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Sample records for manganese 64

  1. Manganese

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Manganese ; CASRN 7439 - 96 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  2. Manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Fig. 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published...

  3. Chronic manganese intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.C.; Chu, N.S.; Lu, C.S.; Wang, J.D.; Tsai, J.L.; Tzeng, J.L.; Wolters, E.C.; Calne, D.B. )

    1989-10-01

    We report six cases of chronic manganese intoxication in workers at a ferromanganese factory in Taiwan. Diagnosis was confirmed by assessing increased manganese concentrations in the blood, scalp, and pubic hair. In addition, increased manganese levels in the environmental air were established. The patients showed a bradykinetic-rigid syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease that responded to treatment with levodopa.

  4. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  5. Manganese ore tailing: optimization of acid leaching conditions and recovery of soluble manganese.

    PubMed

    Santos, Olívia de Souza Heleno; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Silva, Gilmare Antônia da; Santos, Cláudio Gouvêa Dos

    2015-01-01

    Manganese recovery from industrial ore processing waste by means of leaching with sulfuric acid was the objective of this study. Experimental conditions were optimized by multivariate experimental design approaches. In order to study the factors affecting leaching, a screening step was used involving a full factorial design with central point for three variables in two levels (2(3)). The three variables studied were leaching time, concentration of sulfuric acid and sample amount. The three factors screened were shown to be relevant and therefore a Doehlert design was applied to determine the best working conditions for leaching and to build the response surface. By applying the best leaching conditions, the concentrations of 12.80 and 13.64 %w/w of manganese for the global sample and for the fraction -44 + 37 μm, respectively, were found. Microbeads of chitosan were tested for removal of leachate acidity and recovering of soluble manganese. Manganese recovery from the leachate was 95.4%. Upon drying the leachate, a solid containing mostly manganese sulfate was obtained, showing that the proposed optimized method is efficient for manganese recovery from ore tailings.

  6. Air Manganese Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In November 2011 US EPA researchers conducted a health study of airborne manganese exposure in East Liverpool, Ohio. This Web site discusses preliminary results of the study and provides background and other related information.

  7. Occupational exposure to manganese.

    PubMed Central

    Sarić, M; Markićević, A; Hrustić, O

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups. PMID:871441

  8. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  9. Manganese Research Health Project (MHRP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    MRI) of Manganese Role of Manganese in Prion Disease Pathogenesis Accumulation in the Rat Brain Associated with Iron - Deficiency and Supplementation...Imaging (MRI) of Manganese Accumulation in the Rat Brain Associated with Iron -Deficiency and Supplementation Aschner, Michael, Ph.D. Fitsanakis, Vanessa...Aschner (2006). Determination of brain manganese and iron accumulation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and atomic absorption spectroscopy. 4 2 nd

  10. Manganese biomining: A review.

    PubMed

    Das, A P; Sukla, L B; Pradhan, N; Nayak, S

    2011-08-01

    Biomining comprises of processing and extraction of metal from their ores and concentrates using microbial techniques. Currently this is used by the mining industry to extract copper, uranium and gold from low grade ores but not for low grade manganese ore in industrial scale. The study of microbial genomes, metabolites and regulatory pathways provide novel insights to the metabolism of bioleaching microorganisms and their synergistic action during bioleaching operations. This will promote understanding of the universal regulatory responses that the biomining microbial community uses to adapt to their changing environment leading to high metal recovery. Possibility exists of findings ways to imitate the entire process during industrial manganese biomining endeavor. This paper reviews the current status of manganese biomining research operations around the world, identifies factors that drive the selection of biomining as a processing technology, describes challenges in exploiting these innovations, and concludes with a discussion of Mn biomining's future.

  11. Manganese Health Research Program (MHRP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Via the Olfactory Nerve David Dorman, CPI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Manganese Accumulation in the Rat Brain Associated with Iron ...Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Manganese Accumulation in the Rat Brain Associated with Iron - Deficiency and Supplementation PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Manganese Accumulation in the Rat Brain Associated with Iron -Deficiency and Supplementation

  12. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Manganese in Madison's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Thomas; Hausbeck, John; Sorsa, Kirsti

    2008-12-01

    Public concern over events of manganese-discolored drinking water and the potential for adverse health effects from exposure to excess manganese reached a high level in 2005. In response, Public Health Madison Dane County, together with the Madison Water Utility, conceived and implemented a public health/water utility strategy to quantify the extent of the manganese problem, determine the potential for adverse human health effects, and communicate these findings to the community. This strategy included five basic parts: taking an inventory of wells and their manganese levels, correlating manganese concentration with turbidity, determining the prevalence and distribution of excess manganese in Madison households, reviewing the available scientific literature, and effectively communicating our findings to the community. The year-long public health/water utility strategy successfully resolved the crisis of confidence in the safety of Madison's drinking water.

  14. Microtopography of manganese crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Charles L.

    Quantitative examination of the seafloor surface roughness will be necessary for any design of equipment intended for use in collecting surface deposits such as cobalt-rich manganese crusts or nodules. Furthermore, it is an essential prerequisite to the confident interpretation of returns from high frequency side-scan and other acoustic systems. The objectives of the project were to develop the capability at the University of Hawaii of generating high resolution (less than 1 cm horizontal and vertical) topographic models of the seafloor from 35 mm stereo photographs; to produce such models from existing photographs of cobalt-rich manganese crust deposits; and to optimize the configuration of the existing Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) camera system for stereo photograph collection and correlation of acoustic data with the photographic ground-truth. These tasks were accomplished and have also led to the development of a follow-on project (MMTC/OBD Project 1512) dedicated to the simultaneous acquisition of both optical and side-scan acoustic data for future accurate determination of seabed microtopography.

  15. Associations of iron metabolism genes with blood manganese levels: a population-based study with validation data from animal models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Given mounting evidence for adverse effects from excess manganese exposure, it is critical to understand host factors, such as genetics, that affect manganese metabolism. Methods Archived blood samples, collected from 332 Mexican women at delivery, were analyzed for manganese. We evaluated associations of manganese with functional variants in three candidate iron metabolism genes: HFE [hemochromatosis], TF [transferrin], and ALAD [δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase]. We used a knockout mouse model to parallel our significant results as a novel method of validating the observed associations between genotype and blood manganese in our epidemiologic data. Results Percentage of participants carrying at least one copy of HFE C282Y, HFE H63D, TF P570S, and ALAD K59N variant alleles was 2.4%, 17.7%, 20.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Percentage carrying at least one copy of either C282Y or H63D allele in HFE gene was 19.6%. Geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) manganese concentrations were 17.0 (1.5) μg/l. Women with any HFE variant allele had 12% lower blood manganese concentrations than women with no variant alleles (β = -0.12 [95% CI = -0.23 to -0.01]). TF and ALAD variants were not significant predictors of blood manganese. In animal models, Hfe-/- mice displayed a significant reduction in blood manganese compared with Hfe+/+ mice, replicating the altered manganese metabolism found in our human research. Conclusions Our study suggests that genetic variants in iron metabolism genes may contribute to variability in manganese exposure by affecting manganese absorption, distribution, or excretion. Genetic background may be critical to consider in studies that rely on environmental manganese measurements. PMID:22074419

  16. Mineral of the month: manganese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corathers, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most important ferrous metals and one of the few for which the United States is totally dependent on imports. It is a black, brittle element predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production, which together provide the largest market for manganese (about 83 percent). It is also used as an alloy with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Nonmetallurgical applications of manganese include battery cathodes, soft ferrite magnets used in electronics, micronutrients found in fertilizers and animal feed, water treatment chemicals, and a colorant for bricks and ceramics.

  17. Tellurium content of marine manganese oxides and other manganese oxides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, H.W.; Thompson, C.E.; Davidson, D.F.

    1963-01-01

    Tellurium in amounts ranging from 5 to 125 parts per million was present in all of 12 samples of manganese oxide nodules from the floor of the Pacific and Indian oceans. These samples represent the first recognized points of high tellurium concentration in a sedimentary cycle. The analyses may lend support to the theory that the minor-element content of seafloor manganese nodules is derived from volcanic emanations.

  18. Improved Manganese Phosphate Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    Conversion coatings 3 . Phosphating bath 20 AGrjC onln odd*. ta It .. c..soMV midP 1J.,alft. by block noc.mb) Work was conducted to determine the mechanism by...34 TABULAR DATA Table I Analyses of Solution and Coating for Phosphating Baths 4 of Di-ferlng Compositions 11 Atomic Absorption...manganese and iron phosphate coating: k * a. Mn(H 2PO4) 2 Nn-P0 4 + H3PO0 k2 k) b. 3MnHPO4 - Mn3 (P04) 2 + H3i’O4 k4 k5 c. Fe(H 2PO4) 2 -01 FeHPO4

  19. Evaluation of Manganese Phosphate Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    84003 _____________ 4 . TTLE and -bitle)5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EVALUATION OF MANGANESE PHOSPHATE COATINGS Final 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...rosion resistance of the Endurion phosphate was significantly superior to the 4 . basic manganese phosphate . Endurion phosphate with a Supplementary...OF CONTENTS Page STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 BACKGROUND 1 APPROACH TO THE PROBLEM 3 RESULTS 4 CONCLUSIONS 7 TABLES I. Falex Wear Life Test Procedure 8

  20. 13. 64 foot truss oblique view of the 64 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. 64 foot truss - oblique view of the 64 foot pony truss showing its general configuration. The 80 foot pony trusses are similar. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  1. 1700+64 Followup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriss, G.

    In March 2003, the quasar HS1700+64 was found (as part of program C123) to be 2-3 times brighter than in the past. This quasar was used for the first measurements of He II opacity in the intergalactic medium by HUT. It is currently brighter than HE2347-4342, the quasar first observed by FUSE for resolving the He II Lyman alpha forest in the IGM, giving us a unique opportunity to obtain high quality measurements of the He II opacity along another sight line through the IGM. The data in this program, when combined with C123 and the Z012 DOT program, will give a final spectrum of the same quality as that obtained on HE2347-4342. These two quasars are the only ones known with clear lines lines of sight to the He II Ly-alpha foresy that can be observed with FUSE.

  2. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-06-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  3. Bacteriology of Manganese Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, R. B.; Ehrlich, H. L.

    1968-01-01

    MnO2 reduction by aerobic growing cultures of Bacillus 29 and coccus 32, isolated from ferromanganese nodules, was assessed for 7 days. A 1-day lag was observed before the onset of MnO2 reduction by either culture. Addition of HgCl2 to a final concentration of about 10-3 M caused a rapid cessation of MnO2 reduction by the growing cultures. Neither culture reduced MnO2 when grown under continued anaerobiosis from the start of an experiment. However, if conditions were made anaerobic after MnO2 reduction was initiated, reduction continued at a rate only slightly lower than that under aerobic conditions. Resting-cell cultures reduced MnO2 equally well aerobically and anaerobically, provided that ferricyanide was present to serve as electron carrier. These findings showed that oxygen is needed for culture adaptation to MnO2 reduction, and that oxygen does not interfere with microbial MnO2 reduction itself. Both cultures caused sharp drops in the pH of the medium during MnO2 reduction: with coccus 32, during the entire incubation time; with Bacillus 29, for the first 3 days. The Eh of the medium fluctuated with either culture and never fell below 469 mv with Bacillus 29 and below 394 mv with coccus 32. The rates of glucose consumption and Mn2+ release by Bacillus 29 and coccus 32 were fairly constant, but the rates of lactate and pyruvate production were not. Although acid production undoubtedly helped in the reduction of pyrolusite (MnO2) by the bacteria, it did not appear to be important in the reduction of manganese oxide in ferromanganese nodules, as shown by the results with a nodule enrichment. PMID:16349802

  4. Manganese uptake and streptococcal virulence.

    PubMed

    Eijkelkamp, Bart A; McDevitt, Christopher A; Kitten, Todd

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcal solute-binding proteins (SBPs) associated with ATP-binding cassette transporters gained widespread attention first as ostensible adhesins, next as virulence determinants, and finally as metal ion transporters. In this mini-review, we will examine our current understanding of the cellular roles of these proteins, their contribution to metal ion homeostasis, and their crucial involvement in mediating streptococcal virulence. There are now more than 35 studies that have collected structural, biochemical and/or physiological data on the functions of SBPs across a broad range of bacteria. This offers a wealth of data to clarify the formerly puzzling and contentious findings regarding the metal specificity amongst this group of essential bacterial transporters. In particular we will focus on recent findings related to biological roles for manganese in streptococci. These advances will inform efforts aimed at exploiting the importance of manganese and manganese acquisition for the design of new approaches to combat serious streptococcal diseases.

  5. SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-04-22

    The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

  6. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  7. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  8. [Contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions].

    PubMed

    Matsushima, F; Meshitsuka, S; Nose, T

    1993-10-01

    We measured the contents of aluminum and manganese in tea leaves and tea infusions by means of various standardized infusion conditions, and by using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and investigated the influence of infusion conditions on the elution of aluminum and manganese into the tea infusions. Furthermore, we tried to estimate the daily intake of aluminum and manganese due to drinking tea infusions. The content of aluminum in tea leaves was 1420 micrograms/g in case of wulong tea, 576 micrograms/g in black tea, and 520 micrograms/g in green tea. The content of manganese was 1440 micrograms/g in the case of wulong tea, 670 micrograms/g in green tea, and 535 micrograms/g in black tea. The concentration of aluminum in tea infusions was 1.49-5.58 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, 0.90-4.92 micrograms/ml in green tea, and 0.64-4.35 micrograms/ml in black tea. The concentration of manganese was 1.75-6.67 micrograms/ml in green tea, 0.94-4.04 micrograms/ml in wulong tea, and 0.78-3.24 micrograms/ml in black tea. The ratio of the molar concentration of aluminum to that of manganese was 1-2:1 in tea leaves, and 1-5:1 in tea infusions. In the case of elevated-temperature infusion, increases of the concentrations of aluminum and manganese in tea infusions were recognized. By repeating infusion three times according to the standard method for ingredient analysis of food, 18-29% of the total content of aluminum in tea leaves was eluted, and 12-29% of the total content of manganese was eluted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The Mechanism on Biomass Reduction of Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Zhao, Yuna

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism on biomass reduction of low-grade manganese dioxide ore was studied by investigating influence factors on manganese recovery degree, such as the reaction temperature, time, biomass/ore ratio, compositions of biomass, nitrogen flow rate, and particle size of raw materials, and it was further identified through analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the reduced sample. The results show that the reduction process involved mainly two steps: (1) The biomass was first pyrolyzed to release reductive volatiles and (2) manganese oxide ore was reacted with the reductive volatiles. By an analysis of gas composition in the outlet gas, it was also found that the ratio of biomass/ore had an important effect on the reduction mechanism. With a low biomass/ore ratio of 0.5:10, the reducing reaction of the reductive volatiles with manganese dioxide ore proceeded mainly in two stages: (1) The condensable volatiles (tar) released from biomass pyrolysis reacted with manganese oxide ore to produce reductive noncondensable gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and some light hydrocarbons; and (2) the small molecule gases further participated in the reduction. XRD pattern analysis on the reduced manganese dioxide ore revealed that the process of biomass reduction of manganese ore underwent in phases (MnO2 → Mn3O4 → MnO). The kinetics study showed the reduction process was controlled by a gas-solid reaction between biomass volatiles and manganese oxide ore with activation energy E of 53.64 kJ mol-1 and frequency factor A of 5.45 × 103 minutes-1.

  10. Dissociative excitation of the manganese atom quartet levels by collisions e-MnBr2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Yu M.

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative excitation of quartet levels of the manganese atom was studied in collisions of electrons with manganese dibromide molecules. Eighty-two cross-sections for transitions originating at odd levels and eleven cross-sections for transitions originating at even levels have been measured at an incident electron energy of 100 eV. An optical excitation function has been recorded in the electron energy range of 0–100 eV for transitions originating from 3d 64p z 4 F° levels. For the majority of transitions, a comparison of the resulting cross-section values to cross-sections produced by direct excitation is provided.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Narayanan, V.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.

    2014-01-28

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi Reddy, S; Padma Suvarna, K; Udayabhaska Reddy, G; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R L

    2014-01-03

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  14. Manganese Research Health Project (MHRP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    of a GLP compliant micronucleus assay in mice according to the OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, OECD 474: Mammalian Erythrocyte... Micronucleus Test . Experimental Design The basic experimental design used at ILS and proposed for the definitive in vivo micronucleus assay in manganese...regimen, would be expected to produce lethality”. The limit dose for the in vivo micronucleus assay based on OECD 474 is 2000 mg/kg and testing in a

  15. Microbial Formation of Manganese Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Anthony C.; Madgwick, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial manganese oxidation was demonstrated at high Mn2+ concentrations (5 g/liter) in bacterial cultures in the presence of a microalga. The structure of the oxide produced varied depending on the bacterial strain and mode of culture. A nonaxenic, acid-tolerant microalga, a Chlamydomonas sp., was found to mediate formation of manganite (γ-MnOOH). Bacteria isolated from associations with crude cultures of this alga grown in aerated bioreactors formed disordered γ-MnO2 from Mn2+ at concentrations of 5 g/liter over 1 month, yielding 3.3 g of a semipure oxide per liter. All algal-bacterial cultures removed Mn2+ from solution, but only those with the highest removal rates formed an insoluble oxide. While the alga was an essential component of the reaction, a Pseudomonas sp. was found to be primarily responsible for the formation of a manganese precipitate. Medium components—algal biomass and urea—showed optima at 5.7 and 10 g/liters, respectively. The scaled-up culture (50 times) gave a yield of 22.3 g (53 mg/liter/day from a 15-liter culture) of semipure disordered γ-MnO2, identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and had a manganese oxide O/Mn ratio of 1.92. The Mn(IV) content in the oxide was low (30.5%) compared with that of mined or chemically formed γ-MnO2 (ca. 50%). The shortfall in the bacterial oxide manganese content was due to biological and inorganic contaminants. FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron diffraction studies have identified manganite as a likely intermediate product in the formation of disordered γ-MnO2. PMID:16348459

  16. Mineral resource of the month: manganese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corathers, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese is a silver-colored metal resembling iron and often found in conjunction with iron. The earliest-known human use of manganese compounds was in the Stone Age, when early humans used manganese dioxide as pigments in cave paintings. In ancient Rome and Egypt, people started using it to color or remove the color from glass - a practice that continued to modern times. Today, manganese is predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production. Steel and cast iron together provide the largest market for manganese (historically 85 to 90 percent), but it is also alloyed with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Its importance to steel cannot be overstated, as almost all types of steel contain manganese and could not exist without it.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O,...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O,...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O,...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dioxide in sulfuric acid, and the roasting of pyrolusite (MnO2) ore with solid ferrous sulfate and coal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O,...

  1. Negative impact of manganese on honeybee foraging

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Perry, Clint J.; LaMora, Angie; Barron, Andrew B.; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic accumulation of metals such as manganese is a well-established health risk factor for vertebrates. By contrast, the long-term impact of these contaminants on invertebrates is mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that manganese ingestion alters brain biogenic amine levels in honeybees and fruit flies. Furthermore, we show that manganese exposure negatively affects foraging behaviour in the honeybee, an economically important pollinator. Our findings indicate that in addition to its direct impact on human health, the common industrial contaminant manganese might also have indirect environmental and economical impacts via the modulation of neuronal and behavioural functions in economically important insects. PMID:25808001

  2. Regulation of cellular manganese and manganese transport rates in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Sunda, W.G.; Huntsman, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The cellular accumulation and uptake kinetics of manganese by Chlamydomonas sp. were studied in model chelate buffer systems. Cellular manganese concentrations and uptake rates were related to the computed free manganese ion concentration and were independent of the total or chelated manganese concentration. Cellular manganese was constant at about 1 mmol liter/sup -1/ of cellular volume at free manganese ion concentrations of 10/sup -7/ /sup 6/-10/sup -6/ /sup 3/ mol liter/sup -1/ and decreased below this range. Manganese uptake rates followed saturation kinetics and V/sub max/, but not K/sub s/, varied with the free manganese ion concentration in the growth medium. V/sub max/ appeared to be under negative feedback control and increased with decreasing manganese ion concentration. Variations of up to 30-fold in this parameter seemed to be instrumental in limiting the variation in cellular manganese to a sixfold range despite a 1000-fold variation in free manganese ion concentration in the growth medium.

  3. Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.

    PubMed

    Sackett, W M

    1966-11-04

    The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide.

  4. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  5. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  6. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  7. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... less than 93 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. Manganese violet is safe for use in coloring cosmetics generally, including cosmetics applied to the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good...

  8. RNASeq in C. elegans following manganese exposure

    PubMed Central

    Parmalee, Nancy L.; Maqbool, Shahina B.; Ye, Bin; Calder, Brent; Bowman, Aaron B.; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a metal that is required for optimal biological functioning of organisms. Absorption, cellular import and export, and excretion of manganese are all tightly regulated. While some genes involved in regulation, such as DMT-1 and ferroportin are known, it is presumed that many more are involved and as yet unknown. Excessive exposure to manganese, usually in industrial settings, such as mining or welding, can lead to neurotoxicity and a condition known as manganism that closely resembles Parkinson's disease. Elucidating transcriptional changes following manganese exposure could lead to the development of biomarkers for exposure. This unit presents a protocol for RNA sequencing in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans to assay for transcriptional changes following exposure to manganese. This protocol is adaptable to any environmental exposure in C. elegans. The protocol results in counts of gene transcripts in control versus exposed conditions, and a ranked list of differentially expressed genes for further study. PMID:26250396

  9. Iron and manganese removal by using manganese ore constructed wetlands in the reclamation of steel wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Cheng; Chen, Gu; Huang, Xiang-Feng; Li, Guang-Ming; Liu, Jia; Yang, Na; Gao, Sai-Nan

    2009-09-30

    To reclaim treated steel wastewater as cooling water, manganese ore constructed wetland was proposed in this study for the removal of iron and manganese. In lab-scale wetlands, the performance of manganese ore wetland was found to be more stable and excellent than that of conventional gravel constructed wetland. The iron and manganese concentration in the former was below 0.05 mg/L at hydraulic retention time of 2-5 days when their influent concentrations were in the range of 0.16-2.24 mg/L and 0.11-2.23 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, its removals for COD, turbidity, ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus were 55%, 90%, 67% and 93%, respectively, superior to the corresponding removals in the gravel wetland (31%, 86%, 58% and 78%, respectively). The good performance of manganese ore was ascribed to the enhanced biological manganese removal with the aid of manganese oxide surface and the smaller size of the medium. The presence of biological manganese oxidation was proven by the facts of good manganese removal in wetlands at chemical unfavorable conditions (such as ORP and pH) and the isolation of manganese oxidizing strains from the wetlands. Similar iron and manganese removal was later observed in a pilot-scale gravel-manganese-ore constructed wetland, even though the manganese ore portion in total volume was reduced from 100% (in the lab-scale) to only 4% (in the pilot-scale) for the sake of cost-saving. The quality of the polished wastewater not only satisfied the requirement for cooling water but also suitable as make-up water for other purposes.

  10. Manganese

    MedlinePlus

    ... weeks can slightly reduce weight in overweight people. Wound healing. Early research suggests that applying a dressing containing ... to chronic wounds for 12 weeks may improve wound healing. Anemia. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to ...

  11. [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].

    PubMed

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A

    1995-09-01

    The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower.

  12. STS-64 Official Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmen assigned to the STS-64 mission include: Astronaut Richard N. Richards (center front), mission commander; L. Blaine Hammond Jr., (front left) pilot and Susan J. Helms (front right) mission specialist. On the back row, from left to right are: Mark C. Lee, Jerry M. Linenger and Carl J. Meade, all mission specialists. All but Lee and Meade are wearing launch and entry suits. Lee and Meade are wearing extravehicular activity units (EMU).

  13. Manganese concentrate usage in steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, O. I.; Rozhihina, I. D.

    2015-09-01

    The results of the research process of producing metalized products by solid-phase reduction of iron using solid carbonaceous reducing agents. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out on the model of the unit the Fe-C-O and system with iron ore and coal. As a result of modeling the thermodynamic boundary reducing, oxidizing, and transition areas and the value of the ratio of carbon and oxygen in the system. Simulation of real systems carried out with the gas phase obtained in the pyrolys of coal. The simulation results allow to determine the optimal cost of coal required for complete reduction of iron ore from a given composition. The kinetics of the processes of solid-phase reduction of iron using coal of various technological brands. The paper describes experiments on effects of metal deoxidizer composition, component proportion, pelletizing mixture, particle size distribution of basic materials and flux on manganese recovering from oxides under direct melting.

  14. Neurotoxicity of manganese oxide nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanescu, Diana M.; Khoshnan, Ali; Patterson, Paul H.; Hering, Janet G.

    2009-11-01

    Manganese (Mn) toxicity in humans has been observed as manganism, a disease that resembles Parkinson's disease. The mechanism of Mn toxicity and the chemical forms that may be responsible for its neurotoxicity are not well understood. We examined the toxicity of Mn oxide nanomaterials in a neuronal precursor cell model, using the MTS assay to evaluate mitochondrial function in living cells and the LDH assay to quantify the release of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase as a result of damage to the cell membrane. Both assays show that the toxicity of Mn is dependent on the type of Mn oxide nanomaterial and its concentration as well as on the state of cell differentiation. Following exposure to Mn oxide nanomaterials, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated, and flow cytometry experiments suggest that cell death occurred through apoptosis. During exposure to Mn oxide nanomaterials, increased levels of the transcription factor NF-κB (which mediates the cellular inflammatory response) were observed.

  15. Manganese-containing ionic liquids: synthesis, crystal structures and electrodeposition of manganese films and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sniekers, Jeroen; Malaquias, João C; Van Meervelt, Luc; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2017-02-21

    Manganese(ii)-containing ionic liquids were synthesized, in which the manganese atoms are coordinated by glymes (diglyme, triglyme, tetraglyme), pyridine-N-oxide, dimethylsulfoxide or N-alkylimidazoles (N-methylimidazole, N-butylimidazole and N-hexylimidazole). As anion, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (bistriflimide, Tf2N(-)), trifluoromethanesulfonate (triflate, OTf(-)) or methanesulfonate (mesylate, OMs(-)) were used. The compounds were characterized by CHN analysis, FTIR, DSC and single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. All manganese atoms were six-coordinate. It was found that the glyme-type ligands were replaced by atmospheric water upon leaving the crystals open to the air for several days. The crystal structures of seven compounds were described in detail and the compounds with the lowest melting temperatures were tested as electrolytes for the electrodeposition of manganese (thin) films. An irreversible reduction wave from Mn(ii) to Mn(0) and granular manganese deposits were observed for all compounds, except for liquid manganese salts with N-alkylimidazole ligands and bistriflimide anions, where the electrochemical formation of manganese nanoparticles was observed instead of the deposition of a manganese layer. However, for compounds with the same cation but with a triflate or methanesulfonate anion, manganese metal deposits were obtained, indicating that the nature of the anion has an important effect on the electrochemical properties of liquid metal salts.

  16. AH-64E Apache Remanufacture (AH-64E Remanufacture)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    capable of employing the Longbow Fire Control Radar mission kit, the Modernized Target Acquisition Designation System/Modernized Pilot Night Vision ...Prior FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY 2019 FY 2020 FY 2021 To Complete Total RDT&E 1335.7 65.6 66.4 59.8 31.2 32.7 37.5 0.0 1628.9 Procurement 3825.6...Prior FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY 2019 FY 2020 FY 2021 To Complete Total Development 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 Production 0 171 64 52 58 59 57 49 124 634

  17. MANGANESE DIOXIDE METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.

    1958-08-12

    A method of obtaining U/sup 233/ is described. An aqueous solution of neutriln irradiated thoriunn is treated by forming tberein a precipitate of manganese dioxide which carries and thus separates the Pa/sup 233/ from the solution. The carrier precipitate so formed is then dissolved in an acidic solution containing a reducing agent sufficiently electronegative to reduce the tetravalent manganese to the divalent state. Further purification of the Pa/sup 233/ may be obtained by forming another manganese dioxide carrier precipitate and subsequently dissolving it. Ater a sufficient number of such cycles have brought the Pa/sup 233/ to the desired purity, the solution is aged, allowing the formation ot U/sup 233/ by radioaetive decay. A manganese dioxide precipitate is then formed in the U/sup 233/ containing solution. This precipitate carries down any remaining Pa/sup 233/ thus leaving the separated U/sup 233/solution, from whieh it may be easily recovered.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... pale pink, granular, odorless powder. It is obtained by reacting manganese compounds with sulfuric acid... products as defined in § 170.3(n(13) of this chapter; meat products as defined in § 170.3(n)(29) of...

  19. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers

    SciTech Connect

    Barrington, W.W.; Angle, C.R.; Willcockson, N.K.; Padula, M.A.; Korn, T.

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a frog shop for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6--10 years before and 1.2--3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m{sup 3} in 29% and 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR{prime} interval) and the rates of change at low frequency and high frequency. MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used.

  20. Manganese recycling in the United States in 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the flow and processing of manganese within the U.S. economy in 1998 with emphasis on the extent to which manganese is recycled. Manganese was used mostly as an alloying agent in alloys in which it was a minor component. Manganese was recycled mostly within scrap of iron and steel. A small amount was recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Very little manganese was recycled from materials being recovered specifically for their manganese content. For the United States in 1998, 218,000 metric tons of manganese was estimated to have been recycled from old scrap, of which 96% was from iron and steel scrap. Efficiency of recycling was estimated as 53% and recycling rate as 37%. Metallurgical loss of manganese was estimated to be about 1.7 times that recycled. This loss was mostly into slags from iron and steel production, from which recovery of manganese has yet to be shown economically feasible.

  1. Manganese mineralogy and diagenesis in the sedimentary rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jena E.; Webb, Samuel M.; Ma, Chi; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of manganese (II) to manganese (III,IV) demands oxidants with very high redox potentials; consequently, manganese oxides are both excellent proxies for molecular oxygen and highly favorable electron acceptors when oxygen is absent. The first of these features results in manganese-enriched sedimentary rocks (manganese deposits, commonly Mn ore deposits), which generally correspond to the availability of molecular oxygen in Earth surface environments. And yet because manganese reduction is promoted by a variety of chemical species, these ancient manganese deposits are often significantly more reduced than modern environmental manganese-rich sediments. We document the impacts of manganese reduction and the mineral phases that form stable manganese deposits from seven sedimentary examples spanning from modern surface environments to rocks over 2 billion years old. Integrating redox and coordination information from synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microprobe imaging with scanning electron microscopy and energy and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy, we find that unlike the Mn(IV)-dominated modern manganese deposits, three manganese minerals dominate these representative ancient deposits: kutnohorite (CaMn(CO3)2), rhodochrosite (MnCO3), and braunite (Mn(III)6Mn(II)O8SiO4). Pairing these mineral and textural observations with previous studies of manganese geochemistry, we develop a paragenetic model of post-depositional manganese mineralization with kutnohorite and calcian rhodochrosite as the earliest diagenetic mineral phases, rhodochrosite and braunite forming secondarily, and later alteration forming Mn-silicates.

  2. Electrokinetic remediation of manganese and ammonia nitrogen from electrolytic manganese residue.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2015-10-01

    Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) is a solid waste found in filters after sulphuric acid leaching of manganese carbonate ore, which mainly contains manganese and ammonia nitrogen and seriously damages the ecological environment. This work demonstrated the use of electrokinetic (EK) remediation to remove ammonia nitrogen and manganese from EMR. The transport behavior of manganese and ammonia nitrogen from EMR during electrokinetics, Mn fractionation before and after EK treatment, the relationship between Mn fractionation and transport behavior, as well as the effects of electrolyte and pretreatment solutions on removal efficiency and energy consumption were investigated. The results indicated that the use of H2SO4 and Na2SO4 as electrolytes and pretreatment of EMR with citric acid and KCl can reduce energy consumption, and the removal efficiencies of manganese and ammonia nitrogen were 27.5 and 94.1 %, respectively. In these systems, electromigration and electroosmosis were the main mechanisms of manganese and ammonia nitrogen transport. Moreover, ammonia nitrogen in EMR reached the regulated level, and the concentration of manganese in EMR could be reduced from 455 to 37 mg/L. In general, the electrokinetic remediation of EMR is a promising technology in the future.

  3. Autonomic function in manganese alloy workers.

    PubMed

    Barrington, W W; Angle, C R; Willcockson, N K; Padula, M A; Korn, T

    1998-07-01

    The observation of orthostatic hypotension in an index case of manganese toxicity lead to this prospective attempt to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function and cognitive and emotional neurotoxicity in eight manganese alloy welders and machinists. The subjects consisted of a convenience sample consisting of an index case of manganese dementia, his four co-workers in a "frog shop" for gouging, welding, and grinding repair of high manganese railway track and a convenience sample of three mild steel welders with lesser manganese exposure also referred because of cognitive or autonomic symptoms. Frog shop air manganese samples 9.6-10 years before and 1.2-3.4 years after the diagnosis of the index case exceeded 1.0 mg/m3 in 29% and 0.2 mg/m3 in 62%. Twenty-four-hour electrocardiographic (Holter) monitoring was used to determine the temporal variability of the heartrate (RR' interval) and the rates of change at low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.40 Hz). MMPI and MCMI personality assessment and short-term memory, figure copy, controlled oral word association, and symbol digit tests were used. The five frog shop workers had abnormal sympathovagal balance with decreased high frequency variability (increased ln LF/ln HF). Seven of the eight workers had symptoms of autonomic dysfunction and significantly decreased heart rate variability (rMSSD) but these did not distinguish the relative exposure. Mood or affect was disturbed in all with associated changes in short-term memory and attention in four of the subjects. There were no significant correlations with serum or urine manganese. Power spectrum analysis of 24-h ambulatory ECG indicating a decrease in parasympathetic high frequency activation of heart rate variability may provide a sensitive index of central autonomic dysfunction reflecting increased exposure to manganese, although the contribution of exposures to solvents and other metals cannot be excluded. Neurotoxicity due to the gouging

  4. Study of high performance alloy electroforming. [nickel manganese and nickel cobalt manganese alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-manganese alloy electrodeposits from an electrolyte containing more manganese ion than previously used is being evaluated at two bath operating temperatures with a great variety of pulse plating conditions. Saccharine was added as a stress reducing agent for the electroforming of several of the samples with highest manganese content. All specimens for mechanical property testing have been produced but are not through the various heat treatments as yet. One of the heat treatment will be at 343 C (650 F), the temperature at which the MCC outer electroformed nickel shell is stress relieved. A number of retainer specimens from prior work have been tested for hardness before and after heat treatment. There appears to be a fairly good correlation between hardness and mechanical properties. Comparison of representative mechanical properties with hardnesses are made for nickel-manganese electrodeposits and nickel-cobalt-manganese deposits.

  5. Globally sustainable manganese metal production and use.

    PubMed

    Hagelstein, Karen

    2009-09-01

    The "cradle to grave" concept of managing chemicals and wastes has been a descriptive analogy of proper environmental stewardship since the 1970s. The concept incorporates environmentally sustainable product choices-such as metal alloys utilized steel products which civilization is dependent upon. Manganese consumption is related to the increasing production of raw steel and upgrading ferroalloys. Nonferrous applications of manganese include production of dry-cell batteries, plant fertilizer components, animal feed and colorant for bricks. The manganese ore (high grade 35% manganese) production world wide is about 6 million ton/year and electrolytic manganese metal demand is about 0.7 million ton/year. The total manganese demand is consumed globally by industries including construction (23%), machinery (14%), and transportation (11%). Manganese is recycled within scrap of iron and steel, a small amount is recycled within aluminum used beverage cans. Recycling rate is 37% and efficiency is estimated as 53% [Roskill Metals and Minerals Reports, January 13, 2005. Manganese Report: rapid rise in output caused by Chinese crude steel production. Available from: http://www.roskill.com/reports/manganese.]. Environmentally sustainable management choices include identifying raw material chemistry, utilizing clean production processes, minimizing waste generation, recycling materials, controlling occupational exposures, and collecting representative environmental data. This paper will discuss two electrolytically produced manganese metals, the metal production differences, and environmental impacts cited to date. The two electrolytic manganese processes differ due to the addition of sulfur dioxide or selenium dioxide. Adverse environmental impacts due to use of selenium dioxide methodology include increased water consumption and order of magnitude greater solid waste generation per ton of metal processed. The use of high grade manganese ores in the electrolytic process also

  6. Environmental effects and exposures to manganese from use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) in gasoline.

    PubMed

    Lynam, D R; Roos, J W; Pfeifer, G D; Fort, B F; Pullin, T G

    1999-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used since the 1970s in the U.S. as a gasoline octane enhancer Extensive testing of the effects of MMT on regulated gaseous emissions carried out on a wide variety of automobiles showed that use of MMT resulted in significantly lower NOx emissions Tests showed that less than 15% of the manganese from MMT combustion was emitted from the tailpipe, mostly in the PM2.5 fraction as manganese phosphate, with some manganese sulfate and a very small amount of manganese oxide. MMT has been used in Canada in virtually all unleaded gasoline for about 20 years. A probability-based study involving over 900 personal exposure samples in Toronto confirmed exposures to airborne PM2.5 Mn in the general population are quite low (.008 microgram/m3-median). Ambient levels of airborne manganese in Toronto are about the same as those in areas where MMT is not used. Exposures to manganese among the general population in Toronto are well within safe limits determined by the U.S. EPA and other standard setting bodies around the world.

  7. Real-Time Manganese Phase Dynamics during Biological and Abiotic Manganese Oxide Reduction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jena E; Savalia, Pratixa; Davis, Ryan; Kocar, Benjamin D; Webb, Samuel M; Nealson, Kenneth H; Fischer, Woodward W

    2016-04-19

    Manganese oxides are often highly reactive and easily reduced, both abiotically, by a variety of inorganic chemical species, and biologically during anaerobic respiration by microbes. To evaluate the reaction mechanisms of these different reduction routes and their potential lasting products, we measured the sequence progression of microbial manganese(IV) oxide reduction mediated by chemical species (sulfide and ferrous iron) and the common metal-reducing microbe Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under several endmember conditions, using synchrotron X-ray spectroscopic measurements complemented by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy on precipitates collected throughout the reaction. Crystalline or potentially long-lived phases produced in these experiments included manganese(II)-phosphate, manganese(II)-carbonate, and manganese(III)-oxyhydroxides. Major controls on the formation of these discrete phases were alkalinity production and solution conditions such as inorganic carbon and phosphate availability. The formation of a long-lived Mn(III) oxide appears to depend on aqueous Mn(2+) production and the relative proportion of electron donors and electron acceptors in the system. These real-time measurements identify mineralogical products during Mn(IV) oxide reduction, contribute to understanding the mechanism of various Mn(IV) oxide reduction pathways, and assist in interpreting the processes occurring actively in manganese-rich environments and recorded in the geologic record of manganese-rich strata.

  8. 47 CFR 64.709 - Informational tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informational tariffs. 64.709 Section 64.709... Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.709 Informational tariffs. (a) Informational... cents for each interstate operator service of the carrier and shall also contain applicable per...

  9. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calling in. 401.64 Section 401.64 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every...

  10. 36 CFR 72.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 72.64 Section 72.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Grant Selection, Approval and Administration § 72.64...

  11. 46 CFR 64.27 - Base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Base. 64.27 Section 64.27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.27 Base. The base of an MPT must be as wide and as long as the tank....

  12. 46 CFR 64.27 - Base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base. 64.27 Section 64.27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.27 Base. The base of an MPT must be as wide and as long as the tank....

  13. 46 CFR 64.27 - Base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base. 64.27 Section 64.27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.27 Base. The base of an MPT must be as wide and as long as the tank....

  14. 46 CFR 64.27 - Base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Base. 64.27 Section 64.27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.27 Base. The base of an MPT must be as wide and as long as the tank....

  15. 46 CFR 64.27 - Base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Base. 64.27 Section 64.27 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.27 Base. The base of an MPT must be as wide and as long as the tank....

  16. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  17. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  18. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  19. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  20. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Press pools. 540.64 Section 540.64... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a press pool whenever he or she determines that the frequency of requests for interviews and...

  1. 16 CFR 1025.64 - Attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attorneys. 1025.64 Section 1025.64... PROCEEDINGS Appearances, Standards of Conduct § 1025.64 Attorneys. Any attorney at law who is admitted to... attorney's own representation that he/she is in good standing before any of such courts shall be...

  2. 7 CFR 1955.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true 1955.64 Section 1955.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL... (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.64...

  3. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  4. 40 CFR 422.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 422.64 Section 422.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.64...

  5. 40 CFR 422.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 422.64 Section 422.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.64...

  6. 40 CFR 422.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 422.64 Section 422.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.64...

  7. 40 CFR 422.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 422.64 Section 422.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.64...

  8. 40 CFR 422.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 422.64 Section 422.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHOSPHATE MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Phosphates Subcategory § 422.64...

  9. 40 CFR 64.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 64.2 Section 64.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.2 Applicability. (a) General applicability. Except for backup utility units...

  10. 40 CFR 64.4 - Submittal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submittal requirements. 64.4 Section 64.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.4 Submittal requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall submit to...

  11. 40 CFR 64.4 - Submittal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submittal requirements. 64.4 Section 64.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.4 Submittal requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall submit to...

  12. 40 CFR 64.10 - Savings provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings provisions. 64.10 Section 64.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.10 Savings provisions. (a) Nothing in this part shall: (1) Excuse...

  13. 40 CFR 64.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 64.2 Section 64.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.2 Applicability. (a) General applicability. Except for backup utility units...

  14. 40 CFR 64.10 - Savings provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Savings provisions. 64.10 Section 64.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.10 Savings provisions. (a) Nothing in this part shall: (1) Excuse...

  15. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  16. 10 CFR 30.64 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 30.64 Section 30.64 Energy NUCLEAR... § 30.64 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful violation of, attempted violation of, or conspiracy to violate,...

  17. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  18. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  19. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  20. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  1. 47 CFR 64.904 - Independent audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Independent audits. 64.904 Section 64.904... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.904 Independent audits. (a) Each carrier... independent auditor every two years, covering the prior two year period, or have a financial audit...

  2. 47 CFR 64.904 - Independent audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Independent audits. 64.904 Section 64.904... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.904 Independent audits. (a) Each carrier... independent auditor every two years, covering the prior two year period, or have a financial audit...

  3. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  4. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  5. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  6. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  7. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to...

  8. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  9. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  10. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  11. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  12. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  13. 7 CFR 6.4 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investigations. 6.4 Section 6.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES General Provisions § 6.4 Investigations. (a) Section 22. The Administrator shall cause an investigation to be made whenever, based upon a...

  14. 7 CFR 6.4 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investigations. 6.4 Section 6.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES General Provisions § 6.4 Investigations. (a) Section 22. The Administrator shall cause an investigation to be made whenever, based upon a...

  15. 7 CFR 6.4 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investigations. 6.4 Section 6.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES General Provisions § 6.4 Investigations. (a) Section 22. The Administrator shall cause an investigation to be made whenever, based upon a...

  16. 7 CFR 6.4 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investigations. 6.4 Section 6.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES General Provisions § 6.4 Investigations. (a) Section 22. The Administrator shall cause an investigation to be made whenever, based upon a...

  17. 14 CFR § 1260.64 - Taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxes. § 1260.64 Section § 1260.64 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.64 Taxes. Taxes (For grants or cooperative agreements with foreign...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.64 - Taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxes. 1260.64 Section 1260.64 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.64 Taxes. Taxes (For grants or cooperative agreements with foreign...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.64 - Taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxes. 1260.64 Section 1260.64 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.64 Taxes. Taxes (For grants or cooperative agreements with foreign...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.64 - Taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxes. 1260.64 Section 1260.64 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.64 Taxes. Taxes (For grants or cooperative agreements with foreign...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.64 - Taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Taxes. 1260.64 Section 1260.64 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.64 Taxes. Taxes (For grants or cooperative agreements with foreign...

  2. 47 CFR 64.708 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.708 Section 64.708 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.708 Definitions. As used in §§...

  3. 47 CFR 64.3000 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.3000 Section 64.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Universal Emergency Telephone Number § 64.3000 Definitions. (a)...

  4. 47 CFR 64.2003 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.2003 Section 64.2003 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2003 Definitions....

  5. 47 CFR 64.1701 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.1701 Section 64.1701 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Resolution Regarding Equipment Standards § 64.1701 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the...

  6. 47 CFR 64.5000 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.5000 Section 64.5000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Prepaid Calling Card Providers § 64.5000 Definitions. (a)...

  7. 47 CFR 64.1600 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.1600 Section 64.1600 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Calling Party Telephone Number; Privacy § 64.1600 Definitions....

  8. 47 CFR 64.2305 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.2305 Section 64.2305 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Subscriber List Information § 64.2305 Definitions. Terms used in...

  9. 47 CFR 64.4001 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.4001 Section 64.4001... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Account Record Exchange Requirements § 64.4001 Definitions... such service should be included in the definition of that term. (f) Preferred interexchange...

  10. 47 CFR 64.803 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.803 Section 64.803 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Communications Services to Candidates for Federal Office § 64.803 Definitions. For the purposes of this...

  11. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  12. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  13. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  14. 31 CFR 8.64 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evidence. 8.64 Section 8.64 Money and... AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.64 Evidence. (a) Rules of evidence. The rules of evidence... shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or unduly repetitious. (b)...

  15. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  16. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  17. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  18. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  19. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum...

  20. 46 CFR 64.43 - Lifting fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifting fittings. 64.43 Section 64.43 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.43 Lifting fittings. Each MPT must have attached lifting fittings so that the tank remains horizontal and stable while being moved....

  1. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  2. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  3. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  4. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  5. 46 CFR 64.29 - Tank saddles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank saddles. 64.29 Section 64.29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.29 Tank saddles. If a tank is not completely supported by a...

  6. 46 CFR 64.45 - Securing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Securing devices. 64.45 Section 64.45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.45 Securing devices. An MPT or its framework must...

  7. 46 CFR 64.45 - Securing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Securing devices. 64.45 Section 64.45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.45 Securing devices. An MPT or its framework must...

  8. 46 CFR 64.29 - Tank saddles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank saddles. 64.29 Section 64.29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.29 Tank saddles. If a tank is not completely supported by a...

  9. 32 CFR 64.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Responsibilities. 64.5 Section 64.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.5 Responsibilities. (a)...

  10. 32 CFR 64.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibilities. 64.5 Section 64.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.5 Responsibilities. (a)...

  11. 47 CFR 64.904 - Independent audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent audits. 64.904 Section 64.904... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.904 Independent audits. (a) Each carrier... independent auditor every two years, covering the prior two year period, or have a financial audit...

  12. 7 CFR 3550.64 - Down payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Down payment. 3550.64 Section 3550.64 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.64 Down payment. Elderly families must use any net family assets in excess of $20,000 towards a down payment on the property....

  13. 7 CFR 3550.64 - Down payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Down payment. 3550.64 Section 3550.64 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.64 Down payment. Elderly families must use any net family assets in excess of $20,000 towards a down payment on the property....

  14. 7 CFR 3550.64 - Down payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Down payment. 3550.64 Section 3550.64 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.64 Down payment. Elderly families must use any net family assets in excess of $20,000 towards a down payment on the property....

  15. 7 CFR 3550.64 - Down payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Down payment. 3550.64 Section 3550.64 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.64 Down payment. Elderly families must use any net family assets in excess of $20,000 towards a down payment on the property....

  16. 7 CFR 3550.64 - Down payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Down payment. 3550.64 Section 3550.64 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.64 Down payment. Elderly families must use any net family assets in excess of $20,000 towards a down payment on the property....

  17. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  18. 46 CFR 64.67 - Shutoff valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shutoff valve. 64.67 Section 64.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.67 Shutoff valve. A shutoff...

  19. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  20. 46 CFR 64.67 - Shutoff valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shutoff valve. 64.67 Section 64.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.67 Shutoff valve. A shutoff...

  1. 46 CFR 64.67 - Shutoff valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shutoff valve. 64.67 Section 64.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.67 Shutoff valve. A shutoff...

  2. 46 CFR 64.67 - Shutoff valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shutoff valve. 64.67 Section 64.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.67 Shutoff valve. A shutoff...

  3. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  4. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  5. 46 CFR 64.67 - Shutoff valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shutoff valve. 64.67 Section 64.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.67 Shutoff valve. A shutoff...

  6. 46 CFR 64.61 - Rupture disc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rupture disc. 64.61 Section 64.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.61 Rupture disc. If a rupture...

  7. 12 CFR 4.64 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 4.64 Section 4.64 Banks and Banking...; Contracting for Goods and Services § 4.64 Promotion. (a) Scope. The OCC, under the direction of the Deputy Comptroller for Resource Management, engages in promotion and outreach activities designed to identify...

  8. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a) General....

  9. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calling in. 401.64 Section 401.64 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every...

  10. 22 CFR 40.64 - Stowaways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stowaways. 40.64 Section 40.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.64 Stowaways....

  11. 40 CFR 156.64 - Signal word.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...

  12. 40 CFR 156.64 - Signal word.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...

  13. 40 CFR 156.64 - Signal word.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...

  14. 40 CFR 156.64 - Signal word.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Signal word. 156.64 Section 156.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and Precautionary Statements § 156.64 Signal word. (a... signal word, reflecting the highest Toxicity Category (Category I is the highest toxicity category)...

  15. 19 CFR 115.64 - Plan review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plan review. 115.64 Section 115.64 Customs Duties... for Approval of Road Vehicles by Design Type § 115.64 Plan review. (a) A manufacturer or owner who wants road vehicles to be approved by design type must submit the plans and specifications of the...

  16. 45 CFR 96.64 - Intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intervention. 96.64 Section 96.64 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Hearing Procedure § 96.64 Intervention. Participation as parties in the hearing by persons other than the State and the Department is...

  17. 40 CFR 418.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true 418.64 Section 418.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.64...

  18. 40 CFR 418.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true 418.64 Section 418.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.64...

  19. 40 CFR 418.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 418.64 Section 418.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.64...

  20. 40 CFR 418.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true 418.64 Section 418.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.64...

  1. 40 CFR 418.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 418.64 Section 418.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ammonium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 418.64...

  2. 14 CFR 29.64 - Climb: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Climb: General. 29.64 Section 29.64 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.64 Climb: General. Compliance with...

  3. 14 CFR 29.64 - Climb: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Climb: General. 29.64 Section 29.64 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.64 Climb: General. Compliance with...

  4. 14 CFR 29.64 - Climb: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Climb: General. 29.64 Section 29.64 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.64 Climb: General. Compliance with...

  5. 14 CFR 29.64 - Climb: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Climb: General. 29.64 Section 29.64 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.64 Climb: General. Compliance with...

  6. 14 CFR 29.64 - Climb: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Climb: General. 29.64 Section 29.64 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.64 Climb: General. Compliance with...

  7. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  8. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  9. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  10. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  11. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  12. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  13. 32 CFR 64.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Responsibilities. 64.5 Section 64.5 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.5 Responsibilities. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 1775.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 1775.64 Section 1775.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.64...

  15. 7 CFR 1775.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 1775.64 Section 1775.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.64...

  16. 7 CFR 1775.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 1775.64 Section 1775.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.64...

  17. 7 CFR 1775.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1775.64 Section 1775.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.64...

  18. 7 CFR 1775.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true 1775.64 Section 1775.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.64...

  19. 46 CFR 64.21 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Material. 64.21 Section 64.21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.21 Material. The material for a tank must meet the requirements...

  20. 46 CFR 64.21 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Material. 64.21 Section 64.21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.21 Material. The material for a tank must meet the requirements...

  1. 46 CFR 64.21 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Material. 64.21 Section 64.21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.21 Material. The material for a tank must meet the requirements...

  2. 46 CFR 64.21 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Material. 64.21 Section 64.21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.21 Material. The material for a tank must meet the requirements...

  3. 46 CFR 64.21 - Material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Material. 64.21 Section 64.21 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.21 Material. The material for a tank must meet the requirements...

  4. 22 CFR 64.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 64.1 Section 64.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PARTICIPATION BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES IN CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 64.1 Purpose. This part sets forth the procedures for the application...

  5. 22 CFR 64.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 64.1 Section 64.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PARTICIPATION BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES IN CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 64.1 Purpose. This part sets forth the procedures for the application...

  6. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  7. 36 CFR 64.4 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope. 64.4 Section 64.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS AND ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.4 Scope. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 64.4 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope. 64.4 Section 64.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS AND ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.4 Scope. (a)...

  9. 46 CFR 64.29 - Tank saddles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank saddles. 64.29 Section 64.29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.29 Tank saddles. If a tank is not completely supported by a...

  10. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  11. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  12. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  13. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  14. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  15. 47 CFR 64.1603 - Customer notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 64.1603 Section 64.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Calling Party Telephone Number; Privacy § 64.1603...

  16. 10 CFR 430.64 - Imported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported products. 430.64 Section 430.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Certification and Enforcement § 430.64 Imported products. (a) Pursuant to section 331 of the Act, any person importing...

  17. 10 CFR 430.64 - Imported products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported products. 430.64 Section 430.64 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Certification and Enforcement § 430.64 Imported products. (a) Pursuant to section 331 of the Act, any person importing...

  18. 22 CFR 40.64 - Stowaways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stowaways. 40.64 Section 40.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.64 Stowaways....

  19. 22 CFR 40.64 - Stowaways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stowaways. 40.64 Section 40.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.64 Stowaways....

  20. 22 CFR 40.64 - Stowaways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stowaways. 40.64 Section 40.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.64 Stowaways....

  1. 22 CFR 40.64 - Stowaways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stowaways. 40.64 Section 40.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.64 Stowaways....

  2. 42 CFR 64.6 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Awards. 64.6 Section 64.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.6 Awards. (a) Criteria. Within the limits of available funds,...

  3. 42 CFR 64.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 64.2 Section 64.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.2 Definitions. As used in this part: HHS means the Department...

  4. 42 CFR 64.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 64.2 Section 64.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.2 Definitions. As used in this part: HHS means the Department...

  5. 42 CFR 64.6 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Awards. 64.6 Section 64.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.6 Awards. (a) Criteria. Within the limits of available funds,...

  6. 42 CFR 64a.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 64a.101 Section 64a.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING OBLIGATED SERVICE FOR MENTAL HEALTH TRAINEESHIPS § 64a.101 Purpose. This part establishes requirements...

  7. 42 CFR 64.6 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Awards. 64.6 Section 64.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.6 Awards. (a) Criteria. Within the limits of available funds,...

  8. 42 CFR 64a.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 64a.101 Section 64a.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING OBLIGATED SERVICE FOR MENTAL HEALTH TRAINEESHIPS § 64a.101 Purpose. This part establishes requirements...

  9. 42 CFR 64.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 64.2 Section 64.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.2 Definitions. As used in this part: HHS means the Department...

  10. 42 CFR 64.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 64.2 Section 64.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.2 Definitions. As used in this part: HHS means the Department...

  11. 42 CFR 64a.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 64a.101 Section 64a.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING OBLIGATED SERVICE FOR MENTAL HEALTH TRAINEESHIPS § 64a.101 Purpose. This part establishes requirements...

  12. 42 CFR 64a.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 64a.101 Section 64a.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING OBLIGATED SERVICE FOR MENTAL HEALTH TRAINEESHIPS § 64a.101 Purpose. This part establishes requirements...

  13. 42 CFR 64.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.2 Section 64.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.2 Definitions. As used in this part: HHS means the Department...

  14. 42 CFR 64.6 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Awards. 64.6 Section 64.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.6 Awards. (a) Criteria. Within the limits of available funds,...

  15. 42 CFR 64a.101 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 64a.101 Section 64a.101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING OBLIGATED SERVICE FOR MENTAL HEALTH TRAINEESHIPS § 64a.101 Purpose. This part establishes requirements...

  16. 42 CFR 64.6 - Awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Awards. 64.6 Section 64.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.6 Awards. (a) Criteria. Within the limits of available funds,...

  17. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  18. Manganese (II) induces chemical hypoxia by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase: Implication in manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongoh; Lee, Jong-Suk; Choi, Daekyu; Lee, Youna; Hong, Sungchae; Choi, Jungyun; Han, Songyi; Ko, Yujin; Kim, Jung-Ae; Mi Kim, Young; Jung, Yunjin

    2009-03-15

    Manganese (II), a transition metal, causes pulmonary inflammation upon environmental or occupational inhalation in excess. We investigated a potential molecular mechanism underlying manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation. Manganese (II) delayed HIF-1{alpha} protein disappearance, which occurred by inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (HPH), the key enzyme for HIF-1{alpha} hydroxylation and subsequent von Hippel-Lindau(VHL)-dependent HIF-1{alpha} degradation. HPH inhibition by manganese (II) was neutralized significantly by elevated dose of iron. Consistent with this, the induction of cellular HIF-1{alpha} protein by manganese (II) was abolished by pretreatment with iron. Manganese (II) induced the HIF-1 target gene involved in pulmonary inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in lung carcinoma cell lines. The induction of VEGF was dependent on HIF-1. Manganese-induced VEGF promoted tube formation of HUVEC. Taken together, these data suggest that HIF-1 may be a potential mediator of manganese-induced pulmonary inflammation.

  19. Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles by Matthew Ervin, Vinay Raju, Mary Hendrickson, and...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6289 December 2012 Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide...From - To) October 2011 to September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Supercapacitors Containing Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles

  20. Essentiality, Toxicity and Uncertainty in the Risk Assessment of Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessments of manganese by inhalation or oral routes of exposure typically acknowledge the duality of manganese as an essential element at low doses and a toxic metal at high doses. Previously, however, risk assessors were unable to describe manganese pharmacokinetics quant...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance... manganese strontium oxide (PMN P-00-1124; CAS No. 359427-90-0) is subject to reporting under this...

  6. Bacterial manganese reduction and growth with manganese oxide as the sole electron acceptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Charles R.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    Microbes that couple growth to the reduction of manganese could play an important role in the biogeochemistry of certain anaerobic environments. Such a bacterium, Alteromonas putrefaciens MR-1, couples its growth to the reduction of manganese oxides only under anaerobic conditions. The characteristics of this reduction are consistent with a biological, and not an indirect chemical, reduction of manganese, which suggest that this bacterium uses manganic oxide as a terminal electron acceptor. It can also utilize a large number of other compounds as terminal electron acceptors; this versatility could provide a distinct advantage in environments where electron-acceptor concentrations may vary.

  7. Metal Uptake by Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant defense metalloenzyme that protects cells from damage by the toxic oxygen metabolite, superoxide free radical, formed as an unavoidable by-product of aerobic metabolism. Many years of research have gone into understanding how the metal cofactor interacts with small molecules in its catalytic role. In contrast, very little is presently known about how the protein acquires its metal cofactor, an important step in the maturation of the protein and one that is absolutely required for its biological function. Recent work is beginning to provide insight into the mechanisms of metal delivery to manganese superoxide dismutase in vivo and in vitro. PMID:19699328

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 64

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balraj

    1996-07-01

    Abstract:The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for known nuclides of mass 64 (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge). Excited-state data are nonexistent for 64Mn and 64Fe. Radioactive decay data for 64Mn are not available and those for 64Fe, 64Co and 64Ge are not considered definitive. The following nuclides have not yet been identified but, amongst other nuclides, have been included in theoretical calculations: 64Ca (92Ma60,91To03,91Hi10); 64Cr (95Re20,95Ri05,95Au04); 64As (95Au04); 64Se (93Sh11). The literature available up to June 25, 1996 has been consulted. This work supersedes earlier evaluations of A=64 published in Nuclear Data Sheets (91Si03,79Ha35,74Au04,67Ve09). Cutoff Date:Literature available up to June 25, 1996 has been consulted. General Policies and Organization of Material:See the January issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Acknowledgments:The evaluator thanks Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri at Chalk River for discussions and communicating results of his recent in-beam experiment on 64Zn, prior to publication. General Comments:The statistical analysis of γ-ray data and deduced level schemes is carried out through computer codes available at Isotopes Project, Berkeley and Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven. The methodology and procedures for some of these codes are described by 86BrZQ and 86Br21. A general 3% uncertainty is assumed in quoted theoretical internal conversion coefficients taken mainly from 68Ha53. The values of μ and Q are from compilation by 89Ra17, when available.

  9. Competition for Manganese at the Host-Pathogen Interface.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, J L; Kehl-Fie, T E

    2016-01-01

    Transition metals such as manganese are essential nutrients for both pathogen and host. Vertebrates exploit this necessity to combat invading microbes by restricting access to these critical nutrients, a defense known as nutritional immunity. During infection, the host uses several mechanisms to impose manganese limitation. These include removal of manganese from the phagolysosome, sequestration of extracellular manganese, and utilization of other metals to prevent bacterial acquisition of manganese. In order to cause disease, pathogens employ a variety of mechanisms that enable them to adapt to and counter nutritional immunity. These adaptations include, but are likely not limited to, manganese-sensing regulators and high-affinity manganese transporters. Even though successful pathogens can overcome host-imposed manganese starvation, this defense inhibits manganese-dependent processes, reducing the ability of these microbes to cause disease. While the full impact of host-imposed manganese starvation on bacteria is unknown, critical bacterial virulence factors such as superoxide dismutases are inhibited. This chapter will review the factors involved in the competition for manganese at the host-pathogen interface and discuss the impact that limiting the availability of this metal has on invading bacteria.

  10. ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE EXPOSURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ubiquitous element, manganese (Mn), is an essential nutrient, but toxic at excessive exposure levels. Therefore, the US EPA set guideline levels for Mn exposure through inhalation (reference concentration-RfC=0.05 ?g/m3) and ingestion (reference dose-RfD=0.14 mg/kg/day (10 mg...

  11. Geology of the manganese deposits of Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Straczek, John A.

    1958-01-01

    Deposits of manganese ore have been found in five of the six provinces of Cuba and have been reported from the sixth.  Only Oriente and Pinar del Rio provinces have more than a few known deposits and only the deposits of Oriente have yielded any appreciable amount of ore.

  12. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5458 - Manganese hypophosphite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese hypophosphite. 582.5458 Section 582.5458 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5455 - Manganese glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese glycerophosphate. 582.5455 Section 582.5455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese citrate. 582.5449 Section 582.5449 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese gluconate. 582.5452 Section 582.5452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  2. Chemically activated manganese dioxide for dry batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askar, M.; Abbas, H.

    1994-10-01

    The present investigation has enabled us to convert inactive beta-manganese dioxide to high electrochemically active types by chemical processes. Natural and chemically prepared beta-manganese dioxides were roasted at 1050 C to form Mn3O4. This compound was subjected to activation treatment using hydrochloric and sulfuric acid under various reaction conditions. The manganese dioxide so obtained was examined by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric, differential thermal, and chemical analyses. The structure of the dioxide obtained was found to be greatly dependent on the origin of MnO2 and type of acid used. Treatment with hydrochloric acid yielded the so-called gamma-variety while sulfuric acid tended to produce gamma- or alpha-MnO2. In addition, waste manganese sulfate obtained as by-product from sulfuric acid digestion treatment was recycled and electrolytically oxidized to gamma-MnO2. The discharge performance of the above-mentioned MnO2 samples as battery cathodic active material was evaluated and compared with the ordinary battery grade.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1452 - Manganese gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... may be used in infant formulas in accordance with section 412(g) of the Federal Food, Drug, and...-0998) is a slightly pink colored powder. It is obtained by reacting manganese carbonate with gluconic...; meat products as defined in § 170.3(n)(29) of this chapter; milk products as defined in §...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1449 - Manganese citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; milk products as defined in § 170.3(n)(31) of this chapter; and poultry products as defined in § 170.3(n)(34) of this chapter. The ingredient may be used in infant formulas in accordance with section 412... pale orange or pinkish white powder. It is obtained by precipitating manganese carbonate from...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution is neutralized to precipitate heavy metals, filtered, concentrated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution is neutralized to precipitate heavy metals, filtered, concentrated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution is neutralized to precipitate heavy metals, filtered, concentrated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... solution is neutralized to precipitate heavy metals, filtered, concentrated, and crystallized. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrochloric acid. The resulting solution is neutralized to precipitate heavy metals, filtered, concentrated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2775 - Manganese violet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2775 Manganese violet. (a) Identity. The color additive... extent that such other impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Ash (at 600 °C), not... substances, not more than 6 percent. pH of filtrate of 10 grams color additive (shaken occasionally for...

  11. Lithium Manganese Silicate Positive Electrode Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong

    As the fast development of the electronic portable devices and drastic fading of fossil energy sources. The need for portable secondary energy sources is increasingly urgent. As a result, lithium ion batteries are being investigated intensely to meet the performance requirements. Among various electrode materials, the most expensive and capacity limiting component is the positive materials. Based on this, researches have been mostly focused on the development of novel cathode materials with high capacity and energy density and the lithium transition metal orthosilicates have been identified as possible high performance cathodes. Here in, we report the synthesis of a kind of lithium transition metal orthosilicates electrode lithium manganese silicate. Lithium manganese silicate has the advantage of high theoretical capacity, low cost raw material and safety. In this thesis, lithium manganese silicate are prepared using different silicon sources. The structure of silicon sources preferred are examined. Nonionic block copolymers surfactant, P123, is tried as carbon source and mophology directing agent. Lithium manganese silicate's performances are improved by adding P123.

  12. Soil Manganese Enrichment from Industrial Inputs: A Gastropod Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bordean, Despina-Maria; Nica, Dragos V.; Harmanescu, Monica; Banatean-Dunea, Ionut; Gergen, Iosif I.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most abundant metal in natural environments and serves as an essential microelement for all living systems. However, the enrichment of soil with manganese resulting from industrial inputs may threaten terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of manganese exposure by cutaneous contact and/or by soil ingestion to a wide range of soil invertebrates. The link between soil manganese and land snails has never been made although these invertebrates routinely come in contact with the upper soil horizons through cutaneous contact, egg-laying, and feeding activities in soil. Therefore, we have investigated the direct transfer of manganese from soils to snails and assessed its toxicity at background concentrations in the soil. Juvenile Cantareus aspersus snails were caged under semi-field conditions and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil manganese concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher manganese concentrations. Manganese levels were measured in the snail hepatopancreas, foot, and shell. The snail survival and shell growth were used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of manganese exposure. The transfer of manganese from soil to snails occurred independently of food ingestion, but had no consistent effect on either the snail survival or shell growth. The hepatopancreas was the best biomarker of manganese exposure, whereas the shell did not serve as a long-term sink for this metal. The kinetics of manganese retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to manganese-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The results of this study reveal the importance of land snails for manganese cycling in terrestrial biotopes and suggest that the direct transfer from soils to snails should be considered when precisely assessing the impact of anthropogenic Mn releases on soil ecosystems. PMID:24454856

  13. Soil manganese enrichment from industrial inputs: a gastropod perspective.

    PubMed

    Bordean, Despina-Maria; Nica, Dragos V; Harmanescu, Monica; Banatean-Dunea, Ionut; Gergen, Iosif I

    2014-01-01

    Manganese is one of the most abundant metal in natural environments and serves as an essential microelement for all living systems. However, the enrichment of soil with manganese resulting from industrial inputs may threaten terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of manganese exposure by cutaneous contact and/or by soil ingestion to a wide range of soil invertebrates. The link between soil manganese and land snails has never been made although these invertebrates routinely come in contact with the upper soil horizons through cutaneous contact, egg-laying, and feeding activities in soil. Therefore, we have investigated the direct transfer of manganese from soils to snails and assessed its toxicity at background concentrations in the soil. Juvenile Cantareus aspersus snails were caged under semi-field conditions and exposed first, for a period of 30 days, to a series of soil manganese concentrations, and then, for a second period of 30 days, to soils with higher manganese concentrations. Manganese levels were measured in the snail hepatopancreas, foot, and shell. The snail survival and shell growth were used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of manganese exposure. The transfer of manganese from soil to snails occurred independently of food ingestion, but had no consistent effect on either the snail survival or shell growth. The hepatopancreas was the best biomarker of manganese exposure, whereas the shell did not serve as a long-term sink for this metal. The kinetics of manganese retention in the hepatopancreas of snails previously exposed to manganese-spiked soils was significantly influenced by a new exposure event. The results of this study reveal the importance of land snails for manganese cycling in terrestrial biotopes and suggest that the direct transfer from soils to snails should be considered when precisely assessing the impact of anthropogenic Mn releases on soil ecosystems.

  14. Manganese olivine I: Electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Quan; Wang, Z.-C.; Kohlstedt, D. L.

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the point defect chemistry and the kinetic properties of manganese olivine Mn2SiO4, electrical conductivity ( ’) of single crystals was measured along either the [100] or the [010] direction. The experiments were carried out at temperatures T=850 1200 °C and oxygen fugacities f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 atm under both Mn oxide ( MO) buffered and MnSiO3 ( MS) buffered conditions. Under the same thermodynamic conditions, charge transport along [100] is 2.5 3.0 times faster than along [010]. At high oxygen fugacities, the electrical conductivity of samples buffered against MS is ˜1.6 times larger than that of samples buffered against MO; while at low oxygen fugacities, the electrical conductivity is nearly identical for the two buffer cases. The dependencies of electrical conductivity on oxygen fugacity and temperature are essentially the same for conduction along the [100] and [010] directions, as well as for samples coexisting with a solid-state buffer of either MO or MS. Hence, it is proposed that the same conduction mechanisms operate for samples of either orientation in contact with either solid-state buffer. The electrical conductivity data lie on concave upward curves on a log-log plot of σ vs f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } , giving rise to two f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regimes with different oxygen fugacity exponents. In the low-f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regime left( {f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } < 10^{ - 7} {text{atm}}} right), the f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 exponent, m, is 0, the MnSiO3-activity exponent, q, is ˜0, and the activation energy, Q, is 45 kJ/mol. In the high f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 11} - 10^2 regime left( {f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } > 10^{ - 7} {text{atm}}} right), m=1/6, q=1/4 1/3, and Q=45 and 200 kJ/mol for T<1100 °C and T>1100 °C, respectively. Based on a comparison of experimental data with results from point defect chemistry calculations, it is

  15. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  16. Organic matter interactions with natural manganese oxide and synthetic birnessite.

    PubMed

    Allard, Sébastien; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Fontaine, Claude; Croué, Jean-Philippe; Gallard, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Redox reactions of inorganic and organic contaminants on manganese oxides have been widely studied. However, these reactions are strongly affected by the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) at the surface of the manganese oxide. Interestingly, the mechanism behind NOM adsorption onto manganese oxides remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium of different NOM isolates to synthetic manganese oxide (birnessite) and natural manganese oxide (Mn sand) were investigated. Natural manganese oxide is composed of both amorphous and well-crystallised Mn phases (i.e., lithiophorite, birnessite, and cryptomelane). NOM adsorption on both manganese oxides increased with decreasing pH (from pH7 to 5), in agreement with surface complexation and ligand exchange mechanisms. The presence of calcium enhanced the rate of NOM adsorption by decreasing the electrostatic repulsion between NOM and Mn sand. Also, the adsorption was limited by the diffusion of NOM macromolecules through the Mn sand pores. At equilibrium, a preferential adsorption of high molecular weight molecules enriched in aromatic moieties was observed for both the synthetic and natural manganese oxide. Hydrophobic interactions may explain the adsorption of organic matter on manganese oxides. The formation of low molecular weight UV absorbing molecules was detected with the synthetic birnessite, suggesting oxidation and reduction processes occurring during NOM adsorption. This study provides a deep insight for both environmental and engineered systems to better understand the impact of NOM adsorption on the biogeochemical cycle of manganese.

  17. Manganese binding proteins in human and cow's milk

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.; Hurley, L.S.

    1985-03-01

    Manganese nutrition in the neonatal period is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of information on the amount of manganese in infant foods and its bioavailability. Since the molecular localization of an element in foods is one determinant of its subsequent bioavailability, a study was made of the binding of manganese in human and cow's milk. An extrinsic label of /sup 54/Mn was shown to equilibrate isotopically with native manganese in milks and formulas. Milk samples were separated into fat, casein and whey by ultracentrifugation. In human milk, the major part (71%) of manganese was found in whey, 11% in casein and 18% in the lipid fraction. In contrast, in cow's milk, 32% of total manganese was in whey, 67% in casein and 1% in lipid. Within the human whey fraction, most of the manganese was bound to lactoferrin, while in cow's whey, manganese was mostly complexed to ligands with molecular weights less than 200. The distribution of manganese in formulas was closer to that of human milk than of cow's milk. The bioavailability of manganese associated with lactoferrin, casein and low molecular weight complexes needs to be assessed.

  18. 36 CFR 64.13 - Performance reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance reports. 64.13 Section 64.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS... Performance reports. Performance reports shall be submitted quarterly for all active projects. The...

  19. 36 CFR 64.13 - Performance reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance reports. 64.13 Section 64.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS... Performance reports. Performance reports shall be submitted quarterly for all active projects. The...

  20. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  1. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  2. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  3. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  4. 47 CFR 64.1195 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Registration requirement. 64.1195 Section 64....1195 Registration requirement. (a) Applicability. A telecommunications carrier that will provide interstate telecommunications service shall file the registration information described in paragraph (b)...

  5. 47 CFR 64.1195 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registration requirement. 64.1195 Section 64....1195 Registration requirement. (a) Applicability. A telecommunications carrier that will provide interstate telecommunications service shall file the registration information described in paragraph (b)...

  6. 47 CFR 64.1195 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Registration requirement. 64.1195 Section 64....1195 Registration requirement. (a) Applicability. A telecommunications carrier that will provide interstate telecommunications service shall file the registration information described in paragraph (b)...

  7. 47 CFR 64.1195 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Registration requirement. 64.1195 Section 64....1195 Registration requirement. (a) Applicability. A telecommunications carrier that will provide interstate telecommunications service shall file the registration information described in paragraph (b)...

  8. 47 CFR 64.1195 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Registration requirement. 64.1195 Section 64....1195 Registration requirement. (a) Applicability. A telecommunications carrier that will provide interstate telecommunications service shall file the registration information described in paragraph (b)...

  9. 20 CFR 655.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 655.64 Section 655.64 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE... Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers)...

  10. 12 CFR 4.64 - Promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Promotion. 4.64 Section 4.64 Banks and Banking... Treasury's database to facilitate their participation in the competitive procurement process for OCC contracts. This database is used by OCC procurement staff to identify firms to be solicited for...

  11. 7 CFR 983.64 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 983.64 Section 983.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  12. 7 CFR 983.64 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports. 983.64 Section 983.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  13. 21 CFR 312.64 - Investigator reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investigator reports. 312.64 Section 312.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Responsibilities of Sponsors and Investigators §...

  14. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... transactions in interstate or foreign commerce in any such products; or (iii) The direct effect of...

  15. 27 CFR 6.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Jurisdictional limits. 6.4 Section 6.4 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... transactions in interstate or foreign commerce in any such products; or (iii) The direct effect of...

  16. 47 CFR 64.1501 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.1501 Section 64.1501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions shall apply: (a) Pay-per-call...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1100 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.1100 Section 64.1100 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Definitions. (a) The term submitting carrier is generally any telecommunications carrier that requests on...

  18. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in...

  19. 7 CFR 983.64 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports. 983.64 Section 983.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  20. 7 CFR 983.64 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 983.64 Section 983.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  1. 7 CFR 983.64 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports. 983.64 Section 983.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA,...

  2. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  3. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  4. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  5. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  6. 21 CFR 26.64 - Transitional arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transitional arrangements. 26.64 Section 26.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  7. 40 CFR 428.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 428.64 Section 428.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants...

  8. 40 CFR 428.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 428.64 Section 428.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber...

  9. 40 CFR 428.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 428.64 Section 428.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants...

  10. 40 CFR 428.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 428.64 Section 428.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber...

  11. 40 CFR 428.64 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 428.64 Section 428.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber...

  12. 19 CFR 207.64 - Staff reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Staff reports. 207.64 Section 207.64 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  13. 19 CFR 207.64 - Staff reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Staff reports. 207.64 Section 207.64 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  14. 19 CFR 207.64 - Staff reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Staff reports. 207.64 Section 207.64 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  15. 19 CFR 207.64 - Staff reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Staff reports. 207.64 Section 207.64 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  16. 19 CFR 207.64 - Staff reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Staff reports. 207.64 Section 207.64 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR FROM...

  17. 36 CFR 64.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 64.1 Section 64.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS AND... purpose of these guidelines is to prescribe policies and procedures for administering the funding...

  18. 36 CFR 64.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 64.1 Section 64.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS AND... purpose of these guidelines is to prescribe policies and procedures for administering the funding...

  19. 36 CFR 64.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 64.1 Section 64.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS AND... purpose of these guidelines is to prescribe policies and procedures for administering the funding...

  20. 36 CFR 64.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 64.1 Section 64.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS AND... purpose of these guidelines is to prescribe policies and procedures for administering the funding...

  1. 36 CFR 64.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 64.1 Section 64.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GRANTS AND... purpose of these guidelines is to prescribe policies and procedures for administering the funding...

  2. 7 CFR 917.64 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 917.64 Section 917.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  3. 7 CFR 917.64 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance. 917.64 Section 917.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  4. 7 CFR 917.64 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance. 917.64 Section 917.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  5. 7 CFR 917.64 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance. 917.64 Section 917.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  6. 7 CFR 917.64 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance. 917.64 Section 917.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  7. 47 CFR 64.623 - Administrator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administrator requirements. 64.623 Section 64.623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and Related Customer...

  8. 47 CFR 64.623 - Administrator requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Administrator requirements. 64.623 Section 64.623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and Related Customer...

  9. 47 CFR 64.602 - Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Jurisdiction. 64.602 Section 64.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and Related Customer...

  10. 47 CFR 64.602 - Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Jurisdiction. 64.602 Section 64.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and Related Customer...

  11. 47 CFR 64.602 - Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Jurisdiction. 64.602 Section 64.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and Related Customer...

  12. 47 CFR 64.602 - Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Jurisdiction. 64.602 Section 64.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and Related Customer...

  13. 47 CFR 64.602 - Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Jurisdiction. 64.602 Section 64.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay Services and Related Customer...

  14. 47 CFR 64.1506 - Number designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number designation. 64.1506 Section 64.1506 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services §...

  15. Microbial fuel cell using anaerobic respiration as an anodic reaction and biomineralized manganese as a cathodic reactant.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Allison; Beyenal, Haluk; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2005-06-15

    We have operated a microbial fuel cell in which glucose was oxidized by Klebsiella pneumoniae in the anodic compartment, and biomineralized manganese oxides, deposited by Leptothrix discophora, were electrochemically reduced in the cathodic compartment. In the anodic compartment, to facilitate the electron transfer from glucose to the graphite electrode, we added a redox mediator, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. We did not add any redox mediator to the cathodic compartment because the biomineralized manganese oxides were deposited on the surface of a graphite electrode and were reduced directly by electrons from the electrode. We have demonstrated that biomineralized manganese oxides are superiorto oxygen when used as cathodic reactants in microbial fuel cells. The current density delivered by using biomineralized manganese oxides as the cathodic reactant was almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than that delivered using oxygen. Several fuel cells were operated for 500 h, reaching anodic potentials of -441.5 +/- 31 mVscE and cathodic potentials of +384.5 +/- 64 mVscE. When the electrodes were connected by a 50 Ohms resistor, the fuel cell delivered the peak power density of 126.7 +/- 31.5 mW/m2.

  16. Thermodynamics of Manganese Oxides at Bulk and Nanoscale: Phase Formation, Transformation, Oxidation-Reduction, and Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkner, Nancy R.

    Natural manganese oxides are generally formed in surficial environments that are near ambient temperature and water-rich, and may be exposed to wet-dry cycles and a variety of adsorbate species that influence dramatically their level of hydration. Manganese oxide minerals are often poorly crystalline, nanophase, and hydrous. In the near-surface environment they are involved in processes that are important to life, such as water column oxygen cycling, biomineralization, and transport of minerals/nutrients through soils and water. These processes, often involving transformations among manganese oxide polymorphs, are governed by a complex interplay between thermodynamics and kinetics. Manganese oxides are also used in technology as catalysts, and for other applications. The major goal of this dissertation is to examine the energetics of bulk and nanophase manganese oxide phases as a function of particle size, composition, and surface hydration. Careful synthesis and characterization of manganese oxide phases with different surface areas provided samples for the study of enthalpies of formation by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry and of the energetics of water adsorption on their surfaces. These data provide a quantitative picture of phase stability and how it changes at the nanoscale. The surface energy of the hydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 0.96 +/- 0.08 J/m2, of Mn2O3 is 1.29 +/- 0.10 J/m2, and of MnO2 is 1.64 +/- 0.10 J/m2. The surface energy of the anhydrous surface of Mn3O4 is 1.62 +/- 0.08 J/m 2, of Mn2O3 is 1.77 +/- 0.10 J/m 2, and of MnO2 is 2.05 +/- 0.10 J/m2. Supporting preliminary findings (Navrotsky et al., 2010), the spinel phase (Mn3O4) has a lower surface energy (more stabilizing) than bixbyite, while the latter has a smaller surface energy than pyrolusite. These differences significantly change the positions in oxygen fugacity---temperature space of the redox couples Mn3O4-Mn2O 3 and Mn2O3-MnO2 favoring the lower surface enthalpy phase (the

  17. Association of plasma manganese levels with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn.

  18. Paramagnetic Manganese in the Atherosclerotic Plaque of Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chelyshev, Yury; Ignatyev, Igor; Zanochkin, Alexey; Mamin, Georgy; Sorokin, Boris; Sorokina, Alexandra; Lyapkalo, Natalya; Gizatullina, Nazima; Orlinskii, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    The search for adequate markers of atherosclerotic plaque (AP) instability in the context of assessment of the ischemic stroke risk in patients with atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries as well as for solid physical and chemical factors that are connected with the AP stability is extremely important. We investigate the inner lining of the carotid artery specimens from the male patients with atherosclerosis (27 patients, 42–64 years old) obtained during carotid endarterectomy by using different analytical tools including ultrasound angiography, X-ray analysis, immunological, histochemical analyses, and high-field (3.4 T) pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 94 GHz. No correlation between the stable and unstable APs in the sense of the calcification is revealed. In all of the investigated samples, the EPR spectra of manganese, namely, Mn2+ ions, are registered. Spectral and relaxation characteristics of Mn2+ ions are close to those obtained for the synthetic (nano) hydroxyapatite species but differ from each other for stable and unstable APs. This demonstrates that AP stability could be specified by the molecular organization of their hydroxyapatite components. The origin of the obtained differences and the possibility of using EPR of Mn2+ as an AP stability marker are discussed. PMID:28078287

  19. Preparation of manganese sulfate from low-grade manganese carbonate ores by sulfuric acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Ren-feng; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a method for preparing pure manganese sulfate from low-grade ores with a granule mean size of 0.47 mm by direct acid leaching was developed. The effects of the types of leaching agents, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and agitation rate on the leaching efficiency of manganese were investigated. We observed that sulfuric acid used as a leaching agent provides a similar leaching efficiency of manganese and superior selectivity against calcium compared to hydrochloric acid. The optimal leaching conditions in sulfuric acid media were determined; under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of Mn and Ca were 92.42% and 9.61%, respectively. Moreover, the kinetics of manganese leaching indicated that the leaching follows the diffusion-controlled model with an apparent activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. The purification conditions of the leaching solution were also discussed. The results show that manganese dioxide is a suitable oxidant of ferrous ions and sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate is an effective precipitant of heavy metals. Finally, through chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the obtained product was determined to contain 98% of MnSO4·H2O.

  20. Suppressing Manganese Dissolution from Lithium Manganese Oxide Spinel Cathodes with Single-Layer Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila; Puntambekar, Kanan P.; Kim, Soo; Aykol, Muratahan; Luo, Langli; Wu, Jinsong; Myers, Benjamin D.; Iddir, Hakim; Russell, John T.; Saldana, Spencer J.; Kumar, Rajan; Thackeray, Michael M.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Wolverton, Christopher M.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2015-06-24

    Spinel-structured LiMn 2 O 4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, abundance, and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, it is shown that single-layer graphene coatings suppress manganese dissolution, thus enhancing the performance and lifetime of LMO cathodes. Relative to lithium cells with uncoated LMO cathodes, cells with graphene-coated LMO cathodes provide improved capacity retention with enhanced cycling stability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that graphene coatings inhibit manganese depletion from the LMO surface. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a stable solid electrolyte interphase is formed on graphene, which screens the LMO from direct contact with the electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations provide two mechanisms for the role of graphene in the suppression of manganese dissolution. First, common defects in single-layer graphene are found to allow the transport of lithium while concurrently acting as barriers for manganese diffusion. Second, graphene can chemically interact with Mn 3+ at the LMO electrode surface, promoting an oxidation state change to Mn 4+ , which suppresses dissolution.

  1. Conversion of aminonitrotoluenes by fungal manganese peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, K; Hofrichter, M

    1998-01-01

    Preparations of extracellular manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Nematoloma frowardii and the litter decaying fungus Stropharia rugosoannulata converted rapidly the main intermediates of the explosive 2,4,-trinitrotoluene--the aminonitrotoluenes. In a cell-free system, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene were degraded without formation of identifiable metabolites. Radioactive experiments using a complex mixture of uniform ring-labeled 14C-TNT reduction products demonstrated the partial direct mineralization of these compounds by manganese peroxidase. The extent of aminonitrotoluene conversion as well as the release of 14CO2 from TNT reduction products were considerably enhanced in the presence of thiols like reduced glutathione or the amino acid L-cystein, which probably act as secondary mediators.

  2. Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI): neurophysiological applications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Taeko; Majid, Tabassum; Pautler, Robia G.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese ion (Mn2+) is a calcium (Ca2+) analog that can enter neurons and other excitable cells through voltage gated Ca2+ channels. Mn2+ is also a paramagnetic that shortens the spin-lattice relaxation time constant (T1) of tissues where it has accumulated, resulting in positive contrast enhancement. Mn2+ was first investigated as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent approximately 20 years ago to assess the toxicity of the metal in rats. In the late 1990s, Alan Koretsky and colleagues pioneered the use of manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) towards studying brain activity, tract tracing and enhancing anatomical detail. This review will describe the methodologies and applications of MEMRI in the following areas: monitoring brain activity in animal models, in vivo neuronal tract tracing and using MEMRI to assess in vivo axonal transport rates. PMID:22098448

  3. Indium antimonide doped with manganese grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partin, D. L.; Heremans, J.; Thrush, C. M.

    1997-05-01

    Indium antimonide is of interest for infrared detecting and emitting devices and for magnetic field sensors. In this study, indium antimonide doped with manganese and grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to show that the incorporation of managenese is near unity over a wide range of manganese concentrations. Manganese is observed to be an acceptor with a dopant efficiency which follows a power law in which the hole density is proportional to the manganese concentration raised to the power α. The power α depends on the growth temperature; at 300°C, α = 0.86 and at 360°C, α = 0.78. Lightly manganese doped samples have transport dominated by electrons at low temperatures due to hole freeze out, followed by holes at intermediate temperatures and finally by intrinsic electrons at high temperatures. Additional SIMS studies showed that manganese diffuses relatively slowly in indium antimonide.

  4. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  5. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Ordoñez-Librado, José Luis; Anaya-Martínez, Verónica; Gutierrez-Valdez, Ana Luisa; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Montiel-Flores, Enrique; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+) mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD) inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice a week for five months. Before Mn exposure, animals were trained to perform motor function tests and were evaluated each week after the exposure. By the end of Mn exposure, 10 mice were orally treated with 7.5 mg/kg L-DOPA. After 5 months of Mn mixture inhalation, striatal dopamine content decreased 71%, the SNc showed important reduction in the number of TH-immunopositive neurons, mice developed akinesia, postural instability, and action tremor; these motor alterations were reverted with L-DOPA treatment. Our data provide evidence that Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation produces similar morphological, neurochemical, and behavioral alterations to those observed in PD providing a useful experimental model for the study of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:21209715

  6. Manganese-induced turnover of TMEM165.

    PubMed

    Potelle, Sven; Dulary, Eudoxie; Climer, Leslie; Duvet, Sandrine; Morelle, Willy; Vicogne, Dorothée; Lebredonchelle, Elodie; Houdou, Marine; Spriet, Corentin; Krzewinski-Recchi, Marie-Ange; Peanne, Romain; Klein, André; DE Bettignies, Geoffroy; Morsomme, Pierre; Matthijs, Gert; Marquardt, Thorsten; Lupashin, Vladimir; Foulquier, Francois

    2017-03-07

    TMEM165 deficiencies lead to one of the Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG), a group of inherited diseases where the glycosylation process is altered. We recently demonstrated that the Golgi glycosylation defect due to TMEM165 deficiency resulted from Golgi manganese homeostasis defect and that Mn2+ supplementation was sufficient to rescue normal glycosylation. In this paper we highlight TMEM165 as a novel Golgi protein sensitive to manganese. When cells were exposed to high Mn2+ concentrations, TMEM165 was degraded in lysosomes. Remarkably, while the variant R126H was sensitive upon manganese exposure, the variant E108G recently identified in a novel TMEM165-CDG patient, was found to be insensitive. We also showed that the E108G mutation did not abolish the function of TMEM165 in Golgi glycosylation. Altogether this study identified the Golgi protein TMEM165 as a novel Mn2+ sensitive protein in mammalian cells and pointed to the crucial importance of the glutamic acid (E108) in the cytosolic ELGDK motif in Mn2+ induced degradation of TMEM165.

  7. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism. (ERB)

  8. Nanostructured manganese oxides as highly active water oxidation catalysts: a boost from manganese precursor chemistry.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Littlewood, Patrick; Schwarze, Michael; Göbel, Caren; Schomäcker, Reinhard; Driess, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We present a facile synthesis of bioinspired manganese oxides for chemical and photocatalytic water oxidation, starting from a reliable and versatile manganese(II) oxalate single-source precursor (SSP) accessible through an inverse micellar molecular approach. Strikingly, thermal decomposition of the latter precursor in various environments (air, nitrogen, and vacuum) led to the three different mineral phases of bixbyite (Mn2 O3 ), hausmannite (Mn3 O4 ), and manganosite (MnO). Initial chemical water oxidation experiments using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) gave the maximum catalytic activity for Mn2 O3 and MnO whereas Mn3 O4 had a limited activity. The substantial increase in the catalytic activity of MnO in chemical water oxidation was demonstrated by the fact that a phase transformation occurs at the surface from nanocrystalline MnO into an amorphous MnOx (1manganese oxides including the newly formed amorphous MnOx . Both Mn2 O3 and the amorphous MnOx exhibit tremendous enhancement in oxygen evolution during photocatalysis and are much higher in comparison to so far known bioinspired manganese oxides and calcium-manganese oxides. Also, for the first time, a new approach for the representation of activities of water oxidation catalysts has been proposed by determining the amount of accessible manganese centers.

  9. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance microscopy of mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesnick, I.E.; Todorov, T.I.; Centeno, J.A.; Newbury, D.E.; Small, J.A.; Potter, K.

    2007-01-01

    Paramagnetic manganese (II) can be employed as a calcium surrogate to sensitize magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) to the processing of calcium during bone formation. At high doses, osteoblasts can take up sufficient quantities of manganese, resulting in marked changes in water proton T1, T2 and magnetization transfer ratio values compared to those for untreated cells. Accordingly, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results confirm that the manganese content of treated cell pellets was 10-fold higher than that for untreated cell pellets. To establish that manganese is processed like calcium and deposited as bone, calvaria from the skull of embryonic chicks were grown in culture medium supplemented with 1 mM MnCl2 and 3 mM CaCl2. A banding pattern of high and low T2 values, consistent with mineral deposits with high and low levels of manganese, was observed radiating from the calvarial ridge. The results of ICP-MS studies confirm that manganese-treated calvaria take up increasing amounts of manganese with time in culture. Finally, elemental mapping studies with electron probe microanalysis confirmed local variations in the manganese content of bone newly deposited on the calvarial surface. This is the first reported use of manganese-enhanced MRM to study the process whereby calcium is taken up by osteoblasts cells and deposited as bone. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. VERTEX: manganese transport through oxygen minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John H.; Knauer, George A.

    1984-01-01

    Manganese transport through a well-developed oxygen minimum was studied off central Mexico (18°N, 108°W) in October-November 1981 as part of the VERTEX (Vertical Transport and Exchange) research program. Refractory, leachable and dissolved Mn fractions associated with particulates caught in traps set at eight depths (120-1950 m) were analyzed. Particles entering the oxygen minimum had relatively large Mn loads; however, as the particulates sank further into the minimum, total Mn fluxes steadily decreased from 190 nmol m -2 day -1 at 120 m to 36 nmol m -2 day -1 at 400 m. Manganese fluxes then steadily increased in the remaining 800-1950 m, reaching rates of up to 230 nmol m -2 day -1 at 1950 m. Manganese concentrations were also measured in the water column. Dissolved Mn levels < 3.0 nmol kg -1 were consistently observed within the 150-600 m depth interval. In contrast, suspended particulate leachable Mn amounts were especially low at those depths, and never exceeded 0.04 nmol kg -1. The combined water column and particle trap data clearly indicate that Mn is released from particles as they sink through the oxygen minimum. Rate-of-change estimates based on trap flux data yield regeneration rates of up to 0.44 nmol kg -1 yr -1 in the upper oxygen minimum (120-200 m). However, only 30% of the dissolved Mn in the oxygen minimum appears to be from sinking particulate regeneration; the other 70% probably results from continental-slope-release-horizontal-transport processes. Dissolved Mn scavenges back onto particles as oxygen levels begin to increase with depth. Scavenging rates ranging from -0.03 to -0.09 nmol kg -1 yr -1 were observed at depths from 700 to 1950 m. These scavenging rates result in Mn residence times of 16-19 years, and scavenging rate constants on the order of 0.057 yr -1. Manganese removal via scavenging on sinking particles below the oxygen minimum is balanced by Mn released along continental boundaries and transported horizontally via advective

  11. 47 CFR 64.703 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Furnishing of Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.703 Consumer information. (a) Each...

  12. 47 CFR 64.703 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Furnishing of Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.703 Consumer information. (a) Each...

  13. 47 CFR 64.703 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Furnishing of Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.703 Consumer information. (a) Each...

  14. 47 CFR 64.703 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Furnishing of Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.703 Consumer information. (a) Each...

  15. 36 CFR 910.64 - Replication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.64 Replication. Replication means the process of using modern...

  16. 36 CFR 910.64 - Replication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.64 Replication. Replication means the process of using modern methods and materials to reproduce the exact form and details of a vanished building, structure, object,...

  17. 20 CFR 220.64 - Program integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.64 Program integrity. The Board will not use in its program any..., embezzlement, breach of fiduciary responsibility or financial abuse; who has been convicted under Federal...

  18. 20 CFR 220.64 - Program integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.64 Program integrity. The Board will not use in its program any..., embezzlement, breach of fiduciary responsibility or financial abuse; who has been convicted under Federal...

  19. 20 CFR 220.64 - Program integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.64 Program integrity. The Board will not use in its program any..., embezzlement, breach of fiduciary responsibility or financial abuse; who has been convicted under Federal...

  20. 20 CFR 220.64 - Program integrity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY Consultative Examinations § 220.64 Program integrity. The Board will not use in its program any..., embezzlement, breach of fiduciary responsibility or financial abuse; who has been convicted under Federal...

  1. 12 CFR 303.64 - Processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... interstate merger transaction subject to the provisions of section 44 of the FDI Act (12 U.S.C. 1831u), 5... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing. 303.64 Section 303.64 Banks and... application filed under this subpart by an eligible depository institution as defined in § 303.2(r) and...

  2. 47 CFR 64.5103 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... times, incoming and outbound telephone numbers, incoming and outbound internet protocol (IP) addresses... have the same meaning given such term in § 64.601(a) of this part. (i) Internet-based TRS (iTRS). The term “Internet-based TRS” or “iTRS shall have the same meaning given to the term in § 64.601(a) of...

  3. 47 CFR 64.5103 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... times, incoming and outbound telephone numbers, incoming and outbound internet protocol (IP) addresses... have the same meaning given such term in § 64.601(a) of this part. (i) Internet-based TRS (iTRS). The term “Internet-based TRS” or “iTRS shall have the same meaning given to the term in § 64.601(a) of...

  4. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Štengl, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Bludská, Jana; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  5. Molecular identification of indigenous manganese solubilising bacterial biodiversity from manganese mining deposits.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shreya; Mohanty, Sansuta; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Sukla, Lala B; Das, Alok P

    2016-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) ranks twelfth among the most exuberant metal present in the earth's crust and finds its imperative application in the manufacturing steel, chemical, tannery, glass, and battery industries. Solubilisation of Mn can be performed by several bacterial strains which are useful in developing environmental friendly solutions for mining activities. The present investigation aims to isolate and characterize Mn solubilising bacteria from low grade ores from Sanindipur Manganese mine of Sundargh district in Odisha state of India. Four morphologically distinct bacterial strains showing visible growth on Mn supplemented plates were isolated. Mn solubilising ability of the bacterial strains was assessed by visualizing the lightening of the medium appearing around the growing colonies. Three isolates were gram negative and rod shaped while the remaining one was gram positive, coccobacilli. Molecular identification of the isolates was carried out by 16S rRNA sequencing and the bacterial isolates were taxonomically classified as Bacillus anthrasis MSB 2, Acinetobacter sp. MSB 5, Lysinibacillus sp. MSB 11, and Bacillus sp. MMR-1 using BLAST algorithm. The sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank with the accession number KP635223, KP635224, KP635225 and JQ936966, respectively. Manganese solubilisation efficiency of 40, 96, 97.5 and 48.5% were achieved by MMR-1, MSB 2, MSB 5 and MSB 11 respectively. The efficiency of Mn solubilisation is suggested with the help of a pH variation study. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms involved in Manganese solubilisation efficiency of bacterial isolates.

  6. Three manganese oxide-rich marine sediments harbor similar communities of acetate-oxidizing manganese-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vandieken, Verona; Pester, Michael; Finke, Niko; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Friedrich, Michael W; Loy, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo

    2012-11-01

    Dissimilatory manganese reduction dominates anaerobic carbon oxidation in marine sediments with high manganese oxide concentrations, but the microorganisms responsible for this process are largely unknown. In this study, the acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing microbiota in geographically well-separated, manganese oxide-rich sediments from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden), Skagerrak (Norway) and Ulleung Basin (Korea) were analyzed by 16S rRNA-stable isotope probing (SIP). Manganese reduction was the prevailing terminal electron-accepting process in anoxic incubations of surface sediments, and even the addition of acetate stimulated neither iron nor sulfate reduction. The three geographically distinct sediments harbored surprisingly similar communities of acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing bacteria: 16S rRNA of members of the genera Colwellia and Arcobacter and of novel genera within the Oceanospirillaceae and Alteromonadales were detected in heavy RNA-SIP fractions from these three sediments. Most probable number (MPN) analysis yielded up to 10(6) acetate-utilizing manganese-reducing cells cm(-3) in Gullmar Fjord sediment. A 16S rRNA gene clone library that was established from the highest MPN dilutions was dominated by sequences of Colwellia and Arcobacter species and members of the Oceanospirillaceae, supporting the obtained RNA-SIP results. In conclusion, these findings strongly suggest that (i) acetate-dependent manganese reduction in manganese oxide-rich sediments is catalyzed by members of taxa (Arcobacter, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae) previously not known to possess this physiological function, (ii) similar acetate-utilizing manganese reducers thrive in geographically distinct regions and (iii) the identified manganese reducers differ greatly from the extensively explored iron reducers in marine sediments.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10201 - Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10201 Cobalt lithium manganese nickel oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as cobalt lithium...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10003 - Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... complex (generic). 721.10003 Section 721.10003 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10003 Manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (generic). (a) Chemical... as manganese heterocyclic tetraamine complex (PMNs P-98-625/626/627/628/629 and P-00-614/617)...

  11. Formation of manganese oxides by bacterially generated superoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Learman, D. R.; Voelker, B. M.; Vazquez-Rodriguez, A. I.; Hansel, C. M.

    2011-02-01

    Manganese oxide minerals are among the strongest sorbents and oxidants in the environment. The formation of these minerals controls the fate of contaminants, the degradation of recalcitrant carbon, the cycling of nutrients and the activity of anaerobic-based metabolisms. Oxidation of soluble manganese(II) ions to manganese(III/IV) oxides has been primarily attributed to direct enzymatic oxidation by microorganisms. However, the physiological reason for this process remains unknown. Here we assess the ability of a common species of marine bacteria-Roseobacter sp. AzwK-3b-to oxidize manganese(II) in the presence of chemical and biological inhibitors. We show that Roseobacter AzwK-3b oxidizes manganese(II) by producing the strong and versatile redox reactant superoxide. The oxidation of manganese(II), and concomitant production of manganese oxides, was inhibited in both the light and dark in the presence of enzymes and metals that scavenge superoxide. Oxidation was also inhibited by various proteases, enzymes that break down bacterial proteins, confirming that the superoxide was bacterially generated. We conclude that bacteria can oxidize manganese(II) indirectly, through the enzymatic generation of extracellular superoxide radicals. We suggest that dark bacterial production of superoxide may be a driving force in metal cycling and mineralization in the environment.

  12. Manganese Dependent Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beal, E.; House, C.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the anaerobic oxidation is not only important for understanding hydrocarbon degradation but it also important for understanding the global carbon cycle. The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a large sink for methane consuming 5-20% of today's methane flux (Valentine and Reeburgh, 2000), yet the requirements for this process are not well understood. It has been suggested that no other electron acceptors other than sulfate can be used in the AOM (Nauhaus, 2005). However, our new data suggests that manganese, in the form of birnessite, can be used as an electron acceptor instead of sulfate (Beal et al., in prep). Methane seep sediment from the Eel River Basin, CA was incubated with methane, 13C-labeled methane, and carbon dioxide. Because the net result of the AOM is the production of carbon dioxide from methane, the rate of the AOM in each of the incubations can be determined by measuring the incorporation of 13C in the carbon dioxide. Using this method, it was found that cultures incubated with nitrate showed inhibition of the AOM, while cultures incubated with iron gave inconclusive results. The only positive results that were found for alternate electron acceptors are the incubations that were given manganese and no sulfate, which showed methane oxidation. Further, when more manganese was injected into these incubations, the rate of AOM increased. Preliminary analysis of the microbial population using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) targeting the mcr gene showed an unidentified organism in these cultures. Future work with TRFLP, as well as clone libraries, will help to identify the organisms responsible for this process. Nauhaus, K., 2005, Environmental regulation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane: a comparison of ANME-I and ANME-II communities: Environmental microbiology, v. 7, p. 98. Valentine, D.L., and Reeburgh, W.S., 2000, New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation: Environmental Microbiology, v. 2, p

  13. Preparation of highly efficient manganese catalase mimics.

    PubMed

    Triller, Michael U; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Rompel, Annette; Krebs, Bernt

    2002-10-21

    The series of compounds [Mn(bpia)(mu-OAc)](2)(ClO(4))(2) (1), [Mn(2)(bpia)(2)(muO)(mu-OAc)](ClO(4))(3).CH(3)CN (2), [Mn(bpia)(mu-O)](2)(ClO(4))(2)(PF(6)).2CH(3)CN (3), [Mn(bpia)(Cl)(2)](ClO)(4) (4), and [(Mn(bpia)(Cl))(2)(mu-O)](ClO(4))(2).2CH(3)CN (5) (bpia = bis(picolyl)(N-methylimidazol-2-yl)amine) represents a structural, spectroscopic, and functional model system for manganese catalases. Compounds 3 and 5 have been synthesized from 2 via bulk electrolysis and ligand exchange, respectively. All complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies. The different bridging ligands including the rare mono-mu-oxo and mono-mu-oxo-mono-mu-carboxylato motifs lead to a variation of the Mn-Mn separation across the four binuclear compounds of 1.50 A (Mn(2)(II,II) = 4.128 A, Mn(2)(III,III) = 3.5326 and 3.2533 A, Mn(2)(III,IV) = 2.624 A). Complexes 1, 2, and 3 are mimics for the Mn(2)(II,II), the Mn(2)(III,III), and the Mn(2)(III,IV) oxidation states of the native enzyme. UV-vis spectra of these compounds show similarities to those of the corresponding oxidation states of manganese catalase from Thermus thermophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Compound 2 exhibits a rare example of a Jahn-Teller compression. While complexes 1 and 3 are efficient catalysts for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide and contain an N(4)O(2) donor set, 4 and 5 show no catalase activity. These complexes have an N(4)Cl(2) and N(4)OCl donor set, respectively, and serve as mimics for halide inhibited manganese catalases. Cyclovoltammetric data show that the substitution of oxygen donor atoms with chloride causes a shift of redox potentials to more positive values. To our knowledge, complex 1 is the most efficient binuclear functional manganese catalase mimic exhibiting saturation kinetics to date.

  14. Oxidation state of marine manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Basler, J.R.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses of the bulk oxidation state of marine manganese nodules indicates that more than 98% of the Mn in deep ocean nodules is present as Mn(IV). The samples were collected from three quite different areas: the hemipelagic environment of the Guatemala Basin, the pelagic area of the North Pacific, and seamounts in the central Pacific. Results of the study suggest that todorokite in marine nodules is fully oxidized and has the following stoichiometry: (K, Na, Ca, Ba).33(Mg, Cu, Ni).76Mn5O22(H2O)3.2. ?? 1984.

  15. Manganese enzymes with binuclear active sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, G.C.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. First, to review the recent literature dealing with the mechanisms of catalysis by binuclear manganese enzymes. Second, to summarize and illustrate the general principles of catalysis which distinguish binuclear metalloenzymes from monometallic centers. This review covers primarily the published literature from 1991 up to May 1996. A summary of the major structurally characterized dimanganese enzymes is given. These perform various reaction types including several redox reactions, (de)hydrations, isomerizations, (de)phosphorylation, and phosphoryl transfer. 114 refs.

  16. Development of Lymantria dispar affected by manganese in food.

    PubMed

    Kula, Emanuel; Martinek, Petr; Chromcová, Lucie; Hedbávný, Josef

    2014-10-01

    We studied the response of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)) to the content of manganese in food in the laboratory breeding of caterpillars. The food of the caterpillars {Betula pendula Roth (Fagales: Betulaceae) leaves} was contaminated by dipping in the solution of MnCl2 · 4H2O with manganese concentrations of 0, 0.5, 5 and 10 mg ml(-1), by which differentiated manganese contents (307; 632; 4,087 and 8,124 mg kg(-1)) were reached. Parameters recorded during the rearing were as follows: effect of manganese on food consumption, mortality and length of the development of caterpillars, pupation and hatching of imagoes. At the same time, manganese concentrations were determined in the offered and unconsumed food, excrements, and exuviae of the caterpillars, pupal cases and imagoes by using the AAS method. As compared with the control, high manganese contents in the food of gypsy moth caterpillars affected the process of development particularly by increased mortality of the first instar caterpillars (8 % mortality for caterpillars with no Mn contamination (T0) and 62 % mortality for subjects with the highest contamination by manganese (T3)), by prolonged development of the first-third instar (18.7 days (T0) and 27.8 days (T3)) and by increased food consumption of the first-third instar {0.185 g of leaf dry matter (T0) and 0.483 g of leaf dry matter (T3)}. The main defence strategy of the caterpillars to prevent contamination by the increased manganese content in food is the translocation of manganese into frass and exuviae castoff in the process of ecdysis. In the process of development, the content of manganese was reduced by excretion in imagoes to 0.5 % of the intake level even at its maximum inputs in food.

  17. State of manganese in the photosynthetic apparatus. 2. X-ray absorption edge studies on manganese in photosynthetic membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, J. A.; Goodin, D. B.; Wydrzynski, T.; Robertson, A. S.; Klein, M. P.

    1981-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the Manganese K-edge are presented for spinach chloroplasts, and chloroplasts which have been Tris treated and hence unable to evolve oxygen. A significant change in the electronic environment of manganese is observed and is attributed to the release of manganese from the thylakoid membranes with a concomitant change in oxidation state. A correlation of the K-edge energy, defined as the energy at the first inflection point, with coordination charge has been established for a number of manganese compounds of known structure and oxidation state. In this study, comparison of the manganese K-edge energies of the chloroplast samples with the reference compounds places the average oxidation state of the chloroplasts between 2+ and 3+. Using the edge spectra for Tris treated membranes which were osmotically shocked to remove the released manganese, difference edge spectra were synthesized to approximate the active pool of manganese. Coordination charge predictions for this fraction are consistent with an average resting oxidation state higher than 2+. The shape at the edge is also indicative of heterogeneity of the manganese site, of low symmetry, or both.

  18. Climatic Laboratory Survey Hughes YAH-64 Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    considerations. Airflow velocity data were ob- tained with a hot wire anemometer placed 8 to 10 inches (23.3 to 25.4 cm) from the left and right...tenqeo side If noaweea7 and identify by block numboer) Environmental Testing YAH-64 Hel 4 copter Climatic Laboratory 125, 70, -25, and -50°F Nine...Deficiencies Twenty-two Shortcomings 2M AftRACTr (urama inflf Se Na ffllmny ad ideltly 57 block mmbw) Environmental testing of the YAH-64 helicopter was

  19. Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (composite dimensional manganese oxide: CDMO) as positive material for a lithium secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohma, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nishio, K.; Nakane, I.; Furukawa, N.

    1990-12-01

    Lithium-containing manganese dioxide (CDMO) has been developed as the positive material for lithium secondary batteries. CDMO is prepared from lithium salt and manganese dioxide by heat treatment. It is a composite oxide of γ/β-MnO 2 and Li 2MnO 3. The influence on rechargeability of lithium salts, heat-treatment temperature, and manganese dioxide type has been investigated by conducting cycle tests with flat cells. Lithium hydroxide is more reactive with MnO 2 in the production of Li 2MnO 3 than either Li 2O or Li 2CO 3. The optimum condition for preparing CDMO is to heat treat LiOH and MnO 2 at about 375 °C. CDMO prepared from EMD (electrolytic manganese dioxide) yields a larger and more stable capacity than CDMO prepared from CMD (chemical manganese dioxide). Sodium-free EMD exhibits the largest discharge capacity.

  20. Ferromagnetic properties of manganese doped iron silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Reyes, Angel; Fonseca, Luis F.; Sabirianov, Renat

    We report the synthesis of high quality Iron silicide (FeSi) nanowires via Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The materials exhibits excellent magnetic response at room temperature, especially when doped with manganese showing values of 2.0 X 10-04 emu for the FexMnySi nanowires. SEM and TEM characterization indicates that the synthesized nanowires have a diameter of approximately 80nm. MFM measurements present a clear description of the magnetic domains when the nanowires are doped with manganese. Electron Diffraction and XRD measurements confirms that the nanowires are single crystal forming a simple cubic structure with space group P213. First-principle calculations were performed on (111) FeSi surface using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP). The exchange correlations were treated under the Ceperley-Alder (CA) local density approximation (LDA). The Brillouin Zone was sampled with 8x8x1 k-point grid. A total magnetic moment of about 10 μB was obtained for three different surface configuration in which the Iron atom nearest to the surface present the higher magnetization. To study the effect of Mn doping, Fe atom was replaced for a Mn. Stronger magnetization is presented when the Mn atom is close to the surface. The exchange coupling constant have been evaluated calculating the energy difference between the ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic configurations.

  1. Rates of manganese oxidation in aqueous systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of crystal growth of Mn3O4 (hausmannite) and ??MnOOH (feitknechtite) in aerated aqueous manganous perchlorate systems, near 0.01 M in total manganese, was determined at pH levels ranging from 7.00 to 9.00 and at temperatures from 0.5 to 37.4??C. The process is autocatalytic, but becomes psuedo first-order in dissolved Mn2+ activity when the amount of precipitate surface is large compared to the amount of unreacted manganese. Reaction rates determined by titrations using an automated pH-stat were fitted to an equation for precipitate growth. The rates are proportional to surface area of oxide and degree of supersaturation with respect to Mn2+. The oxide obtained at the higher temperature was Mn3O4, but at 0.5?? C only ??MnOOH was formed. At intermediate temperatures, mixtures of these solids were formed. The rate of precipitation of hausmannite is strongly influenced by temperature, and that of feitknechtite much less so. The difference in activation energy may be related to differences in crystal structure of the oxides and the geometry of polymeric hydroxy ion precursors. ?? 1981.

  2. Manganese exposure from drinking water and children's academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid; Wasserman, Gail A; Liu, Xinhua; Ahmed, Ershad; Parvez, Faruque; Slavkovich, Vesna; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water manganese (WMn) is a potential threat to children's health due to its associations with a wide range of outcomes including cognitive, behavioral and neuropsychological effects. Although adverse effects of Mn on cognitive function of the children indicate possible impact on their academic achievement little evidence on this issue is available. Moreover, little is known regarding potential interactions between exposure to Mn and other metals, especially water arsenic (WAs). In Araihazar, a rural area of Bangladesh, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 840 children to investigate associations between WMn and WAs and academic achievement in mathematics and languages among elementary school-children, aged 8-11 years. Data on As and Mn exposure were collected from the participants at the baseline of an ongoing longitudinal study of school-based educational intervention. Annual scores of the study children in languages (Bangla and English) and mathematics were obtained from the academic achievement records of the elementary schools. WMn above the WHO standard of 400μg/L was associated with 6.4% score loss (95% CI=-12.3 to -0.5) in mathematics achievement test scores, adjusted for WAs and other sociodemographic variables. We did not find any statistically significant associations between WMn and academic achievement in either language. Neither WAs nor urinary As was significantly related to any of the three academic achievement scores. Our finding suggests that a large number of children in rural Bangladesh may experience deficits in mathematics due to high concentrations of Mn exposure in drinking water.

  3. Early Postnatal Blood Manganese Levels and Children’s Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Birgit Claus; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Schwartz, Joel; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Schnaas, Lourdes; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David C.; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that low-level environmental exposure to manganese adversely affects child growth and neurodevelopment. Previous studies have addressed the effects of prenatal exposure, but little is known about developmental effects of early postnatal exposure. Methods We studied 448 children born in Mexico City from 1997 through 2000, using a longitudinal study to investigate neurotoxic effects of early life manganese exposure. Archived blood samples, collected from children at 12 and 24 months of age, were analyzed for manganese levels using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mental and psychomotor development were scored using Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6-month intervals between 12 and 36 months of age. Results At 12 months of age, the mean (SD) blood manganese level was 24.3 (4.5) μg/l and the median was 23.7 μg/l; at 24 months, these values were 21.1 (6.2) μg/l and 20.3 μg/l, respectively. Twelve- and 24-month manganese concentrations were correlated (Spearman correlation = 0.55) and levels declined over time (β = −5.7 [95% CI = −6.2 to −5.1]). We observed an inverted U-shaped association between 12-month blood manganese and concurrent mental development scores (compared with the middle 3 manganese quintiles, for the lowest manganese quintile, β = −3.3 [−6.0 to −0.7] and for the highest manganese quintile, β = −2.8 [−5.5 to −0.2]). This 12-month manganese effect was apparent but diminished with mental development scores at later ages. The 24-month manganese levels were not associated with neurodevelopment. Conclusions These results suggest a possible biphasic dose-response relationship between early-life manganese exposure at lower exposure levels and infant neurodevelopment. The data are consistent with manganese as both an essential nutrient and a toxicant. PMID:20549838

  4. Production of Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles by Shewanella Species

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Saad M.; White, Alan R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several species of the bacterial genus Shewanella are well-known dissimilatory reducers of manganese under anaerobic conditions. In fact, Shewanella oneidensis is one of the most well studied of all metal-reducing bacteria. In the current study, a number of Shewanella strains were tested for manganese-oxidizing capacity under aerobic conditions. All were able to oxidize Mn(II) and to produce solid dark brown manganese oxides. Shewanella loihica strain PV-4 was the strongest oxidizer, producing oxides at a rate of 20.3 mg/liter/day and oxidizing Mn(II) concentrations of up to 9 mM. In contrast, S. oneidensis MR-1 was the weakest oxidizer tested, producing oxides at 4.4 mg/liter/day and oxidizing up to 4 mM Mn(II). Analysis of products from the strongest oxidizers, i.e., S. loihica PV-4 and Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32, revealed finely grained, nanosize, poorly crystalline oxide particles with identical Mn oxidation states of 3.86. The biogenic manganese oxide products could be subsequently reduced within 2 days by all of the Shewanella strains when culture conditions were made anoxic and an appropriate nutrient (lactate) was added. While Shewanella species were detected previously as part of manganese-oxidizing consortia in natural environments, the current study has clearly shown manganese-reducing Shewanella species bacteria that are able to oxidize manganese in aerobic cultures. IMPORTANCE Members of the genus Shewanella are well known as dissimilatory manganese-reducing bacteria. This study shows that a number of species from Shewanella are also capable of manganese oxidation under aerobic conditions. Characterization of the products of the two most efficient oxidizers, S. loihica and S. putrefaciens, revealed finely grained, nanosize oxide particles. With a change in culture conditions, the manganese oxide products could be subsequently reduced by the same bacteria. The ability of Shewanella species both to oxidize and to reduce manganese indicates

  5. 28 CFR 90.64 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence Cases § 90.64 Application content. (a) Format. Applications from States, Indian tribal... Assistance, at a time designated by the Office of Justice Programs. The Violence Against Women Grants...

  6. 28 CFR 90.64 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence Cases § 90.64 Application content. (a) Format. Applications from States, Indian tribal... Assistance, at a time designated by the Office of Justice Programs. The Violence Against Women Grants...

  7. 28 CFR 90.64 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence Cases § 90.64 Application content. (a) Format. Applications from States, Indian tribal... Assistance, at a time designated by the Office of Justice Programs. The Violence Against Women Grants...

  8. 28 CFR 90.64 - Application content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence Cases § 90.64 Application content. (a) Format. Applications from States, Indian tribal... Assistance, at a time designated by the Office of Justice Programs. The Violence Against Women Grants...

  9. 36 CFR 64.11 - Project performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project performance. 64.11... Project performance. The State or local applicant shall be responsible for insuring the project is carried... Force Account. Labor costs charged to a project for force account work will be based on...

  10. 36 CFR 64.14 - Project inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project inspections. 64.14... Project inspections. All State and local projects will receive a final inspection by the Bureau. Final... as deemed necessary by the Bureau. Preapproval inspections will also be conducted prior to...

  11. 46 CFR 64.83 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO... on the metal identification plate without leaking; and (6) If fitted with an internal heating coil... and his initials on the metal identification plate required in § 64.53....

  12. 46 CFR 64.83 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO... on the metal identification plate without leaking; and (6) If fitted with an internal heating coil... and his initials on the metal identification plate required in § 64.53....

  13. 46 CFR 64.83 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO... on the metal identification plate without leaking; and (6) If fitted with an internal heating coil... and his initials on the metal identification plate required in § 64.53....

  14. 33 CFR 64.03 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS General § 64.03 Scope. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section these rules apply to: (1) Structures located in or over waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and, on the high seas, structures owned or operated by persons subject to...

  15. 33 CFR 64.03 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS General § 64.03 Scope. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section these rules apply to: (1) Structures located in or over waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and, on the high seas, structures owned or operated by persons subject to...

  16. 33 CFR 64.03 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STRUCTURES, SUNKEN VESSELS AND OTHER OBSTRUCTIONS General § 64.03 Scope. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section these rules apply to: (1) Structures located in or over waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and, on the high seas, structures owned or operated by persons subject to...

  17. 47 CFR 76.64 - Retransmission consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... service (a service that does not involve the individual processing of specific broadcast signals) shall... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.64 Retransmission consent. (a... signal of any commercial broadcasting station without the express authority of the originating...

  18. 40 CFR 64.4 - Submittal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... permitting authority monitoring that satisfies the design requirements in § 64.3. The submission shall... permitting authority in a rule that constitutes part of the applicable implementation plan required pursuant to title I of the Act, that are designed to achieve compliance with this part for...

  19. 19 CFR 148.64 - Administrative exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Crewmember Declarations and Exemptions § 148.64... to articles for the personal and household use, including gifts, of a crewmember arriving in the... crewmember is subject to duty or internal revenue tax by reason of the following limitations. (1) Value...

  20. 32 CFR 64.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.4 Policy. (a) It is DoD policy that military... national security needs. (c) The military retirees ordered to active duty may be used according to...

  1. 32 CFR 64.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.1 Purpose. This part implements 10 U.S.C. 688... of retired Regular and Reserve military personnel preparing for their use during a mobilization....

  2. 38 CFR 61.64 - Religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious organizations...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.64 Religious organizations. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization,...

  3. 38 CFR 61.64 - Religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Religious organizations... § 61.64 Religious organizations. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization, to participate in VA programs under this part. In...

  4. 38 CFR 61.64 - Religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Religious organizations...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.64 Religious organizations. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization,...

  5. 38 CFR 61.64 - Religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Religious organizations... § 61.64 Religious organizations. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization, to participate in VA programs under this part. In...

  6. 38 CFR 61.64 - Religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Religious organizations...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.64 Religious organizations. (a) Organizations that are religious or faith-based are eligible, on the same basis as any other organization,...

  7. 36 CFR 64.5 - Eligible projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acquisition is authorized by law and the land is usable for public recreation and conservation purposes. (c... AND ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.5 Eligible projects. (a) Abandoned railroad projects will be for recreation and/or conservation...

  8. 36 CFR 64.5 - Eligible projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... acquisition is authorized by law and the land is usable for public recreation and conservation purposes. (c... AND ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.5 Eligible projects. (a) Abandoned railroad projects will be for recreation and/or conservation...

  9. 36 CFR 64.4 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.4 Scope. (a) Funding... them to acquire and develop abandoned railroad rights-of-way for recreation and conservation purposes and to plan for such acquisition and development. As provided for by law, grants shall be made for...

  10. 36 CFR 64.5 - Eligible projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... acquisition is authorized by law and the land is usable for public recreation and conservation purposes. (c... AND ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.5 Eligible projects. (a) Abandoned railroad projects will be for recreation and/or conservation...

  11. 36 CFR 64.5 - Eligible projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acquisition is authorized by law and the land is usable for public recreation and conservation purposes. (c... AND ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.5 Eligible projects. (a) Abandoned railroad projects will be for recreation and/or conservation...

  12. 32 CFR 64.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.3 Definitions. (a) Key employee. Any Reservist or any military retiree (Regular or Reserve) identified by his or her employer, private or...

  13. 32 CFR 64.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.3 Definitions. (a) Key employee. Any Reservist or any military retiree (Regular or Reserve) identified by his or her employer, private or...

  14. 36 CFR 64.14 - Project inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project inspections. 64.14... Project inspections. All State and local projects will receive a final inspection by the Bureau. Final... as deemed necessary by the Bureau. Preapproval inspections will also be conducted prior to...

  15. 36 CFR 64.14 - Project inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project inspections. 64.14... Project inspections. All State and local projects will receive a final inspection by the Bureau. Final... as deemed necessary by the Bureau. Preapproval inspections will also be conducted prior to...

  16. 36 CFR 64.11 - Project performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project performance. 64.11... Project performance. The State or local applicant shall be responsible for insuring the project is carried... Force Account. Labor costs charged to a project for force account work will be based on...

  17. 36 CFR 64.14 - Project inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project inspections. 64.14... Project inspections. All State and local projects will receive a final inspection by the Bureau. Final... as deemed necessary by the Bureau. Preapproval inspections will also be conducted prior to...

  18. 36 CFR 64.11 - Project performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project performance. 64.11... Project performance. The State or local applicant shall be responsible for insuring the project is carried... Force Account. Labor costs charged to a project for force account work will be based on...

  19. 36 CFR 64.11 - Project performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project performance. 64.11... Project performance. The State or local applicant shall be responsible for insuring the project is carried... Force Account. Labor costs charged to a project for force account work will be based on...

  20. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  1. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  2. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  3. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been... national and international news services; (2) The television and radio networks and outlets; (3) The...

  4. 64 FR 3340 - Tuberculosis in Captive Cervids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 64, No. 13 / Thursday, January 21, 1999 / Corrections#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 50, 77 and 91 RIN 0579-AA53 Tuberculosis in Captive...

  5. 32 CFR 64.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.5 Responsibilities. (a) The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs and the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense...

  6. 32 CFR 64.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN MANAGEMENT AND MOBILIZATION OF REGULAR AND RESERVE RETIRED MILITARY MEMBERS § 64.3 Definitions. (a) Key employee. Any Reservist or any military retiree (Regular or Reserve) identified by his or her employer, private or...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.64 - Powered conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gear § 1918.64 Powered conveyors. (a) Emergency stop. Readily accessible stop controls shall be... close to the conveyor, the conveyor controls shall not be left unattended while the conveyor is in.... (c) Approved for location. Electric motors and controls on conveyors and trimmers used to...

  8. 29 CFR 1918.64 - Powered conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gear § 1918.64 Powered conveyors. (a) Emergency stop. Readily accessible stop controls shall be... close to the conveyor, the conveyor controls shall not be left unattended while the conveyor is in.... (c) Approved for location. Electric motors and controls on conveyors and trimmers used to...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.64 - Powered conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gear § 1918.64 Powered conveyors. (a) Emergency stop. Readily accessible stop controls shall be... close to the conveyor, the conveyor controls shall not be left unattended while the conveyor is in.... (c) Approved for location. Electric motors and controls on conveyors and trimmers used to...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.64 - Powered conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gear § 1918.64 Powered conveyors. (a) Emergency stop. Readily accessible stop controls shall be... close to the conveyor, the conveyor controls shall not be left unattended while the conveyor is in.... (c) Approved for location. Electric motors and controls on conveyors and trimmers used to...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.64 - Powered conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gear § 1918.64 Powered conveyors. (a) Emergency stop. Readily accessible stop controls shall be... close to the conveyor, the conveyor controls shall not be left unattended while the conveyor is in.... (c) Approved for location. Electric motors and controls on conveyors and trimmers used to...

  12. 36 CFR 64.4 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... railroad rights-of-way. Such allocations shall be made for an amount up to the price paid to the owner of... ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.4 Scope. (a) Funding... them to acquire and develop abandoned railroad rights-of-way for recreation and conservation...

  13. 36 CFR 64.4 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... railroad rights-of-way. Such allocations shall be made for an amount up to the price paid to the owner of... ALLOCATIONS FOR RECREATION AND CONSERVATION USE OF ABANDONED RAILROAD RIGHTS-OF-WAY § 64.4 Scope. (a) Funding... them to acquire and develop abandoned railroad rights-of-way for recreation and conservation...

  14. 22 CFR 42.64 - Passport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.64 Passport requirements. (a) Passport... validity requirements. Except as provided in § 42.2, every applicant for an immigrant visa shall present...

  15. 22 CFR 42.64 - Passport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.64 Passport requirements. (a) Passport... validity requirements. Except as provided in § 42.2, every applicant for an immigrant visa shall present...

  16. 22 CFR 42.64 - Passport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.64 Passport requirements. (a) Passport... validity requirements. Except as provided in § 42.2, every applicant for an immigrant visa shall present...

  17. 22 CFR 42.64 - Passport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.64 Passport requirements. (a) Passport... validity requirements. Except as provided in § 42.2, every applicant for an immigrant visa shall present...

  18. 22 CFR 42.64 - Passport requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.64 Passport requirements. (a) Passport... validity requirements. Except as provided in § 42.2, every applicant for an immigrant visa shall present...

  19. Methanogenesis from wastewater stimulated by addition of elemental manganese

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Sen; Tian, Tian; Qi, Benyu; Zhou, Jiti

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel procedure for accelerating methanogenesis from wastewater by adding elemental manganese into the anaerobic digestion system. The results indicated that elemental manganese effectively enhanced both the methane yield and the production rate. Compared to the control test without elemental manganese, the total methane yield and production rate with 4 g/L manganese addition increased 3.4-fold (from 0.89 ± 0.03 to 2.99 ± 0.37 M/gVSS within 120 h) and 4.4-fold (from 6.2 ± 0.1 to 27.2 ± 2.2 mM/gVSS/h), respectively. Besides, more acetate consumption and less propionate generation were observed during the methanogenesis with manganese. Further studies demonstrated that the elemental manganese served as electron donors for the methanogenesis from carbon dioxide, and the final proportion of methane in the total generated gas with 4 g/L manganese addition reached 96.9%, which was 2.1-fold than that of the control (46.6%). PMID:26244609

  20. Manganese-based complexes of radical scavengers as neuroprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Vajragupta, Opa; Boonchoong, Preecha; Sumanont, Yaowared; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Kammasud, Naparat

    2003-05-15

    Manganese was incorporated in the structure of the selected antioxidants to mimic the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and to increase radical scavenging ability. Five manganese complexes (1-5) showed potent SOD activity in vitro with IC(50) of 1.18-1.84 microM and action against lipid peroxidation in vitro with IC(50) of 1.97-8.00 microM greater than their ligands and trolox. The manganese complexes were initially tested in vivo at 50 mg/kg for antagonistic activity on methamphetamine (MAP)-induced hypermotility resulting from dopamine release in the mice brain. Only manganese complexes of kojic acid (1) and 7-hydroxyflavone (3) exhibited the significant suppressions on MAP-induced hypermotility and did not significantly decrease the locomotor activity in normal condition. Manganese complex 3 also showed protective effects against learning and memory impairment in transient cerebral ischemic mice. These results supported the brain delivery and the role of manganese in SOD activity as well as in the modulation of brain neurotransmitters in the aberrant condition. Manganese complex 3 from 7-hydroxyflavone was the promising candidate for radical implicated neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Potential Role of Epigenetic Mechanism in Manganese Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tarale, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Sivanesan, Saravanadevi; Naoghare, Pravin; Bafana, Amit; Krishnamurthi, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Manganese is a vital nutrient and is maintained at an optimal level (2.5–5 mg/day) in human body. Chronic exposure to manganese is associated with neurotoxicity and correlated with the development of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death has been well established mechanism in manganese induced toxicity. Oxidative stress has a potential to alter the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Epigenetic insight of manganese neurotoxicity in context of its correlation with the development of parkinsonism is poorly understood. Parkinson's disease is characterized by the α-synuclein aggregation in the form of Lewy bodies in neuronal cells. Recent findings illustrate that manganese can cause overexpression of α-synuclein. α-Synuclein acts epigenetically via interaction with histone proteins in regulating apoptosis. α-Synuclein also causes global DNA hypomethylation through sequestration of DNA methyltransferase in cytoplasm. An individual genetic difference may also have an influence on epigenetic susceptibility to manganese neurotoxicity and the development of Parkinson's disease. This review presents the current state of findings in relation to role of epigenetic mechanism in manganese induced neurotoxicity, with a special emphasis on the development of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27314012

  2. Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Peter J.; Anastasakis, Konstantinos; de Jong, Wiebren; van Hoesel, Annelies; Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Several Mousterian sites in France have yielded large numbers of small black blocs. The usual interpretation is that these ‘manganese oxides’ were collected for their colouring properties and used in body decoration, potentially for symbolic expression. Neanderthals habitually used fire and if they needed black material for decoration, soot and charcoal were readily available, whereas obtaining manganese oxides would have incurred considerably higher costs. Compositional analyses lead us to infer that late Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I were deliberately selecting manganese dioxide. Combustion experiments and thermo-gravimetric measurements demonstrate that manganese dioxide reduces wood’s auto-ignition temperature and substantially increases the rate of char combustion, leading us to conclude that the most beneficial use for manganese dioxide was in fire-making. With archaeological evidence for fire places and the conversion of the manganese dioxide to powder, we argue that Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I used manganese dioxide in fire-making and produced fire on demand. PMID:26922901

  3. Critical Aspects of Alloying of Sintered Steels with Manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryha, Eduard; Dudrova, Eva; Nyborg, Lars

    2010-11-01

    This study examines the sintering behavior and properties of Fe-0.8Mn-0.5C manganese powder metallurgy steels. The study focuses on the influence of mode of alloying—admixing using either high-purity electrolytic manganese or medium carbon ferromanganese as well as the fully prealloying of water-atomized powder. Three main aspects were studied during the whole sintering process—microstructure development, interparticle necks evolution, and changes in the behavior of manganese carrier particles during both heating and sintering stages. The prealloyed powder shows considerable improvement in carbon homogenization and interparticle neck development in comparison with admixed materials. The first indication of pearlite for the fully prealloyed material was registered at ~1013 K (740 °C) in comparison with ~1098 K (825 °C) in the case of the admixed systems. The negative effect of the oxidized residuals of manganese carrier particles and high microstructure inhomogeneity, which is a characteristic feature of admixed systems, is reflected in the lower values of the mechanical properties. The worst results in this respect were obtained for the system admixed with electrolytic manganese because of more intensive manganese sublimation and resulting oxidation at lower temperatures. According to the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses, the observed high brittleness of admixed materials is connected with intergranular decohesion failure associated with manganese oxide formation on the grain boundaries.

  4. Manganese carbonates as possible biogenic relics in Archean settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón-Tomás, Blanca; Khonsari, Bahar; Mühlen, Dominik; Wickbold, Christian; Schäfer, Nadine; Hause-Reitner, Dorothea; Hoppert, Michael; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate minerals such as dolomite, kutnahorite or rhodochrosite are frequently, but not exclusively generated by microbial processes. In recent anoxic sediments, Mn(II)carbonate minerals (e.g. rhodochrosite, kutnahorite) derive mainly from the reduction of Mn(IV) compounds by anaerobic respiration. The formation of huge manganese-rich (carbonate) deposits requires effective manganese redox cycling in an oxygenated atmosphere. However, putative anaerobic pathways such as microbial nitrate-dependent manganese oxidation, anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxidation in ultraviolet light may facilitate manganese cycling even in an early Archean environment, without the availability of oxygen. In addition, manganese carbonates precipitate by microbially induced processes without change of the oxidation state, e.g. by pH shift. Hence, there are several ways how these minerals could have been formed biogenically and deposited in Precambrian sediments. We will summarize microbially induced manganese carbonate deposition in the presence and absence of atmospheric oxygen and we will make some considerations about the biogenic deposition of manganese carbonates in early Archean settings.

  5. Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Peter J; Anastasakis, Konstantinos; de Jong, Wiebren; van Hoesel, Annelies; Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-02-29

    Several Mousterian sites in France have yielded large numbers of small black blocs. The usual interpretation is that these 'manganese oxides' were collected for their colouring properties and used in body decoration, potentially for symbolic expression. Neanderthals habitually used fire and if they needed black material for decoration, soot and charcoal were readily available, whereas obtaining manganese oxides would have incurred considerably higher costs. Compositional analyses lead us to infer that late Neanderthals at Pech-de-l'Azé I were deliberately selecting manganese dioxide. Combustion experiments and thermo-gravimetric measurements demonstrate that manganese dioxide reduces wood's auto-ignition temperature and substantially increases the rate of char combustion, leading us to conclude that the most beneficial use for manganese dioxide was in fire-making. With archaeological evidence for fire places and the conversion of the manganese dioxide to powder, we argue that Neanderthals at Pech-de-l'Azé I used manganese dioxide in fire-making and produced fire on demand.

  6. Selection and Use of Manganese Dioxide by Neanderthals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, Peter J.; Anastasakis, Konstantinos; de Jong, Wiebren; van Hoesel, Annelies; Roebroeks, Wil; Soressi, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Several Mousterian sites in France have yielded large numbers of small black blocs. The usual interpretation is that these ‘manganese oxides’ were collected for their colouring properties and used in body decoration, potentially for symbolic expression. Neanderthals habitually used fire and if they needed black material for decoration, soot and charcoal were readily available, whereas obtaining manganese oxides would have incurred considerably higher costs. Compositional analyses lead us to infer that late Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I were deliberately selecting manganese dioxide. Combustion experiments and thermo-gravimetric measurements demonstrate that manganese dioxide reduces wood’s auto-ignition temperature and substantially increases the rate of char combustion, leading us to conclude that the most beneficial use for manganese dioxide was in fire-making. With archaeological evidence for fire places and the conversion of the manganese dioxide to powder, we argue that Neanderthals at Pech-de-l’Azé I used manganese dioxide in fire-making and produced fire on demand.

  7. Controlled release of manganese into water from coated experimental fertilizers: laboratory characterization.

    PubMed

    Novillo, J; Rico, M I; Alvarez, J M

    2001-03-01

    The release of manganese into water from controlled-release formulations containing manganese EDTA or manganese lignosulfonate was studied. These fertilizers were obtained in the laboratory by adhering the source of manganese over urea pellets and by adding a coating. The materials used as adhesives and coatings were mixtures of rosins plus tricalcium phosphate. With regard to the chemical composition, these formulations conformed to national and international standards for commercial fertilizers. The rate of release of manganese was a function of both the source of manganese used and the coating thickness. Under the same conditions the release of manganese was greater for formulations with manganese EDTA than with manganese lignosulfonate. To predict the kinetic behaviors of the two series of formulations, mathematical equations were established. The manganese source plus rosin coatings improved the handling and storage characteristics of the commercial urea pellets. The study of the rosin coatings using scanning electron microscopy showed that they were compact and homogeneous.

  8. Concentration of Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum, Arsenic and Manganese in Umbilical Cord Blood of Jamaican Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Dickerson, Aisha S.; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Bressler, Jan; Coore Desai, Charlene; Shakespeare-Pellington, Sydonnie; Reece, Jody-Ann; Morgan, Renee; Loveland, Katherine A.; Grove, Megan L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes. Based on data from 100 pregnant mothers and their 100 newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in 2011, the arithmetic mean (standard deviation) concentrations of cord blood lead, mercury, aluminum, and manganese were 0.8 (1.3 μg/dL), 4.4 (2.4 μg/L), 10.9 (9.2 μg/L), and 43.7 (17.7 μg/L), respectively. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school (12.2 μg/L vs. 6.4 μg/L; p < 0.01). After controlling for maternal education level and socio-economic status (through ownership of a family car), the cord blood lead concentration was significantly associated with head circumference (adjusted p < 0.01). Our results not only provide levels of arsenic and the aforementioned metals in cord blood that could serve as a reference for the Jamaican population, but also replicate previously reported significant associations between cord blood lead concentrations and head circumference at birth in other populations. PMID:25915835

  9. Recrystallization kinetics of an austenitic high-manganese steel subjected to severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanushkevich, Zh. Ch.; Molodov, D. A.; Belyakov, A. N.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2016-09-01

    The evolution of the microstructure and the properties of an austenitic high-manganese steel subjected to severe deformation by cold rolling and subsequent recrystallization annealing is investigated. Cold rolling is accompanied by mechanical structural twinning and shear banding. The microhardness and microstructural analysis of annealed samples are used to study the recrystallization kinetics of the high-manganese steel. It is shown that large plastic deformation and subsequent annealing result in rapid development of recrystallization processes and the formation of an ultrafine-grained structure. A completely recrystallized structure with an average grain size of 0.64 μm forms after 30-min annealing at a temperature of 550°C. No significant structural changes are observed when the annealing time increases to 18 h, which indicates stability of the recrystallized microstructure. The steel cold rolled to 90% and annealed at 550°C for 30 min demonstrates very high strength properties: the yield strength and the tensile strength achieve 650 and 850MPa, respectively. The dependence of the strength properties of the steel on the grain size formed after rolling and recrystallization annealing is described by the Hall-Petch relation.

  10. Manganese cycles and the origin of manganese nodules, Oneida Lake, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.E.; Moore, W.S.; Nealson, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oneida Lake is a large shallow lake in central New York that is characterized by high algal productivity and concentrated deposits of freshwater manganese nodules. Budgets for Mn in the lake and its tributaries show a net loss of 23 metric tons of manganese within the lake per year with ???95% deposited in manganese nodules and the rest incorporated in the sediments. Erosion of nodules in the shallow well-oxygenated central part of the lake produces fragments of nodules as well as Mn-coated sand grains that are transported to adjacent deeper, more reducing parts of the lake where they sink into the anoxic sediments and MnO2 is reduced to Mn2+. This produces a high concentration of Mn2+ in the pore waters of these sediments and Mn2+ diffuses back into the water column. Growth of manganese nodules in Oneida Lake is characterized by periods of rapid accretion (> 1 mm 100 yr.) alternating with periods of no-growth or erosion. Rapid growth of nodules may be aided by the stripping of Mn from the water column by algae and bacteria. In addition, the high algal productivity of Oneida Lake produces a high-pH high-oxygen environment during the summer months that is maintained throughout the water column in the central part of the lake by almost continuous wind mixing. Thus, the cycle of Mn within the lake involves an interaction of the weather, the biota, the sediments, the nodules, and Mn dissolved in the lake and interstitial waters. ?? 1981.

  11. Hydrothermal Manganese Mineralization Near the Samoan Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; Staudigel, H.; Koppers, A.; Hart, S. R.; Dunham, R.

    2006-12-01

    The thickest beds of hydrothermal manganese oxides recovered to date from the global ocean were collected from a volcanic cone in the south Pacific. In April 2005, samples were dredged aboard the R.V. Kilo Moana from a volcanic cone on the lower flank of Tulaga seamount (about 2,700 m water depth; 14° 39.222' S; 170° 1.730' W), located 115 km SW of Vailulu'u, the volcanically and hydrothermally active center of the Samoan hotspot. Additional hydrothermal manganese samples were collected off Ofu Island (dredge Alia 107), 72 km to the WSW of Vailulu'u. Manganese-oxide beds up to 9 cm thick are composed of birnessite and 10 Å manganates. Some layers consist of Mn-oxide columnar structures 4 cm long and 1 cm wide, which have not been described previously. The mean Mn and Fe contents of 18 samples are 51 weight percent and 0.76 weight percent, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Li (mean 0.11 wt. percent) are indicators of a hydrothermal origin, and distinguishes these samples, along with the high Mn and low Fe contents, from hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. Other enriched elements include Ba (mean 0.14 percent), Cu (249 ppm), Mo (451 ppm), Ni (400 ppm), Zn (394 ppm), V (214 ppm), and W (132 ppm). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show large negative Ce anomalies and LREE enrichments, both characteristic of hydrothermal Mn deposits. Small negative Eu anomalies are not typical of hydrothermal deposits and can be explained either by the absence of leaching of plagioclase by the hydrothermal fluids or by the precipitation of Eu-rich minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, at depth. The high base-metal contents indicate that sulfides are not forming deeper in the hydrothermal system or that such deposits are being leached by the ascending fluids. Textures of the thickest Mn deposits indicate that the Mn oxides formed below the seabed from ascending fluids during multiple phases of waxing and waning hydrothermal pulses. The deposits were later exposed at the seafloor by

  12. Manganese abundances in Galactic bulge red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.; Trevisan, M.; Dutra, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Manganese is mainly produced in type II SNe during explosive silicon burning, in incomplete Si-burning regions, and depends on several nucleosynthesis environment conditions, such as mass cut between the matter ejected and falling back onto the remnant, electron and neutron excesses, mixing fallback, and explosion energy. Manganese is also produced in type Ia SNe. Aims: The aim of this work is the study of abundances of the iron-peak element Mn in 56 bulge giants, among which 13 are red clump stars. Four bulge fields along the minor axis are inspected. The study of abundances of Mn-over-Fe as a function of metallicity in the Galactic bulge may shed light on its production mechanisms. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using the FLAMES+UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The spectra were obtained within a program to observe 800 stars using the GIRAFFE spectrograph, together with the present UVES spectra. Results: We aim at identifying the chemical evolution of manganese, as a function of metallicity, in the Galactic bulge. We find [Mn/Fe] ~ -0.7 at [Fe/H] ~ -1.3, increasing to a solar value at metallicities close to solar, and showing a spread around - 0.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ -0.2, in good agreement with other work on Mn in bulge stars. There is also good agreement with chemical evolution models. We find no clear difference in the behaviour of the four bulge fields. Whereas [Mn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] could be identified with the behaviour of the thick disc stars, [Mn/O] vs. [O/H] has a behaviour running parallel, at higher metallicities, compared to thick disc stars, indicating that the bulge enrichment might have proceeded differently from that of the thick disc. Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196).Tables 1-6 and Figs. 1-6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Effects of manganese forms on biogenic amines in the brain and behavioral alterations in the mouse: Long-term oral administration of several manganese compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Junko; Sakamoto, Michiko )

    1992-02-01

    This work has identified the relative toxicity of four forms of manganese, using biogenic amine levels, tissue retention, weight gain, and activity scores as criteria. Male mice were chronically treated with four forms of manganese administered orally, mixed with the diet, for 12 months. The Mn levels were higher in some parts of brain after feeding insoluble salts than after the soluble salts. The concentration of manganese was significantly increased in the liver and spleen of the manganese carbonate-exposed group, compared with the concentration in the control group. Manganese dioxide feeding lowered dopamine and increased homovanilic acid. Since manganese dioxide is a powerful oxidizing agent in organic chemistry, it possibly enhanced the oxidative metabolite of dopamine. Accumulation of manganese in the brain correlated with reduced hypothalamic dopamine levels in the manganese acetate-exposed group; and the amount of manganese accumulated correlated with the intensity of suppression of motor activity. These findings indicate that manganese dioxide is more toxic than divalent manganese. Of the divalent manganese compounds, manganese acetate seemed to have the greatest toxic effect.

  14. Ultrahigh-field NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar transition metals: 55Mn NMR of several solid manganese carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Kristopher J; Feindel, Kirk W; Terskikh, Victor V; Wasylishen, Roderick E

    2006-10-16

    55Mn NMR spectra acquired at 21.14 T (nu(L)(55Mn) = 223.1 MHz) are presented and demonstrate the advantages of using ultrahigh magnetic fields for characterizing the chemical shift tensors of several manganese carbonyls: eta5-CpMn(CO)3, Mn2(CO)10, and (CO)5MnMPh3 (M = Ge, Sn, Pb). For the compounds investigated, the anisotropies of the manganese chemical shift tensors are less than 250 ppm except for eta5-CpMn(CO)3, which has an anisotropy of 920 ppm. At 21.14 T, one can excite the entire m(I) = 1/2 <--> m(I) = -1/2 central transition of eta5-CpMn(CO)3, which has a breadth of approximately 700 kHz. The breadth arises from second-order quadrupolar broadening due to the 55Mn quadrupolar coupling constant of 64.3 MHz, as well as the anisotropic shielding. Subtle variations in the electric field gradient tensors at the manganese are observed for crystallographically unique sites in two of the solid pentacarbonyls, resulting in measurably different C(Q) values. MQMAS experiments are able to distinguish four magnetically unique Mn sites in (CO)(5)MnPbPh3, each with slightly different values of delta(iso), C(Q), and eta(Q).

  15. Hydrolysis of an organophosphate ester by manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, D S; Beattie, J K; Coleman, L M; Jones, D R

    2001-02-15

    Amorphous manganese dioxide facilitates the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol and orthophosphate despite insignificant adsorption of p-nitrophenyl phosphate or p-nitrophenol to the manganese dioxide. At pH 8, the orthophosphate product is released into solution; at pH 4 and pH 6, some remains adsorbed. The rate of hydrolysis is an order of magnitude more rapid than the same reaction facilitated by iron oxides. Because manganese dioxides are ubiquitous components of soils and sediments, this suggests the possibility of significant abiotic pathways for the formation of bioavailable orthophosphate from phosphate ester precursors.

  16. Synthesis of dihydromyricetin-manganese (II) complex and interaction with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qingquan; Yuan, Juan; Zeng, Jinhua; He, Xiangzhu; Li, Daguang

    2012-11-01

    Dihydromyricetin has many physiological functions and its metal complex could have better effects. DNA is very important in biological body, but little attention has been devoted to the relationship between dihydromyricetin-metal complex and the DNA. In this paper, dihydromyricetin-Mn (II) complex has been prepared and characterized using UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TG-DTA Analysis). The interaction of dihydromyricetin-Mn (II) complex with DNA was investigated using UV-vis spectra, fluorescence measurements and viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the dihydromyricetin-manganese (II) complex can intercalate into the stacked base pairs of DNA with binding constant Kb = 5.64 × 104 M and compete with the strong intercalator ethidium bromide for the intercalative binding sites with Stern-Volmer quenching constant, Ksq = 1.16.

  17. Distributions of Manganese, Iron, and Manganese-Oxidizing Bacteria In Lake Superior Sediments of Different Organic Carbon Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Nealson, Kenneth H.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen, soluble and particulate manganese and iron, organic carbon and nitrogen were examined in Lake Superior sediment cores, along with the distribution and abundance of heterotrophic and manganese oxidizing bacteria. Analyses were performed using cores collected with the submersible Johnson Sea Link II. Three cores, exhibiting a range of organic carbon content, were collected from the deepest basin in Lake Superior and the north and south ends of the Caribou trough, and brought to the surface for immediate analysis. Minielectrode profiles of oxygen concentration of the three cores were carried out using a commercially available minielectrode apparatus. Oxygen depletion to less than 1% occurred within 4 cm of the surface for two of the cores, but not until approximately 15 cm for the core from the south basin of the Caribou trough. The three cores exhibited very different profiles of soluble, as well as leachable, manganese and iron, suggesting different degrees of remobilization of these metals in the sediments. Vertical profiles of viable bacteria and Mn oxidizing bacteria, determined by plating and counting, showed that aerobic (and facultatively aerobic) heterotrophic bacteria were present at the highest concentrations near the surface and decreased steadily with depth, while Mn oxidizing bacteria were concentrations primarily at and above the oxic/anoxic interface. Soluble manganese in the pore waters, along with abundant organic carbon, appeared to enhance the presence of manganese oxidizing bacteria, even below the oxic/anoxic interface. Profiles of solid-phase leachable manganese suggested a microbial role in manganese reprecipitation in these sediments.

  18. Hydrogen, acetate, and lactate as electron donors for microbial manganese reduction in a manganese-rich coastal marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Vandieken, Verona; Finke, Niko; Thamdrup, Bo

    2014-03-01

    The role of hydrogen, acetate, and lactate as electron donors for microbial manganese reduction was investigated in manganese-rich marine sediment from Gullmar Fjord (Sweden). Here, manganese reduction accounted for 50% of the anaerobic carbon oxidation at 0-15 cm sediment depth. In anoxic incubations from 0 to 5 cm depth, where manganese reduction dominated completely as terminal electron-accepting process, the combined contribution of acetate and lactate as electron donors for manganese reducers corresponded to < ¼ of the electron flow. The concentrations, ¹⁴C-radiotracer turnover rates, and contributions to carbon oxidation of acetate and lactate associated with manganese reduction were similar to those found in deeper horizons dominated by concomitant iron and sulfate reduction and sulfate reduction alone, respectively. By contrast, hydrogen concentrations increased considerably with sediment depth, indicating thermodynamic control of the competition between the electron-accepting processes, and hydrogen may have contributed substantially to the > 75% of the electron flow that did not involve acetate and lactate. Alternatively, the oxidation of more complex organic substrates could be involved. Our study provides the first direct evidence of substrate utilization by a natural manganese-reducing community and indicates similar mechanisms of thermodynamic control and competition for electron donors as known from sediments dominated by iron reduction, sulfate reduction, or methanogenesis.

  19. Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

    The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

  20. Role of astrocytes in manganese mediated neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are responsible for numerous aspects of metabolic support, nutrition, control of the ion and neurotransmitter environment in central nervous system (CNS). Failure by astrocytes to support essential neuronal metabolic requirements plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of brain injury and the ensuing neuronal death. Astrocyte-neuron interactions play a central role in brain homeostasis, in particular via neurotransmitter recycling functions. Disruption of the glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) -γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) cycle (GGC) between astrocytes and neurons contributes to changes in Glu-ergic and/or GABA-ergic transmission, and is associated with several neuropathological conditions, including manganese (Mn) toxicity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in support of the important roles for astrocytes in normal as well as neuropathological conditions primarily those caused by exposure to Mn. PMID:23594835

  1. Manganese Homeostasis in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Lee, Eunsook; Paoliello, Monica MB; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential heavy metal that is naturally found in the environment. Daily intake through dietary sources provides the necessary amount required for several key physiological processes, including antioxidant defense, energy metabolism, immune function and others. However, overexposure from environmental sources can result in a condition known as manganism that features symptomatology similar to Parkinson's disease (PD). This disorder presents with debilitating motor and cognitive deficits that arise from a neurodegenerative process. In order to maintain a balance between its essentiality and neurotoxicity, several mechanisms exist to properly buffer cellular Mn levels. These include transporters involved in Mn uptake, and newly discovered Mn efflux mechanisms. This review will focus on current studies related to mechanisms underlying Mn import and export, primarily the Mn transporters, and their function and roles in Mn-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25982296

  2. Hydrothermal vent yields multitude of manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A rising plume of water from an active submarine hydrothermal spring discovered 500 km west of Newport, Ore., contains the highest concentrations of manganese yet reported, according to researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park and at the University of Washington in Seattle. The vent, one of many submarine springs that have deposited large deposits of zinc- and silver-rich metals along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, may be a source of renewable minerals.‘The discovery of the active water discharge from the vent sites is particularly significant because it indicates that the polymetallic deposits are still being deposited and may represent a renewable mineral deposit,’ according to William R. Normark, a marine geologist with the USGS and chief scientist aboard the S. P. Lee, the USGS research ship that was used to collect water samples above the hydrothermal vent.

  3. Untangling the Manganese-α-Synuclein Web

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Tanara Vieira; Parmalee, Nancy L.; Martinez-Finley, Ebany J.; Aschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect a significant portion of the aging population. Several lines of evidence suggest a positive association between environmental exposures, which are common and cumulative in a lifetime, and development of neurodegenerative diseases. Environmental or occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) has been implicated in neurodegeneration due to its ability to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation. The role of the α-Syn protein vis-a-vis Mn is controversial, as it seemingly plays a duplicitous role in neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. α-Syn has low affinity for Mn, however an indirect interaction cannot be ruled out. In this review we will examine the current knowledge surrounding the interaction of α-Syn and Mn in neurodegenerative process. PMID:27540354

  4. Isotopic evidence for organic matter oxidation by manganese reduction in the formation of stratiform manganese carbonate ore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Okita, P.M.; Maynard, J.B.; Spiker, E. C.; Force, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Unlike other marine-sedimentary manganese ore deposits, which are largely composed of manganese oxides, the primary ore at Molango (Hidalgo State, Mexico) is exclusively manganese carbonate (rhodochrosite, Mn-calcite, kutnahorite). Stable isotope studies of the carbonates from Molango provide critical new information relevant to the controversy over syngenetic and diagenetic models of stratiform manganese deposit formation. Negative ??13C values for carbonates from mineralized zones at Molango are strongly correlated with manganese content both on a whole rock scale and by mineral species. Whole rock ??13C data fall into three groups: high-grade ore = -16.4 to -11.5%.; manganese-rich, sub-ore-grade = -5.2 to 0%.; and unmineralized carbonates = 0 to +2.5%. (PDB). ??18O data show considerable overlap in values among the three groups: +4.8 to -2.8, -5.4 to -0.3%., and -7.4 to +6.2 (PDB), respectively. Isotopic data for individual co-existing minerals suggest a similar separation of ??13C values: ??13C values from calcite range from -1.1 to +0.7%. (PDB), whereas values from rhodochrosite are very negative, -12.9 to -5.5%., and values from kutnahorite or Mn-calcite are intermediate between calcite and rhodochrosite. 13C data are interpreted to indicate that calcite (i.e. unmineralized carbonate) formed from a normal marine carbon reservoir. However, 13C data for the manganese-bearing carbonates suggest a mixed seawater and organic source of carbon. The presence of only trace amounts of pyrite suggests sulfate reduction may have played a minor part in oxidizing organic matter. It is possible that manganese reduction was the predominant reaction that oxidized organic matter and that it released organic-derived CO2 to produce negative ??13C values and manganese carbonate mineralization. ?? 1988.

  5. Waiting on More than 64 Handles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    defined as 64, then some extra code must be written to deal with this. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Handle MAXIMUM_WAIT_OBJECTS...RESPONSIBLE PERSON Tom Nealis a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) (973) 724-8048 Standard...one would wait on all the handles produced by spawning a thread for each group. The following sequence is the block of code /algorithm that was

  6. STS-64 Mission Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  7. STS-64 SAFER Assembly development team members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system, to be tested on the STS-64 flight, is surrounded by the team members who have spent a number of recent man hours in preparation for the system's first test-flight. In front are (left to right) Russell L. Flack and Bob Lowe. In the back row are (left to right) Jack D. Humphreys, Chuck Deason, Bill Wood and James Brown.

  8. Biodistribution and PET Imaging of pharmacokinetics of manganese in mice using Manganese-52

    PubMed Central

    Aweda, Tolulope A.; Lewis, Benjamin C.; Gross, Rebecca B.; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Manganese is essential to life, and humans typically absorb sufficient quantities of this element from a normal healthy diet; however, chronic, elevated ingestion or inhalation of manganese can be neurotoxic, potentially leading to manganism. Although imaging of large amounts of accumulated Mn(II) is possible by MRI, quantitative measurement of the biodistribution of manganese, particularly at the trace level, can be challenging. In this study, we produced the positron-emitting radionuclide 52Mn (t1/2 = 5.6 d) by proton bombardment (Ep<15 MeV) of chromium metal, followed by solid-phase isolation by cation-exchange chromatography. An aqueous solution of [52Mn]MnCl2 was nebulized into a closed chamber with openings through which mice inhaled the aerosol, and a separate cohort of mice received intravenous (IV) injections of [52Mn]MnCl2. Ex vivo biodistribution was performed at 1 h and 1 d post-injection/inhalation (p.i.). In both trials, we observed uptake in lungs and thyroid at 1 d p.i. Manganese is known to cross the blood-brain barrier, as confirmed in our studies following IV injection (0.86%ID/g, 1 d p.i.) and following inhalation of aerosol, (0.31%ID/g, 1 d p.i.). Uptake in salivary gland and pancreas were observed at 1 d p.i. (0.5 and 0.8%ID/g), but to a much greater degree from IV injection (6.8 and 10%ID/g). In a separate study, mice received IV injection of an imaging dose of [52Mn]MnCl2, followed by in vivo imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) and ex vivo biodistribution. The results from this study supported many of the results from the biodistribution-only studies. In this work, we have confirmed results in the literature and contributed new results for the biodistribution of inhaled radiomanganese for several organs. Our results could serve as supporting information for environmental and occupational regulations, for designing PET studies utilizing 52Mn, and/or for predicting the biodistribution of manganese-based MR contrast agents. PMID

  9. Manganese resources of the Cuyuna range, east-central Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, R.J.; Holtzman, R.C.; Wahl, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Cuyuna range, located in east-central Minnesota, consists of a sequence of argillite, siltstone, iron-formation, graywacke, slate, and quartzite of early Proterozoic age. Manganese-bearing materials occur within the iron-rich strata of the Trommald Formation and the Rabbit Lake Formation. Computer-assisted resource estimates, based on exploration drill hole information, indicate that the Cuyuna range contains a minimum of 176 million metric tons (MMT) of marginally economic manganiferous rock with an average grade of 10.46 weight percent manganese. The calculated 18.5 MMT of manganese on the Cuyuna range could supply this country's needs for this important and strategic metal for nearly 14 years. An additional resource of 6.9 MMT of manganese metal is available in the lower grade deposits The vast majority of these calculated resources are extractable by current surface mining techniques.

  10. Manganese, Iron, and sulfur cycling in Louisiana continental shelf sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate reduction is considered the primary pathway for organic carbon remineralization on the northern Gulf of Mexico Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) where bottom waters are seasonally hypoxic, yet limited information is available on the importance of iron and manganese cyclin...

  11. Neuropsychological Motor Outcomes in Adults from Airborne Manganese Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The literature on manganese (Mn) is dominated by occupational exposures of adults exposed often to high levels without protection. Neuropsychological adverse health effects are similar to Parkinson’s Disease with psychomotor slowing, tremor, cognitive and mood ...

  12. AN OPTIMIZED 64X64 POINT TWO-DIMENSIONAL FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miko, J.

    1994-01-01

    Scientists at Goddard have developed an efficient and powerful program-- An Optimized 64x64 Point Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform-- which combines the performance of real and complex valued one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT's) to execute a two-dimensional FFT and its power spectrum coefficients. These coefficients can be used in many applications, including spectrum analysis, convolution, digital filtering, image processing, and data compression. The program's efficiency results from its technique of expanding all arithmetic operations within one 64-point FFT; its high processing rate results from its operation on a high-speed digital signal processor. For non-real-time analysis, the program requires as input an ASCII data file of 64x64 (4096) real valued data points. As output, this analysis produces an ASCII data file of 64x64 power spectrum coefficients. To generate these coefficients, the program employs a row-column decomposition technique. First, it performs a radix-4 one-dimensional FFT on each row of input, producing complex valued results. Then, it performs a one-dimensional FFT on each column of these results to produce complex valued two-dimensional FFT results. Finally, the program sums the squares of the real and imaginary values to generate the power spectrum coefficients. The program requires a Banshee accelerator board with 128K bytes of memory from Atlanta Signal Processors (404/892-7265) installed on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer (DOS ver. 3.0 or higher) with at least one 16-bit expansion slot. For real-time operation, an ASPI daughter board is also needed. The real-time configuration reads 16-bit integer input data directly into the accelerator board, operating on 64x64 point frames of data. The program's memory management also allows accumulation of the coefficient results. The real-time processing rate to calculate and accumulate the 64x64 power spectrum output coefficients is less than 17.0 mSec. Documentation is included

  13. A novel cellulose-manganese oxide hybrid material by in situ soft chemical synthesis and its application for the removal of Pb(II) from water.

    PubMed

    Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen M; Lisha, Kinattukara P; Pradeep, T

    2010-09-15

    We report an in situ soft chemical synthesis of a novel hybrid material, cellulose-nanoscale-manganese oxide composite (C-NMOC), and its application for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions. For comparison, detailed Pb(II) adsorption studies were also performed with nanoscale-manganese oxide powder (NMO), prepared through a similar route. Various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques were used to characterize the as-synthesized materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) measurements confirmed the existence of Mn(IV) phase in NMO whereas C-NMOC showed largely the Mn(III) phase. The existence and uniform distribution of manganese oxide in cellulose fiber materials was confirmed by SEM and EDAX analyses. The adsorption studies reveal that the Pb(II) uptake onto C-NMOC is a fast process and >90% of the uptake occurred within the first 10 min contact time. The Sips isotherm predicted the equilibrium data well and the maximum Pb(II) uptake capacity of C-NMOC (4.64% Mn loading) was estimated to be 80.1 mg g(-1). The Pb(II) adsorption capacity of C-NMOC (per gram of Mn present) was several times higher than commercial manganese oxide (beta-MnO2) and at least twice larger than NMO. The experimental evidence reveals that physisorption plays a dominant role in Pb(II) adsorption by both NMO and C-NMOC.

  14. [Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naohide

    2007-06-01

    The most hazardous manganese exposures occur in mining and smelting of ore. Recently, the poisoning has been frequently reported to be associated with welding. In occupational exposure, manganese is absorbed mainly by inhalation. Manganese preferentially accumulates in tissues rich in mitochondria. It also penetrates the blood brain barrior and accumulate in the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, but also the striatum. Manganese poisoning is clinically characterized by the central nervous system involvement including psychiatric symptomes, extrapyramidal signs, and less frequently other neurological manifestations, Psychiatric symptomes are well described in the manganese miners and incrude sleep disturbance, disorientation, emotional lability, compulsive acts, hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. The main characteristic manifestations usually begin shortly after the appearance of these psychiatric symptomes. The latter neurological signs are progressive bradykinesia, dystonia, and disturbance of gait. Bradykinesia is one of the most important findings. There is a remarkable slowing of both active and passive movements of the extremities. Micrographia is frequently observed and a characteristic finding. The patients may show some symmetrical tremor, which usually not so marked. The dystonic posture of the limbs is often accompanied by painfull cramps. This attitudal hypertonia has a tenndency to decrease or disappear in the supine position and to increase in orthostation. Cog-wheel rigidity is also elisited on the passive movement of all extremities. Gait disturbance is also characteristic in this poisoning. In the severe cases, cook gait has been reported. The patient uses small steps, but has a tendency to elevate the heels and to rotate them outward. He progress without pressing on the flat of his feet, but only upon the metatarsophalangeal articulations, mainly of the fourth and fifth toes. Increased signal in T1-weighted image in the basal

  15. Aquatic environmental risk assessment of manganese processing industries.

    PubMed

    Marks, Becky; Peters, Adam; McGough, Doreen

    2017-01-01

    An environmental risk assessment (ERA) has been conducted for sites producing and processing manganese and its inorganic compounds, focussing on potential risks to freshwater. A site specific questionnaire was used to collect information. Sites fall into three broad categories: mining sites, refining sites, and sites producing chemicals and pigments. Waste disposal is principally carried out by the treatment of liquid wastes to separate solids for disposal off-site with a consented wastewater discharge, or disposal on-site using evaporation or settlement ponds in order to maintain the waste materials in a suitable manner following site closure. The main source of emissions from refining and alloying sites is from the treatment of emissions to air using wet scrubber air filters. There is also the potential for fugitive environmental emissions of manganese from stockpiles of raw material held on-site. Data provided from the questionnaires were both site-specific and also commercially sensitive. Therefore, this paper has undertaken the manganese exposure assessment, using a probabilistic approach to reflect the distribution of emissions of manganese and also to maintain the confidentiality of site specific data. An inverse correlation was observed between the total annual tonnage of manganese processed at the site and the emission factor, such that sites processing larger quantities resulted in lower emissions of manganese per tonne processed. The hazard assessment determined a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for freshwater using a species sensitivity distribution approach, resulting in a freshwater PNEC of 0.075mgL(-1) for soluble manganese. Based on the exposure data and the freshwater PNEC derived for this study, the distributions of risk characterisation ratios using the probabilistic approach indicates that two thirds of manganese processing sites would not be expected to pose a potential risk to the local aquatic environment due to wastewater emissions

  16. Conversion of adamsite (phenarsarzin chloride) by fungal manganese peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Haas, R; Tsivunchyk, O; Steinbach, K; von Löw, E; Scheibner, K; Hofrichter, M

    2004-02-01

    Fungal manganese peroxidase was found to convert the persistent chemical warfare agent adamsite (phenarsarzin chloride) in a cell-free reaction mixture containing sodium malonate, Mn(2+) ions, and reduced glutathione. The organo-arsenical compound disappeared completely within 48 h accompanied by the formation of a more polar metabolite with a clearly modified UV spectrum. Thus, As(III) in the adamsite molecule was oxidized by manganese peroxidase to As(V) which added dioxygen and released chloride.

  17. Iron and manganese oxide mineralization in the Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J. R.; Koschinsky, A.; Halbach, P.; Manheim, F. T.; Bau, M.; Jung-Keuk, Kang; Lubick, N.

    1997-01-01

    Iron, manganese, and iron-manganese deposits occur in nearly all geomorphologic and tectonic environments in the ocean basins and form by one or more of four processes: (1) hydrogenetic precipitation from cold ambient seawater, (2) precipitation from hydrothermal fluids, (3) precipitation from sediment pore waters that have been modified from bottom water compositions by diagenetic reactions in the sediment column and (4) replacement of rocks and sediment. These processes are discussed.

  18. Permanganate-Based Synthesis of Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles in Ferritin.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Cameron; Smith, Trevor; Embley, Jacob; Maxfield, Jake; Hansen, Kameron; Peterson, J; Henrichsen, Andrew; Erickson, Stephen; Buck, David; Colton, John S; Watt, Richard

    2017-03-23

    This paper investigates the comproportionation reaction of MnII with MnO4- as a route for manganese oxide nanoparticle synthesis in the protein ferritin. We report that MnO4- serves as the electron acceptor and reacts with MnII in the presence of apoferritin to form manganese oxide cores inside the protein shell. Manganese loading into ferritin was studied under acidic, neutral, and basic conditions and the ratios of MnII and permanganate were varied at each pH. The manganese-containing ferritin samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/Vis absorption, and by measuring the band gap energies for each sample. Manganese cores were deposited inside ferritin under both the acidic and basic conditions. All resulting manganese ferritin samples were found to be indirect band gap materials with band gap energies ranging from 1.01 eV to 1.34 eV. An increased UV/Vis absorption around 370 nm was observed for samples formed under acidic conditions, suggestive of MnO2 formation inside ferritin.

  19. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  20. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls.

    PubMed

    López-Arce, P; García-Guinea, J; Fierro, J L G

    2003-01-20

    Romans, Jews, Arabs and Christians built the ancient city of Toledo (Spain) with bricks as the main construction material. Manganese micro-nodules (circa 2 microm in diameter) have grown under the external bio-film surface of the bricks. Recent anthropogenic activities such as industrial emissions, foundries, or traffic and housing pollution have further altered these old bricks. The energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses (XPS) of micro-nodules show Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe and Mn, with some carbon species. Manganese atoms are present only as Mn(4+) and iron as Fe(3+) (FeOOH-Fe(2)O(3) mixtures). The large concentration of alga biomass of the River Tagus and the Torcón and Guajaraz reservoirs suggest manganese micro-nodules are formed either from water solutions rich in anthropogenic MnO(4)K in a reduction environment (from Mn(7+) to Mn(4+)) or by oxidation mechanisms from dissolved Mn(2+) (from Mn(2+) to Mn(4+)) linked to algae biofilm onto the ancient brick surfaces. Ancient wall surfaces were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and biological analyses of the waters around Toledo are also analysed for possible sources of manganese. Manganese micro-nodules on ancient brick walls are good indicators of manganese pollution.