Sample records for manfaat limbah kayu

  1. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Growth Habitat of Kayu Kuku (Pericopsis mooniana Thw.) In Southeast Sulawesi.


    Husna; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Mansur, Irdika; Kusmana, Dan Cecep


    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are categorized as fungi which have symbioses with terrestrial plants and are distributed in various habitat types. The objectives of this research were to investigate the diversity of AMF in stands of kayu kuku (Pericopsis mooniana Thw.) in Southeast Sulawesi. Collection of samples of soil and root were conducted in six locations. Isolation of spores used the method of wet sieving and decanting, whereas AMF identification was conducted by observing morphology of AMF spores. Parameters of AMF diversity, namely species richness, diversity index, dominance index, evenness index and colonization were studied using method of infected root length. Research results showed that location differences affected significantly the spore density and parameters of AMF diversity, except colonization of AMF (p < 0.116). Location around the Governor office showed the highest number of spores (208.6 spores/100 g of soil). Soil chemical properties, such as C, N, P and heavy metal contributed towards AMF spore density and diversity. Soil C and N correlated negatively with spore density. In terms of location, Glomeraceae constituted the genera with the largest number of species and possessed wide distribution in all research locations. In general, natural forest has higher AMF diversity index (Shannon-Weiner diversity index-H'), evenness (E) and species richness (S) as compared with location of PT. Vale Indonesia Tbk.

  2. Rainfall-runoff response from urban catchments in humid tropical regions: A case study of Kayu Ara catchment in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, A.; Venneker, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Wong, C.


    Knowledge of rainfall-runoff response for urban engineering practices is of pivotal importance, especially for humid tropic areas such as Malaysia where the information is rather limited. In view of this, a rainfall-runoff analysis study was conducted for the 25 km2 urban catchment of Kayu Ara, Kuala Lumpur. Five-minute rainfall and runoff data from 1996 - 2005 were used, from which 146 events were selected for detailed analysis. The relationship between direct runoff and mean areal rainfall provided information on the catchment response. The derived event-based runoff coefficients are useful for catchment comparison, and in particular to understand how different landscapes affect transformation of rainfall into event runoff and to explain the runoff generation mechanism. However, the lack of a standard method for hydrograph separation is a disadvantage, which introduces uncertainty into the analysis and the results and may also complicate comparison with results from other areas. Nevertheless, it is shown that event-based runoff coefficients could improve our understanding of rainfall-runoff response, especially for urban conditions.

  3. Tropical Timbers of the World,

    DTIC Science & Technology


    i’e e Other Common Names: Kavu Malam \\Sa ta), i a, P’a*- a ain’,, Trayung (Cambodia), Marbiewood (Andama:n :s’ands), riaagong (hili pines...l’union Frargaise. Publ. Centre Tech. For. Trop. No. 8. 4. U.K.: F.P.R.L. 1972. Report on a consignment of Kayu Malam (Diospyros discocalyx) from Sabah...diversicolor KASAI AS Pometia spp. KAURI AS Agathis spp. KAUTA AM Licania spp. KAUVULA AS Endospermum spp. KAYU MALAM AS Diospyros spp. KEL)ONDONG AS

  4. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnancy and its impact on obstetric outcome.


    Yusof, Juliana; Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Noor, Rushdan Mohd


    To evaluate the prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a Malaysian antenatal population and its impact on obstetric outcome. Cross sectional study. Obstetric Unit, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Kedah. Women attending antenatal clinic and Patient Admission Centre (PAC) above 30 weeks gestation were given structured questionnaires to fill. Pregnancy outcome measures were documented and analyzed in relation to the information gathered through the questionnaire. SPSS Version 21 was used to analyze all data obtained. Out of 447 women, the overall prevalence of CAM usage in pregnancy was 85.2%. It was popular among pregnant mothers aged between 26 and 35 years old and most commonly used in the third trimester (p = 0.0.010) to facilitate labour. Other sociodemographic factors such as race, parity, education, occupation and residence were not significantly important. Traditional herbs was the commonest type of CAM used in pregnancy (58.3%) followed by selusuh (24.3%). About 78.5% of the CAM users delivered vaginally (p = 0.020) but a significant proportion (14.3%) had fetal distress (p = 0.035) compared to non CAM users. The most common type of herbs used was akar kayu bunga Fatimah (37.7%) and gamat (13.4%). In our study, usage of selusuh product and akar kayu bunga Fatimah had a significant impact in achieving vaginal delivery and shortened the duration of labour particularly in multiparae. The usage of Kacip Fatimah and Salindah was associated with preterm labour (p = 0.04)Tongkat Ali herbal coffee had a significant association with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (p = 0.011) and fetal distress (p = 0.04) Meanwhile, the usage of Jamu Mustika Ratu was significantly associated with low birth weight in grandmultiparae (p = 0.026)and spirulina was significantly associated with oligohydramnios (p = 0.04). Usage of CAM in pregnancy in the Malaysian population is of high prevalence CAM in pregnancy has beneficial and

  5. Choice of rainfall inputs for event-based rainfall-runoff modeling in a catchment with multiple rainfall stations using data-driven techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tak Kwin; Talei, Amin; Alaghmand, Sina; Ooi, Melanie Po-Leen


    Input selection for data-driven rainfall-runoff models is an important task as these models find the relationship between rainfall and runoff by direct mapping of inputs to output. In this study, two different input selection methods were used: cross-correlation analysis (CCA), and a combination of mutual information and cross-correlation analyses (MICCA). Selected inputs were used to develop adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in Sungai Kayu Ara basin, Selangor, Malaysia. The study catchment has 10 rainfall stations and one discharge station located at the outlet of the catchment. A total of 24 rainfall-runoff events (10-min interval) from 1996 to 2004 were selected from which 18 events were used for training and the remaining 6 were reserved for validating (testing) the models. The results of ANFIS models then were compared against the ones obtained by conceptual model HEC-HMS. The CCA and MICCA methods selected the rainfall inputs only from 2 (stations 1 and 5) and 3 (stations 1, 3, and 5) rainfall stations, respectively. ANFIS model developed based on MICCA inputs (ANFIS-MICCA) performed slightly better than the one developed based on CCA inputs (ANFIS-CCA). ANFIS-CCA and ANFIS-MICCA were able to perform comparably to HEC-HMS model where rainfall data of all 10 stations had been used; however, in peak estimation, ANFIS-MICCA was the best model. The sensitivity analysis on HEC-HMS was conducted by recalibrating the model by using the same selected rainfall stations for ANFIS. It was concluded that HEC-HMS model performance deteriorates if the number of rainfall stations reduces. In general, ANFIS was found to be a reliable alternative for HEC-HMS in cases whereby not all rainfall stations are functioning. This study showed that the selected stations have received the highest total rain and rainfall intensity (stations 3 and 5). Moreover, the contributing rainfall stations selected by CCA and MICCA were found to be located near the outlet of

  6. Biodegradation of a medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate in tropical river water.


    Ho, Yen-Him; Gan, Seng-Neon; Tan, Irene K P


    The medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA(MCL)) produced by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 using saponified palm kernel oil as the carbon source could degrade readily in water taken from Kayu Ara River in Selangor, Malaysia. A weight loss of 71.3% of the PHA film occurred in 86 d. The pH of the river water medium fell from 7.5 (at d 0) to 4.7 (at d 86), and there was a net release of CO2. In sterilized river water, the PHA film also lost weight and the pH of the water fell, but to lesser extents. The C8 monomer of the PHA was completely removed after 6 d of immersion in the river water, while the proportions of the other monomers (C10, C12, and C14) were reversed from that of the undegraded PHA. By contrast, the monomer composition of the PHA immersed in sterilized river water did not change significantly from that of the undegraded PHA. Scanning electron microscopy showed physical signs of degradation on the PHA film immersed in the river water, but the film immersed in sterilized river water was relatively unblemished. The results thus indicate that the PHA(MCL) was degraded in tropical river water by biologic as well as nonbiologic means. A significant finding is that shorter-chain monomers were selectively removed throughout the entire PHA molecule, and this suggests enzymatic action.

  7. Documentation of self-care actions taken for somatic complaints by postmenopausal Malay women living in Kelantan Malaysia.


    Dhillon, Hardip-Kaur; Mohd Zaki Nik Mahmood, Nik; Singh, Harbindarjeet


    The aim of this study was to document some of the self-care actions taken by women in Kelantan to manage their somatic symptoms associated with menopause. A verified semi-structured questionnaire in the Malay language was administered to 326 naturally menopaused healthy women (mean age of 57.01+/-6.58 (S.D.) years) residing in Kelantan to determine the prevalence and types of self-care actions taken for their somatic complaints. Mean age at menopause was 49.4+/-3.4 (S.D.) years and 75% of these women were within the first 10 years of menopause. Of the four somatic symptoms, tiredness was the most prevalent followed by reduced level of mental concentration, musculoskeletal aches and pains, and backache. The prevalence of self-care actions was highest for backache (91%) and the lowest for reduced level of concentration (47.7%), and both prevalence and type of self-care action appear to depend upon the area of residence, and the educational level of the subject. Of those who took self-care actions, majority were from urban areas and with a higher educational level. Although HRT was used for all the four complaints, the use of pain relief tablets and traditional body massage was more commonly used for musculoskeletal aches and pains and backache than HRT. There was also a small fraction of women who had used the traditional herbs like 'akar kayu' and 'jamu' for these two complaints. It appears that the self-care actions used by postmenopausal women in Kelantan for their somatic complaints ranged from HRT to a combination of conventional, traditional, and alternative remedies. The fraction of women taking self-care action varied from symptom to symptom and the choice of self-care action also depended upon the education level, socio-economic status and place where the respondents were domiciled. There was a tendency for the more affluent and educated women to use more of the modern practices and slightly less of the traditional remedies whereas the rural women did the