the GOBP/PBP complex of moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Richard G; Große-Wilde, Ewald; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Butterflies and moths differ significantly in their daily activities: butterflies are diurnal while moths are largely nocturnal or crepuscular. This life history difference is presumably reflected in their sensory biology, and especially the balance between the use of chemical versus visual signals. Odorant Binding Proteins (OBP) are a class of insect proteins, at least some of which are thought to orchestrate the transfer of odor molecules within an olfactory sensillum (olfactory organ), between the air and odor receptor proteins (ORs) on the olfactory neurons. A Lepidoptera specific subclass of OBPs are the GOBPs and PBPs; these were the first OBPs studied and have well documented associations with olfactory sensilla. We have used the available genomes of two moths, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori, and two butterflies, Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene, to characterize the GOBP/PBP genes, attempting to identify gene orthologs and document specific gene gain and loss. First, we identified the full repertoire of OBPs in the M. sexta genome, and compared these with the full repertoire of OBPs from the other three lepidopteran genomes, the OBPs of Drosophila melanogaster and select OBPs from other Lepidoptera. We also evaluated the tissue specific expression of the M. sexta OBPs using an available RNAseq databases. In the four lepidopteran species, GOBP2 and all PBPs reside in single gene clusters; in two species GOBP1 is documented to be nearby, about 100 kb from the cluster; all GOBP/PBP genes share a common gene structure indicating a common origin. As such, the GOBP/PBP genes form a gene complex. Our findings suggest that (1) the lepidopteran GOBP/PBP complex is a monophyletic lineage with origins deep within Lepidoptera phylogeny, (2) within this lineage PBP gene evolution is much more dynamic than GOBP gene evolution, and (3) butterflies may have lost a PBP gene that plays an important role in moth pheromone detection, correlating with a shift from

  13. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shao-Tong; Hong, Gui-Yun; Yu, Miao; Li, Na; Yang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2009-05-22

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031), indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2). Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) and trnS2(UCN). Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina), Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta) and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a group.

  14. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shao-Tong; Hong, Gui-Yun; Yu, Miao; Li, Na; Yang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031), indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2). Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) and trnS2(UCN). Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina), Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta) and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a group. PMID:19471586

  15. The nicotinic alpha subunit MARA1 is necessary for cholinergic evoked calcium transients in Manduca neurons.

    PubMed

    Vermehren, A; Qazi, S; Trimmer, B A

    2001-11-09

    The functional contribution of cloned subunits to insect nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors has been difficult to determine using heterologous expression. Instead, in this study we explore the subunit composition of naturally expressed functional receptors in an insect using RNA interference. The nicotinic alpha subunit, Manduca ACh Receptor Alpha 1 (MARA1) can be detected in neuronal cultures isolated from the ventral nerve cord of fifth instar larvae of Manduca sexta by in situ hybridization. It's presence correlates with large ACh induced, nicotinic Ca2+ responses. The expression of MARA1 is downregulated by treatment with dsRNA which significantly reduced both the number of responding cells and the amplitude of remaining Ca2+ responses. These results suggest that MARA1 is part of a nicotinic receptor functionally coupled to Ca2+ entry.

  16. Gut Bacteria Are Not Required for the Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis toward the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Paul R.; Crickmore, Neil

    2009-01-01

    It was recently proposed that gut bacteria are required for the insecticidal activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticide, DiPel, toward the lepidopterans Manduca sexta, Pieris rapae, Vanessa cardui, and Lymantria dispar. Using a similar methodology, it was found that gut bacteria were not required for the toxicity of DiPel or Cry1Ac or for the synergism of an otherwise sublethal concentration of Cry1Ac toward M. sexta. The toxicities of DiPel and of B. thuringiensis HD73 Cry− spore/Cry1Ac synergism were attenuated by continuously exposing larvae to antibiotics before bioassays. Attenuation could be eliminated by exposing larvae to antibiotics only during the first instar without altering larval sterility. Prior antibiotic exposure did not attenuate Cry1Ac toxicity. The presence of enterococci in larval guts slowed mortality resulting from DiPel exposure and halved Cry1Ac toxicity but had little effect on B. thuringiensis HD73 Cry− spore/Cry1Ac synergism. B. thuringiensis Cry− cells killed larvae after intrahemocoelic inoculation of M. sexta, Galleria mellonella, and Spodoptera litura and grew rapidly in plasma from M. sexta, S. litura, and Tenebrio molitor. These findings suggest that gut bacteria are not required for B. thuringiensis insecticidal activity toward M. sexta but that B. thuringiensis lethality is reduced in larvae that are continuously exposed to antibiotics before bioassay. PMID:19525273

  17. Construction and analysis of antennal cDNA library from rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and expression profiles of putative odorant-binding protein and chemosensory protein genes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Su; Jiang, Yan-Dong; Zhou, Wen-Wu; Liang, Qing-Mei; Cheng, Jiaan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Gurr, Geoff M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we constructed a high-quality cDNA library from the antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). A total of 1,235 colonies with inserts greater than 0.7 kb were sequenced and analyzed. Homology searching coupled with bioinformatics analysis identified 15 and 7 cDNA sequences, respectively, encoding putative odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). A phylogenetic tree of CsupCSPs showed that each CsupCSP has orthologs in Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori with strong bootstrapping support. One CSP was either very specific or more related to the CSPs of another species than to conspecific CSP. The expression profiles of the OBPs and CSPs in different tissues were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that of the 11 OBP genes, the transcript levels of CsupOBP1, CsupOBP5, and CsupOBP7 were higher in both male and female antennae than those in other tissues. And CsupCSP7 was highly expressed in both male and female antennae. Based on these results, the possible physiological functions of CsupOBPs and CsupCSPs were discussed.

  18. Protection via parasitism: Datura odors attract parasitoid flies, which inhibit Manduca larvae from feeding and growing but may not help plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J K; Woods, H A

    2015-12-01

    Insect carnivores frequently use olfactory cues from plants to find prey or hosts. For plants, the benefits of attracting parasitoids have been controversial, partly because parasitoids often do not kill their host insect immediately. Furthermore, most research has focused on the effects of solitary parasitoids on growth and feeding of hosts, even though many parasitoids are gregarious (multiple siblings inhabit the same host). Here, we examine how a gregarious parasitoid, the tachinid fly Drino rhoeo, uses olfactory cues from the host plant Datura wrightii to find the sphingid herbivore Manduca sexta, and how parasitism affects growth and feeding of host larvae. In behavioral trials using a Y-olfactometer, female flies were attracted to olfactory cues emitted by attacked plants and by cues emitted from the frass produced by larval Manduca sexta. M. sexta caterpillars that were parasitized by D. rhoeo grew to lower maximum weights, grew more slowly, and ate less of their host plant. We also present an analytical model to predict how tri-trophic interactions change with varying herbivory levels, parasitization rates and plant sizes. This model predicted that smaller plants gain a relatively greater benefit compared to large plants in attracting D. rhoeo. By assessing the behavior, the effects of host performance, and the variation in ecological parameters of the system, we can better understand the complex interactions between herbivorous insects, the plants they live on and the third trophic level members that attack them.

  19. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  20. Evaluation of the Thorax of Manduca Sexta for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    22 Figure 10: Various samples of multi-bar linkage systems: specifically noting the crank-slider. ..................27 Figure 11: Geometric ...68 Figure 40: Geometric method used to determine the wing angle...and morphometric data on the hawkmoth as prepared by Guiler (Guiler 2011). This chart further validates the selection of the hawkmoth for

  1. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms ( Manduca sexta larvae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B.; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  2. Structure-activity relationship of ETH during ecdysis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Wells, Cornell; Aparicio, Katherine; Salmon, Arthur; Zadel, Ari; Fuse, Megumi

    2006-04-01

    In insects, ecdysis or shedding of the old cuticle, consists of a series of behaviors that are regulated by the coordinated actions of a number of neuropeptides, one of which is ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH). ETH acts directly on central pattern generators of the abdominal ganglia to trigger onset of pre-ecdysis behaviors, as well as indirectly to activate release of eclosion hormone, thereby inducing onset of ecdysis behaviors through a cGMP-mediated mechanism. We assessed the minimal C-terminal amino acids required for biological activity of ETH, by assessing: (i) onset of pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors in vivo, after injection of peptide analogs, (ii) onset of fictive pre-ecdysis and ecdysis motor patterns in vitro, as recorded extracellularly, after incubation of the CNS with the peptide analogs, and (iii) accumulation of cGMP within cells of the abdominal ganglia, as assessed immunohistochemically. Amidation of ETH at the C-terminus was required to elicit a biological response in vivo and in vitro, as well as an accumulation of cGMP within the CNS. The five amino acid amidated C-terminus of ETH (NIPRMamide) was the minimal moiety able to induce a robust pre-ecdysis response in vivo and in vitro, while a seven amino acid core (NKNIPRMa) was required for induction of ecdysis, including accumulation of cGMP immunoreactivity within the CNS. Analogs smaller than 12 amino acids in length were only active at very high concentrations in vivo, suggesting that smaller fragments might be susceptible to hemolymph degradation. Some alanine substitutions or removal of internal amino acids altered the activity of ETH, as well as the time of onset of ecdysis behaviors, suggesting that internal amino acids play a role in maintaining proper folding of the peptide for successful binding or activity at the ETH receptor.

  3. Manduca Contactin Regulates Amyloid Precursor Protein-Dependent Neuronal Migration.

    PubMed

    Ramaker, Jenna M; Swanson, Tracy L; Copenhaver, Philip F

    2016-08-17

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) was originally identified as the source of β-amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also has been implicated in the control of multiple aspects of neuronal motility. APP belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of transmembrane proteins that can interact with a variety of adapter and signaling molecules. Recently, we showed that both APP and its insect ortholog [APPL (APP-Like)] directly bind the heterotrimeric G-protein Goα, supporting the model that APP can function as an unconventional Goα-coupled receptor. We also adapted a well characterized assay of neuronal migration in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to show that APPL-Goα signaling restricts ectopic growth within the developing nervous system, analogous to the role postulated for APP family proteins in controlling migration within the mammalian cortex. Using this assay, we have now identified Manduca Contactin (MsContactin) as an endogenous ligand for APPL, consistent with previous work showing that Contactins interact with APP family proteins in other systems. Using antisense-based knockdown protocols and fusion proteins targeting both proteins, we have shown that MsContactin is selectively expressed by glial cells that ensheath the migratory neurons (expressing APPL), and that MsContactin-APPL interactions normally prevent inappropriate migration and outgrowth. These results provide new evidence that Contactins can function as authentic ligands for APP family proteins that regulate APP-dependent responses in the developing nervous system. They also support the model that misregulated Contactin-APP interactions might provoke aberrant activation of Goα and its effectors, thereby contributing to the neurodegenerative sequelae that typify AD. Members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family participate in many aspects of neuronal development, but the ligands that normally activate APP signaling have remained controversial. This research

  4. Manduca Contactin Regulates Amyloid Precursor Protein-Dependent Neuronal Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Jenna M.; Swanson, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) was originally identified as the source of β-amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also has been implicated in the control of multiple aspects of neuronal motility. APP belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of transmembrane proteins that can interact with a variety of adapter and signaling molecules. Recently, we showed that both APP and its insect ortholog [APPL (APP-Like)] directly bind the heterotrimeric G-protein Goα, supporting the model that APP can function as an unconventional Goα-coupled receptor. We also adapted a well characterized assay of neuronal migration in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to show that APPL–Goα signaling restricts ectopic growth within the developing nervous system, analogous to the role postulated for APP family proteins in controlling migration within the mammalian cortex. Using this assay, we have now identified Manduca Contactin (MsContactin) as an endogenous ligand for APPL, consistent with previous work showing that Contactins interact with APP family proteins in other systems. Using antisense-based knockdown protocols and fusion proteins targeting both proteins, we have shown that MsContactin is selectively expressed by glial cells that ensheath the migratory neurons (expressing APPL), and that MsContactin–APPL interactions normally prevent inappropriate migration and outgrowth. These results provide new evidence that Contactins can function as authentic ligands for APP family proteins that regulate APP-dependent responses in the developing nervous system. They also support the model that misregulated Contactin–APP interactions might provoke aberrant activation of Goα and its effectors, thereby contributing to the neurodegenerative sequelae that typify AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family participate in many aspects of neuronal development, but the ligands that normally activate APP signaling have remained

  5. Hovering and forward flight of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: trim search and 6-DOF dynamic stability characterization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jong-Seob; Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2015-09-28

    We show that the forward flight speed affects the stability characteristics of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a flying hawkmoth; dynamic modal structures of both the planes of motion are altered due to variations in the stability derivatives. The forward flight speed u e is changed from 0.00 to 1.00 m s(-1) with an increment of 0.25 m s(-1). (The equivalent advance ratio is 0.00 to 0.38; the advance ratio is the ratio of the forward flight speed to the average wing tip speed.) As the flight speed increases, for the longitudinal dynamics, an unstable oscillatory mode becomes more unstable. Also, we show that the up/down (w(b)) dynamics become more significant at a faster flight speed due to the prominent increase in the stability derivative Z(u) (up/down force due to the forward/backward velocity). For the lateral dynamics, the decrease in the stability derivative L(v) (roll moment due to side slip velocity) at a faster flight speed affects a slightly damped stable oscillatory mode, causing it to become more stable; however, the t(half) (the time taken to reach half the amplitude) of this slightly damped stable oscillatory mode remains relatively long (∼12T at u(e) = 1 m s(-1); T is wingbeat period) compared to the other modes of motion, meaning that this mode represents the most vulnerable dynamics among the lateral dynamics at all flight speeds. To obtain the stability derivatives, trim conditions for linearization are numerically searched to find the exact trim trajectory and wing kinematics using an algorithm that uses the gradient information of a control effectiveness matrix and fully coupled six-degrees of freedom nonlinear multibody equations of motion. With this algorithm, trim conditions that consider the coupling between the dynamics and aerodynamics can be obtained. The body and wing morphology, and the wing kinematics used in this study are based on actual measurement data from the relevant literature. The aerodynamic model of the flapping wings of a hawkmoth is based on the blade element theory, and the necessary aerodynamic coefficients, including the lift, drag and wing pitching moment, are experimentally obtained from the results of previous work by the authors.

  6. Manufacturing and Evaluation of a Biologically Inspired Engineered MAV Wing Compared to the Manduca Sexta Wing Under Simulated Flapping Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    sequences. Several attempts were made to add artificial landmarks, using enamel paints, white correction fluid, silver paints, and a range of...this however was the fact that one side was covered completely in the adhesive glue. This posed a problem since the mere presence of the glue added un...Furthermore, it was decided that new, thinner Kapton should be used in lieu of the Kapton tape- as the presence of the already applied adhesive added

  7. Dynamic properties of a locomotory muscle of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta during strain cycling and simulated natural crawling.

    PubMed

    Woods, William A; Fusillo, Steven J; Trimmer, Barry A

    2008-03-01

    Caterpillars are soft-bodied terrestrial climbers that perform a wide variety of complex movements with several hundred muscles and a relatively small number of neurons. Control of movements is therefore expected to place unusual demands on the mechanical properties of the muscles. The muscles develop force slowly (1-6 s to peak) yet over a strain range extending from under 60% to more than 160% of resting length, with a length-tension relationship resembling that of supercontracting or cross-striated muscle. In passive and active sinusoidal strain cycling, muscles displayed viscoelastic qualities, with very low and stretch-velocity dependent resilience; there was a positive linear relationship between stretch velocity and the fraction of work dissipation attributable to passive muscle properties (20-80%). In linear stretches of unstimulated muscles at velocities bracketing those encountered in natural crawling, the rise in tension showed a distinct transition to a lower rate of increase, with transition tension dependent upon stretch velocity; peak force was exponentially related to stretch velocity. When stretching ceased, force decayed exponentially, with slower decay associated with lower stretch velocities; the decay time constant was exponentially related to stretch velocity. From the kinematics of caterpillars crawling horizontally we determined that the ventral interior lateral muscle (VIL) of the third abdominal segment (A3) is at or near resting length for most of the crawl cycle, with a fairly linear shortening by 25-30% and re-lengthening occupying about 45% of cycle duration. Synchronized kinematic and EMG recordings showed that during horizontal crawling A3 VIL is stimulated as the muscle shortens from about 95% to 75% of its resting length. We subjected in vitro VIL preparations to strain cycling and stimulus phase and duration similar to that of natural crawling. The resulting work loops were figure-eight shaped, with the muscle performing work during the shortest 45-65% of the strain cycle but dissipating work during the rest of the cycle. The muscle remained in the ascending limb of its length-tension relationship throughout the crawl cycle. Peak force occurred at the end of re-lengthening, nearly a full second after stimulation ceased, underscoring the importance of understanding passive muscle properties to explain caterpillar locomotion. Whether A3 VIL functions as an actuator at all during simulated natural strain cycling is highly sensitive to stimulus timing but far less so to stimulus duration. The muscle's elastomer-like properties appear to play a major role in its function.

  8. The mechanics of flight in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. II. Aerodynamic consequences of kinematic and morphological variation.

    PubMed

    Willmott, A P; Ellington, C P

    1997-11-01

    Mean lift coefficients have been calculated for hawkmoth flight at a range of speeds in order to investigate the aerodynamic significance of the kinematic variation which accompanies changes in forward velocity. The coefficients exceed the maximum steady-state value of 0.71 at all except the very fastest speeds, peaking at 2.0 or greater between 1 and 2 ms-1. Unsteady high-lift mechanisms are therefore most important during hovering and slow forward flight. In combination with the wingtip paths relative to the surrounding air, the calculated mean lift coefficients illustrate how the relative contributions of the two halfstrokes to the force balance change with increasing forward speed. Angle of incidence data for fast forward flight suggest that the sense of the circulation is not reversed between the down- and upstrokes, indicating a flight mode qualitatively different from that proposed for lower-speed flight in the hawkmoth and other insects. The mid-downstroke angle of incidence is constant at 30-40 degrees across the speed range. The relationship between power requirements and flight speed is explored; above 5 ms-1, further increases in forward velocity are likely to be constrained by available mechanical power, although problems with thrust generation and flight stability may also be involved. Hawkmoth wing and body morphology, and the differences between males and females, are evaluated in aerodynamic terms. Steady-state force measurements show that the hawkmoth body is amongst the most streamlined for any insect.

  9. PTX-induced hyperexcitability affects dendritic shape and GABAergic synapse density but not synapse distribution during Manduca postembryonic motoneuron development.

    PubMed

    Meseke, Maurice; Evers, Jan Felix; Duch, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    During the metamorphosis of the holometabolous insect, Manduca sexta, the postembryonic acquisition of adult specific motor behaviors is accompanied by changes in dendritic architecture, membrane currents, and input synapses of identified motoneurons. This study aims to test whether increased activity affects dendritic architecture and sub-dendritic input synapse distribution of the identified flight motoneuron 5 (MN5). Systemic injections of the chloride channel blocker, picrotoxin (PTX), during early pupal stages increase pupal reflex responsiveness, but overall development is not impaired. MN5 input resistance, resting membrane potential, and spiking threshold are not affected. Bath application of PTX to isolated ventral nerve cords evokes spiking in pupal and adult flight motoneurons. Quantitative three-dimensional reconstructions of the dendritic tree of the adult MN5 show that systemic PTX injections into early pupae cause dendritic overgrowth and reduce the density of GABAergic inputs. In contrast, the distribution patterns of GABAergic terminals throughout the dendritic tree remain unaltered. This indicates that increased overall excitability might cause dendritic overgrowth and decreased inhibitory input during postembryonic motoneuron remodeling, whereas sub-dendritic synapse targeting might be controlled by activity-independent signals. Behavioral testing reveals that these neuronal changes do not impede the animal's ability to fly, but impair maximum flight performance.

  10. Function of Phe-259 and Thr-314 within the Substrate Binding Pocket of the Juvenile Hormone Esterase of Manduca sexta†

    PubMed Central

    Kamita, Shizuo G.; Wogulis, Mark D.; Law, Christopher S.; Morisseau, Christophe; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Huang, Huazhang; Wilson, David K.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect developmental hormone that is found at low nanomolar levels in larval insects. The methyl ester of JH is hydrolyzed in many insects by an esterase that shows high specificity for JH. We have previously determined a crystal structure of the JH esterase (JHE) of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (MsJHE) [Wogulis, M., Wheelock, C. E., Kamita, S. G., Hinton, A. C., Whetstone, P. A., Hammock, B. D., and Wilson, D. K. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 4045-4057]. Our molecular modeling indicates that JH fits very tightly within the substrate binding pocket of MsJHE. This tight fit places two non-catalytic amino acid residues, Phe-259 and Thr-314, within the appropriate distance and geometry to potentially interact with the α,β-unsaturated ester and epoxide, respectively, of JH. These residues are highly conserved in numerous biologically active JHEs. Kinetic analyses of mutants of Phe-259 or Thr-314 indicate that these residues contribute to the low KM that MsJHE shows for JH. This low KM, however, comes at the cost of reduced substrate turnover. Neither nucleophilic attack of the resonance stabilized ester by the catalytic serine nor the availability of a water molecule for attack of the acyl-enzyme intermediate appear to be a rate-determining step in the hydrolysis of JH by MsJHE. We hypothesize that the release of the JH acid metabolite from the substrate binding pocket limits the catalytic cycle. Our findings also demonstrate that chemical bond strength does not necessarily correlate with how reactive the bond will be to metabolism. PMID:20307057

  11. REVERSE SIGNALING BY GPI-LINKED MANDUCA EPHRIN REQUIRES A SRC FAMILY KINASE TO RESTRICT NEURONAL MIGRATION IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Coate, Thomas M.; Swanson, Tracy L.; Copenhaver, Philip F.

    2011-01-01

    Reverse signaling via GPI-linked Ephrins may help control cell proliferation and outgrowth within the nervous system, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. In the embryonic enteric nervous system (ENS) of the moth Manduca sexta, migratory neurons forming the enteric plexus (EP cells) express a single Ephrin ligand (GPI-linked MsEphrin), while adjacent midline cells that are inhibitory to migration express the cognate receptor (MsEph). Knocking down MsEph receptor expression in cultured embryos with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides allowed the EP cells to cross the midline inappropriately, consistent with the model that reverse signaling via MsEphrin mediates a repulsive response in the ENS. Src family kinases have been implicated in reverse signaling by type-A Ephrins in other contexts, and MsEphrin colocalizes with activated forms of endogenous Src in the leading processes of the EP cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Src within the developing ENS induced aberrant midline crossovers, similar to the effect of blocking MsEphrin reverse signaling. Hyperstimulating MsEphrin reverse signaling with MsEph-Fc fusion proteins induced the rapid activation of endogenous Src specifically within the EP cells, as assayed by Western blots of single embryonic gut explants and by whole-mount immunostaining of cultured embryos. In longer cultures, treatment with MsEph-Fc caused a global inhibition of EP cell migration and outgrowth, an effect that was prevented by inhibiting Src activation. These results support the model that MsEphrin reverse signaling induces the Src-dependent retraction of EP cell processes away from the enteric midline, thereby helping to confine the neurons to their appropriate pathways. PMID:19295147

  12. Reverse signaling by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked Manduca ephrin requires a SRC family kinase to restrict neuronal migration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Coate, Thomas M; Swanson, Tracy L; Copenhaver, Philip F

    2009-03-18

    Reverse signaling via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked Ephrins may help control cell proliferation and outgrowth within the nervous system, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. In the embryonic enteric nervous system (ENS) of the moth Manduca sexta, migratory neurons forming the enteric plexus (EP cells) express a single Ephrin ligand (GPI-linked MsEphrin), whereas adjacent midline cells that are inhibitory to migration express the cognate receptor (MsEph). Knocking down MsEph receptor expression in cultured embryos with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides allowed the EP cells to cross the midline inappropriately, consistent with the model that reverse signaling via MsEphrin mediates a repulsive response in the ENS. Src family kinases have been implicated in reverse signaling by type-A Ephrins in other contexts, and MsEphrin colocalizes with activated forms of endogenous Src in the leading processes of the EP cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Src within the developing ENS induced aberrant midline crossovers, similar to the effect of blocking MsEphrin reverse signaling. Hyperstimulating MsEphrin reverse signaling with MsEph-Fc fusion proteins induced the rapid activation of endogenous Src specifically within the EP cells, as assayed by Western blots of single embryonic gut explants and by whole-mount immunostaining of cultured embryos. In longer cultures, treatment with MsEph-Fc caused a global inhibition of EP cell migration and outgrowth, an effect that was prevented by inhibiting Src activation. These results support the model that MsEphrin reverse signaling induces the Src-dependent retraction of EP cell processes away from the enteric midline, thereby helping to confine the neurons to their appropriate pathways.

  13. Structural studies of a potent insect maturation inhibitor bound to the juvenile hormone esterase of Manduca sexta†‡

    PubMed Central

    Wogulis, Mark; Wheelock, Craig E.; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Hinton, Andrew C.; Whetstone, Paul A.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Wilson, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is an insect hormone containing an α,β unsaturated ester consisting of a small alcohol and long, hydrophobic acid. JH degradation is required for proper insect development. One pathway of this degradation is through juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), which cleaves the JH ester bond to produce methanol and JH acid. JHE is a member of the functionally divergent α/β-hydrolase family of enzymes, and is a highly efficient enzyme that cleaves JH at very low in vivo concentrations. We present here a 2.7 Å crystal structure of JHE from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (MsJHE) in complex with the transition state analog inhibitor 3-octylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one (OTFP) covalently bound to the active site. This crystal structure, the first JHE structure reported, contains a long, hydrophobic binding pocket with the solvent inaccessible catalytic triad located at the end. The structure explains many of the interactions observed between JHE and its substrates and inhibitors, such as the preference for small alcohol groups and long hydrophobic backbones. The most potent JHE inhibitors identified to date contain a trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK) moiety and have a sulfur atom beta to the ketone. In this study, sulfur-aromatic interactions were observed between the sulfur atom of OTFP and a conserved aromatic residue in the crystal structure. Mutational analysis supported the hypothesis that these interactions contribute to the potency of sulfur-containing TFK inhibitors. Together these results clarify the binding mechanism of JHE inhibitors and provide useful observations for the development of additional enzyme inhibitors for a variety of enzymes. PMID:16566578

  14. The Characterization of Material Properties and Structural Dynamics of the Manduca Sexta Forewing for Application to Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-13

    14 Coupled FEA and Blade Element Aero Analysis [37] . . . . . . 26 15 Etched Titanium Wing and Kapton Membrane [16] . . . . . . . 28 16 Flying UV...based Chemical Etching . The use of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based manufacturing methods, where by a substrate is chemically etched ...the kapton approach presented here, went through a final step where a plasma etching 27 allowed for the removal of membrane material. Although novel

  15. The Morphological Characterization of the Forewing of the Manduca sexta Species for the Application of Biomimetic Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    primary subcomponents. 1 Forewing—left 2 Forewing—right 3 Hindwing—left 4 Hindwing—right 5 Head 6 Thorax 7 Abdomen Male and female specimens are received...values for the moth and each subcomponent. The mass of the subcomponents relative to the weight of the entire insect is shown as a percentage. This latter...average weight of a single specimen is 1.55± .050 g. The weight of the forewings averages to 34.6 mg and represents 2.23% of the total mass of the insect

  16. Analysis of chitin-binding proteins from Manduca sexta provides new insights into evolution of peritrophin A-type chitin-binding domains in insects.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Dittmer, Neal T; Cao, Xiaolong; Agrawal, Sinu; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Haobo, Jiang; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    In insects, chitin is a major structural component of the cuticle and the peritrophic membrane (PM). In nature, chitin is always associated with proteins among which chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) are the most important for forming, maintaining and regulating the functions of these extracellular structures. In this study, a genome-wide search for genes encoding proteins with ChtBD2-type (peritrophin A-type) chitin-binding domains (CBDs) was conducted. A total of 53 genes encoding 56 CBPs were identified, including 15 CPAP1s (cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophins with 1 CBD), 11 CPAP3s (CPAPs with 3 CBDs) and 17 PMPs (PM proteins) with a variable number of CBDs, which are structural components of cuticle or of the PM. CBDs were also identified in enzymes of chitin metabolism including 6 chitinases and 7 chitin deacetylases encoded by 6 and 5 genes, respectively. RNA-seq analysis confirmed that PMP and CPAP genes have differential spatial expression patterns. The expression of PMP genes is midgut-specific, while CPAP genes are widely expressed in different cuticle forming tissues. Phylogenetic analysis of CBDs of proteins in insects belonging to different orders revealed that CPAP1s from different species constitute a separate family with 16 different groups, including 6 new groups identified in this study. The CPAP3s are clustered into a separate family of 7 groups present in all insect orders. Altogether, they reveal that duplication events of CBDs in CPAP1s and CPAP3s occurred prior to the evolutionary radiation of insect species. In contrast to the CPAPs, all CBDs from individual PMPs are generally clustered and distinct from other PMPs in the same species in phylogenetic analyses, indicating that the duplication of CBDs in each of these PMPs occurred after divergence of insect species. Phylogenetic analysis of these three CBP families showed that the CBDs in CPAP1s form a clearly separate family, while those found in PMPs and CPAP3s were clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. For chitinases and chitin deacetylases, most of phylogenetic analysis performed with the CBD sequences resulted in similar clustering to the one obtained by using catalytic domain sequences alone, suggesting that CBDs were incorporated into these enzymes and evolved in tandem with the catalytic domains before the diversification of different insect orders. Based on these results, the evolution of CBDs in insect CBPs is discussed to provide a new insight into the CBD sequence structure and diversity, and their evolution and expression in insects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Aerodynamic Performance and Particle Image Velocimetery of Piezo Actuated Biomimetic Manduca Sexta Engineered Wings Towards the Design and Application of a Flapping Wing Flight Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model ( BEM ). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients...152 4.3. Force error bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 4.4. BEM CL...CD vs. α predictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 xv Figure Page 4.5. BEM lift & drag vs. α predictions

  18. Cellular oxidative damage is more sensitive to biosynthetic rate than to metabolic rate: A test of the theoretical model on hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Amunugama, Kaushalya; Jiao, Lihong; Olbricht, Gayla R; Walker, Chance; Huang, Yue-Wern; Nam, Paul K; Hou, Chen

    2016-09-01

    We develop a theoretical model from an energetic viewpoint for unraveling the entangled effects of metabolic and biosynthetic rates on oxidative cellular damage accumulation during animal's growth, and test the model by experiments in hornworms. The theoretical consideration suggests that most of the cellular damages caused by the oxidative metabolism can be repaired by the efficient maintenance mechanisms, if the energy required by repair is unlimited. However, during growth a considerable amount of energy is allocated to the biosynthesis, which entails tradeoffs with the requirements of repair. Thus, the model predicts that cellular damage is more influenced by the biosynthetic rate than the metabolic rate. To test the prediction, we induced broad variations in metabolic and biosynthetic rates in hornworms, and assayed the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. We found that the increase in the cellular damage was mainly caused by the increase in biosynthetic rate, and the variations in metabolic rate had negligible effect. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging suggests that high metabolism leads to high cellular damage and short lifespan. However, some empirical studies showed that varying biosynthetic rate, rather than metabolic rate, changes animal's lifespan. The conflicts between the empirical evidence and the hypothesis are reconciled by this study.

  19. The Characterization of Material Properties and Structural Dynamics of the Manduca Sexta Forewing for Application to Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Ryan P.

    Collateral damage presents a significant risk during air drops and airstrikes, risking citizens' lives and property, straining the relationship between the United States Air Force and host nations. This dissertation presents a methodology to determine the optimal location for making supply airdrops in order to minimize collateral damage while maintaining a high likelihood of successful recovery. A series of non-linear optimization algorithms are presented along with their relative success in finding the optimal location in the airdrop problem. Additionally, we present a quick algorithm for accurately creating the Pareto frontier in the multi-objective airstrike problem. We demonstrate the effect of differing guidelines, damage functions, and weapon employment selection which significantly alter the location of the optimal aimpoint in this targeting problem. Finally, we have provided a framework for making policy decisions in fast-moving troops-in-contact situations where observers are unsure of the nature of possible enemy forces in both finite and infinite time horizon problems. Through a recursive technique of solving this Markov decision process we have demonstrated the effect of improved intelligence and differing weights in the face of uncertain situations.

  20. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on two recent molecular analyses, augmented by the discovery of several published or unpublished novel morphological synapomorphies, a new classification is proposed for the order Lepidoptera. The new classification is more consistent with our growing knowledge of the phylogeny of the group an...

  1. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  2. The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

    1986-07-01

    The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

  3. Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.

    PubMed

    Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

    2001-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far.

  4. The development of wing shape in Lepidoptera: mitotic density, not orientation, is the primary determinant of shape.

    PubMed

    Nijhout, H Frederik; Cinderella, Margaret; Grunert, Laura W

    2014-03-01

    The wings of butterflies and moths develop from imaginal disks whose structure is always congruent with the final adult wing. It is therefore possible to map every point on the imaginal disk to a location on the adult wing throughout ontogeny. We studied the growth patterns of the wings of two distantly related species with very different adult wing shapes, Junonia coenia and Manduca sexta. The shape of the wing disks change throughout their growth phase in a species-specific pattern. We measured mitotic densities and mitotic orientation in successive stages of wing development approximately one cell division apart. Cell proliferation was spatially patterned, and the density of mitoses was highly correlated with local growth. Unlike other systems in which the direction of mitoses has been viewed as the primary determinant of directional growth, we found that in these two species the direction of growth was only weakly correlated with the orientation of mitoses. Directional growth appears to be imposed by a constantly changing spatial pattern of cell division coupled with a weak bias in the orientation of cell division. Because growth and cell division in imaginal disk require ecdysone and insulin signaling, the changing spatial pattern of cell division may due to a changing pattern of expression of receptors or downstream elements in the signaling pathways for one or both of these hormones. Evolution of wing shape comes about by changes in the progression of spatial patterns of cell division.

  5. A review of the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico with descriptions of three new species

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Knudson, Edward C.; Poole, Robert W.; J. Donald Lafontaine; Pogue, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson & Poole, sp. n., is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipenna Metzler, Knudson & Poole, sp. n., is described from Arizona, and Ogdoconta fergusoni Metzler & Lafontaine, sp. n., is described from Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana. A key to the species of Ogdoconta of North America north of Mexico is provided. Adult moths and male and female genitalia of Ogdoconta satana, Ogdoconta rufipenna, Ogdoconta fergusoni, Ogdoconta cinereola (Guenée, 1852), Ogdoconta moreno Barnes, 1907, Ogdoconta sexta Barnes & McDunnough, 1913, Ogdoconta altura Barnes, 1904, and Ogdoconta tacna (Barnes, 1904) are illustrated. PMID:23717183

  6. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  7. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  8. Characterization and expression of attacin, an antibacterial protein-encoding gene, from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Bang, Kyeongrin; Park, Sujin; Yoo, Ji Yeon; Cho, Saeyoull

    2012-05-01

    To isolate antimicrobial-related genes from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, we performed GeneFishing, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based differential display technique. An attacin-like complementary DNA (cDNA) including a 3'-untranslated region was identified from among 18 over-expressed genes in microbial-infected larvae. The full-length attacin cDNA from S. exigua cDNA (Seattacin) was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR. The attacin-like cDNA transcript was 765 nucleotides in length, and the predicted polypeptide was 254 amino acids in length with a calculated molecular mass of 27.6 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.44. The protein sequence of the attacin-like cDNA showed high identity to that of Trichoplusia ni (61.2%). The amino acid sequence identity of Seattacin to the orthologous proteins in Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Hlicoverpa armigera, Hyphantria cunea, Hyalophora cecropia, and Drosophila melanogaster was 61.2, 46.1, 44.5, 42.2, 39.5, 45.1, and 24.0%, respectively. To examine possible immune functions of the attacin-like cDNA, its expression was investigated by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis after challenging S. exigua with microorganisms. The attacin-like cDNA was expressed at high levels 12 h post-infection, and its expression was slightly induced 4-8 h post-infection compared to control larvae inoculated with sterile water. Furthermore, induced Seattacin showed biological activity against several bacteria including Escherichia coli DH5α, Pseudomonas cichorii, Bacillus subtilis, and Listeria monocytogenes. These results suggest that the attacin-like cDNA of S. exigua codes for antimicrobial peptides.

  9. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Allen, Cerisse E; Zwaan, Bas J; Brakefield, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and protandry), morphology (e.g., wing shape and color pattern), and behavior (e.g., chemical and visual signaling). Sexual selection and mating systems have been considered the primary forces driving the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera, and alternative hypotheses have been neglected. Here, we examine opportunities for sexual selection, natural selection, and the interplay between the two forces in the evolution of sexual differences in the moths and butterflies. Our primary goal is to identify mechanisms that either facilitate or constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphism, rather than to resolve any perceived controversy between hypotheses that may not be mutually exclusive.

  10. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  11. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution.

  12. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  13. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    SciTech Connect

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  14. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects.

  15. Reverse signaling via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked ephrin prevents midline crossing by migratory neurons during embryonic development in Manduca.

    PubMed

    Coate, Thomas M; Wirz, Jacqueline A; Copenhaver, Philip F

    2008-04-09

    We have investigated whether reverse signaling via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked ephrin controls the behavior of migratory neurons in vivo. During the formation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the moth Manduca, approximately 300 neurons [enteric plexus (EP) cells] migrate onto the midgut via bilaterally paired muscle bands but avoid adjacent midline regions. As they migrate, the EP cells express a single ephrin ligand (MsEphrin; a GPI-linked ligand), whereas the midline cells express the corresponding Eph receptor (MsEph). Blocking endogenous MsEphrin-MsEph receptor interactions in cultured embryos resulted in aberrant midline crossing by the neurons and their processes. In contrast, activating endogenous MsEphrin on the EP cells with dimeric MsEph-Fc constructs inhibited their migration and outgrowth, supporting a role for MsEphrin-dependent reverse signaling in this system. In short-term cultures, blocking endogenous MsEph receptors allowed filopodia from the growth cones of the neurons to invade the midline, whereas activating neuronal MsEphrin led to filopodial retraction. MsEphrin-dependent signaling may therefore guide the migratory enteric neurons by restricting the orientation of their leading processes. Knocking down MsEphrin expression in the EP cells with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides also induced aberrant midline crossing, consistent with the effects of blocking endogenous MsEphrin-MsEph interactions. Unexpectedly, this treatment enhanced the overall extent of migration, indicating that MsEphrin-dependent signaling may also modulate the general motility of the EP cells. These results demonstrate that MsEphrin-MsEph receptor interactions normally prevent midline crossing by migratory neurons within the developing ENS, an effect that is most likely mediated by reverse signaling through this GPI-linked ephrin ligand.

  16. REVERSE SIGNALING VIA A GPI-LINKED EPHRIN PREVENTS MIDLINE CROSSING BY MIGRATORY NEURONS DURING EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT IN MANDUCA

    PubMed Central

    Coate, Thomas M.; Wirz, Jacqueline A.; Copenhaver, Philip F.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated whether reverse signaling via a GPI-linked ephrin controls the behavior of migratory neurons in vivo. During the formation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the moth Manduca, ~300 neurons (EP cells) migrate onto the midgut via bilaterally paired muscle bands but avoid adjacent midline regions. As they migrate, the EP cells express a single ephrin ligand (MsEphrin; a GPI-linked ligand), while the midline cells express the corresponding Eph receptor (MsEph). Blocking endogenous MsEphrin-MsEph receptor interactions in cultured embryos resulted in aberrant midline crossing by the neurons and their processes. In contrast, activating endogenous MsEphrin on the EP cells with dimeric MsEph-Fc constructs inhibited their migration and outgrowth, supporting a role for MsEphrin-dependent reverse signaling in this system. In short-term cultures, blocking endogenous MsEph receptors allowed filopodia from the neurons’ growth cones to invade the midline, whereas activating neuronal MsEphrin led to filopodial retraction. MsEphrin-dependent signaling may therefore guide the migratory enteric neurons by restricting the orientation of their leading processes. Knocking down MsEphrin expression in the EP cells with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides also induced aberrant midline crossing, consistent with the effects of blocking endogenous MsEphrin-MsEph interactions. Unexpectedly, this treatment enhanced the overall extent of migration, indicating that MsEphrin-dependent signaling may also modulate the general motility of the EP cells. These results demonstrate that MsEphrin-MsEph receptor interactions normally prevent midline crossing by migratory neurons within the developing ENS, an effect that is most likely mediated by reverse signaling through this GPI-linked ephrin ligand. PMID:18400884

  17. LepNet: The Lepidoptera of North America Network.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Katja C; Cobb, Neil S; Gall, Lawrence F; Bartlett, Charles R; Basham, M Anne; Betancourt, Isabelle; Bills, Christy; Brandt, Benjamin; Brown, Richard L; Bundy, Charles; Caterino, Michael S; Chapman, Caitlin; Cognato, Anthony; Colby, Julia; Cook, Stephen P; Daly, Kathryn M; Dyer, Lee A; Franz, Nico M; Gelhaus, Jon K; Grinter, Christopher C; Harp, Charles E; Hawkins, Rachel L; Heydon, Steve L; Hill, Geena M; Huber, Stacey; Johnson, Norman; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kondratieff, Boris C; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Leblanc, Luc; Lee, Sangmi; Marshall, Christopher J; McCabe, Lindsie M; McHugh, Joseph V; Menard, Katrina L; Opler, Paul A; Palffy-Muhoray, Nicole; Pardikes, Nick; Peterson, Merrill A; Pierce, Naomi E; Poremski, Andre; Sikes, Derek S; Weintraub, Jason D; Wikle, David; Zaspel, Jennifer M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2017-03-23

    The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology.

  18. Evidence for common horizontal transmission of Wolbachia among butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-05-27

    Wolbachia is one of the most widespread bacteria on Earth. Previous research on Wolbachia-host interactions indicates that the bacterium is typically transferred vertically, from mother to offspring, through the egg cytoplasm. Although horizontal transmission of Wolbachia from one species to another is reported to be common in arthropods, limited direct ecological evidence is available. In this study, we examine horizontal transmission of Wolbachia using a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) strains dataset and used Wolbachia and Lepidoptera genomes to search for evidence for lateral gene transfer (LGT) in Lepidoptera, one of the most diverse cosmopolitan insect orders. We constructed a phylogeny of arthropod-associated MLST Wolbachia strains and calibrated the age of Wolbachia strains associated with lepidopteran species. Our results reveal inter-specific, inter-generic, inter-familial, and inter-ordinal horizontal transmission of Wolbachia strains, without discernible geographic patterns. We found at least seven probable cases of horizontal transmission among 31 species within Lepidoptera and between Lepidoptera and other arthropod hosts. The divergence time analysis revealed that Wolbachia is recently (22.6-4.7 mya, 95 % HPD) introduced in Lepidoptera. Analysis of nine Lepidoptera genomes (Bombyx mori, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius melpomene, Manduca sexta, Melitaea cinxia, Papilio glaucus, P. polytes, P. xuthus and Plutella xylostella) yielded one possible instance of Wolbachia LGT. Our results provide evidence of high incidence of identical and multiple strains of Wolbachia among butterflies and moths, adding Lepidoptera to the growing body of evidence for common horizontal transmission of Wolbachia. This study demonstrates interesting dynamics of this remarkable and influential microorganism.

  19. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of a piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jessica L; Hagler, James R; Kaplan, Ian

    2012-12-01

    Immunoproteins are markers that are useful for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators important in biocontrol. We quantified the use of protein immunomarks in tracking emigration of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and predation on the hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). An external protein mark was topically applied to adult P. maculiventris to assess persistence under field conditions for >2 wk. Internal marks were incorporated into the artificial diet of M. sexta to test retention of the internal mark in the prey and uptake of the mark by predators. External marks remained detectable in 100% of individuals after 3 d and >50% still tested positive at 12 d after application in the field. Internal diet-based marking was also effective in tracking feeding by P. maculiventris on M. sexta, especially using rabbit IgG that was far more persistent than chicken IgY. Nearly 90% of stink bugs fed caterpillars previously reared on protein-enriched diet retained their mark for 24 h. Surprisingly, diet concentration and time reared on diet had comparatively little impact on mark retention. Development on unmarked tomato leaves clearly diluted the initial diet mark, but plant-reared individuals that were marked were still successfully detected in 35 and 20% of the predators.

  20. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed.

  1. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods.

  2. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  3. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  4. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  5. A new species of Isopsestis (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae) from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hailing; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min

    2015-08-19

    A new species of genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae), Isopsestis poculiformis sp. nov., is described from the locality 2660m elevation in Northeast Yunnan, China, and compared with its closest ally. Male adult and genitalia of the new species are illustrated and a distribution map of the genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 is provided.

  6. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  7. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  8. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  9. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  10. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, G D; Eng, W S; Robles, S; Vogt, R G; Wiśniewski, J R; Wawrzeńczyk, C

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural 3H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated [125I]12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added 125I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of [125I]12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  11. Flight performance of Macdunnoughia crassisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, X-W; Chang, H; He, L-M; Zhao, S-Y; Wu, K-M

    2017-03-09

    Macdunnoughia crassisigna Warren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive herbivore that poses a serious risk to cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. Examining the effects of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of M. crassisigna is crucial for a better understanding of its trans-regional migration. In this study, the flight activity of M. crassisignai moths of different ages, under different temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels, was evaluated by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period. The results showed that M. crassisignai had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was strongest in 3-day-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly in older moths. For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was relatively higher at 24-28°C than other temperatures. There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was relatively higher at RH of 60-75% than other RH levels. For 3-day-old moths under the optimum conditions (24°C and 75% RH) throughout the 24 h scotophase, their mean flight distance reached 66 km, and the mean flight duration reached 13.5 h, suggesting M. crassisigna possess strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.

  12. Towards a mitogenomic phylogeny of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Lees, David C; Simonsen, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    The backbone phylogeny of Lepidoptera remains unresolved, despite strenuous recent morphological and molecular efforts. Molecular studies have focused on nuclear protein coding genes, sometimes adding a single mitochondrial gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology have, however, made acquisition of entire mitochondrial genomes both practical and economically viable. Prior phylogenetic studies utilised just eight of 43 currently recognised lepidopteran superfamilies. Here, we add 23 full and six partial mitochondrial genomes (comprising 22 superfamilies of which 16 are newly represented) to those publically available for a total of 24 superfamilies and ask whether such a sample can resolve deeper lepidopteran phylogeny. Using recoded datasets we obtain topologies that are highly congruent with prior nuclear and/or morphological studies. Our study shows support for an expanded Obtectomera including Gelechioidea, Thyridoidea, plume moths (Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea; possibly along with Epermenioidea), Papilionoidea, Pyraloidea, Mimallonoidea and Macroheterocera. Regarding other controversially positioned higher taxa, Doidae is supported within the new concept of Drepanoidea and Mimallonidae sister to (or part of) Macroheterocera, while among Nymphalidae butterflies, Danainae and not Libytheinae are sister to the remainder of the family. At the deepest level, we suggest that a tRNA rearrangement occurred at a node between Adeloidea and Ditrysia+Palaephatidae+Tischeriidae.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper.

  14. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  15. Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Chao; Wu, Xiao; Guo, Jianglong; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24-28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60-75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  17. The complete mitogenome of Achalarus lyciades (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinhui; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a complete mitochondrial genome of a skipper butterfly Achalarus lyciades (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) from next generation sequencing reads. The 15,612 bp mitogenome covers 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and an A+T rich region. Its gene order is typical for mitogenomes of Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. lyciades as a sister to Lobocla bifasciatus, the only other Eudaminae with available mitogenome.

  18. The complete mitogenome of Achalarus lyciades (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jinhui; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a complete mitochondrial genome of a skipper butterfly Achalarus lyciades (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) from next generation sequencing reads. The 15,612 bp mitogenome covers 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and an A+T rich region. Its gene order is typical for mitogenomes of Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. lyciades as a sister to Lobocla bifasciatus, the only other Eudaminae with available mitogenome. PMID:28367503

  19. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  20. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings.

  1. Individual variability in herbivore-specific elicitors from the plant's perspective.

    PubMed

    Roda, Amy; Halitschke, Rayko; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-08-01

    Lepidopteran larvae oral secretions and regurgitant (R), which contain a plethora of potential elicitors, are known to dramatically change a plant's wound response. We demonstrate, with a detailed microarray and secondary metabolite analysis, that the two most abundant fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in the R of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) can account for all measured direct (trypsin proteinase inhibitor: TPI) and indirect (cis-alpha-bergamotene) defences, the endogenous jasmonic acid burst that elicits them, and 86% of the induced transcriptional changes (89% up and 83% down) in its native host Nicotiana attenuata and hence are necessary and sufficient for the Manduca-specific modulation of the wound response. FACs were not found in eggs, but detected in larvae of all instars after their first meal. FACs were found in all regions of the alimentary canal and in the frass, but did not occur in salivary or mandibular glands, extracts of which were not active in any assay. Individual larvae differed substantially in their FAC composition and two FAC chemotypes were discernible: N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine biased R and N-linolenoyl-L-glutamate biased R. We created synthetic blends of FACs to mimic these chemical phenotypes and determined whether plants respond differently to the different R chemotypes. Micorarray and TPI analysis revealed that plants do not differentiate. N. attenuata plants use FACs from feeding caterpillars to tailor their wound responses but do not use the variability in FAC ratios to recognize attack from an individual caterpillar.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  3. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  4. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  5. Susceptibility of the Strawberry Crown Moth Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth, Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) larvae to two species of entomopathogenic nematodes(Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Agriotos and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Steiner) Oswego). Nematodes...

  6. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  7. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W.; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods. PMID:27408580

  8. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  9. Note on gynandromorphism in the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Aline S; Zanuncio, Teresinha V; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Serrão, José E

    2007-06-01

    The brown moth Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important pest in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. A gynandromorph individual of T. arnobia was found in a population of this pest in a laboratory rearing and it is described.

  10. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  11. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    PubMed

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-08-21

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010.

  12. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  13. Deleterious activity of natural products on postures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Wagner S; Cruz, Ivan; Fonseca, Felipe G; Gouveia, Natalia L; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2010-01-01

    The control of Lepidoptera pests should be carried out before hatching of their caterpillars to avoid damage to the crops. The aim of this work was to assess the activity of neem (trade name: Natuneem, producer: Base Fértil, Chapadão do Sul, Brazil) and pyroligneous extracts (trade name: Biopirol 7M, producer: Biocarbo, Itabirito, Brazil) at 10 mL/L (1%) and 20 mL/L (2%) contents on egg masses of different ages of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Embrapa Corn and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The tests took place in an unbiased casualized design with 12 treatments and four replications. The insecticides were diluted in water, and 0.04 mL of the solution was applied to recently laid and one- and two-day-old eggs of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Caterpillars hatching from recently laid egg masses of S. frugiperda was lower with 2% pyroligneous extract [(0.02 +/- 0.00)%]. Recently laid eggs and one- or two-day-old eggs of D. saccharalis presented lower caterpillar hatching with 1% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%, (0.00 +/- 0.00)%, and (1.00 +/- 0.01)%] and 2% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%], compared to 1% pyroligneous extract [(27.30 +/- 3.22)%, (28.40 +/- 3.32)%, and (37.80 +/- 4.14)%] and 2% pyroligneous extract [(42.20 +/- 4.49)%, (48.70 +/- 4.97)%, and (56.60 +/- 5.52)%], respectively. Neem and pyroligneous extracts had impact on hatching of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis caterpillars.

  14. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  15. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  16. Development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring system for Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Brad C; Roland, Jens; Evenden, Maya L

    2009-04-01

    Sympatric insect species that do not share sex pheromone components but have a common host and overlapping adult flight periods are potential targets for the development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring tool. A system using a single synthetic pheromone blend in a single lure to bait a single trap to monitor two pests simultaneously represents a novel approach. In this study, a combined pheromone-based monitoring system was developed for two lepidopterous defoliators of trembling aspen Populus tremuloides Michenaux in western Canada, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Efficacy and longevity of a lure containing both species' pheromones were tested. Immature stages of each species were sampled to evaluate the ability of pheromone traps baited with the combined lure to predict population density. The combined lure was as attractive to M. disstria and C. conflictana males as were traps baited with each species' pheromone alone. Lure age had no effect on attraction of male C. conflictana to the combined lure but had a negative effect on attraction of M. disstria. The number of male moths captured in traps baited with the combined lure was related to immature counts for both species. Pupal counts of M. disstria and larval counts of C. conflictana provided the best relationships with male captures. The combined lure does not attract M. disstria males in direct proportion to population density, because trap catch was comparatively low at high-density M. disstria sites.

  17. Microencapsulated pear ester enhances insecticide efficacy in walnuts for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Knight, Alan L

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E,4Z) -2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phosmet, methoxyfenozide, and codling moth granulovirus were evaluated in single tree replicates. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates (0.6, 1.8, and 4.4 g active ingredient ha(-1)) with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs including sprays of esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and ethyl parathion at full rates were evaluated in replicated two ha blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with methoxyfenozide for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of integrated pest management tactics with reduced insecticide use in walnut.

  18. Transgenic bt rice does not challenge host preference of the target pest of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expressed a synthetic cry2A gene and exhibited high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plant volatile cues usually are essential for phytophagous insects to locate the food source and oviposition site. ...

  19. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Treesearch

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  20. Structural and physical determinants of the proboscis-sucking pump complex in the evolution of fluid-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Kornev, Konstantin G; Salamatin, Arthur A; Adler, Peter H; Beard, Charles E

    2017-07-26

    Fluid-feeding insects have evolved a unique strategy to distribute the labor between a liquid-acquisition device (proboscis) and a sucking pump. We theoretically examined physical constraints associated with coupling of the proboscis and sucking pump into a united functional organ. Classification of fluid feeders with respect to the mechanism of energy dissipation is given by using only two dimensionless parameters that depend on the length and diameter of the proboscis food canal, maximum expansion of the sucking pump chamber, and chamber size. Five species of Lepidoptera - White-headed prominent moth (Symmerista albifrons), White-dotted prominent moth (Nadata gibosa), Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), Carolina sphinx moth (Manduca sexta), and Death's head sphinx moth (Acherontia atropos) - were used to illustrate this classification. The results provide a rationale for categorizing fluid-feeding insects into two groups, depending on whether muscular energy is spent on moving fluid through the proboscis or through the pump. These findings are relevant to understanding energetic costs of evolutionary elaboration and reduction of the mouthparts and insect diversification through development of new habits by fluid-feeding insects in general and by Lepidoptera in particular.

  1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Shade negatively affects ecdysone-20-hydroxylation in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Elisabeth; Verlinden, Heleen; Badisco, Liesbeth; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2012-07-01

    A major breakthrough in elucidating the ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway in insects was realized with the molecular identification and further functional characterization of the 'Halloween' genes. These genes were found to encode cytochrome P450 enzymes catalysing the final steps of ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the dipteran, Drosophila melanogaster, and in the Lepidoptera, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori. A recent report focused on the identification of Halloween orthologs in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, a member of the hemimetabolous insect order of the Orthoptera. In the present study, an additional Halloween gene Shade, is identified in the desert locust. In Diptera and Lepidoptera, this gene encodes a 20-hydroxylase, catalysing the conversion of ecdysone (E) to 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, this enzymatic function has previously been suggested for CYP6H1 in another locust species, the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. Using q-RT-PCR, the spatial and temporal transcript profiles of S. gregaria orthologs for Shade as well as CYP6H1 were analysed in last larval stage desert locusts. An RNA interference (RNAi)-based approach was employed to study whether these genes could possibly encode a functional 20-hydroxylase in the desert locust. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  3. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, José Manuel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Vukusic, Pete

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianing; Xu, Chang; Li, Jialian; Lei, Ying; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is 15,221 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.9%). All PCGs are initiated by classical ATN codon, with the exception of COI, which begins with TTA codon. Nine PCGs harbor the complete stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND4 and ND5 stop with incomplete codons, single T or TA. All tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A + T content of AT-rich region is 95.2%, same to the highest one in the known species in Pieridae.

  5. A historical review of the classification of Erebinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Homziak, Nicholas T; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-11-10

    Erebidae is one of the most diverse families within the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), with nearly 25,000 described species. The nominal subfamily Erebinae is among the most species rich and taxonomically complex. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics, where much of the fauna remains undescribed. Species in this subfamily feed on a broad range of host plants, with associated radiations on grasses and legumes, and some species are pests of agriculture and forestry. The Erebinae, as defined today, comprises a large portion of the former noctuid subfamily Catocalinae. However, many lineages have tenuous or uncertain systematic placement. Here, we review the complex historical classification of Erebinae, and discuss the possible placement of some of these lineages in light of traditional morphological groupings and recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. We present an updated list of named erebine tribes and their relationships, and identify morphological traits from literature used to group genera within these tribes.

  6. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chen, Minghan; He, Haiyan; Yu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) was determined. The 15,392 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number KM981865 contained 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. The overall base composition was 39.7% A, 40.7% T, 7.7% G and 11.9% C, with a high A + T content (80.4%). This complete mitogenome of P. nascens provides a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics.

  7. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors. PMID:21711872

  8. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  9. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)n intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study. PMID:22856872

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)(n) intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study.

  11. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species. PMID:28339501

  12. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  13. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which

  14. A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyraloidea, one of the largest superfamilies of Lepidoptera, comprise more than 15,000 described species worldwide, including important pests, biological control agents and experimental models. Understanding of pyraloid phylogeny, the basis for a predictive classification, is currently provisional. ...

  15. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) related to age, gender, and wing size

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangewor...

  16. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  17. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  18. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of four classes of insecticides to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California orchards. Although management of this pest has typically been through a combination of cultural control and insecticide sprays, increas...

  19. Timing and patterns in the taxonomic diversification of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Wheat, Christopher W; Peña, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The macroevolutionary history of the megadiverse insect order Lepidoptera remains little-known, yet coevolutionary dynamics with their angiospermous host plants are thought to have influenced their diversification significantly. We estimate the divergence times of all higher-level lineages of Lepidoptera, including most extant families. We find that the diversification of major lineages in Lepidoptera are approximately equal in age to the crown group of angiosperms and that there appear to have been three significant increases in diversification rates among Lepidoptera over evolutionary time: 1) at the origin of the crown group of Ditrysia about 150 million years ago (mya), 2) at the origin of the stem group of Apoditrysia about 120 mya and finally 3) a spectacular increase at the origin of the stem group of the quadrifid noctuoids about 70 mya. In addition, there appears to be a significant increase in diversification rate in multiple lineages around 90 mya, which is concordant with the radiation of angiosperms. Almost all extant families appear to have begun diversifying soon after the Cretaceous/Paleogene event 65.51 mya.

  20. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  1. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  2. A new phycitine moth (Vorapourouma basseti, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Panama feeding on Pourouma Aubl. (Urticaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study of the insects associated with the tree Pourouma bicolor Martius (Cecropiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the discovery of a new phycitine moth genus and species, Vorapourouma basseti (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The immatures were collected by beating vegetation using the Fort Sherman Canopy Cran...

  3. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis against Pryeria sinica(Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus, is susceptible in the second instar to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner product Thuricide®, and to several strains isolated from other B. thuringiensis products. Third instars are also susceptible, while susceptibility...

  4. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  5. Integrated pest management of the Pyralid stalkborers, Eoreuma loftini and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarcane represents an important commodity crop in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The primary insect pest of sugarcane is the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini followed by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera) which cause substantial economic damage. We quantified the re...

  6. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  7. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record

    Treesearch

    Nancy G. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Treesearch

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  9. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  10. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  11. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renata O; Via, Allegra; Brandão, Marcelo M; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-03-01

    Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic L-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  12. Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated With the Southern Pine Coneworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Attacking Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Nenad Mihelcic; James L. Hanula; Gary L. DeBarr

    2003-01-01

    Larvae of the Southern pine coneworm, Diorycha amateella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were collected monthly during the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 from loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., seed orchards in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Virginia, and examined for pathogenic microorganisms. One fungus,

  13. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  14. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil.

  15. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  16. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  17. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  18. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  19. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  20. The mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete 15,553 bp mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Stricosta albicosta, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was assembled from next generation sequencing data. Annotation showed that 13 predicted protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs have an order and orientation typical of ...

  1. A new species of Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from southeastern Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Crabo, Lars G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) is described from the Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, USA. Ogdoconta margareta sp. n., is related closely to Ogdoconta tacna (Barnes) from Texas. Modifications are proposed to a recently published key to the Ogdoconta species north of Mexico to allow identification of the new species. PMID:26692787

  2. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex...

  3. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  4. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  5. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  6. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  7. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  8. Survival and Development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and Introduced Eurasian Tree Species

    Treesearch

    M.A. Keena

    2003-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introducedinto North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven...

  9. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  10. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  11. A new species of Alveoplectrus Wijesekara & Schauff (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) parasitic on Limacodidae (Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alveoplectrus lilli Gates, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from five genera of field-collected slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in eastern North America. It is compared to closely related New World species. We report on new host records and summarize th...

  12. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  13. Host plant associated genetic divergence of two Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stemborers on novel crop plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, suga...

  14. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  15. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  16. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gan, Shanshan; Zuo, Ni; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Ying; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 15,143 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 putative protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene content and order are identical to those of other lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI gene which uses CGA as its start codon. Nine PCGs terminate in the common stop TAA, whereas the COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 genes end with single T. All tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures except for the tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which has a simple loop with the absence of its DHU stem. The 316 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to the other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 19-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8(AT) and (TA)4 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  18. Micropyle number is associated with elevated female promiscuity in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Iossa, Graziella; Gage, Matthew J G; Eady, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    In the majority of insects, sperm fertilize the egg via a narrow canal through the outer chorion called the micropyle. Despite having this one primary function, there is considerable unexplained variation in the location, arrangement and number of micropyles within and between species. Here, we examined the relationship between micropyle number and female mating pattern through a comparative analysis across Lepidoptera. Three functional hypotheses could explain profound micropylar variation: (i) increasing micropyle number reduces the risk of infertility through sperm limitation in species that mate infrequently; (ii) decreasing micropyle number reduces the risk of pathological polyspermy in species that mate more frequently; and (iii) increasing micropyle number allows females to exert greater control over fertilization within the context of post-copulatory sexual selection, which will be more intense in promiscuous species. Micropyle number was positively related to the degree of female promiscuity as measured by spermatophore count, regardless of phylogenetic signal, supporting the hypothesis that micropyle number is shaped by post-copulatory sexual selection. We discuss this finding in the context of cryptic female choice, sperm limitation and physiological polyspermy.

  19. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  20. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Weiqing; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana Moore (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a species with closest relationship with Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, and the genetic information of R. menciana is important for understanding the diversity of the Bombycidae. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. menciana was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The mitogenome of R. menciana was determined to be 15,301 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The A+T content (78.87%) was lower than that observed for other Bombycidae insects. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated with the canonical stop codons, except for coxII, which was terminated by a single T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The length of AT-rich region (360 bp) of R. menciana mitogenome is shorter than that of other Bombycidae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. menciana was clustered on one branch with B. mori and B. mandarina from Bombycidae. PMID:25888706

  3. Control of the eupyrene-apyrene sperm dimorphism in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Friedländer, M

    1997-11-01

    Lepidoptera males bear concomitantly nucleate (eupyrene) and anucleate (apyrene) spermatozoa. Both kinds of spermatozoa reach the spermatheca of inseminated females but only the eupyrene ones fertilize the eggs. The functions of the apyrene spermatozoa are still uncertain. Eupyrene spermatogenesis is regular and highly sensitive to genetic and experimental manipulations while apyrene spermatogenesis is irregular and withstands these manipulations. Both kinds of spermatozoa derive from the same kind of bipotential spermatocytes. The shift of spermatocyte commitment from eupyrene to apyrene spermatogenesis is induced by a haemolymph factor that becomes active just before or after pupation, depending on species. Accordingly, eupyrene spermatogenesis starts during larval instars and stops after pupation while apyrene spermatogenesis begins just before or after pupation, depending on the species, and persists in the imago. The shift is related to shortening of meiotic prophases and blocking synthesis of a meiotic lysine-rich protein fraction in apyrene cells. From spermatogonia proliferation to early spermatocytes, spermatogenesis is a quasi-independent process. Afterwards, it becomes discontinuous and is punctuated by predetermined stations. Progress to a subsequent station is an 'all or none' phenomenon, regulated by cues linked to fluctuations of the main morphogenetic hormones titers. In absence of a particular cue, the cells stop advancing towards the next station and eventually degenerate.

  4. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

    2011-08-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities.

  5. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics. PMID:24453557

  6. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Bauder, J A-S; Warren, A D; Krenn, H W

    2014-12-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly's flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths.

  7. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  8. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ah Rha; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-04-01

    The mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus, belongs to a lepidopteran family Hesperiidae. The 15,530-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the species has the typical gene content of animals (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one major non-coding A+T-rich region). As typical in lepidopteran mitogenome E. montanus mitogenome also contained a high A/T content in the whole genome (81.7%) and the CGA (arginine) as the start codon for the COI gene. Unlike other lepidopteran species, including two sequenced skippers, the E. montanus mitogenome has a unique arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn), instead of the tRNA(Asn)-tRNA(Ser) found unanimously in other lepidopteran species, providing a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera. Such rearrangement probably was likely caused by duplication of gene block tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn) and subsequent random loss of tRNA(Asn) in the first copy and tRNA(Ser) in the second copy, resulting in the arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn).

  10. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  11. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers.

  12. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it.

  13. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  14. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  15. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  16. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM.

  17. Shifts in developmental diet breadth of Lymantria xylina (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shaw-Yhi; Hwang, Fu-Chang; Shen, Tse-Chi

    2007-08-01

    The moth Lymantria xylina Swinhoe (1903) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a major defoliator of hardwood and fruit trees in Taiwan. Although the plants identified as host plants of L. xylina usually refer to plants used as food or as shelter, most of the host plant identifications have not considered the role of these hosts on larval development. This study investigated various instars feeding on different plants to assess the developmental diet breath of L. xylina. Forty-seven plant species, belonging to 25 families were used in feeding trials. Various bioassays, including first instar survival and long-term feeding trials, indicated the most suitable host plants for the different developmental stages. Results of the first instar survival trial indicated that first instars could survive only on 13 of the tested plant species. In addition, first instars could only successfully grow to pupa on seven of these 13 test plants species. To assess the developmental diet breath shifts of this moth, 38 plant species (excluding those nine plant species that the first instars did not feed upon) were fed to third and fifth instars in long-term feeding trials. Survival to pupa was noted on 12 and 13 test plant species for the third and fifth instars, respectively. In short, we found that the larvae performed differently when fed on various host plants and that the host plant range increased with the larval stage. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the host plant range of this moth and to consider host plant breadth together with the developmental stages of caterpillars.

  18. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  19. Microstructure and diversity of the bursa copulatrix wall in Tortricidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lincango, Piedad; Fernández, Guillermo; Baixeras, Joaquín

    2013-05-01

    The inner surface and muscle structure of the bursa copulatrix are examined for the first time with Electron Microscopy in some representatives of the family Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). The internal microprotuberances reveal taxon dependent characters unstudied in the Lepidoptera until now. Acanthae occur in almost all taxa studied, whereas ctenidia and papillae are found only in representatives of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae, respectively. Muscles are radially arranged from the signa. Areas of muscle insertion on the bursal wall are not covered by other muscle fibers. Muscle attachments to evaginated areas, e.g. capitulum and diverticulum, suggest an apodeme role for these structures, correlated with long protruding signa. The potential evolutionary and adaptive significance of these new findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A.; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C.; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K.; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J.; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths. PMID:25189940

  1. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A; Ferguson, Laura C; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P; Schulman, Alan H; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-09-05

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths.

  2. Parasitism and Food Web Structure in Defoliating Lepidoptera - Parasitoid Communities on Soybean.

    PubMed

    Avalos, D S; Mangeaud, A; Valladares, G R

    2016-12-01

    Food webs are usually regarded as snapshots of community feeding interactions. Here, we describe the yearly and cumulative structure of parasitoid-caterpillar food webs on soybean in central Argentina, analyzing parasitism rates and their variability in relation to parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability in the system. Lepidoptera larvae were collected along four seasons from soybean crops and reared in laboratory to obtain and identify adults and parasitoids. Eleven species of defoliating Lepidoptera and ten parasitoid species were recorded. Food web statistics showed rather low annual variability, with most variation coefficients in the order of 0.20 and generality showing the most stable values. Parasitism showed the highest variability, which was independent of parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability, although parasitism rates were negatively related to parasitoid richness. Our study highlights the need to consider food web structure and variability in order to understand the functioning of ecological communities in general and in extensive agricultural ecosystems in particular.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  4. Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

  5. Caterpillars and moths: Part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars and moths (order Lepidoptera) are uncommonly recognized causes of adverse cutaneous reactions, such as localized stings, papular dermatitis, and urticarial wheals. These reactions are typically mild and self-limited; however, in South America, the sting of Lonomia caterpillars can cause a potentially fatal hemorrhagic diathesis related to massive fibrinolysis. In addition, ocular inflammation and prominent arthralgias have been reported to be caused by caterpillar exposures. Therapies for mucocutaneous reactions to Lepidoptera are largely empiric, with the exception of antivenin against Lonomia obliqua envenomation. Part II of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews the varied symptoms caused by Lepidopteran exposures, reviews the differential diagnosis, and discusses appropriate treatment algorithms.

  6. Feeding mechanisms of adult Lepidoptera: structure, function, and evolution of the mouthparts.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Harald W

    2010-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45–48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. Results The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif ‘ATAGA’ and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. Conclusion The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T

  8. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-03-29

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNA(Met). The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Ser)(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)(8) element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNA(Met). The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNAMet. The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNASer(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNASer(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNAMet. The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification. PMID:20376208

  11. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Javoiš, Juhan; Esperk, Toomas; Teder, Tiit; Davis, Robert B; Tammaru, Toomas

    2011-06-01

    Given that immature and adult insects have different life styles, different target body compositions can be expected. For adults, such targets will also differ depending on life history strategy, and thus vary among the sexes, and in females depend on the degree of capital versus income breeding and ovigeny. Since these targets may in part be approximated by loss of substances upon eclosion, comparing sexual differences in such losses upon eclosion among species that differ in life history would provide insights into insect functional ecology. We studied weight loss in eclosing insects using original data on pupal and adult live weights of 38 species of Lepidoptera (mainly Geometridae) and further literature data on 15 species of Lepidoptera and six representatives of other insect orders, and applied the phylogenetic independent contrasts approach. In addition, data on live and dry weights of pupae of four species of Lepidoptera are presented. We documented that Lepidoptera typically lose a large proportion (20-80%) of their pupal weight upon adult eclosion. Sexual differences in weight loss varied between absent and strongly male biased. Most of the weight loss was water loss, and sexual differences in adult water content correlate strongly with differences in weight loss. Using feeding habits (feeds or does not feed as an adult) and female biased sexual size dimorphism as measures of degree of capital breeding, we found that the difference among the sexes in weight loss tends to be more pronounced in capital breeding species. Additionally, females of more pro-ovigenic species (large proportion of eggs mature upon emergence) tend to have higher water contents. Our results suggests that metamorphosis is generally facilitated by a high water content, while adults excrete water upon eclosion to benefit flight unless water has been allocated to eggs, or is treated as a capital resource for adult survival or future allocation to eggs.

  12. A new species of Herpetogramma (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) from eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Handfield, Louis; Handfield, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Herpetogramma sphingealis sp. n., a new species of Crambidae (Lepidoptera), is described from Québec, Canada. The species is included in the genus Herpetogramma Led., 1863, a genus in the subfamily Spilomelinae. Adults and genitalia of this species are described and illustrated, as well as those of Herpetogramma aeglealis (Walker, 1859) and Herpetogramma thestealis (Walker, 1859), and adults of the semi-melanic form of Herpetogramma aeglealis are illustrated. PMID:22207790

  13. A new species of Herpetogramma (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) from eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Handfield, Louis; Handfield, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Herpetogramma sphingealissp. n., a new species of Crambidae (Lepidoptera), is described from Québec, Canada. The species is included in the genus Herpetogramma Led., 1863, a genus in the subfamily Spilomelinae. Adults and genitalia of this species are described and illustrated, as well as those of Herpetogramma aeglealis (Walker, 1859) and Herpetogramma thestealis (Walker, 1859), and adults of the semi-melanic form of Herpetogramma aeglealis are illustrated.

  14. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ctvrtecka, Richard; Miller, Scott E.; Rosati, Margaret E.; Molem, Kenneth; Damas, Kipiro; Gewa, Bradley; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus) and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts). Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. PMID:28231249

  15. Sequential sampling for panicle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Elliott, N C; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L; Backoulou, G F; McCornack, B P; Pendleton, B B; Royer, T A

    2014-04-01

    Panicle caterpillars comprise an economically important insect pest complex of sorghum throughout the Great Plains of the United States, particularly in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. The sorghum panicle caterpillar complex consists of larvae of two polyphagous lepidopteran species: the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sampling for panicle caterpillars in sorghum fields is usually accomplished by the beat bucket sampling technique with a fixed sample size of 30 beat bucket samples of one sorghum panicle each per 16.2 ha of field. We used Wald's sequential probability ratio test for a negative binomial distribution to develop a sequential sampling plan for panicle caterpillars. In total, 115 sorghum fields were sampled in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas from June to August 2010. Panicle caterpillars had an aggregated distribution of counts confirmed by Pearson's chi-square statistic for lack of fit to the negative binomial distribution for each sampled field. A sequential sampling plan was developed using a high threshold (an economic threshold) of 0.5 caterpillars per sorghum panicle, a low threshold (a safe level) of 0.20 caterpillars per panicle, and fixed error rates (alpha = 0.10 and beta = 0.05). At caterpillar densities > 0.45 and < 0.12 per panicle, the average number of panicles inspected to make a decision was less than the current recommendation of 30. In a 2013 validation test of 25 fields, the expected number of samples taken from average sample number curve was in close agreement with the number of samples required using the sequential plan (r2 = 0.93), and all fields were correctly classified when compared with a fixed sample size result. The plan improved upon current sampling recommendations for panicle caterpillars in sorghum because at known acceptable fixed error rates fewer samples were required when caterpillars are scarce or abundant, whereas more samples were

  16. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  17. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that <250 Gy is adequate. There is a lack of large-scale (>10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  18. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Huvenne, Hanneke; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Albrechtsen, Merete; An, Chunju; Aymeric, Jean-Luc; Barthel, Andrea; Bebas, Piotr; Bitra, Kavita; Bravo, Alejandra; Chevalier, François; Collinge, Derek P; Crava, Cristina M; de Maagd, Ruud A; Duvic, Bernard; Erlandson, Martin; Faye, Ingrid; Felföldi, Gabriella; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Futahashi, Ryo; Gandhe, Archana S; Gatehouse, Heather S; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Gómez, Isabel; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Groot, Astrid T; Hauser, Frank; Heckel, David G; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Hrycaj, Steven; Huang, Lihua; Hull, J Joe; Iatrou, Kostas; Iga, Masatoshi; Kanost, Michael R; Kotwica, Joanna; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, Magnus; Matsumoto, Shogo; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Millichap, Peter J; Monteiro, Antónia; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Niimi, Teruyuki; Nowara, Daniela; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Oostra, Vicencio; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Papakonstantinou, Maria; Popadic, Aleksandar; Rajam, Manchikatla V; Saenko, Suzanne; Simpson, Robert M; Soberón, Mario; Strand, Michael R; Tomita, Shuichiro; Toprak, Umut; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, Steven; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Herrero, Salvador; Gordon, Karl; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments.

  19. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens.

  20. Assessing the Value of DNA Barcodes and Other Priority Gene Regions for Molecular Phylogenetics of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John James

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite apparently abundant amounts of observable variation and species diversity, the order Lepidoptera exhibits a morphological homogeneity that has provided only a limited number of taxonomic characters and led to widespread use of nucleotides for inferring relationships. This study aims to characterize and develop methods to quantify the value of priority gene regions designated for Lepidoptera molecular systematics. In particular, I assess how the DNA barcode segment of the mitochondrial COI gene performs across a broad temporal range given its number one position of priority, most sequenced status, and the conflicting opinions on its phylogenetic performance. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene regions commonly sequenced for Lepidoptera phylogenetics were scored using multiple measures across three categories: practicality, which includes universality of primers and sequence quality; phylogenetic utility; and phylogenetic signal. I found that alternative measures within a category often appeared correlated, but high scores in one category did not necessarily translate into high scores in another. The DNA barcode was easier to sequence than other genes, and had high scores for utility but low signal above the genus level. Conclusions/Significance Given limited financial resources and time constraints, careful selection of gene regions for molecular phylogenetics is crucial to avoid wasted effort producing partially informative data. This study introduces an approach to assessing the value of gene regions prior to the initiation of new studies and presents empirical results to help guide future selections. PMID:20479871

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Mormon metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Apodemia mormo in the lepidopteran family Riodinidae. The 15,262 bp long complete genome was comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the arrangement typically found in the majority of Lepidoptera. The genes of A. mormo were interleaved with a total of 168 bp, which were spread over 16 regions and overlapped 58 bp at eight locations. All tRNAs of the A. mormo mitogenome formed a typical cloverleaf structure, except tRNA(Ser(AGN)), which formed a truncated dihydrouridine arm. The COI gene started with CGA as seen in other Lepidoptera, instead of canonical ATN. The 349 bp long A + T-rich region harbored conserved sequence blocks, such as an ATAGA motif, a poly-T stretch, a conserved ATTTA sequence, and a microsatellite A/T repeat typically found in Lepidoptera, but absent from the tRNA-like pseudogene.

  2. Enigmatic Liaisons in Lepidoptera: A Review of Same-Sex Courtship and Copulation in Butterflies and Moths

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Mendieta, Nubia; Cordero, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera. PMID:23452066

  3. Enigmatic liaisons in Lepidoptera: a review of same-sex courtship and copulation in butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Mendieta, Nubia; Cordero, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera.

  4. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277).

  5. Genetic basis of resistance to fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) leaf-feeding damage in maize.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Thomas D; Bushman, B Shaun; Williams, W Paul; McMullen, Micheal D; Buckley, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    Leaf-feeding damage by first generation larvae of fall armyworm, Spodopter frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), cause major economic losses each year in maize, Zea mays L. A previous study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to reduced leaf-feeding damage by these insects in the maize line Mp704. This study was initiated to identify QTL and their interactions associated with first generation leaf-feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer. QTL associated with fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer resistance in resistant line Mp708 were identified and compared with Mp704. Multiple trait analysis (MTA) of both data sets was then used to identify the most important genetic regions affecting resistance to fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer leaf-feeding damage. Genetic models containing four and seven QTL explained southwestern corn borer and fall armyworm resistance, respectively, in Mp708. Key genomic regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, and 9 were identified by MTA in Mp704 and Mp708 that confer resistance to both fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer. QTL regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, and 9 contained resistance to both insects and were present in both resistant lines. These regions correspond with previously identified QTL related to resistance to other lepidopteran insects, suggesting that broad-spectrum resistance to leaf feeding is primarily controlled by only a few genetic regions in this germplasm.

  6. Peripheral and central structures involved in insect gustation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, B K; Itagaki, H; Rivet, M P

    1999-12-15

    Studies in insect gustation have a long history in general physiology, particularly with work on fly labellar and tarsal sensilla and in the general field of insect-plant interactions, where work on immature Lepidoptera and chrysomelid beetles has been prominent. Much more emphasis has been placed on the physiological characteristics of the sensory cells than on the central cellular mechanisms of taste processing. This is due to the fairly direct access for physiological experimentation presented by many taste sensilla and to the obvious importance of tastants in insect feeding and oviposition behaviour. In some of the insect models used for gustatory studies, advances have been made in understanding the basic morphology of the central neuropils involved in the first stages of taste processing. There is much less known about the physiology of interneurons involved. In this review, we concentrate on four insect models (Manduca sexta, Drosophila melanogaster, Neobellieria bullata (and other large flies), and Apis mellifera) to summarize morphological knowledge of peripheral and central aspects of insect gustation. Our views of current interpretations of available data are discussed and some important areas for future research are highlighted.

  7. The neural bases of host plant selection in a Neuroecology framework

    PubMed Central

    Reisenman, Carolina E.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals make use of environmental information to guide behavior is a fundamental problem in the field of neuroscience. Similarly, the field of ecology seeks to understand the role of behavior in shaping interactions between organisms at various levels of organization, including population-, community- and even ecosystem-level scales. Together, the newly emerged field of “Neuroecology” seeks to unravel this fundamental question by studying both the function of neurons at many levels of the sensory pathway and the interactions between organisms and their natural environment. The interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants are ideal examples of Neuroecology given the strong ecological and evolutionary forces and the underlying physiological and behavioral mechanisms that shaped these interactions. In this review we focus on an exemplary herbivorous insect within the Lepidoptera, the giant sphinx moth Manduca sexta, as much is known about the natural behaviors related to host plant selection and the involved neurons at several level of the sensory pathway. We also discuss how herbivore-induced plant odorants and secondary metabolites in floral nectar in turn can affect moth behavior, and the underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26321961

  8. Clicking caterpillars: acoustic aposematism in Antheraea polyphemus and other Bombycoidea.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah G; Boettner, George H; Yack, Jayne E

    2007-03-01

    Acoustic signals produced by caterpillars have been documented for over 100 years, but in the majority of cases their significance is unknown. This study is the first to experimentally examine the phenomenon of audible sound production in larval Lepidoptera, focusing on a common silkmoth caterpillar, Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Larvae produce airborne sounds, resembling ;clicks', with their mandibles. Larvae typically signal multiple times in quick succession, producing trains that last over 1 min and include 50-55 clicks. Individual clicks within a train are on average 24.7 ms in duration, often consisting of multiple components. Clicks are audible in a quiet room, measuring 58.1-78.8 dB peSPL at 10 cm. They exhibit a broadband frequency that extends into the ultrasound spectrum, with most energy between 8 and 18 kHz. Our hypothesis that clicks function as acoustic aposematic signals, was supported by several lines of evidence. Experiments with forceps and domestic chicks correlated sound production with attack, and an increase in attack rate was positively correlated with the number of signals produced. In addition, sound production typically preceded or accompanied defensive regurgitation. Bioassays with invertebrates (ants) and vertebrates (mice) revealed that the regurgitant is deterrent to would-be predators. Comparative evidence revealed that other Bombycoidea species, including Actias luna (Saturniidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), also produce airborne sounds upon attack, and that these sounds precede regurgitation. The prevalence and adaptive significance of warning sounds in caterpillars is discussed.

  9. Specificity of induced resistance in tomato against specialist lepidopteran and coleopteran species.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Felton, Gary W

    2011-04-01

    When challenged by herbivorous insects, plants produce a suite of antinutritive proteins that disrupt digestion and absorption of essential nutrients by the insects. We hypothesized that plants would induce distinct defense responses corresponding to the distinct midgut conditions of different herbivores. We investigated whether or not tomato responds specifically to two specialist herbivores: Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and tobacco hornworm (THW; Manduca sexta; Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and we evaluated whether the induced defenses triggered by either species affect CPB growth. Tomato did not induce different defense genes in response to CPB or THW but accumulated more transcripts for some defense genes after damage by THW feeding compared to damage by CPB feeding. In addition, trypsin protease inhibitor activity and polyphenol oxidase activity were higher in plants damaged by THW than in plants damaged by CPB. Application of oral secretions from THW to wounded tomato plants increased transcripts compared to controls, but oral secretions from CPB decreased defense transcripts. CPB growth was compromised on plants damaged by either species, suggesting a low specificity of effect. Together, these data suggest distinct quantitative responses of tomato to two different specialist herbivores. Herbivore oral secretions might be responsible for these species-specific responses.

  10. Synthesis and bioassay of radiolabeled, chiral probes for juvenile hormone receptor study

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, W.

    1987-01-01

    Four different types of compounds were synthesized for the detailed study on interactions between insect juvenile hormone (JH) and the corresponding binding proteins, receptor proteins and catabolic enzymes: (1) High specific activity /sup 3/H-labeled, chiral alkyldiazoacetates with their skeletons approaching those of natural JH I and JH II were synthesized as photoaffinity labels for probing JH receptor proteins in Lepidoptera. Compared with epoxy farnesyl diazoacetate (EFDA), epoxy bishomofarnesyl diazoacetate (EBDA) and epoxy homofarnesyl diazoacetate (EHDA) have largely increased affinity to Manduca sexta JH binding proteins (JHBP) as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis. (2) Chiral JH I and JH II acids, as well as 12-hydroxy-JH I and JH II were synthesized. The hydroxy groups in these compounds provide tether points for attachment to proteins to serve as antigens with most of the recognition sites preserved to be used in JH radioimmunoassays. (3) The first radioiodine-labeled JH, (/sup 125/I)-12-iodo-JH I, was synthesized, both in no-carrier-added and carrier-added forms, as one of the probes for JH receptor study. (4) Four alkylthioltrifluoropropanones with skeletons approaching that of JH III and functional groups mimicking the JH epoxide moiety were synthesized as inhibitors for JH esterase (JHE).

  11. The neural bases of host plant selection in a Neuroecology framework.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals make use of environmental information to guide behavior is a fundamental problem in the field of neuroscience. Similarly, the field of ecology seeks to understand the role of behavior in shaping interactions between organisms at various levels of organization, including population-, community- and even ecosystem-level scales. Together, the newly emerged field of "Neuroecology" seeks to unravel this fundamental question by studying both the function of neurons at many levels of the sensory pathway and the interactions between organisms and their natural environment. The interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants are ideal examples of Neuroecology given the strong ecological and evolutionary forces and the underlying physiological and behavioral mechanisms that shaped these interactions. In this review we focus on an exemplary herbivorous insect within the Lepidoptera, the giant sphinx moth Manduca sexta, as much is known about the natural behaviors related to host plant selection and the involved neurons at several level of the sensory pathway. We also discuss how herbivore-induced plant odorants and secondary metabolites in floral nectar in turn can affect moth behavior, and the underlying neural mechanisms.

  12. Role of the Halloween genes, Spook and Phantom in ecdysteroidogenesis in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Elisabeth; Badisco, Liesbeth; Verlinden, Heleen; Vandersmissen, Tim; Van Soest, Sofie; Van Wielendaele, Pieter; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2011-09-01

    The functional characterization of the Halloween genes represented a major breakthrough in the elucidation of the ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway. These genes encode cytochrome P450 enzymes catalyzing the final steps of ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster and the Lepidoptera Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori. This is the first report on the identification of two Halloween genes, spook (spo) and phantom (phm), from a hemimetabolous orthopteran insect, the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. Using q-RT-PCR, their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were analyzed in both final larval stage and adult locusts. The circulating ecdysteroid titers in the hemolymph were measured and found to correlate well with changes in the temporal transcript profiles of spo and phm. Moreover, an RNA interference (RNAi)-based approach was employed to study knockdown effects upon silencing of both transcripts in the fifth larval stage. Circulating ecdysteroid levels were found to be significantly reduced upon dsRNA treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    PubMed

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera.

  14. Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases as a Detoxification Mechanism in Insects: New Insights from the Arctiids (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G.; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  15. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Sehlmeyer, Sven; Wang, Linzhu; Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-05-03

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  16. First report of an egg parasitoid reared from Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Schizaeales: Lygodiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was first released in Florida as a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae), Old World climbing fern, in 2008. The first egg parasitoid, a Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was reared from N. co...

  17. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and phylogenetic analysis of advanced moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Li, Qian; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Here we determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of a notorious pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae). The mitochondrial genome contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The gene arrangement is identical to that of other ditrysian lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, but different from the ancestral gene arrangement in the non-ditrysian Hepialidae of Lepidoptera. The start codon of the cox1 gene is CGA, which is dissimilar to its homologs in most other insects. In Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2 have low nucleotide diversities, while the nad6, nad2, and nad3 genes are highly variable. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered the reciprocal monophyly of Ditrysia, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera, and Macrolepidoptera, and the placement of the Hesperiidae within Papilionoidea. Our analyses suggest that the complete mitochondrial genome sequences are a promising marker toward fully resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Lepidoptera.

  18. Characterization of Toxin Complex Gene Clusters and Insect Toxicity of Bacteria Representing Four Subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten strains representing four lineages of Pseudomonas (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibi...

  19. Synaptic Neurochemistry of Sensory Pathways in the Insect Central Nervous System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-15

    FORM I. REPORT NUMBER G2. OVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 0r P,0 YO3*.S N/A N/A 4. TITLE (and Subettle) S, TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...and Hishinuma A (1986) The transport and metabolism of L-glutamic acid in the abdominal ganglia of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, in preparation V

  20. Floral Trait Associations in Hawkmoth-Specialized and Mixed Pollination Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variation in floral traits including odor, color and morphology, demonstrate the selective pressures imposed by specific pollinator taxa, such as insects and birds. In southern Arizona, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) hawkmoths are associated with Datura wrightii (Solanaceae) at both the larval (herbivo...

  1. Only part of the protoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. berliner 1715 is necessary for insecticidal activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wabiko, H; Held, G A; Bulla, L A

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains harboring deletion mutations of the insecticidal protoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. berliner 1715 were constructed. Although these strains did not produce intact protoxin, cell extracts from one of the mutants were extremely toxic to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae, indicating that only a part of the protoxin gene is required for insecticidal activity. Images PMID:3888110

  2. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  3. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  4. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  5. Mobilizing the genome of Lepidoptera through novel sequence gains and end creation by non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The integration of transposable elements within gene coding regions can affect expression levels and transcript splicing patterns. The repetitive element, Lep1, is comprised of a conserved 134 base pairs (bp) consensus core region among species of Lepidoptera, and was defined as a short intersperse...

  6. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  7. Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) has gained popularity in several fields of research, silencing targeted genes by degradation of RNA. The objective of this study was to develop RNAi for use as a molecular tool in the control of the invasive pest Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), gypsy moth, which ha...

  8. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  9. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  10. Biology, herbivory, and host specificity of Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) in Brazil

    Treesearch

    F. R. Badenes-Perez; M. T. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered one of the greatest threats to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The potential for using the defoliator Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a biological control agent of M. calvescens was evaluated in...

  11. Influence of holding temperature and irradiation on field performance of mass-reared Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an integral component to the area-wide integrated management of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was successfully implemented in the Western Cape region of South Africa and subsequently expanded to citrus are...

  12. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

  13. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  14. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  15. Interspecific synchrony among foliage-feeding forest Lepidoptera species and the potential role of generalist predators as synchronizing agents

    Treesearch

    Sandy Raimondo; Marek Turcáni; Jan Patoèka; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2004-01-01

    While synchrony among geographically disjunct populations of the same species has received considerable recent attention, much less is known about synchrony between sympatric populations of two or more species. We analyzed time series of the abundance of ten species of spring foliage feeding Lepidoptera sampled over a 25- year period at 20 sites in the Slovak Republic...

  16. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  17. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  18. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  19. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  20. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Treesearch

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  1. Influence of trap design on capture of female grape berry moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) with a kairomone Lure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of six diff...

  2. Behavior of Over-wintering Filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae and Their Control with Steinernema carpocapsae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key insect pest associated with hazelnuts in North America. The effect of nematode rate, water volume, and orchard floor cover on nematode efficacy was determined in field trials in fall and spring (October 2007 and May 200...

  3. Review of parasitic wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) attacking Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed and an illustrated key to 17 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted by the Lill lab (JTL, SMM, TMS) during the summer months of 2004–2009 as part of their...

  4. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera. PMID:26196395

  5. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  6. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  7. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  8. Instar-specific phenology of Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Eastburn, Callie C; Wilburn, Tawnee D; Brunner, Jay F

    2005-06-01

    Head capsule width was used to determine the instar specific phenology of the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), attacking apple in Washington state during 2001-2003. In total, 7012 P. pyrusana and 6122 obliquebanded leafroller larvae were measured from apple orchards from mid-March to mid-September. Degree-day accumulations from each site were paired with the head capsule data to determine the periods during which different instars were present in the field. The implications of this work for pest management and biological control of leafrollers is discussed.

  9. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  10. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  11. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  12. Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Fernando A.; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.; Becker, Vitor O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676

  13. A morphology based key to the genera of the tribe Nemoriini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Viidalepp, Jaan

    2017-02-23

    A diagrammatic key to the genera of the Nemoriini tribe (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) is presented and illustrated. The genera studied exhibit two main character sets, corresponding to the Nemoria lineage and the Phrudocentra lineage. The spatulate type of uncus is associated with multicolor wing markings on both hemispheres. A rod-shaped uncus, often slightly bulbed at its tip, is common in the Neotropics, the genera involved having their wing markings reduced to white lines or brown-grey vein marks on a plain green ground color.

  14. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  15. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) oviposition on macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, H; Watt, A D; Cosens, D

    2001-06-01

    Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6,939). E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.

  16. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  17. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  18. The insect SNMP gene family.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Richard G; Miller, Natalie E; Litvack, Rachel; Fandino, Richard A; Sparks, Jackson; Staples, Jon; Friedman, Robert; Dickens, Joseph C

    2009-07-01

    SNMPs are membrane proteins observed to associate with chemosensory neurons in insects; in Drosophila melanogaster, SNMP1 has been shown to be essential for the detection of the pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (CVA). SNMPs are one of three insect gene clades related to the human fatty acid transporter CD36. We previously characterized the CD36 gene family in 4 insect Orders that effectively cover the Holometabola, or some 80% of known insect species and the 300 million years of evolution since this lineage emerged: Lepidoptera (e.g. Bombyx mori, Antheraea polyphemus, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa assulta, Helicoverpa armigera, Mamestra brassicae); Diptera (D. melanogaster, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus); Hymenoptera (Apis mellifera); and Coleoptera (Tribolium castaneum). This previous study suggested a complex topography within the SNMP clade including a strongly supported SNMP1 sub-clade plus additional SNMP genes. To further resolve the SNMP clade here, we used cDNA sequences of SNMP1 and SNMP2 from various Lepidoptera species, D. melanogaster and Ae. aegypti, as well as BAC derived genomic sequences from Ae. aegypti as models for proposing corrected sequences of orthologues in the D. pseudoobscura and An. gambiae genomes, and for identifying orthologues in the B. mori and C. pipiens q. genomes. We then used these sequences to analyze the SNMP clade of the insect CD36 gene family, supporting the existence of two well supported sub-clades, SNMP1 and SNMP2, throughout the dipteran and lepidopteran lineages, and plausibly throughout the Holometabola and across a broad evolutionary time scale. We present indirect evidence based on evolutionary selection (dN/dS) that the dipteran SNMPs are expressed as functional proteins. We observed expansions of the SNMP1 sub-clade in C. pipiens q. and T. castaneum suggesting that the SNMP1s may have an expanded functional role in these species.

  19. The vacuolar protein sorting genes in insects: A comparative genome view.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofei; Blissard, Gary

    2015-07-01

    In eukaryotic cells, regulated vesicular trafficking is critical for directing protein transport and for recycling and degradation of membrane lipids and proteins. Through carefully regulated transport vesicles, the endomembrane system performs a large and important array of dynamic cellular functions while maintaining the integrity of the cellular membrane system. Genetic studies in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified approximately 50 vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes involved in vesicle trafficking, and most of these genes are also characterized in mammals. The VPS proteins form distinct functional complexes, which include complexes known as ESCRT, retromer, CORVET, HOPS, GARP, and PI3K-III. Little is known about the orthologs of VPS proteins in insects. Here, with the newly annotated Manduca sexta genome, we carried out genomic comparative analysis of VPS proteins in yeast, humans, and 13 sequenced insect genomes representing the Orders Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Phthiraptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera. Amino acid sequence alignments and domain/motif structure analyses reveal that most of the components of ESCRT, retromer, CORVET, HOPS, GARP, and PI3K-III are evolutionarily conserved across yeast, insects, and humans. However, in contrast to the VPS gene expansions observed in the human genome, only four VPS genes (VPS13, VPS16, VPS33, and VPS37) were expanded in the six insect Orders. Additionally, VPS2 was expanded only in species from Phthiraptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera. These studies provide a baseline for understanding the evolution of vesicular trafficking across yeast, insect, and human genomes, and also provide a basis for further addressing specific functional roles of VPS proteins in insects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and expression profile of Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis in Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Iga, Masatoshi; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-03-01

    20-Hydroxyecdyone (20E), an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. The biosynthesis of ecdysteroid is triggered and under the control of the neuropeptide, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). To date, five cytochrome P450 enzymes, namely Spook (Spo), Phantom (Phm), Disembodied (Dib), Shadow (Sad) and Shade (Shd) related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis, are identified and the character of last four enzymes is well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. These genes are called Halloween genes and mediate the biosynthesis of 20E from cholesterol. In this study, we extended these works to a major pest insect in agriculture, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We identified the sequence of five Halloween genes, and the converted amino acid sequences were compared with those of other insects. The phylogenetic analysis clearly showed separated clusters of each gene and the evolutional conservation in insects with a high similarity in Lepidoptera. Spo, phm, dib and sad were predominantly expressed in prothoracic glands, and shd was expressed in fat body and Malpighian tubules at the last instar larvae. Spo expression was kept high level between day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. The expression of phm and dib peaked at day 2, and sad and shd expressions peaked at day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. In addition, the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer showed a small peak at day 2 and a large peak at day 4 after ecdysis. These results suggest the importance of Halloween genes in ecdysone biosynthesis by prothoracic glands and conversion of ecdysone into 20E by fat body in larval-pupal metamorphosis. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Retention of Memory through Metamorphosis: Can a Moth Remember What It Learned As a Caterpillar?

    PubMed Central

    Blackiston, Douglas J.; Silva Casey, Elena; Weiss, Martha R.

    2008-01-01

    Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis experience enormous changes in both morphology and lifestyle. The current study examines whether larval experience can persist through pupation into adulthood in Lepidoptera, and assesses two possible mechanisms that could underlie such behavior: exposure of emerging adults to chemicals from the larval environment, or associative learning transferred to adulthood via maintenance of intact synaptic connections. Fifth instar Manduca sexta caterpillars received an electrical shock associatively paired with a specific odor in order to create a conditioned odor aversion, and were assayed for learning in a Y choice apparatus as larvae and again as adult moths. We show that larvae learned to avoid the training odor, and that this aversion was still present in the adults. The adult aversion did not result from carryover of chemicals from the larval environment, as neither applying odorants to naïve pupae nor washing the pupae of trained caterpillars resulted in a change in behavior. In addition, we report that larvae trained at third instar still showed odor aversion after two molts, as fifth instars, but did not avoid the odor as adults, consistent with the idea that post-metamorphic recall involves regions of the brain that are not produced until later in larval development. The present study, the first to demonstrate conclusively that associative memory survives metamorphosis in Lepidoptera, provokes intriguing new questions about the organization and persistence of the central nervous system during metamorphosis. Our results have both ecological and evolutionary implications, as retention of memory through metamorphosis could influence host choice by polyphagous insects, shape habitat selection, and lead to eventual sympatric speciation. PMID:18320055

  2. A simple protocol for extracting hemocytes from wild caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Stoepler, Teresa M; Castillo, Julio C; Lill, John T; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2012-11-15

    Insect hemocytes (equivalent to mammalian white blood cells) play an important role in several physiological processes throughout an insect's life cycle. In larval stages of insects belonging to the orders of Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and Diptera (true flies), hemocytes are formed from the lymph gland (a specialized hematopoietic organ) or embryonic cells and can be carried through to the adult stage. Embryonic hemocytes are involved in cell migration during development and chemotaxis regulation during inflammation. They also take part in cell apoptosis and are essential for embryogenesis. Hemocytes mediate the cellular arm of the insect innate immune response that includes several functions, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, formation of nodules, phagocytosis and encapsulation of foreign invaders. They are also responsible for orchestrating specific insect humoral defenses during infection, such as the production of antimicrobial peptides and other effector molecules. Hemocyte morphology and function have mainly been studied in genetic or physiological insect models, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae and the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. However, little information currently exists about the diversity, classification, morphology and function of hemocytes in non-model insect species, especially those collected from the wild. Here we describe a simple and efficient protocol for extracting hemocytes from wild caterpillars. We use penultimate instar Lithacodes fasciola (yellow-shouldered slug moth) (Figure 1) and Euclea delphinii (spiny oak slug) caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) and show that sufficient volumes of hemolymph (insect blood) can be isolated and hemocyte numbers counted from individual larvae. This method can be used to efficiently study hemocyte types in these species as well as in other related lepidopteran caterpillars harvested from the field, or it can be

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  4. Analysis on the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Andraca theae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-Shi; Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The bombycid moth, Andraca theae (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) is an important pest of tea in southeastern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. theae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The complete mitogenome of A. theae, encoding 37 genes, was 15,737 bp in length (Genbank no. KX365419), and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region (AT-rich region). The gene order of A. theae mitogenome was typical for Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Except for cox1, which started with CGA, all other 12 PCGs started with ATN. Eleven of the 13 PCGs ended with TAA, expect for cox1 and cox2, which ended with a single T. The maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian method were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among 22 representative bombycoid species with a matrix consisting of the 13 PCGs of the mitogenomes of the 22 species. The topological structures of the two phylogenetic trees we constructed were almost identical, with the results indicating that the bombycid species, including A. theae, clustered into a single clade with a bootstrap value of 58% and a posterior probability of 0.98. The phylogenetic relationship among the Bombycoidea species analyzed was Lasiocampidae + (Bombycidae + (Saturniidae + Sphingidae)) which was supported by a high bootstrap value of 100% and a posterior probability of 1.00. PMID:27694403

  5. Identification and localization of two sensory neuron membrane proteins from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Wang, Gui-Rong

    2015-03-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), which are located on the dendritic membrane of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), are proposed to be associated with odor reception in insects. Recent studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is essential for electrophysiological responses of OSNs to the sex pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the function of Lepidoptera SNMPs, we cloned two SNMP genes, SlituSNMP1 and SltiuSNMP2, from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that both genes bear the general characteristics of SNMPs, including six conserved cysteine residues and two transmembrane domains. Further expression profile experiments showed that SlituSNMP1 is mainly expressed in the antenna, while SlituSNMP2 is broadly expressed in various tissues. By in situ hybridization experiments, it was found that SlituSNMP1 expressing cells are surrounded by the SlituSNMP2 expressing cells in the pheromone sensitive sensilla, suggesting different functions of the two SNMPs in insect olfaction. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed.

  7. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations.

  8. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Donald R; Mendel, Howard

    2013-01-01

    One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham) is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of Erechthias minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae,new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable in having wing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of Erechthias grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of an aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) belongs to the subfamily Nymphulinae, nearly all of which are aquatic in their entire larval and pupal stages. The 15,351-bp long complete mitogenome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in the majority of Lepidoptera. One of the unusual features of the E. interruptalis mitogenome is the presence of a tRNA(Phe)-like sequence beyond the A+T-rich region. The sequence is encoded in the minor strand of the genome overlapping with the reversely encoded regular tRNA(Glu) by 65 bp. The sequence divergence of the tRNA(Phe)-like sequence to that of regular E. interruptalis tRNA(Phe) and other within-familial species was as low as 59% ∼ 71%, but has a proper folding structure with well-matched stems and identical anticodon sequences to the regular copy.

  10. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family.

  11. Barcoding lepidoptera: current situation and perspectives on the usefulness of a contentious technique.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Lyra, Mariana L; Freitas, André V L

    2009-01-01

    Faced by a growing need of identification and delimitation of new and established cryptic species that are being lost at an increasing rate, taxonomists can now more than ever take advantage of an enormous variety of new molecular and computational tools. At this moment they should be open to all new available technologies in the so called 'technology-driven revolution' in systematics. The use of the 'DNA barcode' has been discussed by those applying successfully this approach to identify and diagnose species and by those who believe that the flaws in the use of this molecular marker are as many as to negate the worth of its employment. For insects of the order Lepidoptera neither side seems totally correct or wrong, and although many groups of lepidopterans have been taxonomically resolved by using exclusively or additionally this marker for diagnoses, for others the 'barcode' helped little to resolve taxonomic issues. Here we briefly present some pros and cons of using DNA barcode as a tool in taxonomic studies, with special attention to studies with groups of Lepidoptera developed in the last few years.

  12. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Lucas E.; Silk, P.; Eveleigh, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana. PMID:26945090

  13. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Lucas E; Silk, P; Eveleigh, E S

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana.

  14. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Donald R.; Mendel, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham) is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of Erechthias minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae,new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable in having wing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of Erechthias grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated. PMID:24146595

  15. Variable wing venation in Agathiphaga (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae) is key to understanding the evolution of basal moths

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Details of the ancestral groundplan of wing venation in moths remain uncertain, despite approximately a century of study. Here, we describe a 3-branched subcostal vein, a 5-branched medial vein and a 2-branched cubitus posterior vein on the forewing of Agathiphaga vitiensis Dumbleton 1952 from Vanuatu. Such veins had not previously been described in any Lepidoptera. Because wing veins are typically lost during lepidopteran evolutionary history, rarely—if ever—to be regained, the venation of A. vitiensis probably represents the ancestral character state for moths. Wing venation is often used to identify fossil insects as moths, because wing scales are not always preserved; the presence of a supposedly trichopteran 3-branched subcostal vein in crown Lepidoptera may decrease the certainty with which certain amphiesmenopteran fossils from the Mesozoic can be classified. And because plesiomorphic veins can influence the development of lepidopteran wing patterns even if not expressed in the adult wing, the veins described here may determine the location of wing pattern elements in many lepidopteran taxa. PMID:27853559

  16. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  17. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management.

  18. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-07-19

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite.

  19. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  20. Evaluation of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat for management of lepidoptera pests.

    PubMed

    Forehand, L M; Orr, D B; Linker, H M

    2006-06-01

    A field study was conducted in 2003 and 2004 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat in decreasing pest caterpillar populations in organically managed tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., plots. Six pairs of tomato plots were established and a commercial beneficial insect habitat seed mix (Peaceful Valley's Good Bug Blend) transplanted around the perimeter of treatment plots, whereas a brown-top millet, Brachiaria ramose (L.) Stapf., border was planted around control plots. Egg predation, egg parasitism by trichogrammatid wasps, and larval parasitism by braconid wasps was monitored throughout the growing season to determine whether habitat increased their activity. In both years of this study, the density of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Manduca spp. eggs was not significantly different between treatment and control plots. Although parasitism was the most important component of egg mortality (19-49%), parasitism was not significantly different between habitat types. Identifiable predation was a minor component (3-9%) of egg fate; it is possible that unidentified predation may be part of the approximately 35-52% of eggs that met unknown fates. Larval parasitism levels ranged from approximately 10 to 90% but was not significantly influenced by the presence of beneficial insect habitat in either year of the study. These results demonstrate that natural enemy activity in organic tomatoes was not amplified, and pest populations were not reduced by the presence of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bag-shelter moth Ochrogaster lunifer (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Paola; Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of animal mitochondrial genomes is very important to understand their molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and population genetic studies. The Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species and is one of the largest insect orders. To date only nine lepidopteran mitochondrial DNAs have been fully and two others partly sequenced. Furthermore the taxon sampling is very scant. Thus advance of lepidopteran mitogenomics deeply requires new genomes derived from a broad taxon sampling. In present work we describe the mitochondrial genome of the moth Ochrogaster lunifer. Results The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is a circular molecule 15593 bp long. It includes the entire set of 37 genes usually present in animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains also 7 intergenic spacers. The gene order of the newly sequenced genome is that typical for Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of trnM. The 77.84% A+T content of its α strand is the lowest among known lepidopteran genomes. The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer exhibits one of the most marked C-skew among available insect Pterygota genomes. The protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons except for cox1 that present an unusual CGA. The O. lunifer genome exhibits the less biased synonymous codon usage among lepidopterans. Comparative genomics analysis study identified atp6, cox1, cox2 as cox3, cob, nad1, nad2, nad4, and nad5 as potential markers for population genetics/phylogenetics studies. A peculiar feature of O. lunifer mitochondrial genome it that the intergenic spacers are mostly made by repetitive sequences. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is the first representative of superfamily Noctuoidea that account for about 40% of all described Lepidoptera. New genome shares many features with other known lepidopteran genomes. It differs however for its low A+T content and marked C-skew. Compared to other

  2. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. PMID:19613877

  3. The “Taygetis ypthima species group” (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae): taxonomy, variation and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Zacca, Thamara; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Freitas, André Victor Lucci; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided. PMID:24363572

  4. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  5. Ecological and morphological characteristics of parasitoids in Phauda flammans (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Li, Jun; Su, Li; Liu, Jun-Yan; Meng, Ling-Yu; Lin, Min-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliators on Ficus spp. trees. In order to avoid environmental pollution, potential biological control agents for P. flammans need to be investigated instead of chemical control. Four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, including three hymenopteran species (i.e., Gotra octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Eurytoma verticillata) and one dipteran species (i.e., Exorista yunnanica). Parasitoid ratios of G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp., Eu. verticillata and Ex. yunnanica were 7.2%, 4.2%, 1.6% and 0.9%. The four species were all larval endoparasitoids of P. flammans larvae. Time of cocoon (pupa) to adult, life span, major axis of cocoon and body length of females were all longer compared to males for G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Ex. yunnanica. Based on the parasitoid ratios, the most abundant parasitoid species was G. octocinctus. PMID:26651181

  6. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Diaphania pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Qiu-Ning; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2013-09-15

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Diaphania pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) was determined to be 15,298 bp and has the typical gene organization of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region. The A+T content of this mitogenome is 80.83% and the AT skew is slightly positive. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which is initiated by CGA. Only the cox2 gene has an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. All the tRNA genes display a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The A+T-rich region of the mitogenome is 332 bp in length, including several common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the D. pyloalis is close to Pyralididae.

  7. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn.

    PubMed

    Throne, James E; Arbogast, Richard T

    2010-08-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn by using previously published data describing immature developmental times and survivorship, and adult longevity and fecundity. The model accurately simulated population development of Indianmeal moths in corn stored during fall and into winter of three separate storage seasons in South Carolina. This is the period when the Indianmeal moth is a pest in stored corn in South Carolina. The model predicted that populations would increase after winter as grain temperatures rose, but observed populations in the grain bins never increased after winter. Despite this, the model should be useful from a management perspective because the corn is being sold off or used up after winter, and the observed Indianmeal moth populations never reached damaging levels after winter.

  8. New Pyrethroids for Use Against Tuta Absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their Toxicity and Control Speed

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Silvério, Flaviano O; Picanço, Marcelo C; Alvarenga, Elson S; Pereira, Renata R; Silva, Gerson A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Insect pests are responsible for major losses in crop productivity, and insecticides are the main tools used to control these organisms. There is increasing demand for new products for pest management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of pyrethroids with acid moiety modifications to measure the insecticidal activity of these compounds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). First, we synthesized E/Z mixtures of five pyrethroids: [9], [10], [11], [12], and [13]. Then, we separated the cis and trans pyrethroid isomers of [9], [10], [11], and [12]. We assessed the toxicity of these compounds against T. absoluta. The E/Z mixtures of the five pyrethroids (30 µg of substance per mg−1 of insect) caused high (100%) and rapid (<12 h) tomato borer mortality. The cis isomer of pyrethroid [10] was the most toxic to T. absoluta, causing mortality similar to permethrin. The other isomers were less powerful than permethrin.

  9. Activities of Apiaceae essential oils against armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Rose Marie O F; Rosa, José S; Oliveira, Luisa; Cunha, Ana; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    Essential oils (EOs) from four Apiaceae species and 11 pure compounds were evaluated for their antifeedant, growth inhibitory, and insecticidal activities against Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fourth-instar larvae. EOs from Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare var. vulgare, Anethum graveolens , Petroselinum crispum , and Cuminum cyminum were characterized by gas-chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. Anti-insect activity varied according to plant specie/composition, type, and exposure period. EOs from P. crispum and A. graveolens fruits, trans-anethole and cuminaldehyde, exerted acute effects on larvae feeding and growth (FDI and GI > 70%). A. graveolens , C. cyminum , and F. vulgare EOs and some of their constituents were effective by fumigation (≥ 80%). Satisfactory contact toxicities (>70%) were observed for five compounds and all EOs, except F. vulgare EOs, when tested by the filter paper impregnation method. For the most active EOs/compounds, dose-dependent toxicity was determined and inverse relationships of LC50 with time were established.

  10. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    PubMed

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East.

  11. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,374 bp (GenBank accession No. KF543065), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.03%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 326 bp in length.

  13. The genus Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia: resurrection of two species from synonymy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-09-29

    Based on the study of morphological characters and DNA barcode (CO1) data, the present review revealed the existence of at least three species of Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia. Visiana brujata (Guenée) is redescribed, and two species V. incertata (Walker), stat. rev. and V. repentinata (Walker), stat. rev. are resurrected from synonymy with V. brujata. Visiana breviaria (Walker), syn. rev., previously cited as a synonym of V. brujata, is now considered a synonym of V. incertata. Visiana brujata and V. incertata show close affinities with the sordidata group of species, whereas V. repentinata belongs to the vinosa species group. Images of adults and genitalia of all types are illustrated and the presence of the gnathos in the genus Visiana is discussed.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese skipper, Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chang, Yuan; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jianqing; Yu, Weidong; Jiang, Weibin

    2016-07-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) has been presented in this article. It is 15,353 bp in length, with an A + T content of 80.9% containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a noncoding control region (D-loop). All of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. All protein-coding genes started with ATN as a start codon except for the gene COX1 that uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Five protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codon TA or T, while the others use TAA as stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. Nucleotide composition is similar to other insects, showing a high bias toward A + T. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genome sequence of P. jigongi is close to Hesperiidae.

  15. False Codling Moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Cold Disinfestation Treatment Using Grapes as the Test Medium.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N

    2016-10-01

    Some countries consider false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a phytosanitary pest and may require the application of a mitigation treatment before accepting T. leucotreta-susceptible produce. This research reports on cold treatments that provide the phytosanitary security that this pest would not be accidentally imported alive. More than 35,000 individuals were treated for 20 d at 0.8 °C and >30,000 individuals subjected to - 0.6 °C for 18 d, with no survivors. The adoption of these treatments in international fruit trade protocols is recommended. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production.

  17. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Caparros Megido, Rudy; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research. PMID:26462946

  18. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain.

  19. Taxonomic changes of some neotropical species of Arctiini Leach (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2017-05-30

    Arctiini (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) is the most speciose tribe of tiger moths. In this study, the taxonomy of some Neotropical species of this tribe is reviewed based on habitus and, in some cases, genitalia of type specimens. Lectotypes are designated for two names. Four new combinations are proposed: Agaraea sericeum (Zerny, 1931) comb. n., Biturix nigrostriata (Rothschild, 1909) comb. n., Carales fasciatus (Rothschild, 1909) comb. n. and Opharus pallida (Dognin, 1910) comb. n. Six new synonymies are proposed: Agaraea nigrotuberculata Bryk, 1953 (=Agaraea klagesi (Rothschild, 1909)), Opharus ochracea Joicey & Talbot, 1918 and Pelochyta fergusoni Watson & Goodger, 1986 (=Opharus pallida (Dognin, 1910)), Melese flavescens Joicey & Talbot, 1918 (=Melese paranensis Dognin, 1911), Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882) (=Pareuchaetes aurata aurata (Butler, 1875)) and Tessellota pura Breyer, 1957 (=Tessellota cancellata (Burmeister, 1878)). Moreover, Opharus ochracea Joicey & Talbot, 1918 comb. rev. is returned to the original genus. For each rearrangement, both remarks and information about type specimens are provided.

  20. One century after: a reappraisal of the gnathos (sensu Pierce, 1914)
    in Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-06-23

    One century ago, F.N. Pierce in his well-known monograph on the genitalia of Geometridae (Lepidoptera), divided the family into two major subdivisions, the Gnathoi and the Agnathoi, depending on the presence or absence of the gnathos in males. In his study, Pierce assigned the Larentiinae to the Agnathoi based on the apparent absence of the gnathos in this subfamily. A re-examination of the male genitalic characters of numerous larentiine species representing 14 different tribes provided, contrary to Pierce's results, evidence for the presence of the gnathos in Larentiinae. Illustrations of the gnathos (or its remnants) in male genitalia of selected species are provided and the value of the uncus and gnathos for inferring phylogenetic relationships is discussed.

  1. Revision of the Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group in the western Palaearctic (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae).

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Pasi; Skou, Peder; Flamigni, Claudio; Fiumi, Gabriele; Hausmann, Axel

    2014-02-27

    The Palaearctic Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group is revised (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Four taxa are considered valid at species level: H. fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758), H. pinicolaria (Bellier, 1861), H. compararia (Staudinger, 1894) and one new species, H. mediterranea, from Italy: Sicily, Calabria and Molise. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Ellopia cedricola Wehrli, 1919, from Turkey is downgraded to subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (revised status), Hylaea fasciaria cleui Leraut, 1993, from France is downgraded from subspecies to synonymy with H. fasciaria fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (new synonymy) and Ellopia compararia Staudinger, 1894, from Algeria is raised from subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) to species status (revised status). Hemithea squalidaria O. G. Costa, 1848 from southern Italy was placed in the genus Hylaea, but it is reverted to its original combination as its taxonomic status is uncertain. Adults, male and female genitalia and distribution maps are illustrated for all species. DNA barcodes are presented for most taxa studied.

  2. Can the amount of corn acreage predict fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infestation levels in nearby cotton?

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N

    2009-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L., and a significant, but more sporadic, pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Western Hemisphere. Previous studies showed that the cotton infestations primarily involve a fall armyworm subpopulation known as the "corn-strain" for which corn is the preferred host plant. It was suggested that the fall armyworm infesting cotton originated in corn and spread into secondary hosts as their numbers increased. In this study, high positive correlations were found between corn acreage and fall armyworm infestation levels in cotton. These occurred between areas that are either geographically close or along plausible migration pathways. Formulae were derived from scatter plot and linear regression analysis that can predict infestation levels in cotton based on corn acreage. The implications of these results for describing and predicting fall armyworm population movements are discussed.

  3. Leucine transport is affected by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins in brush border membrane vesicles from Ostrinia nubilalis Hb (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) midgut.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M Giovanna; Caccia, Silvia; González-Cabrera, Joel; Ferré, Juan; Giordana, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The pore-forming activity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Fa and Cry1Ca toxins and their interaction with leucine transport mediated by the K(+)/leucine cotransporter were studied in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) isolated from the midgut of Ostrinia nubilalis and Sesamia nonagrioides. In both species, as in other Lepidoptera, leucine uptake by BBMVs can take place in the absence of cations, but it can also be driven by a K(+) gradient. Experiments with the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide proved that Cry1Ab, a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin active in vivo, enhanced the membrane permeability to potassium in O. nubilalis BBMVs. This result is in agreement with similar effects observed in S. nonagrioides BBMV incubated with various Cry1 toxins active in vivo. The effect of the above toxins was tested on the initial rate of 0.1 mM: leucine influx. Instead of an increase in leucine influx, a reduction was observed with the Cry1 toxins active in vivo. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa, but not the inactive toxin Cry1Da, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner leucine uptake both in the absence and in the presence of a K(+) gradient, a clear indication that their effect is independent of the channel formed by the toxins and that this effect is exerted directly on the amino acid transport system.

  4. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    PubMed

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  5. The first complete mitochondrial genome for the subfamily Limacodidae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Bian, Dan-Dan; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. To determine the systematic status of the family Limacodidae within Lepidoptera, we infer a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the complete mitogenome of Monema flavescens (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The mitogenome of M. flavescens is 15,396 base pairs (bp), and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew of this mitogenome is slightly negative and the nucleotide composition is also biased towards A + T nucleotides (80.5%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which is initiated by CGA. All tRNAs display the typical clover-leaf structure characteristic of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The mitogenome CR is 401 bp and consists of several features common to Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 mitochondrial PCGs indicates that M. flavescens belongs to Zygaenoidea. We obtain a well-supported phylogenetic tree consisting of Yponomeutoidea + (Tortricoidea + Zygaenoidea + (Papilionoidea + (Pyraloidea + (Noctuoidea + (Geometroidea + Bombycoidea))))). PMID:27767191

  6. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  8. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area—volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area—volume ratios. PMID:28384308

  9. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  10. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers.

  11. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  12. Mitochondrial genome characterization of Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its phylogenetic relationship with other lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Ríos, Viviana; Franco-Sierra, Nicolás D; Alvarez, Javier Correa; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I; Villanueva-Mejía, Diego F

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was sequenced, annotated, characterized and compared with 140 species of the order Lepidoptera. The circular genome is 15,251 bp, containing 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region). The gene arrangement was identical to other lepidopteran mitogenomes but different from the ancestral arrangement found in most insects for the tRNA-Met gene (A+T-region, tRNA-I, tRNA-Q, tRNA-M). The mitogenome of T. solanivora is highly A+T-biased (78.2%) and exhibits negative AT- and GC-skews. All PCGs are initiated by canonical ATN start codons, except for Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (COI), which is initiated by CGA. Most PCGs have a complete typical stop codon (TAA). Only NAD1 has a TAG stop codon and the COII and NAD5 genes have an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. The A+T-rich region is 332 bp long and contains common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes, including the 'ATAGA' motif, a 17 bp poly (T) stretch and a (AT)8 element preceded by the 'ATTTA' motif. Other tandem repeats like (TAA)4 and (TAT)7 were found, as well as (T)6 and (A)10 mononucleotide repeat elements. Finally, this mitogenome has 20 intergenic spacer regions. The phylogenetic relationship of T. solanivora with 28 other lepidopteran families (12 superfamilies) showed that taxonomic classification by morphological features coincides with the inferred phylogeny. Thus, the Gelechiidae family represents a monophyletic group, suggesting that T. solanivora and Pectinophora gossypiella have a recent common ancestor.

  13. Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Canfield, Michael R; Greene, Erick; Moreau, Corrie S; Chen, Nancy; Pierce, Naomi E

    2008-11-01

    The moth genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) includes 134 described species whose larvae and adults display a considerable range of phenotypic plasticity in coloration and morphology. We reconstructed the phylogeny of 54 species of Nemoria and seven outgroups using characters from the mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII), and the nuclear gene, Elongation Factor-alpha (EF-1alpha). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny. The 54 ingroup species represented 13 of the 15 recognized species groups of Nemoria [Ferguson, D.C., 1985. Fasc. 18.1, Geometroidea: Geometridae (in part). In: Dominick, R.B. (Ed.), The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fasc. 18.1. Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington; Pitkin, L.M., 1993. Neotropical emerald moths of the genera Nemoria, Lissochlora and Chavarriella, with particular reference to the species of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. 62, 39-159], and the seven outgroups came from four tribes of Geometrinae. These data support Nemoria as a monophyletic group and largely recover the species groupings proposed in previous taxonomic analyses using morphological characters. Phenotypic plasticity of larvae is not correlated with plasticity of adults among those species of Nemoria where life histories are known, and appears to be evolutionarily labile for both life history stages: Species exhibiting larval phenotypic plasticity, such as N. arizonaria and N. outina, are placed in several distinct clades, suggesting that this trait has evolved multiple times, and species displaying adult phenotypic plasticity are likewise distributed throughout the phylogeny. A comparative analysis of the biogeographic history of Nemoria supports a South American origin for the genus with multiple introductions into North America, and an application of published substitution rates to the phylogram provides an age estimate

  14. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism.

    PubMed

    Van't Hof, A E; Nguyen, P; Dalíková, M; Edmonds, N; Marec, F; Saccheri, I J

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes is highly conserved. Gene order is conserved on the autosomes, but noticeably less so on the Z chromosome, as confirmed by physical mapping using bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH). Synteny mapping identified three pairs of B. betularia LGs (11/29, 23/30 and 24/31) as being orthologous to three B. mori chromosomes (11, 23 and 24, respectively). A similar finding in an outgroup moth (Plutella xylostella) indicates that the B. mori karyotype (n=28) is a phylogenetically derived state resulting from three chromosome fusions. As with other Lepidoptera, the B. betularia W chromosome consists largely of repetitive sequence, but exceptionally we found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B. betularia linkage map, featuring the network of known melanization genes, serves as a resource for melanism research in Lepidoptera. Moreover, its close resemblance to the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype (n=31) makes it a useful reference point for reconstructing chromosome dynamic events and ancestral genome architectures. Our study highlights the unusual evolutionary stability of lepidopteran autosomes; in contrast, higher rates of intrachromosomal rearrangements support a special role of the Z chromosome in adaptive evolution and speciation.

  15. Production, identification, and field evaluation of sex pheromone from calling females in Diaphania angustalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Liu, Zhitao; Wang, Cai; Zhang, Shengnan; Shi, Xianhui; Sun, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyang; Jia, Caijuan; Wang, Changlu; He, Yurong; Wen, Xiujun

    2017-09-12

    Insect sex pheromones play a crucial role in the mate finding and calling behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Currently, little is known about the chemical ecology of Diaphania angustalis Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a severe and important defoliator attacking the medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris. In the present study, the pheromone components of D. angustalis females were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioral methods. Distilled hexane extracts of female pheromone glands were analyzed through electroantennogram (EAG) and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD), and the active compounds were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Production peak of female sex pheromone occurred on the third day of age at 5 h into the scotophase with the EAG test, and the hexane extracts were attractive to males in the wind tunnel test. GC-EAD analysis of virgin males to gland extracts that were subsequently evaluated showed two active compounds, (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10E12-16:Ald) and (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadien-1-ol (E10E12-16:OH), based on comparison of retention time and mass spectrum, with suitable synthetic compounds. Under laboratory conditions, the blend of E10E12-16:Ald and E10E12-16:OH in a ratio of 9:1 elicited a stronger EAG response than other treatments or a single component. In the field, more male moths were captured by traps baited with the mixture of E10E2-16:Ald and E10E2-16:OH in a ratio of 9:1, whereas a mixture of 8:1 and 10:1 also caught males. Accordingly, E10E2-16:Ald and E10E2-16:OH were regarded as the major sex pheromone components in D. angustalis females.

  16. Molecular diversity of Wolbachia in Lepidoptera: Prevalent allelic content and high recombination of MLST genes.

    PubMed

    Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2017-04-01

    Wolbachia are common endosymbiotic bacteria of Arthropoda and Nematoda that are ordinarily transmitted vertically in host lineages through the egg cytoplasm. Despite the great interest in the Wolbachia symbiont, many issues of its biology remain unclear, including its evolutionary history, routes of transfer among species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the symbiont's effect on its host. In this report, we present data relating to Wolbachia infection in 120 species of 13 Lepidoptera families, mostly butterflies, from West Siberian localities based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the wsp locus and perform a comprehensive survey of the distribution of Wolbachia and its genetic diversity in Lepidoptera worldwide. We observed a high infection incidence in the studied region; this finding is probably also true for other temperate latitude regions because many studied species have broad Palearctic and even Holarctic distribution. Although 40 new MLST alleles and 31 new STs were described, there was no noticeable difference in the MLST allele content in butterflies and probably also in moths worldwide. A genetic analysis of Wolbachia strains revealed the MLST allele core in lepidopteran hosts worldwide, viz. the ST-41 allele content. The key finding of our study was the detection of rampant recombination among MLST haplotypes. High rates of homologous recombination between Wolbachia strains indicate a substantial contribution of genetic exchanges to the generation of new STs. This finding should be considered when discussing issues related to the reconstruction of Wolbachia evolution, divergence time, and the routes of Wolbachia transmission across arthropod hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  18. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  19. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C)) to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ) exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0) into (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone biosynthesis of a non

  20. Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Roditakis, Emmanouil; Steinbach, Denise; Moritz, Gerald; Vasakis, Emmanouil; Stavrakaki, Marianna; Ilias, Aris; García-Vidal, Lidia; Martínez-Aguirre, María Del Rosario; Bielza, Pablo; Morou, Evangelia; Silva, Jefferson E; Silva, Wellington M; Siqueira, Ηerbert A A; Iqbal, Sofia; Troczka, Bartlomiej J; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Vontas, John; Nauen, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T. absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T. absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P. xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P. xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T. absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance